Science.gov

Sample records for account heat losses

  1. CEBAF beam loss accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Ursic, R.; Mahoney, K.; Hovater, C.; Hutton, A.; Sinclair, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a beam loss accounting system for the CEBAF electron accelerator. This system samples the beam curent throughout the beam path and measures the beam current accurately. Personnel Safety and Machine Protection systems use this system to turn off the beam when hazardous beam losses occur.

  2. Heat Loss Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Infrared scanning devices are being used to produce images that show, by color or black-and-white shading differences, which buildings and homes are losing heat to the outdoors, and how much. Heat loss surveys done by Texas Instruments, Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. and other companies have growing acceptance of their services among industrial firms, utilities, local governments, and state and federal agencies interested in promoting heat loss awareness and inspiring corrective actions.

  3. On reversible, endoreversible, and irreversible heat device cycles versus the Carnot cycle: a pedagogical approach to account for losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Ayala, J.; Angulo-Brown, F.; Calvo Hernández, A.; Velasco, S.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we analyze the deviations of reversible cycles (for both heat engines and refrigerators) from the corresponding Carnot cycle operating between the same extreme temperatures, and deviations of irreversible cycles from their corresponding reversible realization while putting emphasis on the corresponding losses. The endoreversible models fit in the proposed framework. Two suitable loss factors, which do not need the explicit calculation of entropy variations, are introduced. The behavior of these factors and their interplay allow for a clear and pedagogical visualization of where external and internal irreversibilities are located, and their intensities in terms of the main variables describing the cycle. The analysis could be used as a starting point for more advanced studies on modeling and optimization of real devices and installations.

  4. Commercial/Industrial Heat Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raugland, Robert C.

    1981-01-01

    Infrared thermography has advanced to the stage where it is feasible for the owners of commercial and industrial buildings to secure an infrared survey to detect and priortize definitive areas of heat loss. The nature of the information required determines the type of infrared equipment to be used. The information obtained from the survey can be recorded on video tape with an audio overlay which is quite definitive and permits easy review by the client. Another area of heat loss is moisture laden roof insulation. An infrared survey can detect with startling accuracy areas of wet insulation. Both of these types of surveys are very compatible with either the mini or maxi audits and are conspicuously useful at the retrofit stages.

  5. Aerial measurement of heat loss: Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    The purpose of the program described was to develop techniques to reduce or eliminate some of the variables associated with thermogram analysis in order to provide more objective interpretation of the data collected with greater potential for accuracy. A procedure is given for measuring temperature which accounts for atmospheric, background, and differential emissivity effects. The residual error was found to be 1.0/sup 0/C. A technique was then identified and developed for determining heat loss lovels from roof top surface temperature data. A thermal integrity factor was defined as a function of insulation level and thermostat setting. Comparing these thermal integrity factors with aerial thermography data indicates that aerial thermography can be used to objectively and confidently define heat loss levels from building roofs. (LEW)

  6. Heat recovery reduces process energy losses

    SciTech Connect

    Anon

    1981-09-01

    After evaluation of process and plant operation losses, a pharmaceutical plant found heat recovery a viable means of reducing energy losses. One of the first applications of air-to-air heat recovery was in a recirculation/dehumidification process. Heat exchangers were used to recover heat from the air used to generate or dry the dehumidification material.

  7. 24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... coefficient of heat transmission (Uo) requirement. The annual energy use determination must be based on... Thermal Protection § 3280.508 Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations. (a) Information, values... heat-flow paths (“thermal shorts”) shall be explicitly accounted for in the calculation of...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... coefficient of heat transmission (Uo) requirement. The annual energy use determination must be based on... Thermal Protection § 3280.508 Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations. (a) Information, values... heat-flow paths (“thermal shorts”) shall be explicitly accounted for in the calculation of...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... coefficient of heat transmission (Uo) requirement. The annual energy use determination must be based on... Thermal Protection § 3280.508 Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations. (a) Information, values... heat-flow paths (“thermal shorts”) shall be explicitly accounted for in the calculation of...

  10. 24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... coefficient of heat transmission (Uo) requirement. The annual energy use determination must be based on... Thermal Protection § 3280.508 Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations. (a) Information, values... heat-flow paths (“thermal shorts”) shall be explicitly accounted for in the calculation of...

  11. 24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... coefficient of heat transmission (Uo) requirement. The annual energy use determination must be based on... Thermal Protection § 3280.508 Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations. (a) Information, values... heat-flow paths (“thermal shorts”) shall be explicitly accounted for in the calculation of...

  12. Heat loss from an open cavity

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, C.G.

    1995-12-01

    Cavity type receivers are used extensively in concentrating solar thermal energy collecting systems. The Solar Total Energy Project (STEP) in Shenandoah, Georgia is a large scale field test for the collection of solar thermal energy. The STEP experiment consists of a large field array of solar collectors used to supplement the process steam, cooling and other electrical power requirements of an adjacent knitwear manufacturing facility. The purpose of the tests, conducted for this study, was to isolate and quantify the radiative, conductive, and convective components of total heat loss, and to determine the effects of operating temperature, receiver angle, and aperture size on cavity heat loss. An analytical model for radiative heat loss was developed and compared with two other methods used to determine radiative heat loss. A proposed convective heat loss correlation, including effects of aperture size, receiver operating temperature, and receiver angle is presented. The resulting data is a source to evaluate the STEP measurements.

  13. 14 CFR Section 7 - Chart of Profit and Loss Accounts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chart of Profit and Loss Accounts Section 7 Section 7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Profit and Loss Classification Section 7 Chart of Profit and Loss Accounts Objective classification...

  14. 14 CFR Section 7 - Chart of Profit and Loss Accounts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chart of Profit and Loss Accounts Section 7 Section 7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Profit and Loss Classification Section 7 Chart of Profit and Loss Accounts Objective classification...

  15. 14 CFR Section 7 - Chart of Profit and Loss Accounts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chart of Profit and Loss Accounts Section 7 Section 7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Profit and Loss Classification Section 7 Chart of Profit and Loss Accounts Objective classification...

  16. 14 CFR 7 - Chart of Profit and Loss Accounts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chart of Profit and Loss Accounts Section 7 Section Section 7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Profit and Loss Classification Section 7 Chart of Profit and Loss Accounts Objective classification...

  17. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-7 - Separate limitation loss and the separate limitation loss account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separate limitation loss and the separate limitation loss account. 1.904(f)-7 Section 1.904(f)-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... United States § 1.904(f)-7 Separate limitation loss and the separate limitation loss account. For...

  18. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1 - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... loss account. 1.904(g)-1 Section 1.904(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... States § 1.904(g)-1 Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account. For further guidance, see § 1.904(g)-1T....

  19. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1 - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... loss account. 1.904(g)-1 Section 1.904(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... the United States § 1.904(g)-1 Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account. For further guidance, see § 1.904(g)-1T....

  20. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1 - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sustained in other taxable years beginning after December 31, 2006, including periods covered by 26 CFR § 1... loss account. 1.904(g)-1 Section 1.904(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... the United States § 1.904(g)-1 Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account....

  1. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1 - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sustained in other taxable years beginning after December 31, 2006, including periods covered by 26 CFR § 1... loss account. 1.904(g)-1 Section 1.904(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... the United States § 1.904(g)-1 Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account....

  2. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1 - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... loss account. 1.904(g)-1 Section 1.904(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... the United States § 1.904(g)-1 Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account. For further guidance, see § 1.904(g)-1T....

  3. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Heat loss/heat gain. 3280.506 Section 3280.506 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat loss/heat gain. 3280.506 Section 3280.506 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  5. Accounting for Endowment Losses: An Examination of Two Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Paul; Swieringa, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Two accounting strategies for classifying college or university endowment losses are compared: reduction of permanently restricted net assets and reduction of unrestricted net assets. The approaches differ in their effects on classification of net assets only when capital losses on endowment investments bring the fund below the level required in…

  6. Sliding, Insulating Window Panel Reduces Heat Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1984

    1984-01-01

    A new sliding insulated panel reduces window heat loss up to 86 percent, and infiltration 60-90 percent, paying for itself in 3-9 years. This article discusses the panel's use and testing in the upper Midwest, reporting both technical characteristics and users' reactions. (MCG)

  7. Quantifying heat losses using aerial thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Haigh, G.A.; Pritchard, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    A theoretical model is described for calculating flat roof total heat losses and thermal conductances from aerial infrared data. Three empirical methods for estimating convective losses are described. The disagreement between the methods shows that they are prone to large (20%) errors, and that the survey should be carried out in low wind speeds, in order to minimize the effect of these errors on the calculation of total heat loss. The errors associated with knowledge of ground truth data are discussed for a high emissivity roof and three sets of environmental conditions. It is shown that the error in the net radiative loss is strongly dependent on the error in measuring the broad-band radiation incident on the roof. This is minimized for clear skies, but should be measured. Accurate knowledge of roof emissivity and the radiation reflected from the roof is shown to be less important. Simple techniques are described for measuring all three factors. Using these techniques in good conditions it should be possible to measure total heat losses to within 15%.

  8. Losses told from scrubbing nukes: survey details utility accounting practices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Reduced load forecasts and the Three Mile Island accident led to a record number of nuclear power plant cancellations in 1980, according to a survey of reporting and accounting methods of 60 large electric utilities and 25 gas and water companies. The utilities are trying to recover losses through increased rates, but most are employing accounting methods to defer their losses by using the allowance for funds used during construction (AFUDC). The companies report treating the AFUDC funds in different ways, the majority deducting them from income and construction as a noncash item. (DCK)

  9. Human local and total heat losses in different temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Yin, Hui; Di, Yuhui; Liu, Yanfeng; Liu, Jiaping

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of operative temperature on the local and total heat losses, and the relationship between the heat loss and thermal sensation. 10 local parts of head, neck, chest, abdomen, upper arm, forearm, hand, thigh, leg and foot are selected. In all these parts, convection, radiation, evaporation, respiration, conduction and diffusion heat losses are analyzed when operative temperature is 23, 28, 33 and 37 °C. The local heat losses show that the radiation and convection heat losses are mainly affected by the area of local body, and the heat loss of the thigh is the most in the ten parts. The evaporation heat loss is mainly affected by the distribution of sweat gland, and the heat loss of the chest is the most. The total heat loss of the local body shows that in low temperature, the thigh, leg and chest have much heat loss, while in high temperature, the chest, abdomen, thigh and head have great heat loss, which are useful for clothing design. The heat losses of the whole body show that as the operative temperature increases, the radiation and convection heat losses decrease, the heat losses of conduction, respiration, and diffusion are almost constant, and the evaporation heat loss increases. By comparison, the heat loss ratios of the radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, are in agreement with the previous researches. At last, the formula about the heat loss ratio of convection and radiation is derived. It's useful for thermal comfort evaluation and HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) design. PMID:26879106

  10. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-1 - Overall foreign loss and the overall foreign loss account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overall foreign loss and the overall foreign loss account. 1.904(f)-1 Section 1.904(f)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Income from Sources Without the United States § 1.904(f)-1 Overall foreign loss and...

  11. Lowering heat losses in heating systems by using effective forms of heat insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Krasheninnikov, A.N.

    1983-02-01

    The reduction of heat losses in power systems is necessary if fuel economy is to be achieved. The use of thermal insulation to reduce heat losses in power plant equipment is discussed. The types of thermal insulation considered in this study include reinforced foam concrete, bituminous perlite, mineral wool, and cellular plastics. The insulating properties of each of these materials are discussed.

  12. Sensible and latent heat loss from the body surface of Holstein cows in a tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, A. S. C.; Dasilva, R. G.; Battiston Loureiro, C. M.

    2005-09-01

    The general principles of the mechanisms of heat transfer are well known, but knowledge of the transition between evaporative and non-evaporative heat loss by Holstein cows in field conditions must be improved, especially for low-latitude environments. With this aim 15 Holstein cows managed in open pasture were observed in a tropical region. The latent heat loss from the body surface of the animals was measured by means of a ventilated capsule, while convective heat transfer was estimated by the theory of convection from a horizontal cylinder and by the long-wave radiation exchange based on the Stefan-Boltzmann law. When the air temperature was between 10 and 36°C the sensible heat transfer varied from 160 to -30 W m-2, while the latent heat loss by cutaneous evaporation increased from 30 to 350 W m-2. Heat loss by cutaneous evaporation accounted for 20-30% of the total heat loss when air temperatures ranged from 10 to 20°C. At air temperatures >30°C cutaneous evaporation becomes the main avenue of heat loss, accounting for approximately 85% of the total heat loss, while the rest is lost by respiratory evaporation.

  13. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1T - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... loss account (temporary). 1.904(g)-1T Section 1.904(g)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... United States § 1.904(g)-1T Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account (temporary). (a... accounts for purposes of section 904(g). Section 1.904(g)-2T provides rules for recapturing the balance...

  14. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1T - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... loss account (temporary). 1.904(g)-1T Section 1.904(g)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Without the United States § 1.904(g)-1T Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account... reductions from such accounts for purposes of section 904(g). Section 1.904(g)-2T provides rules...

  15. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1T - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... loss account (temporary). 1.904(g)-1T Section 1.904(g)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Without the United States § 1.904(g)-1T Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account... reductions from such accounts for purposes of section 904(g). Section 1.904(g)-2T provides rules...

  16. Respiratory heat loss in the sheep: a comprehensive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes da Silva, Roberto; LaScala, Newton; Lima Filho, Alvaro Edison; Catharin, Marcelo Carlos

    2002-06-01

    A model is presented for the respiratory heat loss in sheep, considering both the sensible heat lost by convection (CR) and the latent heat eliminated by evaporation (ER). A practical method is described for the estimation of the tidal volume as a function of the respiratory rate. Equations for CR and ER are developed and the relative importance of both heat transfer mechanisms is discussed. At air temperatures up to 30 °C sheep have the least respiratory heat loss at air vapour pressures above 1.6 kPa. At an ambient temperature of 40 °C respiratory loss of sensible heat can be nil; for higher temperatures the transfer by convection is negative and thus heat is gained. Convection is a mechanism of minor importance for the respiratory heat transfer in sheep at environmental temperatures above 30 °C. These observations show the importance of respiratory latent heat loss for thermoregulation of sheep in hot climates.

  17. Accommodating environmental variation in population models: metaphysiological biomass loss accounting.

    PubMed

    Owen-Smith, Norman

    2011-07-01

    1. There is a pressing need for population models that can reliably predict responses to changing environmental conditions and diagnose the causes of variation in abundance in space as well as through time. In this 'how to' article, it is outlined how standard population models can be modified to accommodate environmental variation in a heuristically conducive way. This approach is based on metaphysiological modelling concepts linking populations within food web contexts and underlying behaviour governing resource selection. Using population biomass as the currency, population changes can be considered at fine temporal scales taking into account seasonal variation. Density feedbacks are generated through the seasonal depression of resources even in the absence of interference competition. 2. Examples described include (i) metaphysiological modifications of Lotka-Volterra equations for coupled consumer-resource dynamics, accommodating seasonal variation in resource quality as well as availability, resource-dependent mortality and additive predation, (ii) spatial variation in habitat suitability evident from the population abundance attained, taking into account resource heterogeneity and consumer choice using empirical data, (iii) accommodating population structure through the variable sensitivity of life-history stages to resource deficiencies, affecting susceptibility to oscillatory dynamics and (iv) expansion of density-dependent equations to accommodate various biomass losses reducing population growth rate below its potential, including reductions in reproductive outputs. Supporting computational code and parameter values are provided. 3. The essential features of metaphysiological population models include (i) the biomass currency enabling within-year dynamics to be represented appropriately, (ii) distinguishing various processes reducing population growth below its potential, (iii) structural consistency in the representation of interacting populations and

  18. Manufactured Homes Acquisition Program : Heat Loss Assumptions and Calculations, Heat Loss Coefficient Tables.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Bob; Baylon, David.

    1992-05-01

    This manual is intended to assist builders of manufactured homes in assessing the thermal performance of structural components used in the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP) sponsored by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). U-factors for these components are calculated using the ASHRAE (1989) parallel heat loss method, with adaptations made for the construction practices found in the Pacific Northwest manufactured home industry. This report is divided into two parts. The first part describes the general assumptions and calculation procedures used to develop U-factors and R-values for specific materials used in the construction industry, overall U-factors for component sections, and the impact of complex framing and thermal configurations on various components` heat loss rates. The individual components of manufactured homes are reviewed in terms of overall thermal conductivity. The second part contains tables showing the results of heat loss calculations expressed as U-factors for various configurations of the major building components: floor systems, ceiling systems, wall systems, windows, doors and skylights. These values can be used to establish compliance with the MAP specifications and thermal performance criteria or to compare manufactured homes built to different standards.

  19. Manufactured Homes Acquisition Program : Heat Loss Assumptions and Calculations, Heat Loss Coefficient Tables.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Bob; Baylon, David

    1992-05-01

    This manual is intended to assist builders of manufactured homes in assessing the thermal performance of structural components used in the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP) sponsored by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). U-factors for these components are calculated using the ASHRAE (1989) parallel heat loss method, with adaptations made for the construction practices found in the Pacific Northwest manufactured home industry. This report is divided into two parts. The first part describes the general assumptions and calculation procedures used to develop U-factors and R-values for specific materials used in the construction industry, overall U-factors for component sections, and the impact of complex framing and thermal configurations on various components' heat loss rates. The individual components of manufactured homes are reviewed in terms of overall thermal conductivity. The second part contains tables showing the results of heat loss calculations expressed as U-factors for various configurations of the major building components: floor systems, ceiling systems, wall systems, windows, doors and skylights. These values can be used to establish compliance with the MAP specifications and thermal performance criteria or to compare manufactured homes built to different standards.

  20. Bose-Einstein-condensate heating by atomic losses

    SciTech Connect

    Dziarmaga, Jacek; Sacha, Krzysztof

    2003-10-01

    Atomic Bose-Einstein condensate is heated by atomic losses. The losses act as a heat reservoir for the condensate. The condensate is approaching a state of thermal equilibrium with a thermal depletion ranging from 1% for a uniform three-dimensional (3D) condensate to around 13% for a quasi-1D condensate in a harmonic trap.

  1. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-8T - Recapture of separate limitation loss accounts (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recapture of separate limitation loss accounts....904(f)-8T Recapture of separate limitation loss accounts (temporary). (a) In general. A taxpayer shall recapture a separate limitation loss account as provided in this section. If the taxpayer has a...

  2. 24 CFR 3280.510 - Heat loss certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat loss certificate. 3280.510... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.510 Heat... specify the following: (a) Heating zone certification. The design zone at which the manufactured home...

  3. 12 CFR 621.5 - Accounting for the allowance for loan losses and chargeoffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting for the allowance for loan losses... ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS General Rules § 621.5 Accounting for the allowance for loan losses and... according to generally accepted accounting principles. (b) Develop, adopt, and consistently apply...

  4. Corona Formation and Heat Loss on Venus by Coupled Upwelling and Delamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1997-01-01

    Coronae are volcanotectonic features that are unique to Venus and are interpreted to be small-scale upwellings. A model in which upwelling causes delamination at the edge of the plume head, along with deformation of a pre-existing depleted mantel Layer, can produce the full range of topographic forms of coronae. If half of the coronae are active, delamination of the lower lithosphere could account for about 10% of venus's heat loss, with another 15% due to upwelling. Delamination may occur in other geologic enviroment and could help account for 'Venus' heat loss 'deficit'.

  5. Trough Receiver Heat Loss Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, A.; Feik, C.; Hansen, R.; Phillips, S.; Bingham, C.; Netter, J.; Forristal, R.; Burkholder, F.; Meglan, B.; Wolfrum, E.

    2006-02-01

    This presentation describes the design, fabrication, and qualification of an experimental capability for thermal loss testing of full-size trough receiver elements; and the testing on a variety of receivers.

  6. Heat loss modeling for the ANL Research Solar Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Bartzis, J.G.; Domanus, H.M.; Sha, W.T.

    1980-05-01

    An analytical capability has been developed based on using the COMMIX-SA-SP code to analyze the transient three-dimensional heat losses from an arbitrarily shaped solar pond. The COMMIX-SA-SP code is derived from the COMMIX-1A code. The analytical capability is demonstrated by calculating the heat losses from the ANL Research Solar Pond, which is under construction in Argonne National Laboratory. The calculations show that the two-dimensional model underestimates the heat losses as compared with the three-dimensional model. The yearly average heat flux approaches to within 10% of the steady state value after approximately 5 years of operation. Weather changes during the year create flux changes up to 4 times the average value. An insulator with thermal conductivity to thickness ratio less than 0.12 W/m/sup 2///sup 0/K can reduce the heat loss from a solar pond to soil by 50% or less.

  7. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... §§ 3280.508 and 3280.509. The Uo (Coefficient of heat transmission) value zone for which the manufactured home is acceptable and the lowest outdoor temperature to which the installed heating equipment will maintain a temperature of 70 F shall be certified as specified in § 3280.510 of this subpart. The Uo...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... §§ 3280.508 and 3280.509. The Uo (Coefficient of heat transmission) value zone for which the manufactured home is acceptable and the lowest outdoor temperature to which the installed heating equipment will maintain a temperature of 70 F shall be certified as specified in § 3280.510 of this subpart. The Uo...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... §§ 3280.508 and 3280.509. The Uo (Coefficient of heat transmission) value zone for which the manufactured home is acceptable and the lowest outdoor temperature to which the installed heating equipment will maintain a temperature of 70 F shall be certified as specified in § 3280.510 of this subpart. The Uo...

  10. Influence of the wetting state of a heated surface on heat transfer and pressure loss in an evaporator tube

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, W; Hein, D

    1986-09-01

    The influence of the wetting state of a heated surface on heat transfer and pressure loss in an evaporator tube was investigated for a parameter range occurring in fossil-fired steam generators. Included in the analysis are quantities which determine the wetting state in steady and transient flow. The experimental work consists of the following: Occurrence of critical heat flux (CHF) and post-CHF heat transfer in a vertical upflow evaporator tube; influence of pressure and enthalpy transients on heat transfer in the unwetted region; influence of pipe orientation on heat transfer; and two phase flow pressure loss in wetted and unwetted region. Based on these experiments a method of predicting CHF for a vertical upflow evaporator tube was developed. The heat transfer in the unwetted region was newly formulated taking into account thermal nonequilibrium between the water and steam phases. Wall temperature excursions during pressure and enthalpy transients are interpreted with the help of the boiling curve and the Leidenfrost phenomenon. A method is developed by means of which it is possible to determine the influence of the pipe orientation on the location of the boiling crisis as well as on the heat transfer in the unwetted region. The influence of the wetting state of the heated surface on the two phase flow pressure loss is interpreted as ''Wall effect'' and is calculated using a simplified computer model. 68 refs., 83 figs.

  11. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-7T - Separate limitation loss and the separate limitation loss account (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separate limitation loss and the separate... Without the United States § 1.904(f)-7T Separate limitation loss and the separate limitation loss account (temporary). (a) Overview of regulations. This section provides rules for determining a taxpayer's...

  12. Economics of heat loss for power cables

    SciTech Connect

    Cornelison, K.E.

    1982-07-01

    Energy losses occur in power cables which cause a rise in the conductor temperature. A trend toward higher allowable conductor temperatures has increased the energy losses during operation. At the same time, the costs of the energy has increased dramatically. With a given installation and load, energy costs vary inversely with the conductor size. However, initial costs vary directly with the conductor size. This relationship can be utilized to select a conductor size which minimizes the sum of the initial costs an the energy costs. This paper reviews present value techniques and identifies the level of energy costs in some particular installation configurations. An analysis is made of the marginal costs and savings available by changing the size of the conductor in a cable circuit.

  13. Heat Loss by Helicity Injection II

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T K

    2006-04-25

    Arguments are reviewed showing that helicity transport always flattens the temperature profile, yielding unit current amplification in SSPX and flat temperature profiles in RFP's whenever the dynamo is active. The argument is based on transport theory yielding a hyper-resistivity {Lambda} {approx} (c{sup 2}/{omega}{sub pc}{sup 2}){chi}{sub c} with electron thermal diffusivity {chi}{sub c}, valid for any process producing a random-walk in electron constants of motion in the unperturbed field. The theory could be tested by deriving {Lambda} from helicity transport in SSPX, by analogy with recent analysis yielding {chi}{sub c} from heat transport. If the predicted ratio {Lambda}/{chi}{sub c} is confirmed, efforts to increase current amplification in SSPX must be based on scenario scenarios consistent with slow helicity transport compared to heat s transport (pulsed reactor, multipulse, neutral beam injection).

  14. 18 CFR 367.4212 - Account 421.2, Loss on disposition of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 421.2, Loss on disposition of property. 367.4212 Section 367.4212 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY..., Loss on disposition of property. This account must be charged with the loss on the sale,...

  15. 18 CFR 367.4212 - Account 421.2, Loss on disposition of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Account 421.2, Loss on disposition of property. 367.4212 Section 367.4212 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY..., Loss on disposition of property. This account must be charged with the loss on the sale,...

  16. 18 CFR 367.4212 - Account 421.2, Loss on disposition of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Account 421.2, Loss on disposition of property. 367.4212 Section 367.4212 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY..., Loss on disposition of property. This account must be charged with the loss on the sale,...

  17. 18 CFR 367.4212 - Account 421.2, Loss on disposition of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 421.2, Loss on disposition of property. 367.4212 Section 367.4212 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY..., Loss on disposition of property. This account must be charged with the loss on the sale,...

  18. Estimation of human heat loss in five Mediterranean regions.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, M; Simsek, E; Sahin, B; Yasar, A; Ozbek, A

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the effects of seasonal weather differences on the human body's heat losses in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The provinces of Adana, Antakya, Osmaniye, Mersin and Antalya were chosen for the research, and monthly atmospheric temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed and atmospheric pressure data from 2007 were used. In all these provinces, radiative, convective and evaporative heat losses from the human body based on skin surface and respiration were analyzed from meteorological data by using the heat balance equation. According to the results, the rate of radiative, convective and evaporative heat losses from the human body varies considerably from season to season. In all the provinces, 90% of heat loss was caused by heat transfer from the skin, with the remaining 10% taking place through respiration. Furthermore, radiative and convective heat loss through the skin reached the highest values in the winter months at approximately between 110 and 140W/m(2), with the lowest values coming in the summer months at roughly 30-50W/m(2). PMID:26025784

  19. Heat loss variations of full-face motorcycle helmets.

    PubMed

    Bogerd, C P; Brühwiler, P A

    2009-03-01

    Heat loss of 27 full-face motorcycle helmets was studied using a thermal manikin headform. The headform was electrically heated and positioned at the exit of a wind tunnel, so that the air stream flowed onto its front side. All helmets were measured in three sessions in which all the vents were opened or closed consecutively in random order. Average heat loss was calculated from a steady state period, under controlled environmental conditions of 22+/-0.05 degrees C, 50+/-1% RH and 50.4+/-1.1 km h(-1) (14.0+/-0.3 ms(-1)) wind speed. The results show large variations in heat loss among the different helmets, ranging from 0 to 4 W for the scalp section of the headform and 8 to 18 W for the face section of the headform. Opening all the vents showed an increase in heat loss of more than 1 W (2 W) for four (two) helmets in the scalp section and six (one) helmets in the face section. These levels of heat transfer have been shown to be the thresholds for human sensitivity in scalp and face sections. Furthermore, helmet construction features which could be identified as important for heat loss of motorcycle helmets were identified. PMID:18452890

  20. Oscillating flow loss test results in Stirling engine heat exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koester, G.; Howell, S.; Wood, G.; Miller, E.; Gedeon, D.

    1990-01-01

    The results are presented for a test program designed to generate a database of oscillating flow loss information that is applicable to Stirling engine heat exchangers. The tests were performed on heater/cooler tubes of various lengths and entrance/exit configurations, on stacked and sintered screen regenerators of various wire diameters and on Brunswick and Metex random fiber regenerators. The test results were performed over a range of oscillating flow parameters consistent with Stirling engine heat exchanger experience. The tests were performed on the Sunpower oscillating flow loss rig which is based on a variable stroke and variable frequency linear drive motor. In general, the results are presented by comparing the measured oscillating flow losses to the calculated flow losses. The calculated losses are based on the cycle integration of steady flow friction factors and entrance/exit loss coefficients.

  1. Cycles in metabolism and heat loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annis, J. F.; Troutman, S. J.; Webb, P.

    1974-01-01

    Using calorimetric techniques, subjects' metabolism, thermoregulation, and body temperatures were monitored continuously for 24-hour days, using three types of experimental routines. A water cooling garment (WCG) was used for direct calorimetry, while partitional calorimetry was used to establish a non-suited comparison for one of the routines. In this replicated routine, called the quiet day, the subjects were sedentary throughout the daytime hours and slept normally at night. Results indicate that the WCG may act to reduce 24-hour total oxygen consumption (VO2) or heat production, possibly due to the lowered energy cost of thermoregulation.

  2. Respiratory heat loss of Holstein cows in a tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos Maia, Alex Sandro; Gomes Dasilva, Roberto; Battiston Loureiro, Cintia Maria

    2005-05-01

    In order to develop statistical models to predict respiratory heat loss in dairy cattle using simple physiological and environmental measurements, 15 Holstein cows were observed under field conditions in a tropical environment, in which the air temperature reached up to 40°C. The measurements of latent and sensible heat loss from the respiratory tract of the animals were made by using a respiratory mask. The results showed that under air temperatures between 10 and 35°C sensible heat loss by convection decreased from 8.24 to 1.09 W m-2, while the latent heat loss by evaporation increased from 1.03 to 56.51 W m-2. The evaporation increased together with the air temperature in almost a linear fashion until 20°C, but it became increasingly high as the air temperature rose above 25°C. Convection was a mechanism of minor importance for respiratory heat transfer. In contrast, respiratory evaporation was an effective means of thermoregulation for Holsteins in a hot environment. Mathematical models were developed to predict both the sensible and latent heat loss from the respiratory tract in Holstein cows under field conditions, based on measurements of the ambient temperature, and other models were developed to predict respiration rate, tidal volume, mass flow rate and expired air temperature as functions of the ambient temperature and other variables.

  3. Modeling heat loss from the udder of a dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, Kifle G; Wu, Binxin

    2016-07-01

    A mechanistic model that predicts sensible and latent heat fluxes from the udder of a dairy cow was developed. The prediction of the model was spot validated against measured data from the literature, and the result agreed within 7% of the measured value for the same ambient temperature. A dairy cow can lose a significant amount of heat (388W/m(2)) from the udder. This suggests that the udder could be considered as a heat sink. The temperature profile through the udder tissue (core to skin) approached the core temperature for an air temperature ≥37°C whereas the profile decreased linearly from the core to skin surface for an air temperature less than 37°C. Sensible heat loss was dominant when ambient air temperature was less than 37.5°C but latent heat loss was greater than sensible heat loss when air temperature was ≥37.5°C. The udder could lose a total (sensible + latent) heat flux of 338W/m(2) at an ambient temperature of 35°C and blood-flow rate of 3.2×10(-3)m(3)/(sm(3) tissue). The results of this study suggests that, in time of heat stress, a dairy cow could be cooled by cooling the udder only (e.g., using an evaporative cooling jacket). PMID:27264885

  4. Chlorophyll loss associated with heat-induced senescence in bentgrass.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, David; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Bingru

    2016-08-01

    Heat stress-induced leaf senescence is characterized by the loss of chlorophyll from leaf tissues. The objectives of this study were to examine genetic variations in the level of heat-induced leaf senescence in hybrids of colonial (Agrostis capillaris)×creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) contrasting in heat tolerance, and determine whether loss of leaf chlorophyll during heat-induced leaf senescence was due to suppressed chlorophyll synthesis and/or accelerated chlorophyll degradation in the cool-season perennial grass species. Plants of two hybrid backcross genotypes ('ColxCB169' and 'ColxCB190') were exposed to heat stress (38/33°C, day/night) for 28 d in growth chambers. The analysis of turf quality, membrane stability, photochemical efficiency, and chlorophyll content demonstrated significant variations in the level of leaf senescence induced by heat stress between the two genotypes, with ColXCB169 exhibiting a lesser degree of decline in chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency and membrane stability than ColXCB190. The assays of enzymatic activity or gene expression of several major chlorophyll-synthesizing (porphobilinogen deaminase, Mg-chelatase, protochlorophyllide-reductase) and chlorophyll-degrading enzymes (chlorophyllase, pheophytinase, and chlorophyll-degrading peroxidase) indicated heat-induced decline in leaf chlorophyll content was mainly due to accelerated chlorophyll degradation, as manifested by increased gene expression levels of chlorophyllase and pheophytinase, and the activity of pheophytinase (PPH), while chlorophyll-synthesizing genes and enzymatic activities were not differentially altered by heat stress in the two genotypes. The analysis of heat-induced leaf senescence of pph mutants of Arabidopsis further confirmed that PPH could be one enzymes that plays key roles in regulating heat-accelerated chlorophyll degradation. Further research on enzymes responsible in part for the loss of chlorophyll during heat

  5. 14 CFR Section 7 - Chart of Profit and Loss Accounts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... profit and loss elements Functional or financial activity to which applicable (00) Group I carriers Group... food—gross revenues 48 48 48. 09.2Movies and stereo—gross revenues 48 48 48. 09.3Other—gross revenues 48 48 48. 09.4Liquor and food—depreciation expense 71 71 71. 09.5Liquor and food—other expense 71...

  6. Axial Electron Heat Loss From Mirror Devices Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D

    2004-08-16

    An issue of the axial electron heat loss is of a significant importance for mirror-based fusion devices. This problem has been considered in a number of publications but it is still shrouded in misconceptions. In this paper we revisit it once again. We discuss the following issues: (1) Formation of the electron distribution function in the end tank at large expansion ratios; (2) The secondary emission from the end plates and the ways of suppressing it (if needed); (3) Ionization and charge exchange in the presence of neutrals in the end tanks; (4) Instabilities caused by the peculiar shape of the electron distribution function and their possible impact on the electron heat losses; (5) Electron heat losses in the pulsed mode of operation of mirror devices.

  7. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-8 - Recapture of separate limitation loss accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recapture of separate limitation loss accounts. 1.904(f)-8 Section 1.904(f)-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Recapture of separate limitation loss accounts. For further guidance, see § 1.904(f)-8T....

  8. 18 CFR 367.4117 - Account 411.7, Losses from disposition of service company plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 411.7, Losses from disposition of service company plant. 367.4117 Section 367.4117 Conservation of Power and Water... § 367.4117 Account 411.7, Losses from disposition of service company plant. (a) The service company...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.510 - Heat loss certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Heat loss certificate. 3280.510 Section 3280.510 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED...

  10. Heat Loss Experiments: Teach Energy Savings with Cardboard "House"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Using two cardboard boxes, a light bulb socket, light bulbs of varying wattage, a thermometer, and some insulation, students can learn some interesting lessons about how heat loss occurs in homes. This article describes practical experiments that work well on units related to energy, sustainable energy, renewables, engineering, and construction.…

  11. [Model for simulation of heat loss by premature infants].

    PubMed

    Frankenberger, R T; Bussmann, O; Nahm, W; Konecny, E

    1998-05-01

    A prerequisite for the further improvement in the quality of warming therapy is an accurate knowledge of the interactions between the microclimate in warming therapy devices and the thermal balance of the infant. For generating this knowledge, thermal manikins can be helpful. Suitable models capable of also simulating evaporative heat loss in preterm infants have, however, not been available to date. A thermal manikin representing an infant weighing 530 g and capable of simulating convective, radiative and also evaporative heat loss has now been developed. It comprises an outer shell made of porous, anatomically shaped clay, and is divided into six compartments each of which can be heated individually. Water-filled Gore-Tex bags located immediately beneath the shell are provided to simulate evaporation. In a clinical study, temperature profiles of 8 very small preterm infants were measured thermographically. Measurements in the manikin showed that highly comparable temperature profiles with only minor differences could be obtained. Total heat and water losses by the manikin were in good agreement with clinical values. Using the model described here it is possible to simulate the heat exchange of premature infants under extreme and accurately reproducible environmental conditions. This manikin may thus serve as a tool for comparative studies, for the development of warming therapy equipment, or for training purposes. PMID:9616993

  12. Heat stress causes substantial labour productivity loss in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, Kerstin K.; Botzen, Wouter J. W.; Oppermann, Elspeth; Kjellstrom, Tord; Garnett, Stephen T.

    2015-07-01

    Heat stress at the workplace is an occupational health hazard that reduces labour productivity. Assessment of productivity loss resulting from climate change has so far been based on physiological models of heat exposure. These models suggest productivity may decrease by 11-27% by 2080 in hot regions such as Asia and the Caribbean, and globally by up to 20% in hot months by 2050. Using an approach derived from health economics, we describe self-reported estimates of work absenteeism and reductions in work performance caused by heat in Australia during 2013/2014. We found that the annual costs were US$655 per person across a representative sample of 1,726 employed Australians. This represents an annual economic burden of around US$6.2 billion (95% CI: 5.2-7.3 billion) for the Australian workforce. This amounts to 0.33 to 0.47% of Australia’s GDP. Although this was a period when many Australians experienced what is at present considered exceptional heat, our results suggest that adaptation measures to reduce heat effects should be adopted widely if severe economic impacts from labour productivity loss are to be avoided if heat waves become as frequent as predicted.

  13. Enhanced economic connectivity to foster heat stress-related losses.

    PubMed

    Wenz, Leonie; Levermann, Anders

    2016-06-01

    Assessing global impacts of unexpected meteorological events in an increasingly connected world economy is important for estimating the costs of climate change. We show that since the beginning of the 21st century, the structural evolution of the global supply network has been such as to foster an increase of climate-related production losses. We compute first- and higher-order losses from heat stress-induced reductions in productivity under changing economic and climatic conditions between 1991 and 2011. Since 2001, the economic connectivity has augmented in such a way as to facilitate the cascading of production loss. The influence of this structural change has dominated over the effect of the comparably weak climate warming during this decade. Thus, particularly under future warming, the intensification of international trade has the potential to amplify climate losses if no adaptation measures are taken. PMID:27386555

  14. Enhanced economic connectivity to foster heat stress–related losses

    PubMed Central

    Wenz, Leonie; Levermann, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Assessing global impacts of unexpected meteorological events in an increasingly connected world economy is important for estimating the costs of climate change. We show that since the beginning of the 21st century, the structural evolution of the global supply network has been such as to foster an increase of climate-related production losses. We compute first- and higher-order losses from heat stress–induced reductions in productivity under changing economic and climatic conditions between 1991 and 2011. Since 2001, the economic connectivity has augmented in such a way as to facilitate the cascading of production loss. The influence of this structural change has dominated over the effect of the comparably weak climate warming during this decade. Thus, particularly under future warming, the intensification of international trade has the potential to amplify climate losses if no adaptation measures are taken. PMID:27386555

  15. Decomposition Kinetics for Mass Loss and Heat Released for HMX

    SciTech Connect

    Weese, R K; Burnham, A K

    2004-07-27

    Nucleation-growth kinetic expressions are derived for thermal decomposition of HMX from a variety of types of data, including mass loss for isothermal and constant rate heating in an open pan, and heat flow for isothermal and constant rate heating in open and closed pans. Conditions are identified in which thermal runaway is small to nonexistent, which typically means temperatures less than 255 C and heating rates less than 1 C/min. Activation energies are typically in the 140 to 150 kJ/mol regime for open pan experiments and about 160 kJ/mol for sealed pan experiments. The reaction clearly displays more than one process, and most likely three processes, which are most clearly evident in open pan experiments. The reaction is accelerated for closed pan experiments, and one global reaction appears to fit the data well.

  16. EFFECT OF HEATING RATE ON EVAPORATIVE HEAT LOSS IN THE MICROWAVE-EXPOSED MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male CBA/J mice were administered heat loads of 0-28 J. per g at specific absorption rates (SARs) of either 47 or 93 W. per kg by exposure to 2,450-MHz microwave radiation at an ambient temperature of 30 C while evaporative heat loss (EHL) was continuously monitored with dew-poin...

  17. Determining heat loss into the environment based on comprehensive investigation of boiler performance characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubov, V. K.; Malygin, P. V.; Popov, A. N.; Popova, E. I.

    2015-08-01

    A refined procedure for determining heat loss into the environment from heat-generating installations is presented that takes into account the state of their lining and heat insulation quality. The fraction of radiative component in the total amount of heat loss through the outer surfaces is determined. The results from experimental investigations of the thermal engineering and environmental performance characteristics of a foreign hot-water boiler in firing wood pellets are presented. A conclusion is drawn about the possibility of using such hot-water boilers for supplying heat to low-rise buildings, especially for the conditions of the North-Arctic region. The results from a thermal engineering investigation of wood pellets and furnace residue carried out on installations of a thermal analysis laboratory are presented together with the grain-size composition of fuel and indicators characterizing the mechanical strength of wood pellets. The velocity fields, flue gas flow rates, and soot particle concentrations are determined using the external filtration methods, and the composition of combustion products is investigated using a gas analyzer. The graphs of variation with time of boiler external surface temperature from the moment of achieving the nominal mode of operation and heat loss into the environment for stationary boilers are presented.

  18. Respiration in exercising fowl. II. Respiratory water loss and heat balance.

    PubMed

    Brackenbury, J H; Gleeson, M; Avery, P

    1981-08-01

    1. Respiratory water loss and rectal temperature were measured in domestic fowl running for 10 min on a treadmill at speeds of 1.24-4.3 km h-1 in air temperatures of 20 +/- 2 degrees C or 32 +/- 2 degrees C. 2. At given speeds the water loss at 32 +/- 2 degrees C was approximately twice that at 20 +/- 2 degrees C and the end-exercise rectal temperature was 0.5-0.8 degrees C higher. 3. At 20 +/- 2 degrees C, respiratory evaporation accounted for 10-12% of the total metabolic energy used at all speeds. At 32 +/- 2 degrees C, the fractional respiratory heat loss fell from 26.5% at 1.24 km h-1 to 17% at 3.6 km h-1. The fraction of the total metabolic energy stored as body heat rose progressively with air temperature. PMID:7288356

  19. Numerical simulation of radiative heat loss in an experimental burner

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.; Brookshaw, L.

    1993-09-01

    We describe the numerical algorithm used in the COYOTE two-dimensional, transient, Eulerian hydrodynamics program to allow for radiative heat losses in simulations of reactive flows. The model is intended primarily for simulations of industrial burners, but it is not confined to that application. It assumes that the fluid is optically thin and that photons created by the fluid immediately escape to free space or to the surrounding walls, depending upon the application. The use of the model is illustrated by simulations of a laboratory-scale experimental burner. We find that the radiative heat losses reduce the local temperature of the combustion products by a modest amount, typically on the order of 50 K. However, they have a significant impact on NO{sub x} production.

  20. Effect of heating rate on evaporative heat loss in the microwave-exposed mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, C.J.

    1982-08-01

    Mice were exposed to microwave radiation at 2.450 MHz at varying intensities and heat loads to determine if the animals thermoregulate or temperature regulate in conditions of varying heat load. The mice were exposed to whole-body doses of microwave radiation and power not reflected back was regarded as absorbed by the mouse. Incident powers of three to six watts were used, resulting in specific absorption rates of 47.4-93.4 W/kg. Deep body temperatures and the evaporated heat loss were monitored, and results demonstrated that mice thermoregulate, i.e., dissipate heat loads through evaporative heat loss at a rate which is modeled numerically. It is concluded that a significant portion of the microwave energy is deposited internally.

  1. Fluid and electrolyte losses during tennis in the heat.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, M F; Armstrong, L E; Maresh, C M

    1995-01-01

    A tennis player's metabolism during play in a hot environment generates an abundance of heat, which is primarily eliminated from the body by evaporation of sweat. An individual's on-court rate of fluid loss will depend on the environmental conditions, intensity of play, acclimatization, aerobic fitness, hydration status, age, and gender. Unless fluid intake closely matches sweat loss, a progressive and significant body water deficit may develop that will proportionately impair cardiovascular and thermoregulatory functions. As a result, a player can experience an increase in core temperature, premature fatigue, performance decrements, and an increased potential for heat illness. Although sweat is hypotonic compared to plasma, extended tennis play, in a hot environment, can lead to sizable Na+ and Cl- losses. Also, ad libitum drinking often leads to involuntary dehydration in these conditions. Therefore, for tennis play and training in the heat, it is important to follow a hydration plan that will minimize on-court water deficits, by optimizing fluid availability, consumption, and absorption. For tennis matches greater than 1 hour in duration, a CHO-electrolyte drink (as described earlier) is the recommended on-court beverage. PMID:7712552

  2. Sweat rate and sodium loss during work in the heat

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Graham P; Miller, Veronica S

    2008-01-01

    Objective Significant and poorly documented electrolyte losses result from prolonged sweating. This study aimed to quantify likely sodium losses during work in heat. Methods Male subjects exercised in an environmental chamber on two consecutive days in both winter and summer. Sweat collecting devices were attached to the upper arms and legs. Results Sweat rates were higher and sodium concentrations were lower in the summer (acclimatised) than the winter (unacclimatised) trials. Sweat sodium concentration was reduced on the second day in summer but not winter. Regional differences were found in both seasons. Conclusion The difference between days in summer probably reflects short-term acclimation. The difference between seasons reflects acclimatisation. The data predict average sodium (Na) losses over a work shift of 4.8–6 g, equivalent to 10–15 g salt (NaCl). Losses are potentially greater in unacclimatised individuals. Fluid and electrolyte losses resulting from prolonged sweating must be replaced to prevent imbalance in body fluids, however guidelines for this replacement are often conflicting. This study provides important information for occupational health practitioners by quantifying the likely sodium losses over a work shift and providing recommendations for replacement. PMID:18226265

  3. 18 CFR 367.1890 - Account 189, Unamortized loss on reacquired debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 189, Unamortized loss on reacquired debt. 367.1890 Section 367.1890 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR...

  4. 18 CFR 367.4210 - Account 421, Miscellaneous income or loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 421, Miscellaneous income or loss. 367.4210 Section 367.4210 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY..., FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES...

  5. 27 CFR 28.321 - Tax assessed on loss not accounted for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Beer and Beer Concentrate... penalties and interest, on; (a) The quantity of beer not satisfactorily accounted for, or (b) the quantity of beer used to produce the quantity of beer concentrate which is not satisfactorily accounted...

  6. 27 CFR 28.321 - Tax assessed on loss not accounted for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Beer and Beer Concentrate... penalties and interest, on; (a) The quantity of beer not satisfactorily accounted for, or (b) the quantity of beer used to produce the quantity of beer concentrate which is not satisfactorily accounted...

  7. 27 CFR 28.321 - Tax assessed on loss not accounted for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Beer and Beer Concentrate... penalties and interest, on; (a) The quantity of beer not satisfactorily accounted for, or (b) the quantity of beer used to produce the quantity of beer concentrate which is not satisfactorily accounted...

  8. 27 CFR 28.321 - Tax assessed on loss not accounted for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Beer and Beer Concentrate... penalties and interest, on; (a) The quantity of beer not satisfactorily accounted for, or (b) the quantity of beer used to produce the quantity of beer concentrate which is not satisfactorily accounted...

  9. 27 CFR 28.321 - Tax assessed on loss not accounted for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Beer and Beer Concentrate... penalties and interest, on; (a) The quantity of beer not satisfactorily accounted for, or (b) the quantity of beer used to produce the quantity of beer concentrate which is not satisfactorily accounted...

  10. Heat loss model for flow assurance in a deep water riser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Rodiah, Isti; Islahuddin, Muhammad; Kania, Riska A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Y.; Sukarno, Pudjo; Permadi, Asep K.; Soewono, Edy

    2014-03-01

    The study is intended to investigate the heat loss phenomenon of oil flow in a riser. This heat loss happens due to the difference between the oil temperature in a riser and the surrounding sea water temperature. It causes the formation of wax that may disturb the flow. Heat loss can be reduced by setting up an insulator in a riser or by selecting appropriate pipeline specifications. It is necessary to determine the possible locations and specifications of insulator and pipeline. A mathematical model is formulated by considering the oil temperature and its flow velocity. Assuming that the density variation is small, the fluid behaves as an incompressible fluid. Furthermore, numerical solutions with finite difference methods are presented with some hypothetical data to give an overview of how the system works. Two surrounding conditions are taken into account, i.e. with and without sea current. From the simulation, the location of wax formation can be predicted. At a certain depth region of sea, where the sea current is present, a greater heat loss take place in which wax may be formed immediately. To overcome the formation of wax, we can control the parameters such as conductivity and wall thickness of pipe.

  11. Pressure loss and heat transfer through multiple rows of short pin fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, D. E.; Fan, Z. X.; Shepard, W. B.

    Results are presented showing performance in terms of pressure loss and heat transfer for arrays of short pin fins set in a high aspect ratio duct. Seven array configurations were fabricated and tested, typical of those used for heat transfer augmentation in gas turbine airfoil cooling. All configurations have uniform regular pin spacing with alternate rows in the streamwise direction staggered one-half the transverse pitch. The short length of the pins dictates that the uncovered duct walls are a significant fraction of the total heat transfer area. Comparison is made between the present short pin results and established tube bank performance where the tube surfaces account for all the heat transfer area.

  12. Pressure loss and heat transfer in a toothed finned heat transfer medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, W. D.; Leidinger, B. J. G.

    Thermohydraulic investigation was carried out in a special toothed-finned geometry, which was provided for increasing heat transfer in an evaporator cooler. The evaporator cooler has applications in space navigation. The toothed-finned heat carrier was used in a counter current, with a view to simplifying the heat transfer coefficient evaluation, from the temperature and volume flows measured. Test results obtained confirmed the suitability of this test arrangement. Relationships were derived from test results, for the pressure loss coefficient and the Nusselt number, with regard to the Reynolds number for this determined finned geometry.

  13. Chaos of radiative heat-loss-induced flame front instability.

    PubMed

    Kinugawa, Hikaru; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Gotoda, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    We are intensively studying the chaos via the period-doubling bifurcation cascade in radiative heat-loss-induced flame front instability by analytical methods based on dynamical systems theory and complex networks. Significant changes in flame front dynamics in the chaotic region, which cannot be seen in the bifurcation diagrams, were successfully extracted from recurrence quantification analysis and nonlinear forecasting and from the network entropy. The temporal dynamics of the fuel concentration in the well-developed chaotic region is much more complicated than that of the flame front temperature. It exhibits self-affinity as a result of the scale-free structure in the constructed visibility graph. PMID:27036182

  14. Human locomotion and heat loss: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Daniel E

    2015-01-01

    Humans are unique in many respects including being furless, striding bipeds that excel at walking and running long distances in hot conditions. This review summarizes what we do and do not know about the evolution of these characteristics, and how they are related. Although many details remain poorly known, the first hominins (species more closely related to humans than to chimpanzees) apparently diverged from the chimpanzee lineage because of selection for bipedal walking, probably because it improved their ability to forage efficiently. However, because bipedal hominins are necessarily slow runners, early hominins in open habitats likely benefited from improved abilities to dump heat in order to forage safely during times of peak heat when predators were unable to hunt them. Endurance running capabilities evolved later, probably as adaptations for scavenging and then hunting. If so, then there would have been strong selection for heat-loss mechanisms, especially sweating, to persistence hunt, in which hunters combine endurance running and tracking to drive their prey into hyperthermia. As modern humans dispersed into a wide range of habitats over the last few hundred thousand years, recent selection has helped populations cope better with a broader range of locomotor and thermoregulatory challenges, but all humans remain essentially adapted for long distance locomotion rather than speed, and to dump rather than retain heat. PMID:25589265

  15. Calibrated Heat Flow Model for Determining the Heat Conduction Losses in Laser Cutting of CFRP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, P.; Weber, R.; Speker, N.; Berger, P.; Sommer, B.; Graf, T.

