Science.gov

Sample records for account heat losses

  1. Heat Loss Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Infrared scanning devices are being used to produce images that show, by color or black-and-white shading differences, which buildings and homes are losing heat to the outdoors, and how much. Heat loss surveys done by Texas Instruments, Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. and other companies have growing acceptance of their services among industrial firms, utilities, local governments, and state and federal agencies interested in promoting heat loss awareness and inspiring corrective actions.

  2. On reversible, endoreversible, and irreversible heat device cycles versus the Carnot cycle: a pedagogical approach to account for losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Ayala, J.; Angulo-Brown, F.; Calvo Hernández, A.; Velasco, S.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we analyze the deviations of reversible cycles (for both heat engines and refrigerators) from the corresponding Carnot cycle operating between the same extreme temperatures, and deviations of irreversible cycles from their corresponding reversible realization while putting emphasis on the corresponding losses. The endoreversible models fit in the proposed framework. Two suitable loss factors, which do not need the explicit calculation of entropy variations, are introduced. The behavior of these factors and their interplay allow for a clear and pedagogical visualization of where external and internal irreversibilities are located, and their intensities in terms of the main variables describing the cycle. The analysis could be used as a starting point for more advanced studies on modeling and optimization of real devices and installations.

  3. Heat loss through insulated steam lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kloepfer, J.G.; Dykstra, S.

    1982-02-22

    Heat loss through piping is a costly problem in steam-oriented thermal recovery operations. To determine the heat loss from above- and below-ground insulated steam piping, a program has been written for the TI-59 programmable calculator. Given the pipe parameters, steam temperature, and wind velocity, this program calculates the heat loss in w/m. Assuming pressure drop through the line is negligible, steam quality may be calculated at any point along the pipe. The newton-Raphson iterative technique is used to solve 2 simultaneous equations for the skin temperature. Once convergence is complete, skin temperature is used to calculate the heat loss. The program will allow the engineer to determine heat lost from the steam generator to the wellhead.

  4. Body Heat Loss in Diving.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    is new is the severity of the thermal problem in deep excursion dives from a diving bell or habitat. A diver working from the surface expects to be...chilled, and if the water is extremely cold he may need hot water in free flooding suits. But in deep saturation diving, where the water is always cold...5 to 10 C(41 to 50 F) -- a diver badly needs a well-insulated suit and supplemental heat, neither of which is fully available yet. In such deep

  5. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1 - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... loss account. 1.904(g)-1 Section 1.904(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... States § 1.904(g)-1 Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account. For further guidance, see § 1.904(g)-1T....

  6. Heat loss factor for linear solar concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullick, S. C.; Nanda, S. K.

    1982-05-01

    Numerical techniques are developed for calculating the heat loss factor through the glass cover of a cylindrical solar concentrator. The configuration considered was a steel tube suspended in the central space of a concentric glass tube. Heat transfer coefficients were determined for both the radiative heat between the tube and the glass and the convective heat transfer within the medium between the steel and the glass. The sum of the two coefficients is treated as the total heat transferred to the outside air by forced or mixed convection. Correlations of the outside to inside heat transfer resistances ratio to the wind velocity, the absorber temperature, the emittance of black paint, etc. were formulated. The results are noted to be applicable to flat plate collectors and useful for manufacturers of solar equipment.

  7. 14 CFR Section 7 - Chart of Profit and Loss Accounts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Profit and Loss Classification Section 7 Chart of Profit and Loss Accounts Objective classification of.... 75.9General ground property 70 70 70. 76Amortization expense, capital leases: 76.1Amortization... Dr, 53 Cr. nonoperating income and expense 81Interest on long-term debt and capital leases:...

  8. Heat loss from giant extinct reptiles.

    PubMed

    Ruxton, G D

    2001-09-22

    There is disagreement in the literature about the relative rates of heat loss from a large animal surrounded by either air or water. Here, it is shown that, in most circumstances, the rate at which heat is lost by a large body is significantly greater when it is immersed in water than when it is surrounded by air, assuming that the two fluids are at the same temperature. The only circumstance when this may not apply is when comparing air with fresh water when both are at a temperature somewhere between 0 degrees C and 6 degrees C, the animal is still and water or air currents are negligible. Under these conditions, free convection in water is weak or non-existent, and so the combined effect of conduction and free convection in air becomes comparable to or even greater than that of conduction alone in water. However, in these circumstances, radiation is the dominant mode of heat loss to both media, and so heat losses are approximately the same in both air and water.

  9. Losses told from scrubbing nukes: survey details utility accounting practices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Reduced load forecasts and the Three Mile Island accident led to a record number of nuclear power plant cancellations in 1980, according to a survey of reporting and accounting methods of 60 large electric utilities and 25 gas and water companies. The utilities are trying to recover losses through increased rates, but most are employing accounting methods to defer their losses by using the allowance for funds used during construction (AFUDC). The companies report treating the AFUDC funds in different ways, the majority deducting them from income and construction as a noncash item. (DCK)

  10. Human local and total heat losses in different temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Yin, Hui; Di, Yuhui; Liu, Yanfeng; Liu, Jiaping

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of operative temperature on the local and total heat losses, and the relationship between the heat loss and thermal sensation. 10 local parts of head, neck, chest, abdomen, upper arm, forearm, hand, thigh, leg and foot are selected. In all these parts, convection, radiation, evaporation, respiration, conduction and diffusion heat losses are analyzed when operative temperature is 23, 28, 33 and 37 °C. The local heat losses show that the radiation and convection heat losses are mainly affected by the area of local body, and the heat loss of the thigh is the most in the ten parts. The evaporation heat loss is mainly affected by the distribution of sweat gland, and the heat loss of the chest is the most. The total heat loss of the local body shows that in low temperature, the thigh, leg and chest have much heat loss, while in high temperature, the chest, abdomen, thigh and head have great heat loss, which are useful for clothing design. The heat losses of the whole body show that as the operative temperature increases, the radiation and convection heat losses decrease, the heat losses of conduction, respiration, and diffusion are almost constant, and the evaporation heat loss increases. By comparison, the heat loss ratios of the radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, are in agreement with the previous researches. At last, the formula about the heat loss ratio of convection and radiation is derived. It's useful for thermal comfort evaluation and HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) design.

  11. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-1 - Overall foreign loss and the overall foreign loss account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... States § 1.904(f)-1 Overall foreign loss and the overall foreign loss account. (a)(1) Overview of...)(3) when the taxpayer disposes of property used predominantly outside the United States in a trade or... to recapture when the taxpayer disposes of certain properties under section 904(f)(3)); and §...

  12. Lowering heat losses in heating systems by using effective forms of heat insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Krasheninnikov, A.N.

    1983-02-01

    The reduction of heat losses in power systems is necessary if fuel economy is to be achieved. The use of thermal insulation to reduce heat losses in power plant equipment is discussed. The types of thermal insulation considered in this study include reinforced foam concrete, bituminous perlite, mineral wool, and cellular plastics. The insulating properties of each of these materials are discussed.

  13. Sensible and latent heat loss from the body surface of Holstein cows in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Maia, A S C; daSilva, R G; Battiston Loureiro, C M

    2005-09-01

    The general principles of the mechanisms of heat transfer are well known, but knowledge of the transition between evaporative and non-evaporative heat loss by Holstein cows in field conditions must be improved, especially for low-latitude environments. With this aim 15 Holstein cows managed in open pasture were observed in a tropical region. The latent heat loss from the body surface of the animals was measured by means of a ventilated capsule, while convective heat transfer was estimated by the theory of convection from a horizontal cylinder and by the long-wave radiation exchange based on the Stefan-Boltzmann law. When the air temperature was between 10 and 36 degrees C the sensible heat transfer varied from 160 to -30 W m(-2), while the latent heat loss by cutaneous evaporation increased from 30 to 350 W m(-2). Heat loss by cutaneous evaporation accounted for 20-30% of the total heat loss when air temperatures ranged from 10 to 20 degrees C. At air temperatures >30 degrees C cutaneous evaporation becomes the main avenue of heat loss, accounting for approximately 85% of the total heat loss, while the rest is lost by respiratory evaporation.

  14. Blogging for weight loss: personal accountability, writing selves, and the weight-loss blogosphere.

    PubMed

    Leggatt-Cook, Chez; Chamberlain, Kerry

    2012-09-01

    Body weight is a key concern in contemporary society, with large proportions of the population attempting to control their weight. However, losing weight and maintaining weight loss is notoriously difficult, and new strategies for weight loss attract significant interest. Writing about experiences of weight loss in online journals, or blogging, has recently expanded rapidly. Weight-loss bloggers typically write about daily successes and failures, report calorie consumption and exercise output, and post photographs of their changing bodies. Many bloggers openly court the surveillance of blog readers as a motivation for accountability to their weight-loss goals. Drawing from a sample of weight-loss blogs authored by women, we explore three issues arising from this practice of disclosing a conventionally private activity within an online public domain. First, we examine motivations for blogging, focusing on accountability. Secondly, we consider the online construction of self, exploring how weight-loss bloggers negotiate discourses around fatness, and rework selves as their bodies transform. Finally, we consider the communities of interest that form around weight-loss blogs. This 'blogosphere' provides mutual support for weight loss. However, participating in online social spaces is complicated and bloggers must carefully manage issues of privacy and disclosure.

  15. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1T - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... loss account (temporary). 1.904(g)-1T Section 1.904(g)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... United States § 1.904(g)-1T Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account (temporary). (a... accounts for purposes of section 904(g). Section 1.904(g)-2T provides rules for recapturing the balance...

  16. Accommodating environmental variation in population models: metaphysiological biomass loss accounting.

    PubMed

    Owen-Smith, Norman

    2011-07-01

    1. There is a pressing need for population models that can reliably predict responses to changing environmental conditions and diagnose the causes of variation in abundance in space as well as through time. In this 'how to' article, it is outlined how standard population models can be modified to accommodate environmental variation in a heuristically conducive way. This approach is based on metaphysiological modelling concepts linking populations within food web contexts and underlying behaviour governing resource selection. Using population biomass as the currency, population changes can be considered at fine temporal scales taking into account seasonal variation. Density feedbacks are generated through the seasonal depression of resources even in the absence of interference competition. 2. Examples described include (i) metaphysiological modifications of Lotka-Volterra equations for coupled consumer-resource dynamics, accommodating seasonal variation in resource quality as well as availability, resource-dependent mortality and additive predation, (ii) spatial variation in habitat suitability evident from the population abundance attained, taking into account resource heterogeneity and consumer choice using empirical data, (iii) accommodating population structure through the variable sensitivity of life-history stages to resource deficiencies, affecting susceptibility to oscillatory dynamics and (iv) expansion of density-dependent equations to accommodate various biomass losses reducing population growth rate below its potential, including reductions in reproductive outputs. Supporting computational code and parameter values are provided. 3. The essential features of metaphysiological population models include (i) the biomass currency enabling within-year dynamics to be represented appropriately, (ii) distinguishing various processes reducing population growth below its potential, (iii) structural consistency in the representation of interacting populations and

  17. 24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations. 3280.508 Section 3280.508 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Thermal Protection § 3280.508 Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations. (a) Information,...

  18. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... §§ 3280.508 and 3280.509. The Uo (Coefficient of heat transmission) value zone for which the manufactured... zone shall be determined from the map in figure 506. EC17OC91.005 (a) Coefficient of heat transmission. The overall coefficient of heat transmission (Uo) of the manufactured home for the respective...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... §§ 3280.508 and 3280.509. The Uo (Coefficient of heat transmission) value zone for which the manufactured... zone shall be determined from the map in figure 506. EC17OC91.005 (a) Coefficient of heat transmission. The overall coefficient of heat transmission (Uo) of the manufactured home for the respective...

  20. Feasibility of determining flat roof heat losses using aerial thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, R. L.; Jack, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The utility of aerial thermography for determining rooftop heat losses was investigated experimentally using several completely instrumented test roofs with known thermal resistances. Actual rooftop heat losses were obtained both from in-situ instrumentation and aerial thermography obtained from overflights at an altitude of 305 m. In general, the remotely determined roof surface temperatures agreed very well with those obtained from ground measurements. The roof heat losses calculated using the remotely determined roof temperature agreed to within 17% of those calculated from 1/R delta T using ground measurements. However, this agreement may be fortuitous since the convective component of the heat loss is sensitive to small changes in roof temperature and to the average heat transfer coefficient used, whereas the radiative component is less sensitive. This, at this time, it is felt that an acceptable quantitative determination of roof heat losses using aerial thermography is only feasible when the convective term is accurately known or minimized. The sensitivity of the heat loss determination to environmental conditions was also evaluated. The analysis showed that the most reliable quantitative heat loss determinations can probably be obtained from aerial thermography taken under conditions of total cloud cover with low wind speeds and at low ambient temperatures.

  1. Corona Formation and Heat Loss on Venus by Coupled Upwelling and Delamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1997-01-01

    Coronae are volcanotectonic features that are unique to Venus and are interpreted to be small-scale upwellings. A model in which upwelling causes delamination at the edge of the plume head, along with deformation of a pre-existing depleted mantel Layer, can produce the full range of topographic forms of coronae. If half of the coronae are active, delamination of the lower lithosphere could account for about 10% of venus's heat loss, with another 15% due to upwelling. Delamination may occur in other geologic enviroment and could help account for 'Venus' heat loss 'deficit'.

  2. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat... assure uniform heat transmission in manufactured homes, cavities in exterior walls, floors, and ceilings shall be provided with thermal insulation. (c) Manufactured homes designed for Uo Value Zone 3 shall...

  3. Trough Receiver Heat Loss Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, A.; Feik, C.; Hansen, R.; Phillips, S.; Bingham, C.; Netter, J.; Forristal, R.; Burkholder, F.; Meglan, B.; Wolfrum, E.

    2006-02-01

    This presentation describes the design, fabrication, and qualification of an experimental capability for thermal loss testing of full-size trough receiver elements; and the testing on a variety of receivers.

  4. Influence of the wetting state of a heated surface on heat transfer and pressure loss in an evaporator tube

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, W; Hein, D

    1986-09-01

    The influence of the wetting state of a heated surface on heat transfer and pressure loss in an evaporator tube was investigated for a parameter range occurring in fossil-fired steam generators. Included in the analysis are quantities which determine the wetting state in steady and transient flow. The experimental work consists of the following: Occurrence of critical heat flux (CHF) and post-CHF heat transfer in a vertical upflow evaporator tube; influence of pressure and enthalpy transients on heat transfer in the unwetted region; influence of pipe orientation on heat transfer; and two phase flow pressure loss in wetted and unwetted region. Based on these experiments a method of predicting CHF for a vertical upflow evaporator tube was developed. The heat transfer in the unwetted region was newly formulated taking into account thermal nonequilibrium between the water and steam phases. Wall temperature excursions during pressure and enthalpy transients are interpreted with the help of the boiling curve and the Leidenfrost phenomenon. A method is developed by means of which it is possible to determine the influence of the pipe orientation on the location of the boiling crisis as well as on the heat transfer in the unwetted region. The influence of the wetting state of the heated surface on the two phase flow pressure loss is interpreted as ''Wall effect'' and is calculated using a simplified computer model. 68 refs., 83 figs.

  5. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat... shall be provided with thermal insulation. (c) Manufactured homes designed for Uo Value Zone 3 shall be factory equipped with storm windows or insulating glass....

  6. Respiratory heat loss in the sheep: a comprehensive model.

    PubMed

    Gomes da Silva, Roberto; LaScala, Newton; Lima Filho, Alvaro Edison; Catharin, Marcelo Carlos

    2002-08-01

    A model is presented for the respiratory heat loss in sheep, considering both the sensible heat lost by convection ( C(R)) and the latent heat eliminated by evaporation ( E(R)). A practical method is described for the estimation of the tidal volume as a function of the respiratory rate. Equations for C(R) and E(R) are developed and the relative importance of both heat transfer mechanisms is discussed. At air temperatures up to 30 degrees C sheep have the least respiratory heat loss at air vapour pressures above 1.6 kPa. At an ambient temperature of 40 degrees C respiratory loss of sensible heat can be nil; for higher temperatures the transfer by convection is negative and thus heat is gained. Convection is a mechanism of minor importance for the respiratory heat transfer in sheep at environmental temperatures above 30 degrees C. These observations show the importance of respiratory latent heat loss for thermoregulation of sheep in hot climates.

  7. Estimation of human heat loss in five Mediterranean regions.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, M; Simsek, E; Sahin, B; Yasar, A; Ozbek, A

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the effects of seasonal weather differences on the human body's heat losses in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The provinces of Adana, Antakya, Osmaniye, Mersin and Antalya were chosen for the research, and monthly atmospheric temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed and atmospheric pressure data from 2007 were used. In all these provinces, radiative, convective and evaporative heat losses from the human body based on skin surface and respiration were analyzed from meteorological data by using the heat balance equation. According to the results, the rate of radiative, convective and evaporative heat losses from the human body varies considerably from season to season. In all the provinces, 90% of heat loss was caused by heat transfer from the skin, with the remaining 10% taking place through respiration. Furthermore, radiative and convective heat loss through the skin reached the highest values in the winter months at approximately between 110 and 140W/m(2), with the lowest values coming in the summer months at roughly 30-50W/m(2).

  8. Effect of Atropine on Local Skin Wettedness and Sensible Heat Loss,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    Clearance of Technical Paper (USARIEM) - TO Commander, USARIEM FROM Dir, Mi I Erg Dlv DATE 17 Dec 84 CMT I 1. Reference USARIEM Memo 360 -1, 1 rrquest...34..... • .. ..... ... .. . ". .. +•. . -..- + . * . • -• " " .’ . . -. . . -. * • " . "-. .. -. . . *.,.-. .. . • . ••+ • - . . ". " , L + j 7 compensatory cutaneous heat loss. Although several...vasodilation (i.e., dilation greater than that accounted for by control (saline) experiments which showed a net heat gain) does not reveal a complete blockade

  9. Oscillating flow loss test results in Stirling engine heat exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koester, G.; Howell, S.; Wood, G.; Miller, E.; Gedeon, D.

    1990-01-01

    The results are presented for a test program designed to generate a database of oscillating flow loss information that is applicable to Stirling engine heat exchangers. The tests were performed on heater/cooler tubes of various lengths and entrance/exit configurations, on stacked and sintered screen regenerators of various wire diameters and on Brunswick and Metex random fiber regenerators. The test results were performed over a range of oscillating flow parameters consistent with Stirling engine heat exchanger experience. The tests were performed on the Sunpower oscillating flow loss rig which is based on a variable stroke and variable frequency linear drive motor. In general, the results are presented by comparing the measured oscillating flow losses to the calculated flow losses. The calculated losses are based on the cycle integration of steady flow friction factors and entrance/exit loss coefficients.

  10. Cycles in metabolism and heat loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annis, J. F.; Troutman, S. J.; Webb, P.

    1974-01-01

    Using calorimetric techniques, subjects' metabolism, thermoregulation, and body temperatures were monitored continuously for 24-hour days, using three types of experimental routines. A water cooling garment (WCG) was used for direct calorimetry, while partitional calorimetry was used to establish a non-suited comparison for one of the routines. In this replicated routine, called the quiet day, the subjects were sedentary throughout the daytime hours and slept normally at night. Results indicate that the WCG may act to reduce 24-hour total oxygen consumption (VO2) or heat production, possibly due to the lowered energy cost of thermoregulation.

  11. Respiratory heat loss of Holstein cows in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Campos Maia, Alex Sandro; Gomes Dasilva, Roberto; Battiston Loureiro, Cintia Maria

    2005-05-01

    In order to develop statistical models to predict respiratory heat loss in dairy cattle using simple physiological and environmental measurements, 15 Holstein cows were observed under field conditions in a tropical environment, in which the air temperature reached up to 40 degrees C. The measurements of latent and sensible heat loss from the respiratory tract of the animals were made by using a respiratory mask. The results showed that under air temperatures between 10 and 35 degrees C sensible heat loss by convection decreased from 8.24 to 1.09 W m(-2), while the latent heat loss by evaporation increased from 1.03 to 56.51 W m(-2). The evaporation increased together with the air temperature in almost a linear fashion until 20 degrees C, but it became increasingly high as the air temperature rose above 25 degrees C. Convection was a mechanism of minor importance for respiratory heat transfer. In contrast, respiratory evaporation was an effective means of thermoregulation for Holsteins in a hot environment. Mathematical models were developed to predict both the sensible and latent heat loss from the respiratory tract in Holstein cows under field conditions, based on measurements of the ambient temperature, and other models were developed to predict respiration rate, tidal volume, mass flow rate and expired air temperature as functions of the ambient temperature and other variables.

  12. Intraventricular administration of isoproterenol inhibits both heat production and heat loss mechanisms in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, M T; Chandra, A; Fan, Y C; Sun, R

    1980-07-15

    At an ambient temperature (Ta) of 8 degrees C, intraventricular administration of isoproterenol inhibited metabolic heat production and led to hypothermia in rats. In contrast, at a Ta of 22 degrees C and of 30 degrees C, isoproterenol decreased cutaneous circulation and led to hyperthermia. The data indicate that isoproterenol inhibits both heat production and heat loss mechanisms in rats.

  13. Avoidable Losses: High-Stakes Accountability and the Dropout Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Linda McSpadden; Coppola, Eileen; Radigan, Judy; Heilig, Julian Vasquez

    2008-01-01

    In the state of Texas, whose standardized, high-stakes test-based accountability system became the model for the nation's most comprehensive federal education policy, more than 135,000 youth are lost from the state's high schools every year. Dropout rates are highest for African American and Latino youth, more than 60% for the students we…

  14. Heat Loss Due To Thermal Bridges In Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J. B.; tarot, R. A.; Childs, K. W.; Courville, G. E.

    1984-03-01

    Building envelopes often contain numerous highly conductive heat flow paths, called thermal bridges, which are major sources of heat loss and deterioration of building materials due to moisture condensation. Some examples of thermal bridges occurring in office buildings are presented. Infrared thermography was used to identify the locations and magnitudes of thermally defective areas resulting from inadequate construction, design, or substandard workmanship in existing buildings. Due to the large thermal inertia of building components and transient conditions caused by fluctuating outdoor and indoor temperatures, long measurement periods are required. This makes thermography impractical for quantifying the heat loss. In order to estimate the heat loss rate from thermal bridges and to obtain a better understanding of the physical processes involved, a two-dimensional heat flow model has been developed for transient heat conduction within the exterior wall/intermediate floor systems. The calculated results from the mathematical model are compared with available experimental data. An in-situ measurement technique, which is currently under development at NBS for quantifying the energy loss due to thermal bridges, is described.

  15. Chlorophyll loss associated with heat-induced senescence in bentgrass.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, David; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Bingru

    2016-08-01

    Heat stress-induced leaf senescence is characterized by the loss of chlorophyll from leaf tissues. The objectives of this study were to examine genetic variations in the level of heat-induced leaf senescence in hybrids of colonial (Agrostis capillaris)×creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) contrasting in heat tolerance, and determine whether loss of leaf chlorophyll during heat-induced leaf senescence was due to suppressed chlorophyll synthesis and/or accelerated chlorophyll degradation in the cool-season perennial grass species. Plants of two hybrid backcross genotypes ('ColxCB169' and 'ColxCB190') were exposed to heat stress (38/33°C, day/night) for 28 d in growth chambers. The analysis of turf quality, membrane stability, photochemical efficiency, and chlorophyll content demonstrated significant variations in the level of leaf senescence induced by heat stress between the two genotypes, with ColXCB169 exhibiting a lesser degree of decline in chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency and membrane stability than ColXCB190. The assays of enzymatic activity or gene expression of several major chlorophyll-synthesizing (porphobilinogen deaminase, Mg-chelatase, protochlorophyllide-reductase) and chlorophyll-degrading enzymes (chlorophyllase, pheophytinase, and chlorophyll-degrading peroxidase) indicated heat-induced decline in leaf chlorophyll content was mainly due to accelerated chlorophyll degradation, as manifested by increased gene expression levels of chlorophyllase and pheophytinase, and the activity of pheophytinase (PPH), while chlorophyll-synthesizing genes and enzymatic activities were not differentially altered by heat stress in the two genotypes. The analysis of heat-induced leaf senescence of pph mutants of Arabidopsis further confirmed that PPH could be one enzymes that plays key roles in regulating heat-accelerated chlorophyll degradation. Further research on enzymes responsible in part for the loss of chlorophyll during heat

  16. Axial Electron Heat Loss From Mirror Devices Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D

    2004-08-16

    An issue of the axial electron heat loss is of a significant importance for mirror-based fusion devices. This problem has been considered in a number of publications but it is still shrouded in misconceptions. In this paper we revisit it once again. We discuss the following issues: (1) Formation of the electron distribution function in the end tank at large expansion ratios; (2) The secondary emission from the end plates and the ways of suppressing it (if needed); (3) Ionization and charge exchange in the presence of neutrals in the end tanks; (4) Instabilities caused by the peculiar shape of the electron distribution function and their possible impact on the electron heat losses; (5) Electron heat losses in the pulsed mode of operation of mirror devices.

  17. Respiratory Heat Loss Limits in Helium-Oxygen Saturation Diving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    STATEMENT (of te obstrol eaterdin Bleek #iferen f mim fier ee) WS SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES It. KEY WORDS (Contm nu F ewfer aie It nl*OOWY Mel D*UtltY or...THIS PASS 3Be a 3M 20. (CONTINUED) neutral skin temperature in a hot water suit. This level of respiratory heat loss is predicted to allow an average...respiratory heat loss from the ventilatory response to the exercise, will be dissipated through the diver’s skin as he adjusts his hot water flow and

  18. Human thermoregulation: separating thermal and nonthermal effects on heat loss.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Glen P; Journeay, W Shane

    2010-01-01

    Human thermoregulatory control during heat stress has been studied at rest, during exercise and more recently during exercise recovery. Heat balance in the body is maintained by changes in the rate of heat loss via adjustments in skin blood flow and sweating. Independent of thermal control, the actions of nonthermal factors have important consequences in the control of heat loss responses during and following exercise. While the effect of these nonthermal factors is largely considered to be an inhibitory or excitatory stimulus which displaces the set-point about which temperature is regulated, their effects on human thermoregulatory control are far reaching. Many factors can affect the relative contribution of thermal and nonthermal influences to heat balance including exercise intensity, hemodynamic status, and the level of hyperthermia imposed. This review will characterize the physiological responses associated with heat stress and discuss the thermal and nonthermal influences on sweating and skin blood flow in humans. Further, recent calorimetric evidence for the understanding of thermal and nonthermal contributions to human heat balance will also be discussed.

  19. Heat Loss Experiments: Teach Energy Savings with Cardboard "House"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Using two cardboard boxes, a light bulb socket, light bulbs of varying wattage, a thermometer, and some insulation, students can learn some interesting lessons about how heat loss occurs in homes. This article describes practical experiments that work well on units related to energy, sustainable energy, renewables, engineering, and construction.…

  20. Heat stress causes substantial labour productivity loss in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, Kerstin K.; Botzen, Wouter J. W.; Oppermann, Elspeth; Kjellstrom, Tord; Garnett, Stephen T.

    2015-07-01

    Heat stress at the workplace is an occupational health hazard that reduces labour productivity. Assessment of productivity loss resulting from climate change has so far been based on physiological models of heat exposure. These models suggest productivity may decrease by 11-27% by 2080 in hot regions such as Asia and the Caribbean, and globally by up to 20% in hot months by 2050. Using an approach derived from health economics, we describe self-reported estimates of work absenteeism and reductions in work performance caused by heat in Australia during 2013/2014. We found that the annual costs were US$655 per person across a representative sample of 1,726 employed Australians. This represents an annual economic burden of around US$6.2 billion (95% CI: 5.2-7.3 billion) for the Australian workforce. This amounts to 0.33 to 0.47% of Australia’s GDP. Although this was a period when many Australians experienced what is at present considered exceptional heat, our results suggest that adaptation measures to reduce heat effects should be adopted widely if severe economic impacts from labour productivity loss are to be avoided if heat waves become as frequent as predicted.

  1. 24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and data necessary for heat loss and heat gain determinations must be taken from the 1997 ASHRAE... be in accordance with the fundamental principles of the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, Inch... the residential window U values contained in Chapter 29, Table 5 of the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook...

  2. Determining heat loss into the environment based on comprehensive investigation of boiler performance characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubov, V. K.; Malygin, P. V.; Popov, A. N.; Popova, E. I.

    2015-08-01

    A refined procedure for determining heat loss into the environment from heat-generating installations is presented that takes into account the state of their lining and heat insulation quality. The fraction of radiative component in the total amount of heat loss through the outer surfaces is determined. The results from experimental investigations of the thermal engineering and environmental performance characteristics of a foreign hot-water boiler in firing wood pellets are presented. A conclusion is drawn about the possibility of using such hot-water boilers for supplying heat to low-rise buildings, especially for the conditions of the North-Arctic region. The results from a thermal engineering investigation of wood pellets and furnace residue carried out on installations of a thermal analysis laboratory are presented together with the grain-size composition of fuel and indicators characterizing the mechanical strength of wood pellets. The velocity fields, flue gas flow rates, and soot particle concentrations are determined using the external filtration methods, and the composition of combustion products is investigated using a gas analyzer. The graphs of variation with time of boiler external surface temperature from the moment of achieving the nominal mode of operation and heat loss into the environment for stationary boilers are presented.

  3. Enhanced economic connectivity to foster heat stress-related losses.

    PubMed

    Wenz, Leonie; Levermann, Anders

    2016-06-01

    Assessing global impacts of unexpected meteorological events in an increasingly connected world economy is important for estimating the costs of climate change. We show that since the beginning of the 21st century, the structural evolution of the global supply network has been such as to foster an increase of climate-related production losses. We compute first- and higher-order losses from heat stress-induced reductions in productivity under changing economic and climatic conditions between 1991 and 2011. Since 2001, the economic connectivity has augmented in such a way as to facilitate the cascading of production loss. The influence of this structural change has dominated over the effect of the comparably weak climate warming during this decade. Thus, particularly under future warming, the intensification of international trade has the potential to amplify climate losses if no adaptation measures are taken.

  4. Enhanced economic connectivity to foster heat stress–related losses

    PubMed Central

    Wenz, Leonie; Levermann, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Assessing global impacts of unexpected meteorological events in an increasingly connected world economy is important for estimating the costs of climate change. We show that since the beginning of the 21st century, the structural evolution of the global supply network has been such as to foster an increase of climate-related production losses. We compute first- and higher-order losses from heat stress–induced reductions in productivity under changing economic and climatic conditions between 1991 and 2011. Since 2001, the economic connectivity has augmented in such a way as to facilitate the cascading of production loss. The influence of this structural change has dominated over the effect of the comparably weak climate warming during this decade. Thus, particularly under future warming, the intensification of international trade has the potential to amplify climate losses if no adaptation measures are taken. PMID:27386555

  5. Combined aerial and ground technique for assessing structural heat loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, William C.; Schott, John R.

    1994-03-01

    The results of a combined aerial and ground-based structural heat loss survey are presented. The aerial imagery was collected by a thermal IR line scanner. Enhanced quantitative analysis of the imagery gives the roof heat flow and insulation level. The ground images were collected by a video van and converted to still frames stored on a video disk. A computer based presentation system retrieves the images and other information indexed by street address for screening and dissemination to owners. We conclude that the combined aerial and ground survey effectively discriminates between well insulated and poorly insulated structures, and that such a survey is a cost-effective alternative to site audits.

  6. Effect of heat loss on laminar flamelet species concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccanera, Marco; Lentini, Diego

    2016-10-01

    The effects of heat loss on the structure of laminar flamelets, which are the constitutive elements of turbulent flames under the most common operating conditions, are investigated for typical aeronautical gas-turbine operating conditions at take-off. The magnitude of heat loss is quantified via the "enthalpy defect" measured with respect to an adiabatic flame. A procedure to generate laminar flamelets with an assigned enthalpy defect at the boundaries is devised and applied to nonpremixed propane/air flames, as propane reproduces the essential features of higher hydrocarbon combustion. It is found, contrary to commonly held beliefs, that the enthalpy defect has a significant effect on the concentration not only of minor species, but also of main reaction products. Such effects are found in general to be more pronounced for fuel-rich conditions. An impact is anticipated on the formation rate of nitric oxides. The effects of scalar dissipation rate are also discussed.

  7. Numerical simulation of radiative heat loss in an experimental burner

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.; Brookshaw, L.

    1993-09-01

    We describe the numerical algorithm used in the COYOTE two-dimensional, transient, Eulerian hydrodynamics program to allow for radiative heat losses in simulations of reactive flows. The model is intended primarily for simulations of industrial burners, but it is not confined to that application. It assumes that the fluid is optically thin and that photons created by the fluid immediately escape to free space or to the surrounding walls, depending upon the application. The use of the model is illustrated by simulations of a laboratory-scale experimental burner. We find that the radiative heat losses reduce the local temperature of the combustion products by a modest amount, typically on the order of 50 K. However, they have a significant impact on NO{sub x} production.

  8. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-1T - Overall foreign loss and the overall foreign loss account (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Overall foreign loss and the overall foreign... (temporary). (a)(1) For further guidance, see § 1.904(f)-1(a)(1). (2) Application to post-1986 taxable years... taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986, modified so as to take into account the effect...

  9. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-1T - Overall foreign loss and the overall foreign loss account (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overall foreign loss and the overall foreign...) For further guidance, see § 1.904(f)-1(a)(1). (2) Application to post-1986 taxable years. The... beginning after December 31, 1986, modified so as to take into account the effect of statutory...

  10. Heat loss through connecting thermistor wires in a three-body graphite calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, D.; Guerra, A. S.; Ionita, C.; Astefanoaei, I.

    2010-06-01

    The main aim of this paper is to calculate the small but significant amount of heat lost from a graphite calorimeter absorber through connecting thermistor wires during electrical calibration. Taking into account the electro-thermal interaction between the heating thermistor and its surrounding environment, a more realistic approach to the problem was developed and estimative numerical results were obtained. It was found that the wires contribute about 0.01% in extracting heat from the calorimeter core (which corresponds to a correction factor kwcore = 0.9999). The total correction factor for heat loss through the connecting thermistor wires during the electrical calibration of the calorimeter (the total combined effect of the heater and the sensor leads due to conduction, radiation and Joule effect) was determined: kw = 0.9989.

  11. 27 CFR 28.321 - Tax assessed on loss not accounted for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Beer and Beer Concentrate... penalties and interest, on; (a) The quantity of beer not satisfactorily accounted for, or (b) the quantity of beer used to produce the quantity of beer concentrate which is not satisfactorily accounted...

  12. 27 CFR 28.321 - Tax assessed on loss not accounted for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Beer and Beer Concentrate... penalties and interest, on; (a) The quantity of beer not satisfactorily accounted for, or (b) the quantity of beer used to produce the quantity of beer concentrate which is not satisfactorily accounted...

  13. 27 CFR 28.321 - Tax assessed on loss not accounted for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Beer and Beer Concentrate... penalties and interest, on; (a) The quantity of beer not satisfactorily accounted for, or (b) the quantity of beer used to produce the quantity of beer concentrate which is not satisfactorily accounted...

  14. 27 CFR 28.321 - Tax assessed on loss not accounted for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Beer and Beer Concentrate... penalties and interest, on; (a) The quantity of beer not satisfactorily accounted for, or (b) the quantity of beer used to produce the quantity of beer concentrate which is not satisfactorily accounted...