    Laser machining has great potential regarding automation in fabrication of CFRP (carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics) parts, due to the nearly force and tool-wear free processing at high process speeds. The high vaporization temperatures and the large heat conductivity of the carbon fibers lead to a large heat transport into the sample. This causes the formation of a heat-affected zone and a decrease of the process speed. In the present paper,an analytical heat flow model was adapted in order to understand and investigate the heat conduction losses. Thermal sensors were embedded in samples at different distances from the kerf to fit the calculated to the measured temperatures. Heat conduction losses of up to 30% of the laser power were determined. Furthermore, the energy not absorbed by the sample, the energy for sublimating the composite material in the kerf, the energy for the formation of the HAZ, and the residual heat in the sample are compared in an energy balance.

  16. Roof heat loss detection using airborne thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, K.; Bauer, C.; Sulzer, W.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the Austrian and European attempt to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, thermal rehabilitation and the improvement of the energy efficiency of buildings became an important topic in research as well as in building construction and refurbishment. Today, in-situ thermal infrared measurements are routinely used to determine energy loss through the building envelope. However, in-situ thermal surveys are expensive and time consuming, and in many cases the detection of the amount and location of waste heat leaving building through roofs is not possible with ground-based observations. For some years now, a new generation of high-resolution thermal infrared sensors makes it possible to survey heat-loss through roofs at a high level of detail and accuracy. However, to date, comparable studies have mainly been conducted on buildings with uniform roof covering and provided two-dimensional, qualitative information. This pilot study aims to survey the heat-loss through roofs of the buildings of the University of Graz (Austria) campus by using high-resolution airborne thermal infrared imagery (TABI 1800 - Thermal Airborne Broadband imager). TABI-1800 acquires data in a spectral range from 3.7 - 4.8 micron, a thermal resolution of 0.05 °C and a spatial resolution of 0.6 m. The remote sensing data is calibrated to different roof coverings (e.g. clay shingle, asphalt shingle, tin roof, glass) and combined with a roof surface model to determine the amount of waste heat leaving the building and to identify hot spots. The additional integration of information about the conditions underneath the roofs into the study allows a more detailed analysis of the upward heat flux and is a significant improvement of existing methods. The resulting data set provides useful information to the university facility service for infrastructure maintenance, especially in terms of attic and roof insulation improvements. Beyond that, the project is supposed to raise public

  17. Heat loss in air of an Antarctic marine mammal, the Weddell seal.

    PubMed

    Mellish, Jo-Ann; Hindle, Allyson; Skinner, John; Horning, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The conflicting needs of homeostasis in air versus water complicate our understanding of thermoregulation in marine mammals. Large-scale modeling efforts directed at predicting the energetic impact of changing sea ice conditions on polar ecosystems require a better understanding of thermoregulation in air of free-ranging animals. We utilized infrared imaging as an indirect approach to determine surface temperatures of dry, hauled-out Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, n = 35) of varying age and body condition during the Antarctic summer. The study groups provided a fivefold range in body mass and a threefold range in blubber depth. Surface temperature (T s) did not vary by body region (head, shoulder, axilla, torso, hip, flippers). Average seal T s (mean 13.9 ± 11.2 °C) was best described through a combination of the physical traits of body mass and environmental variables of ambient temperature T air, and wind speed. Additional factors of ice temperature (T ice), relative humidity and cloud cover did not improve the model. Heat transfer model estimates suggested that radiation contributed 56.6 ± 7.7 % of total heat loss. Convection and conduction accounted for the remaining 15.7 ± 12.3 and 27.7 ± 9.3 %, respectively. Heat loss by radiation was primarily influenced by body mass and wind speed, whereas convective heat loss was influenced primarily by blubber depth and wind speed. Conductive heat loss was modeled largely as a function of physical traits of mass and blubber depth rather than any environmental covariates, and therefore was substantially higher in animals in leaner condition. PMID:25378218

  18. Mechanisms of folate losses during processing: diffusion vs. heat degradation.

    PubMed

    Delchier, Nicolas; Ringling, Christiane; Maingonnat, Jean-François; Rychlik, Michael; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2014-08-15

    Though folates are sensitive to heat treatments, leaching appears to be a major mechanism involved in folate losses in vegetables during processing. The aim of our study was to study folate diffusivity and degradation from spinach and green beans, in order to determine the proportion of each mechanism involved in folate losses. Folate diffusivity constant, calculated according to Fick's second law (Crank, 1975), was 7.4×10(-12) m(2)/s for spinach and 5.8×10(-10) m(2)/s for green beans, which is the same order of magnitude as for sugars and acids for each vegetable considered. Folate thermal degradation kinetics was not monotonous in spinach and green beans especially at 45 °C and did not follow a first order reaction. The proportion of vitamers changed markedly after thermal treatment, with a better retention of formyl derivatives. For spinach, folate losses were mainly due to diffusion while for green beans thermal degradation seemed to be preponderant. PMID:24679802

  19. 18 CFR 367.4212 - Account 421.2, Loss on disposition of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 421.2, Loss on disposition of property. 367.4212 Section 367.4212 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND...

  20. 18 CFR 367.4117 - Account 411.7, Losses from disposition of service company plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 411.7, Losses from disposition of service company plant. 367.4117 Section 367.4117 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL...

  1. Sensible heat transfer from the fowl: radiative and convective heat losses from a flock of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wathes, C M; Clark, J A

    1981-03-01

    1. Measurements of the micro-climate within a poultry house and physical models of heat loss produced estimates of the sensible heat losses from broilers. The partition between radiative and convective heat losses changed with age and bird activity. 2. The birds spent approximately 67% of ;their time in a cluster, in which their sensible heat losses were between 30 and 60% of those of an individual bird. 3. body plus plumage resistance was constant at 0.09 m2K/W up to 30 d and increased linearly to 0.40 m2K/W at 54 d. PMID:7237195

  2. Modeling lava lake heat loss, rheology, and convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Andrew J. L.

    2008-04-01

    Measurements at Erta Ale's lava lake and theoretical equations for lake rheology, density driven convection and thermally-driven plume ascent allow the constraint of lake dynamics. Cooling and crystallization expected from surface heat losses imply a viscosity increase from 150 Pa s to 300-1800 Pa s for cooled surface layers. Convection is expected to proceed vigorously under low viscosity conditions driving rapid (0.1-0.4 m s-1) surface motions and sluggishly under moderate-to-high viscosity conditions to drive slower motions (<0.08 m s-1). Convection is likely driven by small (~6 kg m-3) density differences, where surface cooling can influence lake rheology and explain variable rates of surface convective motion.

  3. Head insulation and heat loss in the newborn.

    PubMed Central

    Stothers, J K

    1981-01-01

    The thermal balance of 13 term infants was measured in a closed-circuit metabolism chamber. Each was studied naked, then with a gamgee-lined hat, and finally with a 'cummerbund' made of a similar material and of similar dimensions. At 27 degrees C the oxygen consumption of the 'hatted' babies was only 85% and the total heat loss 75% of the values measured with the infants naked. The cummerbund offered no detectable benefit. An additional 10 infants were studied while wearing a tubegauze hat at environmental temperatures of 28.5 (+/- 0.5) degrees C. This type of hat gave no measurable thermal protection. It is concluded that a substantial reduction of thermal stress in adverse environments can be achieved simply and clearly by adequately covering the vault of the skull. PMID:7271287

  4. Heat loss and drag of spherical drop tube samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, D. B.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis techniques for three aspects of the performance of the NASA/MSFC 32 meter drop tube are considered. Heat loss through the support wire in a pendant drop sample, temperature history of a drop falling through the drop tube when the tube is filled with helium gas at various pressures, and drag and resulting g-levels experienced by a drop falling through the tube when the tube is filled with helium gas at various pressures are addressed. The developed methods apply to systems with sufficiently small Knudsen numbers for which continuum theory may be applied. Sample results are presented, using niobium drops, to indicate the magnitudes of the effects. Helium gas at one atmosphere pressure can approximately double the amount of possible undercooling but it results in an apparent gravity levels of up to 0.1 g.

  5. 49 CFR 1242.78 - Employees performing clerical and accounting functions, and loss and damage claims processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... functions, and loss and damage claims processing (accounts XX-55-76 and XX-55-78). 1242.78 Section 1242.78... Employees performing clerical and accounting functions, and loss and damage claims processing (accounts XX-55-76 and XX-55-78). If the sum of the direct freight and the direct passenger expenses is more...

  6. Alterations in heat loss and heat production mechanisms in rat exposed to hypergravic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Horwitz, B. A.; Oyama, J.

    1982-01-01

    A review of studies investigating the thermal response of rats exposed to hypergravic fields well below maximum tolerance levels is presented. It is concluded that several lines of evidence indicate that the neural switching network for temperature regulation and cardiovascular channeling of blood flow is transiently affected during the first hour a rat is exposed to hypergravity. Moreover, even after one hour of exposure, when the core temperature has fallen several degrees, shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis are not fully activated. Only after prolonged exposure to hypergravic fields do heat production mechanisms recover sufficiently to bring the core temperature back to a normal level. Thus, the data indicate a more rapid recovery of effector mechanisms for heat loss than for heat production.

  7. Correlation between heat stability of thylakoid membranes and loss of chlorophyll in winter wheat under heat stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the relationship between the heat stability of thylakoid membranes/PS II and loss of chlorophyll in winter wheat under heat stress conditions, and (2) to test the possibility of using chlorophyll loss, as determined by SPAD chlorophyll meter, as a...

  8. Sauropod necks: are they really for heat loss?

    PubMed

    Henderson, Donald M

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional digital models of 16 different sauropods were used to examine the scaling relationship between metabolism and surface areas of the whole body, the neck, and the tail in an attempt to see if the necks could have functioned as radiators for the elimination of excess body heat. The sauropod taxa sample ranged in body mass from a 639 kg juvenile Camarasaurus to a 25 t adult Brachiosaurus. Metabolism was assumed to be directly proportional to body mass raised to the ¾ power, and estimates of body mass accounted for the presence of lungs and systems of air sacs in the trunk and neck. Surface areas were determined by decomposing the model surfaces into triangles and their areas being computed by vector methods. It was found that total body surface area was almost isometric with body mass, and that it showed negative allometry when plotted against metabolic rate. In contrast, neck area showed positive allometry when plotted against metabolic rate. Tail area show negative allometry with respect to metabolic rate. The many uncertainties about the biology of sauropods, and the variety of environmental conditions that different species experienced during the groups 150 million years of existence, make it difficult to be absolutely certain about the function of the neck as a radiator. However, the functional combination of the allometric increase of neck area, the systems of air sacs in the neck and trunk, the active control of blood flow between the core and surface of the body, changing skin color, and strategic orientation of the neck with respect to wind, make it plausible that the neck could have functioned as a radiator to avoid over-heating. PMID:24204747

  9. Combined heat transfer and kinetic models to predict cooking loss during heat treatment of beef meat.

    PubMed

    Kondjoyan, Alain; Oillic, Samuel; Portanguen, Stéphane; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    2013-10-01

    A heat transfer model was used to simulate the temperature in 3 dimensions inside the meat. This model was combined with a first-order kinetic models to predict cooking losses. Identification of the parameters of the kinetic models and first validations were performed in a water bath. Afterwards, the performance of the combined model was determined in a fan-assisted oven under different air/steam conditions. Accurate knowledge of the heat transfer coefficient values and consideration of the retraction of the meat pieces are needed for the prediction of meat temperature. This is important since the temperature at the center of the product is often used to determine the cooking time. The combined model was also able to predict cooking losses from meat pieces of different sizes and subjected to different air/steam conditions. It was found that under the studied conditions, most of the water loss comes from the juice expelled by protein denaturation and contraction and not from evaporation. PMID:23747627

  10. Can intradermal administration of angiotensin II influence human heat loss responses during whole body heat stress?

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; Meade, Robert D; Paull, Gabrielle; McGinn, Ryan; Foudil-bey, Imane; Akbari, Pegah; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-05-01

    It is unclear if angiotensin II, which can increase the production of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress), modulates heat loss responses of cutaneous blood flow and sweating. We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II-induced increases in oxidative stress impair cutaneous perfusion and sweating during rest and exercise in the heat. Eleven young (24 ± 4 yr) healthy adults performed two 30-min cycling bouts at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) in the heat (35°C). The first and second exercises were followed by a 20- and 40-min recovery. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin for continuous administration of either: 1) lactated Ringer (control), 2) 10 μM angiotensin II, 3) 10 mM ascorbate (an antioxidant), or 4) a combination of 10 μM angiotensin II + 10 mM ascorbate. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler perfusion units/mean arterial pressure) and sweating (ventilated capsule) were evaluated at each skin site. Compared with control, angiotensin II reduced both CVC and sweating at baseline resting and during each recovery in the heat (all P < 0.05). However, during both exercise bouts, there were no differences in CVC or sweating between the treatment sites (all P > 0.05). When ascorbate was coinfused with angiotensin II, the effect of angiotensin II on sweating was abolished (all P > 0.05); however, its effect on CVC at baseline resting and during each recovery remained intact (all P < 0.05). We show angiotensin II impairs cutaneous perfusion independent of oxidative stress, while it impairs sweating through increasing oxidative stress during exposure to an ambient heat stress before and following exercise. PMID:25767030

  11. Can intradermal administration of angiotensin II influence human heat loss responses during whole body heat stress?

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Naoto; Meade, Robert D.; Paull, Gabrielle; McGinn, Ryan; Foudil-bey, Imane; Akbari, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear if angiotensin II, which can increase the production of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress), modulates heat loss responses of cutaneous blood flow and sweating. We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II-induced increases in oxidative stress impair cutaneous perfusion and sweating during rest and exercise in the heat. Eleven young (24 ± 4 yr) healthy adults performed two 30-min cycling bouts at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) in the heat (35°C). The first and second exercises were followed by a 20- and 40-min recovery. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin for continuous administration of either: 1) lactated Ringer (control), 2) 10 μM angiotensin II, 3) 10 mM ascorbate (an antioxidant), or 4) a combination of 10 μM angiotensin II + 10 mM ascorbate. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler perfusion units/mean arterial pressure) and sweating (ventilated capsule) were evaluated at each skin site. Compared with control, angiotensin II reduced both CVC and sweating at baseline resting and during each recovery in the heat (all P < 0.05). However, during both exercise bouts, there were no differences in CVC or sweating between the treatment sites (all P > 0.05). When ascorbate was coinfused with angiotensin II, the effect of angiotensin II on sweating was abolished (all P > 0.05); however, its effect on CVC at baseline resting and during each recovery remained intact (all P < 0.05). We show angiotensin II impairs cutaneous perfusion independent of oxidative stress, while it impairs sweating through increasing oxidative stress during exposure to an ambient heat stress before and following exercise. PMID:25767030

  12. Effect of human skin grafts on whole-body heat loss during exercise heat stress: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ganio, Matthew S; Gagnon, Daniel; Stapleton, Jill; Crandall, Craig G; Kenny, Glen P

    2013-01-01

    When exposed to heat stress, increases in cutaneous blood flow and sweating in well-healed grafted skin are severely attenuated, which could impair whole-body heat loss if skin grafts cover a large portion of total body surface area (TBSA). It is unknown to what extent whole-body heat loss is impaired when skin grafts cover a significant (eg, >50%) proportion of TBSA. The authors examined whole-body heat exchange during and after 60 min of cycling exercise in the heat (35°C; 25% relative humidity), at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (~400 W) in a woman (age, 36 years; mass, 78.2 kg) with well-healed (17+ years) skin grafts covering 75% of TBSA. Her responses were compared with two noninjured control subjects. Whole-body evaporative and dry heat exchange were measured by direct calorimetry. While exercising in the same ambient conditions and at the same rate of heat production, relative evaporative heat loss of nongrafted skin in the grafted subject (ie, evaporative heat loss per m) was nearly twice that of the control subjects. However, total rate of evaporative heat loss reached only 59% of the amount required for heat balance in the skin-grafted subject compared with 92 ± 3% in controls. Thus, the increase in core temperature was 2-fold greater for the grafted (1.22°C) vs control (0.61 ± 0.19°C) individuals. This case study demonstrates that a large area of grafted skin greatly diminishes maximum evaporative heat loss during exercise in the heat, making a compensable environment for control subjects uncompensable for skin-grafted individuals. PMID:23202874

  13. Heat loss through the glabrous skin surfaces of heavily insulated, heat-stressed individuals.

    PubMed

    Grahn, D A; Dillon, J L; Heller, H C

    2009-07-01

    Insulation reduces heat exchange between a body and the environment. Glabrous (nonhairy) skin surfaces (palms of the hands, soles of the feet, face, and ears) constitute a small percentage of total body surface area but contain specialized vascular structures that facilitate heat loss. We have previously reported that cooling the glabrous skin surfaces is effective in alleviating heat stress and that the application of local subatmospheric pressure enhances the effect. In this paper, we compare the effects of cooling multiple glabrous skin surfaces with and without vacuum on thermal recovery in heavily insulated heat-stressed individuals. Esophageal temperatures (T(es)) and heart rates were monitored throughout the trials. Water loss was determined from pre- and post-trial nude weights. Treadmill exercise (5.6 km/h, 9-16% slope, and 25-45 min duration) in a hot environment (41.5 degrees C, 20-30% relative humidity) while wearing insulating pants and jackets was used to induce heat stress (T(es)>or=39 degrees C). For postexercise recovery, the subjects donned additional insulation (a balaclava, winter gloves, and impermeable boot covers) and rested in the hot environment for 60 min. Postexercise cooling treatments included control (no cooling) or the application of a 10 degrees C closed water circulating system to (a) the hand(s) with or without application of a local subatmospheric pressure, (b) the face, (c) the feet, or (d) multiple glabrous skin regions. Following exercise induction of heat stress in heavily insulated subjects, the rate of recovery of T(es) was 0.4+/-0.2 degrees C/h(n=12), but with application of cooling to one hand, the rate was 0.8+/-0.3 degrees C/h(n=12), and with one hand cooling with subatmospheric pressure, the rate was 1.0+/-0.2 degrees C/h(n=12). Cooling alone yielded two responses, one resembling that of cooling with subatmospheric pressure (n=8) and one resembling that of no cooling (n=4). The effect of treating multiple surfaces was

  14. Test bench HEATREC for heat loss measurement on solar receiver tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, José M.; López-Martín, Rafael; Valenzuela, Loreto; Zarza, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    In Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) plants the thermal energy of solar radiation is absorbed by solar receiver tubes (HCEs) and it is transferred to a heat transfer fluid. Therefore, heat losses of receiver tubes have a direct influence on STE plants efficiency. A new test bench called HEATREC has been developed by Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) in order to determinate the heat losses of receiver tubes under laboratory conditions. The innovation of this test bench consists in the possibility to determine heat losses under controlled vacuum.

  15. Application of the discrete ordinates method to compute radiant heat loss in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, J.; Magi, V.

    1997-05-09

    A three-dimensional model for computing flows, sprays, and combustion in internal combustion engines is modified to include radiant heat loss. Radiant heat loss is computed by solving the radiative transport equation using a discrete ordinates approximation method. Such a method solves the radiative transport equation for a set of discrete directions spanning the range of 4{pi} solid angle. Angular integrals of intensity are discretized by numerical quadrature. The resulting discrete ordinates equations are numerically solved by using a finite volume approach in contravariant formulation. Computations are made with and without radiant heat loss in a diesel engine, and the effects of the radiant heat loss on the computed temperature and NO and soot concentrations are discussed. Inclusion of radiant heat loss reduces the peak temperature by about 10%. As a result, the predicted frozen NO concentrations are found to be lowered. However, the soot concentrations are not significantly altered.

  16. A three-dimensional model of mammalian tyrosinase active site accounting for loss of function mutations.

    PubMed

    Schweikardt, Thorsten; Olivares, Concepción; Solano, Francisco; Jaenicke, Elmar; García-Borrón, José Carlos; Decker, Heinz

    2007-10-01

    Tyrosinases are the first and rate-limiting enzymes in the synthesis of melanin pigments responsible for colouring hair, skin and eyes. Mutation of tyrosinases often decreases melanin production resulting in albinism, but the effects are not always understood at the molecular level. Homology modelling of mouse tyrosinase based on recently published crystal structures of non-mammalian tyrosinases provides an active site model accounting for loss-of-function mutations. According to the model, the copper-binding histidines are located in a helix bundle comprising four densely packed helices. A loop containing residues M374, S375 and V377 connects the CuA and CuB centres, with the peptide oxygens of M374 and V377 serving as hydrogen acceptors for the NH-groups of the imidazole rings of the copper-binding His367 and His180. Therefore, this loop is essential for the stability of the active site architecture. A double substitution (374)MS(375) --> (374)GG(375) or a single M374G mutation lead to a local perturbation of the protein matrix at the active site affecting the orientation of the H367 side chain, that may be unable to bind CuB reliably, resulting in loss of activity. The model also accounts for loss of function in two naturally occurring albino mutations, S380P and V393F. The hydroxyl group in S380 contributes to the correct orientation of M374, and the substitution of V393 for a bulkier phenylalanine sterically impedes correct side chain packing at the active site. Therefore, our model explains the mechanistic necessity for conservation of not only active site histidines but also adjacent amino acids in tyrosinase. PMID:17850513

  17. Thermal Capacitance (Slug) Calorimeter Theory Including Heat Losses and Other Decaying Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hightower, T. Mark; Olivares, Ricardo A.; Philippidis, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model, termed the Slug Loss Model, has been developed for describing thermal capacitance (slug) calorimeter behavior when heat losses and other decaying processes are not negligible. This model results in the temperature time slope taking the mathematical form of exponential decay. When data is found to fit well to this model, it allows a heat flux value to be calculated that corrects for the losses and may be a better estimate of the cold wall fully catalytic heat flux, as is desired in arc jet testing. The model was applied to the data from a copper slug calorimeter inserted during a particularly severe high heating rate arc jet run to illustrate its use. The Slug Loss Model gave a cold wall heat flux 15% higher than the value of 2,250 W/sq cm obtained from the conventional approach to processing the data (where no correction is made for losses). For comparison, a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model was created and applied to the same data, where conduction heat losses from the slug were simulated. The heat flux determined by the FEA model was found to be in close agreement with the heat flux determined by the Slug Loss Model.

  18. Light masking of circadian rhythms of heat production, heat loss, and body temperature in squirrel monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, E. L.; Fuller, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    Whole body heat production (HP) and heat loss (HL) were examined to determine their relative contributions to light masking of the circadian rhythm in body temperature (Tb). Squirrel monkey metabolism (n = 6) was monitored by both indirect and direct calorimetry, with telemetered measurement of body temperature and activity. Feeding was also measured. Responses to an entraining light-dark (LD) cycle (LD 12:12) and a masking LD cycle (LD 2:2) were compared. HP and HL contributed to both the daily rhythm and the masking changes in Tb. All variables showed phase-dependent masking responses. Masking transients at L or D transitions were generally greater during subjective day; however, L masking resulted in sustained elevation of Tb, HP, and HL during subjective night. Parallel, apparently compensatory, changes of HL and HP suggest action by both the circadian timing system and light masking on Tb set point. Furthermore, transient HL increases during subjective night suggest that gain change may supplement set point regulation of Tb.

  19. Analysis of the juice and water losses in salted and unsalted pork samples heated in water bath. Consequences for the prediction of weight loss by transfer models.

    PubMed

    Bombrun, Laure; Gatellier, Philippe; Portanguen, Stéphane; Kondjoyan, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This study has analyzed the effect of different factors on variation of meat weight due to juice loss, and variation of water content of pork samples heated in a water bath. The weight loss (WL) was influenced by initial water content of raw meat which can be connected to meat pH, muscle type, and by pre-salting. WL was also influenced by sample thickness and by nature of the surrounding fluid. These effects were significant at 50°C and in thinner samples but decreased as meat temperature and sample thickness increased. WL showed no significant difference in response to prior freezing, applying a surface constraint during heating or varying meat salt content from 0.8 to 2.0%. The results were interpreted from literature knowledge on protein denaturation, contraction and, transport phenomena. Reliably predicting WL from water content variation during heating hinges on taking into account the loss of dry matter and the possible effects of meat pH, sample size or surrounding fluid. PMID:25443971

  20. Age-related differences in heat loss capacity occur under both dry and humid heat stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Larose, Joanie; Boulay, Pierre; Wright-Beatty, Heather E.; Sigal, Ronald J.; Hardcastle, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the progression of impairments in heat dissipation as a function of age and environmental conditions. Sixty men (n = 12 per group; 20–30, 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, and 55–70 yr) performed four intermittent exercise/recovery cycles for a duration of 2 h in dry (35°C, 20% relative humidity) and humid (35°C, 60% relative humidity) conditions. Evaporative heat loss and metabolic heat production were measured by direct and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Body heat storage was measured as the temporal summation of heat production and heat loss during the sessions. Evaporative heat loss was reduced during exercise in the humid vs. dry condition in age groups 20–30 (−17%), 40–44 (−18%), 45–49 (−21%), 50–54 (−25%), and 55–70 yr (−20%). HE fell short of being significantly different between groups in the dry condition, but was greater in age group 20–30 yr (279 ± 10 W) compared with age groups 45–49 (248 ± 8 W), 50–54 (242 ± 6 W), and 55–70 yr (240 ± 7 W) in the humid condition. As a result of a reduced rate of heat dissipation predominantly during exercise, age groups 40–70 yr stored between 60–85 and 13–38% more heat than age group 20–30 yr in the dry and humid conditions, respectively. These age-related differences in heat dissipation and heat storage were not paralleled by significant differences in local sweating and skin blood flow, or by differences in core temperature between groups. From a whole body perspective, combined heat and humidity impeded heat dissipation to a similar extent across age groups, but, more importantly, intermittent exercise in dry and humid heat stress conditions created a greater thermoregulatory challenge for middle-aged and older adults. PMID:24812643

  1. 26 CFR 1.987-2 - Accounting for gain or loss on certain transfers of property. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for gain or loss on certain transfers of property. 1.987-2 Section 1.987-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Export Trade Corporations § 1.987-2 Accounting...

  2. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Controversy surrounding the accountability movement is related to how the movement began in response to dissatisfaction with public schools. Opponents see it as one-sided, somewhat mean-spirited, and a threat to the professional status of teachers. Supporters argue that all other spheres of the workplace have accountability systems and that the…

  3. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  4. Influence of a Simple Heat Loss Profile on a Pure Diffusion Flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Anjan; Wichman, Indrek S.

    1996-01-01

    The presence of soot on the fuel side of a diffusion flame results in significant radiative heat losses. The influence of a fuel side heat loss zone on a pure diffusion flame established between a fuel and an oxidizer wall is investigated by assuming a hypothetical sech(sup 2) heat loss profile. The intensity and width of the loss zone are parametrically varied. The loss zone is placed at different distances from the Burke-Schumann flame location. The migration of the temperature and reactivity peaks are examined for a variety of situations. For certain cases the reaction zone breaks through the loss zone and relocates itself on the fuel side of the loss zone. In all cases the temperature and reactivity peaks move toward the fuel side with increased heat losses. The flame structure reveals that the primary balance for the energy equation is between the reaction term and the diffusion term. Extinction plots are generated for a variety of situations. The heat transfer from the flame to the walls and the radiative fraction is also investigated, and an analytical correlation formula, derived in a previous study, is shown to produce excellent predictions of our numerical results when an O(l) numerical multiplicative constant is employed.

  5. Effect of heat shielding on convective and evaporative heat losses and on radiant heat transfer in the premature infant

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgart, S.; Engle, W.D.; Fox, W.W.; Polin, R.A.

    1981-12-01

    Ten premature infants nursed on servocontrolled radiant warmer beds were studied in three environments designed to alter one or more factors affecting heat transfer (convection, evaporation, and radiation). In the control environment, infants were nursed supine on an open warmer bed. The second environment (walled chamber) was designed to reduce convection and evaporation by placing plastic walls circumferentially around the bed. In the third environment convection and evaporation were minimized by covering infants with a plastic blanket. Air turbulence, insensible water loss, and radiant warmer power were measured in each environment. There was a significant reduction in mean air velocity in the walled chamber and under the plastic blanket when compared to the control environment. A parallel decrease in insensible water loss occurred. In contrast, radiant power demand was the same for control and walled environments, but decreased significantly when infants were covered by the plastic blanket. This study suggests that convection is an important factor influencing evaporation in neonates nursed under radiant warmers. The thin plastic blanket was the most effective shield, significantly reducing radiant power demand.

  6. Wind effects on convective heat loss from a cavity receiver for a parabolic concentrating solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, R.Y.

    1993-09-01

    Tests were performed to determine the convective heat loss characteristics of a cavity receiver for a parabolid dish concentrating solar collector for various tilt angles and wind speeds of 0-24 mph. Natural (no wind) convective heat loss from the receiver is the highest for a horizontal receiver orientation and negligible with the reveler facing straight down. Convection from the receiver is substantially increased by the presence of side-on wind for all receiver tilt angles. For head-on wind, convective heat loss with the receiver facing straight down is approximately the same as that for side-on wind. Overall it was found that for wind speeds of 20--24 mph, convective heat loss from the receiver can be as much as three times that occurring without wind.

  7. INFLUENCE OF HEATING RATE ON CONTROL OF HEAT LOSS FROM THE TAIL IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although heating rate is important for stimulating thermoregulatory reflexes, it is not known if the control system differentiates between total heat gain and rate of heat gain. Exposing animals to microwaves inside a waveguide permits continuous monitoring of whole-body heat abs...

  8. Dynamic measurement of heat loss coefficients through Trombe wall glazing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A Trombe wall presents a unique opportunity to measure the heat-loss coefficient through the glazing system because the wall itself can be used as a heat meter. Since the instantaneous heat flux through the outer wall surface can be determined, the heat loss coefficient at night can be calculated by dividing by the wall surface-to-ambient temperature difference. This technique has been used to determine heat-loss coefficients for Los Alamos test rooms during the winter of 1980-1981. Glazing systems studied include single and double glazing both with and without night insulation used in conjunction with a flat black paint, and both single and double glazing used in conjunction with a selective surface.

  9. Pressure losses and heat transfer in non-circular channels with hydraulically smooth walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malak, J.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of channel geometry on pressure losses and heat transfer in noncircular channels with hydraulically smooth walls was studied. As a basic assumption for the description of this influence, integral geometrical criteria, selected according to experimental experience, were introduced. Using these geometrical criteria, a large set of experimental data for pressure losses and heat transfer in circular and annular channels with longitudinal fins was evaluated. In this way it as empirically proved that the criteria described channel geometry fairly well.

  10. Analysis on heat loss characteristics of a 10 kV HTS power substation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Yuping; Dai, Shaotao; Song, Naihao; Zhang, Jingye; Gao, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Zhiqin; Zhou, Weiwei; Wei, Zhourong; Lin, Liangzhen; Xiao, Liye

    2014-09-01

    A 10 kV High Temperature Superconducting power substation (10 kV HTS substation), supported by Chinese State 863 projects, was developed and has been running to supply power for several factories for more than two years at an industrial park of Baiyin, Gansu province in Northwest China. The system of the 10 kV HTS substation compositions, including a HTS cable, a HTS transformer, a SFCL, and a SMES, are introduced. The SMES works at liquid helium temperature and the other three apparatus operates under liquid nitrogen condition. There are mainly four types of heat losses existing in each HTS apparatus of the 10 kV HTS substation, including AC loss, Joule heat loss, conductive heat, and leak-in heat from cryostat. A small quantity of AC loss still exists due to the harmonic component of the current when it carries DC for HTS apparatus. The principle and basis for analysis of the heat losses are introduced and the total heat loss of each apparatus are calculated or estimated, which agree well with the test result. The analysis and result presented are of importance for the design of the refrigeration system.

  11. Heat loss of heat pipelines in moisture conditions of thermal insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polovnikov, V. Yu.; Gubina, E. V.

    2014-08-01

    Results of numerical simulation of heat and mass transfer in a wet fibroporous material in conditions of evaporation and steam diffusion were obtained. Values of heat and mass fluxes were established. The contribution of evaporation effect to total heat flux and need to consider volume fractions of water and steam into the structure of fibroporous material in calculation of effective thermal conductivity were shown. Nonstationarity of heat and mass transfer in conditions of considered problem can be ignored.

  12. SCDAP/RELAP5 Modeling of Heat Transfer and Flow Losses in Lower Head Porous Debris

    SciTech Connect

    E. W. Coryell; L. J. Siefken; S. Paik

    1998-09-01

    Designs are described for implementing models for calculating the heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris in the lower head of a reactor vessel. The COUPLE model in SCDAP/RELAP5 represents both the porous and nonporous debris that results from core material slumping into the lower head. Currently, the COUPLE model has the capability to model convective and radiative heat transfer from the surfaces of nonporous debris in a detailed manner and to model only in a simplistic manner the heat transfer from porous debris. In order to advance beyond the simplistic modeling for porous debris, designs are developed for detailed calculations of heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris. Correlations are identified for convective heat transfer in porous debris for the following modes of heat transfer; (1) forced convection to liquid, (2) forced convection to gas, (3) nucleate boiling, (4) transition boiling, and (5) film boiling. Interphase heat transfer is modeled in an approximate manner. A design is also described for implementing a model of heat transfer by radiation from debris to the interstitial fluid. A design is described for implementation of models for flow losses and interphase drag in porous debris. Since the models for heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris in the lower head are designed for general application, a design is also described for implementation of these models to the analysis of porous debris in the core region. A test matrix is proposed for assessing the capability of the implemented models to calculate the heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris. The implementation of the models described in this report is expected to improve the COUPLE code calculation of the temperature distribution in porous debris and in the lower head that supports the debris. The implementation of these models is also expected to improve the calculation of the temperature and flow distribution in porous debris in the core region.

  13. Heat loss detection of buildings. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and instruments for detecting heat loss in buildings, houses, and mobile homes. Citations discuss the methods of heat loss determination including infrared thermography, trace gas procedures, time-response, and statistical predictions. The thermal-efficient design and construction of windows, roofs, air ducts, attics, walls, and floors are examined. Topics include thermal insulation materials and systems, heat recovery, thermal bridges and leak points, solar houses, and effects of moisture. (Contains a minimum of 96 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Heat losses and thermal imaging of ferroic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyashenko, S. E.; Ivanova, A. I.; Gasanov, O. V.; Grechishkin, R. M.; Tretiakov, S. A.; Yushkov, K. B.; Linde, B. B. J.

    2015-03-01

    A study is made of spatial and temporal temperature variations in working devices based on ferroic functional materials. The measurement of the sample's temperature is complemented with direct observation of its distribution over the sample surface. For the latter purpose a thermovision infrared videocamera technique was employed. Specific features of the temperature distribution and its evolution during heating and cooling of a number of piezoelectric, acoustooptic and shape memory components are revealed. Examples of hot spot observations indicative of structural defects in the samples under study are given thus suggesting the use of thermal vision for nondestructive testing. A proposal is made to combine the thermovision method with that of thermomagnetic analysis for the study of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys.

  15. Effect of heterogenous and homogenous air gaps on dry heat loss through the garment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mert, Emel; Psikuta, Agnes; Bueno, Marie-Ange; Rossi, René M.

    2015-11-01

    In real life conditions, the trapped air between the human body and the garment has uneven shape and vary over the body parts as a consequence of the complex geometry of the human body. However, the existing clothing models assume uniform air layer between the human body and the garment or its full contact, which may cause large error in the output of simulations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a heterogeneous vertical air gap with different configuration of folds (size and frequency) on dry heat loss using a heated cylinder (Torso). It was found that the presence of folds in the garment led to an increased heat loss from the body in comparison to a homogeneous air gap of comparable size. Interestingly, the size of folds did not have an influence on the dry heat loss. Additionally, the effect of the contact area on dry heat loss became important when exceeding a threshold of about 42 %. The results from this study are useful for modelling of a realistic dry heat loss through the clothing and contribute to the improvement of design of protective and active sport garments.

  16. Effect of heterogenous and homogenous air gaps on dry heat loss through the garment.

    PubMed

    Mert, Emel; Psikuta, Agnes; Bueno, Marie-Ange; Rossi, René M

    2015-11-01

    In real life conditions, the trapped air between the human body and the garment has uneven shape and vary over the body parts as a consequence of the complex geometry of the human body. However, the existing clothing models assume uniform air layer between the human body and the garment or its full contact, which may cause large error in the output of simulations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a heterogeneous vertical air gap with different configuration of folds (size and frequency) on dry heat loss using a heated cylinder (Torso). It was found that the presence of folds in the garment led to an increased heat loss from the body in comparison to a homogeneous air gap of comparable size. Interestingly, the size of folds did not have an influence on the dry heat loss. Additionally, the effect of the contact area on dry heat loss became important when exceeding a threshold of about 42%. The results from this study are useful for modelling of a realistic dry heat loss through the clothing and contribute to the improvement of design of protective and active sport garments. PMID:25796204

  17. Relationships between micronutrient losses in sweat and blood pressure among heat-exposed steelworkers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yong-Mei; Wang, Dao-Gang; Li, Jun; Li, Xing-Hua; Wang, Qian; Liu, Nan; Liu, Wei-Tian; Li, Ying-Xue

    2016-06-10

    We aimed to examine the effect of micronutrient losses through sweat on blood pressure (BP) among heat-exposed steelworkers. A total of 224 heat-exposed male steelworkers from an ironworks facility were evaluated in July 2012. We measured the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index to evaluate the level of heat stress in the workplace. We collected sweat from the workers during an eight-hour work, and then we measured the micronutrients in the sweat. We also measured the BP of each worker. The results revealed that vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat were positively correlated with systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure (all P<0.05). A linear stepwise regression analysis revealed that potassium, and calcium losses in sweat adversely affected SBP and DBP (all P<0.05). An analysis of covariance showed that SBP increased when potassium or calcium losses in sweat were >900 mg, or >100 mg, respectively. Further, DBP increased when potassium or calcium losses in sweat were >600 mg or >130 mg, respectively. Therefore, vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat may adversely effect BP. To help steelworkers maintain healthy BP, facilities with high temperatures should try to lower environmental temperatures to reduce vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat. Additionally, heat-exposed steelworkers may need to increase their dietary intakes of vitamin C, potassium, and calcium. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and support these recommendations. PMID:27087421

  18. Relationships between micronutrient losses in sweat and blood pressure among heat-exposed steelworkers

    PubMed Central

    TANG, Yong-Mei; WANG, Dao-Gang; LI, Jun; LI, Xing-Hua; WANG, Qian; LIU, Nan; LIU, Wei-Tian; LI, Ying-Xue

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine the effect of micronutrient losses through sweat on blood pressure (BP) among heat-exposed steelworkers. A total of 224 heat-exposed male steelworkers from an ironworks facility were evaluated in July 2012. We measured the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index to evaluate the level of heat stress in the workplace. We collected sweat from the workers during an eight-hour work, and then we measured the micronutrients in the sweat. We also measured the BP of each worker. The results revealed that vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat were positively correlated with systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure (all P<0.05). A linear stepwise regression analysis revealed that potassium, and calcium losses in sweat adversely affected SBP and DBP (all P<0.05). An analysis of covariance showed that SBP increased when potassium or calcium losses in sweat were >900 mg, or >100 mg, respectively. Further, DBP increased when potassium or calcium losses in sweat were >600 mg or >130 mg, respectively. Therefore, vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat may adversely effect BP. To help steelworkers maintain healthy BP, facilities with high temperatures should try to lower environmental temperatures to reduce vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat. Additionally, heat-exposed steelworkers may need to increase their dietary intakes of vitamin C, potassium, and calcium. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and support these recommendations. PMID:27087421

  19. Enhanced O2+ loss at Mars due to an ambipolar electric field from electron heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergun, R. E.; Andersson, L. A.; Fowler, C. M.; Woodson, A. K.; Weber, T. D.; Delory, G. T.; Andrews, D. J.; Eriksson, A. I.; McEnulty, T.; Morooka, M. W.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2016-05-01

    Recent results from the MAVEN Langmuir Probe and Waves instrument suggest higher than predicted electron temperatures (Te) in Mars' dayside ionosphere above ~180 km in altitude. Correspondingly, measurements from Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer indicate significant abundances of O2+ up to ~500 km in altitude, suggesting that O2+ may be a principal ion loss mechanism of oxygen. In this article, we investigate the effects of the higher Te (which results from electron heating) and ion heating on ion outflow and loss. Numerical solutions show that plasma processes including ion heating and higher Te may greatly increase O2+ loss at Mars. In particular, enhanced Te in Mars' ionosphere just above the exobase creates a substantial ambipolar electric field with a potential (eΦ) of several kBTe, which draws ions out of the region allowing for enhanced escape. With active solar wind, electron, and ion heating, direct O2+ loss could match or exceed loss via dissociative recombination of O2+. These results suggest that direct loss of O2+ may have played a significant role in the loss of oxygen at Mars over time.

  20. SCDAP/RELAP5 Modeling of Heat Transfer and Flow Losses in Lower Head Porous Debris

    SciTech Connect

    Siefken, Larry James; Coryell, Eric Wesley; Paik, Seungho; Kuo, Han Hsiung

    1999-07-01

    Designs are described for implementing models for calculating the heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris in the lower head of a reactor vessel. The COUPLE model in SCDAP/RELAP5 represents both the porous and nonporous debris that results from core material slumping into the lower head. Currently, the COUPLE model has the capability to model convective and radiative heat transfer from the surfaces of nonporous debris in a detailed manner and to model only in a simplistic manner the heat transfer from porous debris. In order to advance beyond the simplistic modeling for porous debris, designs are developed for detailed calculations of heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris. Correlations are identified for convective heat transfer in porous debris for the following modes of heat transfer; (1) forced convection to liquid, (2) forced convection to gas, (3) nucleate boiling, (4) transition boiling, and (5) film boiling. Interphase heat transfer is modeled in an approximate manner. Designs are described for models to calculate the flow losses and interphase drag of fluid flowing through the interstices of the porous debris, and to apply these variables in the momentum equations in the RELAP5 part of the code. Since the models for heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris in the lower head are designed for general application, a design is also described for implementation of these models to the analysis of porous debris in the core region. A test matrix is proposed for assessing the capability of the implemented models to calculate the heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris. The implementation of the models described in this report is expected to improve the COUPLE code calculation of the temperature distribution in porous debris and in the lower head that supports the debris. The implementation of these models is also expected to improve the calculation of the temperature and flow distribution in porous debris in the core region.

  1. 31 CFR 309.12 - Relief on account of loss, theft or destruction, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of Treasury bills may be given only under the.... 300 insofar as applicable. (b) In case of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement...

  2. Enhanced loss of fusion products during mode conversion heating in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, D.S.; Majeski, R.; Fisch, N.J.; Heeter, R.F.; Herrmann, H.W.; Herrmann, M.C.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Zweben, S.J.

    1996-02-01

    Ion Bernstein waves (IBWs) have been generated by mode conversion of ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) fast waves in TFTR. The loss rate of fusion products in these discharges can be large, up to 10 times the first orbit loss rate. The losses are observed at the passing/trapped boundary, indicating that passing particles are being moved onto loss orbits either by increase of their {ital v}{perpendicular} due to the wave, by outward transport in minor radius, or both. The lost particles appear to be DD fusion produced tritons heated to {approximately}1.5 times their birth energy. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Enhanced loss of fusion products during mode conversion heating in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, D.S.; Majeski, R.; Fisch, N.J.; Heeter, R.F.; Herrmann, H.W.; Herrmann, M.C.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Zweben, S.J.

    1995-07-01

    Ion Bernstein waves (IBWS) have been generated by mode conversion of ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) fast waves in TFTR. The loss rate of fusion products in these discharges can be large, up to 10 times the first orbit loss rate. The losses are observed at the passing/trapped boundary, indicating that passing particles are being moved onto loss orbits either by increase of their v{perpendicular} due to the wave, by outward transport in minor radius, or both. The lost particles appear to be DD fusion produced tritons heated to {approximately}1.5 times their birth energy.

  4. A RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of loss of residual heat removal system after reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tanrikut, A.; Heper, H.H.

    1995-12-31

    A computational investigation of the experiment concerning the loss of the residual heat removal system (RHRS) during reduced inventory operation was simulated using the RELAP5/ MOD3 thermal-hydraulic code. The experiment was conducted at the UMCP 2 x 4 integral test loop (University of Maryland) and consisted of two parts: loss of RHRS and loss of feedwater system. The objective of the work presented in this paper is to assess the capability of the RELAP5 code to capture the phenomena observed in the experiment during the boiler-condenser mode (BCM) and the loss of feedwater (LOFW) system transient.

  5. Correction of the heat loss method for calculating clothing real evaporative resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Faming; Zhang, Chengjiao; Lu, Yehu

    2015-08-01

    In the so-called isothermal condition (i.e., Tair [air temperature]=Tmanikin [manikin temperature]=Tr [radiant temperature]), the actual energy used for moisture evaporation detected by most sweating manikins was underestimated due to the uncontrolled fabric 'skin' temperature Tsk,f (i.e., Tsk,fheat loss from the wet fabric 'skin'-clothing system was proposed and experimentally validated on a 'Newton' sweating manikin. The real evaporative resistance of five clothing ensembles and the nude fabric 'skin' calculated by the corrected heat loss method was also reported and compared with that by the mass loss method. Results revealed that, depending on the types of tested clothing, different amounts of heat were drawn from the ambient environment. In general, a greater amount of heat was drawn from the ambient environment by the wet fabric 'skin'-clothing system in lower thermal insulation clothing than that in higher insulation clothing. There were no significant differences between clothing real evaporative resistances calculated by the corrected heat loss method and those by the mass loss method. It was therefore concluded that the correction method proposed in this study has been successfully validated. PMID:26267497

  6. 18 CFR 367.1890 - Account 189, Unamortized loss on reacquired debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1890 Account...

  7. 18 CFR 367.1890 - Account 189, Unamortized loss on reacquired debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1890 Account...

  8. 18 CFR 367.1890 - Account 189, Unamortized loss on reacquired debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1890 Account...

  9. 18 CFR 367.1890 - Account 189, Unamortized loss on reacquired debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1890 Account...

  10. Q-Axis Flux-Based Sensorless Vector Control of Induction Motor Taking into Account Iron Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Mineo; Chen, Shuo; Kai, Toshihiro; Hamasaki, Shin-Ichi

    This paper presents a sensorless vector control system for induction motors by taking into account iron loss, in which a flux-observer-based method is applied. Since the flux observer is constructed in a synchronously rotating reference frame with respect to the rotor flux of a current model and the iron loss resistance of parallel exiting circuit is used, the proposed system is very simple and the compensation of iron loss related to the operating frequency is directly realized while calculating rotor fluxes and slip frequency. The accuracies of estimated torque and speed are improved. The effectiveness of the proposed system has been verified by digital simulation and experimentation.

  11. Determination of clothing evaporative resistance on a sweating thermal manikin in an isothermal condition: heat loss method or mass loss method?

    PubMed

    Wang, Faming; Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar

    2011-08-01

    This paper addresses selection between two calculation options, i.e heat loss option and mass loss option, for thermal manikin measurements on clothing evaporative resistance conducted in an isothermal condition (T(manikin) = T(a) = T(r)). Five vocational clothing ensembles with a thermal insulation range of 1.05-2.58 clo were selected and measured on a sweating thermal manikin 'Tore'. The reasons why the isothermal heat loss method generates a higher evaporative resistance than that of the mass loss method were thoroughly investigated. In addition, an indirect approach was applied to determine the amount of evaporative heat energy taken from the environment. It was found that clothing evaporative resistance values by the heat loss option were 11.2-37.1% greater than those based on the mass loss option. The percentage of evaporative heat loss taken from the environment (H(e,env)) for all test scenarios ranged from 10.9 to 23.8%. The real evaporative cooling efficiency ranged from 0.762 to 0.891, respectively. Furthermore, it is evident that the evaporative heat loss difference introduced by those two options was equal to the heat energy taken from the environment. In order to eliminate the combined effects of dry heat transfer, condensation, and heat pipe on clothing evaporative resistance, it is suggested that manikin measurements on the determination of clothing evaporative resistance should be performed in an isothermal condition. Moreover, the mass loss method should be applied to calculate clothing evaporative resistance. The isothermal heat loss method would appear to overestimate heat stress and thus should be corrected before use. PMID:21669906

  12. Chimney-related energy losses in residential oil-fired heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; Celebi, Y.; Krajewski, R. ); Batey, J. )

    1990-01-01

    Conventional venting systems for oil-fired residential heating equipment include the flue connector, a barometric damper, and the chimney. This arrangement is directly responsible for some of the system energy losses, including a part of the off-cycle heat loss and infiltration losses. The magnitude of these losses depends upon the location of the unit, the chimney constuction, and the characteristics of the barometric damper and the burner. In the work described in this paper, a study of the characteristics of burners and dampers was done to permit these energy losses to be estimated as a function of the installation details. The purpose is to determine the energy savings that might be realized from alternative venting methods. Flows through the heating unit and barometric damper flows have been calculated during the on- and off-cycle for a range of configurations as a function of outdoor temperature. Based on these flows, an example of the annual energy losses due to the venting system was calculated using a bin method for a boiler. Generally, the benefits of reducing barometric damper flows are to a great degree offset by increased off-cycle losses in the case of boilers.

  13. Increased heat waves with loss of irrigation in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yaqiong; Kueppers, Lara

    2015-06-01

    A potential decline in irrigation due to groundwater depletion or insufficient surface water would not only directly affect agriculture, but also could alter surface climate. In this study we investigated how loss of irrigation affects heat wave frequency, duration, and intensity across fifteen heat wave indices (HINs) using a regional climate model that incorporated dynamic crop growth. Averaged across all indices, loss of irrigation increased heat wave frequency, duration, and intensity. In the United States, irrigation effects on heat waves were statistically significant over irrigated cropland for the majority of HINs, but in non-irrigated regions, the effects were significant only for a few HINs. The heat index temperature metrics that include humidity were less sensitive to loss of irrigation due to the trade-off between increased temperature and decreased humidity. Using the same temperature metric but different temperature thresholds resulted in qualitatively similar effects on heat waves. Regions experiencing strong groundwater depletion, such as the southern high plains, may suffer more and longer heat waves with reduced irrigation.

  14. A Review of "Avoidable Losses: High Stakes Accountability and the Dropout Crisis." REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, C.

    2008-01-01

    REL Southwest received a request to review the report "Avoidable Losses: High Stakes Accountability and the Dropout Crisis" to assess the soundness of the study methodology and the appropriateness of the conclusions drawn in the report. The review found that conclusions drawn in this study cannot be generalized and are significantly overstated:…

  15. Solar power generation by use of Stirling engine and heat loss analysis of its cavity receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Tassawar

    Since concentrated power generation by Stirling engine has the highest efficiency therefore efficient power generation by concentrated systems using a Stirling engine was a primary motive of this research. A 1 kW Stirling engine was used to generate solar power using a Fresnel lens as a concentrator. Before operating On-Sun test, engine's performance test was conducted by combustion test. Propane gas with air was used to provide input heat to the Stirling Engine and 350W power was generated with 14% efficiency of the engine. Two kinds of receivers were used for On-Sun test, first type was the Inconel tubes with trapped helium gas and the second one was the heat pipe. Heat pipe with sodium as a working fluid is considered the best approach to transfer the uniform heat from the receiver to the helium gas in the heater head of the engine. A Number of On-Sun experiments were performed to generate the power. A minimum 1kW input power was required to generate power from the Stirling engine but it was concluded that the available Fresnel lens was not enough to provide sufficient input to the Stirling engine and hence engine was lagged to generate the solar power. Later on, for a high energy input a Beam Down system was also used to concentrate the solar light on the heater head of the Stirling engine. Beam down solar system in Masdar City UAE, constructed in 2009 is a variation of central receiver plant with cassegrainian optics. Around 1.5kW heat input was achieved from the Beam Down System and it was predicted that the engine receiver at beam down has the significant heat losses of about 900W. These high heat losses were the major hurdles to get the operating temperature (973K) of the heat pipes; hence power could not be generated even during the Beam Down test. Experiments were also performed to find the most suitable Cavity Receiver configuration for maximum solar radiation utilizations by engine receiver. Dimensionless parameter aperture ration (AR=d/D) and aperture

  16. The effects of thermal environment on heat balance and insensible water loss in low-birth-weight infants.

    PubMed

    Bell, E F; Gray, J C; Weinstein, M R; Oh, W

    1980-03-01

    To define the neutral environmental temperature and assess the effects of deviation from that temperature on insensible water loss and heat balance, 12 premature infants were studied in a conventional incubator at four different predetermined ambient temperatures. Our method combines insensible water loss measured by a continuous read-out electronic scale with heat production as determined by open circuit measurement of oxygen consumption. An increase of 1 to 2 degrees C, to an ambient temperature above or near the top of the neutral zone, produced a significant rise in insensible water loss, from 1.90 +/- 0.76 to 3.08 +/- 1.19 ml/kg/hour (mean +/- SD), a corresponding rise in evaporative heat loss, and a fall in nonevaporative heat loss. A decrease of 1 to 2 degrees C, to a slightly subneutral ambient temperature, resulted in an increase in oxygen consumption from 5.82 +/- 0.92 to 7.45 +/- 1.50 ml/kg/minute, and an increase in total heat loss, but no change in insensible water loss and evaporative heat loss. The increased total heat loss was judged to be due entirely to a greater nonevaporative heat loss, both by convection and by radiation. The data confirm that ambient temperature is an important determinant of the magnitude and the partition of heat loss in low-birth-weight infants. PMID:7359241

  17. Reynolds number effects on pressure loss and turbulence characteristics of four tube-bundle heat exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, L., Jr.; Gentry, C. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of pressure loss and turbulence on four tube-bundle configurations representing heat-exchanger geometries with nominally the same heat capacity were measured as a function of Reynolds numbers from about 4000 to 400,000 based on tube hydraulic diameter. Two configurations had elliptical tubes, the other two had round tubes, and all four had plate fins. The elliptical-tube configurations had lower pressure loss and turbulence characteristics than the round-tube configurations over the entire Reynolds number range.

  18. Reducing heat loss from the energy absorber of a solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Chao, Bei Tse; Rabl, Ari

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing convective heat loss in a cylindrical radiant energy collector. It includes a curved reflective wall in the shape of the arc of a circle positioned on the opposite side of the exit aperture from the reflective side walls of the collector. Radiant energy exiting the exit aperture is directed by the curved wall onto an energy absorber such that the portion of the absorber upon which the energy is directed faces downward to reduce convective heat loss from the absorber.

  19. Heat loss analysis of a 10 kA warm dielectric HTS DC cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Shaotao; Xiao, Liye; Teng, Yuping; Song, Naihao; Gao, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Zhiqing; Liang, Xueming; Cao, Zhicheng; Zhang, Dong; Ma, Tao; Zhang, Hongen; Lin, Liangzhen

    2014-09-01

    A 10 kA/360 m warm-dielectric high-temperature superconducting direct current (DC) power cable system (10 kA cable), supported jointly the Chinese government and industrial enterprise, was developed and has been operating as a branch circuit to transmit power for a 320 kA aluminum electrolyzing production line for more than 10 months at an industrial plant in central China. Both the 10 kA cable and its supporting system of the cable system are introduced. The cryogenic system for the 10 kA cable adopts closed loop and the sub-cooled liquid nitrogen is forced to flow inside by a pump. The design of corrugated cryogenic envelope pipe is modularized and every independent module has two standardized joints, which makes it easy to integrate with the other pipes and the terminations. The heat loss sources and the structure including both the termination and the cryogenic envelope pipe of the 10 kA cable are discussed. The total heat loss of the 10 kA cable excluding the loss of cryogenic pipe for liquid nitrogen backward flowing is designed to be less than 1698 W at 10 kA, and the heat loss was compared and discussed with that of the aluminum bar. The field test and commissioning of the cable show that the 10 kA cable performs steadily and its heat loss is less than the expected value.

  20. Modeling the effect of reflective calf hutch covers on reducing heat loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binion, W. R.; Friend, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    This study determined if a reflective film could theoretically be useful in moderating the rate of heat loss from calves housed in polyethylene hutches during cold weather. An engineering approach was used in which rate of heat loss was modeled using 38-l steel drums filled with body temperature water and covered by fresh calf hide. The reflective film (cover) consisted of aluminized 0.0635 mm low-density olive color polyethylene. The non-reflective olive side was sprayed with flat black paint. Covers were 1.8 × 3 m with the aluminized side facing the hutch. Two of four hutches were either uncovered or had covers across the top and sides. During the night, (mean temperature ± SE -13.6 ± 0.29 °C), the rate of temperature loss was -0.21 °C per 5-min interval over 28 temperature readings in the covered and -0.25 °C in the uncovered ( R 2 = 0.99). During the daytime (mean ± SE 14.3 ± 0.52 °C), rate of heat loss was -0.15 °C per 5-min interval over 33 temperature readings in the covered and -0.11 °C in the uncovered ( R 2 = 0.99). Reflective film reduced the rate of heat loss during cold nights, but when the sun was shining on the hutches during midday, the uncovered hutches warmed up more and, hence, reduced the rate of heat loss when compared to the covered. Further research is needed on the orientation of hutches in relationship to the sun and with live calves because calves would be able to move into the sun during cold sunny days.

  1. Enhanced loss of fast ions during mode conversion ion Bernstein wave heating in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, D.S.; Majeski, R.; Fisch, N.J.; Heeter, R.F.; Herrmann, H.W.; Herrmann, M.C.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Zweben, S.J.

    1995-12-01

    A strong interaction of fast ions with ion Bernstein waves has been observed in TFTR. It results in a large increase in the fast ion loss rate, and heats the lost particles to several MeV. The lost ions are observed at the passing/trapped boundary and appear to be either DD fusion produced tritons or accelerated D neutral beam ions. Under some conditions, enhanced loss of DT alpha particles is also seen. The losses provide experimental support for some of the elements required for alpha energy channeling.

  2. Endotracheal intubation influences respiratory water loss during heat stress in young lambs.

    PubMed

    Hammarlund, K; Norsted, T; Riesenfeld, T; Sedin, G

    1995-09-01

    To study the effect of intubation on respiratory water loss (RWL) during heat stress, 10 young nonsedated lambs were exposed to radiative heat stress both when intubated and when not. RWL, oxygen consumption (VO2), and carbon dioxide production were monitored continuously by using a flow-through system with a mass spectrometer for gas analysis. When the lambs were not intubated, heat stress caused RWL to increase by 218%, whereas VO2 and body temperature remained unchanged. When the lambs were intubated, heat stress caused RWL to increase by 131% and VO2 to increase by 36%. On extubation during heat stress, RWL increased by 117 +/- 48% (standard error of the estimate) of the preextubation value and body temperature started to fall. This study shows that intubation reduces the ability of the lamb to increase RWL and heat loss during heat stress in a warm environment, possibly as an effect of exclusion of the nose and a reduction in dead space. After extubation, RWL increases markedly, a finding that might also be valid for intubated infants. PMID:8567520

  3. 31 CFR 309.12 - Relief on account of loss, theft or destruction, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of Treasury bills may be given only under the authority of... insofar as applicable. (b) In case of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of...

  4. 31 CFR 309.12 - Relief on account of loss, theft or destruction, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of Treasury bills may be given only under the authority of... insofar as applicable. (b) In case of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of...

  5. 31 CFR 309.12 - Relief on account of loss, theft or destruction, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of Treasury bills may be given only under the authority of... insofar as applicable. (b) In case of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of...

  6. 31 CFR 309.12 - Relief on account of loss, theft or destruction, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of Treasury bills may be given only under the authority of... insofar as applicable. (b) In case of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of...

  7. TEMPERATURE-HUMIDITY INDICES AS INDICATORS OF MILK PRODUCTION LOSSES DUE TO HEAT STRESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meteorological data (1993 to 2004) from two public weather stations in Phoenix, AZ and Athens, GA were analyzed with test day milk yield data from herds nearby the weather stations to identify the most appropriate temperature humidity index (THI) to measure losses in milk production due to heat stre...

  8. Turbomachinery Heat Transfer and Loss Modeling for 3D Navier-Stokes Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, Kenneth; Ameri, Ali

    2005-01-01

    This report's contents focus on making use of NASA Glenn on-site computational facilities,to develop, validate, and apply models for use in advanced 3D Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes to enhance the capability to compute heat transfer and losses in turbomachiney.

  9. High-response flux control of direct-field-oriented induction motor with high efficiency taking core loss into account

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuse, Kouki; Yoshizumi, Tatsuya; Katsuta, Seiji; Taniguchi, Shotaro

    1999-01-01

    Stator core loss has significant adverse effects when an induction motor is controlled by the conventional field-oriented method. Therefore, taking core loss into account should make it possible to control the torque very precisely. In this paper, a direct-field-oriented induction motor with a deadbeat rotor flux controller was developed. The method ensures maximum efficiency in the steady state without degradation of the dynamic response. Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated that this method has higher efficiency and good speed response without any degradation in the transient characteristics.

  10. Experimentally-determined external heat loss of automotive gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, P. R.; Wulf, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    An external heat balance was conducted on a 150 HP two-shaft automotive gas turbine engine. The engine was enclosed in a calorimeter box and the temperature change of cooling air passing through the box was measured. Cooling airflow ranges of 1.6 to 2.1 lb-per-second and 0.8 to 1.1 lb-per-second were used. The engine housing heat loss increased as the cooling airflow through the calorimeter box was increased, as would be the case in a moving automobile. The heat balance between the total energy input and the sum of shaft power output and various losses compared within 30 percent at engine idle speeds and within 7 percent at full power.

  11. The effect of wind on the rate of heat loss from avian cup-shaped nests.

    PubMed

    Heenan, Caragh B; Seymour, Roger S

    2012-01-01

    Forced convection can significantly influence the heat loss from birds and their offspring but effects may be reduced by using sheltered micro-sites such as cavities or constructing nests. The structural and thermal properties of the nests of two species, the spiny-cheeked honeyeater (Acanthagenys rufogularis) and yellow-throated miner (Manorina flavigula), were measured in relation to three wind speeds. Nest dimensions differ between the two species, despite the similar body mass of the incubating adults, however nest conductance is comparable. As wind speed increases, so does the rate of heat loss from the nests of both species, and further still during incubation recesses. The significance of forced convection through the nest is a near-doubling in heat production required by the parent, even when incubating at relatively low wind speeds. This provides confirmation that selecting a sheltered nest site is important for avian reproductive success. PMID:22389689

  12. The Effect of Wind on the Rate of Heat Loss from Avian Cup-Shaped Nests

    PubMed Central

    Heenan, Caragh B.; Seymour, Roger S.

    2012-01-01

    Forced convection can significantly influence the heat loss from birds and their offspring but effects may be reduced by using sheltered micro-sites such as cavities or constructing nests. The structural and thermal properties of the nests of two species, the spiny-cheeked honeyeater (Acanthagenys rufogularis) and yellow-throated miner (Manorina flavigula), were measured in relation to three wind speeds. Nest dimensions differ between the two species, despite the similar body mass of the incubating adults, however nest conductance is comparable. As wind speed increases, so does the rate of heat loss from the nests of both species, and further still during incubation recesses. The significance of forced convection through the nest is a near-doubling in heat production required by the parent, even when incubating at relatively low wind speeds. This provides confirmation that selecting a sheltered nest site is important for avian reproductive success. PMID:22389689

  13. Morphological dependency of cutaneous blood flow and sweating during compensable heat stress when heat-loss requirements are matched across participants.

    PubMed

    Notley, Sean R; Park, Joonhee; Tagami, Kyoko; Ohnishi, Norikazu; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2016-07-01

    Human heat loss is thought, in part, to be morphologically related. It was therefore hypothesized that when heat-loss requirements and body temperatures were matched, that the mass-specific surface area alone could significantly explain both cutaneous vascular and sudomotor responses during compensable exercise. These thermoeffector responses were examined in 36 men with widely varying mass-specific surface areas (range, 232.3-292.7 cm(2)/kg), but of similar age, aerobic fitness, and adiposity. Subjects completed two trials under compensable conditions (28.1°C, 36.8% relative humidity), each involving rest (20 min) and steady-state cycling (45 min) at two matched metabolic heat-production rates (light, ∼135 W/m(2); moderate, ∼200 W/m(2)). Following equivalent mean body temperature changes, forearm blood flow and vascular conductance (r = 0.63 and r = 0.65) shared significant, positive associations with the mass-specific surface area during light work (P < 0.05), explaining ∼45% of the vasomotor variation. Conversely, during light and moderate work, whole body sweat rate, as well as local sweat rate and sudomotor sensitivity at three of four measured sites, revealed moderate, negative relationships with the mass-specific surface area (correlation coefficient range -0.37 to -0.73, P < 0.05). Moreover, those relationships could uniquely account for between 10 and 53% of those sweating responses (P < 0.05). Therefore, both thermoeffector responses displayed a significant morphological dependency in the presence of equivalent thermoafferent drive. Indeed, up to half of the interindividual variation in these effector responses could now be explained through morphological differences and the first principles governing heat transfer. PMID:27125845

  14. Efficiency and output power of thermoelectric module by taking into account corrected Joule and Thomson heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hee Seok; Liu, Weishu; Ren, Zhifeng

    2015-09-01

    The maximum conversion efficiency of a thermoelectric module composed of p- and n-type materials has been widely calculated using a constant property model since the 1950s, but this conventional model is only valid in limited conditions and no Thomson heat is accounted for. Since Thomson heat causes the efficiency under- or over-rated depending on the temperature dependence of Seebeck coefficient, it cannot be ignored especially in large temperature difference between the hot and cold sides. In addition, incorrect Joule heat is taken into consideration for heat flux evaluation of a thermoelectric module at thermal boundaries due to the assumption of constant properties in the conventional model. For this reason, more practical predictions for efficiency and output power and its corresponding optimum conditions of p- and n-type materials need to be revisited. In this study, generic formulae are derived based on a cumulative temperature dependence model including Thomson effect. The formulae reliably predict the maximum efficiency and output power of a thermoelectric module at a large temperature.

  15. Regional heat loss in resting man during immersion in 25.2 degrees C water.

    PubMed

    Wade, C E; Dacanay, S; Smith, R M

    1979-06-01

    Five male subjects having a wide range of relative body fat, 9.2-20.2%, were studied during total body immersion in water at 25.2 degrees C. The regional surface area of each subject was calculated from anthropometric data utilizing a segmental geometric model. Skin temperatures (Tsk) and regional skin heat loss were measured prior to and during 30 min immersion at 13 sites. During immersion, mean Tsk was 25.9 degrees C and remained significantly higher than the water temperature. A measurable temperature gradient for heat flow was observed from all body segments. Segimental temperature in water ranged from 26.7-25.4 degrees C, being warmest at the neck and coolest at the foot. Heat the flow per regional area was highest in the neck, 187 W/m2, and least at the foot, 12 W/m2. Heat flow from each body region was dependent on regional Tsk. Skinfold thickness was a minor factor in altering regional heat flow in the foot, hand, lower arm, upper arm, thigh, and calf; in the torso, neck, and head regions it was of major importance in detering heat loss. PMID:475707

  16. Sweat loss during heat stress contributes to subsequent reductions in lower-body negative pressure tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Rebekah A. I.; Ganio, Matthew S.; Pearson, James; Crandall, Craig G.

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of sweating to heat stress-induced reductions in haemorrhagic tolerance is not known. This study tested the hypothesis that fluid loss due to sweating contributes to reductions in simulated haemorrhagic tolerance in conditions of heat stress. Eight subjects (35 ± 8 years old; 77 ± 5 kg) underwent a normothermic time control and two heat stress trials (randomized). The two heat stress trials were as follows: (i) with slow intravenous infusion of lactated Ringer solution sufficient to offset sweat loss (IV trial); or (ii) without intravenous infusion (dehydration; DEH trial). Haemorrhage was simulated via progressive lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) to presyncope after core body (intestinal) temperature was raised by ~1.5°C using a water-perfused suit or a normothermic time control period. The LBNP tolerance was quantified via a cumulative stress index. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity (transcranial Doppler) and mean blood pressure (Finometer®) were measured continuously. Relative changes in plasma volume were calculated from haematocrit and haemoglobin. Increases in core body temperature and sweat loss (~1.6% body mass deficit) were similar (P > 0.05) between heat stress trials. Slow intravenous infusion (1.2 ± 0.3 litres) prevented heat-induced reductions in plasma volume (IV trial, −0.6 ± 6.1%; and DEH trial, −6.6 ± 5.1%; P = 0.01). Intravenous infusion improved LBNP tolerance (632 ± 64 mmHg min) by ~20% when compared with the DEH trial (407 ± 117 mmHg min; P = 0.01), yet tolerance remained 44% lower in the IV trial relative to the time control normothermic trial (1138 ± 183 mmHg min; P < 0.01). These data indicate that although sweat-induced dehydration impairs simulated haemorrhagic tolerance, this impairment is secondary to the negative impact of heat stress itself. PMID:22872657

  17. Forced convection heat transfer and hydraulic losses in porous carbon foam

    SciTech Connect

    Straatman, Anthony G; Gallego, Nidia C

    2007-01-01

    Experiments and computations are presented to quantify the convective heat transfer and the hydraulic loss that is obtained by forcing water through blocks of graphitic foam (GF) heated from one side. Experiments have been conducted in a small-scale water tunnel instrumented to measure the pressure drop and the temperature rise of water passing through the foam and the base temperature and heat flux into the foam block. The experimental data were then used to calibrate a thermal non-equilibrium finite-volume model to facilitate comparisons between GF and aluminum foam. Comparisons of the pressure drop indicate that both normal and compressed aluminum foams are significantly more permeable than GF. Results of the heat transfer indicate that the maximum possible heat dissipation from a given surface is reached using very thin layers of aluminum foam due to the inability of the foam to entrain heat into its internal structure. In contrast, graphitic foam is able to entrain heat deep into the foam structure due to its high extended surface efficiency and thus much more heat can be transferred from a given surface area. The higher extended surface efficiency is mainly due to the combination of moderate porosity and higher solid-phase conductivity.

  18. Loss-pattern identification in near-real-time accounting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Argentesi, F.; Hafer, J.F.; Markin, J.T.; Shipley, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    To maximize the benefits from an advanced safeguards technique such as near-real-time accounting (NRTA), sophisticated methods of analyzing sequential materials accounting data are necessary. The methods must be capable of controlling the overall false-alarm rate while assuring good power of detection against all possible diversion scenarios. A method drawn from the field of pattern recognition and related to the alarm-sequence chart appears to be promising. Power curves based on Monte Carlo calculations illustrate the improvements over more conventional methods. 3 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Metal loss and charge heating in the melt in an electric arc furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serikov, V. A.; Bikeev, R. A.; Cherednichenko, M. V.; Cherednichenko, V. S.

    2015-12-01

    The heat exchange between a metallic melt and a slag with a charge is simulated with allowance for possible formation of a skull on the charge surface. It is shown that the charge melting rate in the melt is determined by the coefficient of heat transfer between the metal and the charge and the ratio of the mass of a charge fragment to its surface area interacting with the melt. A skull is found to form on the charge surface at a low coefficient of heat transfer between the metal and the charge. The main heat parameters, the control of which by an automatic control system ensures an increase in the charge melting rate in the melt and a decrease in the metal loss, are formulated.

  20. Analysis of the Loss in Heat and Acid Resistance during Germination of Spores of Bacillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    A major event in the nutrient germination of spores of Bacillus species is release of the spores' large depot of dipicolinic acid (DPA). This event is preceded by both commitment, in which spores continue through germination even if germinants are removed, and loss of spore heat resistance. The latter event is puzzling, since spore heat resistance is due largely to core water content, which does not change until DPA is released during germination. We now find that for spores of two Bacillus species, the early loss in heat resistance during germination is most likely due to release of committed spores' DPA at temperatures not lethal for dormant spores. Loss in spore acid resistance during germination also paralleled commitment and was also associated with the release of DPA from committed spores at acid concentrations not lethal for dormant spores. These observations plus previous findings that DPA release during germination is preceded by a significant release of spore core cations suggest that there is a significant change in spore inner membrane permeability at commitment. Presumably, this altered membrane cannot retain DPA during heat or acid treatments innocuous for dormant spores, resulting in DPA-less spores that are rapidly killed. PMID:24563034

  1. Whole body heat loss is reduced in older males during short bouts of intermittent exercise.

    PubMed

    Larose, Joanie; Wright, Heather E; Stapleton, Jill; Sigal, Ronald J; Boulay, Pierre; Hardcastle, Stephen; Kenny, Glen P

    2013-09-15

    Studies in young adults show that a greater proportion of heat is gained shortly following the start of exercise and that temporal changes in whole body heat loss during intermittent exercise have a pronounced effect on body heat storage. The consequences of short-duration intermittent exercise on heat storage with aging are unclear. We compared evaporative heat loss (HE) and changes in body heat content (ΔHb) between young (20-30 yr), middle-aged (40-45 yr), and older males (60-70 yr) of similar body mass and surface area, during successive exercise (4 × 15 min) and recovery periods (4 × 15 min) at a fixed rate of heat production (400 W) and under fixed environmental conditions (35 °C/20% relative humidity). HE was lower in older males vs. young males during each exercise (Ex1: 283 ± 10 vs. 332 ± 11 kJ, Ex2: 334 ± 10 vs. 379 ± 5 kJ, Ex3: 347 ± 11 vs. 392 ± 5 kJ, and Ex4: 347 ± 10 vs. 387 ± 5 kJ, all P < 0.02), whereas HE in middle-aged males was intermediate to that measured in young and older adults (Ex1: 314 ± 13, Ex2: 355 ± 13, Ex3: 371 ± 13, and Ex4: 365 ± 8 kJ). HE was not significantly different between groups during the recovery periods. The net effect over 2 h was a greater ΔHb in older (267 ± 33 kJ; P = 0.016) and middle-aged adults (245 ± 16 kJ; P = 0.073) relative to younger counterparts (164 ± 20 kJ). As a result of a reduced capacity to dissipate heat during exercise, which was not compensated by a sufficiently greater rate of heat loss during recovery, both older and middle-aged males had a progressively greater rate of heat storage compared with young males over 2 h of intermittent exercise. PMID:23883671

  2. Modelling of labour productivity loss due to climate change: HEAT-SHIELD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Daanen, Hein

    2016-04-01

    Climate change will bring higher heat levels (temperature and humidity combined) to large parts of the world. When these levels reach above thresholds well defined by human physiology, the ability to maintain physical activity levels decrease and labour productivity is reduced. This impact is of particular importance in work situations in areas with long high intensity hot seasons, but also affects cooler areas during heat waves. Our modelling of labour productivity loss includes climate model data of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Inter-comparison Project (ISI-MIP), calculations of heat stress indexes during different months, estimations of work capacity loss and its annual impacts in different parts of the world. Different climate models will be compared for the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and the outcomes of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21) agreements. The validation includes comparisons of modelling outputs with actual field studies using historical heat data. These modelling approaches are a first stage contribution to the European Commission funded HEAT-SHIELD project.

  3. Oscillating-flow loss test results in rectangular heat exchanger passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. Gary

    1991-01-01

    Test results of oscillating flow losses in rectangular heat exchanger passages of various aspect ratios are given. This work was performed in support of the design of a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) for a dynamic space power conversion system. Oscillating flow loss testing was performed using an oscillating flow rig, which was based on a variable stroke and variable frequency linear drive motor. Tests were run over a range of oscillating flow parameters encompassing the flow regimes of the proposed engine design. Test results are presented in both tabular and graphical form and are compared against analytical predictions.

  4. Fission product transport analysis in a loss of decay heat removal accident at Browns Ferry

    SciTech Connect

    Wichner, R.P.; Weber, C.F.; Hodge, S.A.; Beahm, E.C.; Wright, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes an analysis of the movement of noble gases, iodine, and cesium fission products within the Mark-I containment BWR reactor system represented by Browns Ferry Unit 1 during a postulated accident sequence initiated by a loss of decay heat removal (DHR) capability following a scram. The event analysis showed that this accident could be brought under control by various means, but the sequence with no operator action ultimately leads to containment (drywell) failure followed by loss of water from the reactor vessel, core degradation due to overheating, and reactor vessel failure with attendant movement of core debris onto the drywell floor.

  5. Disappearance of criticality in a branched-chain thermal explosion with heat loss

    SciTech Connect

    Okoya, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    Branched-chain thermal explosions involving simplified initiation, branching, and termination of chains, as well as heat exchange with the surroundings, are considered, but it is assumed that consumption of fuel is negligible for combustion in a mixture of H{sub 2}+O{sub 2} that covers nth Arrhenius kinetics for the chain-branching step. In particular, the effect of heat loss on the problem is considered, Mostly analytical investigations of the simplified model are presented using standard Semenov's techniques. The analytical method provides expressions for criticality and the transition points. Also, the different qualitative effects of varying the dimensionless parameters are investigated.

  6. On the importance of reverse current ohmic losses in electron-heated solar flare atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emslie, A. G.

    1980-01-01

    The passage of a beam of nonthermal electrons through the flaring solar atmosphere is considered, paying particular attention to the requirement that the beam be stable to the generation of plasma turbulence. The ratio is computed of energy losses due to reverse current ohmic heating, and heating by Coulomb collisions, respectively, for the greatest flux which can pass stably through the atmosphere. It is demonstrated that this ratio is determined by the low energy cutoff of the beam, by the electron temperature of the ambient atmosphere, and by the electron to ion temperature ratio. It is also independent of the atmospheric density.

  7. Modeling Earth's Outer Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics---Radial Diffusion, Heating, and Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Weichao

    Earth's outer radiation belt is a relativistic electron environment that is hazardous to space systems. It is characterized by large variations in the electron flux, which are controlled by the competition between source, transport, and loss processes. One of the central questions in outer radiation belt research is to resolve the relative contribution of radial diffusion, wave heating, and loss to the enhancement and decay of the radiation belt electrons. This thesis studies them together and separately. Firstly, we develop an empirical Fokker-Planck model that includes radial diffusion, an internal source, and finite electron lifetimes parameterized as functions of geomagnetic indices. By simulating the observed electron variations, the model suggests that the required magnitudes of radial diffusion and internal heating for the enhancement of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt vary from storm to storm, and generally internal heating contributes more to the enhancements of MeV energy electrons at L=4 (L is approximately the radial distance in Earth radii at the equator). However, since the source, transport, and loss terms in the model are empirical, the model results have uncertainties. To eliminate the uncertainty in the loss rate, both the precipitation and the adiabatic loss of radiation belt electrons are quantitatively studied. Based on the observations from Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), a Drift-Diffusion model is applied to quantify electron precipitation loss, which is the dominant non-adiabatic loss mechanism for electrons in the heart of the outer radiation belt. Model results for a small storm, a moderate storm, and an intense storm indicate that fast precipitation losses of relativistic electrons, on the time scale of hours, persistently occur in the storm main phases and with more efficient losses at higher energies over wide range of L regions. Additionally, calculations of adiabatic effects on radiation

  8. Loss effects on adhesively-bonded multilayer ultrasonic transducers by self-heating.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhengbin; Cochran, Sandy

    2010-04-01

    Multilayer ultrasonic transducers are widely being used for high power applications. In these applications, typical Langevin/Tonpilz structures without any adhesive bondings however have the disadvantage of limited bandwidth. Therefore adhesively-bonded structures are still a potential solution for this issue. In this paper, two-layer piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducers with two different adhesive bondlines were investigated comparing to a single-layer transducer in terms of loss effects during operation with excitation signals sufficient to cause self-heating. The theoretical functions fitted to the measured time-temperature dependency data are compared with experimental results of different piezoelectric transducers. Theoretical analysis of loss characteristics at various surface displacements and the relationship with increasing temperature are reported. The effects of self-heating on the practical performance of multilayer ultrasonic transducers with adhesive bondlines are discussed. PMID:19942247

  9. Insect pollination reduces yield loss following heat stress in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Jacob; Jones, Hannah Elizabeth; Lukac, Martin; Potts, Simon Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Global food security, particularly crop fertilization and yield production, is threatened by heat waves that are projected to increase in frequency and magnitude with climate change. Effects of heat stress on the fertilization of insect-pollinated plants are not well understood, but experiments conducted primarily in self-pollinated crops, such as wheat, show that transfer of fertile pollen may recover yield following stress. We hypothesized that in the partially pollinator-dependent crop, faba bean (Vicia faba L.), insect pollination would elicit similar yield recovery following heat stress. We exposed potted faba bean plants to heat stress for 5 days during floral development and anthesis. Temperature treatments were representative of heat waves projected in the UK for the period 2021–2050 and onwards. Following temperature treatments, plants were distributed in flight cages and either pollinated by domesticated Bombus terrestris colonies or received no insect pollination. Yield loss due to heat stress at 30 °C was greater in plants excluded from pollinators (15%) compared to those with bumblebee pollination (2.5%). Thus, the pollinator dependency of faba bean yield was 16% at control temperatures (18–26 °C) and extreme stress (34 °C), but was 53% following intermediate heat stress at 30 °C. These findings provide the first evidence that the pollinator dependency of crops can be modified by heat stress, and suggest that insect pollination may become more important in crop production as the probability of heat waves increases. PMID:26989276

  10. Comparison of Various Supersonic Turbine Tip Designs to Minimize Aerodynamic Loss and Tip Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The rotor tips of axial turbines experience high heat flux and are the cause of aerodynamic losses due to tip clearance flows, and in the case of supersonic tips, shocks. As stage loadings increase, the flow in the tip gap approaches and exceeds sonic conditions. This introduces effects such as shock-boundary layer interactions and choked flow that are not observed for subsonic tip flows that have been studied extensively in literature. This work simulates the tip clearance flow for a flat tip, a diverging tip gap and several contoured tips to assess the possibility of minimizing tip heat flux while maintaining a constant massflow from the pressure side to the suction side of the rotor, through the tip clearance. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code GlennHT was used for the simulations. Due to the strong favorable pressure gradients the simulations assumed laminar conditions in the tip gap. The nominal tip gap width to height ratio for this study is 6.0. The Reynolds number of the flow is 2.4 x 10(exp 5) based on nominal tip width and exit velocity. A wavy wall design was found to reduce heat flux by 5 percent but suffered from an additional 6 percent in aerodynamic loss coefficient. Conventional tip recesses are found to perform far worse than a flat tip due to severe shock heating. Overall, the baseline flat tip was the second best performer. A diverging converging tip gap with a hole was found to be the best choice. Average tip heat flux was reduced by 37 percent and aerodynamic losses were cut by over 6 percent.

  11. Patient Population Loss At A Large Pioneer Accountable Care Organization And Implications For Refining The Program.

    PubMed

    Hsu, John; Price, Mary; Spirt, Jenna; Vogeli, Christine; Brand, Richard; Chernew, Michael E; Chaguturu, Sreekanth K; Mohta, Namita; Weil, Eric; Ferris, Timothy

    2016-03-01

    There is an ongoing move toward payment models that hold providers increasingly accountable for the care of their patients. The success of these new models depends in part on the stability of patient populations. We investigated the amount of population turnover in a large Medicare Pioneer accountable care organization (ACO) in the period 2012-14. We found that substantial numbers of beneficiaries became part of or left the ACO population during that period. For example, nearly one-third of beneficiaries who entered in 2012 left before 2014. Some of this turnover reflected that of ACO physicians-that is, beneficiaries whose physicians left the ACO were more likely to leave than those whose physicians remained. Some of the turnover also reflected changes in care delivery. For example, beneficiaries who were active in a care management program were less likely to leave the ACO than similar beneficiaries who had not yet started such a program. We recommend policy changes to increase the stability of ACO beneficiary populations, such as permitting lower cost sharing for care received within an ACO and requiring all beneficiaries to identify their primary care physician before being linked to an ACO. PMID:26953296

  12. Novel magnetic core materials impact modelling and analysis for minimization of RF heating loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Bablu Kumar; Mohamad, Khairul Anuar; Saad, Ismail

    2016-02-01

    The eddy current that exists in RF transformer/inductor leads to generation of noise/heat in the circuit and ultimately reduces efficiency in RF system. Eddy current is generated in the magnetic core of the inductor/transformer largely determine the power loss for power transferring process. The losses for high-frequency magnetic components are complicated due to both the eddy current variation in magnetic core and copper windings reactance variation with frequency. Core materials permeability and permittivity are also related to variation of such losses those linked to the operating frequency. This paper will discuss mainly the selection of novel magnetic core materials for minimization of eddy power loss by using the approach of empirical equation and impedance plane simulation software TEDDY V1.2. By varying the operating frequency from 100 kHz to 1GHz and magnetic flux density from 0 to 2 Tesla, the eddy power loss is evaluated in our study. The Nano crystalline core material is found to be the best core material due to its low eddy power loss at low conductivity for optimum band of frequency application.

  13. Heat transfer in a liquid helium cooled vacuum tube following sudden vacuum loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhuley, R. C.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Condensation of nitrogen gas rapidly flowing into a liquid helium (LHe) cooled vacuum tube is studied. This study aims to examine the heat transfer in geometries such as the superconducting RF cavity string of a particle accelerator following a sudden loss of vacuum to atmosphere. In a simplified experiment, the flow is generated by quickly venting a large reservoir of nitrogen gas to a straight long vacuum tube immersed in LHe. Normal LHe (LHe I) and superfluid He II are used in separate experiments. The rate of condensation heat transfer is determined from the temperature of the tube measured at several locations along the gas flow. Instantaneous heat deposition rates in excess of 200 kW/m2 result from condensation of the flowing gas. The gas flow is then arrested in its path to pressurize the tube to atmosphere and estimate the heat transfer rate to LHe. A steady LHe I heat load of ≈25 kW/m2 is obtained in this scenario. Observations from the He II experiment are briefly discussed. An upper bound for the LHe I heat load is derived based on the thermodynamics of phase change of nitrogen.

  14. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, David; Seitzler, Matt; Backman, Christine; Weitzel, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  15. Prediction of pressure loss and heat transfer in internal cooling passages.

    PubMed

    Hermanson, K; Parneix, S; von Wolfersdorf, J; Semmler, K

    2001-05-01

    This paper reports CFD-simulations of the turbulent flow, pressure loss and heat transfer occurring in ribbed passages. The channel section is rectangular, with an aspect ratio of 2.04. Ribs are square cross-section, their height is 10% of the channel height, and their inclination is varied from 90 degrees to 33 degrees. Reynolds number is 30,000. Three turbulence models (k-epsilon wall functions and 2-layer, V2F) are used and compared to the experimental data of Cho et al. All three models accurately predict the pressure losses due to the ribs and the qualitative heat transfer distribution on the ribbed wall. However, only the V2F model can accurately reproduce the absolute heat transfer levels, this at all inclination angles. The correlation developed by Han and co-workers for smaller rib-heights under-predicts the friction factor and wall heat transfer level on the current configuration. This shows the danger of using a correlation outside of its application range. PMID:11460660

  16. Seasonal patterns of heat loss in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Meagher, Erin M; McLellan, William A; Westgate, Andrew J; Wells, Randall S; Blum, James E; Pabst, D Ann

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated patterns of heat loss in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) resident to Sarasota Bay, FL, USA, where water temperatures vary seasonally from 11 to 33 degrees C. Simultaneous measurements of heat flux (HF) and skin surface temperature were collected at the body wall and appendages of dolphins during health-monitoring events in summer (June 2002-2004) and winter (February 2003-2005). Integument thickness was measured and whole body conductance (W/m(2) degrees C) was estimated using HF and colonic temperature measurements. Across seasons, HF values were similar at the appendages, but their distribution differed significantly at the flipper and fluke. In summer, these appendages displayed uniformly high values, while in winter they most frequently displayed very low HF values with a few high HF values. In winter, blubber thickness was significantly greater and estimated conductance significantly lower, than in summer. These results suggest that dolphins attempt to conserve heat in winter. In winter, though, HF values across the body wall were similar to (flank) or greater than (caudal keel) summer values. It is likely that higher winter HF values are due to the steep temperature gradient between the body core and colder winter water, which may limit the dolphin's ability to decrease heat loss across the body wall. PMID:18183404

  17. Chimney related energy losses in oil-fired heating systems: Configuration effects and venting alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; McDonald, R.; Krajewski, R.; Batey, J.

    1990-12-01

    Conventional venting systems for oil-fired residential heating equipment include the flue connector, a barometric damper, and the chimney. This venting arrangement is directly responsible for some of the annual energy losses associated with these heating installations. In the work described in this report a study of the relevant characteristics of burners and dampers was done to permit these energy losses to be estimated as a function of the installation details. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential energy savings which might be realized from alternative venting methods in a wide range of situations. The basic draft/flow characteristics of barometric dampers were measured using a flow tunnel arrangement under cold (no combustion) conditions. A range of damper diameters and draft settings were used. Off-cycle draft/flow relations for several burners and heating units with the burner ports sealed were also measured over a range of conditions. Recently, oil burners have become available which have significantly higher static pressure fans. The excess air level provided by these burners is much less sensitive to variations in draft and burners of this type might be operated without a barometric damper. Burner fan performance curves for both high and low static pressure units have been measured. Flows through the heating unit and barometric damper flows have been calculated during the on- and off-cycle for a range of configurations as a function of outdoor temperature. The annual energy losses due to the venting system were calculated using a bin method. The calculated flows were compared with available field data. To supplement the available data some additional field measurements were taken during this project and are described in this report. 19 refs., 42 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Simulation of loss-of-decay heat removal with MAAP 3. 0B

    SciTech Connect

    Plys, M.G.; Paik, C.Y.

    1989-01-01

    Loss-of-decay heat removal (DHR) during nonpower operation and its potential consequences have been of increasing concern to US pressurized water reactor (PWR) owners and regulators. Regulatory action prompted by the April 10, 1987, loss of DHR at Diablo Canyon Unit 2 cited 37 instances of loss of DHR events attributed to inadequate reactor coolant system (RCS) water level. In the Diablo Canyon event, 7 days after shutdown for its first refueling outage, boiling and pressurization of the primary system began after {approximately}1 h after loss of DHR, which was reestablished after another 20 min. This paper describes the modification and application of the Modular Accident Analysis Program (MAAP) version 3.0B (Ref. 3) for simulation of loss of DHR scenarios. MAAP 30.B, maintained by the Electric Power Research Institute and available to most US and many foreign utilities, is designed to perform coupled thermal-hydraulic and fission product calculations for severe-accident analysis. In this application, the capabilities of MAAP are extended to allow simulation of a shutdown plant state to calculate the time to core uncovery and fuel damage. Operator actions to mitigate or terminate the accident can be simulated, and timing of key events given by MAAP is useful for the evaluation of procedures.

  19. Heat loss and blood flow during hyperthermia in normal canine brain. I: Empirical study and analysis.

    PubMed

    Lyons, B E; Samulski, T V; Cox, R S; Fessenden, P

    1989-01-01

    The effects of blood flow and thermal conduction during microwave hyperthermia were investigated in normal canine brain. Heating was accomplished with an external microstrip spiral antenna and temperature measurements were made using a multichannel fluoroptic thermometry system. In order to determine cooling rates, temperature measurements made during cooling were fitted with a model consisting of a constant value and an exponential term. Data from experiments in both perfused and non-perfused brains could be fitted with this simple model. The resulting cooling rates indicated that heat loss by conduction is comparable to that by blood flow. In another series of experiments, temperature measurements were made during several 1 min cooling intervals in which the power was shut off intermittently during a 35 min heating episode. Results were consistent with a 2-3-fold increase in blood flow rate which occurred gradually throughout the course of heating. Parameters that affect the determination of cooling rates are discussed in terms of the bioheat transfer equation. These investigations demonstrate that a simple heat sink model provides a good representation of the cooling data for the thermal distributions obtained. PMID:2926187

  20. Random regression models to account for the effect of genotype by environment interaction due to heat stress on the milk yield of Holstein cows under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Santana, Mário L; Bignardi, Annaiza Braga; Pereira, Rodrigo Junqueira; Menéndez-Buxadera, Alberto; El Faro, Lenira

    2016-02-01

    The present study had the following objectives: to compare random regression models (RRM) considering the time-dependent (days in milk, DIM) and/or temperature × humidity-dependent (THI) covariate for genetic evaluation; to identify the effect of genotype by environment interaction (G×E) due to heat stress on milk yield; and to quantify the loss of milk yield due to heat stress across lactation of cows under tropical conditions. A total of 937,771 test-day records from 3603 first lactations of Brazilian Holstein cows obtained between 2007 and 2013 were analyzed. An important reduction in milk yield due to heat stress was observed for THI values above 66 (-0.23 kg/day/THI). Three phases of milk yield loss were identified during lactation, the most damaging one at the end of lactation (-0.27 kg/day/THI). Using the most complex RRM, the additive genetic variance could be altered simultaneously as a function of both DIM and THI values. This model could be recommended for the genetic evaluation taking into account the effect of G×E. The response to selection in the comfort zone (THI ≤ 66) is expected to be higher than that obtained in the heat stress zone (THI > 66) of the animals. The genetic correlations between milk yield in the comfort and heat stress zones were less than unity at opposite extremes of the environmental gradient. Thus, the best animals for milk yield in the comfort zone are not necessarily the best in the zone of heat stress and, therefore, G×E due to heat stress should not be neglected in the genetic evaluation. PMID:26155774

  1. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915 measured samples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08. PMID:26624613

  2. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915measuredsamples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rateand heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08. PMID:26624613

  3. AC losses and heat removal in three-dimensional winding pack of Samsung superconducting test facility under pulsed magnetic field operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiuliang; Seong Yoon, Cheon; Baang, Sungkeun; Kim, Myungkyu; Park, Hyunki; Kim, Yongjin; Lee, Sangil; Kim, Keeman

    2001-04-01

    The Samsung superconducting test facility (SSTF) will be operated under the highly pulsed field to simulate the operating conditions of KSTAR. An analysis has been performed to study the transient heat removal characteristics and temperature margin for the main, blip and compensating coils in the SSTF. This method is based on a quasi-three-dimensional model, which the thermal coupling of turn-to-turn, pancake-to-pancake and channel-to-channel is taken into account, to simulate the conductor temperature rise and the thermal expansion of supercritical helium due to the high AC losses under the pulsed field. The local AC losses, which include coupling loss, eddy current loss and hysteresis loss in the cable-in-conduit conductor, are estimated. The temperature margin, mass flow rate, distribution of AC losses are studied under the given operating scenario. The mass flow reduction and peak temperature rise depending on the inlet pressure and inlet position of CICC are studied. It is shown that the initial mass flow rate remarkably influences on the peak temperature of superconducting strands. The large mass flow rate can reduce the temperature rise when the inlet of helium is located at the high field region. By contrast, because of heat induced flow to improve the cooling condition of the superconducting strands, the small initial mass flow rate results in the low peak temperature in strands when the inlet of helium is located at the low field region.

  4. Effects of vertically ribbed surface roughness on the forced convective heat losses in central receiver systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlig, Ralf; Frantz, Cathy; Fritsch, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    External receiver configurations are directly exposed to ambient wind. Therefore, a precise determination of the convective losses is a key factor in the prediction and evaluation of the efficiency of the solar absorbers. Based on several studies, the forced convective losses of external receivers are modeled using correlations for a roughened cylinder in a cross-flow of air. However at high wind velocities, the thermal efficiency measured during the Solar Two experiment was considerably lower than the efficiency predicted by these correlations. A detailed review of the available literature on the convective losses of external receivers has been made. Three CFD models of different level of detail have been developed to analyze the influence of the actual shape of the receiver and tower configuration, of the receiver shape and of the absorber panels on the forced convective heat transfer coefficients. The heat transfer coefficients deduced from the correlations have been compared to the results of the CFD simulations. In a final step the influence of both modeling approaches on the thermal efficiency of an external tubular receiver has been studied in a thermal FE model of the Solar Two receiver.

  5. Retrospective: Adjusting contaminant concentrations in bird eggs to account for moisture and lipid Loss during their incubation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Blus, Lawrence J.

    2016-01-01

    By the 1960s, research and monitoring efforts on chlorinated pesticide residues in tissues of wildlife were well underway in North America and Europe. Conservationists and natural resource managers were attempting to resolve whether pesticide exposure and accumulated residues were related to population declines in several species of predatory and scavenging birds (e.g., bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus, peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis and osprey Pandion haliaetus). The avian egg was a favored sampling matrix even before the realization that eggshell thinning was linked to population declines (Ratcliffe 1967; Hickey and Anderson 1968) and that the concentration of p,p’-DDE in an egg was associated with the shell thinning phenomenon (e.g., Blus et al. 1972; Wiemeyer et al. 1988). The necessity for making wet-weight concentration adjustments to account for natural moisture loss during incubation of viable eggs was realized. Correction for the more dramatic moisture loss in non-viable decaying eggs was recognized as being paramount. For example, the ∑DDT residues in osprey eggs were reported to vary by as much as eightfold without accounting for moisture loss adjustments (Stickel et al. 1965). In the absence of adjusting concentrations to the fresh wet-weight that was present at the time of egg laying, the uncorrected values exaggerated contaminant concentrations, yielding artifactual results and ultimately incorrect conclusions. The adjustment to fresh wet-weight concentration is equally important for many other persistent contaminants including PCBs, dioxins, furans, and brominated diphenyl ethers.

  6. Comparison of losses and heating in generator rotors following severe supply system disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J. )

    1990-12-01

    The paper examines losses and heating in rotors of large synchronous-generators following sustained stator-terminal and HV busbar L-L short-circuits at full-load and no-load, L-L-L short-circuits on a weak line which is connected to the HV generator transformer busbar with clearance at fault current zeros where the generator either remains in synchronism or falls from synchronism, and worst-case malsynchronization. Comparison s are made with negative sequence losses in solid generator rotors following these disturbances given by I{sub 2}{sup 2} t computed from detailed analysis and estimated from approximate analytical expressions for an unloaded machine.

  7. Numerical study of fire whirlwind taking into account radiative heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, S.; Miyagi, N.

    2010-06-01

    The fire whirlwind is a strong swirling flow with flame and spark, which may occur in the case of, widespread fire in the urban region by an earthquake disaster or an air raid, and a large-scale fire such as a forest fire. Fire whirlwind moves and promotes spread of fire and may extend serious damage rapidly. In this study, performing the numerical analysis of fire whirlwind with respect to scale effect, it is examined whether a relationship exists between a real phenomenon and the phenomenon in the reduction model with taking into account radiative heat transfer. Three dimensional analyses are performed to investigate the thermal and flow fields by using the analytical software FLUENT6.3. It is analyzed that those swirling flow in original scale, 1/10 scale, 1/50 scale, 1/100 scale from the original brake out to vanish. As an analytical condition, parameter calculation is repeated to get the velocity of a parallel flow which is the easiest to occur the swirling flow for each reduction model, and then scale effect is discussed by comparing the velocity of the natural convection, the velocity of the parallel flow, the center pressure of the whirlwind and the continuance time of the swirling flow. The analysis model of C-character heat source model is performed as well as the analysis in L-character model, which is one of the representative example of the fire whirlwind occurred at Tokyo in the Great Kanto Earthquake (1923). The result of the numerical analysis shows that there is a scale effect to the speed of the parallel flow to generate the swirling flow.

  8. Body composition and feed intake of reproducing and growing mice divergently selected for heat loss.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, A S; Nielsen, M K

    2014-05-01

    Changes in maintenance energy requirements and in feed efficiency have been achieved by divergent selection for heat loss in mice in 3 replicates, creating high heat loss, high maintenance (MH) and low heat loss, low maintenance (ML) lines and an unselected control (MC). However, feed intake has mainly been measured in mature animals and not during growth or reproduction. Additionally, there is evidence that reducing maintenance energy will increase fat content, an undesirable result. To evaluate if selection has altered body composition and lifecycle feed intake, mating pairs were continuously mated and maintained for up to 1 yr unless culled. Offspring pairs were sampled from each line at each parity and maintained from 21 to 49 d of age. Feed intake was recorded for mating pairs throughout the year and on offspring pairs. Body weight was recorded on all animals at culling as well as percent fat, total fat, and total lean, measured by dual X-ray densitometry. Average daily gain was also recorded for offspring. Energy partitioning was achieved using 2 approaches: Approach I regressed energy intake of the pair on sum of daily metabolic weight and total gain to obtain maintenance (bm) and growth (bg) coefficients for each line, replicate, feeding period, and sex (offspring pairs only); Approach II calculated bm for each pair assuming constant energy values for lean and fat gain. Energy coefficients and body composition traits were evaluated for effect of selection (MH vs. ML) and asymmetry of selection ([MH + ML]/2 vs. MC). Both MC mating and offspring pairs tended to have greater BW than the average of the selection lines (P < 0.08). Males of offspring pairs weighed more than females (P < 0.01), while females of mating pairs weighed more than males (P < 0.01). Line was insignificant (P > 0.15) for body composition traits. Using Approach I, MH mice had a greater bm than ML mice for mating pairs (P = 0.03) but not offspring pairs (P = 0.50). For Approach II, MH had a

  9. Heat treatment results in a loss of transgene-encoded activities in several tobacco lines.

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, K; Dröge-Laser, W; Köhne, S; Broer, I

    1997-01-01

    Heat treatment (37 degrees C) of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants led to a reversible reduction or complete loss of transgene-encoded activities in about 40% of 10 independent transformants carrying the luciferase-coding region fused to the 355 cauliflower mosaic virus or the soybean small subunit promoter and the nopaline synthase promoter driving the neomycin phosphotransferase gene, whereas the other lines had temperature-tolerant activities. Temperature sensitivity or tolerance of transgene-encoded activities was heritable. In some of the lines, temperature sensitivity of the transgene-encoded activities depended on the stage of development, occurring in either seedlings (40% luciferase and 50% neomycin phosphotransferase) or adult plants (both 40%). The phenomenon did not correlate with copy numbers or the homo- or hemizygous state of the transgenes. In lines harboring a temperature-sensitive luciferase activity, reduction of bioluminescence was observed after 2 to 3 h at 37 degrees C. Activity was regained after 2 h of subsequent cultivation at 25 degrees C. Irrespective of the reaction to the heat treatment, the level of luciferase RNA was slightly increased at 37 degrees C. Only in lines showing temperature sensitivity of transgene-encoded activities was the amount of luciferase and neomycin phosphotransferase strongly reduced. In sterile culture, heat treatment for 15 d did not cause visible damage or changes in plant morphology. In all plants tested a slight induction of the heat-shock response was observed at 37 degrees C. PMID:9390430

  10. Numerical study of conductive heat losses from a magmatic source at Phlegraean Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Maio, Rosa; Piegari, Ester; Mancini, Cecilia; Scandone, R.