  15. Aging impairs heat loss, but when does it matter?

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Jill M.; Poirier, Martin P.; Flouris, Andreas D.; Boulay, Pierre; Sigal, Ronald J.; Malcolm, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with an attenuated physiological ability to dissipate heat. However, it remains unclear if age-related impairments in heat dissipation only occur above a certain level of heat stress and whether this response is altered by aerobic fitness. Therefore, we examined changes in whole body evaporative heat loss (HE) as determined using whole body direct calorimetry in young (n = 10; 21 ± 1 yr), untrained middle-aged (n = 10; 48 ± 5 yr), and older (n = 10; 65 ± 3 yr) males matched for body surface area. We also studied a group of trained middle-aged males (n = 10; 49 ± 5 yr) matched for body surface area with all groups and for aerobic fitness with the young group. Participants performed intermittent aerobic exercise (30-min exercise bouts separated by 15-min rest) in the heat (40°C and 15% relative humidity) at progressively greater fixed rates of heat production equal to 300 (Ex1), 400 (Ex2), and 500 (Ex3) W. Results showed that HE was significantly lower in middle-aged untrained (Ex2: 426 ± 34; and Ex3: 497 ± 17 W) and older (Ex2: 424 ± 38; and Ex3: 485 ± 44 W) compared with young (Ex2: 472 ± 42; and Ex3: 558 ± 51 W) and middle-aged trained (474 ± 21; Ex3: 552 ± 23 W) males at the end of Ex2 and Ex3 (P < 0.05). No differences among groups were observed during recovery. We conclude that impairments in HE in older and middle-aged untrained males occur at exercise-induced heat loads of ≥400 W when performed in a hot environment. These impairments in untrained middle-aged males can be minimized through regular aerobic exercise training. PMID:25505030

  16. Calibrated Heat Flow Model for Determining the Heat Conduction Losses in Laser Cutting of CFRP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, P.; Weber, R.; Speker, N.; Berger, P.; Sommer, B.; Graf, T.

    Laser machining has great potential regarding automation in fabrication of CFRP (carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics) parts, due to the nearly force and tool-wear free processing at high process speeds. The high vaporization temperatures and the large heat conductivity of the carbon fibers lead to a large heat transport into the sample. This causes the formation of a heat-affected zone and a decrease of the process speed. In the present paper,an analytical heat flow model was adapted in order to understand and investigate the heat conduction losses. Thermal sensors were embedded in samples at different distances from the kerf to fit the calculated to the measured temperatures. Heat conduction losses of up to 30% of the laser power were determined. Furthermore, the energy not absorbed by the sample, the energy for sublimating the composite material in the kerf, the energy for the formation of the HAZ, and the residual heat in the sample are compared in an energy balance.

  17. 24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... one-half the nominal insulation level of the surrounding building component. (d) High efficiency... Floor Systems 23.15Pipes 23.17Tanks, Vessels, and Equipment 23.18Refrigerated Rooms and Buildings 24.18Mechanical and Industrial Systems 25.19Commercial Building Envelope Leakage 27.9Calculation of Heat Loss...

  18. 24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Floor Systems 23.15Pipes 23.17Tanks, Vessels, and Equipment 23.18Refrigerated Rooms and Buildings 24.18Mechanical and Industrial Systems 25.19Commercial Building Envelope Leakage 27.9Calculation of Heat Loss from... consistent with the calculation procedures provided in the document, Overall U-values and...

  19. Chaos of radiative heat-loss-induced flame front instability.

    PubMed

    Kinugawa, Hikaru; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Gotoda, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    We are intensively studying the chaos via the period-doubling bifurcation cascade in radiative heat-loss-induced flame front instability by analytical methods based on dynamical systems theory and complex networks. Significant changes in flame front dynamics in the chaotic region, which cannot be seen in the bifurcation diagrams, were successfully extracted from recurrence quantification analysis and nonlinear forecasting and from the network entropy. The temporal dynamics of the fuel concentration in the well-developed chaotic region is much more complicated than that of the flame front temperature. It exhibits self-affinity as a result of the scale-free structure in the constructed visibility graph.

  20. Roof heat loss detection using airborne thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, K.; Bauer, C.; Sulzer, W.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the Austrian and European attempt to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, thermal rehabilitation and the improvement of the energy efficiency of buildings became an important topic in research as well as in building construction and refurbishment. Today, in-situ thermal infrared measurements are routinely used to determine energy loss through the building envelope. However, in-situ thermal surveys are expensive and time consuming, and in many cases the detection of the amount and location of waste heat leaving building through roofs is not possible with ground-based observations. For some years now, a new generation of high-resolution thermal infrared sensors makes it possible to survey heat-loss through roofs at a high level of detail and accuracy. However, to date, comparable studies have mainly been conducted on buildings with uniform roof covering and provided two-dimensional, qualitative information. This pilot study aims to survey the heat-loss through roofs of the buildings of the University of Graz (Austria) campus by using high-resolution airborne thermal infrared imagery (TABI 1800 - Thermal Airborne Broadband imager). TABI-1800 acquires data in a spectral range from 3.7 - 4.8 micron, a thermal resolution of 0.05 °C and a spatial resolution of 0.6 m. The remote sensing data is calibrated to different roof coverings (e.g. clay shingle, asphalt shingle, tin roof, glass) and combined with a roof surface model to determine the amount of waste heat leaving the building and to identify hot spots. The additional integration of information about the conditions underneath the roofs into the study allows a more detailed analysis of the upward heat flux and is a significant improvement of existing methods. The resulting data set provides useful information to the university facility service for infrastructure maintenance, especially in terms of attic and roof insulation improvements. Beyond that, the project is supposed to raise public

  1. Numerical analysis of an engineering structure effect on a heat loss of channel-free heat pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polovnikov, V. Yu.; Glazyrin, E. S.

    2015-01-01

    The results of mathematical modeling of thermal modes of channel-free heating network laid in the areas of influence of engineering structures, as well as numerical analysis of the heat loss of the objects submitted. The regularities of heat transfer in the system and the factors that influence the intensification of heat losses are revealed. Revealed that thermal losses heating pipes laid in the channel-free zones of influence engineering structures decreases in the range from 1.53 to 10.79%, depending on the temperature inside the engineering structures and geometric characteristics of the system. It is shown that the standard method of calculation of heat loss channel-free heating pipes gives overestimated values of heat loss.

  2. 27 CFR 28.321 - Tax assessed on loss not accounted for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax assessed on loss not accounted for. 28.321 Section 28.321 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... brewer for an amount equal to the tax which would be due on removal for consumption or sale,...

  3. Head insulation and heat loss in the newborn.

    PubMed Central

    Stothers, J K

    1981-01-01

    The thermal balance of 13 term infants was measured in a closed-circuit metabolism chamber. Each was studied naked, then with a gamgee-lined hat, and finally with a 'cummerbund' made of a similar material and of similar dimensions. At 27 degrees C the oxygen consumption of the 'hatted' babies was only 85% and the total heat loss 75% of the values measured with the infants naked. The cummerbund offered no detectable benefit. An additional 10 infants were studied while wearing a tubegauze hat at environmental temperatures of 28.5 (+/- 0.5) degrees C. This type of hat gave no measurable thermal protection. It is concluded that a substantial reduction of thermal stress in adverse environments can be achieved simply and clearly by adequately covering the vault of the skull. PMID:7271287

  4. Modeling lava lake heat loss, rheology, and convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Andrew J. L.

    2008-04-01

    Measurements at Erta Ale's lava lake and theoretical equations for lake rheology, density driven convection and thermally-driven plume ascent allow the constraint of lake dynamics. Cooling and crystallization expected from surface heat losses imply a viscosity increase from 150 Pa s to 300-1800 Pa s for cooled surface layers. Convection is expected to proceed vigorously under low viscosity conditions driving rapid (0.1-0.4 m s-1) surface motions and sluggishly under moderate-to-high viscosity conditions to drive slower motions (<0.08 m s-1). Convection is likely driven by small (~6 kg m-3) density differences, where surface cooling can influence lake rheology and explain variable rates of surface convective motion.

  5. Alterations in heat loss and heat production mechanisms in rat exposed to hypergravic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Horwitz, B. A.; Oyama, J.

    1982-01-01

    A review of studies investigating the thermal response of rats exposed to hypergravic fields well below maximum tolerance levels is presented. It is concluded that several lines of evidence indicate that the neural switching network for temperature regulation and cardiovascular channeling of blood flow is transiently affected during the first hour a rat is exposed to hypergravity. Moreover, even after one hour of exposure, when the core temperature has fallen several degrees, shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis are not fully activated. Only after prolonged exposure to hypergravic fields do heat production mechanisms recover sufficiently to bring the core temperature back to a normal level. Thus, the data indicate a more rapid recovery of effector mechanisms for heat loss than for heat production.

  6. Combined heat transfer and kinetic models to predict cooking loss during heat treatment of beef meat.

    PubMed

    Kondjoyan, Alain; Oillic, Samuel; Portanguen, Stéphane; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    2013-10-01

    A heat transfer model was used to simulate the temperature in 3 dimensions inside the meat. This model was combined with a first-order kinetic models to predict cooking losses. Identification of the parameters of the kinetic models and first validations were performed in a water bath. Afterwards, the performance of the combined model was determined in a fan-assisted oven under different air/steam conditions. Accurate knowledge of the heat transfer coefficient values and consideration of the retraction of the meat pieces are needed for the prediction of meat temperature. This is important since the temperature at the center of the product is often used to determine the cooking time. The combined model was also able to predict cooking losses from meat pieces of different sizes and subjected to different air/steam conditions. It was found that under the studied conditions, most of the water loss comes from the juice expelled by protein denaturation and contraction and not from evaporation.

  7. Sauropod Necks: Are They Really for Heat Loss?

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional digital models of 16 different sauropods were used to examine the scaling relationship between metabolism and surface areas of the whole body, the neck, and the tail in an attempt to see if the necks could have functioned as radiators for the elimination of excess body heat. The sauropod taxa sample ranged in body mass from a 639 kg juvenile Camarasaurus to a 25 t adult Brachiosaurus. Metabolism was assumed to be directly proportional to body mass raised to the ¾ power, and estimates of body mass accounted for the presence of lungs and systems of air sacs in the trunk and neck. Surface areas were determined by decomposing the model surfaces into triangles and their areas being computed by vector methods. It was found that total body surface area was almost isometric with body mass, and that it showed negative allometry when plotted against metabolic rate. In contrast, neck area showed positive allometry when plotted against metabolic rate. Tail area show negative allometry with respect to metabolic rate. The many uncertainties about the biology of sauropods, and the variety of environmental conditions that different species experienced during the groups 150 million years of existence, make it difficult to be absolutely certain about the function of the neck as a radiator. However, the functional combination of the allometric increase of neck area, the systems of air sacs in the neck and trunk, the active control of blood flow between the core and surface of the body, changing skin color, and strategic orientation of the neck with respect to wind, make it plausible that the neck could have functioned as a radiator to avoid over-heating. PMID:24204747

  8. Sauropod necks: are they really for heat loss?

    PubMed

    Henderson, Donald M

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional digital models of 16 different sauropods were used to examine the scaling relationship between metabolism and surface areas of the whole body, the neck, and the tail in an attempt to see if the necks could have functioned as radiators for the elimination of excess body heat. The sauropod taxa sample ranged in body mass from a 639 kg juvenile Camarasaurus to a 25 t adult Brachiosaurus. Metabolism was assumed to be directly proportional to body mass raised to the ¾ power, and estimates of body mass accounted for the presence of lungs and systems of air sacs in the trunk and neck. Surface areas were determined by decomposing the model surfaces into triangles and their areas being computed by vector methods. It was found that total body surface area was almost isometric with body mass, and that it showed negative allometry when plotted against metabolic rate. In contrast, neck area showed positive allometry when plotted against metabolic rate. Tail area show negative allometry with respect to metabolic rate. The many uncertainties about the biology of sauropods, and the variety of environmental conditions that different species experienced during the groups 150 million years of existence, make it difficult to be absolutely certain about the function of the neck as a radiator. However, the functional combination of the allometric increase of neck area, the systems of air sacs in the neck and trunk, the active control of blood flow between the core and surface of the body, changing skin color, and strategic orientation of the neck with respect to wind, make it plausible that the neck could have functioned as a radiator to avoid over-heating.

  9. Effect of human skin grafts on whole-body heat loss during exercise heat stress: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ganio, Matthew S; Gagnon, Daniel; Stapleton, Jill; Crandall, Craig G; Kenny, Glen P

    2013-01-01

    When exposed to heat stress, increases in cutaneous blood flow and sweating in well-healed grafted skin are severely attenuated, which could impair whole-body heat loss if skin grafts cover a large portion of total body surface area (TBSA). It is unknown to what extent whole-body heat loss is impaired when skin grafts cover a significant (eg, >50%) proportion of TBSA. The authors examined whole-body heat exchange during and after 60 min of cycling exercise in the heat (35°C; 25% relative humidity), at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (~400 W) in a woman (age, 36 years; mass, 78.2 kg) with well-healed (17+ years) skin grafts covering 75% of TBSA. Her responses were compared with two noninjured control subjects. Whole-body evaporative and dry heat exchange were measured by direct calorimetry. While exercising in the same ambient conditions and at the same rate of heat production, relative evaporative heat loss of nongrafted skin in the grafted subject (ie, evaporative heat loss per m) was nearly twice that of the control subjects. However, total rate of evaporative heat loss reached only 59% of the amount required for heat balance in the skin-grafted subject compared with 92 ± 3% in controls. Thus, the increase in core temperature was 2-fold greater for the grafted (1.22°C) vs control (0.61 ± 0.19°C) individuals. This case study demonstrates that a large area of grafted skin greatly diminishes maximum evaporative heat loss during exercise in the heat, making a compensable environment for control subjects uncompensable for skin-grafted individuals.

  10. Can intradermal administration of angiotensin II influence human heat loss responses during whole body heat stress?

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; Meade, Robert D; Paull, Gabrielle; McGinn, Ryan; Foudil-bey, Imane; Akbari, Pegah; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-05-01

    It is unclear if angiotensin II, which can increase the production of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress), modulates heat loss responses of cutaneous blood flow and sweating. We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II-induced increases in oxidative stress impair cutaneous perfusion and sweating during rest and exercise in the heat. Eleven young (24 ± 4 yr) healthy adults performed two 30-min cycling bouts at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) in the heat (35°C). The first and second exercises were followed by a 20- and 40-min recovery. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin for continuous administration of either: 1) lactated Ringer (control), 2) 10 μM angiotensin II, 3) 10 mM ascorbate (an antioxidant), or 4) a combination of 10 μM angiotensin II + 10 mM ascorbate. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler perfusion units/mean arterial pressure) and sweating (ventilated capsule) were evaluated at each skin site. Compared with control, angiotensin II reduced both CVC and sweating at baseline resting and during each recovery in the heat (all P < 0.05). However, during both exercise bouts, there were no differences in CVC or sweating between the treatment sites (all P > 0.05). When ascorbate was coinfused with angiotensin II, the effect of angiotensin II on sweating was abolished (all P > 0.05); however, its effect on CVC at baseline resting and during each recovery remained intact (all P < 0.05). We show angiotensin II impairs cutaneous perfusion independent of oxidative stress, while it impairs sweating through increasing oxidative stress during exposure to an ambient heat stress before and following exercise.

  11. Can intradermal administration of angiotensin II influence human heat loss responses during whole body heat stress?

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Naoto; Meade, Robert D.; Paull, Gabrielle; McGinn, Ryan; Foudil-bey, Imane; Akbari, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear if angiotensin II, which can increase the production of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress), modulates heat loss responses of cutaneous blood flow and sweating. We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II-induced increases in oxidative stress impair cutaneous perfusion and sweating during rest and exercise in the heat. Eleven young (24 ± 4 yr) healthy adults performed two 30-min cycling bouts at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) in the heat (35°C). The first and second exercises were followed by a 20- and 40-min recovery. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin for continuous administration of either: 1) lactated Ringer (control), 2) 10 μM angiotensin II, 3) 10 mM ascorbate (an antioxidant), or 4) a combination of 10 μM angiotensin II + 10 mM ascorbate. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler perfusion units/mean arterial pressure) and sweating (ventilated capsule) were evaluated at each skin site. Compared with control, angiotensin II reduced both CVC and sweating at baseline resting and during each recovery in the heat (all P < 0.05). However, during both exercise bouts, there were no differences in CVC or sweating between the treatment sites (all P > 0.05). When ascorbate was coinfused with angiotensin II, the effect of angiotensin II on sweating was abolished (all P > 0.05); however, its effect on CVC at baseline resting and during each recovery remained intact (all P < 0.05). We show angiotensin II impairs cutaneous perfusion independent of oxidative stress, while it impairs sweating through increasing oxidative stress during exposure to an ambient heat stress before and following exercise. PMID:25767030

  12. Do metaboreceptors alter heat loss responses following dynamic exercise?

    PubMed

    McGinn, Ryan; Swift, Brendan; Binder, Konrad; Gagnon, Daniel; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-01-01

    Metaboreceptor activation during passive heating is known to influence cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and sweat rate (SR). However, whether metaboreceptors modulate the suppression of heat loss following dynamic exercise remains unclear. On separate days, before and after 15 min of high-intensity treadmill running in the heat (35°C), eight males underwent either 1) no isometric handgrip exercise (IHG) or ischemia (CON), 2) 1 min IHG (60% of maximum, IHG), 3) 1 min IHG followed by 2 min of ischemia (IHG+OCC), 4) 2 min of ischemia (OCC), or 5) 1 min IHG followed by 2 min of ischemia with application of lower body negative pressure (IHG+LBNP). SR (ventilated capsule), cutaneous blood flow (Laser-Doppler), and mean arterial pressure (Finometer) were measured continuously before and after dynamic exercise. Following dynamic exercise, CVC was reduced with IHG exercise (P < 0.05) and remained attenuated with post-IHG ischemia during IHG+OCC relative to CON (39 ± 2 vs. 47 ± 6%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, the reduction in CVC was exacerbated by application of LBNP during post-IHG ischemia (35 ± 3%, P < 0.05) relative to IHG+OCC. SR increased during IHG exercise (P < 0.05) and remained elevated during post-IHG ischemia relative to CON following dynamic exercise (0.94 ± 0.15 vs. 0.53 ± 0.09 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2), P < 0.05). In contrast, application of LBNP during post-IHG ischemia had no effect on SR (0.93 ± 0.09 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2), P > 0.05) relative to post-IHG ischemia during IHG+OCC. We show that CVC is reduced and that SR is increased by metaboreceptor activation following dynamic exercise. In addition, we show that the metaboreflex-induced loading of the baroreceptors can influence the CVC response, but not the sweating response.

  13. Radiant heat loss, an unexploited path for heat stress reduction in shaded cattle.

    PubMed

    Berman, A; Horovitz, T

    2012-06-01

    Reducing thermal radiation on shaded animals reduces heat stress independently of other means of stress relief. Radiant heat exchange was estimated as a function of climate, shade structure, and animal density. Body surface portion exposed to radiant sources in shaded environments was determined by geometrical relations to determine angles of view of radiation sources (roof underside, sky, sun-exposed ground, shaded ground) on the animal's surface. The relative representation of environment radiation sources on the body surface was determined. Animal thermal radiation balance was derived from radiant heat gained from radiation sources (including surrounding animals) and that lost from the animal surface. The animal environment was assumed to have different shade dimensions and temperatures. These were summed to the radiant heat balance of the cow. The data formed served to estimate the effect of changes in intensity of radiation sources, roof and shaded surface dimensions, and animal density on radiant heat balance (Rbal) of cattle. Roof height effect was expressed by effect of roof temperature on Rbal. Roof underside temperature (35 to 75°C) effect on Rbal was reduced by roof height. If roof height were 4m, an increase in its underside temperature from 35 to 75°C would increase mean Rbal from -63 to -2 W·m⁻², whereas if roof height were 10 m, Rbal would only increase from -99 to -88 W·m⁻². A hot ground temperature increase from 35 to 65°C reduced mean Rbal heat loss from -45 to 3 W·m⁻². Increasing the surface of the shaded area had only a minor effect on Rbal and on the effect of hot ground on Rbal. Increasing shade roof height reduced the effect of roof temperature on Rbal to minor levels when height was > 8m. Increasing the roof height from 4 to 10 m decreased Rbal from -32 to -94 W·m⁻². Increasing indirect radiation from 100 to 500 W·m⁻² was associated with an increase in Rbal from -135 to +23 W·m⁻². Their combined effects were lower

  14. Perioperative Heat Loss Prevention-A Feasibility Trial.

    PubMed

    Kurnat-Thoma, Emma L; Roberts, Mary M; Corcoran, Eleanor B

    2016-10-01

    Preventing unplanned perioperative hypothermia is crucial. Thermal reflective blankets may reduce heat loss, promote normothermia, increase patient comfort, and decrease cotton blanket expenses. Our purpose was to determine whether a thermal reflective blanket plus one warmed cotton blanket provides better temperature control and thermal comfort than warmed cotton blankets only. We compared two groups of perioperative patients who received a thermal reflective blanket plus one warmed cotton blanket (n = 110) or warmed cotton blankets only (n = 114) for temperature control and comfort, and we evaluated outcomes in the preoperative holding area, the OR, and the postanesthesia care unit. There were no significant differences in patient temperature or comfort between groups. Use of thermal reflective blankets led to significantly reduced use of warmed cotton blankets (t209 = -10.51, P < .001), and a cost threshold for clinical adoption was identified. The hospital opted not to purchase thermal reflective blankets because of equivalent performance and minimal cost savings.

  15. Heat loss from deer mice (Peromyscus): evaluation of seasonal limits to thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Conley, K E; Porter, W P

    1986-11-01

    This paper investigates the influence of seasonal adaptations to thermoregulatory heat loss for deer mice (Peromyscus) during summer and winter. A general, mechanistic model of heat transfer through fur was evaluated for the structural properties of the fur of deer mice. The model was validated against heat production determined from mice exposed to a range of radiative (wall) temperatures (tr) at air temperatures (ta) of 15, 27 and 34 degrees C. Calculated heat loss from the appendages was subtracted from the measured heat production to yield heat loss from the furred torso. This calculated torso heat loss agreed closely with the predicted fur heat loss for all conditions, as shown by a regression slope near 1 (0.99). Simulations using models of fur and appendage heat loss reveal that the winter increase in thermogenic (heat production) capacity has a greater effect than changes in fur properties in expanding the limits to thermoregulation. Both wind and a clear night sky increase heat loss and can limit thermoregulation to air temperatures above those found in deer mice habitats during winter (-25 degrees C). Thus, despite seasonal adaptations, these simulations indicate that thermoregulation is not possible under certain winter conditions, thereby restricting deer mice to within the protected environment of the leaf litter or snow tunnels.

  16. Generation of photon pairs through parametric processes in nonlinear waveguides with the account of losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavulin, D. N.; Sukhorukov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    We present an analytical description of the process of spontaneous four-wave mixing in a cubic nonlinear fiber with linear losses. We consider the generation of photon pairs in the fiber when in the input of fiber is fed the pumping wave and single signal photon. The focus of attention is on three cases: when the signal photon propagates in the fiber without generating of biphotons; when the photon pair is generated; and when the photon is lost in the fiber. We also consider the cascade processes, but do not give them an analytical description because of their smallness. Description of the biphotons generation process we provide using the Schrodinger-type equation, and take into account the losses in the fiber through the introduction of the virtual beam splitters. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the generation of photon pairs through parametric processes.

  17. H2O Loss From Melt Inclusions During Laboratory Heating: Evidence From UV Raman Microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severs, M.; Azbej, T.; Thomas, J. B.; Mandeville, C. W.; Bodnar, R. J.

    2006-05-01

    average bubble size does increase as a function of the amount of time that MI are held at elevated temperature, the bubble sizes do not approach the calculated value of 27%. The rate of H2O loss decreases after a few hundred hours, suggesting either a change in H2O speciation in the melt or in the mechanism of H2O loss. A change in speciation would account for smaller than expected bubbles and is consistent with the decreased intensity of the water peak. Our results suggest that silicic melt inclusions in quartz maintain their original H2O signature if they are not heated for more than about 12 hours during laboratory studies.

  18. Test bench HEATREC for heat loss measurement on solar receiver tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, José M.; López-Martín, Rafael; Valenzuela, Loreto; Zarza, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    In Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) plants the thermal energy of solar radiation is absorbed by solar receiver tubes (HCEs) and it is transferred to a heat transfer fluid. Therefore, heat losses of receiver tubes have a direct influence on STE plants efficiency. A new test bench called HEATREC has been developed by Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) in order to determinate the heat losses of receiver tubes under laboratory conditions. The innovation of this test bench consists in the possibility to determine heat losses under controlled vacuum.

  19. Application of the discrete ordinates method to compute radiant heat loss in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, J.; Magi, V.

    1997-05-09

    A three-dimensional model for computing flows, sprays, and combustion in internal combustion engines is modified to include radiant heat loss. Radiant heat loss is computed by solving the radiative transport equation using a discrete ordinates approximation method. Such a method solves the radiative transport equation for a set of discrete directions spanning the range of 4{pi} solid angle. Angular integrals of intensity are discretized by numerical quadrature. The resulting discrete ordinates equations are numerically solved by using a finite volume approach in contravariant formulation. Computations are made with and without radiant heat loss in a diesel engine, and the effects of the radiant heat loss on the computed temperature and NO and soot concentrations are discussed. Inclusion of radiant heat loss reduces the peak temperature by about 10%. As a result, the predicted frozen NO concentrations are found to be lowered. However, the soot concentrations are not significantly altered.

  20. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  1. RCS pressure under reduced inventory conditions following a loss of residual heat removal

    SciTech Connect

    Palmrose, D.E.; Hughes, E.D.; Johnsen, G.W.

    1992-08-01

    The thermal-hydraulic response of a closed-reactor coolant system to loss of residual heat removal (RHR) cooling is investigated. The processes examined include: core coolant boiling and steam generator reflux condensation, pressure increase on the primary side, heat transfer mechanisms on the steam generator primary and secondary sides, and effects of noncondensible gas on heat transfer processes.

  2. RCS pressure under reduced inventory conditions following a loss of residual heat removal

    SciTech Connect

    Palmrose, D.E.; Hughes, E.D.; Johnsen, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    The thermal-hydraulic response of a closed-reactor coolant system to loss of residual heat removal (RHR) cooling is investigated. The processes examined include: core coolant boiling and steam generator reflux condensation, pressure increase on the primary side, heat transfer mechanisms on the steam generator primary and secondary sides, and effects of noncondensible gas on heat transfer processes.

  3. Age-related differences in heat loss capacity occur under both dry and humid heat stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Larose, Joanie; Boulay, Pierre; Wright-Beatty, Heather E.; Sigal, Ronald J.; Hardcastle, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the progression of impairments in heat dissipation as a function of age and environmental conditions. Sixty men (n = 12 per group; 20–30, 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, and 55–70 yr) performed four intermittent exercise/recovery cycles for a duration of 2 h in dry (35°C, 20% relative humidity) and humid (35°C, 60% relative humidity) conditions. Evaporative heat loss and metabolic heat production were measured by direct and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Body heat storage was measured as the temporal summation of heat production and heat loss during the sessions. Evaporative heat loss was reduced during exercise in the humid vs. dry condition in age groups 20–30 (−17%), 40–44 (−18%), 45–49 (−21%), 50–54 (−25%), and 55–70 yr (−20%). HE fell short of being significantly different between groups in the dry condition, but was greater in age group 20–30 yr (279 ± 10 W) compared with age groups 45–49 (248 ± 8 W), 50–54 (242 ± 6 W), and 55–70 yr (240 ± 7 W) in the humid condition. As a result of a reduced rate of heat dissipation predominantly during exercise, age groups 40–70 yr stored between 60–85 and 13–38% more heat than age group 20–30 yr in the dry and humid conditions, respectively. These age-related differences in heat dissipation and heat storage were not paralleled by significant differences in local sweating and skin blood flow, or by differences in core temperature between groups. From a whole body perspective, combined heat and humidity impeded heat dissipation to a similar extent across age groups, but, more importantly, intermittent exercise in dry and humid heat stress conditions created a greater thermoregulatory challenge for middle-aged and older adults. PMID:24812643

  4. Thermal Capacitance (Slug) Calorimeter Theory Including Heat Losses and Other Decaying Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hightower, T. Mark; Olivares, Ricardo A.; Philippidis, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model, termed the Slug Loss Model, has been developed for describing thermal capacitance (slug) calorimeter behavior when heat losses and other decaying processes are not negligible. This model results in the temperature time slope taking the mathematical form of exponential decay. When data is found to fit well to this model, it allows a heat flux value to be calculated that corrects for the losses and may be a better estimate of the cold wall fully catalytic heat flux, as is desired in arc jet testing. The model was applied to the data from a copper slug calorimeter inserted during a particularly severe high heating rate arc jet run to illustrate its use. The Slug Loss Model gave a cold wall heat flux 15% higher than the value of 2,250 W/sq cm obtained from the conventional approach to processing the data (where no correction is made for losses). For comparison, a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model was created and applied to the same data, where conduction heat losses from the slug were simulated. The heat flux determined by the FEA model was found to be in close agreement with the heat flux determined by the Slug Loss Model.

  5. TX model: a quantitative heat-loss analysis of district heating pipes by means of IR surface-temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinko, Heimo; Perers, Bengt

    1995-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of analyzing the temperature profile at the ground surface above buried district heating pipes in such a way that enables the quantitative determination of heat loss from the pair of pipes. In practical applications, it is supposed that this temperature profile is generated by means of thermography. For this purpose, the principle of the TX-model has been developed, implementing that the heat losses from pipes buried in the ground has a temperature signature on the ground surface. A qualitative analysis of this temperature signature is very well known and in practical use for detecting leaks from pipes. These techniques mostly makes use of relative changes of the temperature pattern along the pipe. In the quantitative heat loss analysis, however, it is presumed that the temperature profile across the pipes is related to the pipe heat loss in Watt/m. The basic idea is that the integral of the temperature variation across the pipe, called TX, is a function of the heat loss, but affected by some other parameters such as depth, heat diffusivity and so on. In order to analyze the parameters influencing the TX-factor, a simulation model for the energy balance at the ground surface has been developed. This model includes the heat flow from the pipe to the surface and the heat exchange at the surface with the environment due to convection, latent heat change, solar and long wave radiation. The simulation gives the surprising result that the TX factor is relatively unaffected during the course of a day even when the sun is shining, as long as other climate conditions are relatively stable (low wind, no rain, no shadows). The results from the simulations were verified at a testfield in Studsvik, Sweden, with electrically controlled pipe heat losses and long term monitoring of the surface temperature profile and TX factor with temperature sensors at the ground surface. The quantitative TX model for heat loss

  6. Light masking of circadian rhythms of heat production, heat loss, and body temperature in squirrel monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, E. L.; Fuller, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    Whole body heat production (HP) and heat loss (HL) were examined to determine their relative contributions to light masking of the circadian rhythm in body temperature (Tb). Squirrel monkey metabolism (n = 6) was monitored by both indirect and direct calorimetry, with telemetered measurement of body temperature and activity. Feeding was also measured. Responses to an entraining light-dark (LD) cycle (LD 12:12) and a masking LD cycle (LD 2:2) were compared. HP and HL contributed to both the daily rhythm and the masking changes in Tb. All variables showed phase-dependent masking responses. Masking transients at L or D transitions were generally greater during subjective day; however, L masking resulted in sustained elevation of Tb, HP, and HL during subjective night. Parallel, apparently compensatory, changes of HL and HP suggest action by both the circadian timing system and light masking on Tb set point. Furthermore, transient HL increases during subjective night suggest that gain change may supplement set point regulation of Tb.

  7. An improved technique for computing the top heat loss factor of a flat-plate collector with a single glazing

    SciTech Connect

    Mullick, S.C.; Samdarshi, S.K.

    1988-11-01

    A different approach to evaluate the top heat loss factor of a flat plate solar collector with a single glass cover is proposed. The equation for the heat loss factor in the analytical form is employed instead of the semi-empirical form hitherto employed for solar collectors. The glass cover temperature is, however, estimated by an empirical relation. (This relation replaces the empirical relation for the factor f of the earlier work). Values of the top heat loss factor calculated by this simple technique are within 3 percent (maximum error) of those obtained by iterative solution of the heat balance equations. There is an improvement in accuracy by a factor greater than five over the current semi-empirical equations. The range of variables covered is 50/sup 0/C to 150/sup 0/C in absorber plate temperature, 0.1 to 0.95 in absorber coating emittance, and 5 W/m/sup 2/C to 45 W/m/sup 2/C in wind heat-transfer coefficient. The effect of variation in air properties with temperature has been taken into account.

  8. Analysis of the juice and water losses in salted and unsalted pork samples heated in water bath. Consequences for the prediction of weight loss by transfer models.

    PubMed

    Bombrun, Laure; Gatellier, Philippe; Portanguen, Stéphane; Kondjoyan, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This study has analyzed the effect of different factors on variation of meat weight due to juice loss, and variation of water content of pork samples heated in a water bath. The weight loss (WL) was influenced by initial water content of raw meat which can be connected to meat pH, muscle type, and by pre-salting. WL was also influenced by sample thickness and by nature of the surrounding fluid. These effects were significant at 50°C and in thinner samples but decreased as meat temperature and sample thickness increased. WL showed no significant difference in response to prior freezing, applying a surface constraint during heating or varying meat salt content from 0.8 to 2.0%. The results were interpreted from literature knowledge on protein denaturation, contraction and, transport phenomena. Reliably predicting WL from water content variation during heating hinges on taking into account the loss of dry matter and the possible effects of meat pH, sample size or surrounding fluid.

  9. Response of the Denmark Strait overflow to Nordic Seas heat loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grist, Jeremy P.; Josey, Simon A.; Sinha, Bablu; Blaker, Adam T.

    2008-09-01

    The impact of extreme Nordic Seas heat loss on Denmark Strait (DS) dense water transport is examined in (1) control runs of the Hadley Centre HadCM3 and HadGEM1 coupled climate models and (2) perturbation experiments with the fast coupled model FORTE that allow heat flux effects to be isolated from wind stress. All three models show an approximately linear increase in southward DS transport of cold dense water with increasing Nordic Seas winter heat loss in the range -80 to -250 Wm-2. The propagation of the cold anomaly from the Nordic Seas source along a trajectory through the DS and into the Irminger Basin is also examined. A common response time is found with the strongest decrease in DS temperature occurring within 8-12 months of the heat loss signal. Our results show that Nordic Seas heat loss must be considered in addition to other processes in understanding DS variability.

  10. Plates of the dinosaur stegosaurus: forced convection heat loss fins?

    PubMed

    Farlow, J O; Thompson, C V; Rosner, D E

    1976-06-11

    It is suggested that the plates along the arched back and tail of Stegosaurus served an important thermoregulatory function as forced convection "fins." Wind tunnel experiments on finned models, internal heat conduction calculations, and direct observations of the morphology and internal structure of stegosaur plates support this hypothesis, demonstrating the comparative effectiveness of the plates as heat dissipaters, controllable through input blood flow rate, temperature, and body orientation (with respect to wind).

  11. The effect of rowing headgear on forced convective heat loss and radiant heat gain on a thermal manikin headform.

    PubMed

    Bogerd, Cornelis P; Brühwiler, Paul A; Heus, Ronald

    2008-05-01

    Both radiant and forced convective heat flow were measured for a prototype rowing headgear and white and black cotton caps. The measurements were performed on a thermal manikin headform at a wind speed of 4.0 m . s(-1) (s = 0.1) in a climate chamber at 22.0 degrees C (s = 0.05), with and without radiant heat flow from a heat lamp, coming from either directly above (90 degrees ) or from above at an angle of 55 degrees . The effects of hair were studied by repeating selected measurements with a wig. All headgear reduced the radiant heat gain compared with the nude headform: about 80% for the caps and 95% for the prototype rowing headgear (P < 0.01). Forced convective heat loss was reduced more by the caps (36%) than by the prototype rowing headgear (9%) (P < 0.01). The radiant heat gain contributed maximally 13% to the net heat transfer, with or without headgear, showing that forced convective heat loss is the dominant heat transfer parameter under the chosen conditions. The results of the headgear - wig combinations were qualitatively similar, with lower absolute heat transfer.

  12. MeV ion loss during sup 3 He minority heating in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Hammett, G.; Boivin, R.; Phillips, C.; Wilson, R.

    1992-01-01

    The loss of MeV ions during {sup 3}He ICRH minority heating experiments has been measured using scintillator detectors near the wall of TFTR. The observed MeV ion losses to the bottom (90{degrees} poloidal) detector are generally consistent with the expected first-orbit loss of D-{sup 3}He alpha particle fusion products, with an inferred global reaction rate up to {approx}10{sup 16} reactions/sec. A qualitatively similar but unexpectedly large loss occurs 45{degrees} poloidally below the outer midplane. This additional loss might be due to ICRH tail ions or to ICRH wave-induced loss of previously confined fusion products.

  13. MeV ion loss during {sup 3}He minority heating in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Hammett, G.; Boivin, R.; Phillips, C.; Wilson, R.

    1992-01-01

    The loss of MeV ions during {sup 3}He ICRH minority heating experiments has been measured using scintillator detectors near the wall of TFTR. The observed MeV ion losses to the bottom (90{degrees} poloidal) detector are generally consistent with the expected first-orbit loss of D-{sup 3}He alpha particle fusion products, with an inferred global reaction rate up to {approx}10{sup 16} reactions/sec. A qualitatively similar but unexpectedly large loss occurs 45{degrees} poloidally below the outer midplane. This additional loss might be due to ICRH tail ions or to ICRH wave-induced loss of previously confined fusion products.

  14. Oceans and continents: Similarities and differences in the mechanisms of heat loss

    SciTech Connect

    Sclater, J.G.; Parsons, B.; Jaupart, C.

    1981-12-10

    The principal objective of this paper is to present a simple and self-consistent review of the basic physical processes controlling heat loss from the earth. To accomplish this objective, we give a short summary of the oceanic and continental data and compare and contrast the respective mechanisms of heat loss . In the oceans we concentrate on the effect of hydrothermal circulation, and on the continents we consider in some detail a model relating surface heat flow to varying depth scales for the distribution of potassium, thorium, and uranium. From this comparison we conclude that the range in possible geotherms at depths below 100 to 150 km under continents and oceans overlaps and the thermal structure beneath an old stable continent is indistinguishable from that beneath an ocean were it at equilibrium. Oceans and continents are part of the same thermal system. Both have an upper rigid mechanical layer where heat loss is by conduction and a lower thermal boundary layer where convection is dominant. The simple conductive definition of the plate thickness is an oversimplification. The observed distribution of area versus age in the ocean allows us to investigate the dominant mechanism of heat loss which is plate creation. This distribution and an understanding of the heat flow through oceans and continents can be used to calculate the heat loss of the earth. This heat loss is 10/sup 13/ cal/s (4.2 x 10/sup 13/W) of which more than 60% results from the creation of oceanic plate. The relation between area and age of the oceans is coupled to the ridge and subducting slab forces that contribute to the driving mechanism for plate motions. These forces are self-regulating and maintain the rate of plate generation required to achieve a balance between heat loss and heat generation.

  15. Estimating metabolic heat loss in birds and mammals by combining infrared thermography with biophysical modelling.

    PubMed

    McCafferty, D J; Gilbert, C; Paterson, W; Pomeroy, P P; Thompson, D; Currie, J I; Ancel, A

    2011-03-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) is a technique that determines surface temperature based on physical laws of radiative transfer. Thermal imaging cameras have been used since the 1960s to determine the surface temperature patterns of a wide range of birds and mammals and how species regulate their surface temperature in response to different environmental conditions. As a large proportion of metabolic energy is transferred from the body to the environment as heat, biophysical models have been formulated to determine metabolic heat loss. These models are based on heat transfer equations for radiation, convection, conduction and evaporation and therefore surface temperature recorded by IRT can be used to calculate heat loss from different body regions. This approach has successfully demonstrated that in birds and mammals heat loss is regulated from poorly insulated regions of the body which are seen to be thermal windows for the dissipation of body heat. Rather than absolute measurement of metabolic heat loss, IRT and biophysical models have been most useful in estimating the relative heat loss from different body regions. Further calibration studies will improve the accuracy of models but the strength of this approach is that it is a non-invasive method of measuring the relative energy cost of an animal in response to different environments, behaviours and physiological states. It is likely that the increasing availability and portability of thermal imaging systems will lead to many new insights into the thermal physiology of endotherms.

  16. Heat loss distribution: Impedance and thermal loss analyses in LiFePO4/graphite 18650 electrochemical cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasundaram, Manikandan; Ramar, Vishwanathan; Yap, Christopher; Lu, Li; Tay, Andrew A. O.; Palani, Balaya

    2016-10-01

    We report here thermal behaviour and various components of heat loss of 18650-type LiFePO4/graphite cell at different testing conditions. In this regard, the total heat generated during charging and discharging processes at various current rates (C) has been quantified in an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter experiment. Irreversible heat generation, which depends on applied current and internal cell resistance, is measured under corresponding charge/discharge conditions using intermittent pulse techniques. On the other hand, reversible heat generation which depends on entropy changes of the electrode materials during the cell reaction is measured from the determination of entropic coefficient at various states of charge/discharge. The contributions of irreversible and reversible heat generation to the total heat generation at both high and low current rates are evaluated. At every state of charge/discharge, the nature of the cell reaction is found to be either exothermic or endothermic which is especially evident at low C rates. In addition, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements are performed on above 18650 cells at various states of charge to determine the components of internal resistance. The findings from the impedance and thermal loss analysis are helpful for understanding the favourable states of charge/discharge for battery operation, and designing better thermal management systems.

  17. Effect of heat shielding on convective and evaporative heat losses and on radiant heat transfer in the premature infant

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgart, S.; Engle, W.D.; Fox, W.W.; Polin, R.A.

    1981-12-01

    Ten premature infants nursed on servocontrolled radiant warmer beds were studied in three environments designed to alter one or more factors affecting heat transfer (convection, evaporation, and radiation). In the control environment, infants were nursed supine on an open warmer bed. The second environment (walled chamber) was designed to reduce convection and evaporation by placing plastic walls circumferentially around the bed. In the third environment convection and evaporation were minimized by covering infants with a plastic blanket. Air turbulence, insensible water loss, and radiant warmer power were measured in each environment. There was a significant reduction in mean air velocity in the walled chamber and under the plastic blanket when compared to the control environment. A parallel decrease in insensible water loss occurred. In contrast, radiant power demand was the same for control and walled environments, but decreased significantly when infants were covered by the plastic blanket. This study suggests that convection is an important factor influencing evaporation in neonates nursed under radiant warmers. The thin plastic blanket was the most effective shield, significantly reducing radiant power demand.

  18. Heat Loss Mechanisms In Transparent Insulation With Honeycomb Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittwer, V.; Stahl, W.; Pfluger, A.; Goetzberger, A.; Schmid, J.

    1983-12-01

    The development of highly transparent insulation materials is an important step in raising the efficiency of flat plate collectors and for passive use of solar energy in buildings. The problem in combining selective absorbers and honeycomb structures is that the radiation losses due to thermal emission of the material of the structure may be larger than the losses due to convection which are present without the structure. Therefore a thorough analysis of the different loss mechanisms has been made. There are two possibilities for overcoming these difficulties. The first is the use of materials with low absorptance in the infrared or with selective surfaces for the honeycomb structure. The second possibility is the use of highly IR-absorbing materials. In the latter case a selective absorber is not needed. Results from both approaches will be presented.

  19. Influence of a Simple Heat Loss Profile on a Pure Diffusion Flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Anjan; Wichman, Indrek S.

    1996-01-01

    The presence of soot on the fuel side of a diffusion flame results in significant radiative heat losses. The influence of a fuel side heat loss zone on a pure diffusion flame established between a fuel and an oxidizer wall is investigated by assuming a hypothetical sech(sup 2) heat loss profile. The intensity and width of the loss zone are parametrically varied. The loss zone is placed at different distances from the Burke-Schumann flame location. The migration of the temperature and reactivity peaks are examined for a variety of situations. For certain cases the reaction zone breaks through the loss zone and relocates itself on the fuel side of the loss zone. In all cases the temperature and reactivity peaks move toward the fuel side with increased heat losses. The flame structure reveals that the primary balance for the energy equation is between the reaction term and the diffusion term. Extinction plots are generated for a variety of situations. The heat transfer from the flame to the walls and the radiative fraction is also investigated, and an analytical correlation formula, derived in a previous study, is shown to produce excellent predictions of our numerical results when an O(l) numerical multiplicative constant is employed.

  20. Wind effects on convective heat loss from a cavity receiver for a parabolic concentrating solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, R.Y.

    1993-09-01

    Tests were performed to determine the convective heat loss characteristics of a cavity receiver for a parabolid dish concentrating solar collector for various tilt angles and wind speeds of 0-24 mph. Natural (no wind) convective heat loss from the receiver is the highest for a horizontal receiver orientation and negligible with the reveler facing straight down. Convection from the receiver is substantially increased by the presence of side-on wind for all receiver tilt angles. For head-on wind, convective heat loss with the receiver facing straight down is approximately the same as that for side-on wind. Overall it was found that for wind speeds of 20--24 mph, convective heat loss from the receiver can be as much as three times that occurring without wind.

  1. The comparison of models for calculating heat conduction losses in laser cutting of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galushkin, M. G.; Golubev, V. S.; Grishaev, R. V.; Khomenko, M. D.

    2011-02-01

    Numerical comparisons of some models for estimating the power losses due to heat conduction in process of gas-assisted laser cutting are presented in this paper. In spite of differences between these models their results match fairly well.

  2. The comparison of models for calculating heat conduction losses in laser cutting of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galushkin, M. G.; Golubev, V. S.; Grishaev, R. V.; Khomenko, M. D.

    2010-09-01

    Numerical comparisons of some models for estimating the power losses due to heat conduction in process of gas-assisted laser cutting are presented in this paper. In spite of differences between these models their results match fairly well.

  3. Estimating losses in heat networks coated with modern liquid crystal thermal insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, R. A.

    2015-07-01

    One of the present issues during heat network operation in Russia is the losses of thermal energy at its transfer to consumers. According to statements of experts, losses in heat networks reach 35-50%. In this work, some properties of thermo-insulating materials currently in use are described. The innovative TLM Ceramic liquid-crystal thermal insulation is presented by its positive technical and economical characteristics, as well as field-performance data, and the doubts of experts about its declared properties. Location measurement data are presented for Astrakhan Severnaya heat and power plant hot-water system section covered with the 2-mm-thick liquid-crystal thermal insulation layer. Specific heat losses from the hot-water system surface have been determined and the arguments for inexpediency of applying TLM Ceramic liquid-crystal thermal insulation in heat-and-power engineering are discussed.

  4. Radiation losses in PLT during neutral beam and ICRF heating experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Suckewer, S.; Hinnov, E.; Hwang, D.

    1981-02-01

    Radiation and charge exchange losses in the PLT tokamak are compared for discharges with ohmic heating only (OH), and with additional heating by neutral beams (NB) or RF in the ion cyclotron frequency range (ICRF). Spectroscopic, bolometric and soft x-ray diagnostics were used. The effects of discharge cleaning, vacuum wall gettering, and rate of gas inlet on radiation losses from OH plasmas and the correlation between radiation from plasma core and edge temperatures are discussed.

  5. Pressure losses and heat transfer in non-circular channels with hydraulically smooth walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malak, J.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of channel geometry on pressure losses and heat transfer in noncircular channels with hydraulically smooth walls was studied. As a basic assumption for the description of this influence, integral geometrical criteria, selected according to experimental experience, were introduced. Using these geometrical criteria, a large set of experimental data for pressure losses and heat transfer in circular and annular channels with longitudinal fins was evaluated. In this way it as empirically proved that the criteria described channel geometry fairly well.

  6. Tritium permeation losses in HYLIFE-II heat exchanger tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Dolan, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    Tritium permeation through the intermediate heat exchanger of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion design concept is evaluated for routine operating conditions. The permeation process is modelled using the Lewis analogy combined with surface recombination. It is demonstrated that at very low driving potentials, permeation becomes proportional to the first power of the driving potential. The model predicts that under anticipated conditions the primary cooling loop will pass about 6% of the tritium entering it to the intermediate coolant. Possible approached to reducing tritium permeation are explored. Permeation is limited by turbulent diffusion transport through the molten salt. Hence, surface barriers with impendance factors typical of present technology can do very little to reduce permeation. Low Flibe viscosity is desirable. An efficient tritium removal system operating on the Flibe before it gets to the intermediate heat exchanger is required. Needs for further research are highlighted. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Analysis on heat loss characteristics of a 10 kV HTS power substation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Yuping; Dai, Shaotao; Song, Naihao; Zhang, Jingye; Gao, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Zhiqin; Zhou, Weiwei; Wei, Zhourong; Lin, Liangzhen; Xiao, Liye

    2014-09-01

    A 10 kV High Temperature Superconducting power substation (10 kV HTS substation), supported by Chinese State 863 projects, was developed and has been running to supply power for several factories for more than two years at an industrial park of Baiyin, Gansu province in Northwest China. The system of the 10 kV HTS substation compositions, including a HTS cable, a HTS transformer, a SFCL, and a SMES, are introduced. The SMES works at liquid helium temperature and the other three apparatus operates under liquid nitrogen condition. There are mainly four types of heat losses existing in each HTS apparatus of the 10 kV HTS substation, including AC loss, Joule heat loss, conductive heat, and leak-in heat from cryostat. A small quantity of AC loss still exists due to the harmonic component of the current when it carries DC for HTS apparatus. The principle and basis for analysis of the heat losses are introduced and the total heat loss of each apparatus are calculated or estimated, which agree well with the test result. The analysis and result presented are of importance for the design of the refrigeration system.

  8. Causes and Consequences of Exceptional North Atlantic Heat Loss in Recent Winters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josey, Simon; Grist, Jeremy; Duchez, Aurelie; Frajka-Williams, Eleanor; Hirschi, Joel; Marsh, Robert; Sinha, Bablu

    2016-04-01

    The mid-high latitude North Atlantic loses large amounts of heat to the atmosphere in winter leading to dense water formation. An examination of reanalysis datasets (ERA-Interim, NCEP/NCAR) reveals that heat loss in the recent winters 2013-14 and 2014-15 was exceptionally strong. The causes and consequences of this extraordinary ocean heat loss will be discussed. In 2013-2014, the net air-sea heat flux anomaly averaged over the whole winter exceeded 100 Wm-2 in the eastern subpolar gyre (the most extreme in the period since 1979 spanned by ERA-Interim). The causes of this extreme heat loss will be shown to be severe latent and sensible heat fluxes driven primarily by anomalously strong westerly airflows from North America and northerly airflows originating in the Nordic Seas. The associated sea level pressure anomaly field reflects the dominance of the second mode of atmospheric variability, the East Atlantic Pattern (EAP) over the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in this winter. The extreme winter heat loss had a significant impact on the ocean extending from the sea surface into the deeper layers and a re-emergent cold Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomaly is evident in November 2014. The following winter 2014-15 experienced further extreme heat loss that served to amplify the strength of the re-emergent SST anomaly. By summer 2015, an unprecedented cold mid-latitude North Atlantic Ocean surface temperature anomaly is evident in observations and has been widely referred to as the 'big blue blob'. The role played by the extreme surface heat loss in the preceding winters in generating this feature and it subsequent evolution through winter 2015-16 will be explored.

  9. Heat loss detection of buildings. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and instruments for detecting heat loss in buildings, houses, and mobile homes. Citations discuss the methods of heat loss determination including infrared thermography, trace gas procedures, time-response, and statistical predictions. The thermal-efficient design and construction of windows, roofs, air ducts, attics, walls, and floors are examined. Topics include thermal insulation materials and systems, heat recovery, thermal bridges and leak points, solar houses, and effects of moisture. (Contains a minimum of 96 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Effect of heterogenous and homogenous air gaps on dry heat loss through the garment.

    PubMed

    Mert, Emel; Psikuta, Agnes; Bueno, Marie-Ange; Rossi, René M

    2015-11-01

    In real life conditions, the trapped air between the human body and the garment has uneven shape and vary over the body parts as a consequence of the complex geometry of the human body. However, the existing clothing models assume uniform air layer between the human body and the garment or its full contact, which may cause large error in the output of simulations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a heterogeneous vertical air gap with different configuration of folds (size and frequency) on dry heat loss using a heated cylinder (Torso). It was found that the presence of folds in the garment led to an increased heat loss from the body in comparison to a homogeneous air gap of comparable size. Interestingly, the size of folds did not have an influence on the dry heat loss. Additionally, the effect of the contact area on dry heat loss became important when exceeding a threshold of about 42%. The results from this study are useful for modelling of a realistic dry heat loss through the clothing and contribute to the improvement of design of protective and active sport garments.

  11. Effect of heterogenous and homogenous air gaps on dry heat loss through the garment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mert, Emel; Psikuta, Agnes; Bueno, Marie-Ange; Rossi, René M.

    2015-11-01

    In real life conditions, the trapped air between the human body and the garment has uneven shape and vary over the body parts as a consequence of the complex geometry of the human body. However, the existing clothing models assume uniform air layer between the human body and the garment or its full contact, which may cause large error in the output of simulations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a heterogeneous vertical air gap with different configuration of folds (size and frequency) on dry heat loss using a heated cylinder (Torso). It was found that the presence of folds in the garment led to an increased heat loss from the body in comparison to a homogeneous air gap of comparable size. Interestingly, the size of folds did not have an influence on the dry heat loss. Additionally, the effect of the contact area on dry heat loss became important when exceeding a threshold of about 42 %. The results from this study are useful for modelling of a realistic dry heat loss through the clothing and contribute to the improvement of design of protective and active sport garments.

  12. Application of one-compartmental bio-metric blood loss calculations with transfused blood volume taken into account after aneurysmectomy.

    PubMed

    Božičković, Nataša; Popović, Jovan; Kolak, Radmila; Popović, Kosta; Popović, Dušica

    2011-06-01

    Blood loss can be measured directly and indirectly. The latter reflects blood loss through the assessment of hemoglobin level. Thus aim of this study was to determine the applicability of the drop in hemoglobin levels blood loss calculation when transfused blood volume is taken into account on the patients who underwent aneurysmectomy and to estimate whether this model is applicable on geriatric population. In this study, 14 patients were included and their blood loss was calculated based on hemoglobin concentration. Linear correlation (y = 0.18467 + 1.19315·x) with high correlation coefficient (r = 0.90809) was found between calculated and collected blood loss only if transfused blood volume was taken into account. The coefficient of the regression slope for the blood volume measured during surgery and the calculated blood loss in eight patients ≤65 years (y = 0.90866 + 0.86296·x) and six patients >65 years (y = 0.0299 + 1.32707·x) did not show any significant difference. The applicability of the indirect measurement of surgical blood loss, when transfused blood volume was taken into account, was demonstrated in both populations, in the age of 65 and less and in the age over 65 years after aneurysmectomy.

  13. Head insulation and heat loss in naked and clothed newborns using a thermal mannequin.

    PubMed

    Elabbassi, Elmountacer Billah; Chardon, Karen; Bach, Véronique; Telliez, Frédéric; Delanaud, Stéphane; Libert, Jean-Pierre

    2002-06-01

    In newborns, large amounts of heat are lost from the head, due to its high skin surface area. Insulating the head (for example, with a hat or bonnet) can be a simple and effective method of reducing dry heat loss. In the present study, we evaluated the safety aspects of insulating the head of low-birth-weight naked or clothed newborns by using a heated mannequin that simulates a low-birth-weight newborn. Experimental conditions (comprising a nude and three clothed setups) were performed in a closed incubator at three different air temperatures (29 degrees C, 32 degrees C, and 34 degrees C) and with and without the head being covered with a bonnet in each case, i.e., 24 experimental conditions in all. The study shows that added clothing elements and insulating the head decreases the total heat loss of the mannequin as a whole. As regards the dry heat exchange from the head, wearing a bonnet decreases the local heat loss by an average of 18.9% in all clothed and thermal conditions. This phenomenon could be at the origin of brain overheating in heavily dressed newborns, when unrestricted heat loss is limited to the face only. Our results suggest that--apart from accidental hypothermia-in order to achieve thermal equilibrium of the body, it is preferable to leave the head unprotected and to increase the level of clothing insulation over the rest of the body.

  14. Taking injuries of surviving bacteria into account for optimising heat treatments.

    PubMed

    Mafart, P

    2000-04-10

    considered is the overall function M = LL'. From another model [Mafart, P., Leguerinel, I., 1997. Modelling the heat stress and the recovery of bacterial spores. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 37, 131-135], it can be shown that the secondary BDV is also the corrective factor to be considered to assess the overall decimal reduction ratio q: q = L'n where n is the conventional decimal reduction ratio without taking into account the effect of environmental factors of the recovery medium on the effective heat resistance of injured spores.

  15. Enhanced O2+ loss at Mars due to an ambipolar electric field from electron heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergun, R. E.; Andersson, L. A.; Fowler, C. M.; Woodson, A. K.; Weber, T. D.; Delory, G. T.; Andrews, D. J.; Eriksson, A. I.; McEnulty, T.; Morooka, M. W.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2016-05-01

    Recent results from the MAVEN Langmuir Probe and Waves instrument suggest higher than predicted electron temperatures (Te) in Mars' dayside ionosphere above ~180 km in altitude. Correspondingly, measurements from Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer indicate significant abundances of O2+ up to ~500 km in altitude, suggesting that O2+ may be a principal ion loss mechanism of oxygen. In this article, we investigate the effects of the higher Te (which results from electron heating) and ion heating on ion outflow and loss. Numerical solutions show that plasma processes including ion heating and higher Te may greatly increase O2+ loss at Mars. In particular, enhanced Te in Mars' ionosphere just above the exobase creates a substantial ambipolar electric field with a potential (eΦ) of several kBTe, which draws ions out of the region allowing for enhanced escape. With active solar wind, electron, and ion heating, direct O2+ loss could match or exceed loss via dissociative recombination of O2+. These results suggest that direct loss of O2+ may have played a significant role in the loss of oxygen at Mars over time.

  16. 18 CFR 367.1890 - Account 189, Unamortized loss on reacquired debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1890 Account 189... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY...

  17. Correction of the heat loss method for calculating clothing real evaporative resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Faming; Zhang, Chengjiao; Lu, Yehu

    2015-08-01

    In the so-called isothermal condition (i.e., Tair [air temperature]=Tmanikin [manikin temperature]=Tr [radiant temperature]), the actual energy used for moisture evaporation detected by most sweating manikins was underestimated due to the uncontrolled fabric 'skin' temperature Tsk,f (i.e., Tsk,fheat loss from the wet fabric 'skin'-clothing system was proposed and experimentally validated on a 'Newton' sweating manikin. The real evaporative resistance of five clothing ensembles and the nude fabric 'skin' calculated by the corrected heat loss method was also reported and compared with that by the mass loss method. Results revealed that, depending on the types of tested clothing, different amounts of heat were drawn from the ambient environment. In general, a greater amount of heat was drawn from the ambient environment by the wet fabric 'skin'-clothing system in lower thermal insulation clothing than that in higher insulation clothing. There were no significant differences between clothing real evaporative resistances calculated by the corrected heat loss method and those by the mass loss method. It was therefore concluded that the correction method proposed in this study has been successfully validated.

  18. An improved model for natural convection heat loss from modified cavity receiver of solar dish concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.S.; Sendhil Kumar, N.

    2009-10-15

    A 2-D model has been proposed to investigate the approximate estimation of the natural convection heat loss from modified cavity receiver of without insulation (WOI) and with insulation (WI) at the bottom of the aperture plane in our previous article. In this paper, a 3-D numerical model is presented to investigate the accurate estimation of natural convection heat loss from modified cavity receiver (WOI) of fuzzy focal solar dish concentrator. A comparison of 2-D and 3-D natural convection heat loss from a modified cavity receiver is carried out. A parametric study is carried out to develop separate Nusselt number correlations for 2-D and 3-D geometries of modified cavity receiver for estimation of convective heat loss from the receiver. The results show that the 2-D and 3-D are comparable only at higher angle of inclinations (60 {<=} {beta} {<=} 90 ) of the receiver. The present 3-D numerical model is compared with other well known cavity receiver models. The 3-D model can be used for accurate estimation of heat losses from solar dish collector, when compared with other well known models. (author)

  19. Heat Loss in a Laser-Driven, Magnetized, X-Ray Source with Thermoelectric Terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, J. L.; Velikovich, A. L.; Kemp, G. E.; Colvin, J. D.; Koning, J.; Fournier, K. B.

    2016-10-01

    The efficiency of laser-driven K-shell radiation sources, i.e., pipes containing a gas or a metal foam, may be improved by using an axial magnetic field to thermally insulate the pipe wall from the hot interior. A planar, self-similar solution for the magnetic and thermal diffusion is developed to model the near wall physics that includes the thermoelectric Nernst and Ettingshausen effects. This solution extends previous work for the MagLIF concept to include the full dependence of the transport coefficients on the electron Hall parameter. The analytic solution assumes a constant pressure. This case is matched with a 1D MHD code, which is then applied to the case allowing for pressure gradients. These numerical solutions are found to evolve toward the self-similar ones. The variation of the time integrated heat loss with and without the thermoelectric terms will be examined. The present work provides a verification test for general MHD codes that use Braginskii's or Epperlein-Haines' transport model to account for thermoelectric effects. NRL supported by the DOE/NNSA. LLNL work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Efficiency and output power of thermoelectric module by taking into account corrected Joule and Thomson heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hee Seok; Liu, Weishu; Ren, Zhifeng

    2015-09-01

    The maximum conversion efficiency of a thermoelectric module composed of p- and n-type materials has been widely calculated using a constant property model since the 1950s, but this conventional model is only valid in limited conditions and no Thomson heat is accounted for. Since Thomson heat causes the efficiency under- or over-rated depending on the temperature dependence of Seebeck coefficient, it cannot be ignored especially in large temperature difference between the hot and cold sides. In addition, incorrect Joule heat is taken into consideration for heat flux evaluation of a thermoelectric module at thermal boundaries due to the assumption of constant properties in the conventional model. For this reason, more practical predictions for efficiency and output power and its corresponding optimum conditions of p- and n-type materials need to be revisited. In this study, generic formulae are derived based on a cumulative temperature dependence model including Thomson effect. The formulae reliably predict the maximum efficiency and output power of a thermoelectric module at a large temperature.

  1. Determination of clothing evaporative resistance on a sweating thermal manikin in an isothermal condition: heat loss method or mass loss method?

    PubMed

    Wang, Faming; Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar

    2011-08-01

    This paper addresses selection between two calculation options, i.e heat loss option and mass loss option, for thermal manikin measurements on clothing evaporative resistance conducted in an isothermal condition (T(manikin) = T(a) = T(r)). Five vocational clothing ensembles with a thermal insulation range of 1.05-2.58 clo were selected and measured on a sweating thermal manikin 'Tore'. The reasons why the isothermal heat loss method generates a higher evaporative resistance than that of the mass loss method were thoroughly investigated. In addition, an indirect approach was applied to determine the amount of evaporative heat energy taken from the environment. It was found that clothing evaporative resistance values by the heat loss option were 11.2-37.1% greater than those based on the mass loss option. The percentage of evaporative heat loss taken from the environment (H(e,env)) for all test scenarios ranged from 10.9 to 23.8%. The real evaporative cooling efficiency ranged from 0.762 to 0.891, respectively. Furthermore, it is evident that the evaporative heat loss difference introduced by those two options was equal to the heat energy taken from the environment. In order to eliminate the combined effects of dry heat transfer, condensation, and heat pipe on clothing evaporative resistance, it is suggested that manikin measurements on the determination of clothing evaporative resistance should be performed in an isothermal condition. Moreover, the mass loss method should be applied to calculate clothing evaporative resistance. The isothermal heat loss method would appear to overestimate heat stress and thus should be corrected before use.

  2. Solar power generation by use of Stirling engine and heat loss analysis of its cavity receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Tassawar

    Since concentrated power generation by Stirling engine has the highest efficiency therefore efficient power generation by concentrated systems using a Stirling engine was a primary motive of this research. A 1 kW Stirling engine was used to generate solar power using a Fresnel lens as a concentrator. Before operating On-Sun test, engine's performance test was conducted by combustion test. Propane gas with air was used to provide input heat to the Stirling Engine and 350W power was generated with 14% efficiency of the engine. Two kinds of receivers were used for On-Sun test, first type was the Inconel tubes with trapped helium gas and the second one was the heat pipe. Heat pipe with sodium as a working fluid is considered the best approach to transfer the uniform heat from the receiver to the helium gas in the heater head of the engine. A Number of On-Sun experiments were performed to generate the power. A minimum 1kW input power was required to generate power from the Stirling engine but it was concluded that the available Fresnel lens was not enough to provide sufficient input to the Stirling engine and hence engine was lagged to generate the solar power. Later on, for a high energy input a Beam Down system was also used to concentrate the solar light on the heater head of the Stirling engine. Beam down solar system in Masdar City UAE, constructed in 2009 is a variation of central receiver plant with cassegrainian optics. Around 1.5kW heat input was achieved from the Beam Down System and it was predicted that the engine receiver at beam down has the significant heat losses of about 900W. These high heat losses were the major hurdles to get the operating temperature (973K) of the heat pipes; hence power could not be generated even during the Beam Down test. Experiments were also performed to find the most suitable Cavity Receiver configuration for maximum solar radiation utilizations by engine receiver. Dimensionless parameter aperture ration (AR=d/D) and aperture

  3. Jeans instability of self gravitating partially ionized Hall plasma with radiative heat loss functions and porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaothekar, Sachin; Chhajlani, R. K.

    2013-06-01

    The Jeans instability of partially ionized self gravitating plasma is discussed to investigate the effect of the Hall current, radiative heat-loss function, thermal conductivity, collision frequency of neutrals, porosity, finite electrical resistivity and viscosity for the formation of stars in HI and HII regions. The standard Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) set of equations is used for the present configuration with radiative heat-loss function and thermal conductivity. A general dispersion relation is obtained from perturbation equations using the normal mode analysis method. We find that the Jeans condition of self-gravitational instability is modified due to the presence of neutral particle, radiative heat-loss functions and thermal conductivity. Presence of Hall current, porosity and collision frequency have no effect on Jeans criterion.

  4. The Scaling of Loss Pathways and Heat Transfer in Small Scale Internal Combustion Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-16

    small engines, poor fuel conversion efficiency (values not provided) is common due to high heat losses and inadequate mixture preparation [9:409...to compare loop and cross flow scavenging [62]. They determined that with identical port areas the trapping efficiencies of the two systems were...reaching the flammability limit. The thermal efficiency defines how well an engine converts the released heat into work (W), as shown in Equation (23

  5. Poleward eddy heat flux anomalies associated with recent Arctic sea ice loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Kazuhira; Ukita, Jinro; Honda, Meiji; Iwamoto, Katsushi; Nakamura, Tetsu; Yamazaki, Koji; Dethloff, Klaus; Jaiser, Ralf; Handorf, Dörthe

    2017-01-01

    Details of the characteristics of upward planetary wave propagation associated with Arctic sea ice loss under present climate conditions are examined using reanalysis data and simulation results. Recent Arctic sea ice loss results in increased stratospheric poleward eddy heat fluxes in the eastern and central Eurasia regions and enhanced upward propagation of planetary-scale waves in the stratosphere. A linear decomposition scheme reveals that this modulation of the planetary waves arises from coupling of the climatological planetary wavefield with temperature anomalies for the eastern Eurasia region and with meridional wind anomalies for the central Eurasia region. Propagation of stationary Rossby wave packets results in a dynamic link between these temperature and meridional wind anomalies with sea ice loss over the Barents-Kara Sea. The results provide strong evidence that recent Arctic sea ice loss significantly modulates atmospheric circulation in winter to modify poleward eddy heat fluxes so as to drive stratosphere-troposphere coupling processes.

  6. Reducing heat loss from the energy absorber of a solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Chao, Bei Tse; Rabl, Ari

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing convective heat loss in a cylindrical radiant energy collector. It includes a curved reflective wall in the shape of the arc of a circle positioned on the opposite side of the exit aperture from the reflective side walls of the collector. Radiant energy exiting the exit aperture is directed by the curved wall onto an energy absorber such that the portion of the absorber upon which the energy is directed faces downward to reduce convective heat loss from the absorber.

  7. Reynolds number effects on pressure loss and turbulence characteristics of four tube-bundle heat exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, L., Jr.; Gentry, C. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of pressure loss and turbulence on four tube-bundle configurations representing heat-exchanger geometries with nominally the same heat capacity were measured as a function of Reynolds numbers from about 4000 to 400,000 based on tube hydraulic diameter. Two configurations had elliptical tubes, the other two had round tubes, and all four had plate fins. The elliptical-tube configurations had lower pressure loss and turbulence characteristics than the round-tube configurations over the entire Reynolds number range.

  8. Measuring the heat loss in horses in different seasons by infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Autio, Elena; Neste, Riitta; Airaksinen, Sanna; Heiskanen, Minna-Liisa

    2006-01-01

    It is necessary to consider breed and cold tolerance in the housing and caring of horses. This study demonstrates differences in heat loss between horse types at low temperatures and examines rate of loss in different types during different seasons. Eighteen horses participated. Groups by type were light (L), warmblood (W), coldblood (C), and pony (P). A camera filmed thermographic images at 15 degrees C, 2 degrees C (all types), -8 degrees C (L, W, C), and -12 degrees C (P). The study calculated loss from the neck, trunk, and inner surfaces of front and hind legs. Loss was similar in all types at 15 degrees C. L, W, and C dissipated more heat at 2 degrees C than at 15 degrees C (p < .001) and from neck and trunk at -8 degrees C than at 2 degrees C (p < .05). P dissipated heat similarly at 2 degrees C and -12 degrees C. At 2 degrees C, loss was less from neck and trunk in C and P compared with L (p < .05). At -8 degrees C, loss in L and W was greater than in C (p < .05).

  9. Modeling the effect of reflective calf hutch covers on reducing heat loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binion, W. R.; Friend, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    This study determined if a reflective film could theoretically be useful in moderating the rate of heat loss from calves housed in polyethylene hutches during cold weather. An engineering approach was used in which rate of heat loss was modeled using 38-l steel drums filled with body temperature water and covered by fresh calf hide. The reflective film (cover) consisted of aluminized 0.0635 mm low-density olive color polyethylene. The non-reflective olive side was sprayed with flat black paint. Covers were 1.8 × 3 m with the aluminized side facing the hutch. Two of four hutches were either uncovered or had covers across the top and sides. During the night, (mean temperature ± SE -13.6 ± 0.29 °C), the rate of temperature loss was -0.21 °C per 5-min interval over 28 temperature readings in the covered and -0.25 °C in the uncovered ( R 2 = 0.99). During the daytime (mean ± SE 14.3 ± 0.52 °C), rate of heat loss was -0.15 °C per 5-min interval over 33 temperature readings in the covered and -0.11 °C in the uncovered ( R 2 = 0.99). Reflective film reduced the rate of heat loss during cold nights, but when the sun was shining on the hutches during midday, the uncovered hutches warmed up more and, hence, reduced the rate of heat loss when compared to the covered. Further research is needed on the orientation of hutches in relationship to the sun and with live calves because calves would be able to move into the sun during cold sunny days.