    2015-01-01

    The thermal evolution of the Phlegraean magmatic system (southern Italy) is studied by analyzing the influence of the thermal property variations on the solution of the heat conduction equation. The aim of this paper is to verify if appropriate choices of thermal parameters can reproduce, at least to greater depths, the high temperatures measured in the geothermal wells, drilled inside the caldera, under the assumption of heat loss from a magma chamber by conduction. Since the main purpose is to verify the plausibility of such an assumption, rather simple models of the magmatic system are adopted and only major volcanic events (i.e., the Campanian Ignimbrite and the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff eruptions) are considered. The results of the simulated two-dimensional model scenarios show that by assuming an extended source region, whose emplacement time is longer than 40 ka, heat conduction mechanisms can provide temperatures as high as those measured at depths deeper than about 2000 m. On the other hand, the 1D simulations show that appropriate choices for the thermal conductivity depth profiles can reproduce the observed temperatures at depths deeper than about 1000 m. These findings question the apparent consensus that convection is the only dominant form of heat transfer at Phlegraean Fields and might motivate new research for reconstructing the thermal evolution of the Phlegraean magmatic system.

  11. Quantification of excess water loss in plant canopies warmed with infrared heating.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Hans J; Kimball, Bruce A; Miglietta, Franco; Nijs, Ivan

    2012-09-01

    Here we investigate the extent to which infrared heating used to warm plant canopies in climate manipulation experiments increases transpiration. Concerns regarding the impact of the infrared heater technique on the water balance have been raised before, but a quantification is lacking. We calculate transpiration rates under infrared heaters and compare these with air warming at constant relative humidity. As infrared heating primarily warms the leaves and not the air, this method increases both the gradient and the conductance for water vapour. Stomatal conductance is determined both independently of vapour pressure differences and as a function thereof, while boundary layer conductance is calculated using several approaches. We argue that none of these approaches is fully accurate, and opt to present results as an interval in which the actual water loss is likely to be found. For typical conditions in a temperate climate, our results suggest a 12-15% increase in transpiration under infrared heaters for a 1 °C warming. This effect decreases when stomatal conductance is allowed to vary with the vapour pressure difference. Importantly, the artefact is less of a concern when simulating heat waves. The higher atmospheric water demand underneath the heaters reflects naturally occurring increases of potential evapotranspiration during heat waves resulting from atmospheric feedback. While air warming encompasses no increases in transpiration, this fully depends on the ability to keep humidity constant, which in the case of greenhouses requires the presence of an air humidification system. As various artefacts have been associated with chamber experiments, we argue that manipulating climate in the field should be prioritized, while striving to limit confounding factors. The excess water loss underneath infrared heaters reported upon here could be compensated by increasing irrigation or applying newly developed techniques for increasing air humidity in the field. PMID

  12. Frequent loss of lineages and deficient duplications accounted for low copy number of disease resistance genes in Cucurbitaceae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The sequenced genomes of cucumber, melon and watermelon have relatively few R-genes, with 70, 75 and 55 copies only, respectively. The mechanism for low copy number of R-genes in Cucurbitaceae genomes remains unknown. Results Manual annotation of R-genes in the sequenced genomes of Cucurbitaceae species showed that approximately half of them are pseudogenes. Comparative analysis of R-genes showed frequent loss of R-gene loci in different Cucurbitaceae species. Phylogenetic analysis, data mining and PCR cloning using degenerate primers indicated that Cucurbitaceae has limited number of R-gene lineages (subfamilies). Comparison between R-genes from Cucurbitaceae and those from poplar and soybean suggested frequent loss of R-gene lineages in Cucurbitaceae. Furthermore, the average number of R-genes per lineage in Cucurbitaceae species is approximately 1/3 that in soybean or poplar. Therefore, both loss of lineages and deficient duplications in extant lineages accounted for the low copy number of R-genes in Cucurbitaceae. No extensive chimeras of R-genes were found in any of the sequenced Cucurbitaceae genomes. Nevertheless, one lineage of R-genes from Trichosanthes kirilowii, a wild Cucurbitaceae species, exhibits chimeric structures caused by gene conversions, and may contain a large number of distinct R-genes in natural populations. Conclusions Cucurbitaceae species have limited number of R-gene lineages and each genome harbors relatively few R-genes. The scarcity of R-genes in Cucurbitaceae species was due to frequent loss of R-gene lineages and infrequent duplications in extant lineages. The evolutionary mechanisms for large variation of copy number of R-genes in different plant species were discussed. PMID:23682795

  13. Do nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase contribute to the heat loss responses in older males exercising in the heat?

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Naoto; Paull, Gabrielle; Meade, Robert D; McGinn, Ryan; Stapleton, Jill M; Akbari, Pegah; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-01-01

    separate and interactive roles of NOS and COX in forearm sweating and cutaneous vasodilatation in older adults during intermittent exercise in the heat performed at a moderate fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W, ∼48% ). We demonstrated that neither NOS nor COX are functionally involved in the forearm sweating response in older adults during exercise, whereas only NOS contributed to cutaneous vasodilatation. These results provide valuable insight into the age-related changes in heat loss and suggest that COX inhibitors (i.e. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) may not impair core body temperature regulation during exercise in the heat in older adults. PMID:25820454

  14. A simple method to account for drift orbit effects when modeling radio frequency heating in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eester, D.

    2005-09-01

    In the last years tremendous progress was made in modeling radio frequency heating in tokamaks. Not only the adopted models have gradually become more realistic, also the present generation of computers has allowed to study wave-particle interaction effects with previously unattainable detail. In the present paper a semi-analytical method is adopted to evaluate the dielectric response of a plasma to electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron domain of frequencies accounting for drift orbit effects in an axisymmetric tokamak. The method relies on subdividing the orbit into elementary segments in which the integrations can be performed analytically or by tabulation, and it hinges on the local bookkeeping of the relation between the variables defining an orbit and those describing the magnetic geometry. Although the method allows computation of elementary building blocks for either the wave or the Fokker-Planck equation, the focus here is on the latter. Using the coefficients evaluated using the proposed semi-analytical method, a 3-D Fokker-Planck code was developed which accounts for the radial width of the guiding center orbits and thus not only describes RF induced velocity space diffusion, but equally accounts for the RF induced radial drift. Preliminary results of this new 3-D Fokker-Planck code are presented. The adopted numerical resolution relies on a subdivision of the integration domain in tetrahedres. This specific shape of the elementary volumes allows imposing the boundary conditions (in particular the nonlocal conditions across the curved trapped/passing boundary connecting one trapped to two passing orbits) elegantly. The particular chosen shape also readily permits zooming in on regions where more detail is required. Casting the equation in its weak Galerkin form, it is solved relying on the finite element technique. Unless special attention is devoted to the optimization of the inversion of the system of linear equations resulting from projecting the

  15. TRITIUM IN-BED ACCOUNTABILITY FOR A PASSIVELY COOLED, ELECTRICALLY HEATED HYDRIDE BED

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.; Foster, P.

    2011-01-21

    A PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been deployed into tritium service in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facilities. The bed design, absorption and desorption performance, and cold (non-radioactive) in-bed accountability (IBA) results have been reported previously. Six PACE Beds were fitted with instrumentation to perform the steady-state, flowing gas calorimetric inventory method. An IBA inventory calibration curve, flowing gas temperature rise ({Delta}T) versus simulated or actual tritium loading, was generated for each bed. Results for non-radioactive ('cold') tests using the internal electric heaters and tritium calibration results are presented. Changes in vacuum jacket pressure significantly impact measured IBA {Delta}T values. Higher jacket pressures produce lower IBA {Delta}T values which underestimate bed tritium inventories. The exhaust pressure of the IBA gas flow through the bed's U-tube has little influence on measured IBA {Delta}T values, but larger gas flows reduce the time to reach steady-state conditions and produce smaller tritium measurement uncertainties.

  16. Is there evidence for nonthermal modulation of whole body heat loss during intermittent exercise?

    PubMed

    Kenny, Glen P; Gagnon, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    This study compared the effect of active, passive, and inactive recoveries on whole body evaporative and dry heat loss responses during intermittent exercise at an air temperature of 30 degrees C and a relative humidity of 20%. Nine males performed three 15-min bouts of upright seated cycling at a fixed external workload of 150 W. The exercise bouts were separated by three 15-min recoveries during which participants 1) performed loadless pedaling (active recovery), 2) had their lower limbs passively compressed with inflatable sleeves (passive recovery), or 3) remained upright seated on the cycle ergometer (inactive recovery). Combined direct and indirect calorimetry was employed to measure rates of whole body evaporative heat loss (EHL) and metabolic heat production (M-W). Mean body temperature (T(b)) was calculated from esophageal and mean skin temperatures, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured continuously. Active and passive recoveries both reversed the reduction in MAP associated with inactive recovery (P

  17. EFFECTS OF AMBIENT TEMPERATURE AND EXPOSURE TO 2450-MHZ MICROWAVE RADIATION ON EVAPORATIVE HEAT LOSS IN THE MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whole-body evaporative heat loss was measured as whole-body evaporative water loss in mice during a 90 min exposure to 2450-MHz microwave radiation at an ambient temperature of 20 C and in non-exposed mice maintained at ambient temperature of 0, 25, 30, 33, and 35 C. The ambient-...

  18. Coping with the Personal Loss of Having a Parent with Mental Illness: Young Adults' Narrative Accounts of Spiritual Struggle and Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunu, Aleisha; Stein, Catherine H.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the personal accounts of nine young adults who have parents living with mental illness. Adults' experience of personal loss due to their parents' mental illness and perceptions of their religious faith journey and spiritual struggles are described. Overall, young adults who reported experiencing more personal loss due to…

  19. 26 CFR 1.987-1 - Profit and loss method of accounting for a qualified business unit of a taxpayer having a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Profit and loss method of accounting for a qualified business unit of a taxpayer having a different functional currency from the taxpayer. 1.987-1... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Export Trade Corporations § 1.987-1 Profit and loss method of...

  20. Mechanisms underlying the postexercise baroreceptor‐mediated suppression of heat loss

    PubMed Central

    McGinn, Ryan; Paull, Gabrielle; Meade, Robert D.; Fujii, Naoto; Kenny, Glen P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Reports indicate that postexercise heat loss is modulated by baroreceptor input; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. We examined the time‐dependent involvement of adenosine receptors, noradrenergic transmitters, and nitric oxide (NO) in modulating baroreceptor‐mediated changes in postexercise heat loss. Eight males performed two 15‐min cycling bouts (85% VO2max) each followed by a 45‐min recovery in the heat (35°C). Lower body positive (LBPP), negative (LBNP), or no (Control) pressure were applied in three separate sessions during the final 30‐min of each recovery. Four microdialysis fibres in the forearm skin were perfused with: (1) lactated Ringer's (Ringer's); (2) 4 mmol·L−1 Theophylline (inhibits adenosine receptors); (3) 10 mmol·L−1 Bretylium (inhibits noradrenergic transmitter release); or (4) 10 mmol·L−1 l‐NAME (inhibits NO synthase). We measured cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; percentage of maximum) calculated as perfusion units divided by mean arterial pressure, and local sweat rate. Compared to Control, LBPP did not influence CVC at l‐NAME, Theophylline or Bretylium during either recovery (P >0.07); however, CVC at Ringer's was increased by ~5‐8% throughout 30 min of LBPP during Recovery 1 (all P <0.02). In fact, CVC at Ringer's was similar to Theophylline and Bretylium during LBPP. Conversely, LBNP reduced CVC at all microdialysis sites by ~7–10% in the last 15 min of Recovery 2 (all P <0.05). Local sweat rate was similar at all treatment sites as a function of pressure condition (P >0.10). We show that baroreceptor input modulates postexercise CVC to some extent via adenosine receptors, noradrenergic vasoconstriction, and NO whereas no influence was observed for postexercise sweating. PMID:25293599

  1. Analysis of unscrammed loss of flow and heat sink for PRISM with GEM

    SciTech Connect

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.; Kennett, R.J. )

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is sponsoring an advanced liquid-metal reactor design by General Electric Company (GE) called PRISM. The intent is to design a reactor with passively safe responses to many operational and severe accidents. PRISM is under review at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for licensability with Brookhaven National Laboratory providing technical assistance. Recently, the PRISM design has been modified to include three gas expansion modules (GEMs) on its core periphery. The GEMs were added to quickly reduce the power (by inserting negative reactivity) during loss-of-flow events to curtail peak fuel and clad temperatures predicted in the previous design. The GEM prototypes have been tested at the Fast Flux Test Facility. The significance of the GEMs in PRISM is discussed in this paper through the evaluation of the unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and loss of heat sink using the SSC code. It has been demonstrated in the past that SSC predicts results similar to GE and other liquid-metal reactor codes.

  2. Understanding ion cyclotron harmonic fast wave heating losses in the scrape off layer of tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelli, N; Jaeger, E F; Hosea, J C; Phillips, C K; Berry, L; Bonoli, P T; Gerhardt, S P; Green, D; LeBlanc, B; Perkins, R J; Ryan, P M; Taylor, G; Valeo, E J; Wilso, J R; Wright, J C

    2014-07-01

    Fast waves at harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency, which have been used successfully on National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), will also play an important role in ITER and are a promising candidate for the Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) designs based on spherical torus (ST). Experimental studies of high harmonic fast waves (HHFW) heating on the NSTX have demonstrated that substantial HHFW power loss occurs along the open field lines in the scrape-off layer (SOL), but the mechanism behind the loss is not yet understood. The full wave RF code AORSA, in which the edge plasma beyond the last closed flux surface (LCFS) is included in the solution domain, is applied to specific NSTX discharges in order to predict the effects and possible causes of this power loss. In the studies discussed here, a collisional damping parameter has been implemented in AORSA as a proxy to represent the real, and most likely nonlinear, damping processes. A prediction for the NSTX Upgrade (NSTX-U) experiment, that will begin operation next year, is also presented, indicating a favorable condition for the experiment due to a wider evanescent region in edge density.*Research supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 with Princeton University.

  3. Simulating experimental investigation on the safety of nuclear heating reactor in loss-of-coolant accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhanjie

    1996-12-01

    The 5MW low temperature nuclear heating reactor (NHR-5) is a new and advanced type of nuclear reactor developed by Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University of China in 1989. Its main loop is a thermal-hydraulic system with natural circulation. This paper studies the safety of NHR under the condition of loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) by means of simulant experiments. First, the background and necessity of the experiments are presented, then the experimental system, including the thermal-hydraulic system and the data collection system, and similarity criteria are introduced. Up to now, the discharge experiments with the residual heating power (20% rated heating power) have been carried out on the experimental system. The system parameters including circulation flow rate, system pressure, system temperature, void fraction, discharge mass and so on have been recorded and analyzed. Based on the results of the experiments, the conclusions are shown as follos: on the whole, the reactor is safe under the condition of LOCAs, but the thermal vacillations resulting from the vibration of the circulation flow rate are disadvantageous to the internal parts of the reactor core.

  4. An Analytical Investigation of the Heat Losses from a U.S. Navy K-Type Airship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillendahl, Wesley H.; George, Ralph E.

    1946-01-01

    The heat losses from the envelope surface of a U.S. Navy K-type airship are evaluated to determine if the use of heat is a feasible means of preventing ice and snow accumulations on lighter-than-air craft during flight and when moored uncovered. Consideration is given to heat losses in clear air (no liquid water present in the atmosphere) and in probable conditions of icing and snow. The results of the analysis indicate that the amount of heat required in flight to raise the surface temperature of the entire envelope to the extent considered adequate for ice protection, based on experience with tests of heavier-than-air craft, is very large. Existing types of heating equipment which could be used to supply this quantity of heat would probably be too bulky and heavy to provide a practical flight installation. The heat requirements to provide protection for the nose and stern regions in assumed mild to moderate icing conditions appear to be within the range of the capacity of current types of heating equipment suitable for flight use. The amount of heat necessary to prevent snow accumulations on the upper surface of the airship envelope when moored uncovered under all conditions appear to be excessive for the heating equipment presently available for flight use, but could possibly be achieved with auxiliary ground heating equipment.

  5. In-Bed Accountability Development for a Passively Cooled, Electrically Heated Hydride (PACE) Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.

    2005-07-15

    A nominal 1500 STP-L PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been developed for implementation into a new Savannah River Site tritium project. The 1.2 meter (four-foot) long process vessel contains on internal 'U-tube' for tritium In-Bed Accountability (IBA) measurements. IBA will be performed on six, 12.6 kg production metal hydride storage beds.IBA tests were done on a prototype bed using electric heaters to simulate the radiolytic decay of tritium. Tests had gas flows from 10 to 100 SLPM through the U-tube or 100 SLPM through the bed's vacuum jacket. IBA inventory measurement errors at the 95% confidence level were calculated using the correlation of IBA gas temperature rise, or (hydride) bed temperature rise above ambient temperature, versus simulated tritium inventory.Prototype bed IBA inventory errors at 100 SLPM were the largest for gas flows through the vacuum jacket: 15.2 grams for the bed temperature rise and 11.5 grams for the gas temperature rise. For a 100 SLPM U-tube flow, the inventory error was 2.5 grams using bed temperature rise and 1.6 grams using gas temperature rise. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA gas temperature rise inventory errors were nominally one to two grams that increased above four grams for flows less than 50 SLPM. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA bed temperature rise inventory errors were greater than the gas temperature rise errors, but similar errors were found for both methods at gas flows of 20, 30, and 40 SLPM.Electric heater IBA tests were done for six production hydride beds using a 45 SLPM U-tube gas flow. Of the duplicate runs performed on these beds, five of the six beds produced IBA inventory errors of approximately three grams: consistent with results obtained in the laboratory prototype tests.

  6. In-Bed Accountability Development for a Passively Cooled, Electrically Heated Hydride (PACE) Bed

    SciTech Connect

    KLEIN, JAMES

    2004-10-12

    A nominal 1500 STP-L PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been developed for implementation into a new Savannah River Site tritium project. The 1.2 meter (four-foot) long process vessel contains an internal ''U-tube'' for tritium In-Bed Accountability (IBA) measurements. IBA will be performed on six, 12.6 kg production metal hydride storage beds. IBA tests were done on a prototype bed using electric heaters to simulate the radiolytic decay of tritium. Tests had gas flows from 10 to 100 SLPM through the U-tube or 100 SLPM through the bed's vacuum jacket. IBA inventory measurement errors at the 95 percent confidence level were calculated using the correlation of IBA gas temperature rise, or (hydride) bed temperature rise above ambient temperature, versus simulated tritium inventory. Prototype bed IBA inventory errors at 100 SLPM were the largest for gas flows through the vacuum jacket: 15.2 grams for the bed temperature rise and 11.5 grams for the gas temperature rise. For a 100 SLPM U-tube flow, the inventory error was 2.5 grams using bed temperature rise and 1.6 grams using gas temperature rise. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA gas temperature rise inventory errors were nominally one to two grams that increased above four grams for flows less than 50 SLPM. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA bed temperature rise inventory errors were greater than the gas temperature rise errors, but similar errors were found for both methods at gas flows of 20, 30, and 40 SLPM. Electric heater IBA tests were done for six production hydride beds using a 45 SLPM U-tube gas flow. Of the duplicate runs performed on these beds, five of the six beds produced IBA inventory errors of approximately three grams: consistent with results obtained in the laboratory prototype tests.

  7. Effects of pin shape and array orientation on heat transfer and pressure loss in pin fin arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, D. E.; Fan, C. S.; Haley, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    In order to reduce the cooling airflow required by gas turbine blades, two families of pin fin array geometries which may potentially improve such air-cooled turbine blade airfoils' internal cooling performance are experimentally studied. One family uses circular cross section pins with various array orientations relative to the mean flow direction. The other family employs pins with an oblong cross section, again with various orientations. Heat transfer and pressure loss results indicate that the use of circular pins whose array orientation varies between the staggered and the inline can, in some cases, increase heat transfer while decreasing pressure loss. Elongated pins increased heat transfer, but with increased pressure loss. Pin surface heat transfer coefficients are double the endwall values.

  8. Multi-scale gyrokinetic simulation of tokamak plasmas: enhanced heat loss due to cross-scale coupling of plasma turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, N. T.; Holland, C.; White, A. E.; Greenwald, M.; Candy, J.

    2016-01-01

    The transport of heat in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas is dominated by the complex nonlinear dynamics of plasma turbulence. In magnetically confined plasmas used for fusion energy research, turbulence is responsible for cross-field transport that limits the performance of tokamak reactors. We report a set of novel gyrokinetic simulations that capture ion and electron-scale turbulence simultaneously, revealing the dynamics of cross-scale energy transfer and zonal flow modification that give rise to heat losses. Multi-scale simulations are required to match experimental ion and electron heat fluxes and electron profile stiffness, establishing the applicability of the newly discovered physics to experiment. Importantly, these results provide a likely explanation for the loss of electron heat from tokamak plasmas, the ‘great unsolved problem’ (Bachelor et al (2007 Plasma Sci. Technol. 9 312-87)) in plasma turbulence and the projected dominant loss channel in ITER.

  9. SCDAP/RELAP5 modeling of heat transfer and flow losses in lower head porous debris. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Siefken, L.J.; Coryell, E.W.; Paik, S.; Kuo, H.

    1999-05-01

    Designs are described for implementing models for calculating the heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris in the lower head of a reactor vessel. The COUPLE model in SCDAP/RELAP5 represents both the porous and nonporous debris that results from core material slumping into the lower head. Currently, the COUPLE model has the capability to model convective and radiative heat transfer from the surfaces of nonporous debris in a detailed manner and to model only in a simplistic manner the heat transfer from porous debris. In order to advance beyond the simplistic modeling for porous debris, designs are developed for detailed calculations of heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris. Correlations are identified for convective heat transfer in porous debris for the following modes of heat transfer; (1) forced convection to liquid, (2) forced convection to gas, (3) nucleate boiling, (4) transition boiling, and (5) film boiling. Interphase heat transfer is modeled in an approximate ma nner. Designs are described for models to calculate the flow losses and interphase drag of fluid flowing through the interstices of the porous debris, and to apply these variables in the momentum equations in the RELAP5 part of the code. Since the models for heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris in the lower head are designed for general application, a design is also described for implementation of these models to the analysis of porous debris in the core region. A test matrix is proposed for assessing the capability of the implemented models to calculate the heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris. The implementation of the models described in this report is expected to improve the COUPLE code calculation of the temperature distribution in porous debris and in the lower head that supports the debris. The implementation of these models is also expected to improve the calculation of the temperature and flow distribution in porous debris in the core region.

  10. Air movement and heat loss from sheep. I. Boundary layer insulation of a model sheep, with and without fleece.

    PubMed

    McArthur, A J; Monteith, J L

    1980-08-13

    A model sheep, made from metal cylinders and hemispheres, was heated electrically. Heat loss by forced convection in a wind tunnel was analysed in terms of the dependence of the Nusselt number (Nu) on Reynolds number (Re). For a bare trunk Nu = 0.095 Re0.684, but with fleece covering the trunk to a depth of 3.5 cm, Nu = 0.0112 Re0.875 when the mean radiative temperature of the the coat was taken as the surface temperature. Heat transfer by convection from the whole body, including legs, was described by Nu = 0.029 Re0.80. However, a bulk Nesselt number should not be used to estimate heat loss from a live sheep in a hot environment if the windspeed is below about 4 m s-1 because the relation between mean surface temperature, Nusselt number and convective heat flux is not unique. PMID:6107914

  11. Thermal-hydraulic processes involved in loss of residual heat removal during reduced inventory operation

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, C.D.; McHugh, P.R.; Naff, S.A.; Johnsen, G.W.

    1991-02-01

    This paper identifies the topics needed to understand pressurized water reactor response to an extended loss of residual heat removal event during refueling and maintenance outages. By identifying the possible plant conditions and cooling methods that would be used for each cooling mode, the controlling thermal-hydraulic processes and phenomena were identified. Controlling processes and phenomena include: gravity drain, core water boil-off, and reflux cooling processes. Important subcategories of the reflux cooling processes include: the initiation of reflux cooling from various plant conditions, the effects of air on reflux cooling, core level depression effects, issues regarding the steam generator secondaries, and the special case of boiler-condenser cooling with once-through steam generators. 25 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Comparative study of beam losses and heat loads reduction methods in MITICA beam source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, E.; Agostinetti, P.; Dal Bello, S.; Marcuzzi, D.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Veltri, P.

    2014-02-01

    In negative ion electrostatic accelerators a considerable fraction of extracted ions is lost by collision processes causing efficiency loss and heat deposition over the components. Stripping is proportional to the local density of gas, which is steadily injected in the plasma source; its pumping from the extraction and acceleration stages is a key functionality for the prototype of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector, and it can be simulated with the 3D code AVOCADO. Different geometric solutions were tested aiming at the reduction of the gas density. The parameter space considered is limited by constraints given by optics, aiming, voltage holding, beam uniformity, and mechanical feasibility. The guidelines of the optimization process are presented together with the proposed solutions and the results of numerical simulations.

  13. Comparative study of beam losses and heat loads reduction methods in MITICA beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Sartori, E. Agostinetti, P.; Dal Bello, S.; Marcuzzi, D.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P.; Sonato, P.

    2014-02-15

    In negative ion electrostatic accelerators a considerable fraction of extracted ions is lost by collision processes causing efficiency loss and heat deposition over the components. Stripping is proportional to the local density of gas, which is steadily injected in the plasma source; its pumping from the extraction and acceleration stages is a key functionality for the prototype of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector, and it can be simulated with the 3D code AVOCADO. Different geometric solutions were tested aiming at the reduction of the gas density. The parameter space considered is limited by constraints given by optics, aiming, voltage holding, beam uniformity, and mechanical feasibility. The guidelines of the optimization process are presented together with the proposed solutions and the results of numerical simulations.

  14. Radiative Heat Loss Measurements During Microgravity Droplet Combustion in a Slow Convective Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Michael C.; Kaib, Nathan; Easton, John; Nayagam, Vedha; Williams, Forman A.

    2003-01-01

    Radiative heat loss from burning droplets in a slow convective flow under microgravity conditions is measured using a broad-band (0.6 to 40 microns) radiometer. In addition, backlit images of the droplet as well as color images of the flame were obtained using CCD cameras to estimate the burning rates and the flame dimensions, respectively. Tests were carried out in air at atmospheric pressure using n-heptane and methanol fuels with imposed forced flow velocities varied from 0 to 10 centimeters per second and initial droplet diameters varied from 1 to 3 millimeters. Slow convective flows were generated using three different experimental configurations in three different facilities in preparation for the proposed International Space Station droplet experiments. In the 2.2 Second Drop-Tower Facility a droplet supported on the leading edge of a quartz fiber is placed within a flow tunnel supplied by compressed air. In the Zero-Gravity Facility (five-second drop tower) a tethered droplet is translated in a quiescent ambient atmosphere to establish a uniform flow field around the droplet. In the KC 135 aircraft an electric fan was used to draw a uniform flow past a tethered droplet. Experimental results show that the burn rate increases and the overall flame size decreases with increases in forced-flow velocities over the range of flow velocities and droplet sizes tested. The total radiative heat loss rate, Q(sub r), decreases as the imposed flow velocity increases with the spherically symmetric combustion having the highest values. These observations are in contrast to the trends observed for gas-jet flames in microgravity, but consistent with the observations during flame spread over solid fuels where the burning rate is coupled to the forced flow as here.

  15. Dissociation of temperature-gradient and evaporative heat loss during cold gas hyperventilation in cold-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Ingenito, E; Solway, J; Lafleur, J; Lombardo, A; Drazen, J M; Pichurko, B

    1988-09-01

    We examined temperature-gradient and evaporative energy losses during cold gas inhalation challenges in patients with exercise-induced asthma by using gases with similar water-carrying capacities but significantly different volume heat capacities. Seven subjects were asked to hyperventilate mixtures of 80% helium/20% oxygen (HeO2) or 80% sulfur hexafluoride/20% oxygen (SF6O2) for 5 min at a fixed target minute ventilation of 20 x FEV1 and an inspired gas temperature of 0 degrees C. Each subject equilibrated his or her lungs with the appropriate gas mixture prior to testing: PETCO2 and FIO2 were monitored and maintained at constant values (CO2 = 0.05; O2 = 0.20) by CO2 scrubbing and addition of compressed gas to the system. Gas composition, inspired and expired flow rates, and gas temperatures at the airway opening were recorded in real time using a computer-based data collection system that calculated respiratory heat loss on a per breath basis. Bronchoconstriction was quantitated using specific airway conductance measured before and serially after each challenge. The degree of bronchoconstriction correlated closely with evaporative respiratory heat loss (r = 0.658 p less than 0.05), but poorly with both temperature-gradient (r = 0.114, p greater than 0.20) and total (r = 0.268, p greater than 0.15) heat loss. These findings suggest that total respiratory heat loss is not the primary stimulus in exercise-induced asthma, and further suggest that total water loss, or focal heat/water loss, may be important in inducing bronchospasm in this subset of asthmatics. PMID:3202410

  16. Respiratory heat/water loss alone does not determine the severity of exercise-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Noviski, N; Bar-Yishay, E; Gur, I; Godfrey, S

    1988-03-01

    Respiratory heat loss (RHL) or water loss (RWL) have been proposed as possible triggering factors in exercise and hyperventilation-induced asthma (EIA and HIA). It has recently been demonstrated that exercise intensity and climatic factors are both important in determining the severity of EIA. Eight young asthmatics performed both exercise and isocapnic hyperventilation (IHV) manoeuvres under identical climatic conditions, as part of our investigation of these interactive factors which determine the severity of the asthmatic response. It was found that, when challenged at low ventilatory levels, exercise produced a significantly attenuated asthmatic response compared to IHV. The fall in forced expired volume in 1 sec (delta FEV1) following exercise was 15 +/- 4% as compared with 27 +/- 3% after IHV (p less than 0.002). It is concluded that while the hypernoea in exercise may serve as a trigger, exercise per se introduces an additional factor which serves to limit the full response seen with IHV. This attenuated response is revealed at low ventilatory levels but is masked at high levels. PMID:3384078

  17. Metabolism and evaporative heat loss in the dik-dik antelope (Rhynchotragus kirki).

    PubMed

    Kamau, J M

    1988-01-01

    1. Under controlled conditions, the rate of oxygen consumption (VO2) respiratory frequency, evaporative water loss, heat balance, rectal (Trec) and surface temperatures were determined in the dik-dik antelopes at ambient temperatures (Ta) ranging from 1 to 44 degrees C. 2. The thermal neutral zone was found to be between 24 and 35 degrees C. 3. Respiratory frequency ranged between 27 and 630 breaths/min. 4. At a Ta of 44 degrees C, 95% of the heat produced by the dik-dik was lost via respiratory evaporation. Despite an increase in Trec, cutaneous evaporation did not increase. 5. During panting, VO2 increased in accordance with the expected Q10 effect, contrary to earlier findings. 6. Measurements of circadian rhythm [LD 12:12 (7-19) CT26 degrees C] in VO2 showed that the minimum VO2 (0.42 ml O2/g/hr) occurred at midnight while the maximum (0.78 ml O2/g/hr) occurred at midday. The 24 hr mean VO2 was 0.61 ml O2/g/hr. 7. These measurements suggest that in nature, determinants other than light may be responsible for triggering the variations observed in VO2. PMID:2899477

  18. The Heat Loss Analysis and Commissioning of a Commercial Helium Dewar (SULI paper)

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, Marcus; /New Mexico U. /SLAC

    2006-01-04

    A low temperature cryostat suitable for many different experiments will be commissioned at the cryogenic test facility at SLAC. The scope of the project is to make commission a commercial Helium dewar. The building of the top flange will be followed from its design phase through to its finished assembly. In addition, diagnostic tools such as thermometry, level detector, pressure gauge, transfer lines for He and N2, vent lines with relief valves for He and N2 will be incorporated. Instrumentation to read and plot this data will also be included. Once the cryostat is assembled, we will cool down the cryostat to measure its performance. A typical consumption rate of Helium will be measured and from this, the overall heat leak to the dewar will be calculated. A processing instrumentation diagram (PID) of the dewar system was created with SolidEdge and was later approved and published as an official SLAC document. The plots comparing the liquid level changes of the 36 inch probe with the time and the heat loss as a function of time proved to be a valid indication that the data was interpreted and recorded correctly and that the dewar was put together successfully.

  19. Mitigation Measures Following a Loss-of-Residual-Heat-Removal Event During Shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Seul, Kwang Won; Bang, Young Seok; Kim, Hho Jung

    2000-10-15

    The transient following a loss-of-residual-heat-removal event during shutdown was analyzed to determine the containment closure time (CCT) to prevent uncontrolled release of fission products and the gravity-injection path and rate (GIPR) for effective core cooling using the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code. The plant conditions of Yonggwang Units 3 and 4, a pressurized water reactor (PWR) of 2815-MW(thermal) power in Korea, were reviewed, and possible event sequences were identified. From the CCT analysis for the five cases of typical plant configurations, it was estimated for the earliest CCT to be 40 min after the event in a case with a large cold-leg opening and emptied steam generators (SGs). However, the case with water-filled SGs significantly delayed the CCT through the heat removal to the secondary side. From the GIPR analysis for the six possible gravity-injection paths from the refueling water storage tank (RWST), the case with the injection point and opening on the other leg side was estimated to be the most suitable path to avoid core boiling. In addition, from the sensitivity study, it was evaluated for the plant to be capable of providing the core cooling for the long-term transient if nominal RWST water is available. As a result, these analysis methods and results will provide useful information in understanding the plant behavior and preparing the mitigation measures after the event, especially for Combustion Engineering-type PWR plants. However, to directly apply the analysis results to the emergency procedure for such an event, additional case studies are needed for a wide range of operating conditions such as reactor coolant inventory, RWST water temperature, and core decay heat rate.

  20. On the Influence of a Fuel Side Heat-Loss (Soot) Layer on a Planar Diffusion Flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichman, Indrek S.

    1994-01-01

    A model of the response of a diffusion flame (DF) to an adjacent heat loss or 'soot' layer on the fuel side is investigated. The thermal influence of the 'soot' or heat-loss layer on the DF occurs through the enthalpy sink it creates. A sink distribution in mixture-fraction space is employed to examine possible DF extinction. It is found that (1) the enthalpy sink (or soot layer) must touch the DF for radiation-induced quenching to occur; and (2) for fuel-rich conditions extinction is possible only for a progressively narrower range of values ot the characteristic heat-loss parameter, N(sub R)(Delta Z(sub R)) Various interpretations ot the model are discussed. An attempt is made to place this work into the context created by previous experimental and computational studies.

  1. 26 CFR 301.6511(d)-2 - Overpayment of income tax on account of net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... operating loss or capital loss carrybacks. 301.6511(d)-2 Section 301.6511(d)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... ADMINISTRATION Limitations Limitations on Assessment and Collection § 301.6511(d)-2 Overpayment of income tax on... following two periods expires later: (i) The period which ends with the expiration of the 15th day of...

  2. 26 CFR 301.6511(d)-2 - Overpayment of income tax on account of net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... operating loss or capital loss carrybacks. 301.6511(d)-2 Section 301.6511(d)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... ADMINISTRATION Limitations Limitations on Assessment and Collection § 301.6511(d)-2 Overpayment of income tax on... following two periods expires later: (i) The period which ends with the expiration of the 15th day of...

  3. 26 CFR 301.6511(d)-2 - Overpayment of income tax on account of net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... operating loss or capital loss carrybacks. 301.6511(d)-2 Section 301.6511(d)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... ADMINISTRATION Limitations Limitations on Assessment and Collection § 301.6511(d)-2 Overpayment of income tax on... following two periods expires later: (i) The period which ends with the expiration of the 15th day of...

  4. 26 CFR 301.6511(d)-2 - Overpayment of income tax on account of net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... operating loss or capital loss carrybacks. 301.6511(d)-2 Section 301.6511(d)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... ADMINISTRATION Limitations Limitations on Assessment and Collection § 301.6511(d)-2 Overpayment of income tax on... following two periods expires later: (i) The period which ends with the expiration of the 15th day of...

  5. Latent heat loss and sweat gland histology of male goats in an equatorial semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo Costa, Cíntia Carol; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Neto, José Domingues Fontenele; Oliveira, Steffan Edward Octávio; de Queiroz, João Paulo Araújo Fernandes

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this work was to quantify the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation of goats in an equatorial semi-arid environment. The latent heat loss from the body surfaces of these ten undefined breed goats was measured using a ventilated capsule in sun and shade and in the three body regions (neck, flank and hindquarters). Skin samples from these three regions were histologically analyzed to relate the quantity of sweat glands, the area of sweat glands and the epithelium thickness of each of these regions to the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation of the examined goats. The epithelium thickness that was measured varied significantly for body regions with different quantities and areas of sweat glands ( P < 0.01). Among the body regions that were examined, the samples from the neck demonstrated the highest epithelium thickness (16.23 ± 0.13 μm). However, the samples of sweat glands from the flank had the biggest area (43330.51 ± 778.71 μm2) and quantity per square centimeter (390 ± 9 cm-2). After the animals were exposed to sun, the flanks lost the greatest amount of heat by cutaneous evaporation (73.03 ± 1.75 W m-2) and possessed the highest surface temperatures (39.47 ± 0.18 °C). The histological characteristics may have influenced the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation that was observed in the flank region after the animals were exposed to sun.

  6. Latent heat loss and sweat gland histology of male goats in an equatorial semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo Costa, Cíntia Carol; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Neto, José Domingues Fontenele; Oliveira, Steffan Edward Octávio; de Queiroz, João Paulo Araújo Fernandes

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this work was to quantify the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation of goats in an equatorial semi-arid environment. The latent heat loss from the body surfaces of these ten undefined breed goats was measured using a ventilated capsule in sun and shade and in the three body regions (neck, flank and hindquarters). Skin samples from these three regions were histologically analyzed to relate the quantity of sweat glands, the area of sweat glands and the epithelium thickness of each of these regions to the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation of the examined goats. The epithelium thickness that was measured varied significantly for body regions with different quantities and areas of sweat glands (P < 0.01). Among the body regions that were examined, the samples from the neck demonstrated the highest epithelium thickness (16.23 ± 0.13 μm). However, the samples of sweat glands from the flank had the biggest area (43330.51 ± 778.71 μm2) and quantity per square centimeter (390 ± 9 cm-2). After the animals were exposed to sun, the flanks lost the greatest amount of heat by cutaneous evaporation (73.03 ± 1.75 W m-2) and possessed the highest surface temperatures (39.47 ± 0.18 °C). The histological characteristics may have influenced the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation that was observed in the flank region after the animals were exposed to sun.

  7. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in MagLIF-like plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Velikovich, A. L. Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2014-12-15

    The MagLIF approach to inertial confinement fusion involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a DT plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot plasma to the cold liner is dominated by the transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter ω{sub e}τ{sub e} effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux are both shown to decrease with ω{sub e}τ{sub e} as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient, which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. This family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  8. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in magnetized liner inertial fusion-like plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2015-04-01

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) approach to inertial confinement fusion [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010); Cuneo et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 3222 (2012)] involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a deuterium-tritium plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion, and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot compressed magnetized plasma to the cold liner is dominated by transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter ( ωeτe≫1 ), the effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux to the liner wall are both shown to decrease with ωeτe as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient c T /(16 e B ) , which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. We demonstrate how this family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  9. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in MagLIF-like plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    The MagLIF approach to inertial confinement fusion involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a DT plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot plasma to the cold liner is dominated by the transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter ωeτe effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux are both shown to decrease with ωeτe as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient, which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. This family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  10. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in magnetized liner inertial fusion-like plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2015-04-15

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) approach to inertial confinement fusion [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010); Cuneo et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 3222 (2012)] involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a deuterium-tritium plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion, and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot compressed magnetized plasma to the cold liner is dominated by transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter (ω{sub e}τ{sub e}≫1), the effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux to the liner wall are both shown to decrease with ω{sub e}τ{sub e} as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient cT/(16eB), which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. We demonstrate how this family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  11. Route Planning and Estimate of Heat Loss of Hot Water Transportation Piping for Fuel Cell Local Energy Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Shinya; Kudo, Kazuhiko

    The method of supplying the electric power and heat energy for the energy demand of buildings by Centralized system type and distributed system type of fuel cell network is studied. The hot-water piping route planning program of fuel cell network was developed by using genetic algorithm based on the view of TSP ( Traveling salesman problem) . In this program, the piping route planning which minimizes the quantity of heat loss in hot-water piping can be performed. The residential section model of Sapporo city of 74 buildings was analyzed, and the quantity of heat loss from the hot-water piping of both systems was estimated. Consequently, the ratio of the quantity of heat loss of a distributed system to a centralized system was about 50% in the full year average. This program is introduced into the route planning of hot- Water piping system of the fuel cell network, and plan to reduce the quantity of heat loss in a distributed system will be made.

  12. Heating from free-free absorption and the mass-loss rate of the progenitor stars to supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Björnsson, C.-I.; Lundqvist, P. E-mail: peter@astro.su.se

    2014-06-01

    An accurate determination of the mass-loss rate of the progenitor stars to core-collapse supernovae is often limited by uncertainties pertaining to various model assumptions. It is shown that under conditions when the temperature of the circumstellar medium is set by heating due to free-free absorption, observations of the accompanying free-free optical depth allow a direct determination of the mass-loss rate from observed quantities in a rather model-independent way. The temperature is determined self-consistently, which results in a characteristic time dependence of the free-free optical depth. This can be used to distinguish free-free heating from other heating mechanisms. Since the importance of free-free heating is quite model dependent, this also makes possible several consistency checks of the deduced mass-loss rate. It is argued that the free-free absorption observed in SN 1993J is consistent with heating from free-free absorption. The deduced mass-loss rate of the progenitor star is, approximately, 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for a wind velocity of 10 km s{sup –1}.

  13. A method to determine stratification efficiency of thermal energy storage processes independently from storage heat losses

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, Michel Y.; Streicher, Wolfgang; Bales, Chris

    2010-06-15

    A new method for the calculation of a stratification efficiency of thermal energy storages based on the second law of thermodynamics is presented. The biasing influence of heat losses is studied theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically, it does not make a difference if the stratification efficiency is calculated based on entropy balances or based on exergy balances. In practice, however, exergy balances are less affected by measurement uncertainties, whereas entropy balances can not be recommended if measurement uncertainties are not corrected in a way that the energy balance of the storage process is in agreement with the first law of thermodynamics. A comparison of the stratification efficiencies obtained from experimental results of charging, standby, and discharging processes gives meaningful insights into the different mixing behaviors of a storage tank that is charged and discharged directly, and a tank-in-tank system whose outer tank is charged and the inner tank is discharged thereafter. The new method has a great potential for the comparison of the stratification efficiencies of thermal energy storages and storage components such as stratifying devices. (author)

  14. Tidal heating and mass loss in neutron star binaries - Implications for gamma-ray burst models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, P.; Rees, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    A neutron star in a close binary orbit around another neutron star (or stellar-mass black hole) spirals inward owing to gravitational radiation. We discuss the effects of tidal dissipation during this process. Tidal energy dissipated in the neutron star's core escapes mainly as neutrinos, but heating of the crust, and outward diffusion of photons, blows off the outer layers of the star. This photon-driven mass loss precedes the final coalescence. The presence of this eject material impedes the escape of gamma-rays created via neutrino interactions. If an e(+) - e(-) fireball, created in the late stages of coalescence, were loaded with (or surrounded by) material with the mean column density of the ejecta, it could not be an efficient source of gamma-rays. Models for cosmologically distant gamma-rays burst that involve neutron stars must therefore be anisotropic, so that the fireball expands preferentially in directions where the column density of previously blown-off material is far below the spherically averaged value which we have calculated. Some possible 'scenarios' along these lines are briefly discussed.

  15. Feel the Burn: What accounts for spatial variations in coronal heating?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, Shane; Kankelborg, Charles C.

    2016-05-01

    The coronal volume is filled with magnetic field, yet only part of that volume has sufficient heating to exhibit hot x-ray loops. How does the Sun decide where the heat goes? Using XRT and AIA images and HMI magnetograms, we identify footpoints of hot coronal loops, and magnetically similar regions underlying relatively unheated corona. We then use IRIS rasters and sit-and-stare observations to compare the spatial, temporal, and spectral structure of these relatively ``heated’’ and ``unheated’’ regions. We seek a signature of upward propagating energy that could be associated with hot active region loops.

  16. Persistent unstable atmospheric boundary layer enhances sensible and latent heat loss in a tropical great lake: Lake Tanganyika

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verburg, Piet; Antenucci, Jason P.

    2010-06-01

    Energy fluxes across the surface of lakes regulate heat storage and affect the water balance. Sensible and latent heat fluxes are affected by atmospheric stability, especially for large lakes. We examined the effect of atmospheric stability on the heat fluxes on seasonal time scales at Lake Tanganyika, East Africa, by estimating hourly sensible and latent heat fluxes and net radiation using thermistor chains and meteorological stations. The atmosphere was almost always unstable, in contrast to the atmosphere above North American Great Lakes which is unstable in winter and stable in summer. Persistent atmospheric instability resulted in a 13% and 18% increase in the annual mean heat loss by latent and sensible heat fluxes, respectively, relative to conditions of neutral stability. The persistent unstable atmosphere is caused by a higher water surface temperature compared with air temperature, which we argue is the case in general in (sub)tropical lakes. Low humidity further enhanced the frequency of unstable conditions and enhanced the exchange of heat and vapor from the lake to the atmosphere. The estimated heat fluxes were sensitive to the temporal scale of data inputs and to the local values of parameters such as air density. To our knowledge this is the first paper that demonstrates and quantifies the effect of atmospheric stability on latent and sensible heat fluxes from a lake on an annual basis, using data collected from the lake surface.

  17. Description and User Manual for a Web-Based Interface to a Transit-Loss Accounting Program for Monument and Fountain Creeks, El Paso and Pueblo Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Krammes, Gary S.; Beal, Vivian J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs Utilities, the Colorado Water Conservation Board, and the El Paso County Water Authority, began a study in 2004 with the following objectives: (1) Apply a stream-aquifer model to Monument Creek, (2) use the results of the modeling to develop a transit-loss accounting program for Monument Creek, (3) revise an existing accounting program for Fountain Creek to easily incorporate ongoing and future changes in management of return flows of reusable water, and (4) integrate the two accounting programs into a single program and develop a Web-based interface to the integrated program that incorporates simple and reliable data entry that is automated to the fullest extent possible. This report describes the results of completing objectives (2), (3), and (4) of that study. The accounting program for Monument Creek was developed first by (1) using the existing accounting program for Fountain Creek as a prototype, (2) incorporating the transit-loss results from a stream-aquifer modeling analysis of Monument Creek, and (3) developing new output reports. The capabilities of the existing accounting program for Fountain Creek then were incorporated into the program for Monument Creek and the output reports were expanded to include Fountain Creek. A Web-based interface to the new transit-loss accounting program then was developed that provided automated data entry. An integrated system of 34 nodes and 33 subreaches was integrated by combining the independent node and subreach systems used in the previously completed stream-aquifer modeling studies for the Monument and Fountain Creek reaches. Important operational criteria that were implemented in the new transit-loss accounting program for Monument and Fountain Creeks included the following: (1) Retain all the reusable water-management capabilities incorporated into the existing accounting program for Fountain Creek; (2) enable daily accounting and transit-loss

  18. Method to calculate soil heat flux that accounts for sunlit and shaded soil beneath row crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil heat flux (G) is a component of the soil-plant-atmosphere energy balance, and can have significant impact on evapotranspiration (ET), especially for incomplete canopies. Most ET models calculate G as a fraction of net radiation (Rn), which is usually suitable for full canopy cover and spatial s...

  19. Determination of Heat and Mass Transfer Efficiency on a Bubbling Plate with Account for Scale Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laptev, A. G.; Lapteva, E. A.

    2015-07-01

    The efficiency of heat and mass transfer in the bubbling bed on the plate has been investigated with the use of the method of combined physical and mathematical modeling based on the representation of the physical process in the form of a combination of elementary phenomena having a hierarchy of scales that permits realizing a scale transition in designing a contact device. The mathematical modeling of the heat and mass transfer in the above bed is based on the idea that the structure of this bed is invariant with its size and the interaction of the phases in it. A parametric investigation of the interaction of various effects in the process of heat and mass transfer in the bubbling bed on the plate and their conjugation has been carried out on the basis of the variational formulation of the conservation laws. Examples of calculating the efficiencies of the heat and mass transfer processes on bubbling plates are given. The results of calculations were compared with the corresponding experimental data.

  20. Analytic corrections to CFD heating predictions accounting for changes in surface catalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Inger, George R.

    1996-01-01

    Integral boundary-layer solution techniques applicable to the problem of determining aerodynamic heating rates of hypersonic vehicles in the vicinity of stagnation points and windward centerlines are briefly summarized. A new approach for combining the insight afforded by integral boundary-layer analysis with comprehensive (but time intensive) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flowfield solutions of the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations is described. The approach extracts CFD derived quantities at the wall and at the boundary layer edge for inclusion in a post-processing boundary-layer analysis. It allows a designer at a workstation to address two questions, given a single CFD solution. (1) How much does the heating change for a thermal protection system with different catalytic properties than was used in the original CFD solution? (2) How does the heating change at the interface of two different TPS materials with an abrupt change in catalytic efficiency? The answer to the second question is particularly important, because abrupt changes from low to high catalytic efficiency can lead to localized increase in heating which exceeds the usually conservative estimate provided by a fully catalytic wall assumption.