  10. Modeling the effect of reflective calf hutch covers on reducing heat loss.

    PubMed

    Binion, W R; Friend, T H

    2015-12-01

    This study determined if a reflective film could theoretically be useful in moderating the rate of heat loss from calves housed in polyethylene hutches during cold weather. An engineering approach was used in which rate of heat loss was modeled using 38-l steel drums filled with body temperature water and covered by fresh calf hide. The reflective film (cover) consisted of aluminized 0.0635 mm low-density olive color polyethylene. The non-reflective olive side was sprayed with flat black paint. Covers were 1.8 × 3 m with the aluminized side facing the hutch. Two of four hutches were either uncovered or had covers across the top and sides. During the night, (mean temperature ± SE -13.6 ± 0.29 °C), the rate of temperature loss was -0.21 °C per 5-min interval over 28 temperature readings in the covered and -0.25 °C in the uncovered (R (2) = 0.99). During the daytime (mean ± SE 14.3 ± 0.52 °C), rate of heat loss was -0.15 °C per 5-min interval over 33 temperature readings in the covered and -0.11 °C in the uncovered (R (2) = 0.99). Reflective film reduced the rate of heat loss during cold nights, but when the sun was shining on the hutches during midday, the uncovered hutches warmed up more and, hence, reduced the rate of heat loss when compared to the covered. Further research is needed on the orientation of hutches in relationship to the sun and with live calves because calves would be able to move into the sun during cold sunny days.

  11. Insect pollination reduces yield loss following heat stress in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Bishop, Jacob; Jones, Hannah Elizabeth; Lukac, Martin; Potts, Simon Geoffrey

    2016-03-15

    Global food security, particularly crop fertilization and yield production, is threatened by heat waves that are projected to increase in frequency and magnitude with climate change. Effects of heat stress on the fertilization of insect-pollinated plants are not well understood, but experiments conducted primarily in self-pollinated crops, such as wheat, show that transfer of fertile pollen may recover yield following stress. We hypothesized that in the partially pollinator-dependent crop, faba bean (Vicia faba L.), insect pollination would elicit similar yield recovery following heat stress. We exposed potted faba bean plants to heat stress for 5 days during floral development and anthesis. Temperature treatments were representative of heat waves projected in the UK for the period 2021-2050 and onwards. Following temperature treatments, plants were distributed in flight cages and either pollinated by domesticated Bombus terrestris colonies or received no insect pollination. Yield loss due to heat stress at 30 °C was greater in plants excluded from pollinators (15%) compared to those with bumblebee pollination (2.5%). Thus, the pollinator dependency of faba bean yield was 16% at control temperatures (18-26 °C) and extreme stress (34 °C), but was 53% following intermediate heat stress at 30 °C. These findings provide the first evidence that the pollinator dependency of crops can be modified by heat stress, and suggest that insect pollination may become more important in crop production as the probability of heat waves increases.

  12. Morphological dependency of cutaneous blood flow and sweating during compensable heat stress when heat-loss requirements are matched across participants.

    PubMed

    Notley, Sean R; Park, Joonhee; Tagami, Kyoko; Ohnishi, Norikazu; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2016-07-01

    Human heat loss is thought, in part, to be morphologically related. It was therefore hypothesized that when heat-loss requirements and body temperatures were matched, that the mass-specific surface area alone could significantly explain both cutaneous vascular and sudomotor responses during compensable exercise. These thermoeffector responses were examined in 36 men with widely varying mass-specific surface areas (range, 232.3-292.7 cm(2)/kg), but of similar age, aerobic fitness, and adiposity. Subjects completed two trials under compensable conditions (28.1°C, 36.8% relative humidity), each involving rest (20 min) and steady-state cycling (45 min) at two matched metabolic heat-production rates (light, ∼135 W/m(2); moderate, ∼200 W/m(2)). Following equivalent mean body temperature changes, forearm blood flow and vascular conductance (r = 0.63 and r = 0.65) shared significant, positive associations with the mass-specific surface area during light work (P < 0.05), explaining ∼45% of the vasomotor variation. Conversely, during light and moderate work, whole body sweat rate, as well as local sweat rate and sudomotor sensitivity at three of four measured sites, revealed moderate, negative relationships with the mass-specific surface area (correlation coefficient range -0.37 to -0.73, P < 0.05). Moreover, those relationships could uniquely account for between 10 and 53% of those sweating responses (P < 0.05). Therefore, both thermoeffector responses displayed a significant morphological dependency in the presence of equivalent thermoafferent drive. Indeed, up to half of the interindividual variation in these effector responses could now be explained through morphological differences and the first principles governing heat transfer.

  13. Turbomachinery Heat Transfer and Loss Modeling for 3D Navier-Stokes Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, Kenneth; Ameri, Ali

    2005-01-01

    This report's contents focus on making use of NASA Glenn on-site computational facilities,to develop, validate, and apply models for use in advanced 3D Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes to enhance the capability to compute heat transfer and losses in turbomachiney.

  14. Evaluation of hypothalamic gene expression in mice divergently selected for heat loss.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Stephanie R; Allan, Mark F; Nielsen, Merlyn K; Pomp, Daniel

    2003-04-16

    Mouse lines divergently selected for heat loss were evaluated for correlated responses in the hypothalamic transcriptome. High (MH) heat loss mice have approximately 50% greater heat loss, approximately 35% less body fat, approximately 20% greater feed intake, approximately 100% greater locomotor activity levels, and higher core body temperature compared with low (ML) heat loss mice. We evaluated hypothalamic expression between inbred lines derived from MH and ML lines (IH and IL, respectively) using cDNA microarrays and selected genes previously isolated in a large differential-display PCR experiment. Northern analysis was used to confirm differences, revealing higher hypothalamic mRNA expression of oxytocin (Oxt) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (Timp-2) in the IH line. Real-time PCR assays were developed for Oxt, Timp-2, and ribosomal protein L3 (Rpl3, previously found to be upregulated in IL) and confirmed differential expression of these genes with potential physiological relevance in energy balance. These results provide information on correlated responses in the transcriptome of mice selected for high and low energy expenditure and reveal new information regarding genetic regulation of energy balance.

  15. Convection heat loss from cavity receiver in parabolic dish solar thermal power system: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shuang-Ying; Xiao, Lan; Li, You-Rong; Cao, Yiding

    2010-08-15

    The convection heat loss from cavity receiver in parabolic dish solar thermal power system can significantly reduce the efficiency and consequently the cost effectiveness of the system. It is important to assess this heat loss and subsequently improve the thermal performance of the receiver. This paper aims to present a comprehensive review and systematic summarization of the state of the art in the research and progress in this area. The efforts include the convection heat loss mechanism, experimental and numerical investigations on the cavity receivers with varied shapes that have been considered up to date, and the Nusselt number correlations developed for convection heat loss prediction as well as the wind effect. One of the most important features of this paper is that it has covered numerous cavity literatures encountered in various other engineering systems, such as those in electronic cooling devices and buildings. The studies related to those applications may provide valuable information for the solar receiver design, which may otherwise be ignored by a solar system designer. Finally, future development directions and the issues that need to be further investigated are also suggested. It is believed that this comprehensive review will be beneficial to the design, simulation, performance assessment and applications of the solar parabolic dish cavity receivers. (author)

  16. Non-thermal modification of heat-loss responses during exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Koga, Shunsaku

    2010-10-01

    This review focuses on the characteristics of heat-loss responses during exercise with respect to non-thermal factors. In addition, the effects of physical training on non-thermal heat-loss responses are discussed. When a subject is already sweating the sweating rate increases at the onset of dynamic exercise without changes in core temperature, while cutaneous vascular conductance (skin blood flow) is temporarily decreased. Although exercise per se does not affect the threshold for the onset of sweating, it is possible that an increase in exercise intensity induces a higher sensitivity of the sweating response. Exercise increases the threshold for cutaneous vasodilation, and at higher exercise intensities, the sensitivity of the skin-blood-flow response decreases. Facilitation of the sweating response with increased exercise intensity may be due to central command, peripheral reflexes in the exercising muscle, and mental stimuli, whereas the attenuation of skin-blood-flow responses with decreased cutaneous vasodilation is related to many non-thermal factors. Most non-thermal factors have negative effects on magnitude of cutaneous vasodilation; however, several of these factors have positive effects on the sweating response. Moreover, thermal and non-thermal factors interact in controlling heat-loss responses, with non-thermal factors having a greater impact until core temperature elevations become significant, after which core temperature primarily would control heat loss. Finally, as with thermally induced sweating responses, physical training seems to also affect sweating responses governed by non-thermal factors.

  17. Shaken. Not stirred-temperature change and heat loss during delivery of IV fluids

    PubMed

    Fields; Hsu

    2000-10-01

    Microwave-heated intravenous fluids are used in the rewarming of hypothermic patients. OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of both shaking of the microwaved bag and heat loss during delivery. METHODS: Twenty 1-liter normal saline bags were heated individually in a commercial microwave, immediately randomized into a "shaken" or a "non-shaken" group. The temperature of the fluid was recorded initially out of the bag and then at one-minute intervals by a blinded observer as the fluid ran "wideopen" through ambient temperature tubing. RESULTS: No statistically significant temperature difference occurred in any of the measured time intervals between the shaken and the non-shaken bags. Seventy percent of the overall temperature losses occurred in the first three minutes out of the microwave for both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Absence of shaking of the microwaved fluids does not produce "hot spots." Higher initial temperatures out of the bag should be considered as well as warming of the IV tubing.

  18. The Effect of Wind on the Rate of Heat Loss from Avian Cup-Shaped Nests

    PubMed Central

    Heenan, Caragh B.; Seymour, Roger S.

    2012-01-01

    Forced convection can significantly influence the heat loss from birds and their offspring but effects may be reduced by using sheltered micro-sites such as cavities or constructing nests. The structural and thermal properties of the nests of two species, the spiny-cheeked honeyeater (Acanthagenys rufogularis) and yellow-throated miner (Manorina flavigula), were measured in relation to three wind speeds. Nest dimensions differ between the two species, despite the similar body mass of the incubating adults, however nest conductance is comparable. As wind speed increases, so does the rate of heat loss from the nests of both species, and further still during incubation recesses. The significance of forced convection through the nest is a near-doubling in heat production required by the parent, even when incubating at relatively low wind speeds. This provides confirmation that selecting a sheltered nest site is important for avian reproductive success. PMID:22389689

  19. The effect of wind on the rate of heat loss from avian cup-shaped nests.

    PubMed

    Heenan, Caragh B; Seymour, Roger S

    2012-01-01

    Forced convection can significantly influence the heat loss from birds and their offspring but effects may be reduced by using sheltered micro-sites such as cavities or constructing nests. The structural and thermal properties of the nests of two species, the spiny-cheeked honeyeater (Acanthagenys rufogularis) and yellow-throated miner (Manorina flavigula), were measured in relation to three wind speeds. Nest dimensions differ between the two species, despite the similar body mass of the incubating adults, however nest conductance is comparable. As wind speed increases, so does the rate of heat loss from the nests of both species, and further still during incubation recesses. The significance of forced convection through the nest is a near-doubling in heat production required by the parent, even when incubating at relatively low wind speeds. This provides confirmation that selecting a sheltered nest site is important for avian reproductive success.

  20. Prior heat acclimation confers protection against noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Paz, Ziv; Freeman, Sharon; Horowitz, Michal; Sohmer, Haim

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to intense noise stress can cause a permanent noise-induced hearing loss which is thought to be due to elevation of reactive oxygen species in excess of the inherent antioxidant mechanisms of the cell. However, preconditioning to low levels of stress of one type can activate cellular mechanisms leading to the elevation of antioxidant levels so that the cell is then better able to tolerate subsequent severe stress of a different type. This has been called cross-tolerance. Here, we tested this hypothesis by acclimating rats to a moderate heat stress (30 days at 34 degrees C). The rats were exposed to 113 dB SPL noise for 3 days (12 h/day) in three different groups: heat acclimated then noise exposed; noise exposed and then heat acclimated; heat acclimated, then noise exposed and then heat acclimated again. Permanent changes in auditory function--auditory nerve brainstem evoked responses (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs)--were evaluated in each of these animals and compared with those in rats exposed to noise only and in control groups of rats. Statistical evaluation of the results showed that when assessed with ABR, each of the heat-acclimated, noise-exposed groups was protected from the noise, even the group that was heat-acclimated after the noise exposure. When assessed with DPOAE, protection was statistically apparent only in the group that was heat acclimated, then exposed to noise, and not in the other groups. Thus, heat acclimation provides protection against permanent noise-induced hearing loss.

  1. Upon Accounting for the Impact of Isoenzyme Loss, Gene Deletion Costs Anticorrelate with Their Evolutionary Rates.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Christopher; Lambourne, Luke; Xia, Yu; Segrè, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    System-level metabolic network models enable the computation of growth and metabolic phenotypes from an organism's genome. In particular, flux balance approaches have been used to estimate the contribution of individual metabolic genes to organismal fitness, offering the opportunity to test whether such contributions carry information about the evolutionary pressure on the corresponding genes. Previous failure to identify the expected negative correlation between such computed gene-loss cost and sequence-derived evolutionary rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been ascribed to a real biological gap between a gene's fitness contribution to an organism "here and now" and the same gene's historical importance as evidenced by its accumulated mutations over millions of years of evolution. Here we show that this negative correlation does exist, and can be exposed by revisiting a broadly employed assumption of flux balance models. In particular, we introduce a new metric that we call "function-loss cost", which estimates the cost of a gene loss event as the total potential functional impairment caused by that loss. This new metric displays significant negative correlation with evolutionary rate, across several thousand minimal environments. We demonstrate that the improvement gained using function-loss cost over gene-loss cost is explained by replacing the base assumption that isoenzymes provide unlimited capacity for backup with the assumption that isoenzymes are completely non-redundant. We further show that this change of the assumption regarding isoenzymes increases the recall of epistatic interactions predicted by the flux balance model at the cost of a reduction in the precision of the predictions. In addition to suggesting that the gene-to-reaction mapping in genome-scale flux balance models should be used with caution, our analysis provides new evidence that evolutionary gene importance captures much more than strict essentiality.

  2. Upon Accounting for the Impact of Isoenzyme Loss, Gene Deletion Costs Anticorrelate with Their Evolutionary Rates

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yu; Segrè, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    System-level metabolic network models enable the computation of growth and metabolic phenotypes from an organism’s genome. In particular, flux balance approaches have been used to estimate the contribution of individual metabolic genes to organismal fitness, offering the opportunity to test whether such contributions carry information about the evolutionary pressure on the corresponding genes. Previous failure to identify the expected negative correlation between such computed gene-loss cost and sequence-derived evolutionary rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been ascribed to a real biological gap between a gene’s fitness contribution to an organism “here and now” and the same gene’s historical importance as evidenced by its accumulated mutations over millions of years of evolution. Here we show that this negative correlation does exist, and can be exposed by revisiting a broadly employed assumption of flux balance models. In particular, we introduce a new metric that we call “function-loss cost”, which estimates the cost of a gene loss event as the total potential functional impairment caused by that loss. This new metric displays significant negative correlation with evolutionary rate, across several thousand minimal environments. We demonstrate that the improvement gained using function-loss cost over gene-loss cost is explained by replacing the base assumption that isoenzymes provide unlimited capacity for backup with the assumption that isoenzymes are completely non-redundant. We further show that this change of the assumption regarding isoenzymes increases the recall of epistatic interactions predicted by the flux balance model at the cost of a reduction in the precision of the predictions. In addition to suggesting that the gene-to-reaction mapping in genome-scale flux balance models should be used with caution, our analysis provides new evidence that evolutionary gene importance captures much more than strict essentiality. PMID:28107392

  3. Loss-pattern identification in near-real-time accounting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Argentesi, F.; Hafer, J.F.; Markin, J.T.; Shipley, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    To maximize the benefits from an advanced safeguards technique such as near-real-time accounting (NRTA), sophisticated methods of analyzing sequential materials accounting data are necessary. The methods must be capable of controlling the overall false-alarm rate while assuring good power of detection against all possible diversion scenarios. A method drawn from the field of pattern recognition and related to the alarm-sequence chart appears to be promising. Power curves based on Monte Carlo calculations illustrate the improvements over more conventional methods. 3 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Forced heat loss from body surface reduces heat flow to body surface.

    PubMed

    Berman, A

    2010-01-01

    Heat stress is commonly relieved by forced evaporation from body surfaces. The mode of heat stress relief by heat extraction from the periphery is not clear, although it reduces rectal temperature. Radiant surface temperature (Ts) of the right half of the body surface was examined by thermovision in 4 lactating Holstein cows (30 kg of milk/d) during 7 repeated cycles of forced evaporation created by 30s of wetting followed by 4.5 min of forced airflow. Wetting was performed by an array of sprinklers (0.76 m(3)/h), and forced airflow (>3m/s velocity) over the right side of the body surface was produced by fans mounted at a height of 3m above the ground. Sprinkling wetted the hind legs, rump, and chest, but not the lower abdomen side, front legs, or neck. The animals were maintained in shade at an air temperature of 28 degrees C and relative humidity of 47%. Coat thickness was 1 to 2mm, so Ts closely represented skin temperature. Mean Ts of 5 x 20cm areas on the upper and lower hind and front legs, rump, chest, abdomen side, and neck were obtained by converting to temperature their respective gray intensity in single frames obtained at 10-s intervals. Little change occurred in Ts during the first wetting (0.1+/-0.6 degrees C), but it decreased rapidly thereafter (1.6+/-0.6 degrees C in the fifth wetting). The Ts also decreased, to a smaller extent, in areas that remained dry (0.7+/-1.0 degrees C). In all body sites, a plateau in Ts was reached by 2 min after wetting. The difference between dry and wet areas in the first cooling cycle was approximately 1.2 degrees C. The Ts of different body areas decreased during consecutive cooling cycles and reached a plateau by 3 cooling cycles in dry sites (front leg, neck, abdomen side), by 5 cooling cycles in the hind leg, and 7 cooling cycles in the rump and chest. The reduction in mean Ts produced by 7 cycles was 4.0 to 6.0 degrees C in wetted areas and 1.6 to 3.7 degrees C in sites that were not wetted. Initial rectal

  5. Metal loss and charge heating in the melt in an electric arc furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serikov, V. A.; Bikeev, R. A.; Cherednichenko, M. V.; Cherednichenko, V. S.

    2015-12-01

    The heat exchange between a metallic melt and a slag with a charge is simulated with allowance for possible formation of a skull on the charge surface. It is shown that the charge melting rate in the melt is determined by the coefficient of heat transfer between the metal and the charge and the ratio of the mass of a charge fragment to its surface area interacting with the melt. A skull is found to form on the charge surface at a low coefficient of heat transfer between the metal and the charge. The main heat parameters, the control of which by an automatic control system ensures an increase in the charge melting rate in the melt and a decrease in the metal loss, are formulated.

  6. Enhanced Loss of O2+ and O+ at Mars from Electron and Ion Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodson, A. K.; Ergun, R. E.; Andersson, L.; Morooka, M. W.; Fowler, C. M.; Weber, T. D.; Andrews, D. J.; Benna, M.; Delory, G. T.; Eriksson, A. I.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    We report results from the MAVEN Langmuir Probe and Waves (LPW) instrument, the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) instrument, and numerical solutions, which suggest that ion and electron heating via plasma processes may have had a significant role in atmospheric and water loss at Mars. LPW in-situ observations of the electron temperature (Te) at Mars indicate a dramatic rise in Te (from < 600 oK to ~3000 oK) with altitude in the critical exobase region ~200 km in altitude. This dramatic temperature increase implies a strong ambipolar electric field (~1 V), which should strongly draw ions from the exobase region to higher altitudes. A substantial source of electron heating is required for this process. Numerical simulations demonstrate that observations of dramatically enhances O2+ at higher altitudes is consistent with a strong ambipolar electric field and plasma heating. With this new understanding, we demonstrate that ion loss, particularly the loss of O+ and O2+, could have significantly contributed to the loss of Mars atmosphere. The refilling time scales for the dayside O+ and O2+ will also be discussed.

  7. PKL experiments on loss of residual heat removal under shutdown conditions in PWRS

    SciTech Connect

    Umminger, Klaus; Schoen, Bernhard; Mull, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    When a pressurized water reactor (PWR) is shutdown for refueling, the main coolant inventory is reduced so that the level is at mid-loop elevation. Removal of the decay heat from the core is maintained by the residual heat removal system (RHRS), which under these conditions represents the only heat sink. Loss of RHRS under shutdown conditions has occurred several times worldwide and still plays an important role in risk studies for PWRs. The experimental investigation on loss of RHRS is one mayor topic in the current PKL test program which is included in an international project set up by the OECD. PKL is an integral test facility simulating a typical western-type 1300 MW PWR and is used to investigate the thermal-hydraulic system behavior of PWRs under accident situations. The PKL test facility is operated in the Technical Center of Framatome ANP in Erlangen, Germany. The tests on loss of RHRS have been performed with borated water and special measurement techniques for the determination of the boron concentration (online measurements). The PKL tests demonstrate that, as long as the primary circuit is closed, a failure of the residual heat removal system can be compensated by one or more steam generators, which remain filled with water on the secondary side and stay ready for use during refueling and other outages. However, the tests showed also that accumulations of large condensate inventories (with low boron concentration) can occur in the cold leg piping during mid-loop operation after loss of the RHRS. This paper summarizes the most important results of a PKL experiment dealing with loss of RHRS during mid-loop operation with closed primary circuit. Issues still open and needs for further investigations are also discussed. (authors)

  8. Enhancement of spontaneous emission in metal-dielectric multilayer structures accounting losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubaydullin, A. R.; Kaliteevski, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    We study the emission rate enhancement of the dipole emitter centred in the stratified metal-dielectric metamaterial, characterized by the hyperbolic isofrequency surface. We find out a limited enhancement of the Purcell factor in the layered metamaterial. We demonstrate that the radiative decay rate is strongly depends on a ratio of the thickness of layers and is affected by the level of losses in metal.

  9. Modelling of labour productivity loss due to climate change: HEAT-SHIELD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Daanen, Hein

    2016-04-01

    Climate change will bring higher heat levels (temperature and humidity combined) to large parts of the world. When these levels reach above thresholds well defined by human physiology, the ability to maintain physical activity levels decrease and labour productivity is reduced. This impact is of particular importance in work situations in areas with long high intensity hot seasons, but also affects cooler areas during heat waves. Our modelling of labour productivity loss includes climate model data of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Inter-comparison Project (ISI-MIP), calculations of heat stress indexes during different months, estimations of work capacity loss and its annual impacts in different parts of the world. Different climate models will be compared for the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and the outcomes of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21) agreements. The validation includes comparisons of modelling outputs with actual field studies using historical heat data. These modelling approaches are a first stage contribution to the European Commission funded HEAT-SHIELD project.

  10. Importance of soil heating, liquid water loss, and vapor flow enhancement for evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Michael D.

    2016-10-01

    Field measurements conducted by Cahill and Parlange (1998) are reanalyzed to verify if their conclusion that daytime peak values of 60-70 W m-2 of latent heat flux divergence occurred in the 7-10 cm soil layer of a drying Yolo silt loam when maximum values of surface latent heat flux are estimated to have been about 100 W m-2. The new analyses, as similar to theirs as possible, are validated using a numerical simulation of coupled soil moisture and heat flow based on Philip and de Vries (1957) as a test bed. The numerical simulation is extended to include the flow of air induced by diurnal soil heating and evaporative water loss to verify the flux divergence calculations reported in Parlange et al. (1998) that explained the findings of Cahill and Parlange (1998). It is shown that the conclusions of both of these papers are in error, so that the original version of the Philip and de Vries (1957) theory is consistent with their field measurements after all and the effects of airflow associated with soil heating and liquid water loss (and low-frequency barometric pressure variations also considered) are negligible in practice. In an additional investigation, enhancement of diffusive vapor flow (first postulated by Philip and de Vries (1957)) and discussed extensively in the literature since is shown to have negligible effects on cumulative evaporation under field conditions.

  11. Random regression models to account for the effect of genotype by environment interaction due to heat stress on the milk yield of Holstein cows under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Santana, Mário L; Bignardi, Annaiza Braga; Pereira, Rodrigo Junqueira; Menéndez-Buxadera, Alberto; El Faro, Lenira

    2016-02-01

    The present study had the following objectives: to compare random regression models (RRM) considering the time-dependent (days in milk, DIM) and/or temperature × humidity-dependent (THI) covariate for genetic evaluation; to identify the effect of genotype by environment interaction (G×E) due to heat stress on milk yield; and to quantify the loss of milk yield due to heat stress across lactation of cows under tropical conditions. A total of 937,771 test-day records from 3603 first lactations of Brazilian Holstein cows obtained between 2007 and 2013 were analyzed. An important reduction in milk yield due to heat stress was observed for THI values above 66 (-0.23 kg/day/THI). Three phases of milk yield loss were identified during lactation, the most damaging one at the end of lactation (-0.27 kg/day/THI). Using the most complex RRM, the additive genetic variance could be altered simultaneously as a function of both DIM and THI values. This model could be recommended for the genetic evaluation taking into account the effect of G×E. The response to selection in the comfort zone (THI ≤ 66) is expected to be higher than that obtained in the heat stress zone (THI > 66) of the animals. The genetic correlations between milk yield in the comfort and heat stress zones were less than unity at opposite extremes of the environmental gradient. Thus, the best animals for milk yield in the comfort zone are not necessarily the best in the zone of heat stress and, therefore, G×E due to heat stress should not be neglected in the genetic evaluation.

  12. Oscillating-flow loss test results in rectangular heat exchanger passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. Gary

    1991-01-01

    Test results of oscillating flow losses in rectangular heat exchanger passages of various aspect ratios are given. This work was performed in support of the design of a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) for a dynamic space power conversion system. Oscillating flow loss testing was performed using an oscillating flow rig, which was based on a variable stroke and variable frequency linear drive motor. Tests were run over a range of oscillating flow parameters encompassing the flow regimes of the proposed engine design. Test results are presented in both tabular and graphical form and are compared against analytical predictions.

  13. The effect of wall losses in the numerical simulation of microwave heating problems.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, R A; Dibben, D C; Metaxas, A C

    2000-01-01

    A study is made into the numerical modeling of wall losses for a microwave heating application. It makes use of a surface integral term for both a frequency and time domain finite edge element formulation in order to model the wall impedance of the enclosed microwave cavity. The paper describes how the surface element matrix of the complex wall impedance is combined with the matrix formulation. The results are checked against analytical expressions for a single mode resonant cavity. An analysis on the effect of lossy walls is provided using four low-loss material insertions over a range of surface conductivities.

  14. Insect pollination reduces yield loss following heat stress in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Jacob; Jones, Hannah Elizabeth; Lukac, Martin; Potts, Simon Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Global food security, particularly crop fertilization and yield production, is threatened by heat waves that are projected to increase in frequency and magnitude with climate change. Effects of heat stress on the fertilization of insect-pollinated plants are not well understood, but experiments conducted primarily in self-pollinated crops, such as wheat, show that transfer of fertile pollen may recover yield following stress. We hypothesized that in the partially pollinator-dependent crop, faba bean (Vicia faba L.), insect pollination would elicit similar yield recovery following heat stress. We exposed potted faba bean plants to heat stress for 5 days during floral development and anthesis. Temperature treatments were representative of heat waves projected in the UK for the period 2021–2050 and onwards. Following temperature treatments, plants were distributed in flight cages and either pollinated by domesticated Bombus terrestris colonies or received no insect pollination. Yield loss due to heat stress at 30 °C was greater in plants excluded from pollinators (15%) compared to those with bumblebee pollination (2.5%). Thus, the pollinator dependency of faba bean yield was 16% at control temperatures (18–26 °C) and extreme stress (34 °C), but was 53% following intermediate heat stress at 30 °C. These findings provide the first evidence that the pollinator dependency of crops can be modified by heat stress, and suggest that insect pollination may become more important in crop production as the probability of heat waves increases. PMID:26989276

  15. Development of a river ice jam by a combined heat loss and hydraulic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliasson, J.; Gröndal, G. O.

    2008-11-01

    The heat loss theory and the hydraulic theory for the analysis of the development of wide channel ice jams are discussed and shown. The heat loss theory has been used in Iceland for a long time, while the hydraulic theory largely follows the classical ice-jam build-up theories used in known CFD models. The results are combined in a new method to calculate the maximum thickness and the extent of an ice jam. The results compare favorably to the HEC-RAS model for the development of a very large ice jam in Thjorsa River in Iceland, and have been found in good agreement with historical data, collected where a hydroelectric dam project, Urridafoss, is being planned in the Thjorsa River.

  16. Development of a river ice jam by a combined heat loss and hydraulic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliasson, J.; Orri Gröndal, G.

    2008-04-01

    This paper discusses and shows the heat loss theory and the hydraulic theory for the analysis of the development of wide channel ice jams. The heat loss theory has been used in Iceland for a long time, while the hydraulic theory largely follows the classical ice-jam build-up theories used in known CFD models. The results are combined in a new method to calculate the maximum thickness and the extent of an ice jam. The results compare favorably to the HEC-RAS model for the development of a very large ice jam in Thjorsa River in Iceland. They are also in good agreement with historical data, collected where a hydroelectric dam project, Urridafoss, is being planned in the Thjorsa River.

  17. Loss effects on adhesively-bonded multilayer ultrasonic transducers by self-heating.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhengbin; Cochran, Sandy

    2010-04-01

    Multilayer ultrasonic transducers are widely being used for high power applications. In these applications, typical Langevin/Tonpilz structures without any adhesive bondings however have the disadvantage of limited bandwidth. Therefore adhesively-bonded structures are still a potential solution for this issue. In this paper, two-layer piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducers with two different adhesive bondlines were investigated comparing to a single-layer transducer in terms of loss effects during operation with excitation signals sufficient to cause self-heating. The theoretical functions fitted to the measured time-temperature dependency data are compared with experimental results of different piezoelectric transducers. Theoretical analysis of loss characteristics at various surface displacements and the relationship with increasing temperature are reported. The effects of self-heating on the practical performance of multilayer ultrasonic transducers with adhesive bondlines are discussed.

  18. Patient Population Loss At A Large Pioneer Accountable Care Organization And Implications For Refining The Program.

    PubMed

    Hsu, John; Price, Mary; Spirt, Jenna; Vogeli, Christine; Brand, Richard; Chernew, Michael E; Chaguturu, Sreekanth K; Mohta, Namita; Weil, Eric; Ferris, Timothy

    2016-03-01

    There is an ongoing move toward payment models that hold providers increasingly accountable for the care of their patients. The success of these new models depends in part on the stability of patient populations. We investigated the amount of population turnover in a large Medicare Pioneer accountable care organization (ACO) in the period 2012-14. We found that substantial numbers of beneficiaries became part of or left the ACO population during that period. For example, nearly one-third of beneficiaries who entered in 2012 left before 2014. Some of this turnover reflected that of ACO physicians-that is, beneficiaries whose physicians left the ACO were more likely to leave than those whose physicians remained. Some of the turnover also reflected changes in care delivery. For example, beneficiaries who were active in a care management program were less likely to leave the ACO than similar beneficiaries who had not yet started such a program. We recommend policy changes to increase the stability of ACO beneficiary populations, such as permitting lower cost sharing for care received within an ACO and requiring all beneficiaries to identify their primary care physician before being linked to an ACO.

  19. Comparison of Various Supersonic Turbine Tip Designs to Minimize Aerodynamic Loss and Tip Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The rotor tips of axial turbines experience high heat flux and are the cause of aerodynamic losses due to tip clearance flows, and in the case of supersonic tips, shocks. As stage loadings increase, the flow in the tip gap approaches and exceeds sonic conditions. This introduces effects such as shock-boundary layer interactions and choked flow that are not observed for subsonic tip flows that have been studied extensively in literature. This work simulates the tip clearance flow for a flat tip, a diverging tip gap and several contoured tips to assess the possibility of minimizing tip heat flux while maintaining a constant massflow from the pressure side to the suction side of the rotor, through the tip clearance. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code GlennHT was used for the simulations. Due to the strong favorable pressure gradients the simulations assumed laminar conditions in the tip gap. The nominal tip gap width to height ratio for this study is 6.0. The Reynolds number of the flow is 2.4 x 10(exp 5) based on nominal tip width and exit velocity. A wavy wall design was found to reduce heat flux by 5 percent but suffered from an additional 6 percent in aerodynamic loss coefficient. Conventional tip recesses are found to perform far worse than a flat tip due to severe shock heating. Overall, the baseline flat tip was the second best performer. A diverging converging tip gap with a hole was found to be the best choice. Average tip heat flux was reduced by 37 percent and aerodynamic losses were cut by over 6 percent.

  20. Unprotected loss-of-heat sink simulation in the EBR-II plant

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, E.E.; Mohr, D.

    1984-01-01

    Two unprotected loss-of-heat sink transients initiated from near full power conditions in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) plant have been simulated. In one transient the secondary sodium flow is reduced to nearly zero (0.5% of its initial value) while in the other the flow simply coasts down to a natural-convective rate of about 8%. In spite of the large difference in primary heat removal rates, which the difference in secondary flow rates represents, both transients have very similar overall behavior. In addition, the large volume of sodium in the primary tank causes a slowly rising tank temperature in response to net heat addition. An important result is that the negative reactivity feedback characteristics of the reactor cause it to shut itself down in a benign manner in both cases. Experiments based on these simulations are planned for the EBR-II in 1985.

  1. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, David; Seitzler, Matt; Backman, Christine; Weitzel, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  2. The variation of heat transfer coefficient, adiabatic effectiveness and aerodynamic loss with film cooling hole shape.

    PubMed

    Sargison, J E; Guo, S M; Oldfield, M L; Rawlinson, A J

    2001-05-01

    The heat transfer coefficient and adiabatic effectiveness of cylindrical, fan shaped holes and a slot are presented for the region zero to 50 diameters downstream of the holes. Narrow-band liquid crystals were used on a heated flat plate with heated air coolant. These parameters have been measured in a steady state, low speed facility at engine representative Reynolds number based on hole diameter and pressure difference ratio (ideal momentum flux ratio). The aerodynamic loss due to each of the film cooling geometries has been measured using a traverse of the boundary layer far downstream of the film cooling holes. Compared to the cylindrical holes, the fan shaped hole case showed an improvement in the uniformity of cooling downstream of the holes and in the level of laterally averaged film cooling effectiveness. The fan effectiveness approached the slot level and both the fan and cylindrical hole cases show lower heat transfer coefficients than the slot and non film cooled cases based on the laterally averaged results. The drawback to the fan shaped hole was that the aerodynamic loss was significantly higher than both the slot and cylindrical hole values due to inefficient diffusion in the hole exit expansion.