  1. Accounting for biological aggregation in heating and imaging of magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Etheridge, Michael L.; Hurley, Katie R.; Zhang, Jinjin; Jeon, Seongho; Ring, Hattie L.; Hogan, Christopher; Haynes, Christy L.; Garwood, Michael; Bischof, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation is a known consequence of nanoparticle use in biology and medicine; however, nanoparticle characterization is typically performed under the pretext of well-dispersed, aqueous conditions. Here, we systematically characterize the effects of aggregation on the alternating magnetic field induced heating and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging performance of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in non-ideal biological systems. Specifically, the behavior of IONP aggregates composed of ~10 nm primary particles, but with aggregate hydrodynamic sizes ranging from 50 nm to 700 nm, was characterized in phosphate buffered saline and fetal bovine serum suspensions, as well as in gels and cells. We demonstrate up to a 50% reduction in heating, linked to the extent of aggregation. To quantify aggregate morphology, we used a combination of hydrodynamic radii distribution, intrinsic viscosity, and electron microscopy measurements to describe the aggregates as quasifractal entities with fractal dimensions in the 1.8–2.0 range. Importantly, we are able to correlate the observed decrease in magnetic field induced heating with a corresponding decrease in longitudinal relaxation rate (R1) in MR imaging, irrespective of the extent of aggregation. Finally, we show in vivo proof-of-principle use of this powerful new imaging method, providing a critical tool for predicting heating in clinical cancer hyperthermia. PMID:25379513

  2. Loss of σI affects heat-shock response and virulence gene expression in Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jenny Gi Yae; Wilson, Adam C

    2016-03-01

    The pathogenesis of Bacillus anthracis depends on several virulence factors, including the anthrax toxin. Loss of the alternative sigma factor σI results in a coordinate decrease in expression of all three toxin subunits. Our observations suggest that loss of σI alters the activity of the master virulence regulator AtxA, but atxA transcription is unaffected by loss of σI. σI-containing RNA polymerase does not appear to directly transcribe either atxA or the toxin gene pagA. As in Bacillus subtilis, loss of σI in B. anthracis results in increased sensitivity to heat shock and transcription of sigI, encoding σI, is induced by elevated temperature. Encoded immediately downstream of and part of a bicistronic message with sigI is an anti-sigma factor, RsgI, which controls σI activity. Loss of RsgI has no direct effect on virulence gene expression. sigI appears to be expressed from both the σI and σA promoters, and transcription from the σA promoter is likely more significant to virulence regulation. We propose a model in which σI can be induced in response to heat shock, whilst, independently, σI is produced under non-heat-shock, toxin-inducing conditions to indirectly regulate virulence gene expression. PMID:26744224

  3. Study and verification of the superposition method used for determining the pressure losses of the heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petru, Michal; Kulhavy, Petr; Srb, Pavel; Rachitsky, Gary

    2015-05-01

    This paper deals with study of the pressure losses of the new heat convectors product line. For all devices connected to the heating circuit of the building, it`s required to declare a tabulated values of pressure drops. The heat exchangers are manufactured in a lot of different dimensions and atypical shapes. An individual assessment of the pressure losses for each type is very time consuming. Therefore based on the resulting data of the experiments and numerical models, an electronic database was created that can be used for calculating the total values of the pressure losses in the optionally assembled exchanger. The measurements are standardly performed by the manufacturer Licon heat hydrodynamic laboratory and the numerical models are carried out in COMSOL Multiphysics. Different variations of the convectors geometry cause non-linear process of energy losses, which is proportionately about 30% larger for the smaller exchanger than for the larger types. The results of the experiments and the numerical simulations were in a very good conjuncture. Considerable influence of the water temperature onto the total size of incurred energy losses has been proven. This is mainly caused by the different ranges of the Reynolds number depending on the viscosity of the used liquid. Concerning to the tested method of superposition, it is not possible to easily find the characteristic values appropriate for the each individual components of the heat exchanger. Every of the components behaves differently, depend on the complexity of the exchanger. However, the correction coefficient, depended on the matrix of the exchanger, that is suitable for the entire range of the developed product line has been found.

  4. Sinking loss should be taken into account while studying the dynamics of Microcystis under light-availability control.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yingying; Chen, Xuechu; He, Shengbing; An, Yang; Yu, Xiaojuan; Peng, Xin

    2016-08-15

    In-situ light-availability control is commonly used to suppress Microcystis blooms in nutrient-rich water resources. It has been suggested that the reduction of column cyanobacterial biomass could mostly be attributed to the inhibition of photosynthesis. However, sinking loss may be another factor influencing the column cyanobacterial biomass. To further investigate the mechanism of this reduction, a mixing-static water column experimental apparatus was designed to simulate the reduction of Microcystis biomass under light-availability control. Under light-shading plus mixing, the reduction of Microcystis in the water column was attributed to both intrinsic biomass loss and sinking loss. Comparatively, under light-shading without mixing, the Microcystis accumulated in surface water, maintaining a continuously increase of intrinsic biomass. Meanwhile, the sinking loss increased as the water column became static, even exceeding the increase of intrinsic biomass, suggesting that sinking loss was the main mechanism for the reduction under light-shading. Further investigation indicated that both intrinsic growth rate and sinking loss rate varied in response to available light. Accordingly, a hypothesis is represented that the loss of column biomass and the shift in dominant species under light-availability control are primarily attributed to the combined effects of intrinsic biomass change and sinking loss, which both respond to available light. PMID:27136732

  5. Analytic Corrections to CFD Heating Predictions Accounting for Changes in Surface Catalysis. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Inger, George R.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach for combining the insight afforded by integral boundary-layer analysis with comprehensive (but time intensive) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flowfield solutions of the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations is described. The approach extracts CFD derived quantities at the wall and at the boundary layer edge for inclusion in a post-processing boundary-layer analysis. It allows a designer at a work-station to address two questions, given a single CFD solution. (1) How much does the heating change for a thermal protection system (TPS) with different catalytic properties than was used in the original CFD solution? (2) How does the heating change at the interface of two different TPS materials with an abrupt change in catalytic efficiency? The answer to the second question is particularly important, because abrupt changes from low to high catalytic efficiency can lead to localized increase in heating which exceeds the usually conservative estimate provided by a fully catalytic wall assumption. Capabilities of this approach for application to Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) design are demonstrated. If the definition of surface catalysis is uncertain early in the design process, results show that fully catalytic wall boundary conditions provide the best baseline for CFD design points.

  6. 26 CFR 301.6511(d)-2 - Overpayment of income tax on account of net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overpayment of income tax on account of net... ADMINISTRATION Limitations Limitations on Assessment and Collection § 301.6511(d)-2 Overpayment of income tax on... claim for credit or refund relates to an overpayment of income tax attributable to a net operating...

  7. Semi-analytical solutions for nonisothermal fluid injection including heat loss from the reservoir: Part 1. Saturation and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaForce, T.; Ennis-King, J.; Paterson, L.

    2014-11-01

    This work introduces the derivation and solution of the conservation laws for nonisothermal immiscible two-phase flow in one dimension (1D) with heat loss to surrounding strata. Purely advective flow is assumed so that the method of characteristics can be applied to the fluid flow and thermal equations with an arbitrary relative permeability model. The formulation allows for a wide class of time-dependent models for heat loss into surrounding strata. One-dimensional linear and radial displacements are considered. Thermal losses to the under- and over-burden are modelled using a heat-loss coefficient derived from the classic Lauwerier model. In order to demonstrate the two kinds of solution that may occur, examples are shown for cold methane injection into an aquifer and cold water injection into a natural gas reservoir. Finally the new analytical solutions are compared with two literature models which assume piston-like displacement, and numerical reservoir simulations. The solutions from the proposed model match the thermal profile from the reservoir simulation much better than either of the literature models in the examples considered.

  8. Reduced reward-driven eating accounts for the impact of a mindfulness-based diet and exercise intervention on weight loss: Data from the SHINE randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mason, Ashley E; Epel, Elissa S; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Lustig, Robert H; Acree, Michael; Kristeller, Jean; Cohn, Michael; Dallman, Mary; Moran, Patricia J; Bacchetti, Peter; Laraia, Barbara; Hecht, Frederick M; Daubenmier, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Many individuals with obesity report over eating despite intentions to maintain or lose weight. Two barriers to long-term weight loss are reward-driven eating, which is characterized by a lack of control over eating, a preoccupation with food, and a lack of satiety; and psychological stress. Mindfulness training may address these barriers by promoting awareness of hunger and satiety cues, self-regulatory control, and stress reduction. We examined these two barriers as potential mediators of weight loss in the Supporting Health by Integrating Nutrition and Exercise (SHINE) randomized controlled trial, which compared the effects of a 5.5-month diet and exercise intervention with or without mindfulness training on weight loss among adults with obesity. Intention-to-treat multiple mediation models tested whether post-intervention reward-driven eating and psychological stress mediated the impact of intervention arm on weight loss at 12- and 18-months post-baseline among 194 adults with obesity (BMI: 30-45). Mindfulness (relative to control) participants had significant reductions in reward-driven eating at 6 months (post-intervention), which, in turn, predicted weight loss at 12 months. Post-intervention reward-driven eating mediated 47.1% of the total intervention arm effect on weight loss at 12 months [β = -0.06, SE(β) = 0.03, p = .030, 95% CI (-0.12, -0.01)]. This mediated effect was reduced when predicting weight loss at 18 months (p = .396), accounting for 23.0% of the total intervention effect, despite similar weight loss at 12 months. Psychological stress did not mediate the effect of intervention arm on weight loss at 12 or 18 months. In conclusion, reducing reward-driven eating, which can be achieved using a diet and exercise intervention that includes mindfulness training, may promote weight loss (clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT00960414). PMID:26867697

  9. Images processing and flow measurement applied to the thermographic analysis of heat-losses in boilers' isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, Manuel A.; Benítez, Hernán; Loaiza, Humberto; Millán, Jaime; González, Jesus A.; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente

    2007-04-01

    Infrared thermography is a non-contact evaluation technique which allows not only the registration of the temperature distribution on a surface, but also the calculation of the amount of heat flowing through it. Boilers are important for industry and the quantification of the heat losses is beneficial to avoid fuel waste. The present work suggests a methodology to calculate the thermic flow through boiler's isolation surfaces, using thermic images. With this, it is possible to find the flow by using a thermogram taking into consideration: the thermogram's range, knowing the camera's FOV, surface's emmisivity and characteristic length, object-to-camera distance, environmental temperature, and the assigned grey-level calibration curve to determined temperature range. A software tool to upload and process the information was developed. This tool can calculate the surface's average convection coefficient hc by using empiric correlations developed for common geometries and heat transfer equations to calculate the thermic flow. To test the technique functioning, the information given by the software tool was compared to the data given by the heat flow measurement thermal sensor. This comparison showed a 3% error range of relative error. The final validation was made on a waterwall-boiler's home isolated walls and the highest error obtained was close to 15%. Regardless the calibration curve was found under laboratory conditions and the empiric correlations to calculate hc are for isometric surfaces, the methodology presented a good performance. This then is a first step to quantify the global heat losses on boiler's isolation surfaces.

  10. Effect of heat stress on the endogenous intestinal loss of amino acids in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Morales, A; Hernández, L; Buenabad, L; Avelar, E; Bernal, H; Baumgard, L H; Cervantes, M

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) increases the death of intestinal cells in pigs, which, in turn, may elevate the endogenous intestinal loss (EIL) of proteins and AA. An experiment was conducted to analyze the effect of HS on the AA composition of intestinal endogenous proteins and the EIL of AA in pigs. Eight pigs (25.2 ± 1.2 kg initial BW) were surgically implanted with T-type cannulas at the end of the small intestine. After surgery recovery, during the subsequent 7 d, all pigs were adapted to a protein- and AA-free diet and trained to consume the same amount of feed twice a day. All pigs were housed under thermoneutral (TN) conditions (22 ± 2°C) during this time. The following day, all pigs were still under TN conditions and ileal content was collected during 12 consecutive hours, at the end of which and for the following 8 d the pigs were exposed to natural HS conditions (31 to 37°C). Ileal content was collected again on d 2 (HS at d 2 [HSd2]) and 8 (HS at d 8 [HSd8]). Body temperature (BT) was measured in another group of 8 pigs every 15 min during the whole study. The average BT at HSd2 (39.6°C) was higher ( < 0.05) compared with both TN conditions (38.6°C) and HSd8 (38.8°C), but it did not differ between TN conditions and HSd8. The AA composition of endogenous intestinal protein was not affected by HS. The EIL of Arg and His were greater ( < 0.05) and the EIL of Thr and Phe tended to be greater ( ≤ 0.10) at HSd2 than in TN conditions; the EIL of Pro was greater ( = 0.01) at HSd8. The EIL of the remaining AA was not affected by HS. Although HS increased the EIL of Arg and His within the first 2 d, it appeared that normal EIL was shortly reestablished. These data show that acute HS does not affect the AA composition of intestinal endogenous proteins in growing pigs and that the EIL of AA may not be critical in growing pigs acclimated to high ambient temperature. Nevertheless, the increased EIL of Arg and Thr at HSd2 indicate that HS might affect the integrity of the

  11. The effect of plasma osmolality and baroreceptor loading status on postexercise heat loss responses.

    PubMed

    Paull, Gabrielle; Dervis, Sheila; Barrera-Ramirez, Juliana; McGinn, Ryan; Haqani, Baies; Flouris, Andreas D; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-03-15

    We examined the separate and combined effects of plasma osmolality and baroreceptor loading status on postexercise heat loss responses. Nine young males completed a 45-min treadmill exercise protocol at 58 ± 2% V̇o2 peak, followed by a 60-min recovery. On separate days, participants received 0.9% NaCl (ISO), 3.0% NaCl (HYP), or no infusion (natural recovery) throughout exercise. In two additional sessions (no infusion), lower-body negative (LBNP) or positive (LBPP) pressure was applied throughout the final 45 min of recovery. Local sweat rate (LSR; ventilated capsule: chest, forearm, upper back, forehead) and skin blood flow (SkBF; laser-Doppler flowmetry: forearm, upper back) were continuously measured. During HYP, upper back LSR was attenuated from end-exercise to 10 min of recovery by ∼0.35 ± 0.10 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2) and during the last 20 min of recovery by ∼0.13 ± 0.03 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2), while chest LSR was lower by 0.18 ± 0.06 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2) at 50 min of recovery compared with natural recovery (all P < 0.05). Forearm and forehead LSRs were not affected by plasma hyperosmolality during HYP (all P > 0.28), which suggests regional differences in the osmotic modulation of postexercise LSR. Furthermore, LBPP application attenuated LSR by ∼0.07-0.28 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2) during the last 30 min of recovery at all sites except the forehead compared with natural recovery (all P < 0.05). Relative to natural recovery, forearm and upper back SkBF were elevated during LBPP, ISO, and HYP by ∼6-10% by the end of recovery (all P < 0.05). We conclude that 1) hyperosmolality attenuates postexercise sweating heterogeneously among skin regions, and 2) baroreceptor loading modulates postexercise SkBF independently of changes in plasma osmolality without regional differences. PMID:26764055

  12. An experimental and numerical study of the effects of heat loss and unsteadiness on laminar strained flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai

    A combined experimental and detailed numerical study was conducted on the effects of heat loss and unsteadiness on strained laminar flames at normal- and microgravity. Results are of interest to a variety of fundamental combustion phenomena including flammability limits. Furthermore, valuable information is provided in the context of turbulent combustion for conditions under which the flamelet concept is applicable. The majority of previous studies on flamelets have been focused on steady and adiabatic conditions, even though unsteadiness and heat loss are inherently present in any realistic flowfield. The experiments included the use of the opposed-jet and single-jet configurations in which the strain rate is a well-defined and well-controlled parameter. Velocity measurements were conducted through the use of laser Doppler velocimetry at normal-gravity and extinction strain rates. The counterflow technique was also introduced in micro-gravity through an involved experimental apparatus that allowed for the study of extinction of near-limit flames under conditions that could not be assessed in normal-gravity. The C-shape response of the extinction strain rate vs equivalence ratio was quantified for Le < 1 flames by assuring that upstream heat losses were not present. For Le > 1 flames, a monotonic response was found. Experiments were also conducted at normal-gravity on the effect of downstream heat loss on the propagation and extinction of laminar strained premixed flames. The effect of monochromatic velocity unsteadiness was experimentally studied for non-premixed strained flames and theoretically derived scaling arguments were confirmed. Furthermore, the flames were found to resist to extinction at high frequencies, confirming again theoretical predictions. The experiments were modeled by using detailed description of chemical kinetics, molecular transport, and thermal radiation. The effect of various radiation models on the flame response was assessed. Such

  13. Do nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase contribute to the heat loss responses in older males exercising in the heat?

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; Paull, Gabrielle; Meade, Robert D; McGinn, Ryan; Stapleton, Jill M; Akbari, Pegah; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-07-15

    This study evaluated the separate and combined roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) in forearm sweating and cutaneous vasodilatation in older adults during intermittent exercise in the heat. Twelve healthy older (62 ± 7 years) males performed two 30 min cycling bouts at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) in the heat (35°C, 20% relative humidity). The exercise bouts were followed by 20 and 40 min of recovery, respectively. Forearm sweat rate (ventilated capsule) and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC, laser Doppler perfusion units/mean arterial pressure) were evaluated at four skin sites that were continuously perfused via intradermal microdialysis with: (1) lactated Ringer solution (Control), (2) 10 mm ketorolac (non-selective COX inhibitor), (3) 10 mm N(G) -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; non-selective NOS inhibitor) or (4) a combination of 10 mm ketorolac + 10 mm l-NAME. Sweating was not different between the four sites during either exercise bout (main effect P = 0.92) (average of last 5 min of second exercise, Control, 0.80 ± 0.06; ketorolac, 0.77 ± 0.09; l-NAME, 0.74 ± 0.07; ketorolac + l-NAME, 0.77 ± 0.09 mg min(-1) cm(-2) ). During both exercise bouts, relative to CVC evaluated at the Control site (average of last 5 min of second exercise, 69 ± 6%max), CVC was similar at the ketorolac site (P = 0.62; 66 ± 4%max) whereas it was attenuated to a similar extent at both the l-NAME (49 ± 8%max) and ketorolac + l-NAME (54 ± 8%max) sites (both P < 0.05). Thus, we demonstrate that NOS and COX are not functionally involved in forearm sweating whereas only NOS contributes to forearm cutaneous vasodilatation in older adults during intermittent exercise in the heat. PMID:25820454

  14. Wind-chill equations predicting whole-body heat loss for a range of typical civilian outdoor clothing ensembles.

    PubMed

    Wyon, D P

    1989-01-01

    A thermal manikin with constant skin temperature and a wind-chill tunnel with constant air temperatures and wind speeds were used to measure whole-body heat loss for seven ensembles chosen to represent the full range of civilian outdoor clothing in use for everyday, nonsporting wear. Equations fitting the data with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.99 were derived for each ensemble, and diagrams were produced with these equations to interpolate and extend the range of conditions. The conditions studied were those resulting in total heat loss from 50 to 250 W.m-2, so very little extrapolation was required. The wind-chill equivalent temperature (with reference to 2 m.s-1), based on the average value for all seven ensembles, showed good agreement on this measure. The values predicted on the basis of whole-body heat loss through clothing were shown to be much lower than those predicted from the Siple wind-chill index for unprotected skin. PMID:2609124

  15. The Dielectric Loss Characteristic of Ice by Dielectric Heating Method for The Thawing of Foods or Biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xianglan; Shirakashi, Ryo; Nishio, Shigefumi

    The thawing of ice crystal is very important for thawing of frozen foods and cryopreserved biomaterials. It was found that an alternative current (AC) electric field may effect the thawing process of frozen foods and cryopreserved biomaterials. In the present study, the spectrum of dielectric loss of ice crystal (50Hz~1.8GHz) was measured at various temperatures(-60°C to -2°C). The experiments of heating ice crystal using electric field were done to investigate the absorption of AC electric energy, which changes with the frequency of electric field. In order to evaluate the rapidness and the uniformity of thawing quantitatively, a numerical simulation of one-dimensional heat transfer was also conducted based on the measured spectrum of the dielectric loss of ice. The results showed that AC electric field have the uniform heating effect, only when the value of the frequency multiplied by dielectric loss (fε") decreases as the temperature increases. One of the optimum frequencies for a rapid and uniform thawing was found to be at around 3MHz.

  16. Heat transfer processes during intermediate and large break loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Vojtek, I

    1986-09-01

    The general purpose of this project was the investigation of the heat transfer regimes during the high pressure portion of blowdown. The main attention has been focussed on the evaluation of those phenomena which are most important in reactor safety, such as maximum and minimum critical heat flux and forced convection film boiling heat transfer. The experimental results of the 25-rod bundle blowdown heat transfer tests, which were performed at the KWU heat transfer test facility in Karlstein, were used as a database for the verification of different correlations which are used or were developed for the analysis of reactor safety problems. The computer code BRUDI-VA was used for the calculation of local values of important thermohydraulic parameters in the bundle.

  17. Ongoing hydrothermal heat loss from the 1912 ash-flow sheet, Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogeweg, N.; Keith, T.E.C.; Colvard, E.M.; Ingebritsen, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    The June 1912 eruption of Novarupta filled nearby glacial valleys on the Alaska Peninsula with ash-flow tuff (ignimbrite), and post-eruption observations of thousands of steaming fumaroles led to the name 'Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes' (VTTS). By the late 1980s most fumarolic activity had ceased, but the discovery of thermal springs in mid-valley in 1987 suggested continued cooling of the ash-flow sheet. Data collected at the mid-valley springs between 1987 and 2001 show a statistically significant correlation between maximum observed chloride (Cl) concentration and temperature. These data also show a statistically significant decline in the maximum Cl concentration. The observed variation in stream chemistry across the sheet strongly implies that most solutes, including Cl, originate within the area of the VTTS occupied by the 1912 deposits. Numerous measurements of Cl flux in the Ukak River just below the ash-flow sheet suggest an ongoing heat loss of ???250 MW. This represents one of the largest hydrothermal heat discharges in North America. Other hydrothermal discharges of comparable magnitude are related to heat obtained from silicic magma bodies at depth, and are quasi-steady on a multidecadal time scale. However, the VTTS hydrothermal flux is not obviously related to a magma body and is clearly declining. Available data provide reasonable boundary and initial conditions for simple transient modeling. Both an analytical, conduction-only model and a numerical model predict large rates of heat loss from the sheet 90 years after deposition.

  18. Loss of Arabidopsis 5'-3' Exoribonuclease AtXRN4 Function Enhances Heat Stress Tolerance of Plants Subjected to Severe Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh Hai; Matsui, Akihiro; Tanaka, Maho; Mizunashi, Kayoko; Nakaminami, Kentaro; Hayashi, Makoto; Iida, Kei; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Nguyen, Dong Van; Seki, Motoaki

    2015-09-01

    mRNA degradation plays an important role in the rapid and dynamic alteration of gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. Arabidopsis 5'-3' exoribonuclease (AtXRN4), a homolog of yeast Xrn1p, functions after a de-capping step in the degradation of uncapped RNAs. While Xrn1p-dependent degradation of mRNA is the main process of mRNA decay in yeast, information pertaining to the targets of XRN4-based degradation in plants is limited. In order to better understand the biological function of AtXRN4, the current study examined the survivability of atxrn4 mutants subjected to heat stress. The results indicated that atxrn4 mutants, compared with wild-type plants, exhibited an increased survival rate when subjected to a short-term severe heat stress. A microarray and mRNA decay assay showed that loss of AtXRN4 function caused a reduction in the degradation of heat shock factor A2 (HSFA2) and ethylene response factor 1 (ERF1) mRNA. The heat stress tolerance phenotype of atxrn4 mutants was significantly reduced or lost by mutation of HSFA2, a known key regulator of heat acclimation, thus indicating that HSFA2 is a target gene of AtXRN4-mediated mRNA degradation both under non-stress conditions and during heat acclimation. These results demonstrate that AtXRN4-mediated mRNA degradation is linked to the suppression of heat acclimation. PMID:26136597

  19. Surface Area Loss and Increased Sphericity Account for the Splenic Entrapment of Subpopulations of Plasmodium falciparum Ring-Infected Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Safeukui, Innocent; Buffet, Pierre A.; Perrot, Sylvie; Sauvanet, Alain; Aussilhou, Beatrice; Dokmak, Safi; Couvelard, Anne; Hatem, Dominique Cazals; Mohandas, Narla; David, Peter H.; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Milon, Geneviève

    2013-01-01

    Ex vivo perfusion of human spleens revealed innate retention of numerous cultured Plasmodium falciparum ring-infected red blood cells (ring-iRBCs). Ring-iRBC retention was confirmed by a microsphiltration device, a microbead-based technology that mimics the mechanical filtering function of the human spleen. However, the cellular alterations underpinning this retention remain unclear. Here, we use ImageStream technology to analyze infected RBCs’ morphology and cell dimensions before and after fractionation with microsphiltration. Compared to fresh normal RBCs, the mean cell membrane surface area loss of trophozoite-iRBCs, ring-iRBCs and uninfected co-cultured RBCs (uRBCs) was 14.2% (range: 8.3–21.9%), 9.6% (7.3–12.2%) and 3.7% (0–8.4), respectively. Microsphilters retained 100%, ∼50% and 4% of trophozoite-iRBCs, ring-iRBCs and uRBCs, respectively. Retained ring-iRBCs display reduced surface area values (estimated mean, range: 17%, 15–18%), similar to the previously shown threshold of surface-deficient RBCs retention in the human spleen (surface area loss: >18%). By contrast, ring-iRBCs that successfully traversed microsphilters had minimal surface area loss and normal sphericity, suggesting that these parameters are determinants of their retention. To confirm this hypothesis, fresh normal RBCs were exposed to lysophosphatidylcholine to induce a controlled loss of surface area. This resulted in a dose-dependent retention in microsphilters, with complete retention occurring for RBCs displaying >14% surface area loss. Taken together, these data demonstrate that surface area loss and resultant increased sphericity drive ring-iRBC retention in microsphilters, and contribute to splenic entrapment of a subpopulation of ring-iRBCs. These findings trigger more interest in malaria research fields, including modeling of infection kinetics, estimation of parasite load, and analysis of risk factors for severe clinical forms. The determination of the threshold of

  20. Utilization and requirement of dietary protein taking into account the dermal and miscellaneous nitrogen losses in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, K; Ishikawa, K; Setoguchi, K; Koike, G

    1988-10-01

    Utilization and requirement of mixed protein in the conventional Japanese diet and the obligatory integumental and miscellaneous nitrogen losses were measured in female subjects. Twelve female students aged 18 to 24 years were given conventional low-protein diets at N intake levels of 50, 70, and 90 mg/kg/day for 10 days. Constituents of the diets corresponded to those of average intake of the Japanese in recent years (1982). N balances were estimated and regression equations between N intake (X) and N balance (Y) were calculated by the multiple level-constant variation method. The equation was Y = 0.426X - 40.0 (n = 36, r = 0.615, p less than 0.01) and the intersection of the regression line with zero nitrogen balance was 93.9 +/- 14.3 mg N/kg/day. The mean digestibility was 92.2 +/- 4.7%. In another experimental group, nitrogen losses due to hair, nails, and menstruation in ten Japanese women were 0.624 +/- 0.172, 0.020 +/- 0.005, and 1.76 +/- 0.68 mg/kg/day, respectively. In a third experimental group, mean of the integumental N losses was 2.8 mg/kg/day in both the subjects given a low-protein diet (19 women) and an ordinary-protein diet (4 women). It increased to 12.7 mg N/kg/day when subjects exercised in summer (4 subjects). The protein requirement in the conventional Japanese diet estimated as the sum of the mean requirement of dietary protein and obligatory dermal and miscellaneous nitrogen losses in Japanese women was 99.1 mg N/kg/day or 0.62 g protein/kg/day. The net protein utilization (NPU) of the proteins at the N intake level for N equilibrium was estimated as 48. PMID:3230417

  1. An Account of Preliminary Landslide Damage and Losses Resulting from the February 28, 2001, Nisqually, Washington, Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Highland, Lynn M.

    2003-01-01

    The February 28, 2001, Nisqually, Washington, earthquake (Mw = 6.8) damaged an area of the northwestern United States that previously experienced two major historical earthquakes, in 1949 and in 1965. Preliminary estimates of direct monetary losses from damage due to earthquake-induced landslides is approximately $34.3 million. However, this figure does not include costs from damages to the elevated portion of the Alaskan Way Viaduct, a major highway through downtown Seattle, Washington that will be repaired or rebuilt, depending on the future decision of local and state authorities. There is much debate as to the cause of the damage to this viaduct with evaluations of cause ranging from earthquake shaking and liquefaction to lateral spreading to a combination of these effects. If the viaduct is included in the costs, the losses increase to $500+ million (if it is repaired) or to more than $1+ billion (if it is replaced). Preliminary estimate of losses due to all causes of earthquake damage is approximately $2 billion, which includes temporary repairs to the Alaskan Way Viaduct. These preliminary dollar figures will no doubt increase when plans and decisions regarding the Viaduct are completed.

  2. The early heat loss evolution of Mars and their implications for internal and environmental history.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The time around 3.7 Ga ago was an epoch when substantial changes in Mars occurred: a substantial decline in aqueous erosion/degradation of landscape features; a change from abundant phyllosilicate formation to abundant acidic and evaporitic mineralogy; a change from olivine-rich volcanism to olivine-pyroxene volcanism; and maybe the cessation of the martian dynamo. Here I show that Mars also experienced profound changes in its internal dynamics in the same approximate time, including a reduction of heat flow and a drastic increasing of lithosphere strength. The reduction of heat flow indicates a limited cooling (or even a heating-up) of the deep interior for post-3.7 Ga times. The drastic increasing of lithosphere strength indicates a cold lithosphere above the inefficiently cooled (or even heated) interior. All those changes experienced by Mars were most probably linked and suggest the existence of profound interrelations between interior dynamics and environmental evolution of this planet. PMID:24614056

  3. Heat shock induces a loss of rRNA-encoding DNA repeats in Brassica nigra.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, E R; Schaal, B A

    1996-01-01

    Stress-induced mutations may play an important role in the evolution of plants. Plants do not sequester a germ line, and thus any stress-induced mutations could be passed on to future generations. We report a study of the effects of heat shock on genomic components of Brassica nigra Brassicaceae. Plants were submitted to heat stress, and the copy number of two nuclear-encoded single-copy genes, rRNA-encoding DNA (rDNA) and a chloroplast DNA gene, was determined and compared to a nonstressed control group. We determined whether genomic changes were inherited by examining copy number in the selfed progeny of control and heat-treated individuals. No effects of heat shock on copy number of the single-copy nuclear genes or on chloroplast DNA are found. However, heat shock did cause a statistically significant reduction in rDNA copies inherited by the F1 generation. In addition, we propose a DNA damage-reppair hypothesis to explain the reduction in rDNA caused by heat shock. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8643652

  4. An investigation of the self-heating phenomenon in viscoelastic materials subjected to cyclic loadings accounting for prestress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, A. M. G.; Rade, D. A.; Lacerda, H. B.; Araújo, C. A.

    2015-06-01

    It has been demonstrated by many authors that the internal damping mechanism of the viscoelastic materials offers many possibilities for practical engineering applications. However, in traditional procedures of analysis and design of viscoelastic dampers subjected to cyclic loadings, uniform, constant temperature is generally assumed and do not take into account the self-heating phenomenon. Moreover, for viscoelastic materials subjected to dynamic loadings superimposed on static preloads, such as engine mounts, these procedures can lead to poor designs or even severe failures since the energy dissipated within the volume of the material leads to temperature rises. In this paper, a hybrid numerical-experimental investigation of effects of the static preloads on the self-heating phenomenon in viscoelastic dampers subjected to harmonic loadings is reported. After presenting the theoretical foundations, the numerical and experimental results obtained in terms of the temperature evolutions at different points within the volume of the viscoelastic material for various static preloads are compared, and the main features of the methodology are discussed.

  5. Generation of a Parabolic Trough Collector Efficiency Curve from Separate Measurements of Outdoor Optical Efficiency and Indoor Receiver Heat Loss

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Stynes, J. K.

    2012-02-01

    The thermal efficiency of a parabolic trough collector is a function of both the fraction of direct normal radiation absorbed by the receiver (the optical efficiency) and the heat lost to the environment when the receiver is at operating temperature. The thermal efficiency can be determined by testing the collector under actual operating conditions or by separately measuring these two components. This paper describes how outdoor measurement of the optical efficiency is combined with laboratory measurements of receiver heat loss to obtain the thermal efficiency curve. This paper describes this approach and also makes the case that there are advantages to plotting collector efficiency versus the difference between the operating temperature and the ambient temperature at which the receiver heat loss was measured divided by radiation to a fractional power (on the order of 1/3 but obtained via data regression) - as opposed to the difference between operating and ambient temperatures divided by the radiation. The results are shown to be robust over wide ranges of ambient temperature, sky temperature, and wind speed.

  6. Heat loss from the Atlantic water layer in the St. Anna Trough (northern Kara Sea): causes and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrenko, I. A.; Kirillov, S. A.; Serra, N.; Koldunov, N. V.; Ivanov, V. V.; Schauer, U.; Polyakov, I. V.; Barber, D.; Janout, M.; Lien, V. S.; Makhotin, M.; Aksenov, Y.

    2014-02-01

    A distinct, subsurface density front along the eastern St. Anna Trough in the northern Kara Sea is inferred from hydrographic observations in 1996 and 2008-2010. Direct velocity measurements show a persistent northward subsurface current (~ 20 cm s-1) along the St. Anna Trough eastern flank. This sheared flow, carrying the outflow from the Barents and Kara Seas to the Arctic Ocean, is also evident from shipboard observations as well as from geostrophic velocities and numerical model simulations. Although no clear evidence for the occurrence of shear instabilities could be obtained, we speculate that the enhanced vertical mixing along the St. Anna Trough eastern flank promoted by a vertical velocity shear favors the upward heat loss from the intermediate warm Atlantic water layer. The associated upward heat flux is inferred to 50-100 W m-2 using hydrographic data and model simulations. The zone of lowered sea ice thickness and concentration essentially marks the Atlantic water pathway in the St. Anna Trough and adjacent Nansen Basin continental margin from both sea-ice remote sensing observations and model simulations. In fact, the seaice shows a consistently delayed freeze-up onset during fall and a reduction in the seaice thickness during winter. This is consistent with our results on the enhanced Atlantic water heat loss along the Atlantic water pathway in the St. Anna Trough.1 1Dedicated to the memory of our colleague Klaus Hochheim who tragically lost his life in the Arctic expedition in September 2013

  7. Influence of anticoccidial drugs on losses of broiler chickens from heat stress and coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, K; McDouglad, L R

    1981-11-01

    A floor-pen experiment conducted to study the anticoccidial efficacy of a number of drugs coincided with prolonged periods of hot weather and provided a good opportunity to study the interactions of anticoccidial drugs and environmental temperature. Six replicates of 60 day-old male chicks were fed one of the experimental diets for 48 days followed by a 5-day withdrawal period. The treatments consisted of unmedicated, salinomycin (60 ppm), monensin (100 ppm), arprinocid (60 ppm), halofuginone (3 ppm), amprolium/ethopabate (125/4 ppm), nicarbazin (125 ppm), and clopidol (125 ppm). Coccidiosis exposure was produced by mixing the suspensions of oocysts with the feed. Eleven heat related mortality episodes were recorded in the period of the experiment. All the mortality peaks were recorded at environmental temperatures at or above 37.8 C and relative humidity of 80 to 98%. Heat stress caused an excessive mortality in nicarbazin treated birds at an early age (18 to 29 days of age), while heat related mortality was low at this age with other drug treatments. Total heat related mortality with nicarbazin treated birds was significantly higher (59.2%) than the other treatments (8 to 18.6%). In order to investigate further the interaction of environmental temperature and nicarbazin, two battery trials were conducted in controlled environmental rooms. No heat stress mortality was recorded in the period of the first trial when nicarbazin treated birds were exposed to a constant environmental temperature of 32.2 C; however, their performance was affected. The results of the second trail showed that when nicarbazin treated birds were exposed to a constant environmental temperature of 37.8 C they suffered more severely from the heat stress than the unmedicated group in a short period of time. The results of these experiments confirmed that an interaction exists between high environmental temperatures and the anticoccidial drug nicarbazin. PMID:7329918

  8. The influence of activewear worn under standard work coveralls on whole-body heat loss.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Jill M; Hardcastle, Stephen G; Kenny, Glen P

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluated the influence of activewear undergarments worn under the standard mining coveralls on whole-body heat exchange and change in body heat content during work in the heat. Each participant performed 60 min of cycling at a constant rate of heat production of 400 W followed by 60 min of recovery in a whole-body calorimeter regulated at 40°C and 15% relative humidity donning one of the four clothing ensembles: (1) cotton underwear and shorts only (Control, CON); (2) Activewear only (ACT); (3) Coveralls+Cotton undergarments (COV+COT); or (4) Coveralls+Activewear undergarments (COV+ACT). In the latter two conditions a hard hat with earmuffs, gloves, and socks with closed toe shoes were worn. We observed that both COV+COT and COV+ACT resulted in a similar mean (±SE) change in body heat content, which was significantly greater compared with the CON and ACT during exercise, suggesting that the rate of thermal strain was elevated to a similar degree in both coverall conditions (CON: 245±32 kJ; ACT: 260±29 kJ; COV+COT: 428±36 kJ; COV+ACT: 466±15 kJ; p<0.001). During recovery, the negative change in body heat content was greater for both COV+COT and COV+ACT compared with the CON and ACT but similar between COV+COT and COV+ACT due to the greater amount of heat stored during exercise (CON: -83±16 kJ; ACT: -104±33 kJ; COV+COT: -198±30 kJ; COV+ACT: -145±12 kJ; p=0.048). Core temperatures and heart rate were also significantly elevated for the COV+COT and COV+ACT compared with the CON and ACT conditions during and following exercise (p<0.05). These results suggest that while activewear undergarments are not detrimental, they provide no thermoregulatory benefit when replacing the cotton undergarment worn under the standard coverall during work in the heat. PMID:21966970

  9. Quantification of excess water loss in plant canopies warmed with infrared heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we investigate the extent to which infrared heating used to warm plant canopies in climate manipulation experiments increases transpiration. Concerns regarding the impact of the infrared heater technique on the water balance have been raised before, but a quantification is lacking. We calculate...

  10. The early heat loss evolution of Mars and their implications for internal and environmental history

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The time around 3.7 Ga ago was an epoch when substantial changes in Mars occurred: a substantial decline in aqueous erosion/degradation of landscape features; a change from abundant phyllosilicate formation to abundant acidic and evaporitic mineralogy; a change from olivine-rich volcanism to olivine-pyroxene volcanism; and maybe the cessation of the martian dynamo. Here I show that Mars also experienced profound changes in its internal dynamics in the same approximate time, including a reduction of heat flow and a drastic increasing of lithosphere strength. The reduction of heat flow indicates a limited cooling (or even a heating-up) of the deep interior for post-3.7 Ga times. The drastic increasing of lithosphere strength indicates a cold lithosphere above the inefficiently cooled (or even heated) interior. All those changes experienced by Mars were most probably linked and suggest the existence of profound interrelations between interior dynamics and environmental evolution of this planet. PMID:24614056

  11. Heat shock protein 60 protects skeletal tissue against glucocorticoid-induced bone mass loss by regulating osteoblast survival.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Sheng; Wu, Re-Wen; Ko, Jih-Yang; Tai, Ming-Hong; Ke, Huei-Ching; Yeh, Da-Wei; Wu, Shin-Long; Chen, Ming-Wen

    2011-11-01

    Excessive glucocorticoid administration accelerates osteoblast apoptosis and skeletal deterioration. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) regulate metabolic activities in osteoblastic cells. This study characterized the biological significance of HSP60 in glucocorticoid-induced bone loss. Rats were treated with glucocorticoid, HSP60 antisense oligonucleotides, or adenovirus-mediated HSP60 gene transfer. Bone mineral density, metaphyseal trabecular micro-architecture, and fragility were analyzed by dual X-ray absorptiometry, micro-computed tomography, and material testing, respectively. Differential proteomic profiles of bone tissue extracts were detected by bi-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Survival and proapoptotic signal transduction were quantified by immunoblotting. Glucocorticoid-treated rats had low bone mineral density and metaphyseal trabecular microstructure in association with downregulation of collagen 1α1 and HSP60 expressions in bone tissue. Gain of HSP60 function by adenovirus-mediated HSP60 gene transfer abrogated the deleterious effects of glucocorticoid treatment on bone mass, trabecular microstructure, and mechanical strength. Enhancement of HSP60 signaling attenuated the glucocorticoid-induced loss of trabecular bone volume, mineral acquisition reactions and osteoblast surface. HSP60 gene transfer activated ERK and Akt and reduced Bax and cytochrome c release, as well as caspase-3 cleavage, which attenuated the inhibitory effects of glucocorticoid treatment on osteoblast survival. Loss of HSP60 function by HSP60 antisense oligonucleotides accelerated mitochondrial apoptotic programs and osteoblast apoptosis. Knockdown of HSP60 induced loss of bone mass, micro-architecture integrity, and mechanical property. Taken together, loss of HSP60 signaling contributes to the glucocorticoid-induced enhancement of pro-apoptotic reactions, thereby accelerating osteoblast apoptosis and bone mass loss. Enhancement of HSP60 function is beneficial for

  12. Fast pyrobolometers for measurements of plasma heat fluxes and radiation losses in the MST Reversed Field Pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Fiksel, G.; Frank, J.; Holly, D.

    1993-01-07

    Two types of fast bolometers are described for the plasma energy transport study in the Madison Symmetric Torus plasma confinement device. Both types use pyrocrystals of LiTaO[sub 3] or LiNbO[sub 3] as the sensors. One type is used for measurements of the radiated heat losses and is situated at the vacuum shell inner surface. Another type is insertable in the plasma and measures the plasma particle heat flux. The frequency response of the bolometers is measured to be in the 150--200 kHz range. The range of the measured power fluxes is 0.1 W/cm[sup 2] 10 kW/cm[sup 2] and can be adjusted by changing the size of the entrance aperture. The lower limit is determined by the amplifier noise and the frequency bandwidth, the higher limit by destruction of the bolometer sensor.

  13. Fast pyrobolometers for measurements of plasma heat fluxes and radiation losses in the MST Reversed Field Pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Fiksel, G.; Frank, J.; Holly, D.

    1993-01-07

    Two types of fast bolometers are described for the plasma energy transport study in the Madison Symmetric Torus plasma confinement device. Both types use pyrocrystals of LiTaO{sub 3} or LiNbO{sub 3} as the sensors. One type is used for measurements of the radiated heat losses and is situated at the vacuum shell inner surface. Another type is insertable in the plasma and measures the plasma particle heat flux. The frequency response of the bolometers is measured to be in the 150--200 kHz range. The range of the measured power fluxes is 0.1 W/cm{sup 2} 10 kW/cm{sup 2} and can be adjusted by changing the size of the entrance aperture. The lower limit is determined by the amplifier noise and the frequency bandwidth, the higher limit by destruction of the bolometer sensor.

  14. Heat waves imposed during early pod development in soybean (Glycine max) cause significant yield loss despite a rapid recovery from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Siebers, Matthew H; Yendrek, Craig R; Drag, David; Locke, Anna M; Rios Acosta, Lorena; Leakey, Andrew D B; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2015-08-01

    Heat waves already have a large impact on crops and are predicted to become more intense and more frequent in the future. In this study, heat waves were imposed on soybean using infrared heating technology in a fully open-air field experiment. Five separate heat waves were applied to field-grown soybean (Glycine max) in central Illinois, three in 2010 and two in 2011. Thirty years of historical weather data from Illinois were analyzed to determine the length and intensity of a regionally realistic heat wave resulting in experimental heat wave treatments during which day and night canopy temperatures were elevated 6 °C above ambient for 3 days. Heat waves were applied during early or late reproductive stages to determine whether and when heat waves had an impact on carbon metabolism and seed yield. By the third day of each heat wave, net photosynthesis (A), specific leaf weight (SLW), and leaf total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration (TNC) were decreased, while leaf oxidative stress was increased. However, A, SLW, TNC, and measures of oxidative stress were no different than the control ca. 12 h after the heat waves ended, indicating rapid physiological recovery from the high-temperature stress. That end of season seed yield was reduced (~10%) only when heat waves were applied during early pod developmental stages indicates the yield loss had more to do with direct impacts of the heat waves on reproductive process than on photosynthesis. Soybean was unable to mitigate yield loss after heat waves given during late reproductive stages. This study shows that short high-temperature stress events that reduce photosynthesis and increase oxidative stress resulted in significant losses to soybean production in the Midwest, U.S. The study also suggests that to mitigate heat wave-induced yield loss, soybean needs improved reproductive and photosynthetic tolerance to high but increasingly common temperatures. PMID:25845935

  15. Analysis of loss of decay-heat-removal sequences at Browns Ferry Unit One

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) report Loss of DHR Sequences at Browns Ferry Unit One - Accident Sequence Analysis (NUREG/CR-2973). The Loss of DHR investigation is the third in a series of accident studies concerning the BWR 4 - MK I containment plant design. These studies, sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) program, have been conducted at ORNL with the full cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The purpose of the SASA studies is to predetermine the probable course of postulated severe accidents so as to establish the timing and the sequence of events. The SASA studies also produce recommendations concerning the implementation of better system design and better emergency operating instructions and operator training. The ORNL studies also include a detailed, best-estimate calculation of the release and transport of radioactive fission products following postulated severe accidents.

  16. Experimental investigation of airfoil trailing edge heat transfer and aerodynamic losses

    SciTech Connect

    Brundage, A.L.; Plesniak, M.W.; Lawless, P.B.; Ramadhyani, S.

    2007-01-15

    Modern gas turbine development is being driven by the often-incompatible goals of increased efficiency, better durability, and reduced emissions. High turbine inlet temperatures and ineffective cooling at the trailing edge of a first-stage stator vane lead to corrosion, oxidation, and thermal fatigue. Observations of this region in engines frequently reveal burn marks, cracks, and buckling. Fundamental studies of the importance of trailing edge heat transfer to the design of an optimal cooling scheme are scarce. An experimental study of an actively cooled trailing edge configuration, in which coolant is injected through a slot, is performed. Trailing edge heat transfer and aerodynamic measurements are reported. An optimum balance between maximizing blade row aerodynamic efficiency and improving thermal protection at the trailing edge is estimated to be achieved when blowing ratios are in the range between 2.1% and 2.8%. The thermal phenomena at the trailing edge are dominated by injection slot heat transfer and flow physics. These measured trends are generally applicable over a wide range of gas turbine applications. (author)

  17. Ventilation loss and pressurization in the NASA launch/entry suit: Potential for heat stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Jonathan W.; Dejneka, Katherine Y.; Askew, Gregory K.

    1989-01-01

    The potential of the NASA Launch/Entry Suit (LES) for producing heat stress in a simulated Space Shuttle cabin environment was studied. The testing was designed to identify potential heat stress hazards if the LES were pressurized or if ventilation were lost. Conditions were designed to simulate an extreme pre-launch situation with chamber temperatures maintained at dry bulb temperature = 27.2 +/- 0.1 C, globe temperature = 27.3 +/- 0.1 C, and wet bulb temperature = 21.1 +/- 0.3 C. Two females and two males, 23 to 34 years of age, were employed in this study, with two subjects having exposures in all 3 conditions. Test durations in the ventilated (V) and unventilated (UV) conditions were designed for 480 minutes, which all subjects achieved. Pressurized runs (Pr) were designed for 45 minutes, which all subjects also achieved. While some significant differences related to experimental conditions were noted in rectal and mean skin temperatures, evaporation rates, sweat rates, and heart rate, these differences were not thought to be physiologically significant. The results indicate that the LES garment, in either the Pr or UV state, poses no danger of inducing unacceptable heat stress under the conditions expected within the Space Shuttle cabin during launch or reentry.

  18. Ventilation Loss in the NASA Space Shuttle Crew Protective Garments: Potential for Heat Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askew, Gregory K.; Kaufman, Jonathan W.

    1991-01-01

    The potential of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) S1035 Launch/Entry suit (LES) for producing heat stress in a simulated Space Shuttle cabin environment has been studied. The testing was designed to determine if the NASA S1035 poses a greater threat of inducing heat stress than the NASA S1032. Conditions were designed to simulate an extreme prelaunch situation, with chamber temperatures maintained at dry bulb temperature 27.2 +/- 0.1 C, globe temperature - 27.3 +/- 0.1 C, and wet bulb temperature 21.1 +/- 0.3 C. Four males, aged 28-48, were employed in this study, with three subjects having exposures in all four conditions and the fourth subject exposed to 3 conditions. Test durations in the ventilated (V) and unventilated (UV) conditions were designed for 480 minutes, which all subjects achieved. No significant differences related to experimental conditions were noted in rectal temperatures, heart rates or sweat rates. The results indicate that the S1032 and S1035 garments, in either the V or UV state, poses no danger of inducing unacceptable heat stress under the conditions expected within the Shuttle cabin during launch or re-entry.

  19. Effects of biomass burning on climate, accounting for heat and moisture fluxes, black and brown carbon, and cloud absorption effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2014-07-01

    This paper examines the effects on climate and air pollution of open biomass burning (BB) when heat and moisture fluxes, gases and aerosols (including black and brown carbon, tar balls, and reflective particles), cloud absorption effects (CAEs) I and II, and aerosol semidirect and indirect effects on clouds are treated. It also examines the climate impacts of most anthropogenic heat and moisture fluxes (AHFs and AMFs). Transient 20 year simulations indicate BB may cause a net global warming of ~0.4 K because CAE I (~32% of BB warming), CAE II, semidirect effects, AHFs (~7%), AMFs, and aerosol absorption outweigh direct aerosol cooling and indirect effects, contrary to previous BB studies that did not treat CAEs, AHFs, AMFs, or brown carbon. Some BB warming can be understood in terms of the anticorrelation between instantaneous direct radiative forcing (DRF) changes and surface temperature changes in clouds containing absorbing aerosols. BB may cause ~250,000 (73,000-435,000) premature mortalities/yr, with >90% from particles. AHFs from all sources and AMFs + AHFs from power plants and electricity use each may cause a statistically significant +0.03 K global warming. Solar plus thermal-IR DRFs were +0.033 (+0.027) W/m2 for all AHFs globally without (with) evaporating cooling water, +0.009 W/m2 for AMFs globally, +0.52 W/m2 (94.3% solar) for all-source BC outside of clouds plus interstitially between cloud drops at the cloud relative humidity, and +0.06 W/m2 (99.7% solar) for BC inclusions in cloud hydrometeor particles. Modeled post-1850 biomass, biofuel, and fossil fuel burning, AHFs, AMFs, and urban surfaces accounted for most observed global warming.

  20. Compressibility and Heating Effects on Pressure Loss and Cooling of a Baffled Cylinder Barrel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Arthur W; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1944-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have shown that, because air is compressible, the pressure-drop requirements for cooling an air-cooled engine will be much greater at high altitudes and high speeds than at sea level and low speeds. Tests were conducted by the NACA to obtain some experimental confirmation of the effect of air compressibility on cooling and pressure loss of a baffled cylinder barrel and to evaluate various methods of analysis. The results reported in the present paper are regarded as preliminary to tests on single-cylinder and multicylinder engines. Tests were conducted over a wide range of air flows and density altitudes.