  3. Novel magnetic core materials impact modelling and analysis for minimization of RF heating loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Bablu Kumar; Mohamad, Khairul Anuar; Saad, Ismail

    2016-02-01

    The eddy current that exists in RF transformer/inductor leads to generation of noise/heat in the circuit and ultimately reduces efficiency in RF system. Eddy current is generated in the magnetic core of the inductor/transformer largely determine the power loss for power transferring process. The losses for high-frequency magnetic components are complicated due to both the eddy current variation in magnetic core and copper windings reactance variation with frequency. Core materials permeability and permittivity are also related to variation of such losses those linked to the operating frequency. This paper will discuss mainly the selection of novel magnetic core materials for minimization of eddy power loss by using the approach of empirical equation and impedance plane simulation software TEDDY V1.2. By varying the operating frequency from 100 kHz to 1GHz and magnetic flux density from 0 to 2 Tesla, the eddy power loss is evaluated in our study. The Nano crystalline core material is found to be the best core material due to its low eddy power loss at low conductivity for optimum band of frequency application.

  4. Fast wave heating and edge power losses in NSTX and NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertelli, Nicola

    2013-10-01

    Experimental studies of high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have demonstrated that substantial HHFW power loss can occur along the open field lines in the scrape-off layer (SOL), but the mechanism behind the loss is not yet understood. Extended ray tracing and full wave codes are being applied to specific NSTX discharges in order to predict the causes of this power loss. Previous full wave simulations predict that cavity-like modes may form outside of the LCFS. We find that inserting a collisional loss in the SOL of AORSA to represent a damping process indicates an effective collisional term of ν / ω ~ [ 0 . 05 - 0 . 1 ] which is considerably larger than the ν / ω ~ 0 . 005 obtained with Spitzer resistivity, suggesting the damping scale of the loss mechanism. The magnitude of the edge collisional losses are being used to evaluate possible potential damping mechanisms in the SOL. Initial numerical analyses show that the presence of the SOL has a significant impact on the launched antenna spectrum. The upgrade of NSTX, NSTX-U, will operate with toroidal magnetic fields (BT) up to 1 T, nearly twice the values used on NSTX. The doubling of BT while retaining the 30 MHz RF frequency moves the heating regime for NSTX-U to the mid harmonic fast wave (MHFW) regime, which will be analyzed and contrasted with the HHFW regime on NSTX. These studies indicate that direct ion damping might be more significant in NSTX-U under TRANSP predicted full performance conditions. Modifications of fast ion distributions due to the interaction of fast waves with NBI will be presented in both MHFW and HHFW regimes. Work supported by the SciDAC Center for Wave-Plasma Interactions under DE-FC02-01ER54648 and the US DOE under DE-AC02-CH0911466.

  5. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915measuredsamples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rateand heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08. PMID:26624613

  6. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915 measured samples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08.

  7. Is there evidence for nonthermal modulation of whole body heat loss during intermittent exercise?

    PubMed

    Kenny, Glen P; Gagnon, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    This study compared the effect of active, passive, and inactive recoveries on whole body evaporative and dry heat loss responses during intermittent exercise at an air temperature of 30 degrees C and a relative humidity of 20%. Nine males performed three 15-min bouts of upright seated cycling at a fixed external workload of 150 W. The exercise bouts were separated by three 15-min recoveries during which participants 1) performed loadless pedaling (active recovery), 2) had their lower limbs passively compressed with inflatable sleeves (passive recovery), or 3) remained upright seated on the cycle ergometer (inactive recovery). Combined direct and indirect calorimetry was employed to measure rates of whole body evaporative heat loss (EHL) and metabolic heat production (M-W). Mean body temperature (T(b)) was calculated from esophageal and mean skin temperatures, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured continuously. Active and passive recoveries both reversed the reduction in MAP associated with inactive recovery (P

  8. Does retrieval frequency account for the pattern of autobiographical memory loss in early Alzheimer's disease patients?

    PubMed

    De Simone, Maria Stefania; Fadda, Lucia; Perri, Roberta; Aloisi, Marta; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2016-01-08

    Episodic autobiographical memory (ABM) has been found to be impaired from the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous works have focused on how ABM decreases over the lifespan, but no study has deeply investigated whether the extent of episodic autobiographical amnesia is mediated by the retrieval frequency of the episodic trace itself. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the frequency of trace retrieval has an effect on the quality of autobiographical incidents recall and whether the extent of this contribution changes over time. For this purpose, the episodic component of ABM was assessed in patients in the early stage of AD through a questionnaire which allowed evaluating memory of past personal incidents as a function of both their age of acquisition and retrieval frequency. We found that both AD patients and healthy controls took advantage of greater retrieval frequency across all time segments, because of their better memory performance on frequently retrieved episodes than less frequently retrieved ones. Although in the AD group the retrieval frequency effect (i.e., higher scores on the episodes rated as more frequently retrieved) was found in all time segments, the extent of its beneficial effect on memory performance was temporally-graded and inversely related to the time course. Our findings provide new evidence that the combined action of both age of memory and retrieval frequency could provide a valuable framework for predicting patterns of ABM loss, at least in early AD patients. In line with the Multiple Trace Theory, we speculated that retrieval frequency protects episodic trace recall against hippocampal damage by reinforcing the neural representation of personal context-rich memories, which consequently are easier to access and recall. Furthermore, the age of memory should change the amplitude of this beneficial effect as a function of the remoteness of the trace.

  9. The effect of stellar radiation on exoplanet atmospheric heating and mass loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojanen, Winonah; Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason; Poppenhaeger, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Our project aims to investigate the influence of stellar activity and high-energy radiation on short-period transiting exoplanet atmospheric heating and mass loss. Mass loss in closely orbiting gaseous exoplanets could be significant enough to evaporate a significant portion of the atmosphere over the total system lifetime. A current question of interest is how Neptune-class gas giants might change over time from being exposed to intense X-ray and UV flux radiated from the star. Our research aims to estimate current and total mass loss for four Neptune-class exoplanets that have both measured radii and masses. We use computer software to reduce and analyze Chandra X-ray observations of Neptune-class exoplanets, including HAT-P-11b and archival data of GJ 436b, to calculate the high-energy incident flux for each planet. We then estimate the current-epoch mass-loss rate and construct integrated mass-loss histories. We test whether planets receiving the greatest dose of high-energy radiation also tend to be the lowest mass and the most dense, suggestive of evaporation. These observations provide essential empirical input for understanding and modeling the potential evolutionary transformation of hot gas giants into less massive and more dense remnants.

  10. Effects of vertically ribbed surface roughness on the forced convective heat losses in central receiver systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlig, Ralf; Frantz, Cathy; Fritsch, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    External receiver configurations are directly exposed to ambient wind. Therefore, a precise determination of the convective losses is a key factor in the prediction and evaluation of the efficiency of the solar absorbers. Based on several studies, the forced convective losses of external receivers are modeled using correlations for a roughened cylinder in a cross-flow of air. However at high wind velocities, the thermal efficiency measured during the Solar Two experiment was considerably lower than the efficiency predicted by these correlations. A detailed review of the available literature on the convective losses of external receivers has been made. Three CFD models of different level of detail have been developed to analyze the influence of the actual shape of the receiver and tower configuration, of the receiver shape and of the absorber panels on the forced convective heat transfer coefficients. The heat transfer coefficients deduced from the correlations have been compared to the results of the CFD simulations. In a final step the influence of both modeling approaches on the thermal efficiency of an external tubular receiver has been studied in a thermal FE model of the Solar Two receiver.

  11. Retrospective: Adjusting contaminant concentrations in bird eggs to account for moisture and lipid Loss during their incubation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Blus, Lawrence J.

    2016-01-01

    By the 1960s, research and monitoring efforts on chlorinated pesticide residues in tissues of wildlife were well underway in North America and Europe. Conservationists and natural resource managers were attempting to resolve whether pesticide exposure and accumulated residues were related to population declines in several species of predatory and scavenging birds (e.g., bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus, peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis and osprey Pandion haliaetus). The avian egg was a favored sampling matrix even before the realization that eggshell thinning was linked to population declines (Ratcliffe 1967; Hickey and Anderson 1968) and that the concentration of p,p’-DDE in an egg was associated with the shell thinning phenomenon (e.g., Blus et al. 1972; Wiemeyer et al. 1988). The necessity for making wet-weight concentration adjustments to account for natural moisture loss during incubation of viable eggs was realized. Correction for the more dramatic moisture loss in non-viable decaying eggs was recognized as being paramount. For example, the ∑DDT residues in osprey eggs were reported to vary by as much as eightfold without accounting for moisture loss adjustments (Stickel et al. 1965). In the absence of adjusting concentrations to the fresh wet-weight that was present at the time of egg laying, the uncorrected values exaggerated contaminant concentrations, yielding artifactual results and ultimately incorrect conclusions. The adjustment to fresh wet-weight concentration is equally important for many other persistent contaminants including PCBs, dioxins, furans, and brominated diphenyl ethers.

  12. Heat loss analysis-based design of a 12 MW wind power generator module having an HTS flux pump exciter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Hae-Jin; Go, Byeong-Soo; Jiang, Zhenan; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2016-11-01

    The development of an effective high-temperature superconducting (HTS) generator is currently a research focus; however, the reduction of heat loss of a large-scale HTS generator is a challenge. This study deals with a heat loss analysis-based design of a 12 MW wind power generator module having an HTS flux pump exciter. The generator module consists of an HTS rotor of the generator and an HTS flux pump exciter. The specifications of the module were described, and the detailed configuration of the module was illustrated. For the heat loss analysis of the module, the excitation loss of the flux pump exciter, eddy current loss of all of the structures in the module, radiation loss, and conduction loss of an HTS coil supporter were assessed using a 3D finite elements method program. In the case of the conduction loss, different types of the supporters were compared to find out the supporter of the lowest conduction loss in the module. The heat loss analysis results of the module were reflected in the design of the generator module and discussed in detail. The results will be applied to the design of large-scale superconducting generators for wind turbines including a cooling system.

  13. Measurement of tracheal temperature is not a reliable index of total respiratory heat loss in mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    Thomachot, Laurent; Viviand, Xavier; Lagier, Pierre; Marc Dejode, Jean; Albanèse, Jacques; Martin, Claude

    2001-01-01

    Background: Minimizing total respiratory heat loss is an important goal during mechanical ventilation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether changes in tracheal temperature (a clinical parameter that is easy to measure) are reliable indices of total respiratory heat loss in mechanically ventilated patients. Method: Total respiratory heat loss was measured, with three different methods of inspired gas conditioning, in 10 sedated patients. The study was randomized and of a crossover design. Each patient was ventilated for three consecutive 24-h periods with a heated humidifier (HH), a hydrophobic heat-moisture exchanger (HME) and a hygroscopic HME. Total respiratory heat loss and tracheal temperature were simultaneously obtained in each patient. Measurements were obtained during each 24-h study period after 45 min, and 6 and 24 h. Results: Total respiratory heat loss varied from 51 to 52 cal/min with the HH, from 100 to 108 cal/min with the hydrophobic HME, and from 92 to 102 cal/min with the hygroscopic HME (P < 0.01). Simultaneous measurements of maximal tracheal temperatures revealed no significant differences between the HH (35.7-35.9°C) and either HME (hydrophobic 35.3-35.4°C, hygroscopic 36.2-36.3°C). Conclusion: In intensive care unit (ICU) mechanically ventilated patients, total respiratory heat loss was twice as much with either hydrophobic or hydroscopic HME than with the HH. This suggests that a much greater amount of heat was extracted from the respiratory tract by the HMEs than by the HH. Tracheal temperature, although simple to measure in ICU patients, does not appear to be a reliable estimate of total respiratory heat loss. PMID:11178222

  14. Do nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase contribute to the heat loss responses in older males exercising in the heat?

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Naoto; Paull, Gabrielle; Meade, Robert D; McGinn, Ryan; Stapleton, Jill M; Akbari, Pegah; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-01-01

    separate and interactive roles of NOS and COX in forearm sweating and cutaneous vasodilatation in older adults during intermittent exercise in the heat performed at a moderate fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W, ∼48% ). We demonstrated that neither NOS nor COX are functionally involved in the forearm sweating response in older adults during exercise, whereas only NOS contributed to cutaneous vasodilatation. These results provide valuable insight into the age-related changes in heat loss and suggest that COX inhibitors (i.e. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) may not impair core body temperature regulation during exercise in the heat in older adults. PMID:25820454

  15. Effect of Weight Loss and Microstructure by Heat Treatment and Fabrication of Lps-Sic Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Han-Ki; Park, Joon Soo; Kohyama, Akira

    In the present work, monolithic LPS-SiC was fabricated by hot press method with the addition of Al2O3, Y2O3 and SiO2 and annealed at different temperatures to observe microstructure evolution. Process temperature was varied from 1760°C to 1800°C. Process pressure and maturing time are 20MPa and 1h respectively. Hot pressed samples were cut into rectangular bars. Three-point flexural strength was measured at room temperature in air with a cross-head speed of 0.1 mm/min and a lower span of 18 mm. Flexural strength and elastic modulus measurement was performed using a universal test machine (INSTRON 5581, USA). The apparent density of the sintered body was measured by the Archimedes method. The specimen dimension of the heat treatments is 4W×25L×1.5T mm. The specimens used for weight-loss measurement were set into an open carbon crucible to avoid nonuniform temperature distribution within the furnace. Post-fabrication heat treatment was performed in vacuum atmosphere (PO2 ≈ 0.01 Pa). The temperature was increased at a rate of 20 K/min to the heat-treatment temperature and maintained for 10 hours, after which the specimens were furnace cooled. After heat-treatment, weight of heat-treated specimens was carefully measured by an electronic balance. In order to reveal the microstructural change in heat-treated specimen, X-ray diffractometry and microstructure observation were performed and compared with those of the as-fabricated one.

  16. Body composition and feed intake of reproducing and growing mice divergently selected for heat loss.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, A S; Nielsen, M K

    2014-05-01

    Changes in maintenance energy requirements and in feed efficiency have been achieved by divergent selection for heat loss in mice in 3 replicates, creating high heat loss, high maintenance (MH) and low heat loss, low maintenance (ML) lines and an unselected control (MC). However, feed intake has mainly been measured in mature animals and not during growth or reproduction. Additionally, there is evidence that reducing maintenance energy will increase fat content, an undesirable result. To evaluate if selection has altered body composition and lifecycle feed intake, mating pairs were continuously mated and maintained for up to 1 yr unless culled. Offspring pairs were sampled from each line at each parity and maintained from 21 to 49 d of age. Feed intake was recorded for mating pairs throughout the year and on offspring pairs. Body weight was recorded on all animals at culling as well as percent fat, total fat, and total lean, measured by dual X-ray densitometry. Average daily gain was also recorded for offspring. Energy partitioning was achieved using 2 approaches: Approach I regressed energy intake of the pair on sum of daily metabolic weight and total gain to obtain maintenance (bm) and growth (bg) coefficients for each line, replicate, feeding period, and sex (offspring pairs only); Approach II calculated bm for each pair assuming constant energy values for lean and fat gain. Energy coefficients and body composition traits were evaluated for effect of selection (MH vs. ML) and asymmetry of selection ([MH + ML]/2 vs. MC). Both MC mating and offspring pairs tended to have greater BW than the average of the selection lines (P < 0.08). Males of offspring pairs weighed more than females (P < 0.01), while females of mating pairs weighed more than males (P < 0.01). Line was insignificant (P > 0.15) for body composition traits. Using Approach I, MH mice had a greater bm than ML mice for mating pairs (P = 0.03) but not offspring pairs (P = 0.50). For Approach II, MH had a

  17. Investigation of the heating rate dependency associated with the loss of crystalline structure in sucrose, glucose, and fructose using a thermal analysis approach (part I).

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Won; Thomas, Leonard C; Schmidt, Shelly J

    2011-01-26

    Thermodynamic melting occurs at a single, time-independent temperature with a constant enthalpy value. However, substantial variation in the melting parameters (T(m onset), T(m peak), and ΔH) for sucrose, glucose, and fructose has been reported in the literature. Although a number of explanations have been put forth, they do not completely account for the observed variation. Thus, this research was performed to elucidate the fundamental mechanism underlying the loss of crystalline structure in the sugars using both thermal (Part I) and chemical (Part II) analysis approaches. A strong heating rate dependency observed in the melting parameters for the sugars implies the occurrence of a kinetic process during the loss of crystalline structure. The difference in heat capacity and modulated heat flow amplitude in the stepwise quasi-isothermal modulated differential scanning calorimetry experiments for the sugars compared to indium and mannitol (thermodynamic melting comparison materials) strongly suggests thermal decomposition as the kinetic process responsible for the loss of crystalline structure, which is the critical difference between our conclusion and others. We propose the term "apparent melting" to distinguish the loss of crystalline structure due to a kinetic process, such as thermal decomposition, from thermodynamic melting.

  18. Investigation of the relationship between heat loss and nitrogen excretion in elderly patients undergoing major abdominal surgery under general anaesthetic.

    PubMed

    Carli, F; Clark, M M; Woollen, J W

    1982-10-01

    An attempt was made to reduce heat loss in elderly patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Two groups were studied. In one group, efforts were made to minimize heat loss by using a hot-water humidifier in the anaesthetic circuit, a hot-water circulating mattress under the patient and warming all i.v. fluids. Otherwise, the surgical and anaesthetic techniques were comparable. The same anaesthetic technique of nitrous oxide, oxygen, pancuronium and fentanyl with intermittent positive pressure ventilation was used in all cases. Nitrogen loss was measured in urine collected over 48 h from an indwelling urinary catheter inserted soon after induction of anaesthesia. Prevention of heat loss during anaesthesia and postoperative recovery caused a significant reduction in nitrogen loss.

  19. Ion Heating and Magnetotail Losses at the Martian Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, J. P.; Livi, R.; Luhmann, J. G.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Mitchell, D. L.; Mazelle, C. X.; Andersson, L.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Suprathermal And Thermal Ion Composition (STATIC) sensor on the MAVEN spacecraft provides the first detailed look at the heating of Martian ions at the interface between the ionosphere and the solar wind. STATIC's unique design allows it to measure both a wide range in energy (<1 eV to 30,000 eV) and a large dynamic range in flux. At this interface ion distributions can be quite complex, with multiple ion species containing both cold plasmas (Ti < 0.1 eV) and warm suprathermal tails (1-100 eV). Ion heating at boundaries between different magnetic topologies, both open-closed and open-draped boundaries, is observed. Counterstreaming ions of the same mass, and of different masses, are common at this interface. These unstable distributions should evolve into low energy suprathermal tails that populate the magnetotail and contribute to Martian atmospheric loss. This paper will review the broad range of ion distributions that MAVEN observes escaping down the magnetotail beginning with outflows at the low altitude terminator and their evolution to a warm plasma that forms the tail current sheet. These observations will be used to estimate the atmospheric loss rate of tail outflows.

  20. Mechanisms underlying the postexercise baroreceptor‐mediated suppression of heat loss

    PubMed Central

    McGinn, Ryan; Paull, Gabrielle; Meade, Robert D.; Fujii, Naoto; Kenny, Glen P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Reports indicate that postexercise heat loss is modulated by baroreceptor input; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. We examined the time‐dependent involvement of adenosine receptors, noradrenergic transmitters, and nitric oxide (NO) in modulating baroreceptor‐mediated changes in postexercise heat loss. Eight males performed two 15‐min cycling bouts (85% VO2max) each followed by a 45‐min recovery in the heat (35°C). Lower body positive (LBPP), negative (LBNP), or no (Control) pressure were applied in three separate sessions during the final 30‐min of each recovery. Four microdialysis fibres in the forearm skin were perfused with: (1) lactated Ringer's (Ringer's); (2) 4 mmol·L−1 Theophylline (inhibits adenosine receptors); (3) 10 mmol·L−1 Bretylium (inhibits noradrenergic transmitter release); or (4) 10 mmol·L−1 l‐NAME (inhibits NO synthase). We measured cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; percentage of maximum) calculated as perfusion units divided by mean arterial pressure, and local sweat rate. Compared to Control, LBPP did not influence CVC at l‐NAME, Theophylline or Bretylium during either recovery (P >0.07); however, CVC at Ringer's was increased by ~5‐8% throughout 30 min of LBPP during Recovery 1 (all P <0.02). In fact, CVC at Ringer's was similar to Theophylline and Bretylium during LBPP. Conversely, LBNP reduced CVC at all microdialysis sites by ~7–10% in the last 15 min of Recovery 2 (all P <0.05). Local sweat rate was similar at all treatment sites as a function of pressure condition (P >0.10). We show that baroreceptor input modulates postexercise CVC to some extent via adenosine receptors, noradrenergic vasoconstriction, and NO whereas no influence was observed for postexercise sweating. PMID:25293599

  1. Effects of physical training on heat loss responses of young women to passive heating in relation to menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Tomoko; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Taniguchi, Miyuki; Ogura, Yukio; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Narihiko

    2005-07-01

    To examine the effects of physical training on cutaneous vasodilation and sweating responses of young women in the follicular and luteal phase, 11 physically trained (T group) and 13 untrained (U group) women were passively heated by lower-leg immersion into hot water of 42 degrees C (ambient temperature of 30 degrees C and 45%RH) for 60 min in their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Female hormones increased significantly from the mid-follicular to the mid-luteal phase in T and U groups, but the degree of increase was significantly lower in T group. Mean body temperature (T(B)) thresholds for cutaneous vasodilation and sweating responses were significantly lower in T group than in U group, in both the menstrual phases, and the differences between the groups were greatest during the mid-luteal phase. The slope of the relationship between frequency of sweat expulsion (F(sw)) and (T(B)), and between local sweating rate and F(sw) was significantly greater in T group, although the slope of the relationship between cutaneous blood flow and (T(B)) did not differ between the groups, regardless of body site or menstrual phase. These results suggest that regular physical activity enhanced sweating and cutaneous vasodilation in young women. The enhancement of sweating was due to both central and peripheral mechanisms, and the enhancement of cutaneous vasodilation was possibly due to a central mechanism. Enhancement of heat loss responses via central mechanisms was greater during the mid-luteal phase than in the mid-follicular phase because the elevation of female reproductive hormone levels during the mid-luteal phase was relatively low in T group.

  2. The effects of continental block configuration on the Earth's heat loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, C. M.; Moresi, L. N.; Lenardic, A.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of continents on the Earth's surface produces an unusual convective system with parallel mechanisms for losing internal heat: conduction through the stable, continental insulating lid, and a more efficient balance of horizontal advection and vertical conduction in the actively overturning oceanic thermal boundary layer. The resulting thermal network which describes the heat loss behavior of the combined mechanisms can create a buffer which moderates the insulating effect of the continental lid on the Earth's overall heat loss, but only if the deep mantle flow communicates between sub-continental and sub-oceanic regions. If communication is disconnected between the two heat transfer mechanisms, then the continent locally insulates the mantle beneath it causing the subcontinental mantle temperature to increase compared to the sub-oceanic mantle setting the stage for a different global impact on mantle dynamics. The thermal-network theory which describes the two end-member cases does not directly constrain the cross-over between these states; however, the configuration of the insulating lid is expected to play a major role. Here we extend previous 2D work to include multiple continental blocks in various configurations to determine when the mixed-network theory holds and when thermal isolated modes can be produced. The continental blocks were arranged in three configurations while holding the total surface area covered by the blocks constant. The three possible layouts were: (1) a single block centered in the model domain, (2) two blocks of equal size centered in the model domain or (3) four blocks of equal size centered in the 3x3x1 Cartesian model domain. All continental blocks are fixed to the coordinate system; when apart (in the two or four block configuration), the blocks do not move relative to each other, but the mantle is free to move dynamically in all directions via periodic boundary conditions. The total surface area covered by continental

  3. Coping with the Personal Loss of Having a Parent with Mental Illness: Young Adults' Narrative Accounts of Spiritual Struggle and Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunu, Aleisha; Stein, Catherine H.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the personal accounts of nine young adults who have parents living with mental illness. Adults' experience of personal loss due to their parents' mental illness and perceptions of their religious faith journey and spiritual struggles are described. Overall, young adults who reported experiencing more personal loss due to…

  4. Understanding ion cyclotron harmonic fast wave heating losses in the scrape off layer of tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelli, N; Jaeger, E F; Hosea, J C; Phillips, C K; Berry, L; Bonoli, P T; Gerhardt, S P; Green, D; LeBlanc, B; Perkins, R J; Ryan, P M; Taylor, G; Valeo, E J; Wilso, J R; Wright, J C

    2014-07-01

    Fast waves at harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency, which have been used successfully on National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), will also play an important role in ITER and are a promising candidate for the Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) designs based on spherical torus (ST). Experimental studies of high harmonic fast waves (HHFW) heating on the NSTX have demonstrated that substantial HHFW power loss occurs along the open field lines in the scrape-off layer (SOL), but the mechanism behind the loss is not yet understood. The full wave RF code AORSA, in which the edge plasma beyond the last closed flux surface (LCFS) is included in the solution domain, is applied to specific NSTX discharges in order to predict the effects and possible causes of this power loss. In the studies discussed here, a collisional damping parameter has been implemented in AORSA as a proxy to represent the real, and most likely nonlinear, damping processes. A prediction for the NSTX Upgrade (NSTX-U) experiment, that will begin operation next year, is also presented, indicating a favorable condition for the experiment due to a wider evanescent region in edge density.*Research supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 with Princeton University.

  5. Effects of Heat Loss and Subgrid-Scale Models on Large Eddy Simulations of a Premixed Jet Combustor Using Flamelet-Generated Manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez Perez, Francisco E.; Lee, Bok Jik; Im, Hong G.; Fancello, Alessio; Donini, Andrea; van Oijen, Jeroen A.; de Goey, L. Philip H.

    2016-11-01

    Large eddy simulations (LES) of a turbulent premixed jet flame in a confined chamber are performed using the flamelet-generated manifold technique for tabulation of chemical kinetics and the OpenFOAM framework for computational fluid dynamics. The configuration is characterized by an off-center nozzle having an inner diameter of 10 mm, feeding a lean methane-air mixture with an equivalence ratio of 0.71 and mean velocity of 90 m/s, at 573 K and atmospheric pressure. Conductive heat loss is accounted for in the manifold via burner-stabilized flamelets and the subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence-chemistry interaction is modeled via presumed filtered density functions. The effects of heat loss inclusion as well as SGS modeling for both the SGS stresses and SGS variance of progress variable on the numerical predictions are all systematically investigated. Comparisons between numerical results and measured data show a considerable improvement in the prediction of temperature when heat losses are incorporated into the manifold, as compared to the adiabatic one. In addition, further improvements in the LES predictions are achieved by employing SGS models based on transport equations.

  6. Life cycle biological efficiency of mice divergently selected for heat loss.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, A S; Nielsen, M K

    2014-08-01

    Divergent selection in mice for heat loss was conducted in 3 independent replicates creating a high maintenance, high heat loss (MH) and low maintenance, low heat loss (ML) line and unselected control (MC). Improvement in feed efficiency was observed in ML mice due to a reduced maintenance energy requirement but there was also a slight decline in reproductive performance, survivability, and lean content, particularly when compared to MC animals. The objective of this study was to model a life cycle scenario similar to a livestock production system and calculate total inputs and outputs to estimate overall biological efficiency of these lines and determine if reduced feed intake resulted in improved life cycle efficiency. Feed intake, reproductive performance, growth, and body composition were recorded on 21 mating pairs from each line × replicate combination, cohabitated at 7 wk of age and maintained for up to 1 yr unless culled. Proportion of animals at each parity was calculated from survival rates estimated from previous research when enforcing a maximum of 4, 8, or 12 allowed parities. This parity distribution was then combined with values from previous studies to calculate inputs and outputs of mating pairs and offspring produced in a single cycle at equilibrium. Offspring output was defined as kilograms of lean output of offspring at 49 d. Offspring input was defined as megacalories of energy intake for growing offspring from 21 to 49 d. Parent output was defined as kilograms of lean output of culled parents. Parent input was defined as megacalories of energy intake for mating pairs from weaning of one parity to weaning of the next. Offspring output was greatest in MC mice due to superior BW and numbers weaned, while output was lowest in ML mice due to smaller litter sizes and lean content. Parent output did not differ substantially between lines but was greatest in MH mice due to poorer survival rates resulting in more culled animals. Input was greatest in

  7. Thermal-hydraulic processes involved in loss of residual heat removal during reduced inventory operation

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, C.D.; McHugh, P.R.; Naff, S.A.; Johnsen, G.W.

    1991-02-01

    This paper identifies the topics needed to understand pressurized water reactor response to an extended loss of residual heat removal event during refueling and maintenance outages. By identifying the possible plant conditions and cooling methods that would be used for each cooling mode, the controlling thermal-hydraulic processes and phenomena were identified. Controlling processes and phenomena include: gravity drain, core water boil-off, and reflux cooling processes. Important subcategories of the reflux cooling processes include: the initiation of reflux cooling from various plant conditions, the effects of air on reflux cooling, core level depression effects, issues regarding the steam generator secondaries, and the special case of boiler-condenser cooling with once-through steam generators. 25 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Comparative study of beam losses and heat loads reduction methods in MITICA beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Sartori, E. Agostinetti, P.; Dal Bello, S.; Marcuzzi, D.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P.; Sonato, P.

    2014-02-15

    In negative ion electrostatic accelerators a considerable fraction of extracted ions is lost by collision processes causing efficiency loss and heat deposition over the components. Stripping is proportional to the local density of gas, which is steadily injected in the plasma source; its pumping from the extraction and acceleration stages is a key functionality for the prototype of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector, and it can be simulated with the 3D code AVOCADO. Different geometric solutions were tested aiming at the reduction of the gas density. The parameter space considered is limited by constraints given by optics, aiming, voltage holding, beam uniformity, and mechanical feasibility. The guidelines of the optimization process are presented together with the proposed solutions and the results of numerical simulations.

  9. Comparative study of beam losses and heat loads reduction methods in MITICA beam source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, E.; Agostinetti, P.; Dal Bello, S.; Marcuzzi, D.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Veltri, P.

    2014-02-01

    In negative ion electrostatic accelerators a considerable fraction of extracted ions is lost by collision processes causing efficiency loss and heat deposition over the components. Stripping is proportional to the local density of gas, which is steadily injected in the plasma source; its pumping from the extraction and acceleration stages is a key functionality for the prototype of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector, and it can be simulated with the 3D code AVOCADO. Different geometric solutions were tested aiming at the reduction of the gas density. The parameter space considered is limited by constraints given by optics, aiming, voltage holding, beam uniformity, and mechanical feasibility. The guidelines of the optimization process are presented together with the proposed solutions and the results of numerical simulations.

  10. Comparative study of beam losses and heat loads reduction methods in MITICA beam source.

    PubMed

    Sartori, E; Agostinetti, P; Dal Bello, S; Marcuzzi, D; Serianni, G; Sonato, P; Veltri, P

    2014-02-01

    In negative ion electrostatic accelerators a considerable fraction of extracted ions is lost by collision processes causing efficiency loss and heat deposition over the components. Stripping is proportional to the local density of gas, which is steadily injected in the plasma source; its pumping from the extraction and acceleration stages is a key functionality for the prototype of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector, and it can be simulated with the 3D code AVOCADO. Different geometric solutions were tested aiming at the reduction of the gas density. The parameter space considered is limited by constraints given by optics, aiming, voltage holding, beam uniformity, and mechanical feasibility. The guidelines of the optimization process are presented together with the proposed solutions and the results of numerical simulations.

  11. Radiative Heat Loss Measurements During Microgravity Droplet Combustion in a Slow Convective Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Michael C.; Kaib, Nathan; Easton, John; Nayagam, Vedha; Williams, Forman A.

    2003-01-01

    Radiative heat loss from burning droplets in a slow convective flow under microgravity conditions is measured using a broad-band (0.6 to 40 microns) radiometer. In addition, backlit images of the droplet as well as color images of the flame were obtained using CCD cameras to estimate the burning rates and the flame dimensions, respectively. Tests were carried out in air at atmospheric pressure using n-heptane and methanol fuels with imposed forced flow velocities varied from 0 to 10 centimeters per second and initial droplet diameters varied from 1 to 3 millimeters. Slow convective flows were generated using three different experimental configurations in three different facilities in preparation for the proposed International Space Station droplet experiments. In the 2.2 Second Drop-Tower Facility a droplet supported on the leading edge of a quartz fiber is placed within a flow tunnel supplied by compressed air. In the Zero-Gravity Facility (five-second drop tower) a tethered droplet is translated in a quiescent ambient atmosphere to establish a uniform flow field around the droplet. In the KC 135 aircraft an electric fan was used to draw a uniform flow past a tethered droplet. Experimental results show that the burn rate increases and the overall flame size decreases with increases in forced-flow velocities over the range of flow velocities and droplet sizes tested. The total radiative heat loss rate, Q(sub r), decreases as the imposed flow velocity increases with the spherically symmetric combustion having the highest values. These observations are in contrast to the trends observed for gas-jet flames in microgravity, but consistent with the observations during flame spread over solid fuels where the burning rate is coupled to the forced flow as here.

  12. Effects of encapsulated niacin on evaporative heat loss and body temperature in moderately heat-stressed lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Zimbelman, R B; Baumgard, L H; Collier, R J

    2010-06-01

    Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (145+/-9 d in milk) were randomly assigned to receive either 0 g/d of encapsulated niacin (control diet; C) or 12 g/d of encapsulated niacin (NI) and were exposed to thermoneutral (TN; 7 d) or heat stress (HS; 7 d) conditions in climate-controlled chambers. The temperature-humidity index during TN conditions never exceeded 72, whereas HS conditions consisted of a circadian temperature range in which the temperature-humidity index exceeded 72 for 12 h/d. Measures of thermal status obtained 4 times/d included respiration rate (RR); rectal temperature; surface temperature of both shaved and unshaved areas at the rump, shoulder, and tail head; vaginal temperature; and evaporative heat loss (EVHL) of the shoulder shaved and unshaved areas. Cows fed NI had increased free plasma niacin concentrations in both the TN and HS periods (1.70 vs. 1.47+/-0.17 microg/mL). Milk yield did not differ between dietary groups or periods. Dry matter intake was not affected by NI, but decreased (3%) for both C and NI treatments during HS. Water intake was increased during HS in both treatments (C: 40.4 vs. 57.7+/-0.8L/d for TN and HS, respectively; NI: 52.7 vs. 57.7+/-0.8 L/d for TN and HS, respectively). Average EVHL for shaved and unshaved skin for C and NI treatments was higher during HS (90.1 vs. 108.1 g/m(2) per hour) than TN (20.7 vs. 15.7+/-4.9 g/m(2) per hour). Between 1000 and 1600 h, mean EVHL for shaved and unshaved areas for NI fed cows was higher than for C fed cows (106.9 vs. 94.4+/-4.9 g/m(2) per hour). The NI fed cows had decreased rectal temperatures during HS compared with the C fed cows (38.17 vs. 38.34+/-0.07 degrees C) and had lower vaginal temperatures (38.0 vs. 38.4+/-0.02 degrees C). Calculated metabolic rate decreased during HS regardless of diet (50.25 and 49.70+/-0.48 kcal/kg of body weight per day for TN and HS, respectively). Feeding NI increased free plasma NI levels, increased EVHL during peak thermal load, and was associated

  13. Heat losses and 3D diffusion phenomena for defect sizing procedures in video pulse thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, N.; Teruzzi, P.

    2002-06-01

    Dynamical thermographic techniques like video pulse thermography are very useful for the non-destructive testing of structural components. In literature different models were proposed, which allow to describe the time evolution of the thermal contrast for materials with sub-superficial defects. In the case of circular defect the time evolution of the full width half maximum (FWHM) of the thermal contrast was studied both theoretically and experimentally. Nevertheless a mismatch in defect sizing between experimental results and theoretical simulations was found. Possible explanations of this disagreement was analysed. A factor widely neglected is the heat loss (radiation and convection). In this paper a theoretical analysis of the influence of these contributions is reported. Furthermore in order to explain the experimental evidence of FWHM time evolution we introduced a correction due to lateral heat diffusion around the defect. In this way a possible explanation for the experimental results was obtained. Brick samples with a circular flat bottom hole as defect was tested both for the interest in defect sizing in building material through NDT and for the low thermal diffusivity of this material which allows the study of the phenomenon in a slow motion.

  14. Heat loss regulation: role of appendages and torso in the deer mouse and the white rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, K.E.; Porter, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    Thermal conductance was subdivided into the component conductances of the appendages and torso using a heat transfer analysis for the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, and the white rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus. The authors analysis was based on laboratory measurements of skin temperature and respiratory gas exchange made between air temperatures of 8 and 34/sup 0/C for the deer mouse, and from published data for the white rabbit. Two series conductances to heat transfer for each appendage and torso were evaluated: (1) internal (h/sub in/), for blood flow and tissue conduction to the skin surface, and (2) external (h/sub ex/), for heat loss from the skin surface to the environment. These two series conductances were represented in a single, total conductance (h/sub tot/). The limit to h/sub tot/ was set by h/sub ex/ and was reached by the torso h/sub tot/ of both animals. The increase in torso h/sub tot/ observed with air temperature for the mouse suggests that a pilomotor change in fur depth occurred. A control of h/sub tot/ below the limit set by h/sub ex/ was achieved by the h/sub in/ of each appendage. Elevation of mouse thermal conductance (C) resulted from increases in feet, tail, and torso h/sub tot/. In contrast, the rabbit showed no change in torso h/sub tot/ between 5 and 30/sup 0/C and ear h/sub tot/ exclusively increased C over these air temperatures. They suggest that the hyperthermia reported for the rabbit at 35/sup 0/C resulted from C reaching the physical limit set by torso and near h/sub ex/. Thus the ear alone adjusted rabbit C, whereas the feet, tail, and the torso contributed to the adjustment of mouse C.

  15. Taking on the Heat--A Narrative Account of How Infrared Cameras Invite Instant Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Jesper; Jeppsson, Fredrik; Schönborn, Konrad J.

    2016-01-01

    Integration of technology, social learning and scientific models offers pedagogical opportunities for science education. A particularly interesting area is thermal science, where students often struggle with abstract concepts, such as heat. In taking on this conceptual obstacle, we explore how hand-held infrared (IR) visualization technology can…

  16. Analytic corrections to CFD heating predictions accounting for changes in surface catalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Inger, George R.

    1996-01-01

    Integral boundary-layer solution techniques applicable to the problem of determining aerodynamic heating rates of hypersonic vehicles in the vicinity of stagnation points and windward centerlines are briefly summarized. A new approach for combining the insight afforded by integral boundary-layer analysis with comprehensive (but time intensive) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flowfield solutions of the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations is described. The approach extracts CFD derived quantities at the wall and at the boundary layer edge for inclusion in a post-processing boundary-layer analysis. It allows a designer at a workstation to address two questions, given a single CFD solution. (1) How much does the heating change for a thermal protection system with different catalytic properties than was used in the original CFD solution? (2) How does the heating change at the interface of two different TPS materials with an abrupt change in catalytic efficiency? The answer to the second question is particularly important, because abrupt changes from low to high catalytic efficiency can lead to localized increase in heating which exceeds the usually conservative estimate provided by a fully catalytic wall assumption.

  17. Method to calculate soil heat flux that accounts for sunlit and shaded soil beneath row crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil heat flux (G) is a component of the soil-plant-atmosphere energy balance, and can have significant impact on evapotranspiration (ET), especially for incomplete canopies. Most ET models calculate G as a fraction of net radiation (Rn), which is usually suitable for full canopy cover and spatial s...

  18. On the Influence of a Fuel Side Heat-Loss (Soot) Layer on a Planar Diffusion Flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichman, Indrek S.

    1994-01-01

    A model of the response of a diffusion flame (DF) to an adjacent heat loss or 'soot' layer on the fuel side is investigated. The thermal influence of the 'soot' or heat-loss layer on the DF occurs through the enthalpy sink it creates. A sink distribution in mixture-fraction space is employed to examine possible DF extinction. It is found that (1) the enthalpy sink (or soot layer) must touch the DF for radiation-induced quenching to occur; and (2) for fuel-rich conditions extinction is possible only for a progressively narrower range of values ot the characteristic heat-loss parameter, N(sub R)(Delta Z(sub R)) Various interpretations ot the model are discussed. An attempt is made to place this work into the context created by previous experimental and computational studies.

  19. Heat-current correlation loss induced by finite-size effects in a one-dimensional nonlinear lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Xu, Lubo; Zhao, Huizhu

    2015-01-01

    The Green-Kubo formula provides a mathematical expression for heat conductivity in terms of integrals of the heat-current correlation function, which should be calculated in the thermodynamic limit. In finite systems this function generally decreases, i.e., it decays faster than it does in infinite systems. We compared the values of the correlation function in a one-dimensional purely quartic lattice with various lengths, and found that this loss is much smaller than is conventionally estimated. By studying the heat diffusion process in this lattice, we found that, in contrast to the conventional belief, the collisions between sound modes do not noticeably affect the current correlation function. Therefore, its loss being surprisingly small can be well understood. This finding allows one to calculate the heat conductivity in a very large system with desirable accuracy by performing simulations in a system with much smaller size, and thus greatly broadens the application of the Green-Kubo method.

  20. Analytic Corrections to CFD Heating Predictions Accounting for Changes in Surface Catalysis. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Inger, George R.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach for combining the insight afforded by integral boundary-layer analysis with comprehensive (but time intensive) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flowfield solutions of the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations is described. The approach extracts CFD derived quantities at the wall and at the boundary layer edge for inclusion in a post-processing boundary-layer analysis. It allows a designer at a work-station to address two questions, given a single CFD solution. (1) How much does the heating change for a thermal protection system (TPS) with different catalytic properties than was used in the original CFD solution? (2) How does the heating change at the interface of two different TPS materials with an abrupt change in catalytic efficiency? The answer to the second question is particularly important, because abrupt changes from low to high catalytic efficiency can lead to localized increase in heating which exceeds the usually conservative estimate provided by a fully catalytic wall assumption. Capabilities of this approach for application to Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) design are demonstrated. If the definition of surface catalysis is uncertain early in the design process, results show that fully catalytic wall boundary conditions provide the best baseline for CFD design points.

  1. Latent heat loss and sweat gland histology of male goats in an equatorial semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo Costa, Cíntia Carol; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Neto, José Domingues Fontenele; Oliveira, Steffan Edward Octávio; de Queiroz, João Paulo Araújo Fernandes

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this work was to quantify the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation of goats in an equatorial semi-arid environment. The latent heat loss from the body surfaces of these ten undefined breed goats was measured using a ventilated capsule in sun and shade and in the three body regions (neck, flank and hindquarters). Skin samples from these three regions were histologically analyzed to relate the quantity of sweat glands, the area of sweat glands and the epithelium thickness of each of these regions to the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation of the examined goats. The epithelium thickness that was measured varied significantly for body regions with different quantities and areas of sweat glands ( P < 0.01). Among the body regions that were examined, the samples from the neck demonstrated the highest epithelium thickness (16.23 ± 0.13 μm). However, the samples of sweat glands from the flank had the biggest area (43330.51 ± 778.71 μm2) and quantity per square centimeter (390 ± 9 cm-2). After the animals were exposed to sun, the flanks lost the greatest amount of heat by cutaneous evaporation (73.03 ± 1.75 W m-2) and possessed the highest surface temperatures (39.47 ± 0.18 °C). The histological characteristics may have influenced the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation that was observed in the flank region after the animals were exposed to sun.

  2. Route Planning and Estimate of Heat Loss of Hot Water Transportation Piping for Fuel Cell Local Energy Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Shinya; Kudo, Kazuhiko

    The method of supplying the electric power and heat energy for the energy demand of buildings by Centralized system type and distributed system type of fuel cell network is studied. The hot-water piping route planning program of fuel cell network was developed by using genetic algorithm based on the view of TSP ( Traveling salesman problem) . In this program, the piping route planning which minimizes the quantity of heat loss in hot-water piping can be performed. The residential section model of Sapporo city of 74 buildings was analyzed, and the quantity of heat loss from the hot-water piping of both systems was estimated. Consequently, the ratio of the quantity of heat loss of a distributed system to a centralized system was about 50% in the full year average. This program is introduced into the route planning of hot- Water piping system of the fuel cell network, and plan to reduce the quantity of heat loss in a distributed system will be made.

  3. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in MagLIF-like plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Velikovich, A. L. Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2014-12-15

    The MagLIF approach to inertial confinement fusion involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a DT plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot plasma to the cold liner is dominated by the transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter ω{sub e}τ{sub e} effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux are both shown to decrease with ω{sub e}τ{sub e} as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient, which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. This family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  4. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in magnetized liner inertial fusion-like plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2015-04-15

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) approach to inertial confinement fusion [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010); Cuneo et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 3222 (2012)] involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a deuterium-tritium plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion, and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot compressed magnetized plasma to the cold liner is dominated by transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter (ω{sub e}τ{sub e}≫1), the effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux to the liner wall are both shown to decrease with ω{sub e}τ{sub e} as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient cT/(16eB), which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. We demonstrate how this family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  5. Latent heat loss and sweat gland histology of male goats in an equatorial semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo Costa, Cíntia Carol; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Neto, José Domingues Fontenele; Oliveira, Steffan Edward Octávio; de Queiroz, João Paulo Araújo Fernandes

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this work was to quantify the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation of goats in an equatorial semi-arid environment. The latent heat loss from the body surfaces of these ten undefined breed goats was measured using a ventilated capsule in sun and shade and in the three body regions (neck, flank and hindquarters). Skin samples from these three regions were histologically analyzed to relate the quantity of sweat glands, the area of sweat glands and the epithelium thickness of each of these regions to the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation of the examined goats. The epithelium thickness that was measured varied significantly for body regions with different quantities and areas of sweat glands (P < 0.01). Among the body regions that were examined, the samples from the neck demonstrated the highest epithelium thickness (16.23 ± 0.13 μm). However, the samples of sweat glands from the flank had the biggest area (43330.51 ± 778.71 μm2) and quantity per square centimeter (390 ± 9 cm-2). After the animals were exposed to sun, the flanks lost the greatest amount of heat by cutaneous evaporation (73.03 ± 1.75 W m-2) and possessed the highest surface temperatures (39.47 ± 0.18 °C). The histological characteristics may have influenced the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation that was observed in the flank region after the animals were exposed to sun.

  6. Heating from free-free absorption and the mass-loss rate of the progenitor stars to supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Björnsson, C.-I.; Lundqvist, P. E-mail: peter@astro.su.se

    2014-06-01

    An accurate determination of the mass-loss rate of the progenitor stars to core-collapse supernovae is often limited by uncertainties pertaining to various model assumptions. It is shown that under conditions when the temperature of the circumstellar medium is set by heating due to free-free absorption, observations of the accompanying free-free optical depth allow a direct determination of the mass-loss rate from observed quantities in a rather model-independent way. The temperature is determined self-consistently, which results in a characteristic time dependence of the free-free optical depth. This can be used to distinguish free-free heating from other heating mechanisms. Since the importance of free-free heating is quite model dependent, this also makes possible several consistency checks of the deduced mass-loss rate. It is argued that the free-free absorption observed in SN 1993J is consistent with heating from free-free absorption. The deduced mass-loss rate of the progenitor star is, approximately, 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for a wind velocity of 10 km s{sup –1}.

  7. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in magnetized liner inertial fusion-like plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2015-04-01

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) approach to inertial confinement fusion [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010); Cuneo et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 3222 (2012)] involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a deuterium-tritium plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion, and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot compressed magnetized plasma to the cold liner is dominated by transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter ( ωeτe≫1 ), the effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux to the liner wall are both shown to decrease with ωeτe as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient c T /(16 e B ) , which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. We demonstrate how this family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  8. Psychophysical and cerebral responses to heat stimulation in patients with central pain, painless central sensory loss, and in healthy persons.

    PubMed

    Casey, Kenneth L; Geisser, Michael; Lorenz, Jürgen; Morrow, Thomas J; Paulson, Pamela; Minoshima, Satoshi

    2012-02-01

    Patients with central pain (CP) typically have chronic pain within an area of reduced pain and temperature sensation, suggesting an impairment of endogenous pain modulation mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that some brain structures normally activated by cutaneous heat stimulation would be hyperresponsive among patients with CP but not among patients with a central nervous system lesion causing a loss of heat or nociceptive sensation with no pain (NP). We used H(2)(15)O positron emission tomography to measure, in 15 healthy control participants, 10 NP patients, and 10 CP patients, increases in regional cerebral blood flow among volumes of interest (VOI) from the resting (no stimulus) condition during bilateral contact heat stimulation at heat detection, heat pain threshold, and heat pain tolerance levels. Both patient groups had a reduced perception of heat intensity and unpleasantness on the clinically affected side and a bilateral impairment of heat detection. Compared with the HC group, both NP and CP patients had more hyperactive and hypoactive VOI in the resting state and more hyperresponsive and hyporesponsive VOI during heat stimulation. Compared with NP patients, CP patients had more hyperresponsive VOI in the intralaminar thalamus and sensory-motor cortex during heat stimulation. Our results show that focal CNS lesions produce bilateral sensory deficits and widespread changes in the nociceptive excitability of the brain. The increased nociceptive excitability within the intralaminar thalamus and sensory-motor cortex of our sample of CP patients suggests an underlying pathophysiology for the pain in some central pain syndromes.

  9. HCN2 channels account for mechanical (but not heat) hyperalgesia during long-standing inflammation.

    PubMed

    Schnorr, Sabine; Eberhardt, Mirjam; Kistner, Katrin; Rajab, Hamsa; Käßer, Johannes; Hess, Andreas; Reeh, Peter; Ludwig, Andreas; Herrmann, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    There is emerging evidence that hyperpolarization-activated cation (HCN) channels are involved in the development of pathological pain, including allodynia and hyperalgesia. Mice lacking the HCN isoform 2 display reduced heat but unchanged mechanical pain behavior, as recently shown in preclinical models of acute inflammatory pain. However, the impact of HCN2 to chronic pain conditions is less clear and has not been examined so far. In this report, we study the role of HCN2 in the complete Freund's adjuvant inflammation model reflecting chronic pain conditions. We used sensory neuron-specific as well as inducible global HCN2 mutants analyzing pain behavior in persistent inflammation and complemented this by region-specific administration of an HCN channel blocker. Our results demonstrate that the absence of HCN2 in primary sensory neurons reduces tactile hypersensitivity in chronic inflammatory conditions but leaves heat hypersensitivity unaffected. This result is in remarkable contrast to the recently described role of HCN2 in acute inflammatory conditions. We show that chronic inflammation results in an increased expression of HCN2 and causes sensitization in peripheral and spinal terminals of the pain transduction pathway. The contribution of HCN2 to peripheral sensitization mechanisms was further supported by single-fiber recordings from isolated skin-nerve preparations and by conduction velocity measurements of saphenous nerve preparations. Global HCN2 mutants revealed that heat hypersensitivity-unaffected in peripheral HCN2 mutants-was diminished by the additional disruption of central HCN2 channels, suggesting that thermal hyperalgesia under chronic inflammatory conditions is mediated by HCN2 channels beyond primary sensory afferents.

  10. Heat transfer properties, moisture loss, product yield, and soluble proteins in chicken breast patties during air convection cooking.

    PubMed

    Murphy, R Y; Johnson, E R; Duncan, L K; Clausen, E C; Davis, M D; March, J A

    2001-04-01

    Chicken breast patties were processed in an air convection oven at air temperatures of 149 to 218 C, air velocities of 7.1 to 12.7 m3/min, and air relative humidities of 40 to 95%. The air humidity was controlled via introducing steam into the oven. The patties were processed to a final center temperature of 50 to 80 C. Heat flux, heat transfer coefficient, moisture loss in the cooked chicken patties, the product yield, and the changes of soluble proteins in the product were evaluated for the cooking system. During cooking, heat flux varied with the processing time. Heat flux increased with increasing air humidity. The effective heat transfer coefficient was obtained for different cooking conditions. Air humidity in the oven affected the heat transfer coefficient. The moisture loss in the cooked products increased with increasing the final product temperature and the oven air temperature. The soluble proteins in the cooked patties decreased with increasing the final product temperature. Increasing humidity increased heat transfer coefficient and therefore reduced cooking time. Reducing oven temperature, reducing internal temperature, and increasing air humidity increased the product yield. Soluble proteins might be used as an indicator for the degree of cooking. The results from this study are important for evaluating commercial thermal processes and improving product yields.

  11. Analysis of the Pipe Heat Loss of the Water Flow Calorimetry System in EAST Neutral Beam Injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chundong; Chen, Yu; Xu, Yongjian; Yu, Ling; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Weitang

    2016-11-01

    Neutral beam injection heating is one of the main auxiliary heating methods in controllable nuclear fusion research. In the EAST neutral beam injector, a water flow calorimetry (WFC) system is applied to measure the heat load on the electrode system of the ion source and the heat loading components of the beamline. Due to the heat loss in the return water pipe, there are some measuring errors for the current WFC system. In this paper, the errors were measured experimentally and analyzed theoretically, which lay a basis for the exact calculation of beam power deposition distribution and neutralization efficiency. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2013GB101001) and the International Science & Technology Cooperation Program of China (No. 2014DFG61950)

  12. Genome duplication and gene loss affect the evolution of heat shock transcription factor genes in legumes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yongxiang; Cheng, Ying; Jin, Jing; Jin, Xiaolei; Jiang, Haiyang; Yan, Hanwei; Cheng, Beijiu

    2014-01-01

    Whole-genome duplication events (polyploidy events) and gene loss events have played important roles in the evolution of legumes. Here we show that the vast majority of Hsf gene duplications resulted from whole genome duplication events rather than tandem duplication, and significant differences in gene retention exist between species. By searching for intraspecies gene colinearity (microsynteny) and dating the age distributions of duplicated genes, we found that genome duplications accounted for 42 of 46 Hsf-containing segments in Glycine max, while paired segments were rarely identified in Lotus japonicas, Medicago truncatula and Cajanus cajan. However, by comparing interspecies microsynteny, we determined that the great majority of Hsf-containing segments in Lotus japonicas, Medicago truncatula and Cajanus cajan show extensive conservation with the duplicated regions of Glycine max. These segments formed 17 groups of orthologous segments. These results suggest that these regions shared ancient genome duplication with Hsf genes in Glycine max, but more than half of the copies of these genes were lost. On the other hand, the Glycine max Hsf gene family retained approximately 75% and 84% of duplicated genes produced from the ancient genome duplication and recent Glycine-specific genome duplication, respectively. Continuous purifying selection has played a key role in the maintenance of Hsf genes in Glycine max. Expression analysis of the Hsf genes in Lotus japonicus revealed their putative involvement in multiple tissue-/developmental stages and responses to various abiotic stimuli. This study traces the evolution of Hsf genes in legume species and demonstrates that the rates of gene gain and loss are far from equilibrium in different species.

  13. A method to determine stratification efficiency of thermal energy storage processes independently from storage heat losses

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, Michel Y.; Streicher, Wolfgang; Bales, Chris

    2010-06-15

    A new method for the calculation of a stratification efficiency of thermal energy storages based on the second law of thermodynamics is presented. The biasing influence of heat losses is studied theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically, it does not make a difference if the stratification efficiency is calculated based on entropy balances or based on exergy balances. In practice, however, exergy balances are less affected by measurement uncertainties, whereas entropy balances can not be recommended if measurement uncertainties are not corrected in a way that the energy balance of the storage process is in agreement with the first law of thermodynamics. A comparison of the stratification efficiencies obtained from experimental results of charging, standby, and discharging processes gives meaningful insights into the different mixing behaviors of a storage tank that is charged and discharged directly, and a tank-in-tank system whose outer tank is charged and the inner tank is discharged thereafter. The new method has a great potential for the comparison of the stratification efficiencies of thermal energy storages and storage components such as stratifying devices. (author)

  14. Description and User Manual for a Web-Based Interface to a Transit-Loss Accounting Program for Monument and Fountain Creeks, El Paso and Pueblo Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Krammes, Gary S.; Beal, Vivian J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs Utilities, the Colorado Water Conservation Board, and the El Paso County Water Authority, began a study in 2004 with the following objectives: (1) Apply a stream-aquifer model to Monument Creek, (2) use the results of the modeling to develop a transit-loss accounting program for Monument Creek, (3) revise an existing accounting program for Fountain Creek to easily incorporate ongoing and future changes in management of return flows of reusable water, and (4) integrate the two accounting programs into a single program and develop a Web-based interface to the integrated program that incorporates simple and reliable data entry that is automated to the fullest extent possible. This report describes the results of completing objectives (2), (3), and (4) of that study. The accounting program for Monument Creek was developed first by (1) using the existing accounting program for Fountain Creek as a prototype, (2) incorporating the transit-loss results from a stream-aquifer modeling analysis of Monument Creek, and (3) developing new output reports. The capabilities of the existing accounting program for Fountain Creek then were incorporated into the program for Monument Creek and the output reports were expanded to include Fountain Creek. A Web-based interface to the new transit-loss accounting program then was developed that provided automated data entry. An integrated system of 34 nodes and 33 subreaches was integrated by combining the independent node and subreach systems used in the previously completed stream-aquifer modeling studies for the Monument and Fountain Creek reaches. Important operational criteria that were implemented in the new transit-loss accounting program for Monument and Fountain Creeks included the following: (1) Retain all the reusable water-management capabilities incorporated into the existing accounting program for Fountain Creek; (2) enable daily accounting and transit-loss

  15. As-operated heat loss coefficients of residential buildings in the Pacific Northwest: An analysis of empirical space-heating energy data

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, R.G.; Pratt, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Previous research of residential electrical space-heating data has revealed that the heat loss coefficients obtained from empirical data ( as-operated'' UAs) are, on average, about 25% below the UA calculated from the shell construction of each building. This as-operated UA is obtained from a linear regression of the measured space-heating energy consumption versus the inside-outside temperature difference. This finding indicates that simple steady-state calculation techniques for heating energy consumption utilizing only UAs may be inaccurate in estimating annual consumption. The purpose of this research was to study how climate, construction, and occupant variables may affect the as-operated UA and, therefore, the annual heating energy consumption. Specifically, the goal is to gain a greater understanding of how and why the as-operated UA differs from the construction-based nameplate UA. Multiple seasons of daily heating data from 131 occupied single-family residential sues were analyzed. A multiple linear regression was used to generate a model that utilizes the construction-based UAs and other characteristics of individual residences to predict an as-operated UA that better estimates annual heating energy.

  16. As-operated heat loss coefficients of residential buildings in the Pacific Northwest: An analysis of empirical space-heating energy data

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, R.G.; Pratt, R.G.

    1992-12-31

    Previous research of residential electrical space-heating data has revealed that the heat loss coefficients obtained from empirical data (``as-operated`` UAs) are, on average, about 25% below the UA calculated from the shell construction of each building. This as-operated UA is obtained from a linear regression of the measured space-heating energy consumption versus the inside-outside temperature difference. This finding indicates that simple steady-state calculation techniques for heating energy consumption utilizing only UAs may be inaccurate in estimating annual consumption. The purpose of this research was to study how climate, construction, and occupant variables may affect the as-operated UA and, therefore, the annual heating energy consumption. Specifically, the goal is to gain a greater understanding of how and why the as-operated UA differs from the construction-based nameplate UA. Multiple seasons of daily heating data from 131 occupied single-family residential sues were analyzed. A multiple linear regression was used to generate a model that utilizes the construction-based UAs and other characteristics of individual residences to predict an as-operated UA that better estimates annual heating energy.

  17. Energy balance in the newborn baby: use of a manikin to estimate radiant and convective heat loss.

    PubMed

    Wheldon, A E

    1982-02-01

    Convective and radiant heat loss from a baby in an incubator were studied using a heated manikin. The mean radiant temperature of surrounding surfaces other than those vertically below the manikin was measured. The coefficients Af and hr were calculated as though this was the mean radiant temperature of the whole environment. The fraction (Af) of the body surface area which exchanged radiant energy with the surroundings increased from 0.48 for a foetal posture to 0.76 for a spreadeagle posture due to a decrease in radiant exchange between opposing body surfaces. The corresponding increase in the coefficient for heat exchange by radiation (hr) was from 3.1 to 4.9 Wm-2 K-1. The coefficient for convection (hc) increased from 4.0 to 5.4 WM-2 K-1 due to a decrease in effective body diameter as the limbs moved away from the trunk. These changes in Af, hr and hc show that posture is important in regulating heat loss from a baby. As the radiant temperature of the incubator canopy was between 2 and 4K below incubator air temperature, a baby loses more heat by radiation than by convection.

  18. Reduced reward-driven eating accounts for the impact of a mindfulness-based diet and exercise intervention on weight loss: Data from the SHINE randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mason, Ashley E; Epel, Elissa S; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Lustig, Robert H; Acree, Michael; Kristeller, Jean; Cohn, Michael; Dallman, Mary; Moran, Patricia J; Bacchetti, Peter; Laraia, Barbara; Hecht, Frederick M; Daubenmier, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Many individuals with obesity report over eating despite intentions to maintain or lose weight. Two barriers to long-term weight loss are reward-driven eating, which is characterized by a lack of control over eating, a preoccupation with food, and a lack of satiety; and psychological stress. Mindfulness training may address these barriers by promoting awareness of hunger and satiety cues, self-regulatory control, and stress reduction. We examined these two barriers as potential mediators of weight loss in the Supporting Health by Integrating Nutrition and Exercise (SHINE) randomized controlled trial, which compared the effects of a 5.5-month diet and exercise intervention with or without mindfulness training on weight loss among adults with obesity. Intention-to-treat multiple mediation models tested whether post-intervention reward-driven eating and psychological stress mediated the impact of intervention arm on weight loss at 12- and 18-months post-baseline among 194 adults with obesity (BMI: 30-45). Mindfulness (relative to control) participants had significant reductions in reward-driven eating at 6 months (post-intervention), which, in turn, predicted weight loss at 12 months. Post-intervention reward-driven eating mediated 47.1% of the total intervention arm effect on weight loss at 12 months [β = -0.06, SE(β) = 0.03, p = .030, 95% CI (-0.12, -0.01)]. This mediated effect was reduced when predicting weight loss at 18 months (p = .396), accounting for 23.0% of the total intervention effect, despite similar weight loss at 12 months. Psychological stress did not mediate the effect of intervention arm on weight loss at 12 or 18 months. In conclusion, reducing reward-driven eating, which can be achieved using a diet and exercise intervention that includes mindfulness training, may promote weight loss (clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT00960414).

  19. An investigation of the self-heating phenomenon in viscoelastic materials subjected to cyclic loadings accounting for prestress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, A. M. G.; Rade, D. A.; Lacerda, H. B.; Araújo, C. A.

    2015-06-01

    It has been demonstrated by many authors that the internal damping mechanism of the viscoelastic materials offers many possibilities for practical engineering applications. However, in traditional procedures of analysis and design of viscoelastic dampers subjected to cyclic loadings, uniform, constant temperature is generally assumed and do not take into account the self-heating phenomenon. Moreover, for viscoelastic materials subjected to dynamic loadings superimposed on static preloads, such as engine mounts, these procedures can lead to poor designs or even severe failures since the energy dissipated within the volume of the material leads to temperature rises. In this paper, a hybrid numerical-experimental investigation of effects of the static preloads on the self-heating phenomenon in viscoelastic dampers subjected to harmonic loadings is reported. After presenting the theoretical foundations, the numerical and experimental results obtained in terms of the temperature evolutions at different points within the volume of the viscoelastic material for various static preloads are compared, and the main features of the methodology are discussed.

  20. Do nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase contribute to the heat loss responses in older males exercising in the heat?

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; Paull, Gabrielle; Meade, Robert D; McGinn, Ryan; Stapleton, Jill M; Akbari, Pegah; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-07-15

    This study evaluated the separate and combined roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) in forearm sweating and cutaneous vasodilatation in older adults during intermittent exercise in the heat. Twelve healthy older (62 ± 7 years) males performed two 30 min cycling bouts at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) in the heat (35°C, 20% relative humidity). The exercise bouts were followed by 20 and 40 min of recovery, respectively. Forearm sweat rate (ventilated capsule) and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC, laser Doppler perfusion units/mean arterial pressure) were evaluated at four skin sites that were continuously perfused via intradermal microdialysis with: (1) lactated Ringer solution (Control), (2) 10 mm ketorolac (non-selective COX inhibitor), (3) 10 mm N(G) -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; non-selective NOS inhibitor) or (4) a combination of 10 mm ketorolac + 10 mm l-NAME. Sweating was not different between the four sites during either exercise bout (main effect P = 0.92) (average of last 5 min of second exercise, Control, 0.80 ± 0.06; ketorolac, 0.77 ± 0.09; l-NAME, 0.74 ± 0.07; ketorolac + l-NAME, 0.77 ± 0.09 mg min(-1) cm(-2) ). During both exercise bouts, relative to CVC evaluated at the Control site (average of last 5 min of second exercise, 69 ± 6%max), CVC was similar at the ketorolac site (P = 0.62; 66 ± 4%max) whereas it was attenuated to a similar extent at both the l-NAME (49 ± 8%max) and ketorolac + l-NAME (54 ± 8%max) sites (both P < 0.05). Thus, we demonstrate that NOS and COX are not functionally involved in forearm sweating whereas only NOS contributes to forearm cutaneous vasodilatation in older adults during intermittent exercise in the heat.

  1. A methodology for evaluating and reducing rotor losses, heating, and operational limitations of high-speed flywheel batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Mark Matthew

    Flywheel batteries are machines that store kinetic energy in the form of a rotating flywheel. Energy is transferred to and from the flywheel via a motor-generator mounted on the flywheel rotor. For mobile systems in particular, it is important to maximize the stored energy while minimizing the mass and volume of the flywheel battery. This requirement leads to the use of high rotational speeds which in turn necessitates the use of composite materials for flywheel construction, magnetic bearings for reduced wear and friction losses, and a low pressure environment to reduce windage losses. With the flywheel rotor suspended on magnetic bearings and operating in a partial vacuum, radiation becomes the primary heat transfer mode for removing losses incurred on the rotor. Radiative heat transfer from the rotor to the flywheel battery housing is limited by the relatively low maximum allowable temperature of the composite materials and the permanent magnets which are often used in the motor-generator. In order to ensure the feasibility of a high-speed flywheel battery design it then becomes paramount to properly manage the total rotor losses as well as the heat removal strategy. This dissertation develops a methodology for accurately modeling the components of rotor heating in high-speed flywheel batteries with a focus on mobile systems employing an integrated design whereby the motor-generator is integrated with the flywheel into a common vacuum housing. The methodology makes it possible to reduce losses through design, construction, and operation so that high-speed flywheel batteries made with temperature sensitive components such as permanent magnets and composite materials can be operated without serious overheating. The rotor loss origins are investigated with respect to windage, magnetic bearing, and motor-generator sources in general, and with specific regard to a metropolitan transit bus flywheel battery system developed by the University of Texas Center for

  2. The effect of plasma osmolality and baroreceptor loading status on postexercise heat loss responses.

    PubMed

    Paull, Gabrielle; Dervis, Sheila; Barrera-Ramirez, Juliana; McGinn, Ryan; Haqani, Baies; Flouris, Andreas D; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-03-15

    We examined the separate and combined effects of plasma osmolality and baroreceptor loading status on postexercise heat loss responses. Nine young males completed a 45-min treadmill exercise protocol at 58 ± 2% V̇o2 peak, followed by a 60-min recovery. On separate days, participants received 0.9% NaCl (ISO), 3.0% NaCl (HYP), or no infusion (natural recovery) throughout exercise. In two additional sessions (no infusion), lower-body negative (LBNP) or positive (LBPP) pressure was applied throughout the final 45 min of recovery. Local sweat rate (LSR; ventilated capsule: chest, forearm, upper back, forehead) and skin blood flow (SkBF; laser-Doppler flowmetry: forearm, upper back) were continuously measured. During HYP, upper back LSR was attenuated from end-exercise to 10 min of recovery by ∼0.35 ± 0.10 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2) and during the last 20 min of recovery by ∼0.13 ± 0.03 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2), while chest LSR was lower by 0.18 ± 0.06 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2) at 50 min of recovery compared with natural recovery (all P < 0.05). Forearm and forehead LSRs were not affected by plasma hyperosmolality during HYP (all P > 0.28), which suggests regional differences in the osmotic modulation of postexercise LSR. Furthermore, LBPP application attenuated LSR by ∼0.07-0.28 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2) during the last 30 min of recovery at all sites except the forehead compared with natural recovery (all P < 0.05). Relative to natural recovery, forearm and upper back SkBF were elevated during LBPP, ISO, and HYP by ∼6-10% by the end of recovery (all P < 0.05). We conclude that 1) hyperosmolality attenuates postexercise sweating heterogeneously among skin regions, and 2) baroreceptor loading modulates postexercise SkBF independently of changes in plasma osmolality without regional differences.

  3. Effect of heat stress on the endogenous intestinal loss of amino acids in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Morales, A; Hernández, L; Buenabad, L; Avelar, E; Bernal, H; Baumgard, L H; Cervantes, M

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) increases the death of intestinal cells in pigs, which, in turn, may elevate the endogenous intestinal loss (EIL) of proteins and AA. An experiment was conducted to analyze the effect of HS on the AA composition of intestinal endogenous proteins and the EIL of AA in pigs. Eight pigs (25.2 ± 1.2 kg initial BW) were surgically implanted with T-type cannulas at the end of the small intestine. After surgery recovery, during the subsequent 7 d, all pigs were adapted to a protein- and AA-free diet and trained to consume the same amount of feed twice a day. All pigs were housed under thermoneutral (TN) conditions (22 ± 2°C) during this time. The following day, all pigs were still under TN conditions and ileal content was collected during 12 consecutive hours, at the end of which and for the following 8 d the pigs were exposed to natural HS conditions (31 to 37°C). Ileal content was collected again on d 2 (HS at d 2 [HSd2]) and 8 (HS at d 8 [HSd8]). Body temperature (BT) was measured in another group of 8 pigs every 15 min during the whole study. The average BT at HSd2 (39.6°C) was higher ( < 0.05) compared with both TN conditions (38.6°C) and HSd8 (38.8°C), but it did not differ between TN conditions and HSd8. The AA composition of endogenous intestinal protein was not affected by HS. The EIL of Arg and His were greater ( < 0.05) and the EIL of Thr and Phe tended to be greater ( ≤ 0.10) at HSd2 than in TN conditions; the EIL of Pro was greater ( = 0.01) at HSd8. The EIL of the remaining AA was not affected by HS. Although HS increased the EIL of Arg and His within the first 2 d, it appeared that normal EIL was shortly reestablished. These data show that acute HS does not affect the AA composition of intestinal endogenous proteins in growing pigs and that the EIL of AA may not be critical in growing pigs acclimated to high ambient temperature. Nevertheless, the increased EIL of Arg and Thr at HSd2 indicate that HS might affect the integrity of the

  4. Wind-chill equations predicting whole-body heat loss for a range of typical civilian outdoor clothing ensembles.

    PubMed

    Wyon, D P

    1989-01-01

    A thermal manikin with constant skin temperature and a wind-chill tunnel with constant air temperatures and wind speeds were used to measure whole-body heat loss for seven ensembles chosen to represent the full range of civilian outdoor clothing in use for everyday, nonsporting wear. Equations fitting the data with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.99 were derived for each ensemble, and diagrams were produced with these equations to interpolate and extend the range of conditions. The conditions studied were those resulting in total heat loss from 50 to 250 W.m-2, so very little extrapolation was required. The wind-chill equivalent temperature (with reference to 2 m.s-1), based on the average value for all seven ensembles, showed good agreement on this measure. The values predicted on the basis of whole-body heat loss through clothing were shown to be much lower than those predicted from the Siple wind-chill index for unprotected skin.