  1. Analysis of Thermal Losses for a Variety of Single-Junction Photovoltaic Cells: An Interesting Means of Thermoelectric Heat Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzi, Bruno; Acciarri, Maurizio; Narducci, Dario

    2015-06-01

    Exploitation of solar energy conversion has become a fundamental aspect of satisfying a growing demand for energy. Thus, improvement of the efficiency of conversion in photovoltaic (PV) devices is highly desirable to further promote this source. Because it is well known that the most relevant efficiency constraint, especially for single-junction solar cells, is unused heat within the device, hybrid thermo-photovoltaic systems seem promising . Among several hybrid solutions proposed in the literature, coupling of thermoelectric and PV devices seems one of the most interesting. Taking full advantage of this technology requires proper definition and analysis of the thermal losses occurring in PV cells. In this communication we propose a novel analysis of such losses, decoupling source-dependent and absorber-dependent losses. This analysis enables an evaluation of the actual recoverable amount of energy, depending on the absorber used in the PV cell. It shows that for incoming solar irradiation of , and depending on the choice of material, the maximum available thermal power ranges from (for single-crystal silicon) to (for amorphous silicon).

  2. Thermal-hydraulic processes involved in loss of residual heat removal during reduced inventory operation. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, C.D.; McHugh, P.R.; Naff, S.A.; Johnsen, G.W.

    1991-02-01

    This paper identifies the topics needed to understand pressurized water reactor response to an extended loss of residual heat removal event during refueling and maintenance outages. By identifying the possible plant conditions and cooling methods that would be used for each cooling mode, the controlling thermal-hydraulic processes and phenomena were identified. Controlling processes and phenomena include: gravity drain, core water boil-off, and reflux cooling processes. Important subcategories of the reflux cooling processes include: the initiation of reflux cooling from various plant conditions, the effects of air on reflux cooling, core level depression effects, issues regarding the steam generator secondaries, and the special case of boiler-condenser cooling with once-through steam generators. 25 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Feeling the Florida Heat? How Low-Performing Schools Respond to Voucher and Accountability Pressure. Working Paper 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Cecilia Elena; Hannaway, Jane; Goldhaber, Dan; Figlio, David

    2007-01-01

    While numerous recent authors have studied the effects of school accountability systems on student test performance and school "gaming" of accountability incentives, there has been little attention paid to substantive changes in instructional policies and practices resulting from school accountability. The lack of research is primarily due to the…

  4. Feeling the Florida Heat? How Low-Performing Schools Respond to Voucher and Accountability Pressure. NBER Working Paper No. 13681

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Cecilia Elena; Hannaway, Jane; Goldhaber, Dan; Figlio, David

    2007-01-01

    While numerous recent authors have studied the effects of school accountability systems on student test performance and school "gaming" of accountability incentives, there has been little attention paid to substantive changes in instructional policies and practices resulting from school accountability. The lack of research is primarily due to the…

  5. Inhibition by sodium cromoglycate of bronchoconstriction stimulated by respiratory heat loss: comparison of pressurised aerosol and powder.

    PubMed Central

    Latimer, K M; Roberts, R; Morris, M M; Hargreave, F E

    1984-01-01

    The protective effect was examined of three doses (2, 10, and 20 mg) of sodium cromoglycate inhaled from a pressurised metered dose inhaler on the response to isocapnic hyperventilation of cold dry air in 10 asthmatic subjects. This was compared with the effect of cromoglycate powder (20 mg) inhaled from a Spincap and with placebo given on two occasions. The medications were inhaled on separate days, in random order and with the use of a double blind double dummy technique, 20 minutes before isocapnic hyperventilation of two fold increasing volumes of air (-15 degrees C, 0% humidity) to produce a 20% fall in the post-treatment FEV1. The response was expressed as the provocative dose of respiratory heat loss required to cause a fall in FEV1 of 15% (PD15, kcal/min). The mean baseline spirometric indices exceeded 85% of predicted normal values on each test day; both placebo treatments reduced the baseline FEV1 by comparison with all active treatments (p less than 0.0001). Comparison of the PD15 on the two placebo days confirmed excellent reproducibility. All doses of cromoglycate shifted the respiratory heat loss dose-response curve to the right of the placebo curve; PD15 after all active treatments exceeded PD15 after placebo (p less than 0.0001). There was no cromoglycate dose-response relationship between the three doses of aerosol (p greater than 0.05), or between any dose of aerosol and powder (p greater than 0.05). It is concluded that cromoglycate aerosol inhaled from a pressurised inhaler in a dose of 2 mg gives the same magnitude of protection against bronchoconstriction stimulated by airway cooling as 20 mg of pressurised aerosol or powder from a Spincap. PMID:6426073

  6. Propagation of symmetric and non-symmetric lean hydrogen flames in narrow channels: influence of heat losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Carmen; Kurdyumov, Vadim

    2015-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations, including detailed chemistry and transport, are used to investigate the structure and stability of freely propagating lean hydrogen flames in planar narrow channels. Depending on the flame burning rate and the wall properties, the flame-wall heat exchange can result in flame extinction. For large heat losses only the fastest burning flames, corresponding to fast reactant flowing rates can propagate. We show that double flame solutions, symmetric and non-symmetric, can coexist for the same set of parameters. The symmetric solutions are calculated imposing symmetric boundary conditions in the channel mid-plane and when this restriction is relaxed non-symmetric solutions develop. This indicates that the symmetric flames are unstable to non-symmetric perturbations, as predicted before within the context of a constant density model. Moreover, the burning rates of the non-symmetric flames are found to be significantly larger than those of the corresponding symmetric solution and therefore the range of conditions for flame extinction and flashback also differ. This shows that assuming in CFD that the flame should reproduce the symmetry of the cold flow can have important safety implications in micro scale combustion devices burning lean hydrogen mixture.

  7. Additional double-wall roof in single-wall, closed, convective incubators: Impact on body heat loss from premature infants and optimal adjustment of the incubator air temperature.

    PubMed

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Radiant heat loss is high in low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates. Double-wall or single-wall incubators with an additional double-wall roof panel that can be removed during phototherapy are used to reduce Radiant heat loss. There are no data on how the incubators should be used when this second roof panel is removed. The aim of the study was to assess the heat exchanges in LBW neonates in a single-wall incubator with and without an additional roof panel. To determine the optimal thermoneutral incubator air temperature. Influence of the additional double-wall roof was assessed by using a thermal mannequin simulating a LBW neonate. Then, we calculated the optimal incubator air temperature from a cohort of human LBW neonate in the absence of the additional roof panel. Twenty-three LBW neonates (birth weight: 750-1800g; gestational age: 28-32 weeks) were included. With the additional roof panel, R was lower but convective and evaporative skin heat losses were greater. This difference can be overcome by increasing the incubator air temperature by 0.15-0.20°C. The benefit of an additional roof panel was cancelled out by greater body heat losses through other routes. Understanding the heat transfers between the neonate and the environment is essential for optimizing incubators. PMID:27387899

  8. Latent heat loss of dairy cows in an equatorial semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; de Macedo Costa, Leonardo Lelis; de Queiroz, João Paulo A. Fernandes

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate evaporative heat transfer of dairy cows bred in a hot semi-arid environment. Cutaneous ( E S) and respiratory ( E R) evaporation were measured (810 observations) in 177 purebred and crossbred Holstein cows from five herds located in the equatorial semi-arid region, and one herd in the subtropical region of Brazil. Rectal temperature ( T R), hair coat surface temperature ( T S) and respiratory rate ( F R) were also measured. Observations were made in the subtropical region from August to December, and in the semi-arid region from April to July. Measurements were done from 1100 to 1600 hours, after cows remained in a pen exposed to the sun. Environmental variables measured in the same locations as the animals were black globe temperature ( T G), air temperature ( T A), wind speed ( U), and partial air vapour pressure ( P V). Data were analysed by mixed models, using the least squares method. Results showed that average E S and E R were higher in the semi-arid region (117.2 W m-2 and 44.0 W m-2, respectively) than in the subtropical region (85.2 W m-2 and 30.2 W m-2, respectively). Herds and individual cows were significant effects ( P < 0.01) for all traits in the semi-arid region. Body parts did not affect T S and E S in the subtropical region, but was a significant effect ( P < 0.01) in the semi-arid region. The average flank T S (42.8°C) was higher than that of the neck and hindquarters (39.8°C and 41.6°C, respectively). Average E S was higher in the neck (133.3 W m-2) than in the flank (116.2 W m-2) and hindquarters (98.6 W m-2). Coat colour affected significantly both T S and E S ( P < 0.01). Black coats had higher T S and E S in the semi-arid region (41.7°C and 117.2 W m-2, respectively) than white coats (37.2°C and 106.7 W m-2, respectively). Rectal temperatures were almost the same in both subtropical and semi-arid regions. The results highlight the need for improved management methods specific for semi-arid regions.

  9. Comparison of three lines of broilers differing in ascites susceptibility or growth rate. 2. Egg weight loss, gas pressures, embryonic heat production, and physiological hormone levels.

    PubMed

    De Smit, L; Tona, K; Bruggeman, V; Onagbesan, O; Hassanzadeh, M; Arckens, L; Decuypere, E

    2005-09-01

    Ascites is a metabolic disorder that accounts for over 25% of overall mortality in the broiler industry. This disorder is manifested between wk 5 and 6 posthatch, but there are previous indications that predisposition may be identified during embryonic development. In this current study, we determined embryonic physiological and metabolic parameters that may be associated with ascites predisposition. For this purpose, we used broiler eggs from 3 lines that differed in ascites sensitivity. These included an ascites-sensitive dam line (DAS), an ascites-resistant dam line (DAR), and an ascites-sensitive sire line (SASL). Eggs were incubated for 21 d under standard conditions. The following parameters were measured during incubation: egg weights at setting, egg weight losses at 18 d, embryo body weights and embryo heart weights throughout development, air cell partial gas pressures (pCO2 and pO2) levels at d 18 and at internal pipping (IP); plasma triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and corticosterone levels at d 18, IP, and hatch; heat production from d 17 until hatch, hematocrit values at hatch, and posthatch growth rate to 7 d along with hematocrit values. The data obtained revealed that selection for ascites sensitivity or rapid growth rate had no consistent influence on some of these parameters such that they could be wholly associated with ascites sensitivity for predictive purposes. Whereas differences in embryonic developmental patterns were apparent throughout embryonic development, these differences in physiological and metabolic parameters may be due partly to genetic differences unrelated to ascites sensitivity. PMID:16206567

  10. Review of "Feeling the Florida Heat? How Low-Performing Schools Respond to Voucher and Accountability Pressure"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betebenner, Damian W.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between high-stakes school accountability and its effects upon student test scores and school policies. The authors seek to understand the extent to which accountability sanctions and incentives for the poorest-performing schools in Florida explain subsequent changes in school practices and policies as well as…

  11. Friction-induced formation of heat with account for heat transfer through the contact surface between homogeneous and piecewise-homogeneous semispaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtushenko, A. A.; Kuciej, M.

    2011-05-01

    An analytical solution of the boundary-value heat conduction problem is obtained for a tribosystem consisting of a homogeneous semispace sliding with a constant velocity along the surface of a plane-parallel strip applied to a semi-infinite foundation. The tribosystem is heated as a result of the frictional heat formation on the sliding surface. It is assumed that the thermal contact of the semispace with the strip is not full. With the aid of the Duhamel theorem, a solution for the considered tribosystem, with sliding at a constant deceleration, is also constructed that models heat formation from friction in disk brakes. For the materials of the friction pair "pig iron semispace (disk)-metal-ceramic strip (lining)-steel foundation (frame)," the influence of the coefficient of thermal conductivity of the contact (Biot number) on the temperature distribution was investigated.

  12. Immune-mediated responses account for the majority of production loss for grazing meat-breed lambs during Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection.

    PubMed

    Dever, M L; Kahn, L P; Doyle, E K; Walkden-Brown, S W

    2016-01-30

    The hypothesis tested in this experiment was that Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection would reduce growth rates of grazing meat-breed lambs; however production loss would be reduced by suppression of the host immune response. The experiment had a 3×2 factorial design using 6-7 month old meat-breed lambs which remained uninfected or infected (IFY) with 2000 or 4000 T. colubriformis L3/week for 12 weeks and were immunosuppressed (SUPY) using methylprednisolone acetate once weekly or remained non-immunosuppressed (SUPN). Immunosuppression increased worm egg counts (WEC) of infected lambs (SUPY 2421 eggs per gram (epg), SUPN 1154 epg on day 84, p<0.05) and T. colubriformis burdens (p<0.05-0.10) and reduced circulating eosinophils (p<0.05 on days 11, 42, 56 and 84) and intestinal total antibody titres (p<0.02). There was a significant (p<0.05) interaction between the main effects of infection and immunosuppression with infection having a larger negative effect on the liveweight of non-immunosuppressed lambs. The immunological response of the host to T. colubriformis infection accounted for 75% of the overall cost of infection (3.1kg) with the majority of this cost occurring during the first 35 days of infection. In contrast, most of the cost associated with the direct effect of infection occurred after day 35. These results confirm in grazing meat-breed lambs that the host's immunological response to T. colubriformis infection is the major component of production loss. PMID:26801591

  13. Comparison of the superelasticity of different nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires and the loss of their properties by heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Humberto; Moyano, Javier; Gil, Javier; Puigdollers, Andreu

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work is to describe and compare mechanical properties of eight widely used nickel-titanium orthodontic wires under uniform testing conditions and to determine the influence of the heat treatments on the loss of the superelasticity. Ten archwires from two batches from eight different manufacturers were evaluated. A three-point bending test was performed, in accordance with ISO 15841:2006, on 80 round nickel-titanium archwire segments of 0.016 inch. To obtain a load-deflection curve, the centre of each segment was deflected to 3.1 mm and then unloaded until force became zero. On the unloading curve, deflection at the end of the plateau and forces delivered at that point, and at 3, 2, 1 and 0.5 mm of deflection, were recorded. Plateau slopes were calculated from 3 and from 2 mm of deflection. Data obtained were statistically analysed to determine inter-brand, intra-brand and inter-batch differences (P < 0.05). The results show that at 2 mm of deflection, maximum differential force exerted among brands [Nitinol SuperElastic (1.999N)-Sentalloy M (1.001 N)] was 0.998 N (102 gf). The Nitinol SuperElastic plateau slope (0.353 N/mm) was the only one that was statistically different from 2 mm of deflection, as compared with the other brand values (0.129-0.155 N/mm). Damon Optimal Force described the gentlest slope from 3 mm of deflection (0.230 N/mm) and one of the longest plateaus. Titanol and Orthonol showed the most notable intra-brand differences, whereas inter-batch variability was significant for Nitinol (Henry Schein), Euro Ni-Ti and Orthonol. Superelasticity degree and exerted forces differed significantly among brands. Superelasticity of Nitinol SuperElastic was not observed, while Damon Optimal Force and Proclinic Ni-Ti Superelástico (G&H) showed the most superelastic curves. Intra-brand and inter-batch differences were observed in some brands. In all cases, the heat treatment at 600 °C produces precipitation in the

  14. Effects of plumbing attachments on heat losses from solar domestic hot water storage tanks. Final report, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.; Wood, B.D.; Ji, L.J.

    1998-03-01

    The Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) has established a standardized methodology for determining the performance rating of the Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems it certifies under OG-300. Measured performance data for the solar collector component(s) of the system are used along with numerical models for the balance of the system to calculate the system`s thermal performance under a standard set of rating conditions. SRCC uses TRNSYS to model each of the components that comprise the system. The majority of the SRCC certified systems include a thermal storage tank with an auxiliary electrical heater. The most common being a conventional fifty gallon electric tank water heater. Presently, the thermal losses from these tanks are calculated using Q = U {center_dot} A {center_dot} {Delta}T. Unfortunately, this generalized formula does not adequately address temperature stratification both within the tank as well as in the ambient air surrounding the tank, non-uniform insulation jacket, thermal siphoning in the fluid lines attached to the tank, and plumbing fittings attached to the tank. This study is intended to address only that part of the problem that deals with the plumbing fittings attached to the tank. Heat losses from a storage tank and its plumbing fittings involve three different operating modes: charging, discharging and standby. In the charging mode, the tank receives energy from the solar collector. In the discharge mode, water flows from the storage tank through the distribution pipes to the faucets and cold city water enters the tank. In the standby mode, there is no forced water flow into or out of the tank. In this experimental study, only the standby mode was considered.

  15. MASS LOSS OF FOUR COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE HEAT-POLYMERIZED ACRYLIC RESINS AFTER TOOTHBRUSHING WITH THREE DIFFERENT DENTIFRICES

    PubMed Central

    Freitas-Pontes, Karina M.; Silva-Lovato, Cláudia H.; Paranhos, Helena F. O.

    2009-01-01

    The association between a toothbrush and a dentifrice is the most used denture cleaning method. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the abrasiveness of specific and non-specific denture cleaning dentifrices on different heat-polymerized acrylic resins. Sixteen specimens (90x30x3mm) of each acrylic resin (QC-20, Lucitone 550, Clássico, Vipi-Cril) were prepared and randomly assigned to 4 groups: 1: control (distilled water), 2: Colgate, 3: Bonyplus and 4: Dentu-Creme. The specimens were subjected to simulated toothbrushing in an automatic brushing machine using 35,600 brush strokes for each specimen. Brushing abrasion run at a 200-g load with the specimens immersed in 2:1 dentifrice/water slurry. Specimens were reconditioned to constant mass and the mass loss (mg) was evaluated. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Analysis of dentifrices' abrasive particles was made by scanning electron microscopy. Colgate produced the greatest mass reduction (42.44 mg, p<0.05), followed by Dentu-Creme (33.60 mg). Bonyplus was the less abrasive (19.91 mg), similar to the control group (19.69 mg) (p>0.05). The mass loss values indicated that QC-20 (33.13 mg) and Lucitone 550 (33.05 mg) resins were less (p<0.05) resistant to abrasion than Clássico (26.04 mg) and Vipi-Cril (23.43 mg). In conclusion, Colgate produced the greatest abrasion. Specific dentifrices for dentures tend to cause less damage to acrylic resins.

  16. Simulations of Diffusive Pb-, Ti- and REE-loss in Terrestrial and Lunar Zircon and Apatite as a Function of Impact Heating During Impact Bombardments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, O.; Mojzsis, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    Ultra-high spatial resolution ion microprobe depth-profiles of pre-3.9 Ga terrestrial zircons from the Jack Hills (Western Australia) have the potential to record a sharply elevated impactor flux to the inner planets at ca. 3.95 Ga termed the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB). A putative signature of this is in the form of ~3.95 Ga, 2 to 4 μm mantles over the (oldest) igneous zircon cores (up to 4.3 Ga). These minute mantles show Pb-loss (up to 90% discordance) over narrow domains that could be the result of impact heating. Pre-3.9 Ga lunar zircon grains have not yet been depth-profiled, but it is evident from published spot analyses that grain cores preserve original igneous ages albeit with no clear super-imposition of later thermal events. However, the U-Pb systematics of apatites in the same lunar rocks were reset ca. 3.95 Ga. The motivation of this study is to explain the high degree of Pb (and other cation) loss over very short distances (<6 μm) in terrestrial zircons at ~3.9 Ga, the complete resetting of U-Pb isotope systematics of lunar apatites at approximately the same time, and to make predictions in preparation for depth-profile work on lunar samples. To accomplish these goals, we used existing models that simulate the thermal consequences of LHB, as well as established equations for cation diffusion in zircon and apatite. The main thermal model consists of (i) a stochastic cratering model which populates the surface with craters within constraints derived from the lunar cratering record, the size/frequency distribution of the asteroid belt, and dynamical models; (ii) analytical expressions that calculate a temperature field for each model crater; and (iii) three-dimensional thermal models of lunar and terrestrial lithospheres, where craters are allowed to cool by conduction in the subsurface and radiation at the surface. In addition, a high-resolution near-surface model was used to account for additional thermal pulses due to global deposition of hot

  17. Regeneration efficiency, shuttle heat loss and thermal conductivity in epoxy-composite annualr gap regenerators from 4K to 80K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrtle, K.; Cygax, S.; Plateel, C.; Winter, C.

    1983-01-01

    A test apparatus designed to simulate a section of a Stirling cycle cryocooler was built. Measurements of regeneration efficiency, shuttle heat loss and thermal conductivity reported for several regenerator test sections. The test composites were epoxy glass, epoxy glass with lead particles, epoxy glass with activated charcoal and epoxy graphite. Losses measured for these materials were approximately the same. Losses are in good agreement with those calculated theoretically for an epoxy glass (C-10) composite. The implications of these results on cryocooler design are discussed.

  18. Accounting for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Cooperative Accountability Project.

    This publication reports on two Regional Educational Accountability Conferences on Techniques sponsored by the Cooperative Accountability Project. Accountability is described as an "emotionally-charged issue" and an "operationally demanding concept." Overviewing accountability, major speakers emphasized that accountability is a means toward…

  19. Physiological Responses and Lactation to Cutaneous Evaporative Heat Loss in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Their Crossbreds

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Wang; Ke, Yang; Cheng, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous evaporative heat loss in Bos indicus and Bos taurus has been well documented. Nonetheless, how crossbreds with different fractional genetic proportions respond to such circumstances is of interest. A study to examine the physiological responses to cutaneous evaporative heat loss, also lactation period and milk yield, were conducted in Sahiwal (Bos indicus, n = 10, 444±64.8 kg, 9±2.9 years), Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus, HF100% (n = 10, 488±97.9 kg, 6±2.8 years)) and the following crossbreds: HF50% (n = 10, 355±40.7 kg, 2±0 years) and HF87.5% (n = 10, 489±76.8 kg, 7±1.8 years). They were allocated so as to determine the physiological responses of sweating rate (SR), respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), and skin temperature (ST) with and without hair from 06:00 h am to 15:00 h pm. And milk yield during 180 days were collected at days from 30 to 180. The ambient temperature-humidity-index (THI) increased from less than 80 in the early morning to more than 90 in the late afternoon. The interaction of THI and breed were highly affected on SR, RR, RT, and ST (p<0.01). The SR was highest in Sahiwal (595 g/m2/h) compared to HF100% (227 g/m2/h), and their crossbreds both HF50% (335 g/m2/h) and HF87.5% (299 g/m2/h). On the other hand, RR was higher in HF87.5% (54 bpm) and both HF100% (48 bpm) and HF50% (42 bpm) than Sahiwal (25 bpm) (p<0.01). The RT showed no significant differences as a result of breed (p>0.05) but did change over time. The ST with and without hair were similar, and was higher in HF100% (37.4°C; 38.0°C) and their crossbred HF50% (35.5°C; 35.5°C) and HF87.5% (37.1°C; 37.9°C) than Sahiwal (34.8°C; 34.8°C) (p<0.01). Moreover, the early lactation were higher at HF100% (25 kg) and 87.5% (25 kg) than HF50% (23 kg) which were higher than Sahiwal (18 kg) while the peak period of lactation was higher at HF100% (35 kg) than crossbreds both HF87.5% and HF50% (32 kg) which was higher than Sahiwal (26 kg) (p<0.05). In conclusion

  20. Physiological Responses and Lactation to Cutaneous Evaporative Heat Loss in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Their Crossbreds.

    PubMed

    Jian, Wang; Ke, Yang; Cheng, Lu

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous evaporative heat loss in Bos indicus and Bos taurus has been well documented. Nonetheless, how crossbreds with different fractional genetic proportions respond to such circumstances is of interest. A study to examine the physiological responses to cutaneous evaporative heat loss, also lactation period and milk yield, were conducted in Sahiwal (Bos indicus, n = 10, 444±64.8 kg, 9±2.9 years), Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus, HF100% (n = 10, 488±97.9 kg, 6±2.8 years)) and the following crossbreds: HF50% (n = 10, 355±40.7 kg, 2±0 years) and HF87.5% (n = 10, 489±76.8 kg, 7±1.8 years). They were allocated so as to determine the physiological responses of sweating rate (SR), respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), and skin temperature (ST) with and without hair from 06:00 h am to 15:00 h pm. And milk yield during 180 days were collected at days from 30 to 180. The ambient temperature-humidity-index (THI) increased from less than 80 in the early morning to more than 90 in the late afternoon. The interaction of THI and breed were highly affected on SR, RR, RT, and ST (p<0.01). The SR was highest in Sahiwal (595 g/m(2)/h) compared to HF100% (227 g/m(2)/h), and their crossbreds both HF50% (335 g/m(2)/h) and HF87.5% (299 g/m(2)/h). On the other hand, RR was higher in HF87.5% (54 bpm) and both HF100% (48 bpm) and HF50% (42 bpm) than Sahiwal (25 bpm) (p<0.01). The RT showed no significant differences as a result of breed (p>0.05) but did change over time. The ST with and without hair were similar, and was higher in HF100% (37.4°C; 38.0°C) and their crossbred HF50% (35.5°C; 35.5°C) and HF87.5% (37.1°C; 37.9°C) than Sahiwal (34.8°C; 34.8°C) (p<0.01). Moreover, the early lactation were higher at HF100% (25 kg) and 87.5% (25 kg) than HF50% (23 kg) which were higher than Sahiwal (18 kg) while the peak period of lactation was higher at HF100% (35 kg) than crossbreds both HF87.5% and HF50% (32 kg) which was higher than Sahiwal (26 kg) (p<0.05). In

  1. Effect of neutral collision and radiative heat-loss function on self-gravitational instability of viscous thermally conducting partially-ionized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kaothekar, Sachin; Soni, Ghanshyam D.; Chhajlani, Rajendra K.

    2012-12-15

    The problem of thermal instability and gravitational instability is investigated for a partially ionized self-gravitating plasma which has connection in astrophysical condensations. We use normal mode analysis method in this problem. The general dispersion relation is derived using linearized perturbation equations of the problem. Effects of collisions with neutrals, radiative heat-loss function, viscosity, thermal conductivity and magnetic field strength, on the instability of the system are discussed. The conditions of instability are derived for a temperature-dependent and density-dependent heat-loss function with thermal conductivity. Numerical calculations have been performed to discuss the effect of various physical parameters on the growth rate of the gravitational instability. The temperature-dependent heat-loss function, thermal conductivity, viscosity, magnetic field and neutral collision have stabilizing effect, while density-dependent heat-loss function has a destabilizing effect on the growth rate of the gravitational instability. With the help of Routh-Hurwitz's criterion, the stability of the system is discussed.

  2. Maximum Expected Wall Heat Flux and Maximum Pressure After Sudden Loss of Vacuum Insulation on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Liquid Helium (LHe) Dewars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K.

    2014-01-01

    The aircraft-based Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a platform for multiple infrared observation experiments. The experiments carry sensors cooled to liquid helium (LHe) temperatures. A question arose regarding the heat input and peak pressure that would result from a sudden loss of the dewar vacuum insulation. Owing to concerns about the adequacy of dewar pressure relief in the event of a sudden loss of the dewar vacuum insulation, the SOFIA Program engaged the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). This report summarizes and assesses the experiments that have been performed to measure the heat flux into LHe dewars following a sudden vacuum insulation failure, describes the physical limits of heat input to the dewar, and provides an NESC recommendation for the wall heat flux that should be used to assess the sudden loss of vacuum insulation case. This report also assesses the methodology used by the SOFIA Program to predict the maximum pressure that would occur following a loss of vacuum event.

  3. Laboratory testing of salt samples for water content/loss of weight on heating, thermal fracture, insoluble residue, and clay and bulk mineralogy: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, L.B.; Schwendiman, L.

    1987-07-01

    This report presents the results of laboratory testing on salt samples from the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle. Laboratory specimens were tested to determine water content by loss of weight on heating, temperature of thermal fracture, the amount of insoluble residue, and clay and bulk mineralogy. 7 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Natural Circulation in the Blanket Heat Removal System During a Loss-of-Pumping Accident (LOFA) Based on Initial Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    A transient natural convection model of the APT blanket primary heat removal (HR) system was developed to demonstrate that the blanket could be cooled for a sufficient period of time for long term cooling to be established following a loss-of-flow accident (LOFA). The particular case of interest in this report is a complete loss-of-pumping accident. For the accident scenario in which pumps are lost in both the target and blanket HR systems, natural convection provides effective cooling of the blanket for approximately 68 hours, and, if only the blanket HR systems are involved, natural convection is effective for approximately 210 hours. The heat sink for both of these accident scenarios is the assumed stagnant fluid and metal on the secondary sides of the heat exchangers.

  5. Resonance in fast-wave amplitude in the periphery of cylindrical plasmas and application to edge losses of wave heating power in tokamaks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Perkins, R. J.; Hosea, J. C.; Bertelli, N.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.

    2016-07-01

    Heating magnetically confined plasmas using waves in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies typically requires coupling these waves over a steep density gradient. Furthermore, this process has produced an unexpected and deleterious phenomenon on the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX): a prompt loss of wave power along magnetic field lines in front of the antenna to the divertor. Understanding this loss may be key to achieving effective heating and expanding the operational space of NSTX-Upgrade. Here, we propose that a new type of mode, which conducts a significant fraction of the total wave power in the low-density peripheral plasma, is drivingmore » these losses. We demonstrate the existence of such modes, which are distinct from surface modes and coaxial modes, in a cylindrical cold-plasma model when a half wavelength structure fits into the region outside the core plasma. The latter condition generalizes the previous hypothesis regarding the occurence of the edge losses and may explain why full-wave simulations predict these losses in some cases but not others. If valid, this condition implies that outer gap control is a potential strategy for mitigating the losses in NSTX-Upgrade in addition to raising the magnetic field or influencing the edge density.« less

  6. Resonance in fast-wave amplitude in the periphery of cylindrical plasmas and application to edge losses of wave heating power in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, R. J.; Hosea, J. C.; Bertelli, N.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.

    2016-07-01

    Heating magnetically confined plasmas using waves in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies typically requires coupling these waves over a steep density gradient. This process has produced an unexpected and deleterious phenomenon on the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX): a prompt loss of wave power along magnetic field lines in front of the antenna to the divertor. Understanding this loss may be key to achieving effective heating and expanding the operational space of NSTX-Upgrade. Here, we propose that a new type of mode, which conducts a significant fraction of the total wave power in the low-density peripheral plasma, is driving these losses. We demonstrate the existence of such modes, which are distinct from surface modes and coaxial modes, in a cylindrical cold-plasma model when a half wavelength structure fits into the region outside the core plasma. The latter condition generalizes the previous hypothesis regarding the occurrence of the edge losses and may explain why full-wave simulations predict these losses in some cases but not others. If valid, this condition implies that outer gap control is a potential strategy for mitigating the losses in NSTX-Upgrade in addition to raising the magnetic field or influencing the edge density.

  7. Precise Measurement of the Reionization Optical Depth from the Global 21 cm Signal Accounting for Cosmic Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    As a result of our limited data on reionization, the total optical depth for electron scattering, τ, limits precision measurements of cosmological parameters from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). It was recently shown that the predicted 21 cm signal of neutral hydrogen contains enough information to reconstruct τ with sub-percent accuracy, assuming that the neutral gas was much hotter than the CMB throughout the entire epoch of reionization (EoR). Here we relax this assumption and use the global 21 cm signal alone to extract τ for realistic X-ray heating scenarios. We test our model-independent approach using mock data for a wide range of ionization and heating histories and show that an accurate measurement of the reionization optical depth at a sub-percent level is possible in most of the considered scenarios even when heating is not saturated during the EoR, assuming that the foregrounds are mitigated. However, we find that in cases where heating sources had hard X-ray spectra and their luminosity was close to or lower than what is predicted based on low-redshift observations, the global 21 cm signal alone is not a good tracer of the reionization history.

  8. Small heat-shock proteins and leaf cooling capacity account for the unusual heat tolerance of the central spike leaves in Agave tequilana var. Weber.

    PubMed

    Luján, Rosario; Lledías, Fernando; Martínez, Luz María; Barreto, Rita; Cassab, Gladys I; Nieto-Sotelo, Jorge

    2009-12-01

    Agaves are perennial crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants distributed in tropical and subtropical arid environments, features that are attractive for studying the heat-shock response. In agaves, the stress response can be analysed easily during leaf development, as they form a spirally shaped rosette, having the meristem surrounded by folded leaves in the centre (spike) and the unfolded and more mature leaves in the periphery. Here, we report that the spike of Agave tequilana is the most thermotolerant part of the rosette withstanding shocks of up to 55 degrees C. This finding was inconsistent with the patterns of heat-shock protein (Hsp) gene expression, as maximal accumulation of Hsp transcripts was at 44 degrees C in all sectors (spike, inner, middle and outer). However, levels of small HSP (sHSP)-CI and sHSP-CII proteins were conspicuously higher in spike leaves at all temperatures correlating with their thermotolerance. In addition, spike leaves showed a higher stomatal density and abated more efficiently their temperature several degrees below that of air. We propose that the greater capacity for leaf cooling during the day in response to heat stress, and the elevated levels of sHSPs, constitute part of a set of strategies that protect the SAM and folded leaves of A. tequilana from high temperatures. PMID:19703117

  9. Experimental Investigation of a Multicylinder Unmodified Diesel Engine Performance, Emission, and Heat Loss Characteristics Using Different Biodiesel Blends: Rollout of B10 in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Abedin, M. J.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Varman, M.; Arbab, M. I.; Fattah, I. M. Rizwanul; Masum, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance and emission analysis of a multicylinder diesel engine using biodiesel along with an in-depth analysis of the engine heat losses in different subsystems followed by the energy balance of all the energy flows from the engine. Energy balance analysis allows the designer to appraise the internal energy variations of a thermodynamic system as a function of ‘‘energy flows” across the control volume as work or heat and also the enthalpies associated with the energy flows which are passing through these boundaries. Palm and coconut are the two most potential biodiesel feed stocks in this part of the world. The investigation was conducted in a four-cylinder diesel engine fuelled with 10% and 20% blends of palm and coconut biodiesels and compared with B5 at full load condition and in the speed range of 1000 to 4000 RPM. Among the all tested blends, palm blends seemed more promising in terms of engine performance, emission, and heat losses. The influence of heat losses on engine performance and emission has been discussed thoroughly in this paper. PMID:25162046

  10. Experimental investigation of a multicylinder unmodified diesel engine performance, emission, and heat loss characteristics using different biodiesel blends: rollout of B10 in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abedin, M J; Masjuki, H H; Kalam, M A; Varman, M; Arbab, M I; Fattah, I M Rizwanul; Masum, B M

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance and emission analysis of a multicylinder diesel engine using biodiesel along with an in-depth analysis of the engine heat losses in different subsystems followed by the energy balance of all the energy flows from the engine. Energy balance analysis allows the designer to appraise the internal energy variations of a thermodynamic system as a function of ''energy flows" across the control volume as work or heat and also the enthalpies associated with the energy flows which are passing through these boundaries. Palm and coconut are the two most potential biodiesel feed stocks in this part of the world. The investigation was conducted in a four-cylinder diesel engine fuelled with 10% and 20% blends of palm and coconut biodiesels and compared with B5 at full load condition and in the speed range of 1000 to 4000 RPM. Among the all tested blends, palm blends seemed more promising in terms of engine performance, emission, and heat losses. The influence of heat losses on engine performance and emission has been discussed thoroughly in this paper. PMID:25162046

  11. Occupational heat stress and associated productivity loss estimation using the PHS model (ISO 7933): a case study from workplaces in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Karin; Kuklane, Kalev; Venugopal, Vidhya

    2014-01-01

    Background Heat stress is a major occupational problem in India that can cause adverse health effects and reduce work productivity. This paper explores this problem and its impacts in selected workplaces, including industrial, service, and agricultural sectors in Chennai, India. Design Quantitative measurements of heat stress, workload estimations, and clothing testing, and qualitative information on health impacts, productivity loss, etc., were collected. Heat strain and associated impacts on labour productivity between the seasons were assessed using the International Standard ISO 7933:2004, which applies the Predicted Heat Strain (PHS) model. Results and conclusions All workplaces surveyed had very high heat exposure in the hot season (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature x¯ =29.7), often reaching the international standard safe work values (ISO 7243:1989). Most workers had moderate to high workloads (170–220 W/m2), with some exposed to direct sun. Clothing was found to be problematic, with high insulation values in relation to the heat exposure. Females were found to be more vulnerable because of the extra insulation added from wearing a protective shirt on top of traditional clothing (0.96 clo) while working. When analysing heat strain – in terms of core temperature and dehydration – and associated productivity loss in the PHS model, the parameters showed significant impacts that affected productivity in all workplaces, apart from the laundry facility, especially during the hot season. For example, in the canteen, the core temperature limit of 38°C predicted by the model was reached in only 64 min for women. With the expected increases in temperature due to climate change, additional preventive actions have to be implemented to prevent further productivity losses and adverse health impacts. Overall, this study presented insight into using a thermo-physiological model to estimate productivity loss due to heat exposure in workplaces. This is the first time the PHS

  12. Calculations of the moon's heat history at different concentrations of radioactive elements taking account of the material differentiation with melting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnatskaya, O. I.; Alber, Y. I.; Ryazantseva, I. L.

    1974-01-01

    A mathematical procedure for analyzing the heat conductivity of the lunar surface is discussed. The solution is based on homogeneous and laminated moon models and considers the effects of radioactive elements conveyed to the lunar surface by melting. The various parameters which introduce uncertainties into the numerical analysis are identified. The application of data obtained from radio astronomy and from analyses of lunar samples returned by the Apollo flights is explained. Tables of data are included to show the types and amounts of radioactive materials which have been identified.

  13. Loss of heat shock protein 70 from apical region of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm head after freezing and thawing.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Tincy; Divyashree, Bannur C; Roy, Sudhir C; Roy, Kajal S

    2016-03-15

    The post-thaw fertility of frozen-thawed mammalian spermatozoa is substantially low as compared with that of fresh sperm. Furthermore, the post-thaw fertility of the cryopreserved buffalo sperm has been reported to be poor as compared with that of cattle sperm. Recently, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) has been found to play a critical role in mammalian fertilization and early embryonic development in boar and cattle. However, the presence of such fertility-related HSP70 in buffalo sperm and its status after cryopreservation has not been reported so far. Thus, a study was conducted to determine the effect of cryopreservation on the level and distribution pattern of HSP70 molecule in buffalo sperm after cryopreservation. Buffalo semen samples, after dilution in semen extender, were aliquoted in straws and divided into two groups. One group was not cryopreserved, and the other group was cryopreserved for 60 days. Sperm proteins were extracted from both non-cryopreserved (NC) and cryopreserved (C) sperm and subjected to Western blot analysis for detection of HSP70 using a monoclonal anti-HSP70 antibody. The distribution pattern of these proteins in buffalo sperm was also monitored before and after cryopreservation using indirect immunofluorescence technique. A prominent 70-kDa protein band of HSP70 protein was detected in protein extracts of both NC and C buffalo sperm. Densitometry analysis revealed that the intensity of 70-kDa HSP70 protein band of cryopreserved sperm decreased significantly (P < 0.05) compared with that of NC sperm. However, the level of HSP70 in cryopreserved extended seminal plasma (ESP) did not change as compared with that of NC samples indicating a possible degradation of HSP70 in the spermatozoa itself rather than leakage of the protein into the ESP. Furthermore, Western blot also confirmed that several HSP70 immunoreactive protein bands detected in the ESP were contributed by the egg yolk that was added to the extender. Immunocytochemistry

  14. Observation of alpha particle loss from JET plasmas during ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating using a thin foil Faraday cup detector array

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, D. S.; Cecil, F. E.; Kiptily, V.; Fullard, K.; Horton, A.; Collaboration: JET EFDA Contributors

    2010-10-15

    The loss of MeV alpha particles from JET plasmas has been measured with a set of thin foil Faraday cup detectors during third harmonic heating of helium neutral beam ions. Tail temperatures of {approx}2 MeV have been observed, with radial scrape off lengths of a few centimeters. Operational experience from this system indicates that such detectors are potentially feasible for future large tokamaks, but careful attention to screening rf and MHD induced noise is essential.

  15. National Account Energy Alliance Final Report for the Ritz Carlton, San Francisco Combined Heat and Power Project

    SciTech Connect

    Rosfjord, Thomas J

    2007-11-01

    Under collaboration between DOE and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), UTC Power partnered with Host Hotels and Resorts to install and operate a PureComfort 240M Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) System at the Ritz-Carlton, San Francisco. This packaged CHP system integrated four microturbines, a double-effect absorption chiller, two fuel gas boosters, and the control hardware and software to ensure that the system operated predictably, reliably, and safely. The chiller, directly energized by the recycled hot exhaust from the microturbines, could be configured to provide either chilled or hot water. As installed, the system was capable of providing up to 227 kW of net electrical power and 142 RT of chilled water at a 59F ambient temperature.

  16. Full wave simulations of fast wave heating losses in the scrape-off layer of NSTX and NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelli, Nicola; Jaeger, E. F.; Hosea, J.; Phillips, C. K.; Berry, Lee Alan; Gerhardt, S.; Green, David L; LeBlanc, B; Perkins, R. J.; Ryan, Philip Michael; Taylor, G.; Valeo, E. J.; Wilson, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Full wave simulations of fusion plasmas show a direct correlation between the location of the fast-wave cut-off, radiofrequency (RF) field amplitude in the scrape-off layer (SOL) and the RF power losses in the SOL observed in the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX). In particular, the RF power losses in the SOL increase significantly when the launched waves transition from evanescent to propagating in that region. Subsequently, a large amplitude electric field occurs in the SOL, driving RF power losses when a proxy collisional loss term is added. A 3D reconstruction of absorbed power in the SOL is presented showing agreement with the RF experiments in NSTX. Loss predictions for the future experiment NSTX-Upgrade (NSTX-U) are also obtained and discussed.

  17. Arctic layer salinity controls heat loss from deep Atlantic layer in seasonally ice-covered areas of the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Sigrid; Ingvaldsen, Randi B.; Furevik, Tore

    2016-05-01

    In the seasonally ice-covered northern Barents Sea an intermediate layer of cold and relatively fresh Arctic Water at ~25-110 m depth isolates the sea surface and ice cover from a layer of warm and saline Atlantic Water below, a situation that resembles the cold halocline layer in the Eurasian Basin. The upward heat flux from the Atlantic layer is of major concern. What causes variations in the heat flux and how is the Arctic layer maintained? Using observations, we found that interannual variability in Arctic layer salinity determines the heat flux from the Atlantic layer through its control of stratification and vertical mixing. A relatively fresh Arctic layer effectively suppresses the upward heat flux, while a more saline Arctic layer enhances the heat flux. The corresponding upward salt flux causes a positive feedback. The Arctic layer salinity and the water column structures have been remarkably stable during 1970-2011.

  18. Maximum heat loss potential is lower in football linemen during an NCAA summer training camp because of lower self-generated air flow.

    PubMed

    Deren, Tomasz M; Coris, Eric E; Casa, Douglas J; DeMartini, Julie K; Bain, Anthony R; Walz, Steve M; Jay, Ollie

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the maximum potential for heat loss of football linemen (L) and non-linemen (NL) during a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) summer training camp. It was hypothesized that heat loss potential in L would be lower than NL because of differences in self-generated air flow during position-specific activities. Fourteen NCAA division 1 football players {7 L (mass: 126 ± 6 kg; body surface area [BSA]: 2.51 ± 0.19 m(2)) and 7 NL (mass: 88 ± 13 kg; BSA: 2.09 ± 0.18 m(2))} participated over 6 days in southern Florida (Tdb: 31.2 ± 1.6 °C, T(wb): 27.0 ± 0.7 °C, Tr: 38.4 ± 2.8° C). Simultaneous on-field measurements of self-generated air velocities (v(self)) and mean skin temperatures (Tsk) were performed throughout practice, which included 4 drill categories (special teams, wind sprints, individual drills, and team drills). The resultant net potential for heat loss through convection, radiation, and evaporation (H(total)) was calculated. Values for Tsk were similar between L and NL for all drills (L: 35.4 ± 0.8 °C; NL: 35.4 ± 0.4 °C; p = 0.92). However, v(self) was greater in NL during wind sprints, individual drills, and team drills (p ≤ 0.05). Consequently H(total) was significantly greater in NL for all drills except special teams (p ≤ 0.05). The mean estimated rate of oxygen consumption needed to exceed H(total) was 8.6 ± 1.3 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1) (2.5 ± 0.4 METs) for NL but only 5.6 ± 1.4 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1) (1.6 ± 0.4 METs) for L. A lower heat loss potential occurs in L because of the more static nature of their position-related activities and not because of differences in Tsk. The practical relevance of these findings is that potential interventions that increase convective and evaporative heat loss (i.e., mechanical fans) should specifically target L, particularly while they are participating in static on-field drills and during rest intervals. PMID:24552793

  19. Magnetic heating of stellar chromospheres and coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Ballegooijen, A. A.

    1990-01-01

    The theoretical discussion of magnetic heating focuses on heating by dissipation of field-aligned electric currents. Several mechanisms are set forth to account for the very high current densities needed to generate the heat, but observed radiative losses do not justify the resultant Ohmic heating rate. Tearing modes, 'turbulent resistivity', and 'hyper-resistivity' are considered to resolve the implied inefficiency of coronal heating. Because the mechanisms are not readily applicable to the sun, transverse magnetic energy flows and magnetic flare release are considered to account for the magnitude of observed radiative loss. High-resolution observations of the sun are concluded to be an efficient way to examine the issues of magnetic heating in spite of the very small spatial scales of the heating processes.

  20. Using flowering and heat-loss models for improving greenhouse energy-use efficiency in annual bedding plant production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In temperate climates, annual bedding plants are typically produced in heated greenhouses from late winter through early summer. Temperature, photoperiod, light intensity, and transplant date are commonly manipulated during commercial production so that plants are in flower for predetermined market ...

  1. Chronic diseases and life events accounted for 2-18 % population attributable risks for adult hearing loss: UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-01-01

    Links between chronic diseases and hearing loss in adults have emerged. However, previous investigations were not complete, and the role of life events was unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to examine the relationships of common chronic diseases and life events and adult hearing loss in a country-wide and population-based study. Data were retrieved from UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007, being cross-sectional, including demographics, self-reported prior health conditions and hearing loss (ever and in the last 12 months), and several major life events. Analyses included Chi square test, t test, logistic regression model, and population attributable risk estimation. People who had prior health conditions including cancer, migraine, dementia, depression, cataracts, chronic bronchitis, allergy, bowel problem, bladder problem, arthritis, muscle problem or skin problem tended to report hearing loss than their counterparts. People who have experienced major life events including post-traumatic stress disorder, serious illness of close relatives, death of family, serious problems with friends, major financial crisis, valuables stolen, being bullied, violence at home, sexual abuse or running away from home were also more likely to experience ever hearing loss problem or that in the last 12 months. 2.0-13.1 % adult hearing loss could be delayed or prevented by managing chronic diseases while 4.1-18.1 % might be delayed or prevented by minimizing the negative effects of life events. Chronic diseases and life events were associated with hearing loss in adults. Better managing lifestyle to minimize detrimental impacts in future health and nursing programs would be suggested. PMID:25575844

  2. Measuring Inductive-Heating Coupling Coefficients and Thermal Loss Characteristics as a Function of Crucible Geometry and Material Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Jay

    A power measurement system has been designed for an ultra-high temperature inductively heated molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) reactor. The work presented in this research contributes to three different aspects of the induction heated MOE reactor facility: mathematical modeling of coil-to-workpiece power transfer, numerical modeling of heat transfer within the reactor, and experiments to measure the total hemispherical emittance of potential crucible materials. Facility-specific coupling coefficients for various samples have been experimentally determined for the MOE reactor facility. An analytical model coupling the predicted power input with heat transfer software was developed using COMSOL Multiphysics, and validated with experimental measurements of the steady state temperature gradient inside the reactor. These models were used to support the design of an experiment to measure the total hemispherical emissivity (epsilon) of conductive samples using a transient calorimetric technique. Results of epsilon are presented over a wide range of temperatures for copper, nickel, graphite and molybdenum. Furthermore, an investigation into optimizing the reactor system for heating will be discussed.

  3. The study of aluminum loss and consequent phase transformation in heat-treated acid-leached kaolin

    SciTech Connect

    Foo, Choo Thye; Mahmood, Che Seman; Mohd Salleh, Mohamad Amran

    2011-04-15

    This study investigates the effect of Al leaching during Fe removal from kaolin to mullite. Heat-treated kaolin was obtained by heating natural kaolin at 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900 deg. C. The heat-treated kaolin was then leached at 100 deg. C with 4 M, 3 M, 2 M, 1 M, 0.2 M solution of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.2 M solution of oxalic acid. The dried samples were sintered to 1300 deg. C for 4 h at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min{sup -1}. X-ray diffractometry and differential thermal analysis were used to study the phase transformation of kaolin to mullite. It was found that 700 deg. C is the optimum preheat-treatment temperature to leach out Fe and also Al for both types of the acids used. The majority of the 4 M sulfuric acid-treated kaolins formed the cristobalite phase when sintered. On the other hand, 1 M, 0.2 M sulfuric acid and 0.2 M oxalic acid leached heat-treated kaolin formed mullite and quartz phase after sintering. - Research Highlights: {yields} Preheat-treatment of kaolin improves the leachability of unwanted iron. {yields} The optimum preheat-treatment temperature is 700 deg. C. {yields} Sintered 4 M sulfuric acid-treated kaolin majorly formed the cristobalite phase. {yields} Sintered 0.2 M oxalic acid-treated kaolin formed lesser amorphous silicate phase.

  4. Full wave simulations of fast wave efficiency and power losses in the scrape-off layer of tokamak plasmas in mid/high harmonic and minority heating regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertelli, N.; Jaeger, E. F.; Hosea, J. C.; Phillips, C. K.; Berry, L.; Bonoli, P. T.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Green, D.; LeBlanc, B.; Perkins, R. J.; Qin, C. M.; Pinsker, R. I.; Prater, R.; Ryan, P. M.; Taylor, G.; Valeo, E. J.; Wilson, J. R.; Wright, J. C.; Zhang, X. J.

    2016-01-01

    Several experiments on different machines and in different fast wave (FW) heating regimes, such as hydrogen minority heating and high harmonic fast waves (HHFW), have found strong interaction between radio-frequency (RF) waves and the scrape-off layer (SOL) region. This paper examines the propagation and the power loss in the SOL by using the full wave code AORSA, in which the edge plasma beyond the last closed flux surface (LCFS) is included in the solution domain and a collisional damping parameter is used as a proxy to represent the real, and most likely nonlinear, damping processes. 2D and 3D AORSA results for the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) have shown a strong transition to higher SOL power losses (driven by the RF field) when the FW cut-off is removed from in front of the antenna by increasing the edge density. Here, full wave simulations have been extended for ‘conventional’ tokamaks with higher aspect ratios, such as the DIII-D, Alcator C-Mod, and EAST devices. DIII-D results in HHFW regime show similar behavior found in NSTX and NSTX-U, consistent with previous DIII-D experimental observations. In contrast, a different behavior has been found for C-Mod and EAST, which operate in the minority heating regime. This article is dedicated to the memory of Cynthia K. Phillips

  5. Full wave simulations of fast wave efficiency and power losses in the scrape-off layer of tokamak plasmas in mid/high harmonic and minority heating regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelli, N.; Jaeger, E. F.; Hosea, J. C.; Phillips, C. K.; Berry, L.; Bonoli, P. T.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Green, D.; LeBlanc, B.; Perkins, R. J.; Qin, C. M.; Pinsker, R. I.; Prater, R.; Ryan, P. M.; Taylor, G.; Valeo, E. J.; Wilson, J. R.; Wright, J. C.; Zhang, X. J.

    2015-12-17

    Several experiments on different machines and in different fast wave (FW) heating regimes, such as hydrogen minority heating and high harmonic fast waves (HHFW), have found strong interaction between radio-frequency (RF) waves and the scrape-off layer (SOL) region. This paper examines the propagation and the power loss in the SOL by using the full wave code AORSA, in which the edge plasma beyond the last closed flux surface (LCFS) is included in the solution domain and a collisional damping parameter is used as a proxy to represent the real, and most likely nonlinear, damping processes. 2D and 3D AORSA results for the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) have shown a strong transition to higher SOL power losses (driven by the RF field) when the FW cut-off is removed from in front of the antenna by increasing the edge density. Here, full wave simulations have been extended for 'conventional' tokamaks with higher aspect ratios, such as the DIII-D, Alcator C-Mod, and EAST devices. DIII-D results in HHFW regime show similar behavior found in NSTX and NSTX-U, consistent with previous DIII-D experimental observations. In contrast, a different behavior has been found for C-Mod and EAST, which operate in the minority heating regime.

  6. Full wave simulations of fast wave efficiency and power losses in the scrape-off layer of tokamak plasmas in mid/high harmonic and minority heating regimes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bertelli, N.; Jaeger, E. F.; Hosea, J. C.; Phillips, C. K.; Berry, L.; Bonoli, P. T.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Green, D.; LeBlanc, B.; Perkins, R. J.; et al

    2015-12-17

    Here, several experiments on different machines and in different fast wave (FW) heating regimes, such as hydrogen minority heating and high harmonic fast waves (HHFW), have found strong interaction between radio-frequency (RF) waves and the scrape-off layer (SOL) region. This paper examines the propagation and the power loss in the SOL by using the full wave code AORSA, in which the edge plasma beyond the last closed flux surface (LCFS) is included in the solution domain and a collisional damping parameter is used as a proxy to represent the real, and most likely nonlinear, damping processes. 2D and 3D AORSAmore » results for the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) have shown a strong transition to higher SOL power losses (driven by the RF field) when the FW cut-off is removed from in front of the antenna by increasing the edge density. Here, full wave simulations have been extended for 'conventional' tokamaks with higher aspect ratios, such as the DIII-D, Alcator C-Mod, and EAST devices. DIII-D results in HHFW regime show similar behavior found in NSTX and NSTX-U, consistent with previous DIII-D experimental observations. In contrast, a different behavior has been found for C-Mod and EAST, which operate in the minority heating regime.« less

  7. Full wave simulations of fast wave efficiency and power losses in the scrape-off layer of tokamak plasmas in mid/high harmonic and minority heating regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelli, N.; Jaeger, E. F.; Hosea, J. C.; Phillips, C. K.; Berry, L.; Bonoli, P. T.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Green, D.; LeBlanc, B.; Perkins, R. J.; Qin, C. M.; Pinsker, R. I.; Prater, R.; Ryan, P. M.; Taylor, G.; Valeo, E. J.; Wilson, J. R.; Wright, J. C.; Zhang, X. J.

    2015-12-17

    Here, several experiments on different machines and in different fast wave (FW) heating regimes, such as hydrogen minority heating and high harmonic fast waves (HHFW), have found strong interaction between radio-frequency (RF) waves and the scrape-off layer (SOL) region. This paper examines the propagation and the power loss in the SOL by using the full wave code AORSA, in which the edge plasma beyond the last closed flux surface (LCFS) is included in the solution domain and a collisional damping parameter is used as a proxy to represent the real, and most likely nonlinear, damping processes. 2D and 3D AORSA results for the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) have shown a strong transition to higher SOL power losses (driven by the RF field) when the FW cut-off is removed from in front of the antenna by increasing the edge density. Here, full wave simulations have been extended for 'conventional' tokamaks with higher aspect ratios, such as the DIII-D, Alcator C-Mod, and EAST devices. DIII-D results in HHFW regime show similar behavior found in NSTX and NSTX-U, consistent with previous DIII-D experimental observations. In contrast, a different behavior has been found for C-Mod and EAST, which operate in the minority heating regime.

  8. Mathematical Modeling of the Thermal State of an Isothermal Element with Account of the Radiant Heat Transfer Between Parts of a Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alifanov, O. M.; Paleshkin, A. V.; Terent‧ev, V. V.; Firsyuk, S. O.

    2016-01-01

    A methodological approach to determination of the thermal state at a point on the surface of an isothermal element of a small spacecraft has been developed. A mathematical model of heat transfer between surfaces of intricate geometric configuration has been described. In this model, account was taken of the external field of radiant fluxes and of the differentiated mutual influence of the surfaces. An algorithm for calculation of the distribution of the density of the radiation absorbed by surface elements of the object under study has been proposed. The temperature field on the lateral surface of the spacecraft exposed to sunlight and on its shady side has been calculated. By determining the thermal state of magnetic controls of the orientation system as an example, the authors have assessed the contribution of the radiation coming from the solar-cell panels and from the spacecraft surface.

  9. a Comparative Study of Oxygen Loss on in Situ Heating in PrMnO3 and BaMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, K. B.; Heinonen, M.; Nordblad, P.; Dalela, S. D.; Panwar, N.; Sen, V.; Agarwal, S. K.; Sharma, Neha

    We have thoroughly investigated the oxygen loss in PrMnO3 and BaMnO3, the end members of the AMnO3 system, on in situ heating in a reducing atmosphere. This was done to drive some oxygen out from them and thus possibly alter the valence of the Mn cation. Sample characterization was done through X-ray diffraction and SEM measurements. The core-level photoemission point to oxygen loss from only BaMnO3 changing some of Mn4+ to Mn3+ in it, transfer of some spectral weight to the highly localized Fehrenbacher-Rice states and an increased Mn 3d-O 2p hybridization. Magnetization measurements show that at low temperatures, the samples depict a canted antiferromagnetic ordering.

  10. A novel experimental setup for energy loss and charge state measurements in dense moderately coupled plasma using laser-heated hohlraum targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortner, A.; Schumacher, D.; Cayzac, W.; Frank, A.; Basko, M. M.; Bedacht, S.; Blazevic, A.; Faik, S.; Kraus, D.; Rienecker, T.; Schaumann, G.; Tauschwitz, An.; Wagner, F.; Roth, M.

    2016-03-01

    We report on a new experimental setup for ion energy loss measurements in dense moderately coupled plasma which has recently been developed and tested at GSI Darmstadt. A partially ionized, moderately coupled carbon plasma (ne ≤ 0.8• 1022 cm-3, Te = 15 eV, z = 2.5, Γ = 0.5) is generated by volumetrical heating of two thin carbon foils with soft X-rays. This plasma is then probed by a bunched heavy ion beam. For that purpose, a special double gold hohlraum target of sub-millimeter size has been developed which efficiently converts intense laser light into thermal radiation and guarantees a gold-free interaction path for the ion beam traversing the carbon plasma. This setup allows to do precise energy loss measurements in non-ideal plasma at the level of 10 percent solid-state density.

  11. 18 CFR 367.9040 - Account 904, Uncollectible accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 904... GAS ACT Operation and Maintenance Expense Chart of Accounts § 367.9040 Account 904, Uncollectible accounts. This account must be charged with amounts sufficient to provide for losses from...

  12. Accounting for disagreements on average cone loss rates in retinitis pigmentosa with a new kinetic model: Its relevance for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, W A; Baumgartner, A M

    2016-04-01

    Since 1985, at least nine studies of the average rate of cone loss in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) populations have yielded conflicting average rate constant values (-k), differing by 90-160%. This is surprising, since, except for the first two investigations, the Harvard or Johns Hopkins' protocols used in these studies were identical with respect to: use of the same exponential decline model, calculation of average -k from individual patient k values, monitoring patients over similarly large time frames, and excluding data exhibiting floor and ceiling effects. A detailed analysis of Harvard's and Hopkins' protocols and data revealed two subtle differences: (i) Hopkins' use of half-life t0.5 (or t(1/e)) for expressing patient cone-loss rates rather than k as used by Harvard; (ii) Harvard obtaining substantially more +k from improving fields due to dormant-cone recovery effects and "small -k" values than Hopkins' ("small -k" is defined as less than -0.040 year(-1)), e.g., 16% +k, 31% small -k, vs. Hopkins' 3% and 6% respectively. Since t0.5=0.693/k, it follows that when k=0, or is very small, t0.5 (or t(1/e)) is respectively infinity or a very large number. This unfortunate mathematical property (which also prevents t0.5 (t(1/e)) histogram construction corresponding to -k to +k) caused Hopkins' to delete all "small -k" and all +k due to "strong leverage". Naturally this contributed to Hopkins' larger average -k. Difference (ii) led us to re-evaluate the Harvard/Hopkins' exponential unchanging -k model. In its place we propose a model of increasing biochemical stresses from dying rods on cones during RP progression: increasing oxidative stresses and trophic factor deficiencies (e.g., RdCVF), and RPE malfunction. Our kinetic analysis showed rod loss to follow exponential kinetics with unchanging -k due to constant genetic stresses, thereby providing a theoretical basis for Clarke et al.'s empirical observation of such kinetics with eleven animal models of RP. In

  13. Composition of incipient passivating layers on heat-rejecting aluminum in carboxylate- and silicate-inhibited coolants: Correlation with ASTM D 4340 weight losses

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, F.T.; Moylan, T.E.; Simko, S.J.; Militello, M.C.

    1999-08-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy identified compositional differences between passivating layers initially formed in carboxylated coolants, in silicated coolants, and in a mixture thereof on well-controlled 319 aluminum surfaces under heat-rejecting conditions. The layer formed in silicated coolant was primarily silica, while that in carboxylated coolant was primarily hydrated alumina. Competition between inhibitor packages when carboxylated coolant was contaminated from the start with low levels of silicated coolant produced films which were not simply patchwise mixtures of the pure-coolant film types. The surface analytical results aid the interpretation of subtle differences in weight losses under the ASTM Standard Test Method for Corrosion of Cast Aluminum Alloys in Engine Coolants Under Heat-Rejecting Conditions (D 4340) in carboxylated versus silicated coolants that became more pronounced when testing was carried out at a vehicle-like 50% coolant concentration. Results from time-resolved D4340 measurements and from a two-step cleaning procedure further contribute towards proper evaluation of D4340 weight losses in the different coolant types.

  14. Dietary intake of heat-killed Lactococcus lactis H61 delays age-related hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Oike, Hideaki; Aoki-Yoshida, Ayako; Kimoto-Nira, Hiromi; Yamagishi, Naoko; Tomita, Satoru; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Wakagi, Manabu; Sakurai, Mutsumi; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Suzuki, Chise; Kobori, Masuko

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (AHL) is a common disorder associated with aging. In this study, we investigated the effect of the intake of heat-killed Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris H61 (strain H61) on AHL in C57BL/6J mice. Measurement of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) demonstrated that female mice at 9 months of age fed a diet containing 0.05% strain H61 for 6 months maintained a significantly lower ABR threshold than control mice. The age-related loss of neurons and hair cells in the cochlea was suppressed by the intake of strain H61. Faecal analysis of bacterial flora revealed that the intake of strain H61 increased the prevalence of Lactobacillales, which is positively correlated with hearing ability in mice. Furthermore, plasma fatty acid levels were negatively correlated with hearing ability. Overall, the results supported that the intake of heat-killed strain H61 for 6 months altered the intestinal flora, affected plasma metabolite levels, including fatty acid levels, and retarded AHL in mice. PMID:27000949

  15. Dietary intake of heat-killed Lactococcus lactis H61 delays age-related hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Oike, Hideaki; Aoki-Yoshida, Ayako; Kimoto-Nira, Hiromi; Yamagishi, Naoko; Tomita, Satoru; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Wakagi, Manabu; Sakurai, Mutsumi; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Suzuki, Chise; Kobori, Masuko

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (AHL) is a common disorder associated with aging. In this study, we investigated the effect of the intake of heat-killed Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris H61 (strain H61) on AHL in C57BL/6J mice. Measurement of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) demonstrated that female mice at 9 months of age fed a diet containing 0.05% strain H61 for 6 months maintained a significantly lower ABR threshold than control mice. The age-related loss of neurons and hair cells in the cochlea was suppressed by the intake of strain H61. Faecal analysis of bacterial flora revealed that the intake of strain H61 increased the prevalence of Lactobacillales, which is positively correlated with hearing ability in mice. Furthermore, plasma fatty acid levels were negatively correlated with hearing ability. Overall, the results supported that the intake of heat-killed strain H61 for 6 months altered the intestinal flora, affected plasma metabolite levels, including fatty acid levels, and retarded AHL in mice. PMID:27000949

  16. Atmosphere expansion and mass loss of close-orbit giant exoplanets heated by stellar XUV. I. Modeling of hydrodynamic escape of upper atmospheric material

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Sasunov, Yu. L.; Lammer, H.; Kislyakova, K. G.; Erkaev, N. V.

    2014-11-10

    In the present series of papers we propose a consistent description of the mass loss process. To study in a comprehensive way the effects of the intrinsic magnetic field of a close-orbit giant exoplanet (a so-called hot Jupiter) on atmospheric material escape and the formation of a planetary inner magnetosphere, we start with a hydrodynamic model of an upper atmosphere expansion in this paper. While considering a simple hydrogen atmosphere model, we focus on the self-consistent inclusion of the effects of radiative heating and ionization of the atmospheric gas with its consequent expansion in the outer space. Primary attention is paid to an investigation of the role of the specific conditions at the inner and outer boundaries of the simulation domain, under which different regimes of material escape (free and restricted flow) are formed. A comparative study is performed of different processes, such as X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) heating, material ionization and recombination, H{sub 3}{sup +} cooling, adiabatic and Lyα cooling, and Lyα reabsorption. We confirm the basic consistency of the outcomes of our modeling with the results of other hydrodynamic models of expanding planetary atmospheres. In particular, we determine that, under the typical conditions of an orbital distance of 0.05 AU around a Sun-type star, a hot Jupiter plasma envelope may reach maximum temperatures up to ∼9000 K with a hydrodynamic escape speed of ∼9 km s{sup –1}, resulting in mass loss rates of ∼(4-7) · 10{sup 10} g s{sup –1}. In the range of the considered stellar-planetary parameters and XUV fluxes, that is close to the mass loss in the energy-limited case. The inclusion of planetary intrinsic magnetic fields in the model is a subject of the follow-up paper (Paper II).

  17. Bacterial ice nuclei impact cloud lifetime and radiative properties and reduce atmospheric heat loss in the BRAMS simulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Tassio S.; Gonçalves, Fábio L. T.; Yamasoe, Marcia A.; Martins, Jorge A.; Morris, Cindy E.

    2014-08-01

    This study examines the effect of the bacterial species Pseudomonas syringae acting as ice nuclei (IN) on cloud properties to understand its impact on local radiative budget and heating rates. These bacteria may become active IN at temperatures as warm as -2 °C. Numerical simulations were developed using the Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Model System (BRAMS). To investigate the isolated effect of bacterial IN, four scenarios were created considering only homogeneous and bacterial ice nucleation, with 1, 10 and 100 IN per cubic meter of cloud volume and one with no bacteria. Moreover, two other scenarios were generated: the BRAMS default parameterization and its combination with bacterial IN. The model reproduced a strong convective cell over São Paulo on 3 March 2003. Results showed that bacterial IN may change cloud evolution as well as its microphysical properties, which in turn influence cloud radiative properties. For example, the reflected shortwave irradiance over an averaged domain in a scenario considering bacterial IN added to the BRAMS default parameterization was 14% lower than if bacteria were not considered. Heating rates can also be impacted, especially due to differences in cloud lifetime. Results suggest that the omission of bacterial IN in numerical models, including global cloud models, could neglect relevant ice nucleation processes that potentially influence cloud radiative properties.

  18. Continuous heating, varying temperature quenching technic and apparatus of the variable cross-section slender rod with loss stress

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, D.; He, J.; Jing, L.M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with the continuous heating, varying temperature quenching technique and apparatus of variable cross-section slender rod with low stress. The varying temperature quenching technique means that the different part of the slender rod is quenched at different temperature at the same time. Based on the influence of several factors such as quenching temperature, size in cross-section, original structure of material, cooling rate of quenching and specific volume change etc. on quenching distortion, the quenching technique is used to improve the quenching distortion. Quenching temperature range of the technique is 780 {approximately} 785{degrees}C, 770 {approximately} 775 {degrees}C and 760 {approximately} 765 {degrees}C for different diameter ({phi} 2mm, {phi} 1.5mm and top) part of the rod made of T9 steel separately. To carry out the quenching technique an apparatus is specially designed. The results show that the properties of the rod tempered after quenching by the technique with the apparatus are satisfied and the quenching distortion is much smaller than that produced by wholly heating and quenching at the same temperature for all parts of the rod.

  19. Gene Therapy With Mitochondrial Heat Shock Protein 70 Suppresses Visual Loss and Optic Atrophy in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Talla, Venu; Porciatti, Vittorio; Chiodo, Vince; Boye, Sanford L.; Hauswirth, William W.; Guy, John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To rescue visual loss and optic neuropathy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Methods. Encephalomyelitis was induced in mice that received intravitreal injections of AAV2-mtHSP70Flag or AAV2-Cox8-mCherry. Additional mice were injected with AAV2-Cox8-mCherry, but not sensitized for EAE. Visual function was assessed by pattern electroretinograms (PERG) at 1, 3, and 6 months post injection (MPI). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) evaluated the thickness of the inner plexiform layer + nerve fiber layers at 1, 3, and 6 MPI. Retinas and optic nerves (ONs) of mice euthanized 6 MPI were processed for light and electron microscopy. Expression of mtHSP70Flag in the retina and ONs was evaluated by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting. The activities of respiratory complexes I and III, as well as mitochondrial protein import were quantitated. Results. Expression: immunofluorescence revealed punctate and perinuclear expression of mtHSP70Flag that colocalized with mitochondrial porin in thy1.2 labeled retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Immunoblotting and RT-PCR confirmed mtHSP70Flag expression in the retina and ON. Rescue: treatment with mtHSP70Flag resulted in a 44% increase in PERG amplitude and less delays in latency relative to the EAE-mCherry group that also showed progressive inner retinal thinning. At 6 MPI, the almost 50% loss of RGCs and optic nerve axons in EAE mice was suppressed by mtHSP70Flag. In addition, retinas of EAE-mtHSP70Flag mice showed nearly complete rescue of complex I and III activities that was reduced by one-third in the EAE-mCherry retinas. Lastly, reductions in import of COX8-mCherry into mitochondria of mice sensitized for EAE improved by 30% with mtHSP70Flag gene therapy. Conclusions. Mitochondrial HSP70 ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction that culminates in irreversible visual loss and atrophy of the optic nerve in EAE suggesting that it may be useful to prevent irreversible disability in patients with optic

  20. Study on Fuel Cell Network System Considering Reduction in Fuel Cell Capacity Using Load Leveling and Heat Release Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Shin'ya; Kudo, Kazuhiko

    Reduction in fuel cell capacity linked to a fuel cell network system is considered. When the power demand of the whole network is small, some of the electric power generated by the fuel cell is supplied to a water electrolysis device, and hydrogen and oxygen gases are generated. Both gases are compressed with each compressor and they are stored in cylinders. When the electric demand of the whole network is large, both gases are supplied to the network, and fuel cells are operated by these hydrogen and oxygen gases. Furthermore, an optimization plan is made to minimize the quantity of heat release of the hot water piping that connects each building. Such an energy network is analyzed assuming connection of individual houses, a hospital, a hotel, a convenience store, an office building, and a factory. Consequently, compared with the conventional system, a reduction of 46% of fuel cell capacity is expected.

  1. Juggling on a rollercoaster? Gains, loss and uncertainties in IVF patients' accounts of volunteering for a U.K. ‘egg sharing for research’ scheme

    PubMed Central

    Haimes, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has seen a growth in demand for human eggs for stem cell related research and, more recently, for mitochondrial research. That demand has been accompanied by global debates over whether women should be encouraged, by offers of payments, in cash or kind, to provide eggs. Few of these debates have been informed by empirical evidence, let alone by the views of women themselves. This article addresses that gap in knowledge by presenting findings from a UK investigation, conducted 2008–2011, which is the first systematic study of women volunteering to provide eggs under such circumstances. This article focuses on the views and experiences of 25 IVF patients who volunteered for the Newcastle ‘egg sharing for research’ scheme (NESR), in exchange for reduced IVF fees. This was an interview based study, designed to gain understandings of volunteers' perspectives and reasoning. The interviews show that volunteers approached the scheme as a way of accessing more treatment in pursuit of their goal of having a baby, against a landscape of inadequate state provision of treatment and expensive private treatment. The process of deciding to volunteer raised a wide range of uncertainties about the consequent gains and losses, for women already in the uncertain world of the ‘IVF rollercoaster’. However, interviewees preferred to have the option of the NESR, than not, and they juggled the numerous uncertainties with skill and resilience. The article is as revealing of the ongoing challenges of the UK IVF bio-economy as it is of egg provision. This article adds to the growing body of knowledge of the contributions of tissue providers to the global bio-economy. It also contributes to several areas of wider sociological interest, including debates on the social management of ‘uncertainty’ and discussions at the interface of sociology and ethics. PMID:23608093

  2. An analysis of loss of decay heat removal trends (1989-1994): Outage risk assessment and management (ORAM) technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, J.

    1995-12-01

    There have been many actions taken by the US nuclear industry to improve reactor safety during shutdown conditions. The purpose of this analysis is to determine if the industry initiatives have been effective at reducing the frequency and severity of reactor coolant system loss of inventory and decay heat removal (DHR) incidents during shutdown, and to determine if there are additional insights based on this analysis that should be shared with the industry to continue to improve performance. Operating experience information from 1989 through 1994 was compiled and analyzed to determine the effectiveness of industry initiatives and to provide additional insights. The results of this analysis show there has been a measurable improvement in the number of incidents, the average severity of incidents, and the frequency of significant incidents. In addition, improvement is noted in the frequency and/or severity of previously identified problem areas. This indicates that industry initiatives have been effective at reducing the frequency of incidents during shutdown conditions.

  3. Heat balance analysis of single stage Gifford-McMahon cycle cryorefrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirumaleshwar, M.; Subramanyam, S. V.

    A heat balance analysis of single stage Gifford-McMahon cycle cryorefrigerator is presented. Ideal refrigeration, actual refrigeration, net refrigeration and the various losses are tabulated. It is observed that pressure-volume losses account for a major fraction of the total losses.

  4. Synthesis and magnetic properties of platelet γ-Fe 2O 3 particles for medical applications using hysteresis-loss heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, Mikio; Minagawa, Makoto; Yanagihara, Hideto; Oda, Tatsuya; Ohkochi, Nobuhiro; Kita, Eiji

    2012-04-01

    Platelet γ-Fe2O3 particles of particle size less than 100 nm were prepared for medical applications that use the hysteresis-loss heating of ferromagnetic particles. The γ-Fe2O3 particles were obtained through the dehydration, reduction, and oxidation of platelet α-FeOOH particles, which were synthesized by the precipitation of ferric ions in an alkaline solution containing ethanolamine, and the crystals grown using a hydrothermal treatment. The γ-Fe2O3 particles contained dimples formed by the dehydration of α-FeOOH particles. The coercive force and the saturation magnetization of the γ-Fe2O3 particles were in the ranges 11.9 to 12.7 kA/m (150 to 160 Oe), and 70 to 72 Am2/kg (70 to 72 emu/g), respectively. The specific loss power of the γ-Fe2O3 particles, estimated from their temperature-raising property measured under a peak magnetic field of 50.9 kA/m (640 Oe) and at a frequency of 117 kHz, was 590 W/g. This value is higher than that of spherical cobalt-containing iron oxide particles having equivalent coercive force and saturation magnetization, reflecting the larger area of the minor hysteresis loop measured under a peak magnetic field of 50.9 kA/m (640 Oe).

  5. Loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and glutathione depletion are not sufficient to account for induction of apoptosis by carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone in human leukemia K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Mlejnek, Petr; Dolezel, Petr

    2015-09-01

    Carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP), an uncoupler of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death with apoptotic features. It was reported that the cytotoxic effects of FCCP are preceded by a rapid glutathione (GSH) depletion with a subsequent loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨ). The GSH depletion was suggested as the cause of apoptosis in FCCP treated cells. This conclusion was further supported by the finding that all adverse effects of FCCP including cell death can be prevented by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) a precursor of GSH synthesis (Han and Park, 2011). Here, we argue that neither loss of ΔΨ nor GSH depletion is sufficient to account for induction of apoptosis in FCCP treated leukemia K562 cells. Indeed, the lowest concentration of FCCP that brings about the permanent loss of ΔΨ and the extensive decrease in GSH level induces cell death in minor population of cells. Only much higher concentrations of FCCP, that exceed the range to achieve permanent collapse of ΔΨ, induce extensive apoptosis. The low proapoptotic activity of FCCP could be explained by hyperactivation of protein kinase B/Akt. A detailed LC/MS/MS analysis of cell extracts revealed extensive formation of FCCP adducts with GSH. This effect could explain the mechanism of GSH depletion, which is currently unknown. Although NAC induces an increase in the GSH pool, this effect is not crucial for abrogation of FCCP cytotoxicity. Indeed, the presence of NAC in the growth medium causes a rapid clearance of FCCP due to its quantitative conversion into the FCCP-NAC adduct, which is the real cause of abrogated FCCP cytotoxicity. PMID:26115783

  6. 17 CFR 256.144 - Accumulated provision for uncollectable accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provision for uncollectable accounts. This account shall be credited with amounts provided for losses on notes and accounts receivable which may become uncollectable, and also with collections on...

  7. Protective clothing and heat stress.

    PubMed

    Holmér, I

    1995-01-01

    The high level of protection required by protective clothing (PPC) severely impedes heat exchange by sweat evaporation. As a result work associated with wearing PPC, particularly in hot environments, implies considerable physiological strain and may render workers exhausted in a short time. Current methods of describing evaporative heat exchange with PPC are insufficient, will overestimate evaporative heat loss and should not be recommended. More reliable measures of the resistance to evaporative heat transfer by PPC should be developed and standardized. Direct measurements of evaporative resistance of PPC may be carried. However, a more promising method appears to be the definition of evaporative resistance on the basis of the icl-index for the fabric layers. The icl-index is a permeation efficiency ratio, which in combination with clothing insulation determines the evaporative heat transfer. Current methods should be further developed to account for effects of moisture condensation and microclimate ventilation. PMID:7875118

  8. Randomly Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.; Geppert, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    The accountability debate tends to devolve into a battle between the pro-testing and anti-testing crowds. When it comes to the design of a school accountability system, the devil is truly in the details. A well-designed accountability plan may go a long way toward giving school personnel the kinds of signals they need to improve performance.…

  9. School Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Williamson M., Ed.; Walberg, Herbert J., Ed.

    This book presents the perspectives of experts from the fields of history, economics, political science, and psychology on what is known about accountability, what still needs to be learned, what should be done right now, and what should be avoided in devising accountability systems. The common myths about accountability are dispelled and how it…

  10. Colorful Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrick, C. Shane

    2006-01-01

    As instructors of accounting, we should take an abstract topic (at least to most students) and connect it to content known by students to help increase the effectiveness of our instruction. In a recent semester, ordinary items such as colors, a basketball, and baseball were used to relate the subject of accounting. The accounting topics of account…

  11. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Hearing Loss What is Hearing Loss? Hearing loss is a common problem caused by ... sec Click to watch this video Types of Hearing Loss Hearing loss comes in many forms. It can ...

  12. Heat waves imposed during early pod development in soybean (Glycine max) cause significant yield loss despite a rapid recovery from oxidative stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study is the first field based experiment that uses IR heaters to study the effects of a regionally defined heat wave on soybean physiology and productivity. The heating technology was successful and all of the heat waves were maintained at the target temperature for the three day duration of t...

  13. Industrial water supply for the Kursk TETs-1 heating and electric power plant with the ecological safety of the River Seim taken into account

    SciTech Connect

    Kyakk, V. A.

    2009-09-15

    The Kursk TETs-1 heating and electric power plant is discussed as an illustration of preventing thermal contamination of its water supply (River Seim) by circulating water. An effective water supply system is taken to be one for which the overheating of the water at a monitoring site (near the outlet location) does not exceed an approved level for the water use conditions. The required cooling capacity of a spray pond for circulating and flow-through water supplies is determined.

  14. States turn up the heat. As self-regulation sputters, state legislatures are leading charge for more accountability in governance of not-for-profit hospitals.

    PubMed

    Mantone, Joseph

    2006-01-30

    Recent scandals have pushed some states to tackle transparency and governance issues at healthcare not-for-profits, which the federal government has been reluctant to touch. Rhode Island Lt. Gov. Charles Fogarty, left, supports a bill in his state that would establish a code of ethics for hospital boards. Fogarty sees leaders as getting too comfortable in their jobs and working without accountability. PMID:16479771

  15. Accountability Overboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chieppo, Charles D.; Gass, James T.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that special interest groups opposed to charter schools and high-stakes testing have hijacked Massachusetts's once-independent board of education and stand poised to water down the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) tests and the accountability system they support. President Barack Obama and Massachusetts…

  16. Accounting Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication identifies 20 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of accounting specialist, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 20 units are as follows:…

  17. 7 CFR 1767.20 - Plant accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... listed herein. 17. Waste heat boilers and antifluctuators. 344Generators This account shall include the..., including softeners and accessories, evaporators and accessories, heat exchanges, filters, tanks for... equipment, purification and discharging equipment, radioactive waste treatment and disposal...

  18. 7 CFR 1767.20 - Plant accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... listed herein. 17. Waste heat boilers and antifluctuators. 344Generators This account shall include the..., including softeners and accessories, evaporators and accessories, heat exchanges, filters, tanks for... equipment, purification and discharging equipment, radioactive waste treatment and disposal...

  19. 7 CFR 1767.20 - Plant accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... listed herein. 17. Waste heat boilers and antifluctuators. 344Generators This account shall include the..., including softeners and accessories, evaporators and accessories, heat exchanges, filters, tanks for... equipment, purification and discharging equipment, radioactive waste treatment and disposal...

  20. 7 CFR 1767.20 - Plant accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... listed herein. 17. Waste heat boilers and antifluctuators. 344Generators This account shall include the..., including softeners and accessories, evaporators and accessories, heat exchanges, filters, tanks for... equipment, purification and discharging equipment, radioactive waste treatment and disposal...

  1. Application of heat flow models to SOI current mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Feixia; Cheng, Ming-C.

    2004-11-01

    An analytical heat flow model for SOI circuits is presented. The model is able to account for heat exchanges among devices and heat loss from the silicon film and interconnects to the substrate through the buried oxide. The developed model can accurately and efficiently predict the temperature distribution in the interconnect/poly-lines and SOI devices. The model is applied to SOI current mirrors to study heat flow in different layout designs. The results from the developed model are verified with those from Raphael, a 3D numerical simulator that can provide the detailed 3D temperature distribution in interconnect/poly-lines.

  2. Bayonet heat exchangers in heat-assisted Stirling heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Yagyu, S.; Fukuyama, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Isshiki, N.; Satoh, I.; Corey, J.; Fellows, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Multi-Temperature Heat Supply System is a research project creating a city energy system with lower environmental load. This system consists of a gas-fueled internal combustion engine and a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump utilizing shaft power and thermal power in a combination of several cylinders. The heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power from engine exhaust heat source. Since this heat pump is operated by proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the system is expected to produce cooling and heating water at high COP. This paper describes heat exchanger development in the project to develop a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump. The heat pump employs the Bayonet type heat exchangers (BHX Type I) for supplying cold and hot water and (BHX Type II) for absorbing exhaust heat from the driving engine. The heat exchanger design concepts are presented and their heat transfer and flow loss characteristics in oscillating gas flow are investigated. The main concern in the BHX Type I is an improvement of gas side heat transfer and the spirally finned tubes were applied to gas side of the heat exchanger. For the BHX Type II, internal heat transfer characteristics are the main concern. Shell-and-tube type heat exchangers are widely used in Stirling machines. However, since brazing is applied to the many tubes for their manufacturing processes, it is very difficult to change flow passages to optimize heat transfer and loss characteristics once they have been made. The challenge was to enhance heat transfer on the gas side to make a highly efficient heat exchanger with fewer parts. It is shown that the Bayonet type heat exchanger can have good performance comparable to conventional heat exchangers.

  3. System for reducing heat losses from indoor swimming pools by use of automatic covers. [Quarterly] report No. 5, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    To maintain comfortable and healthful temperatures in an indoor swimming pool, heat must be continually supplied to the pool water and to fresh air-that must be brought in for ventilation. Nearly all the heat added to the water is lost by evaporation into the air above the water surface. That very moist air must then be removed and replaced with relatively dry outdoor air that requires heating during most of the year. The cost of natural gas for supplying heat in a typical institutional pool is $10,000 to $25,000 Per Year. When the pool is not being used, typically half to two-thirds of the time, evaporation and the resulting heat demands can be eliminated by placing impervious covers on the water surface. On a schedule of use such as at Skyland, the pool can be covered and evaporation suppressed about two-thirds of the time, thereby saving about ten thousand dollars per year. Determination of the actual savings achieved by use of pool covers is the principal objective of this project. The program goal is the development of the technology and tools for achieving major reductions in the nation`s waste of energy.

  4. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation and downstream activation of the ERK/STAT3/RANKL signaling cascade in osteoblasts accounts for the protective effects of estradiol on ethanol-induced bone loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bone loss occurs with chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption in males and cycling females as a result of increased bone resorption. We have demonstrated that in vivo estradiol treatment can reverse this effect. However, the molecular mechanisms of EtOH-induced bone loss and of estrogen protection are la...

  5. Mass loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Leo

    1987-01-01

    Observational evidence for mass loss from cool stars is reviewed. Spectra line profiles are used for the derivation of mass-loss rates with the aid of the equation of continuity. This equation implies steady mass loss with spherical symmetry. Data from binary stars, Mira variables, and red giants in globular clusters are examined. Silicate emission is discussed as a useful indicator of mass loss in the middle infrared spectra. The use of thermal millimeter-wave radiation, Very Large Array (VLA) measurement of radio emission, and OH/IR masers are discussed as a tool for mass loss measurement. Evidence for nonsteady mass loss is also reviewed.

  6. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... may cause hair loss in women. If your hair loss has occurred gradually with advancing age, FOLLICULAR DEGENERATION may be the cause. Post-pregnancy hormone changes usually reverse themselves without any treatment. While follicular degeneration cannot ...

  7. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds by sequential treatments with chlorine dioxide, drying, and dry heat without loss of seed viability.

    PubMed

    Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2011-09-01

    We developed and validated a treatment to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without decreasing seed viability. Treatments with aqueous ClO(2) followed by drying and dry-heat treatments were evaluated for efficacy to inactivate the pathogen. Conditions to dry radish seeds after treatment with water (control) or ClO(2) were established. When treated seeds with high water activity (a(w)) (>0.99) were stored at 45°C and 23% relative humidity (RH), the a(w) decreased to <0.30 within 24 h. Drying high-a(w) seeds before exposing them to dry-heat treatment (≥60°C) was essential to preserve seed viability. The germination rate of radish seeds which had been immersed in water for 5 min, dried at 45°C and 23% RH for 24 h, and heated at 70°C for 48 h or at 80°C for 24 h was not significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared to that of untreated radish seeds. Sequential treatments with ClO(2) (500 μg/ml, 5 min), drying (45°C, 23% RH, 24 h), and dry heating (70°C, 23% RH, 48 h) eliminated E. coli O157:H7 (5.9 log CFU/g) on radish seeds and, consequently, sprouts produced from them without decreasing the germination rate. These sequential treatments are recommended for application to radish seeds intended for sprout production. PMID:21803896

  8. Tidally forced viscous heating in a partially molten Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. N.; Schubert, G.

    1985-01-01

    Models of Io that generate most of their heat by viscous dissipation in a partially molten (perhaps nearly liquid) asthenosphere are developed: a partially molten asthenosphere model and a partially molten interior model. An approximate thermal analysis is carried out, suggesting the possibility of a stable steady state. The models are consistent with observations of widely dispersed hot spots on the Io surface that radiate most of Io's heat loss. The hot spots imply that magmas carry most of the dissipative heating that is naturally accounted for in the models.

  9. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-4T - Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... second mixed straddle account, which has an annual account net loss of $20,000 of long-term capital loss... account for determining gains and losses from all positions held as capital assets in a designated class... year, and that gain or loss from the positions is treated as gain or loss from a capital asset....

  10. GAM-HEAT: A computer code to compute heat transfer in complex enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.E.; Taylor, J.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report discusses the GAM[underscore]HEAT code which was developed for heat transfer analyses associated with postulated Double Ended Guilliotine Break Loss Of Coolant Accidents (DEGB LOCA) resulting in a drained reactor vessel. In these analyses the gamma radiation resulting from fission product decay constitutes the primary source of energy as a function of time. This energy is deposited into the various reactor components and is re-radiated as thermal energy. The code accounts for all radiant heat exchanges within and leaving the reactor enclosure. The SRS reactors constitute complex radiant exchange enclosures since there are many assemblies of various types within the primary enclosure and most of the assemblies themselves constitute enclosures. GAM-HEAT accounts for this complexity by processing externally generated view factors and connectivity matrices as discussed below, and also accounts for convective, conductive, and advective heat exchanges. The code is structured such that it is applicable for many situations involving heat exchange between surfaces within a radiatively passive medium.

  11. GAM-HEAT: A computer code to compute heat transfer in complex enclosures. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.E.; Taylor, J.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report discusses the GAM{underscore}HEAT code which was developed for heat transfer analyses associated with postulated Double Ended Guilliotine Break Loss Of Coolant Accidents (DEGB LOCA) resulting in a drained reactor vessel. In these analyses the gamma radiation resulting from fission product decay constitutes the primary source of energy as a function of time. This energy is deposited into the various reactor components and is re-radiated as thermal energy. The code accounts for all radiant heat exchanges within and leaving the reactor enclosure. The SRS reactors constitute complex radiant exchange enclosures since there are many assemblies of various types within the primary enclosure and most of the assemblies themselves constitute enclosures. GAM-HEAT accounts for this complexity by processing externally generated view factors and connectivity matrices as discussed below, and also accounts for convective, conductive, and advective heat exchanges. The code is structured such that it is applicable for many situations involving heat exchange between surfaces within a radiatively passive medium.

  12. GAM-HEAT: A computer code to compute heat transfer in complex enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, R. E.; Taylor, J. R.

    1992-12-01

    This report discusses the GAM-HEAT code which was developed for heat transfer analyses associated with postulated Double Ended Guillotine Break Loss Of Coolant Accidents (DEGB LOCA) resulting in a drained reactor vessel. In these analyses the gamma radiation resulting from fission product decay constitutes the primary source of energy as a function of time. This energy is deposited into the various reactor components and is re-radiated as thermal energy. The code accounts for all radiant heat exchanges within and leaving the reactor enclosure. The SRS reactors constitute complex radiant exchange enclosures since there are many assemblies of various types within the primary enclosure and most of the assemblies themselves constitute enclosures. GAM-HEAT accounts for this complexity by processing externally generated view factors and connectivity matrices as discussed below, and also accounts for convective, conductive, and advective heat exchanges. The code is structured such that it is applicable for many situations involving heat exchange between surfaces within a radiatively passive medium.

  13. The cold sensitivity of a mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking a mitochondrial heat shock protein 70 is suppressed by loss of mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    SSH1, a newly identified member of the heat shock protein (hsp70) multigene family of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encodes a protein localized to the mitochondrial matrix. Deletion of the SSH1 gene results in extremely slow growth at 23 degrees C or 30 degrees C, but nearly wild-type growth at 37 degrees C. The matrix of the mitochondria contains another hsp70, Ssc1, which is essential for growth and required for translocation of proteins into mitochondria. Unlike SSC1 mutants, an SSH1 mutant showed no detectable defects in import of several proteins from the cytosol to the matrix compared to wild type. Increased expression of Ssc1 partially suppressed the cold- sensitive growth defect of the SSH1 mutant, suggesting that when present in increased amounts, Ssc1 can at least partially carry out the normal functions of Ssh1. Spontaneous suppressors of the cold-sensitive phenotype of an SSH1 null mutant were obtained at a high frequency at 23 degrees C, and were all found to be respiration deficient. 15 of 16 suppressors that were analyzed lacked mitochondrial DNA, while the 16th had reduced amounts. We suggest that Ssh1 is required for normal mitochondrial DNA replication, and that disruption of this process in ssh1 cells results in a defect in mitochondrial function at low temperatures. PMID:8707841

  14. Out of the frying pan into the air--emersion behaviour and evaporative heat loss in an amphibious mangrove fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus).

    PubMed

    Gibson, Daniel J; Sylvester, Emma V A; Turko, Andy J; Tattersall, Glenn J; Wright, Patricia A

    2015-10-01

    Amphibious fishes often emerse (leave water) when faced with unfavourable water conditions. How amphibious fishes cope with the risks of rising water temperatures may depend, in part, on the plasticity of behavioural mechanisms such as emersion thresholds. We hypothesized that the emersion threshold is reversibly plastic and thus dependent on recent acclimation history rather than on conditions during early development. Kryptolebias marmoratus were reared for 1 year at 25 or 30°C and acclimated as adults (one week) to either 25 or 30°C before exposure to an acute increase in water temperature. The emersion threshold temperature and acute thermal tolerance were significantly increased in adult fish acclimated to 30°C, but rearing temperature had no significant effect. Using a thermal imaging camera, we also showed that emersed fish in a low humidity aerial environment (30°C) lost significantly more heat (3.3°C min(-1)) than those in a high humidity environment (1.6°C min(-1)). In the field, mean relative humidity was 84%. These results provide evidence of behavioural avoidance of high temperatures and the first quantification of evaporative cooling in an amphibious fish. Furthermore, the avoidance response was reversibly plastic, flexibility that may be important for tropical amphibious fishes under increasing pressures from climatic change. PMID:26490418

  15. Enhancement of heat transfer in waste-heat heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeffler, R. C.

    1980-07-01

    The Fluidfire shallow fluidized bed heat transfer facility was modified to give increased air flow capacity and to allow testing with different distributor plates and with two stage heat exchangers. The effect of reduced distributor plate pressure loss and amount and type of bed material on the heat transfer performance of a single stage fluidized bed heat exchanger is explored. Elutriation from the bed was measured for different bed materials and distributor plates; alternate heat exchanger surfaces having different fin spacings were also tested. Two types of two stage fluidized bed heat exchangers were tested: one having a baffle (having almost no pressure loss) located between the stages and which allowed bed material to recirculate between upper and lower beds; the second having two distributor plates in series with no recirculation of the bed material.

  16. System for reducing heat losses from indoor swimming pools by use of automatic covers. Final report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This final report is an account of the principal activities of Lof Energy Systems, Inc. in a two-year project funded by the Energy Related Inventions Program (ERIP) of the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary objective has been the development of a fully practical and economical system for saving energy in indoor swimming pools by use of motorized covers. The goal is wide-spread use of a fully developed product, in institutional swimming pools. Four major tasks, depicted in the accompanying Performance Schedule, have been completed, and one other has been initiated and its completion committed. Principal accomplishments have been the selection and improvement of cover materials and designs, lengthening and strengthening of reels and improvements in motorized components and their control, design and installation of pool covers in full scale demonstration and evaluation of fully developed commercial system, preparation and dissemination of manuals and reports, finalization of arrangements for Underwriters Laboratory certification of products, and final report preparation and submission. Of greatest significance has been the successful demonstration of the fully developed system and the verification and reporting by an energy consultant of the large savings resulting from pool cover use. Probably the best evidence of success of the DOE-ERIP project in advancing this invention to a commercial stage is its acceptance for sale by the Lincoln Equipment Company, a national distributor of swimming pool supplies and equipment. A copy of the relevant page in the Lincoln catalog is included in this report as Annex A. Representatives of that company now offer Tof motorized pool cover systems to their pool owner customers. In addition to the plans for securing UL certification the company expects to continue making design improvements that can increase system reliability, durability, and cost-effectiveness.

  17. Heat transfer in GTA welding arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huft, Nathan J.

    Heat transfer characteristics of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) arcs with arc currents of 50 to 125 A and arc lengths of 3 to 11 mm were measured experimentally through wet calorimetry. The data collected were used to calculate how much heat reported to the cathode and anode and how much was lost from the arc column. A Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) macro was written to further analyze the data and account for Joule heating within the electrodes and radiation and convection losses from the arc, providing a detailed account of how heat was generated and dissipated within the system. These values were then used to calculate arc efficiencies, arc column voltages, and anode and cathode fall voltages. Trends were noted for variances in the arc column voltage, power dissipated from the arc column, and the total power dissipated by the system with changing arc length. Trends for variances in the anode and cathode fall voltages, total power dissipated, Joule heating within the torches and electrodes with changing arc current were also noted. In addition, the power distribution between the anode and cathode for each combination of arc length and arc current was examined. Keywords: Gas Tungsten Arc Welding, GTAW, anode fall, cathode fall, heat transfer, wet calorimetry

  18. Memory loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually include asking questions of family members and friends. For this reason, they should come to the appointment. Medical history questions may include: Type of memory loss, such as short-term or long-term ...

  19. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is applied to the scalp to stimulate hair growth. Other medicines, such as hormones, may be prescribed to decrease hair loss and promote hair growth. Drugs such as finasteride and dutasteride can be ...

  20. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common baldness" usually means male-pattern baldness, or permanent-pattern baldness. It is also called androgenetic alopecia. ... will grow back normally. However, scarring can cause permanent hair loss. Hot oil hair treatments or chemicals ...

  1. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... are stress, a low protein diet, a family history, or poor nutrition. Treatment for hair loss depends on the cause. In some cases, treating the underlying cause will correct the problem. Other treatments include medicines and hair restoration.

  2. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Can Help? Hearing aids. Hearing aids are electronic, battery-run devices that make sounds louder. There ... to turn up the volume. Cochlear implants. These electronic devices are for people with severe hearing loss. ...

  3. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse ... much heat on your hair (like using a hot iron or hot blow drying). Another type of ...

  4. Heat transfer in a compact tubular heat exchanger with helium gas at 3.5 MPa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Douglas A.; Glover, Michael P.

    1990-01-01

    A compact heat exchanger was constructed consisting of circular tubes in parallel brazed to a grooved base plate. This tube specimen heat exchanger was tested in an apparatus which radiatively heated the specimen on one side at a heat flux of up to 54 W/sq cm, and cooled the specimen with helium gas at 3.5 MPa and Reynolds numbers of 3000 to 35,000. The measured friction factor of the tube specimen was lower than that of a circular tube with fully developed turbulent flow, although the uncertainty was high due to entrance and exit losses. The measured Nusselt number, when modified to account for differences in fluid properties between the wall and the cooling fluid, agreed with past correlations for fully developed turbulent flow in circular tubes.

  5. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... psychosocial impact of hair loss have found patients’ self-esteem, body image and self-confidence to be negatively ... 1-2 Known psychosocial complications include depression, low self-esteem, altered self-image, and less frequent and enjoyable ...

  6. GAM-HEAT -- a computer code to compute heat transfer in complex enclosures. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.E.; Taylor, J.R.; Kielpinski, A.L.; Steimke, J.L.

    1991-02-01

    The GAM-HEAT code was developed for heat transfer analyses associated with postulated Double Ended Guillotine Break Loss Of Coolant Accidents (DEGB LOCA) resulting in a drained reactor vessel. In these analyses the gamma radiation resulting from fission product decay constitutes the primary source of energy as a function of time. This energy is deposited into the various reactor components and is re- radiated as thermal energy. The code accounts for all radiant heat exchanges within and leaving the reactor enclosure. The SRS reactors constitute complex radiant exchange enclosures since there are many assemblies of various types within the primary enclosure and most of the assemblies themselves constitute enclosures. GAM-HEAT accounts for this complexity by processing externally generated view factors and connectivity matrices, and also accounts for convective, conductive, and advective heat exchanges. The code is applicable for many situations involving heat exchange between surfaces within a radiatively passive medium. The GAM-HEAT code has been exercised extensively for computing transient temperatures in SRS reactors with specific charges and control components. Results from these computations have been used to establish the need for and to evaluate hardware modifications designed to mitigate results of postulated accident scenarios, and to assist in the specification of safe reactor operating power limits. The code utilizes temperature dependence on material properties. The efficiency of the code has been enhanced by the use of an iterative equation solver. Verification of the code to date consists of comparisons with parallel efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory and with similar efforts at Westinghouse Science and Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA, and benchmarked using problems with known analytical or iterated solutions. All comparisons and tests yield results that indicate the GAM-HEAT code performs as intended.

  7. Volatile Loss and Classification of Kuiper Belt Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. E.; Oza, A.; Young, L. A.; Volkov, A. N.; Schmidt, C.

    2015-08-01

    Observations indicate that some of the largest Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) have retained volatiles in the gas phase (e.g., Pluto), while others have surface volatiles that might support a seasonal atmosphere (e.g., Eris). Since the presence of an atmosphere can affect their reflectance spectra and thermal balance, Schaller & Brown examined the role of volatile escape driven by solar heating of the surface. Guided by recent simulations, we estimate the loss of primordial N2 for several large KBOs, accounting for escape driven by UV/EUV heating of the upper atmosphere as well as by solar heating of the surface. For the latter we present new simulations and for the former we scale recent detailed simulations of escape from Pluto using the energy limited escape model validated recently by molecular kinetic simulations. Unlike what has been assumed to date, we show that unless the N2 atmosphere is thin (<˜1018 N2 cm-2) and/or the radius small (<˜200-300 km), escape is primarily driven by the UV/EUV radiation absorbed in the upper atmosphere. This affects the discussion of the relationship between atmospheric loss and the observed surface properties for a number of the KBOs examined. Our long-term goal is to connect detailed atmospheric loss simulations with a model for volatile transport for individual KBOs.

  8. Pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Gail Erlick

    2014-01-01

    Women who lose desired pregnancies by miscarriage, stillbirth, or genetic termination are at risk of suffering from grief, anxiety, guilt and self-blame that may even present in subsequent pregnancies. It is important to find effective means of helping women deal with these losses. The approach to stillbirth has shifted from immediately removing the child from the mother to encouraging the parents to view and hold the baby. This approach has been questioned as possibly causing persistent anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Women who miscarry are currently encouraged to find ways to memorialise the lost fetus. Couples who decide to terminate a pregnancy after discovering a defect may deal not only with sadness but also guilt. Immediate crisis intervention and follow-up care should be available, recognising that individual women may experience different reactions and their specific post-loss needs must be assessed. PMID:24047642

  9. Beam loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanGinneken, A.; Edwards, D.; Harrison, M.

    1989-04-01

    This paper presents results from simulations of beam losses during the operation of a superconducting accelerator. The calculations use a combination of hadron/electromagnetic cascade plus elastic scattering codes with accelerator tracking routines. These calculations have been used in conjunction with the design of the Fermilab Tevatron. First accelerator geometry is described. The rest of the paper discusses a detailed attempt to simulate a fast extraction cycle, essentially in chronological order. Beginning with an unperturbed beam, the simulation generates proton phase-space distributions incident on the electrostatic septum. These interact either elastically or inelastically with the septum wires, and the products of these interactions are traced through the machine. Where these leave the accelerator, energy deposition levels in the magnets are calculated together with the projected response of the beam-loss monitors in this region. Finally, results of the calculation are compared with experimental data. (AIP)

  10. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reserve account is subject to the requirements of 7 CFR part 1902, subpart A regarding supervised bank... heating or air conditioning must be done in accordance with the requirements of 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.306 Section...