  5. The Dielectric Loss Characteristic of Ice by Dielectric Heating Method for The Thawing of Foods or Biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xianglan; Shirakashi, Ryo; Nishio, Shigefumi

    The thawing of ice crystal is very important for thawing of frozen foods and cryopreserved biomaterials. It was found that an alternative current (AC) electric field may effect the thawing process of frozen foods and cryopreserved biomaterials. In the present study, the spectrum of dielectric loss of ice crystal (50Hz~1.8GHz) was measured at various temperatures(-60°C to -2°C). The experiments of heating ice crystal using electric field were done to investigate the absorption of AC electric energy, which changes with the frequency of electric field. In order to evaluate the rapidness and the uniformity of thawing quantitatively, a numerical simulation of one-dimensional heat transfer was also conducted based on the measured spectrum of the dielectric loss of ice. The results showed that AC electric field have the uniform heating effect, only when the value of the frequency multiplied by dielectric loss (fε") decreases as the temperature increases. One of the optimum frequencies for a rapid and uniform thawing was found to be at around 3MHz.

  6. Heat transfer processes during intermediate and large break loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Vojtek, I

    1986-09-01

    The general purpose of this project was the investigation of the heat transfer regimes during the high pressure portion of blowdown. The main attention has been focussed on the evaluation of those phenomena which are most important in reactor safety, such as maximum and minimum critical heat flux and forced convection film boiling heat transfer. The experimental results of the 25-rod bundle blowdown heat transfer tests, which were performed at the KWU heat transfer test facility in Karlstein, were used as a database for the verification of different correlations which are used or were developed for the analysis of reactor safety problems. The computer code BRUDI-VA was used for the calculation of local values of important thermohydraulic parameters in the bundle.

  7. Ongoing hydrothermal heat loss from the 1912 ash-flow sheet, Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogeweg, N.; Keith, T.E.C.; Colvard, E.M.; Ingebritsen, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    The June 1912 eruption of Novarupta filled nearby glacial valleys on the Alaska Peninsula with ash-flow tuff (ignimbrite), and post-eruption observations of thousands of steaming fumaroles led to the name 'Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes' (VTTS). By the late 1980s most fumarolic activity had ceased, but the discovery of thermal springs in mid-valley in 1987 suggested continued cooling of the ash-flow sheet. Data collected at the mid-valley springs between 1987 and 2001 show a statistically significant correlation between maximum observed chloride (Cl) concentration and temperature. These data also show a statistically significant decline in the maximum Cl concentration. The observed variation in stream chemistry across the sheet strongly implies that most solutes, including Cl, originate within the area of the VTTS occupied by the 1912 deposits. Numerous measurements of Cl flux in the Ukak River just below the ash-flow sheet suggest an ongoing heat loss of ???250 MW. This represents one of the largest hydrothermal heat discharges in North America. Other hydrothermal discharges of comparable magnitude are related to heat obtained from silicic magma bodies at depth, and are quasi-steady on a multidecadal time scale. However, the VTTS hydrothermal flux is not obviously related to a magma body and is clearly declining. Available data provide reasonable boundary and initial conditions for simple transient modeling. Both an analytical, conduction-only model and a numerical model predict large rates of heat loss from the sheet 90 years after deposition.

  8. Optimal planning and processing of the results of tests for hydraulic and heat losses in heat systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebneva, O. A.; Novitskii, N. N.

    2014-10-01

    The approaches and algorithms proposed in the present study form the basis of a novel technology for identifying heat systems. This technology consists in actively influencing the conditions that determine the accuracy of estimation of the actual parameters of real systems whose knowledge renders it possible to solve efficiently the problems of modernization, checkout, and centralized control. The method presupposes a sequential planning strategy: each experiment is conducted with due consideration of the data obtained after the results of the preceding one are processed. The procedure of planning the test environment, positioning the measuring equipment, conducting the experiment, and processing and analyzing its results is repeated at each step in the proposed method.

  9. Surface Area Loss and Increased Sphericity Account for the Splenic Entrapment of Subpopulations of Plasmodium falciparum Ring-Infected Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Safeukui, Innocent; Buffet, Pierre A.; Perrot, Sylvie; Sauvanet, Alain; Aussilhou, Beatrice; Dokmak, Safi; Couvelard, Anne; Hatem, Dominique Cazals; Mohandas, Narla; David, Peter H.; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Milon, Geneviève

    2013-01-01

    Ex vivo perfusion of human spleens revealed innate retention of numerous cultured Plasmodium falciparum ring-infected red blood cells (ring-iRBCs). Ring-iRBC retention was confirmed by a microsphiltration device, a microbead-based technology that mimics the mechanical filtering function of the human spleen. However, the cellular alterations underpinning this retention remain unclear. Here, we use ImageStream technology to analyze infected RBCs’ morphology and cell dimensions before and after fractionation with microsphiltration. Compared to fresh normal RBCs, the mean cell membrane surface area loss of trophozoite-iRBCs, ring-iRBCs and uninfected co-cultured RBCs (uRBCs) was 14.2% (range: 8.3–21.9%), 9.6% (7.3–12.2%) and 3.7% (0–8.4), respectively. Microsphilters retained 100%, ∼50% and 4% of trophozoite-iRBCs, ring-iRBCs and uRBCs, respectively. Retained ring-iRBCs display reduced surface area values (estimated mean, range: 17%, 15–18%), similar to the previously shown threshold of surface-deficient RBCs retention in the human spleen (surface area loss: >18%). By contrast, ring-iRBCs that successfully traversed microsphilters had minimal surface area loss and normal sphericity, suggesting that these parameters are determinants of their retention. To confirm this hypothesis, fresh normal RBCs were exposed to lysophosphatidylcholine to induce a controlled loss of surface area. This resulted in a dose-dependent retention in microsphilters, with complete retention occurring for RBCs displaying >14% surface area loss. Taken together, these data demonstrate that surface area loss and resultant increased sphericity drive ring-iRBC retention in microsphilters, and contribute to splenic entrapment of a subpopulation of ring-iRBCs. These findings trigger more interest in malaria research fields, including modeling of infection kinetics, estimation of parasite load, and analysis of risk factors for severe clinical forms. The determination of the threshold of

  10. Influence of exercise training with thigh compression on heat-loss responses.

    PubMed

    Amano, T; Inoue, Y; Koga, S; Nishiyasu, T; Kondo, N

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effect of thigh compression, which accelerates activation of central command and muscle metabo- and mechanoreceptors, on the adaptation of sweating and cutaneous vascular responses during exercise heat acclimation. Nine non-heat-acclimated male subjects were acclimated to heat (32 °C and 50% RH) while cycling [50% of maximum oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 m a x )] 60 min/day for 7 days (control group). The experimental group (n = 9) conducted the same training while the proximal thighs were compressed by a cuff at 60 mmHg. V ˙ O 2 m a x , acetylcholine-induced forearm sweating rate (iontophoresis), and mean sweating and cutaneous vascular responses on the forehead, chest, and forearm (SRmean and CVCmean ) during passive heating were evaluated before and after training. Training significantly increased V ˙ O 2 m a x while did not affect acetylcholine-induced sweating rates in either group. Training significantly decreased Tb thresholds for SRmean and CVCmean during passive heating without the alternations of sensitivities in both groups. Although SRmean during passive heating at a given ΔTb was not improved in either group, CVCmean was significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated after exercise training only in experimental group. Our results indicate that thigh cuff compression during exercise heat acclimation does not influence adaptation of the sweating response but attenuate cutaneous vasodilation.

  11. Heat loss and hypothermia in free diving: Estimation of survival time under water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilella-Arzo, Marcel; Alcaraz, Antonio; Aguilella, Vicente M.

    2003-04-01

    The heat exchange between a diver and the colder surrounding water is analyzed on the basis of the fundamental equations of thermal transport. To estimate the decrease in the diver's body temperature as a function of time, we discuss the complex interplay of several factors including the body heat production rate, the role of the diver's wet suit, and the way different heat exchange mechanisms (conduction, convection, and radiation) contribute to thermal transport. This knowledge could be useful to prevent physiological disorders that occur when the human body temperature drops below 35 °C.

  12. An Account of Preliminary Landslide Damage and Losses Resulting from the February 28, 2001, Nisqually, Washington, Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Highland, Lynn M.

    2003-01-01

    The February 28, 2001, Nisqually, Washington, earthquake (Mw = 6.8) damaged an area of the northwestern United States that previously experienced two major historical earthquakes, in 1949 and in 1965. Preliminary estimates of direct monetary losses from damage due to earthquake-induced landslides is approximately $34.3 million. However, this figure does not include costs from damages to the elevated portion of the Alaskan Way Viaduct, a major highway through downtown Seattle, Washington that will be repaired or rebuilt, depending on the future decision of local and state authorities. There is much debate as to the cause of the damage to this viaduct with evaluations of cause ranging from earthquake shaking and liquefaction to lateral spreading to a combination of these effects. If the viaduct is included in the costs, the losses increase to $500+ million (if it is repaired) or to more than $1+ billion (if it is replaced). Preliminary estimate of losses due to all causes of earthquake damage is approximately $2 billion, which includes temporary repairs to the Alaskan Way Viaduct. These preliminary dollar figures will no doubt increase when plans and decisions regarding the Viaduct are completed.

  13. Effects of biomass burning on climate, accounting for heat and moisture fluxes, black and brown carbon, and cloud absorption effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2014-07-01

    This paper examines the effects on climate and air pollution of open biomass burning (BB) when heat and moisture fluxes, gases and aerosols (including black and brown carbon, tar balls, and reflective particles), cloud absorption effects (CAEs) I and II, and aerosol semidirect and indirect effects on clouds are treated. It also examines the climate impacts of most anthropogenic heat and moisture fluxes (AHFs and AMFs). Transient 20 year simulations indicate BB may cause a net global warming of ~0.4 K because CAE I (~32% of BB warming), CAE II, semidirect effects, AHFs (~7%), AMFs, and aerosol absorption outweigh direct aerosol cooling and indirect effects, contrary to previous BB studies that did not treat CAEs, AHFs, AMFs, or brown carbon. Some BB warming can be understood in terms of the anticorrelation between instantaneous direct radiative forcing (DRF) changes and surface temperature changes in clouds containing absorbing aerosols. BB may cause ~250,000 (73,000-435,000) premature mortalities/yr, with >90% from particles. AHFs from all sources and AMFs + AHFs from power plants and electricity use each may cause a statistically significant +0.03 K global warming. Solar plus thermal-IR DRFs were +0.033 (+0.027) W/m2 for all AHFs globally without (with) evaporating cooling water, +0.009 W/m2 for AMFs globally, +0.52 W/m2 (94.3% solar) for all-source BC outside of clouds plus interstitially between cloud drops at the cloud relative humidity, and +0.06 W/m2 (99.7% solar) for BC inclusions in cloud hydrometeor particles. Modeled post-1850 biomass, biofuel, and fossil fuel burning, AHFs, AMFs, and urban surfaces accounted for most observed global warming.

  14. The early heat loss evolution of Mars and their implications for internal and environmental history.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Javier

    2014-03-11

    The time around 3.7 Ga ago was an epoch when substantial changes in Mars occurred: a substantial decline in aqueous erosion/degradation of landscape features; a change from abundant phyllosilicate formation to abundant acidic and evaporitic mineralogy; a change from olivine-rich volcanism to olivine-pyroxene volcanism; and maybe the cessation of the martian dynamo. Here I show that Mars also experienced profound changes in its internal dynamics in the same approximate time, including a reduction of heat flow and a drastic increasing of lithosphere strength. The reduction of heat flow indicates a limited cooling (or even a heating-up) of the deep interior for post-3.7 Ga times. The drastic increasing of lithosphere strength indicates a cold lithosphere above the inefficiently cooled (or even heated) interior. All those changes experienced by Mars were most probably linked and suggest the existence of profound interrelations between interior dynamics and environmental evolution of this planet.

  15. Loss of Dfg5 glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein confers enhanced heat tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nasution, Olviyani; Lee, Jaok; Srinivasa, Kavitha; Choi, In-Geol; Lee, Young Mi; Kim, Eunjung; Choi, Wonja; Kim, Wankee

    2015-08-01

    The protein product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DFG5 gene is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored plasma membrane protein and a putative glycosidase/glycosyltransferase that links other GPI-anchored proteins to β-glucans in the cell wall. Upon exposure to heat (41°C), DFG5 deletion mutant dfg5Δ displayed significantly enhanced heat tolerance as well as lowered level of reactive oxygen species and decreased membrane permeability compared with those in the control (BY4741). Comparative transcriptome profiles of BY4741 and dfg5Δ revealed that 38 and 23 genes were up- and down-regulated in dfg5Δ respectively. Of the 23 down-regulated genes, 11 of 13 viable deletion mutants were identified to be tolerant to heat, suggesting that the down-regulation of those genes might have contributed to the enhanced heat tolerance in dfg5Δ. Deletion of DFG5 caused slight activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases Hog1 in the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway and Slt2 in the cell wall integrity pathway. Therefore, a model is proposed on the signal transduction pathways associated with deletion of DFG5 upon heat stress.

  16. Theoretical modeling of time-dependent skin temperature and heat losses during whole-body cryotherapy: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Polidori, G; Marreiro, A; Pron, H; Lestriez, P; Boyer, F C; Quinart, H; Tourbah, A; Taïar, R

    2016-11-01

    This article establishes the basics of a theoretical model for the constitutive law that describes the skin temperature and thermolysis heat losses undergone by a subject during a session of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC). This study focuses on the few minutes during which the human body is subjected to a thermal shock. The relationship between skin temperature and thermolysis heat losses during this period is still unknown and have not yet been studied in the context of the whole human body. The analytical approach here is based on the hypothesis that the skin thermal shock during a WBC session can be thermally modelled by the sum of both radiative and free convective heat transfer functions. The validation of this scientific approach and the derivation of temporal evolution thermal laws, both on skin temperature and dissipated thermal power during the thermal shock open many avenues of large scale studies with the aim of proposing individualized cryotherapy protocols as well as protocols intended for target populations. Furthermore, this study shows quantitatively the substantial imbalance between human metabolism and thermolysis during WBC, the explanation of which remains an open question.

  17. The Equivalence of Dissipation from Gibbs’ Entropy Production with Phase-Volume Loss in Ergodic Heat-Conducting Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Puneet Kumar; Hoover, William Graham; Hoover, Carol Griswold; Sprott, Julien Clinton

    Gibbs’ thermodynamic entropy is given by the logarithm of the phase volume, which itself responds to heat transfer to and from thermal reservoirs. We compare the thermodynamic dissipation described by (i) phase-volume loss with (ii) heat-transfer entropy production. Their equivalence is documented for computer simulations of the response of an ergodic harmonic oscillator to thermostated temperature gradients. In the simulations one or two thermostat variables control the kinetic energy or the kinetic energy and its fluctuation. All of the motion equations are time-reversible. We consider both strong and weak control variables. In every case, the time-averaged dissipative loss of phase-space volume coincides with the entropy produced by heat transfer. Linear-response theory nicely reproduces the small-gradient results obtained by computer simulation. The thermostats considered here are ergodic and provide simple dynamical models, some of them with as few as three ordinary differential equations, while remaining capable of reproducing Gibbs’ canonical phase-space distribution and are precisely consistent with irreversible thermodynamics.

  18. Laboratory determination of frosting and defrosting losses for a high-efficiency air-source heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.A.; Ellison, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    Tests were performed to detail system and component performance data, to quantify the dynamic losses, and to seek and evaluate methods for reducing these losses. A high efficiency split-system heat pump was installed in two separate air loops, with one loop housing the indoor unit and the other housing the outdoor unit. Calculations of the heat pump's performance based on air-side measurements were within 3% of that based on refrigerant side measurements. Refrigerant flow rate was measured using a turbine flow meter. Refrigerant temperatures and pressures were measured with thermocouples and pressure transducers connected at various strategic locations in the refrigeration circuit. Electric power consumption for all motors was measured with Thermal-watt converters. Performance of the heat pump was measured under steady-state, dehumidification, and frosting-defrosting conditions with major emphasis placed on the dynamic frosting operation of the system. The study encompassed an evaluation of the system and component performance for ambient temperature levels of 8.3, 4.4, 1.7, -1.1 and -8.3/sup 0/C and for discrete humidity levels ranging from 50 to 90%.

  19. The influence of activewear worn under standard work coveralls on whole-body heat loss.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Jill M; Hardcastle, Stephen G; Kenny, Glen P

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluated the influence of activewear undergarments worn under the standard mining coveralls on whole-body heat exchange and change in body heat content during work in the heat. Each participant performed 60 min of cycling at a constant rate of heat production of 400 W followed by 60 min of recovery in a whole-body calorimeter regulated at 40°C and 15% relative humidity donning one of the four clothing ensembles: (1) cotton underwear and shorts only (Control, CON); (2) Activewear only (ACT); (3) Coveralls+Cotton undergarments (COV+COT); or (4) Coveralls+Activewear undergarments (COV+ACT). In the latter two conditions a hard hat with earmuffs, gloves, and socks with closed toe shoes were worn. We observed that both COV+COT and COV+ACT resulted in a similar mean (±SE) change in body heat content, which was significantly greater compared with the CON and ACT during exercise, suggesting that the rate of thermal strain was elevated to a similar degree in both coverall conditions (CON: 245±32 kJ; ACT: 260±29 kJ; COV+COT: 428±36 kJ; COV+ACT: 466±15 kJ; p<0.001). During recovery, the negative change in body heat content was greater for both COV+COT and COV+ACT compared with the CON and ACT but similar between COV+COT and COV+ACT due to the greater amount of heat stored during exercise (CON: -83±16 kJ; ACT: -104±33 kJ; COV+COT: -198±30 kJ; COV+ACT: -145±12 kJ; p=0.048). Core temperatures and heart rate were also significantly elevated for the COV+COT and COV+ACT compared with the CON and ACT conditions during and following exercise (p<0.05). These results suggest that while activewear undergarments are not detrimental, they provide no thermoregulatory benefit when replacing the cotton undergarment worn under the standard coverall during work in the heat.

  20. Heat waves imposed during early pod development in soybean (Glycine max) cause significant yield loss despite a rapid recovery from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Siebers, Matthew H; Yendrek, Craig R; Drag, David; Locke, Anna M; Rios Acosta, Lorena; Leakey, Andrew D B; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2015-08-01

    Heat waves already have a large impact on crops and are predicted to become more intense and more frequent in the future. In this study, heat waves were imposed on soybean using infrared heating technology in a fully open-air field experiment. Five separate heat waves were applied to field-grown soybean (Glycine max) in central Illinois, three in 2010 and two in 2011. Thirty years of historical weather data from Illinois were analyzed to determine the length and intensity of a regionally realistic heat wave resulting in experimental heat wave treatments during which day and night canopy temperatures were elevated 6 °C above ambient for 3 days. Heat waves were applied during early or late reproductive stages to determine whether and when heat waves had an impact on carbon metabolism and seed yield. By the third day of each heat wave, net photosynthesis (A), specific leaf weight (SLW), and leaf total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration (TNC) were decreased, while leaf oxidative stress was increased. However, A, SLW, TNC, and measures of oxidative stress were no different than the control ca. 12 h after the heat waves ended, indicating rapid physiological recovery from the high-temperature stress. That end of season seed yield was reduced (~10%) only when heat waves were applied during early pod developmental stages indicates the yield loss had more to do with direct impacts of the heat waves on reproductive process than on photosynthesis. Soybean was unable to mitigate yield loss after heat waves given during late reproductive stages. This study shows that short high-temperature stress events that reduce photosynthesis and increase oxidative stress resulted in significant losses to soybean production in the Midwest, U.S. The study also suggests that to mitigate heat wave-induced yield loss, soybean needs improved reproductive and photosynthetic tolerance to high but increasingly common temperatures.

  1. The early heat loss evolution of Mars and their implications for internal and environmental history

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The time around 3.7 Ga ago was an epoch when substantial changes in Mars occurred: a substantial decline in aqueous erosion/degradation of landscape features; a change from abundant phyllosilicate formation to abundant acidic and evaporitic mineralogy; a change from olivine-rich volcanism to olivine-pyroxene volcanism; and maybe the cessation of the martian dynamo. Here I show that Mars also experienced profound changes in its internal dynamics in the same approximate time, including a reduction of heat flow and a drastic increasing of lithosphere strength. The reduction of heat flow indicates a limited cooling (or even a heating-up) of the deep interior for post-3.7 Ga times. The drastic increasing of lithosphere strength indicates a cold lithosphere above the inefficiently cooled (or even heated) interior. All those changes experienced by Mars were most probably linked and suggest the existence of profound interrelations between interior dynamics and environmental evolution of this planet. PMID:24614056

  2. Heat production, respiratory quotient, and methane loss subsequent to LPS challenge in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiration calorimetry was used to measure energy utilization during an acute phase response (APR) to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Eight Angus heifers (208 +/- 29.2 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two calorimeters in four 2-day periods for measurement of heat production (HP), methane (CH4), and r...

  3. Quantification of excess water loss in plant canopies warmed with infrared heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we investigate the extent to which infrared heating used to warm plant canopies in climate manipulation experiments increases transpiration. Concerns regarding the impact of the infrared heater technique on the water balance have been raised before, but a quantification is lacking. We calculate...

  4. Study on the heat transfer of high-vacuum-multilayer-insulation tank after sudden, catastrophic loss of insulating vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, G. F.; Li, X. D.; Wang, R. S.

    2010-10-01

    One of the worst accidents that may occur in a high-vacuum-multilayer-insulation (HVMLI) cryogenic tank is a sudden, catastrophic loss of insulating vacuum (SCLIV). There is no doubt that the gases leaking into the insulation jacket have some influence on the heat transfer process of it. However, this issue has not been thoroughly studied so far. In this paper, a test rig was built up and experiments were conducted using a SCLIV cryogenic tank and with nitrogen, helium and air as the working medium, respectively. The venting rates of the tank and temperature in the insulation jacket were measured respectively after the three different gases leaking into the jacket. A heat transfer model describing the heat transfer process of a SCLIV tank was also presented. The calculated results using this model were compared against the experimental data. It is found that the heat transfer performance of the HVMLI cryogenic tank after SCLIV is strong relevant to the type of gas leaking into the insulation jacket.

  5. An Analysis of Heat Transfer after Loss of Primary Coolant in the SP-100 Reactor System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Region of Influence (RwsCN) versus Linear PowerT 0(fuel temp. 1250 K) F.15. FIXI’lI) COOLA NT ’I’MI, M’I’lAIU I•I’: (1501) R) •o I ’I,, - 5, Lil,• ow r(-l0...Transfer for Spacecraft and Solar Power Plant Design. Scranton PA: International Textbook Company, 1962. 4. Ozisik, M. Necati. Basic Heat Transfer. New

  6. Ventilation loss and pressurization in the NASA launch/entry suit: Potential for heat stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Jonathan W.; Dejneka, Katherine Y.; Askew, Gregory K.

    1989-01-01

    The potential of the NASA Launch/Entry Suit (LES) for producing heat stress in a simulated Space Shuttle cabin environment was studied. The testing was designed to identify potential heat stress hazards if the LES were pressurized or if ventilation were lost. Conditions were designed to simulate an extreme pre-launch situation with chamber temperatures maintained at dry bulb temperature = 27.2 +/- 0.1 C, globe temperature = 27.3 +/- 0.1 C, and wet bulb temperature = 21.1 +/- 0.3 C. Two females and two males, 23 to 34 years of age, were employed in this study, with two subjects having exposures in all 3 conditions. Test durations in the ventilated (V) and unventilated (UV) conditions were designed for 480 minutes, which all subjects achieved. Pressurized runs (Pr) were designed for 45 minutes, which all subjects also achieved. While some significant differences related to experimental conditions were noted in rectal and mean skin temperatures, evaporation rates, sweat rates, and heart rate, these differences were not thought to be physiologically significant. The results indicate that the LES garment, in either the Pr or UV state, poses no danger of inducing unacceptable heat stress under the conditions expected within the Space Shuttle cabin during launch or reentry.

  7. Ventilation Loss in the NASA Space Shuttle Crew Protective Garments: Potential for Heat Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askew, Gregory K.; Kaufman, Jonathan W.

    1991-01-01

    The potential of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) S1035 Launch/Entry suit (LES) for producing heat stress in a simulated Space Shuttle cabin environment has been studied. The testing was designed to determine if the NASA S1035 poses a greater threat of inducing heat stress than the NASA S1032. Conditions were designed to simulate an extreme prelaunch situation, with chamber temperatures maintained at dry bulb temperature 27.2 +/- 0.1 C, globe temperature - 27.3 +/- 0.1 C, and wet bulb temperature 21.1 +/- 0.3 C. Four males, aged 28-48, were employed in this study, with three subjects having exposures in all four conditions and the fourth subject exposed to 3 conditions. Test durations in the ventilated (V) and unventilated (UV) conditions were designed for 480 minutes, which all subjects achieved. No significant differences related to experimental conditions were noted in rectal temperatures, heart rates or sweat rates. The results indicate that the S1032 and S1035 garments, in either the V or UV state, poses no danger of inducing unacceptable heat stress under the conditions expected within the Shuttle cabin during launch or re-entry.

  8. Analysis of loss of decay-heat-removal sequences at Browns Ferry Unit One

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) report Loss of DHR Sequences at Browns Ferry Unit One - Accident Sequence Analysis (NUREG/CR-2973). The Loss of DHR investigation is the third in a series of accident studies concerning the BWR 4 - MK I containment plant design. These studies, sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) program, have been conducted at ORNL with the full cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The purpose of the SASA studies is to predetermine the probable course of postulated severe accidents so as to establish the timing and the sequence of events. The SASA studies also produce recommendations concerning the implementation of better system design and better emergency operating instructions and operator training. The ORNL studies also include a detailed, best-estimate calculation of the release and transport of radioactive fission products following postulated severe accidents.

  9. Acoustic streaming related to minor loss phenomenon in differentially heated elements of thermoacoustic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, Mikhail; Gusev, Vitalyi; Auregan, Yves; Lotton, Pierrick; Bruneau, Michel; Piatakov, Pavel

    2002-08-01

    It is demonstrated that the differentially heated stack, the heart of all thermoacoustic devices, provides a source of streaming additional to those associated with Reynolds stresses in quasi-unidirectional gas flow. This source of streaming is related to temperature-induced asymmetry in the generation of vortices and turbulence near the stack ends. The asymmetry of the hydrodynamic effects in an otherwise geometrically symmetric stack is due to the temperature difference between stack ends. The proposed mechanism of streaming excitation in annular thermoacoustic devices operates even in the absence of thermo-viscous interaction of sound waves with resonator walls. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.

  10. Compressibility and Heating Effects on Pressure Loss and Cooling of a Baffled Cylinder Barrel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Arthur W.; Ellerbrock, Herman H., Jr.

    1944-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have shown that, because air is compressible, the pressure-drop requirements for cooling an air-cooled engine will be much greater at high altitudes and high speeds than at sea level and low speeds. Tests were conducted by the NACA to obtain some experimental confirmation of the effect of air compressibility on cooling and pressure loss of a baffled cylinder barrel and to evaluate various methods of analysis. The results reported in the present paper are regarded as preliminary to tests on single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engines. Tests were conducted over a wide range of air flows and density altitudes.

  11. A Comparison of Analytically and Experimentally Determined Isothermal Pressure Losses in a Heat-Exchanger Installation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-05-01

    sponding to a mean- elbow radius/diameter ratio R/D of 1 has a value of 0.25. This Is considered to he good agreement and the loas corresponding...or B the inlet header (fig, 4(a)), It Is immediately turned through approximately 90° in an elbow having a circu- lar cross section. Following the...turn it passes through an expansion in duct area. An elbow which is followed by a straight section of duct causes a lower pressure loss than one

  12. Compressibility and Heating Effects on Pressure Loss and Cooling of a Baffled Cylinder Barrel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Arthur W; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1944-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have shown that, because air is compressible, the pressure-drop requirements for cooling an air-cooled engine will be much greater at high altitudes and high speeds than at sea level and low speeds. Tests were conducted by the NACA to obtain some experimental confirmation of the effect of air compressibility on cooling and pressure loss of a baffled cylinder barrel and to evaluate various methods of analysis. The results reported in the present paper are regarded as preliminary to tests on single-cylinder and multicylinder engines. Tests were conducted over a wide range of air flows and density altitudes.

  13. Short communication: Proteins in heat-processed skim milk powder have no positive effects on bone loss of ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Du, M; Kong, Y; Wang, C; Gao, H; Han, X; Yi, H; Zhang, L

    2011-06-01

    Milk has positive effects on bone growth. However, the effect of skim milk powder (SMP) on bone properties has not been reported. This study investigated the effect of SMP on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized and another 10 rats received a sham operation. The OVX rats were randomly separated into 4 groups: OVX control, OVX SMP1 (SMP at 0.04 g/d), OVX SMP2 (SMP at 0.20 g/d), and OVX SMP3 (SMP at 0.40 g/d). Skim milk powder was supplied in the rat diet for 12 wk, and the rats were gavaged once per day. The effects of SMP on calcium content and bone mineral density of femur were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, respectively. Compared with the control, SMP at all dose levels tested had no particular effect on weight:length, calcium content, or bone mineral density of femurs. It was demonstrated that SMP (0.04 to 0.40 g/d) had no positive effect on bone loss in OVX rats, probably because the heat treatment used during SMP processing caused a loss of biological activity in the protein.

  14. Analysis of Thermal Losses for a Variety of Single-Junction Photovoltaic Cells: An Interesting Means of Thermoelectric Heat Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzi, Bruno; Acciarri, Maurizio; Narducci, Dario

    2015-06-01

    Exploitation of solar energy conversion has become a fundamental aspect of satisfying a growing demand for energy. Thus, improvement of the efficiency of conversion in photovoltaic (PV) devices is highly desirable to further promote this source. Because it is well known that the most relevant efficiency constraint, especially for single-junction solar cells, is unused heat within the device, hybrid thermo-photovoltaic systems seem promising . Among several hybrid solutions proposed in the literature, coupling of thermoelectric and PV devices seems one of the most interesting. Taking full advantage of this technology requires proper definition and analysis of the thermal losses occurring in PV cells. In this communication we propose a novel analysis of such losses, decoupling source-dependent and absorber-dependent losses. This analysis enables an evaluation of the actual recoverable amount of energy, depending on the absorber used in the PV cell. It shows that for incoming solar irradiation of , and depending on the choice of material, the maximum available thermal power ranges from (for single-crystal silicon) to (for amorphous silicon).

  15. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zakin, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

  16. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zakin, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

  17. Review of "Feeling the Florida Heat? How Low-Performing Schools Respond to Voucher and Accountability Pressure"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betebenner, Damian W.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between high-stakes school accountability and its effects upon student test scores and school policies. The authors seek to understand the extent to which accountability sanctions and incentives for the poorest-performing schools in Florida explain subsequent changes in school practices and policies as well as…

  18. Numerical analysis of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla heat-treatment: A dynamically detecting method of mass loss during the process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zijian; Ma, Qing; Mu, Jun; Yi, Songlin; He, Zhengbin

    Eucalyptus particles, lamellas and boards were applied to explore a simply-implemented method with neglected heat and mass transfer to inspect the mass loss during the heat-treatment course. The results revealed that the mass loss of a certain period was theoretically the definite integration of loss rate to time in this period, and a monitoring model for mass loss speed was developed with the particles and validated with the lamellas and boards. The loss rate was correlated to the temperature and temperature-evolving speed in the model which was composed of three functions during different temperature-evolving period. The sample mass loss was calculated in the MATLAB for the lamellas and boards and the model was validated and adjusted based on the difference between the computed results and the practically measured loss values. The error ranges of the new models were -16.30% to 18.35% for wood lamellas and -9.86% to 6.80% for wood boards. This method made it possible to acquire the instantaneous loss value through continuously detecting the wood temperature evolution. This idea could provide a reference for the Eucalyptus heat-treatment to detect the treating course and control the final material characteristics.

  19. Thermal-hydraulic processes involved in loss of residual heat removal during reduced inventory operation. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, C.D.; McHugh, P.R.; Naff, S.A.; Johnsen, G.W.

    1991-02-01

    This paper identifies the topics needed to understand pressurized water reactor response to an extended loss of residual heat removal event during refueling and maintenance outages. By identifying the possible plant conditions and cooling methods that would be used for each cooling mode, the controlling thermal-hydraulic processes and phenomena were identified. Controlling processes and phenomena include: gravity drain, core water boil-off, and reflux cooling processes. Important subcategories of the reflux cooling processes include: the initiation of reflux cooling from various plant conditions, the effects of air on reflux cooling, core level depression effects, issues regarding the steam generator secondaries, and the special case of boiler-condenser cooling with once-through steam generators. 25 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Heat loss coefficients and effective tau-alpha products for flat-plate collectors with diathermanous covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollands, K. G. T.; Wright, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient algorithm for solving the set of nonlinear equations governing the total heat transfer across an arbitrary number of parallel flat plate solar collector covers, each of which can be partly transparent to longwave thermal radiation. The governing equations are sufficiently general to permit each cover to have asymmetric radiative properties and to account for absorption of solar energy on the individual covers. This theory is shown to be in good agreement with the approximate equations of Whillier (provided certain interpretations are placed on his quantities) and with experiments using a plastic inner cover and bounding plates of various emissivities. Using this theory, it is demonstrated that if the absorber plate has a selective surface, an inner cover transparent to long wave radiation is to be preferred over one which is opaque.

  1. Inhibition by sodium cromoglycate of bronchoconstriction stimulated by respiratory heat loss: comparison of pressurised aerosol and powder.

    PubMed Central

    Latimer, K M; Roberts, R; Morris, M M; Hargreave, F E

    1984-01-01

    The protective effect was examined of three doses (2, 10, and 20 mg) of sodium cromoglycate inhaled from a pressurised metered dose inhaler on the response to isocapnic hyperventilation of cold dry air in 10 asthmatic subjects. This was compared with the effect of cromoglycate powder (20 mg) inhaled from a Spincap and with placebo given on two occasions. The medications were inhaled on separate days, in random order and with the use of a double blind double dummy technique, 20 minutes before isocapnic hyperventilation of two fold increasing volumes of air (-15 degrees C, 0% humidity) to produce a 20% fall in the post-treatment FEV1. The response was expressed as the provocative dose of respiratory heat loss required to cause a fall in FEV1 of 15% (PD15, kcal/min). The mean baseline spirometric indices exceeded 85% of predicted normal values on each test day; both placebo treatments reduced the baseline FEV1 by comparison with all active treatments (p less than 0.0001). Comparison of the PD15 on the two placebo days confirmed excellent reproducibility. All doses of cromoglycate shifted the respiratory heat loss dose-response curve to the right of the placebo curve; PD15 after all active treatments exceeded PD15 after placebo (p less than 0.0001). There was no cromoglycate dose-response relationship between the three doses of aerosol (p greater than 0.05), or between any dose of aerosol and powder (p greater than 0.05). It is concluded that cromoglycate aerosol inhaled from a pressurised inhaler in a dose of 2 mg gives the same magnitude of protection against bronchoconstriction stimulated by airway cooling as 20 mg of pressurised aerosol or powder from a Spincap. PMID:6426073

  2. Additional double-wall roof in single-wall, closed, convective incubators: Impact on body heat loss from premature infants and optimal adjustment of the incubator air temperature.