  11. The effect of thermal losses on traveling waves for in-situ combustion in porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapiro, G.; Marchesin, D.

    2015-09-01

    We study a model for the injection of air into an underground porous medium that contains a solid fuel. In our previous works the model was simplified and all wave sequences for the Riemann problem solution were obtained without taking into account thermal losses to the surrounding rock. In this work the first step is made to understand the effect of heat losses, which are important especially in laboratory experiments. In order to simplify the proof of the existence and uniqueness of the traveling wave solution, we disregard diffusion effects and the dependence of gas density on temperature.

  12. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  13. Basic Comfort Heating Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempster, Chalmer T.

    The material in this beginning book for vocational students presents fundamental principles needed to understand the heating aspect of the sheet metal trade and supplies practical experience to the student so that he may become familiar with the process of determining heat loss for average structures. Six areas covered are: (1) Background…

  14. Individual Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Andersen, Ture; Poulsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR), held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2015. The following collection of papers results from some of the work that was presented and discussed at the symposium. PMID:27566802

  15. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  16. Fundamentals of heat measurement. [heat flux transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerashchenko, O. A.

    1979-01-01

    Various methods and devices for obtaining experimental data on heat flux density over wide ranges of temperature and pressure are examined. Laboratory tests and device fabrication details are supplemented by theoretical analyses of heat-conduction and thermoelectric effects, providing design guidelines and information relevant to further research and development. A theory defining the measure of correspondence between transducer signal and the measured heat flux is established for individual (isolated) heat flux transducers subject to space and time-dependent loading. An analysis of the properties of stacked (series-connected) transducers of various types (sandwich-type, plane, and spiral) is used to derive a similarity theory providing general governing relationships. The transducers examined are used in 36 types of derivative devices involving direct heat loss measurements, heat conduction studies, radiation pyrometry, calorimetry in medicine and industry and nuclear reactor dosimetry.

  17. Holding Accountability to Account. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Holding Accountability to Account: How Scholarship and Experience in Other Fields Inform Exploration of Performance Incentives in Education"--a paper presented at the National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference in February--Richard Rothstein, a research associate at the Economic Policy Institute, argues educational…

  18. Accountability, California Style: Counting or Accounting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Michael; Higgins, Jennifer; Raczek, Anastasia

    2004-01-01

    Across the nation and at nearly all levels of our educational system, efforts to hold schools accountable for student learning dominate strategies for improving the quality of education. At both the national and state level, student testing stands at the center of educational accountability programs, such that schools are effectively held…

  19. International Accounting and the Accounting Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laribee, Stephen F.

    The American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) has been instrumental in internationalizing the accounting curriculum by means of accreditation requirements and standards. Colleges and universities have met the AACSB requirements either by providing separate international accounting courses or by integrating international topics…

  20. Analysis of thermosyphon heat exchangers for use in solar domestic hot water heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Scott David

    1998-11-01

    A recent innovation in the solar industry is the use of thermosyphon heat exchangers. Determining the performance of these systems requires knowledge of how thermosyphon flow rate and heat exchanger performance vary with operating conditions. This study demonstrates that several thermosyphon heat exchanger designs operate in the laminar mixed convection regime. Empirical heat transfer and pressure drop correlations are obtained for three tube-in-shell heat exchangers (four, seven, and nine tube). Thermosyphon flow is on the shell side. Correlations are obtained with uniform heat flux on the tube walls and with a mixture of glycol and water circulating inside the tubes. Ranges of Reynolds, Prandtl, and Grashof numbers are 50 to 1800, 2.5 and 6.0, and 4×105 to 1×108, respectively. Nusselt number correlations are presented in a form that combines the contributions of forced and natural convection, Nu4Mixed=Nu4Forced+Nu4Natural. The Nusselt number is influenced by natural convection when the term Raq0.25/(Re0.5Pr0.33) is greater than unity. Pressure drop through these three designs is not significantly affected by mixed convection because most pressure drop losses are at the heat exchanger inlet and outlet. A comparison and discussion of the performance of several other heat exchanger designs (tube-in-shell and coil-in- shell designs) are presented. Generally, the coil-in- shell heat exchangers perform better than the tube-in- shell heat exchangers. Data from all heat exchanger designs is used to develop a new one-dimensional model for thermosyphon heat exchangers in solar water heating systems. The model requires two empirically determined relationships, pressure drop as a function of water mass flow rate and the overall heat transfer coefficient-area product (UA) as a function of Reynolds, Prandtl, and Grashof number. A testing protocol is presented that describes the procedure to obtain the data for the correlations. Two new TRNSYS component models are presented

  1. The optimization of Stirling refrigerator and Stirling heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xin-Mei

    2007-03-01

    The optimization of an irreversible Stirling refrigerator or a Stirling heat engine is an important research subject for a long time. Taking into account of the influence of mixed thermal resistance and regeneration loss in the performance study, we have derived the optimal relation of both of them. For Stirling refrigerator, we have deduced the optimal relation between the thermal resistance coefficient and the efficiency. To the Stirling heat engine, we have deduced the optimal relation between the power output and the efficiency. The conclusions obtained mirror the observed performance of the Stirling refrigerator or the Stirling heat engine quite well. Thus, the results may provide a new theoretical guidance to the optimal design and the selection of optimal operating condition of the Stirling refrigerator or the Stirling heat engine.

  2. Heat conduction boundary layers of condensed clumps in cooling flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehringer, H.; Fabian, A. C.

    1989-04-01

    The structure of heat conduction boundary layers of gaseous condensations embedded in the hot intergalactic gas in clusters of galaxies is investigated by means of steady, one-dimensional, hydrodynamic models. It is assumed that heat conduction is effective only on scales much smaller than the total region of the cooling flow. Models are calculated for an arbitrary scaling factor, accounting for the reduction in heat conduction efficiency compared to the classical Spitzer case. The results imply a lower limit to the size spectrum of the condensations. The enhancement of cooling in the ambient medium due to heat conduction losses is calculated for a range of clump parameters. The luminosity of several observable emission lines, the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray emission spectrum, and the column density of some important ions are determined for the model boundary layers and compared with observations.

  3. 26 CFR 1.1502-19 - Excess loss accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... class, paragraph (d)(1) of this section would apply to shift basis from such additional T shares to M's... additional shares of S stock of the same class, paragraph (d)(2) of this section would apply to shift basis... 18, 2007, see § 1.1502-19T as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect April 1, 2007. For...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1502-19 - Excess loss accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... class, paragraph (d)(1) of this section would apply to shift basis from such additional T shares to M's... additional shares of S stock of the same class, paragraph (d)(2) of this section would apply to shift basis... 18, 2007, see § 1.1502-19T as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect April 1, 2007. For...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1502-19 - Excess loss accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18, 2007, see § 1.1502-19T as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect April 1, 2007. For transactions occurring before January 23, 2006, see § 1.1502-19 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect April 1, 2005. (3... to the determination. See, e.g., § 1.1502-19 as contained in the 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as...

  6. A Harmonious Accounting Duo?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schapperle, Robert F.; Hardiman, Patrick F.

    1992-01-01

    Accountants have urged "harmonization" of standards between the Governmental Accounting Standards Board and the Financial Accounting Standards Board, recommending similar reporting of like transactions. However, varying display of similar accounting events does not necessarily indicate disharmony. The potential for problems because of differing…

  7. Estimates of heat stress relief needs for Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Berman, A

    2005-06-01

    Estimates of environmental heat stress are required for heat stress relief measures in cattle. Heat stress is commonly assessed by the temperature-humidity index (THI), the sum of dry and wet bulb temperatures. The THI does not include an interaction between temperature and humidity, although evaporative heat loss increases with rising air temperature. Coat, air velocity, and radiation effects also are not accounted for in the THI. The Holstein dairy cow is the primary target of heat stress relief, followed by feedlot cattle. Heat stress may be estimated for a variety of conditions by thermal balance models. The models consist of animal-specific data (BW, metabolic heat production, tissue and coat insulation, skin water loss, coat depth, and minimal and maximal tidal volumes) and of general heat exchange equations. A thermal balance simulation model was modified to adapt it for Holstein cows by using Holstein data for the animal characteristics in the model, and was validated by comparing its outputs to experimental data. Model outputs include radiant, convective, skin evaporative, respiratory heat loss and rate of change of body temperature. Effects of milk production (35 and 45 kg/d), hair coat depth (3 and 6 mm), air temperature (20 to 45 degrees C), air velocity (0.2 to 2.0 m/s), air humidity (0.8 to 3.9 kPa), and exposed body surface (100, 75, and 50%) on thermal balance outputs were examined. Environmental conditions at which respiratory heat loss attained approximately 50% of its maximal value were defined as thresholds for intermediate heat stress. Air velocity increased and humidity significantly decreased threshold temperatures, particularly at higher coat depth. The effect of air velocity was amplified at high humidity. Increasing milk production from 35 to 45 kg/d decreased threshold temperature by 5 degrees C. In the lying cow, the lower air velocity in the proximity of body surface and the smaller exposed surface markedly decrease threshold

  8. Rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss-rapid weight loss; Overweight-rapid weight loss; Obesity-rapid weight loss; Diet-rapid weight loss ... for people who have health problems because of obesity. For these people, losing a lot of weight ...

  9. Technique of multilevel adjustment calculation of the heat-hydraulic mode of the major heat supply systems with the intermediate control stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokarev, V. V.; Shalaginova, Z. I.

    2016-01-01

    A new technique for heat-hydraulic calculation to organize the normal operating modes of the heat supply systems intended to decide the tasks of planning and mode selecting, which ensures the required thermal loads at adherence of all restrictions on its parameters, is proposed. The main feature of the technique is in the determination of the parameters of throttling devices on the network and inlets into the buildings of consumers taking into account the differentiated corrections to the flow rates on the compensation of the heat losses in the network. The technique involves the decision of the multilevel adjustment calculation task, in which the deviations of the boundary mode parameters (pressure, flow rate, temperature) in place of the decomposition of the heat supply system model on the levels of main and distribution heating networks taking into account the intermediate control stages on the central heat points (CHP) are minimized. At each level, the task of single-level adjustment heat-hydraulic calculation is decided, which is mathematically defined as an optimization task where the internal air temperature deviation is minimized of the required value with the given accuracy a priori. The technique is realized as part of the ANGARA-TS data-computing system and allows developing the adjusting procedures to improve the heat supply quality and availability of heating consumers, determining the minimum necessary values of heads on the sources and pumping stations.

  10. Loss and Transcendence Life Themes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weenolsen, Patricia

    Psychologists have often observed an underlying pattern or theme in the accounts that individuals give of their lives. To test a humanistic-existential approach to human development, 48 women were interviewed with the Loss and Transcendence (L/T) Life History Form. The L/T Life Theme is expressed in two ways: the expanded version includes the…

  11. 7 CFR 4287.158 - Determination of loss and payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... after the review of the final loss report and accounting of the collateral. (d) Loss limit. The amount payable by the Agency to the lender cannot exceed the limits set forth in the Loan Note Guarantee. (e... final accounting and report of loss, the Agency may audit all applicable documentation to determine...

  12. 7 CFR 4287.158 - Determination of loss and payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... after the review of the final loss report and accounting of the collateral. (d) Loss limit. The amount payable by the Agency to the lender cannot exceed the limits set forth in the Loan Note Guarantee. (e... final accounting and report of loss, the Agency may audit all applicable documentation to determine...

  13. Memory loss.

    PubMed

    Flicker, Leon A; Ford, Andrew H; Beer, Christopher D; Almeida, Osvaldo P

    2012-02-01

    Most older people with memory loss do not have dementia. Those with mild cognitive impairment are at increased risk of progressing to dementia, but no tests have been shown to enhance the accuracy of assessing this risk. Although no intervention has been convincingly shown to prevent dementia, data from cohort studies and randomised controlled trials are compelling in indicating that physical activity and treatment of hypertension decrease the risk of dementia. There is no evidence that pharmaceutical treatment will benefit people with mild cognitive impairment. In people with Alzheimer's disease, treatment with a cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine (an N-methyl- D-aspartate receptor antagonist) may provide symptomatic relief and enhance quality of life, but does not appear to alter progression of the illness. Non-pharmacological strategies are recommended as first-line treatments for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, which are common in Alzheimer's disease. Atypical antipsychotics have modest benefit in reducing agitation and psychotic symptoms but increase the risk of cardiovascular events. The role of antidepressants in managing depressive symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment is uncertain and may increase the risk of delirium and falls. PMID:22304604

  14. Miniature Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged "heat pipes" for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, heat pipes are important to spacecraft. The problem was to maintain an 8-watt central processing unit (CPU) at less than 90 C in a notebook computer using no power, with very little space available and without using forced convection. Thermacore's answer was in the design of a powder metal wick that transfers CPU heat from a tightly confined spot to an area near available air flow. The heat pipe technology permits a notebook computer to be operated in any position without loss of performance. Miniature heat pipe technology has successfully been applied, such as in Pentium Processor notebook computers. The company expects its heat pipes to accommodate desktop computers as well. Cellular phones, camcorders, and other hand-held electronics are forsible applications for heat pipes.

  15. Explosive crystallization in thin amorphous layers on heat conducting substratesa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Christoph; Schneider, Wilhelm

    2015-06-01

    A model for explosive crystallization in a thin amorphous layer on a heat conducting substrate is presented. For the thin layer, the energy equation is used in a one-dimensional approximation. Heat conduction into the substrate and thermal contact resistance at the interface between layer and substrate are taken into account. Four rate equations are used to describe the kinetics of the homogeneous amorphous-crystalline transition. The whole process is examined as a plane wave of invariant shape in a moving frame of reference. Heat conduction in the substrate is described by introducing a continuous distribution of moving heat sources at the interface. This gives an integral representation for the temperature in the substrate in terms of the unknown source distribution. The integral term implies that there is a non-local influence of the temperature distribution in the layer on the heat loss. A coupled system of an integro-differential equation and four ordinary differential equations is obtained and solved numerically. The propagation velocity of the wave is obtained as an eigenvalue of the system of equations. Varying a non-dimensional heat loss parameter, a critical value is found beyond which no crystallization wave of invariant shape is possible. This can also be interpreted as a certain minimum layer thickness. Temperature and crystallinity distributions are shown for some interesting configurations. Predictions of crystallization-wave velocities and minimum layer thicknesses are compared with experimental values for explosive crystallization in germanium.

  16. Thermophotonic heat pump—a theoretical model and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksanen, Jani; Tulkki, Jukka

    2010-05-01

    We have recently proposed a solid state heat pump based on photon mediated heat transfer between two large-area light emitting diodes coupled by the electromagnetic field and enclosed in a semiconductor structure with a nearly homogeneous refractive index. Ideally the thermophotonic heat pump (THP) allows heat transfer at Carnot efficiency but in reality there are several factors that limit the efficiency. The efficient operation of the THP is based on the following construction factors and operational characteristics: (1) broad area semiconductor diodes to enable operation at optimal carrier density and high efficiency, (2) recycling of the energy of the emitted photons, (3) elimination of photon extraction losses by integrating the emitting and the absorbing diodes within a single semiconductor structure, and (4) eliminating the reverse thermal conduction by a nanometer scale vacuum layer between the diodes. In this paper we develop a theoretical model for the THP and study the fundamental physical limitations and potential of the concept. The results show that even when the most important losses of the THPs are accounted for, the THP has potential to outperform the thermoelectric coolers especially for heat transfer across large temperature differences and possibly even to compete with conventional small scale compressor based heat pumps.

  17. Antarctic sea ice losses drive gains in benthic carbon drawdown.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D K A

    2015-09-21

    Climate forcing of sea-ice losses from the Arctic and West Antarctic are blueing the poles. These losses are accelerating, reducing Earth's albedo and increasing heat absorption. Subarctic forest (area expansion and increased growth) and ice-shelf losses (resulting in new phytoplankton blooms which are eaten by benthos) are the only significant described negative feedbacks acting to counteract the effects of increasing CO2 on a warming planet, together accounting for uptake of ∼10(7) tonnes of carbon per year. Most sea-ice loss to date has occurred over polar continental shelves, which are richly, but patchily, colonised by benthic animals. Most polar benthos feeds on microscopic algae (phytoplankton), which has shown increased blooms coincident with sea-ice losses. Here, growth responses of Antarctic shelf benthos to sea-ice losses and phytoplankton increases were investigated. Analysis of two decades of benthic collections showed strong increases in annual production of shelf seabed carbon in West Antarctic bryozoans. These were calculated to have nearly doubled to >2x10(5) tonnes of carbon per year since the 1980s. Annual production of bryozoans is median within wider Antarctic benthos, so upscaling to include other benthos (combined study species typically constitute ∼3% benthic biomass) suggests an increased drawdown of ∼2.9x10(6) tonnes of carbon per year. This drawdown could become sequestration because polar continental shelves are typically deeper than most modern iceberg scouring, bacterial breakdown rates are slow, and benthos is easily buried. To date, most sea-ice losses have been Arctic, so, if hyperboreal benthos shows a similar increase in drawdown, polar continental shelves would represent Earth's largest negative feedback to climate change. PMID:26394097

  18. Accountability: A Mosaic Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Teri

    1977-01-01

    The problems involved in definition, implementation and control of accountability processes are discussed. It is stated that "...emotional involvement in accountability is one of the most difficult aspects to deal with, the chief emotion being fear". (Author/RW)

  19. LMAL Accounting Office 1936

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1936-01-01

    Accounting Office: The Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory's accounting office, 1936, with photographs of the Wright brothers on the wall. Although the Lab was named after Samuel P. Langley, most of the NACA staff held the Wrights as their heroes.

  20. Utilizing thermal isostasy to estimate sub-lithospheric heat flow and anomalous crustal radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasterok, D.; Gard, M.

    2016-09-01

    While surface heat flow relates to the heat loss through the lithosphere, it can be difficult to quantify and separate the heat produced internally through radiogenic decay from the heat transferred across the base of the lithosphere by mantle convection. In this study, we apply a thermo-isostatic analysis to Australia and estimate the sub-lithospheric and radiogenic heat flow components by employing a simple 1-D conservation of energy model. We estimate an anomalous radiogenic heat production across much of eastern Australia generally accounting for >50 mW m-2, while western Australia appears to have high crustal compositionally corrected elevation, possibly related to chemical buoyancy of the mantle lithosphere. A moderately high sub-lithospheric heat flow (∼40 mW m-2) along the eastern and southeastern coast, including Tasmania, is coincident with locations of Cenozoic volcanism and supports an edge-driven convection hypothesis. However, the pattern of sub-lithospheric heat flow along the margin does not support the existence of hotspot tracks. Thermo-isostatic models such as these improve our ability to identify and quantify crustal from mantle sources of heat loss and add valuable constraints on tectonic and geodynamic models of the continental lithosphere's physical state and evolution.

  1. Managerial Accounting. Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plachta, Leonard E.

    This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course in managerial accounting. The study guide is intended for use by students in conjuction with a separate textbook, Horngren's "Accounting for Management Control: An Introduction," and a workbook, Curry's "Student Guide to Accounting for Management…

  2. The Accounting Capstone Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Henry; Norris, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Capstone courses in accounting programs bring students experiences integrating across the curriculum (University of Washington, 2005) and offer unique (Sanyal, 2003) and transformative experiences (Sill, Harward, & Cooper, 2009). Students take many accounting courses without preparing complete sets of financial statements. Accountants not only…

  3. Accounting & Computing Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avani, Nathan T.; And Others

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching a competency-based accounting and computing course that is designed to prepare students for employability in the following occupational areas: inventory control clerk, invoice clerk, payroll clerk, traffic clerk, general ledger bookkeeper, accounting clerk, account information clerk,…

  4. Intelligent Accountability in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Onora

    2013-01-01

    Systems of accountability are "second order" ways of using evidence of the standard to which "first order" tasks are carried out for a great variety of purposes. However, more accountability is not always better, and processes of holding to account can impose high costs without securing substantial benefits. At their worst,…

  5. Accounting Education in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Karen F.; Reed, Ronald O.; Greiman, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Almost on a daily basis new accounting rules and laws are put into use, creating information that must be known and learned by the accounting faculty and then introduced to and understood by the accounting student. Even with the 150 hours of education now required for CPA licensure, it is impossible to teach and learn all there is to learn. Over…

  6. Rotation and Mass Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owocki, S.

    2008-06-01

    Stellar rotation can play an important role in structuring and enhancing the mass loss from massive stars. Initial 1D models focussed on the expected centrifugal enhancement of the line-driven mass flux from the equator of a rotating star, but the review here emphasizes that the loss of centrifugal support away from the stellar surface actually limits the steady mass flux to just the point-star CAK value, with models near critical rotation characterized by a slow, subcritical acceleration. Recent suggestions that such slow outflows might have high enough density to explain disks in Be or B[e] stars are examined in the context of 2D simulations of the ``Wind Compressed Disk'' (WCD) paradigm, together with a review of the tendency for poleward components of the line-driving force to inhibit WCD formation. When one accounts for equatorial gravity darkening, the net tendency is in fact for the relatively bright regions at higher latitude to drive a faster, denser ``bipolar'' outflow. I discuss the potential relevance for the bipolar form of nebulae from LBV stars like η Carinae, but emphasize that, since the large mass loss associated with the eruption of eta Carinae's Homunculus would heavily saturate line-driving, explaining its bipolar form requires development of analogous models for continuum-driven mass loss. I conclude with a discussion of how radiation seems inherently ill-suited to supporting or driving a geometrically thin, but optically thick disk or disk outflow. The disks inferred in Be and B[e] stars may instead be centrifugally ejected, with radiation inducing an ablation flow from the disk surface, and thus perhaps playing a greater role in destroying (rather than creating) an orbiting, circumstellar disk.

  7. Losses as modulators of attention: review and analysis of the unique effects of losses over gains.

    PubMed

    Yechiam, Eldad; Hochman, Guy

    2013-03-01

    It has been shown that in certain situations losses exert a stronger effect on behavior than respective gains, and this has been commonly explained by the argument that losses are given more weight in people's decisions than respective gains. However, although much is understood about the effect of losses on cognitive processes and behavior, 2 major inconsistencies remain. First, recent empirical evidence fails to demonstrate that people avoid incentive structures that carry equivalent gains and losses. Second, findings in experience-based decision tasks indicate that following losses, increased arousal is observed simultaneously with no behavioral loss aversion. To account for these findings, we developed an attention-allocation model as a comprehensive framework for the effect of losses. According to this model losses increase on-task attention, thereby enhancing the sensitivity to the reinforcement structure. In the current article we examine whether this model can account for a broad range of empirical phenomena involving losses. We show that as predicted by the attentional model, asymmetric effects of losses on behavior emerge where gains and losses are presented separately but not concurrently. Yet, even in the absence of loss aversion, losses have distinct effects on performance, arousal, frontal cortical activation, and behavioral consistency. The attentional model of losses thus explains some of the main inconsistencies in previous studies of the effect of losses. PMID:22823738

  8. 26 CFR 1.1251-2 - Excess deductions account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... farm net loss, there shall not be taken into account his pro rata share of farm net income or loss of... adjusted gross income ($55,000) computed per example (7) minus $21,000 (A's share of N's nonfarm net... without regard to their respective pro rata shares of the farm net income or loss of X, Y, and Z) are...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1502-9T - Consolidated overall foreign losses, separate limitation losses, and overall domestic losses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... losses in consolidated return years beginning on or before December 21, 2007 see 26 CFR 1.1502-9 (revised... (CONTINUED) Consolidated Tax Liability § 1.1502-9T Consolidated overall foreign losses, separate limitation.... Paragraph (b) of this section defines terms and provides computational and accounting rules, including...

  10. Vision Loss, Sudden

    MedlinePlus

    ... of age-related macular degeneration. Spotlight on Aging: Vision Loss in Older People Most commonly, vision loss ... Some Causes and Features of Sudden Loss of Vision Cause Common Features* Tests Sudden loss of vision ...

  11. Two Dimensional Heat Transfer around Penetrations in Multilayer Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wesley L.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Jumper, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this task was to quantify thermal losses involving integrating MLI into real life situations. Testing specifically focused on the effects of penetrations (including structural attachments, electrical conduit/feedthroughs, and fluid lines) through MLI. While there have been attempts at quantifying these losses both analytically and experimentally, none have included a thorough investigation of the methods and materials that could be used in such applications. To attempt to quantify the excess heat load coming into the system due to the integration losses, a calorimeter was designed to study two dimensional heat transfer through penetrated MLI. The test matrix was designed to take as many variables into account as was possible with the limited test duration and system size. The parameters varied were the attachment mechanism, the buffer material (for buffer attachment mechanisms only), the thickness of the buffer, and the penetration material. The work done under this task is an attempt to measure the parasitic heat loads and affected insulation areas produced by system integration, to model the parasitic loads, and from the model produce engineering equations to allow for the determination of parasitic heat loads in future applications. The methods of integration investigated were no integration, using a buffer to thermally isolate the strut from the MLI, and temperature matching the MLI on the strut. Several materials were investigated as a buffer material including aerogel blankets, aerogel bead packages, cryolite, and even an evacuated vacuum space (in essence a no buffer condition).

  12. Heat Waves

    MedlinePlus

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  13. Heat emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Heat emergencies or illnesses are caused by exposure to extreme heat and sun. Heat illnesses can be prevented by ... to regulate the temperature, and make a heat emergency more likely: Drinking alcohol before or during exposure ...

  14. Experimental investigations of uncovered-bundle heat transfer and two-phase mixture-level swell under high-pressure low heat-flux conditions. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T. M.; Miller, R. J.; White, M. D.

    1982-03-01

    Results are reported from a series of uncovered-bundle heat transfer and mixture-level swell tests. Experimental testing was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF). The THTF is an electrically heated bundle test loop configured to produce conditions similar to those in a small-break loss-of-coolant accident. The objective of heat transfer testing was to acquire heat transfer coefficients and fluid conditions in a partially uncovered bundle. Testing was performed in a quasi-steady-state mode with the heated core 30 to 40% uncovered. Linear heat rates varied from 0.32 to 2.22 kW/m.rod (0.1 to 0.68 kW/ft.rod). Under these conditions peak clad temperatures in excess of 1050 K (1430/sup 0/F) were observed, and total heat transfer coefficients ranged from 0.0045 to 0.037 W/cm/sup 2/.K (8 to 65 Btu/h.ft/sup 2/./sup 0/F). Spacer grids were observed to enhance heat transfer at, and downstream of, the grid. Radiation heat transfer was calculated to account for as much as 65% of total heat transfer in low-flow tests.

  15. Chemical heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Leonard

    1980-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  16. Mass Loss from Evolved Stars in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parriott, Joel R.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2008-07-01

    Most of the X-ray-emitting gas in early-type galaxies probably originates from red giant mass loss, and here we model the interaction between this stellar mass loss and the hot ambient medium. Using two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we adopt a temperature for the ambient medium of 3 × 106 K along with a range of ambient densities and stellar velocities. When the stellar velocity is supersonic relative to the ambient medium, a bow shock occurs, along with a shock driven into the stellar ejecta, which heats only a fraction of the gas. Behind the bow shock, a cool wake develops, but the fast flow of the hot medium causes Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities to grow and these fingers are shocked and heated (without radiative cooling). Along with the mixing of this wake material with the hot medium, most of the stellar ejecta is heated to approximately the temperature of the hot ambient medium within 2 pc of the star. With the addition of radiative cooling, some wake material remains cool (<105 K), accounting for up to 25% of the stellar mass loss. Less cooled gas survives when the ambient density is lower or when the stellar velocity is higher than in our reference case. These results suggest that some cooled gas should be present in the inner part of early-type galaxies that have a hot ambient medium. These calculations may explain the observed distributed optical emission line gas as well as the presence of dust in early-type galaxies.

  17. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. Findikakis

    2004-11-01

    water. For temperatures in the trans-boiling regime (95 C to 114 C), the additional energy required to vaporize the pore water is accounted for in the rock-mass heat capacity. The rock-grain heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that explicitly account for the thermodynamic effects of the water within the rock porosity. The rock-mass heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that do not explicitly account for these thermodynamic effects, particularly boiling. The term specific heat is often used synonymously with heat capacity; however, the latter term is used throughout this document.

  18. Dynamic loss properties of wood

    SciTech Connect

    Wert, C.A.; Weller, M.; Caulfield, D.

    1984-11-01

    Internal friction and dielectric loss measurements have been made on whole wood, on cellulose, and on lignin. A prominent ..beta.. peak is seen at 200 K for frequencies around 1 Hz. This peak shifts to lower temperatures (near 160 K) when wood is heated to 475 K. We propose that this shift signifies molecular changes characteristic of the first stages of coalification of wood and lignin. Additional comparisons are made with the macromolecular structure of amber, oil shale, and synthetic polymers.

  19. Dynamic loss properties of wood

    SciTech Connect

    Wert, C.A.; Weller, M.; Caulfield, D.

    1984-11-01

    Internal friction and dielectric loss measurements have been made on wood, on cellulose, and on lignin. A prominent ..beta.. peak is seen at 200 K for frequencies around 1 Hz. This peak shifts to lower temperatures (near 160 K) when wood is heated to 475 K. We propose that this shift signifies molecular changes characteristic of the first stages of coalification of wood and lignin. Additional comparisons are made with the macromolecular structure of amber, oil shale, and synthetic polymers.

  20. Energy losses during cooking processes

    SciTech Connect

    Thapar, A.; Engira, R.M.; Sohal, J.S.

    1983-12-01

    A major chunk of the thermal energy of the cooking fuel is wasted due to incomplete consumption, unfunctional design of cooking stoves and utensils. Several studies and their findings which are reported in the present paper pertain to: determination of minimum fuel consumption required for cooking of selected dishes under controlled and normal conditions; analysis of relative amounts of heat loss through different techniques during cooking under normal conditions; evaluation of effectiveness of different energy saving techniques with regard to cooking vessel.

  1. Unit Method of Accounting for Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Leigh A.

    1971-01-01

    The unit method of accounting for investments, also called the market-value method, is defined as a procedure for accurately allocating income and investment gains and losses, both realized and unrealized, between component funds of an investment pool. This procedure provides a data base for the calculation of investment performance. Advantages of…

  2. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-7 - Separate limitation loss and the separate limitation loss account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... December 21, 2007, including periods covered by 26 CFR 1.904(f)-7T (revised as of April 1, 2010). For rules... 904(f)(5)(F) (relating to recapture of separate lim- itationloss accountsoutofgain realized...

  3. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reserve account is subject to the requirements of 7 CFR part 1902, subpart A regarding supervised bank... heating or air conditioning must be done in accordance with the requirements of 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A. ... of the housing project and in the best interest of the Federal Government. (l) Procurement....

  4. Influence of an insulating megaregolith on heat flow and crustal temperature structure of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egea-González, Isabel; Ruiz, Javier

    2014-04-01

    Mercury is covered by a megaregolith layer, which constitutes a poor thermally conducting layer that must have an influence on the thermal state and evolution of the planet, although most thermal modeling or heat flow studies have overlooked it. In this work we have calculated surface heat flows and subsurface temperatures from the depth of thrust faults associated with several prominent lobate scarps on Mercury, valid for the time of the formation of these scarps, by solving the heat equation and taking into account the insulating effects of a megaregolith layer. We conclude that megaregolith insulation could have been an important factor limiting heat loss and therefore interior cooling and contraction of Mercury. As mercurian megaregolith properties are not very well known, we also analyze the influence of these properties on the results, and discuss the consequences of imposing the condition that the total radioactive heat production must be lower than the total surface heat loss (this is, the Urey ratio, Ur, must be lower than 1) in a cooling and thermally contracting planet such as Mercury at the time of scarp emplacement. Our results show that satisfying the condition of Ur < 1 implies that the average abundances of heat-producing elements silicate layer is 0.4 times or less the average surface value, placing an upper bound on the bulk content of heat producing elements in Mercury’s interior.

  5. Heat Transfer of Viscoelastic Fluid Flow due to Nonlinear Stretching Sheet with Internal Heat Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandeppanavar, M. M.; Siddalingappa, M. N.; Jyoti, H.

    2013-08-01

    In the present paper, a viscoelastic boundary layer flow and heat transfer over an exponentially stretching continuous sheet in the presence of a heat source/sink has been examined. Loss of energy due to viscous dissipation of the non-Newtonian fluid has been taken into account in this study. Approximate analytical local similar solutions of the highly non-linear momentum equation are obtained for velocity distribution by transforming the equation into Riccati-type and then solving this sequentially. Accuracy of the zero-order analytical solutions for the stream function and velocity are verified by numerical solutions obtained by employing the Runge-Kutta fourth order method involving shooting. Similarity solutions of the temperature equation for non-isothermal boundary conditions are obtained in the form of confluent hypergeometric functions. The effect of various physical parameters on the local skin-friction coefficient and heat transfer characteristics are discussed in detail. It is seen that the rate of heat transfer from the stretching sheet to the fluid can be controlled by suitably choosing the values of the Prandtl number Pr and local Eckert number E, local viscioelastic parameter k*1 and local heat source/ sink parameter β*

  6. Computerizing the Accounting Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, John F.; England, Thomas G.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of computers in college accounting courses. Argues that the success of new efforts in using computers in teaching accounting is dependent upon increasing instructors' computer skills, and choosing appropriate hardware and software, including commercially available business software packages. (TW)

  7. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  8. The Choreography of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2006-01-01

    The prevailing performance discourse in education claims school improvements can be achieved through transparent accountability procedures. The article identifies how teachers generate performances of their work in order to satisfy accountability demands. By identifying sources of teachers' knowledge that produce choreographed performances, I…

  9. Teaching Accounting with Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaoul, Jean

    This paper addresses the numerous ways that computers may be used to enhance the teaching of accounting and business topics. It focuses on the pedagogical use of spreadsheet software to improve the conceptual coverage of accounting principles and practice, increase student understanding by involvement in the solution process, and reduce the amount…

  10. Leadership for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    2001-01-01

    This document explores issues of leadership for accountability and reviews five resources on the subject. These include: (1) "Accountability by Carrots and Sticks: Will Incentives and Sanctions Motivate Students, Teachers, and Administrators for Peak Performance?" (Larry Lashway); (2) "Organizing Schools for Teacher Learning" (Judith Warren…

  11. Accountability in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chippendale, P. R., Ed.; Wilkes, Paula V., Ed.

    This collection of papers delivered at a conference on accountability held at Darling Downs Institute of Advanced Education in Australia examines the meaning of accountability in education for teachers, lecturers, government, parents, administrators, education authorities, and the society at large. In Part 1, W. G. Walker attempts to answer the…

  12. The Accountability Illusion: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  13. The Accountability Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glisson, Charles

    1975-01-01

    Author discusses accountability controversy concerning effectiveness of social services. Turem's mechanistic and Gruber's organic models of accountability are compared and an alternate open system model of organization is offered which combines positive aspects of Turem's and Gruber's models as well as adds other constructive elements to them. (SE)

  14. The Accountability Illusion: Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  15. The Evolution of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Campus 2020: Thinking ahead is a policy in British Columbia (BC), Canada, that attempted to hold universities accountable to performance. Within, I demonstrate how this Canadian articulation of educational accountability intended to develop "governmentality constellations" to control the university and regulate its knowledge output. This research…

  16. The Accountability Illusion: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  17. Responsible and accountable.

    PubMed

    Woodrow, Philip

    2006-03-01

    Healthcare assistants are valuable members of the multi-disciplinary team, using many skills outlined in previous articles in this series. But anyone exceeding the limits of their skills can cause harm and may be called to account. This article explains how everyone is accountable. PMID:16538993

  18. The Accountability Illusion: Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  19. Accountability and primary healthcare.

    PubMed

    Mukhi, Shaheena; Barnsley, Jan; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    This paper examines the accountability structures within primary healthcare (PHC) in Ontario; in particular, who is accountable for what and to whom, and the policy tools being used. Ontario has implemented a series of incremental reforms, using expenditure policy instruments, enforced through contractual agreements to provide a defined set of publicly financed services that are privately delivered, most often by family physicians. The findings indicate that reporting, funding, evaluation and governance accountability requirements vary across service provider models. Accountability to the funder and patients is most common. Agreements, incentives and compensation tools have been used but may be insufficient to ensure parties are being held responsible for their activities related to stated goals. Clear definitions of various governance structures, a cohesive approach to monitoring critical performance indicators and associated improvement strategies are important elements in operationalizing accountability and determining whether goals are being met. PMID:25305392

  20. Accountability and Primary Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Mukhi, Shaheena; Barnsley, Jan; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the accountability structures within primary healthcare (PHC) in Ontario; in particular, who is accountable for what and to whom, and the policy tools being used. Ontario has implemented a series of incremental reforms, using expenditure policy instruments, enforced through contractual agreements to provide a defined set of publicly financed services that are privately delivered, most often by family physicians. The findings indicate that reporting, funding, evaluation and governance accountability requirements vary across service provider models. Accountability to the funder and patients is most common. Agreements, incentives and compensation tools have been used but may be insufficient to ensure parties are being held responsible for their activities related to stated goals. Clear definitions of various governance structures, a cohesive approach to monitoring critical performance indicators and associated improvement strategies are important elements in operationalizing accountability and determining whether goals are being met. PMID:25305392

  1. Hearing Loss in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

  2. Heat Without Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubkin, Elihu

    1997-04-01

    Logic of the Second Law of Thermodynamics demands acquisition of naked entropy. Accordingly, the leanest liaison between systems is not a diathermic membrane, it is a purely informational tickler, leaking no appreciable energy. The subsystem here is a thermodynamic universe, which gets `heated' entropically, yet without gaining calories. Quantum Mechanics graciously supports that(Lubkin, E. and Lubkin, T., International Journal of Theoretical Physics,32), 933-943 (1993) (at a cost of about 1 bit) through entanglement---across this least permeable of membranes---with what is beyond that universe. Heat without heat(Also v. forthcoming Proceedings of the 4th Drexel University Conference of September 1994) is the aspirin for Boltzmann's headache, conserving entropy in mechanical isolation, even while increasing entropy in thermodynamic isolation.

  3. Distributed vs. centralized heating

    SciTech Connect

    Mehrotra, P.; Sood, P.

    1983-04-01

    Decentralization of the steam system in an industrial plant can dramatically reduce energy waste and operating costs. The approach (1) utilizes high-pressure gas piping to properly selected and located heat sources such as fluid heaters, boilers, and ovens, (2) replaces stream with a high-temperature fluid heat-transfer medium and/or hot water, and (3) provides a high- or low-pressure steam source near those users that must use stream. In a case study of a 50-year-old Chicago building housing a felt and rubber products plant, a steam profile revealed that 48% of the energy supplied to the boiler was wasted through flue gases, steam leakage, condensate drain, and transmission heat losses; 42% was used to provide ventilation preheat and transmission heat losses in winter; and 10% was actually for process heat. The Chicago plant installed instantaneous water heaters, a gas-fired fluid heater, six air-to-air heat exchangers, infrared heaters for the plant perimeter, and a low-pressure steam boiler for office heating, cutting gas consumption over 30%. Decisions about decentralization should consider the age of the plant, diversity of use, load factor, operation variations of production sections, and uncertainity of production planning.

  4. Laser heated thermoluminescence dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, B.L.; Huston, A.L.

    1996-06-01

    We report a novel laser-heated thermoluminescence dosimeter that is radically different from previous laser-heated dosimeters. The dosimeter is a semiconductor and metal ion doped silica glass that has excellent optical transparency. The high optical quality of the glass essentially eliminates laser power loss due to light scattering. This efficient utilization of the laser power permits operation of the dosimeter without strong absorption of the laser, as is required in traditional laser-heated dosimetry. Our laser-heated dosimeter does not rely on the diffusion of heat from a separate, highly absorbing substrate, but operates via intimate, localized heating within the glass dosimeter due to the absorption of the laser light by rare earth ion dopants in the glass. Following absorption of the laser light, the rare earth ions transfer energy to the surrounding glass via nonradiative relaxation processes, resulting in rapid, localized temperature increases sufficient to release all the filled traps near the ions. As the heat diffuses radially away from the rare earth ions the temperature plummets dramatically on a manometer distance scale and the release of additional filled traps subsides. A key distinguishing feature of this laser-heated dosimeter is the ability to read the dose information more than once. While laser-heating provides complete information about the radiation exposure experienced by the glass due to the release of locally heated traps, the process leaves the remaining filled bulk traps undisturbed. The bulk traps can be read using traditional bulk heating methods and can provide a direct determination of an accumulated dose, measured following any number of laser-heated readouts. Laser-heated dosimetry measurements have been performed using a solid state diode laser for the readout following radiation exposure with a {sup 60}Co source.

  5. A water and heat management model for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.V.; White, R.E. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    Proper water and heat management are essential for obtaining high-power-density performance at high energy efficiency for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells. A water and heat management model was developed and used to investigate the effectiveness of various humidification designs. The model accounts for water transport across the membrane by electro-osmosis and diffusion, heat transfer from the solid phase to the gas phase and latent heat associated with water evaporation and condensation in the flow channels. Results from the model showed that at high current (> 1A/cm[sup 2]) ohmic loss in the membrane accounts for a large fraction of the voltage loss in the cell and back diffusion of water from the cathode side of the membrane is insufficient to keep the membrane hydrated (i.e., conductive). Consequently, to minimize this ohmic loss the anode stream must be humidified, and when air is used instead of pure oxygen the cathode stream must also be humidified.

  6. NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

    2008-09-01

    One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change

  7. Living with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Living with Hearing Loss Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Fast Facts There are two main types of hearing loss. Permanent hearing loss (called sensorineural) usually involves damage ...

  8. Early Pregnancy Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called early pregnancy loss , miscarriage , or spontaneous abortion . How common is early pregnancy loss? Early pregnancy ... testes that can fertilize a female egg. Spontaneous Abortion: The medical term for early pregnancy loss. Trimester: ...

  9. Living with vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... Low vision is a visual disability. Wearing regular glasses or contacts does not help. People with low vision have ...

  10. Loss restlessness and gain calmness: durable effects of losses and gains on choice switching.

    PubMed

    Yechiam, Eldad; Zahavi, Gal; Arditi, Eli

    2015-08-01

    While the traditional conceptualization of the effect of losses focuses on bias in the subjective weight of losses compared with respective gains, some accounts suggest more global task-related effects of losses. Based on a recent attentional theory, we predicted a positive after-effect of losses on choice switching in later tasks. In two experimental studies, we found increased choice switching rates in tasks with losses compared to tasks with no losses. Additionally, this heightened shifting behavior was maintained in subsequent tasks that do not include losses, a phenomenon we refer to as "loss restlessness." Conversely, gains were found to have an opposite "calming" effect on choice switching. Surprisingly, the loss restlessness phenomenon was observed following an all-losses payoff regime but not after a task with symmetric mixed gains and losses. This suggests that the unresolved mental account following an all-losses regime increases search behavior. Potential implications to macro level phenomena, such as the leverage effect, are discussed. PMID:25348826

  11. The unified cycle model of a class of solar-driven heat engines and their optimum performance characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yue; Lin, Bihong; Chen, Jincan

    2005-04-01

    The unified cycle model of a class of solar-driven heat engines is presented, in which the heat loss of the solar collector and the external and internal irreversibilities of the heat engine are taken into account and used to investigate the optimal performance of the cyclic system. The maximum overall efficiency of the system is calculated. The optimally operating temperature of the solar collector, the optimal temperatures of the cyclic working substance, and the optimal ratio of the heat-transfer areas of the heat engine are determined. The influence of the heat loss of the solar collector and the external and internal irreversibilities of the heat engine on the cyclic performance is discussed in detail. Some important characteristic curves are given. It is more important that the results obtained from the unified cycle model are very general and useful, from which the optimal performance of the solar-driven Brayton, Braysson, and Carnot heat engines and some solar-driven heat engines can be directly derived.

  12. Loss of coolant analysis for the tower shielding reactor 2

    SciTech Connect

    Radcliff, T.D.; Williams, P.T.

    1990-06-01

    The operational limits of the Tower Shielding Reactor-2 (TSR-2) have been revised to account for placing the reactor in a beam shield, which reduces convection cooling during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A detailed heat transfer analysis was performed to set operating time limits which preclude fuel damage during a LOCA. Since a LOCA is survivable, the pressure boundary need not be safety related, minimizing seismic and inspection requirements. Measurements of reactor component emittance for this analysis revealed that aluminum oxidized in water may have emittance much higher than accepted values, allowing higher operating limits than were originally expected. These limits could be increased further with analytical or hardware improvements. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Human Resource Accounting System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerullo, Michael J.

    1974-01-01

    Main objectives of human resource accounting systems are to satisfy the informational demands made by investors and by operating managers. The paper's main concern is with the internal uses of a human asset system. (Author)

  14. Absorption-heat-pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  15. Maximum wind speeds and US hurricane losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murnane, R. J.; Elsner, J. B.

    2012-08-01

    There is academic, commercial, and public interest in estimating loss from hurricanes striking land and understanding how loss might change as a result of future variations in climate. Here we show that the relationship between wind speed and loss is exponential and that loss increases with wind speed at a rate of 5% per m s-1. The relationship is derived using quantile regression and a data set comprising wind speeds of hurricanes hitting the United States and normalized economic losses. We suggest that the “centercepts” for the different quantiles account for exposure-related factors such as population density, precipitation, and surface roughness, and that once these effects are accounted for, the increase in loss with wind speed is consistent across quantiles. An out-of-sample test of this relationship correctly predicts economic losses from Hurricane Irene in 2011. The exponential relationship suggests that increased wind speeds will produce significantly higher losses; however, increases in exposed property and population are expected to be a more important factor for near future losses.

  16. A Prototype Flux-Plate Heat-Flow Sensor for Venus Surface Heat-Flow Determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Paul; Reyes, Celso; Smrekar, Suzanne E.

    2005-01-01

    Venus is the most Earth-like planet in the Solar System in terms of size, and the densities of the two planets are almost identical when selfcompression of the two planets is taken into account. Venus is the closest planet to Earth, and the simplest interpretation of their similar densities is that their bulk compositions are almost identical. Models of the thermal evolution of Venus predict interior temperatures very similar to those indicated for the regions of Earth subject to solid-state convection, but even global analyses of the coarse Pioneer Venus elevation data suggest Venus does not lose heat by the same primary heat loss mechanism as Earth, i.e., seafloor spreading. The comparative paucity of impact craters on Venus has been interpreted as evidence for relatively recent resurfacing of the planet associated with widespread volcanic and tectonic activity. The difference in the gross tectonic styles of Venus and Earth, and the origins of some of the enigmatic volcano-tectonic features on Venus, such as the coronae, appear to be intrinsically related to Venus heat loss mechanism(s). An important parameter in understanding Venus geological evolution, therefore, is its present surface heat flow. Before the complications of survival in the hostile Venus surface environment were tackled, a prototype fluxplate heat-flow sensor was built and tested for use under synthetic stable terrestrial surface conditions. The design parameters for this prototype were that it should operate on a conforming (sand) surface, with a small, self-contained power and recording system, capable of operating without servicing for at least several days. The precision and accuracy of the system should be < 5 mW/sq m. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  17. NCSX Plasma Heating Methods

    SciTech Connect

    H.W. Kugel; D. Spong; R. Majeski; M. Zarnstorff

    2003-02-28

    The NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral-beam injection, and radio-frequency. Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The plan is to provide 3 MW of 50 keV balanced neutral-beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 msec for initial experiments, and to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 sec. Subsequent upgrades will add 3 MW of neutral-beam injection. This Chapter discusses the NCSX neutral-beam injection requirements and design issues, and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M (Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification) neutral-beam injection system. In addition, estimations are given for beam-heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size an d magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam-injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of radio-frequency heating by mode-conversion ion-Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron-cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the radio-frequency system lend themselves to current drive, so that if current drive became desirable for any reason only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The radio-frequency system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possibly ion-Bernstein-wave-generated sheared flows.

  18. NCSX Plasma Heating Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H. W.; Spong, D.; Majeski, R.; Zarnstorff, M.

    2008-01-18

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral beam injection, and radio-frequency (rf). Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, neutral beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The experimental plan requires 3 MW of 50-keV balanced neutral beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 ms for initial experiments, to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 s. Subsequent upgrades will add 3MW of neutral beam injection (NBI). This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M NBI system. In addition, estimations are given for beam heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size and magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of rf heating by mode conversion ion Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the rf system lend themselves to current drive, so if current drive became desirable for any reason, only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The rf system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possiblyIBW-generated sheared flows.

  19. Accounting for the environment.

    PubMed

    Lutz, E; Munasinghe, M

    1991-03-01

    Environmental awareness in the 1980s has led to efforts to improve the current UN System of National Accounts (SNA) for better measurement of the value of environmental resources when estimating income. National governments, the UN, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank are interested in solving this issue. The World Bank relies heavily on national aggregates in income accounts compiled by means of the SNA that was published in 1968 and stressed gross domestic product (GDP). GDP measures mainly market activity, but it takes does not consider the consumption of natural capital, and indirectly inhibits sustained development. The deficiencies of the current method of accounting are inconsistent treatment of manmade and natural capital, the omission of natural resources and their depletion from balance sheets, and pollution cleanup costs from national income. In the calculation of GDP pollution is overlooked, and beneficial environmental inputs are valued at zero. The calculation of environmentally adjusted net domestic product (EDP) and environmentally adjusted net income (ENI) would lower income and growth rate, as the World Resources Institute found with respect to Indonesia for 1971-84. When depreciation for oil, timber, and top soil was included the net domestic product (NDP) was only 4% compared with a 7.1% GDP. The World Bank has advocated environmental accounting since 1983 in SNA revisions. The 1989 revised Blue Book of the SNA takes environment concerns into account. Relevant research is under way in Mexico and Papua New Guinea using the UN Statistical Office framework as a system for environmentally adjusted economic accounts that computes EDP and ENI and integrates environmental data with national accounts while preserving SNA concepts. PMID:12285741

  20. Thinking about Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Accountability is a key component of healthcare reforms, in Canada and internationally, but there is increasing recognition that one size does not fit all. A more nuanced understanding begins with clarifying what is meant by accountability, including specifying for what, by whom, to whom and how. These papers arise from a Partnership for Health System Improvement (PHSI), funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), on approaches to accountability that examined accountability across multiple healthcare subsectors in Ontario. The partnership features collaboration among an interdisciplinary team, working with senior policy makers, to clarify what is known about best practices to achieve accountability under various circumstances. This paper presents our conceptual framework. It examines potential approaches (policy instruments) and postulates that their outcomes may vary by subsector depending upon (a) the policy goals being pursued, (b) governance/ownership structures and relationships and (c) the types of goods and services being delivered, and their production characteristics (e.g., contestability, measurability and complexity). PMID:25305385