    PubMed

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Radiant heat loss is high in low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates. Double-wall or single-wall incubators with an additional double-wall roof panel that can be removed during phototherapy are used to reduce Radiant heat loss. There are no data on how the incubators should be used when this second roof panel is removed. The aim of the study was to assess the heat exchanges in LBW neonates in a single-wall incubator with and without an additional roof panel. To determine the optimal thermoneutral incubator air temperature. Influence of the additional double-wall roof was assessed by using a thermal mannequin simulating a LBW neonate. Then, we calculated the optimal incubator air temperature from a cohort of human LBW neonate in the absence of the additional roof panel. Twenty-three LBW neonates (birth weight: 750-1800g; gestational age: 28-32 weeks) were included. With the additional roof panel, R was lower but convective and evaporative skin heat losses were greater. This difference can be overcome by increasing the incubator air temperature by 0.15-0.20°C. The benefit of an additional roof panel was cancelled out by greater body heat losses through other routes. Understanding the heat transfers between the neonate and the environment is essential for optimizing incubators.

  3. Immune-mediated responses account for the majority of production loss for grazing meat-breed lambs during Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection.

    PubMed

    Dever, M L; Kahn, L P; Doyle, E K; Walkden-Brown, S W

    2016-01-30

    The hypothesis tested in this experiment was that Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection would reduce growth rates of grazing meat-breed lambs; however production loss would be reduced by suppression of the host immune response. The experiment had a 3×2 factorial design using 6-7 month old meat-breed lambs which remained uninfected or infected (IFY) with 2000 or 4000 T. colubriformis L3/week for 12 weeks and were immunosuppressed (SUPY) using methylprednisolone acetate once weekly or remained non-immunosuppressed (SUPN). Immunosuppression increased worm egg counts (WEC) of infected lambs (SUPY 2421 eggs per gram (epg), SUPN 1154 epg on day 84, p<0.05) and T. colubriformis burdens (p<0.05-0.10) and reduced circulating eosinophils (p<0.05 on days 11, 42, 56 and 84) and intestinal total antibody titres (p<0.02). There was a significant (p<0.05) interaction between the main effects of infection and immunosuppression with infection having a larger negative effect on the liveweight of non-immunosuppressed lambs. The immunological response of the host to T. colubriformis infection accounted for 75% of the overall cost of infection (3.1kg) with the majority of this cost occurring during the first 35 days of infection. In contrast, most of the cost associated with the direct effect of infection occurred after day 35. These results confirm in grazing meat-breed lambs that the host's immunological response to T. colubriformis infection is the major component of production loss.

  4. Assessment of a 3-D boundary layer code to predict heat transfer and flow losses in a turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatsa, V. N.

    1983-01-01

    The prediction of the complete flow field in a turbine passage is an extremely difficult task due to the complex three dimensional pattern which contains separation and attachment lines, a saddle point and horseshoe vortex. Whereas, in principle such a problem can be solved using full Navier-Stokes equations, in reality methods based on a Navier-Stokes solution procedure encounter difficulty in accurately predicting surface quantities (e.g., heat transfer) due to grid limitations imposed by the speed and size of the existing computers. On the other hand the overall problem is strongly three dimensional and too complex to be analyzed by the current design methods based on inviscid and/or viscous strip theories. Thus there is a strong need for enhancing the current prediction techniques through inclusion of 3-D viscous effects. A potentially simple and cost effective way to achieve this is to use a prediction method based on three dimensional boundary layer (3-DBL) theory. The major objective of this program is to assess the applicability of such a 3-DBL approach for the prediction of heat loads, boundary layer growth, pressure losses and streamline skewing in critical areas of a turbine passage. A brief discussion of the physical problem addressed here along with the overall approach is presented.

  5. Comparison of three lines of broilers differing in ascites susceptibility or growth rate. 2. Egg weight loss, gas pressures, embryonic heat production, and physiological hormone levels.

    PubMed

    De Smit, L; Tona, K; Bruggeman, V; Onagbesan, O; Hassanzadeh, M; Arckens, L; Decuypere, E

    2005-09-01

    Ascites is a metabolic disorder that accounts for over 25% of overall mortality in the broiler industry. This disorder is manifested between wk 5 and 6 posthatch, but there are previous indications that predisposition may be identified during embryonic development. In this current study, we determined embryonic physiological and metabolic parameters that may be associated with ascites predisposition. For this purpose, we used broiler eggs from 3 lines that differed in ascites sensitivity. These included an ascites-sensitive dam line (DAS), an ascites-resistant dam line (DAR), and an ascites-sensitive sire line (SASL). Eggs were incubated for 21 d under standard conditions. The following parameters were measured during incubation: egg weights at setting, egg weight losses at 18 d, embryo body weights and embryo heart weights throughout development, air cell partial gas pressures (pCO2 and pO2) levels at d 18 and at internal pipping (IP); plasma triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and corticosterone levels at d 18, IP, and hatch; heat production from d 17 until hatch, hematocrit values at hatch, and posthatch growth rate to 7 d along with hematocrit values. The data obtained revealed that selection for ascites sensitivity or rapid growth rate had no consistent influence on some of these parameters such that they could be wholly associated with ascites sensitivity for predictive purposes. Whereas differences in embryonic developmental patterns were apparent throughout embryonic development, these differences in physiological and metabolic parameters may be due partly to genetic differences unrelated to ascites sensitivity.

  6. Latent heat loss of dairy cows in an equatorial semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; de Macedo Costa, Leonardo Lelis; de Queiroz, João Paulo A Fernandes

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate evaporative heat transfer of dairy cows bred in a hot semi-arid environment. Cutaneous (E(S)) and respiratory (E(R)) evaporation were measured (810 observations) in 177 purebred and crossbred Holstein cows from five herds located in the equatorial semi-arid region, and one herd in the subtropical region of Brazil. Rectal temperature (T(R)), hair coat surface temperature (T(S)) and respiratory rate (F(R)) were also measured. Observations were made in the subtropical region from August to December, and in the semi-arid region from April to July. Measurements were done from 1100 to 1600 hours, after cows remained in a pen exposed to the sun. Environmental variables measured in the same locations as the animals were black globe temperature (T(G)), air temperature (T(A)), wind speed (U), and partial air vapour pressure (P(V)). Data were analysed by mixed models, using the least squares method. Results showed that average E(S) and E(R) were higher in the semi-arid region (117.2 W m(-2) and 44.0 W m(-2), respectively) than in the subtropical region (85.2 W m(-2) and 30.2 W m(-2), respectively). Herds and individual cows were significant effects (P < 0.01) for all traits in the semi-arid region. Body parts did not affect T(S) and E(S) in the subtropical region, but was a significant effect (P < 0.01) in the semi-arid region. The average flank T(S) (42.8°C) was higher than that of the neck and hindquarters (39.8°C and 41.6°C, respectively). Average E(S) was higher in the neck (133.3 W m(-2)) than in the flank (116.2 W m(-2)) and hindquarters (98.6 W m(-2)). Coat colour affected significantly both T(S) and E(S) (P < 0.01). Black coats had higher T(S) and E(S) in the semi-arid region (41.7°C and 117.2 W m(-2), respectively) than white coats (37.2°C and 106.7 W m(-2), respectively). Rectal temperatures were almost the same in both subtropical and semi-arid regions. The results highlight the need for improved management methods specific

  7. Adverse shielding of the heating field and high ohmic loss introduced by electrostatic shields employed in radio-frequency heating of plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Faulconer, D.W.

    1983-07-01

    The electrostatic shields now commonly employed to shield antennas in the heating of plasma in the ion cyclotron frequency range are shown to reduce the specific radiation resistance of a long narrow antenna in the presence of plasma by a significant factor (on the order of 2/3 for a typical double-array shield) due to the effect of magnetic shielding of the magnetosonic polarization. An allied change in antenna specific inductance is also found. These effects are shown to diminish with increase in antenna width and should pose no major problem for the wide antennas projected for use in fusion experiments. In addition to the foregoing effects which are not ohmically dissipative in essence, electrostatic shields are also shown to introduce surprisingly high ohmic loss, this being of potential importance in shield design. The dependences of the above magnetic and ohmic phenomena on shield parameters are given and a shield design minimizing them is presented. Their repercussion on coupling efficiency and on the excitation voltage necessary for a given power flux from the antenna is discussed.

  8. PRECISE MEASUREMENT OF THE REIONIZATION OPTICAL DEPTH FROM THE GLOBAL 21 cm SIGNAL ACCOUNTING FOR COSMIC HEATING

    SciTech Connect

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Loeb, Abraham E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu

    2016-04-10

    As a result of our limited data on reionization, the total optical depth for electron scattering, τ, limits precision measurements of cosmological parameters from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). It was recently shown that the predicted 21 cm signal of neutral hydrogen contains enough information to reconstruct τ with sub-percent accuracy, assuming that the neutral gas was much hotter than the CMB throughout the entire epoch of reionization (EoR). Here we relax this assumption and use the global 21 cm signal alone to extract τ for realistic X-ray heating scenarios. We test our model-independent approach using mock data for a wide range of ionization and heating histories and show that an accurate measurement of the reionization optical depth at a sub-percent level is possible in most of the considered scenarios even when heating is not saturated during the EoR, assuming that the foregrounds are mitigated. However, we find that in cases where heating sources had hard X-ray spectra and their luminosity was close to or lower than what is predicted based on low-redshift observations, the global 21 cm signal alone is not a good tracer of the reionization history.

  9. Precise Measurement of the Reionization Optical Depth from the Global 21 cm Signal Accounting for Cosmic Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    As a result of our limited data on reionization, the total optical depth for electron scattering, τ, limits precision measurements of cosmological parameters from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). It was recently shown that the predicted 21 cm signal of neutral hydrogen contains enough information to reconstruct τ with sub-percent accuracy, assuming that the neutral gas was much hotter than the CMB throughout the entire epoch of reionization (EoR). Here we relax this assumption and use the global 21 cm signal alone to extract τ for realistic X-ray heating scenarios. We test our model-independent approach using mock data for a wide range of ionization and heating histories and show that an accurate measurement of the reionization optical depth at a sub-percent level is possible in most of the considered scenarios even when heating is not saturated during the EoR, assuming that the foregrounds are mitigated. However, we find that in cases where heating sources had hard X-ray spectra and their luminosity was close to or lower than what is predicted based on low-redshift observations, the global 21 cm signal alone is not a good tracer of the reionization history.

  10. [Association between single nucleotide polymorphismsin human heat shock protein 70 gene and susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Li, Y H; Chen, G S; Jiao, J; Zhou, W H; Wu, H; Gu, G Z; Zhang, H L; Zheng, Y X; Yu, S F

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at rs1043618, rs2075800, and rs2763979 in human heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene and susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) . Methods: A case-control study was performed, and 5 934 workers exposed to noise in an iron and steel plant in Henan, China, who underwent physical examination from 2006 to 2015, were enrolled as study subjects. According to the criteria of binaural average high - frequency (3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz) hearing threshold≥40 dB (HL) and monauralaverage speech-frequency (500, 1000, 2000 Hz) hearing threshold≥26 dB (HL) on the basis of binauralhigh frequency loss measured by pure tone audiometry, as well as the exclusion of NIHL, a total of 286 workers were enrolled as hearing loss group; after the adjustment for sex, type of work, age (difference≤5 years) , and working years of noise exposure (difference ≤2 years) , 286 workers were enrolled as control group. A 2 ml blood genomic DNA extraction kit was used to perform DNA extraction for the peripheral blood samples, and a multiple SNP typing kit was used to determine the genotypes at the three loci in 572 samples. The association between the SNPs at the three loci and susceptibility to NIHL was analyzed. Results: In all workers, the equivalent sound level (L(Aeq)) of noise was 75.0~96.8 dB (A) . The hearing loss group had a significantly higher binauralhigh - frequencyhearing threshold than the control group (t=56.908, P<0.05) . With CC+TC genotype as control, TT genotype at rs2763979 in HSP70 gene was associated with the susceptibility to NIHL (OR=1.731, 95%CI 1.021-2.935) . In the group with cumulative noise exposure of 96 dB (A) ·year, TT genotype at rs2763979was associated with the susceptibility to NIHL (OR=5.694, 95%CI 1.256-25.817) . The rs1043618 and rs2075800 loci of HSP70 were not associated with the susceptibility to NIHL (both P>0.05) . After the adjustment for

  11. Small heat-shock proteins and leaf cooling capacity account for the unusual heat tolerance of the central spike leaves in Agave tequilana var. Weber.

    PubMed

    Luján, Rosario; Lledías, Fernando; Martínez, Luz María; Barreto, Rita; Cassab, Gladys I; Nieto-Sotelo, Jorge

    2009-12-01

    Agaves are perennial crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants distributed in tropical and subtropical arid environments, features that are attractive for studying the heat-shock response. In agaves, the stress response can be analysed easily during leaf development, as they form a spirally shaped rosette, having the meristem surrounded by folded leaves in the centre (spike) and the unfolded and more mature leaves in the periphery. Here, we report that the spike of Agave tequilana is the most thermotolerant part of the rosette withstanding shocks of up to 55 degrees C. This finding was inconsistent with the patterns of heat-shock protein (Hsp) gene expression, as maximal accumulation of Hsp transcripts was at 44 degrees C in all sectors (spike, inner, middle and outer). However, levels of small HSP (sHSP)-CI and sHSP-CII proteins were conspicuously higher in spike leaves at all temperatures correlating with their thermotolerance. In addition, spike leaves showed a higher stomatal density and abated more efficiently their temperature several degrees below that of air. We propose that the greater capacity for leaf cooling during the day in response to heat stress, and the elevated levels of sHSPs, constitute part of a set of strategies that protect the SAM and folded leaves of A. tequilana from high temperatures.

  12. Regeneration efficiency, shuttle heat loss and thermal conductivity in epoxy-composite annualr gap regenerators from 4K to 80K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrtle, K.; Cygax, S.; Plateel, C.; Winter, C.

    1983-01-01

    A test apparatus designed to simulate a section of a Stirling cycle cryocooler was built. Measurements of regeneration efficiency, shuttle heat loss and thermal conductivity reported for several regenerator test sections. The test composites were epoxy glass, epoxy glass with lead particles, epoxy glass with activated charcoal and epoxy graphite. Losses measured for these materials were approximately the same. Losses are in good agreement with those calculated theoretically for an epoxy glass (C-10) composite. The implications of these results on cryocooler design are discussed.

  13. Effect of neutral collision and radiative heat-loss function on self-gravitational instability of viscous thermally conducting partially-ionized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kaothekar, Sachin; Soni, Ghanshyam D.; Chhajlani, Rajendra K.

    2012-12-15

    The problem of thermal instability and gravitational instability is investigated for a partially ionized self-gravitating plasma which has connection in astrophysical condensations. We use normal mode analysis method in this problem. The general dispersion relation is derived using linearized perturbation equations of the problem. Effects of collisions with neutrals, radiative heat-loss function, viscosity, thermal conductivity and magnetic field strength, on the instability of the system are discussed. The conditions of instability are derived for a temperature-dependent and density-dependent heat-loss function with thermal conductivity. Numerical calculations have been performed to discuss the effect of various physical parameters on the growth rate of the gravitational instability. The temperature-dependent heat-loss function, thermal conductivity, viscosity, magnetic field and neutral collision have stabilizing effect, while density-dependent heat-loss function has a destabilizing effect on the growth rate of the gravitational instability. With the help of Routh-Hurwitz's criterion, the stability of the system is discussed.

  14. Maximum Expected Wall Heat Flux and Maximum Pressure After Sudden Loss of Vacuum Insulation on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Liquid Helium (LHe) Dewars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K.

    2014-01-01

    The aircraft-based Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a platform for multiple infrared observation experiments. The experiments carry sensors cooled to liquid helium (LHe) temperatures. A question arose regarding the heat input and peak pressure that would result from a sudden loss of the dewar vacuum insulation. Owing to concerns about the adequacy of dewar pressure relief in the event of a sudden loss of the dewar vacuum insulation, the SOFIA Program engaged the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). This report summarizes and assesses the experiments that have been performed to measure the heat flux into LHe dewars following a sudden vacuum insulation failure, describes the physical limits of heat input to the dewar, and provides an NESC recommendation for the wall heat flux that should be used to assess the sudden loss of vacuum insulation case. This report also assesses the methodology used by the SOFIA Program to predict the maximum pressure that would occur following a loss of vacuum event.

  15. Laboratory testing of salt samples for water content/loss of weight on heating, thermal fracture, insoluble residue, and clay and bulk mineralogy: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, L.B.; Schwendiman, L.

    1987-07-01

    This report presents the results of laboratory testing on salt samples from the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle. Laboratory specimens were tested to determine water content by loss of weight on heating, temperature of thermal fracture, the amount of insoluble residue, and clay and bulk mineralogy. 7 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Calculations of the moon's heat history at different concentrations of radioactive elements taking account of the material differentiation with melting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnatskaya, O. I.; Alber, Y. I.; Ryazantseva, I. L.

    1974-01-01

    A mathematical procedure for analyzing the heat conductivity of the lunar surface is discussed. The solution is based on homogeneous and laminated moon models and considers the effects of radioactive elements conveyed to the lunar surface by melting. The various parameters which introduce uncertainties into the numerical analysis are identified. The application of data obtained from radio astronomy and from analyses of lunar samples returned by the Apollo flights is explained. Tables of data are included to show the types and amounts of radioactive materials which have been identified.

  17. A coupled numerical analysis of shield temperatures, heat losses and residual gas pressures in an evacuated super-insulation using thermal and fluid networks - Part I: Stationary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, H.

    2004-04-01

    This paper describes numerical simulations, using thermal networks, of shield temperatures and radiative and conductive heat losses of a super-insulated cryogenic storage tank operating at 77 K. Interactions between radiation and conductive heat transfer modes in the shields are investigated, by calculation of local shield temperatures. As a new method, fluid networks are introduced for calculation of stationary residual gas pressure distribution in the evacuated multilayer super-insulation. Output from the fluid network is coupled to the iterative thermal network calculations. Parameter tests concern thickness and emissivity of shields, degree of perforation, residual gas sources like desorption from radiation shields, spacers and container walls, and permeation from the inner container to the evacuated insulation space. Variations of either a conductive (thickness of Al-film on Mylar) or a radiative parameter (thermal emissivity) exert crosswise influences on the radiative or conductive heat losses of the tank, respectively.

  18. National Account Energy Alliance Final Report for the Ritz Carlton, San Francisco Combined Heat and Power Project

    SciTech Connect

    Rosfjord, Thomas J

    2007-11-01

    Under collaboration between DOE and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), UTC Power partnered with Host Hotels and Resorts to install and operate a PureComfort 240M Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) System at the Ritz-Carlton, San Francisco. This packaged CHP system integrated four microturbines, a double-effect absorption chiller, two fuel gas boosters, and the control hardware and software to ensure that the system operated predictably, reliably, and safely. The chiller, directly energized by the recycled hot exhaust from the microturbines, could be configured to provide either chilled or hot water. As installed, the system was capable of providing up to 227 kW of net electrical power and 142 RT of chilled water at a 59F ambient temperature.

  19. Resonance in fast-wave amplitude in the periphery of cylindrical plasmas and application to edge losses of wave heating power in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, R. J.; Hosea, J. C.; Bertelli, N.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.

    2016-07-01

    Heating magnetically confined plasmas using waves in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies typically requires coupling these waves over a steep density gradient. Furthermore, this process has produced an unexpected and deleterious phenomenon on the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX): a prompt loss of wave power along magnetic field lines in front of the antenna to the divertor. Understanding this loss may be key to achieving effective heating and expanding the operational space of NSTX-Upgrade. Here, we propose that a new type of mode, which conducts a significant fraction of the total wave power in the low-density peripheral plasma, is driving these losses. We demonstrate the existence of such modes, which are distinct from surface modes and coaxial modes, in a cylindrical cold-plasma model when a half wavelength structure fits into the region outside the core plasma. The latter condition generalizes the previous hypothesis regarding the occurence of the edge losses and may explain why full-wave simulations predict these losses in some cases but not others. If valid, this condition implies that outer gap control is a potential strategy for mitigating the losses in NSTX-Upgrade in addition to raising the magnetic field or influencing the edge density.

  20. Resonance in fast-wave amplitude in the periphery of cylindrical plasmas and application to edge losses of wave heating power in tokamaks

    DOE PAGES

    Perkins, R. J.; Hosea, J. C.; Bertelli, N.; ...

    2016-07-01

    Heating magnetically confined plasmas using waves in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies typically requires coupling these waves over a steep density gradient. Furthermore, this process has produced an unexpected and deleterious phenomenon on the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX): a prompt loss of wave power along magnetic field lines in front of the antenna to the divertor. Understanding this loss may be key to achieving effective heating and expanding the operational space of NSTX-Upgrade. Here, we propose that a new type of mode, which conducts a significant fraction of the total wave power in the low-density peripheral plasma, is drivingmore » these losses. We demonstrate the existence of such modes, which are distinct from surface modes and coaxial modes, in a cylindrical cold-plasma model when a half wavelength structure fits into the region outside the core plasma. The latter condition generalizes the previous hypothesis regarding the occurence of the edge losses and may explain why full-wave simulations predict these losses in some cases but not others. If valid, this condition implies that outer gap control is a potential strategy for mitigating the losses in NSTX-Upgrade in addition to raising the magnetic field or influencing the edge density.« less

  1. Changes in body temperature in king penguins at sea: the result of fine adjustments in peripheral heat loss?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alexander; Alard, Frank; Handrich, Yves

    2006-09-01

    To investigate thermoregulatory adjustments at sea, body temperatures (the pectoral muscle and the brood patch) and diving behavior were monitored during a foraging trip of several days at sea in six breeding king penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus. During inactive phases at sea (water temperature: 4-7 degrees C), all tissues measured were maintained at normothermic temperatures. The brood patch temperature was maintained at the same values as those measured when brooding on shore (38 degrees C). This high temperature difference causes a significant loss of heat. We hypothesize that high-energy expenditure associated with elevated peripheral temperature when resting at sea is the thermoregulatory cost that a postabsorptive penguin has to face for the restoration of its subcutaneous body fat. During diving, mean pectoral temperature was 37.6 +/- 1.6 degrees C. While being almost normothermic on average, the temperature of the pectoral muscle was still significantly lower than during inactivity in five out of the six birds and underwent temperature drops of up to 5.5 degrees C. Mean brood patch temperature was 29.6 +/- 2.5 degrees C during diving, and temperature decreases of up to 21.6 degrees C were recorded. Interestingly, we observed episodes of brood patch warming during the descent to depth, suggesting that, in some cases, king penguins may perform active thermolysis using the brood patch. It is hypothesized that functional pectoral temperature may be regulated through peripheral adjustments in blood perfusion. These two paradoxical features, i.e., lower temperature of deep tissues during activity and normothermic peripheral tissues while inactive, may highlight the key to the energetics of this diving endotherm while foraging at sea.

  2. Experimental investigation of a multicylinder unmodified diesel engine performance, emission, and heat loss characteristics using different biodiesel blends: rollout of B10 in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abedin, M J; Masjuki, H H; Kalam, M A; Varman, M; Arbab, M I; Fattah, I M Rizwanul; Masum, B M

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance and emission analysis of a multicylinder diesel engine using biodiesel along with an in-depth analysis of the engine heat losses in different subsystems followed by the energy balance of all the energy flows from the engine. Energy balance analysis allows the designer to appraise the internal energy variations of a thermodynamic system as a function of ''energy flows" across the control volume as work or heat and also the enthalpies associated with the energy flows which are passing through these boundaries. Palm and coconut are the two most potential biodiesel feed stocks in this part of the world. The investigation was conducted in a four-cylinder diesel engine fuelled with 10% and 20% blends of palm and coconut biodiesels and compared with B5 at full load condition and in the speed range of 1000 to 4000 RPM. Among the all tested blends, palm blends seemed more promising in terms of engine performance, emission, and heat losses. The influence of heat losses on engine performance and emission has been discussed thoroughly in this paper.

  3. Improvements in modelling (by ESCADRE mod1.0) radiative heat losses through gas and aerosols generated by molten corium-concrete interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Passalacqua, R.; Zabiego, M.; Cognet, G.; Pascale, C. De; Commande, A.; Renault, C.

    1996-07-01

    Aerosols generated during the molten core-concrete interaction (MCCI) influence the reactor cavity thermal hydraulics: the cloud of aerosols, located inside the reactor cavity, restrains the upward-directed heat exchange consequently the cool-down of the high-temperature molten corium for a considerable period of time. IPSN is developing a computer code system for source predictions in severe accident scenarios. This code system is named ESCADRE. WECHSL/CALTHER is internal module dealing with MCCI (it is also a stand-alone code): it models the heat transfers involving the superior volume of the cavity. When modelling the upward-directed power distribution by WECHSL/CALTHER, a faster concrete basemat penetration takes place due to the low heat losses of the closed MCCI cavity enclosure. The model, here presented, is going to be validated with data from the AEROSTAT experiment. This experiment, planned at CEA Cadarache, will evaluate the influence of aerosols on the global power distribution in the reactor cavity. Radiative heat losses are important especially for cavity configurations such as those of new plant designs (equipped with a core-catcher) where the upward power losses are promoted by the corium spreading in a flat cavity.

  4. Experimental Investigation of a Multicylinder Unmodified Diesel Engine Performance, Emission, and Heat Loss Characteristics Using Different Biodiesel Blends: Rollout of B10 in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Abedin, M. J.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Varman, M.; Arbab, M. I.; Fattah, I. M. Rizwanul; Masum, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance and emission analysis of a multicylinder diesel engine using biodiesel along with an in-depth analysis of the engine heat losses in different subsystems followed by the energy balance of all the energy flows from the engine. Energy balance analysis allows the designer to appraise the internal energy variations of a thermodynamic system as a function of ‘‘energy flows” across the control volume as work or heat and also the enthalpies associated with the energy flows which are passing through these boundaries. Palm and coconut are the two most potential biodiesel feed stocks in this part of the world. The investigation was conducted in a four-cylinder diesel engine fuelled with 10% and 20% blends of palm and coconut biodiesels and compared with B5 at full load condition and in the speed range of 1000 to 4000 RPM. Among the all tested blends, palm blends seemed more promising in terms of engine performance, emission, and heat losses. The influence of heat losses on engine performance and emission has been discussed thoroughly in this paper. PMID:25162046

  5. Occupational heat stress and associated productivity loss estimation using the PHS model (ISO 7933): a case study from workplaces in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Karin; Kuklane, Kalev; Venugopal, Vidhya

    2014-01-01

    Background Heat stress is a major occupational problem in India that can cause adverse health effects and reduce work productivity. This paper explores this problem and its impacts in selected workplaces, including industrial, service, and agricultural sectors in Chennai, India. Design Quantitative measurements of heat stress, workload estimations, and clothing testing, and qualitative information on health impacts, productivity loss, etc., were collected. Heat strain and associated impacts on labour productivity between the seasons were assessed using the International Standard ISO 7933:2004, which applies the Predicted Heat Strain (PHS) model. Results and conclusions All workplaces surveyed had very high heat exposure in the hot season (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature x¯ =29.7), often reaching the international standard safe work values (ISO 7243:1989). Most workers had moderate to high workloads (170–220 W/m2), with some exposed to direct sun. Clothing was found to be problematic, with high insulation values in relation to the heat exposure. Females were found to be more vulnerable because of the extra insulation added from wearing a protective shirt on top of traditional clothing (0.96 clo) while working. When analysing heat strain – in terms of core temperature and dehydration – and associated productivity loss in the PHS model, the parameters showed significant impacts that affected productivity in all workplaces, apart from the laundry facility, especially during the hot season. For example, in the canteen, the core temperature limit of 38°C predicted by the model was reached in only 64 min for women. With the expected increases in temperature due to climate change, additional preventive actions have to be implemented to prevent further productivity losses and adverse health impacts. Overall, this study presented insight into using a thermo-physiological model to estimate productivity loss due to heat exposure in workplaces. This is the first time the PHS

  6. Disruption of the HSF3 gene results in the severe reduction of heat shock gene expression and loss of thermotolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, M; Kawazoe, Y; Takeda, S; Morimoto, R I; Nagata, K; Nakai, A

    1998-01-01

    The vertebrate genome encodes a family of heat shock factors (HSFs 1-4) of which the DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of HSF1 and HSF3 are activated upon heat shock. HSF1 has the properties of a classical HSF and exhibits rapid activation of DNA-binding and transcriptional activity upon exposure to conditions of heat shock and other stresses, whereas HSF3 typically is activated at higher temperatures and with distinct delayed kinetics. To address the role of HSF3 in the heat shock response, null cells lacking the HSF3 gene were constructed by disruption of the resident gene by somatic recombination in an avian lymphoid cell line. Null cells lacking HSF3, yet expressing normal levels of HSF1, exhibited a severe reduction in the heat shock response, as measured by inducible expression of heat shock genes, and did not exhibit thermotolerance. At intermediate heat shock temperatures, where HSF1 oligomerizes to an active trimer in wild-type cells, HSF1 remained as an inert monomer in the HSF3 null cell line. HSF3 null cells were restored to a nearly normal heat shock-responsive state by reintroduction of an exogenous HSF3 gene. These results reveal that HSF3 has a dominant role in the regulation of the heat shock response and directly influences HSF1 activity. PMID:9501096

  7. Mathematical Modeling of the Thermal State of an Isothermal Element with Account of the Radiant Heat Transfer Between Parts of a Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alifanov, O. M.; Paleshkin, A. V.; Terent‧ev, V. V.; Firsyuk, S. O.

    2016-01-01

    A methodological approach to determination of the thermal state at a point on the surface of an isothermal element of a small spacecraft has been developed. A mathematical model of heat transfer between surfaces of intricate geometric configuration has been described. In this model, account was taken of the external field of radiant fluxes and of the differentiated mutual influence of the surfaces. An algorithm for calculation of the distribution of the density of the radiation absorbed by surface elements of the object under study has been proposed. The temperature field on the lateral surface of the spacecraft exposed to sunlight and on its shady side has been calculated. By determining the thermal state of magnetic controls of the orientation system as an example, the authors have assessed the contribution of the radiation coming from the solar-cell panels and from the spacecraft surface.

  8. Observation of alpha particle loss from JET plasmas during ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating using a thin foil Faraday cup detector array.

    PubMed

    Darrow, D S; Cecil, F E; Kiptily, V; Fullard, K; Horton, A; Murari, A

    2010-10-01

    The loss of MeV alpha particles from JET plasmas has been measured with a set of thin foil Faraday cup detectors during third harmonic heating of helium neutral beam ions. Tail temperatures of ∼ 2 MeV have been observed, with radial scrape off lengths of a few centimeters. Operational experience from this system indicates that such detectors are potentially feasible for future large tokamaks, but careful attention to screening rf and MHD induced noise is essential.

  9. Effects of heat loss, preferential diffusion, and flame stretch on flame-front instability and extinction of propane/air mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishizuka, S.; Miyasaka, K.; Law, C. K.

    1982-01-01

    Flame configurations, flame-front cellular instability, and extinction of propane/air mixtures in the stagnation-point flow are experimentally studied for their dependence on downstream heat loss, preferential diffusion, and flame stretch. Boundaries for lean- and rich-limit extinction, stabilization of corrugated flames, and local extinction caused by sharp curvatures are mapped for varying propane concentrations and freestream velocities. Flame location and temperature at extinction are determined as functions of stagnation surface temperature, extent of preheating, propane concentration, and freestream velocity. Results substantiate the theoretical predictions of the different extinction modes for lean and rich flames in the absence of downstream heat loss, and yield useful insight on the extinction characteristics when finite downstream heat loss does exist. It is further shown that flame-front instability occurs only for rich mixtures in accordance with preferential diffusion considerations, and that flame stretch has a stabilizing effect such that flame-front instability is completely inhibited before the onset of extinction.

  10. Arctic layer salinity controls heat loss from deep Atlantic layer in seasonally ice-covered areas of the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Sigrid; Ingvaldsen, Randi B.; Furevik, Tore

    2016-05-01

    In the seasonally ice-covered northern Barents Sea an intermediate layer of cold and relatively fresh Arctic Water at ~25-110 m depth isolates the sea surface and ice cover from a layer of warm and saline Atlantic Water below, a situation that resembles the cold halocline layer in the Eurasian Basin. The upward heat flux from the Atlantic layer is of major concern. What causes variations in the heat flux and how is the Arctic layer maintained? Using observations, we found that interannual variability in Arctic layer salinity determines the heat flux from the Atlantic layer through its control of stratification and vertical mixing. A relatively fresh Arctic layer effectively suppresses the upward heat flux, while a more saline Arctic layer enhances the heat flux. The corresponding upward salt flux causes a positive feedback. The Arctic layer salinity and the water column structures have been remarkably stable during 1970-2011.

  11. Kinetic analysis of cooking losses from beef and other animal muscles heated in a water bath--effect of sample dimensions and prior freezing and ageing.

    PubMed

    Oillic, Samuel; Lemoine, Eric; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Kondjoyan, Alain

    2011-07-01

    Cooking loss kinetics were measured on cubes and parallelepipeds of beef Semimembranosus muscle ranging from 1 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm to 7 cm × 7 cm × 28 cm in size. The samples were water bath-heated at three different temperatures, i.e. 50°C, 70°C and 90°C, and for five different times. Temperatures were simulated to help interpret the results. Pre-freezing the sample, difference in ageing time, and in muscle fiber orientation had little influence on cooking losses. At longer treatment times, the effects of sample size disappeared and cooking losses depended only on the temperature. A selection of the tests was repeated on four other beef muscles and on veal, horse and lamb Semimembranosus muscle. Kinetics followed similar curves in all cases but resulted in different final water contents. The shape of the kinetics curves suggests first-order kinetics.

  12. Loss of Hsp70 in Drosophila Is Pleiotropic, With Effects on Thermotolerance, Recovery From Heat Shock and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wei J.; Golic, Kent G.

    2006-01-01

    The heat-shock response is a programmed change in gene expression carried out by cells in response to environmental stress, such as heat. This response is universal and is characterized by the synthesis of a small group of conserved protein chaperones. In Drosophila melanogaster the Hsp70 chaperone dominates the profile of protein synthesis during the heat-shock response. We recently generated precise deletion alleles of the Hsp70 genes of D. melanogaster and have used those alleles to characterize the phenotypes of Hsp70-deficient flies. Flies with Hsp70 deletions have reduced thermotolerance. We find that Hsp70 is essential to survive a severe heat shock, but is not required to survive a milder heat shock, indicating that a significant degree of thermotolerance remains in the absence of Hsp70. However, flies without Hsp70 have a lengthened heat-shock response and an extended developmental delay after a non-lethal heat shock, indicating Hsp70 has an important role in recovery from stress, even at lower temperatures. Lack of Hsp70 also confers enhanced sensitivity to a temperature-sensitive lethal mutation and to the neurodegenerative effects produced by expression of a human polyglutamine disease protein. PMID:16204210

  13. Full wave simulations of fast wave heating losses in the scrape-off layer of NSTX and NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelli, Nicola; Jaeger, E. F.; Hosea, J.; Phillips, C. K.; Berry, Lee Alan; Gerhardt, S.; Green, David L; LeBlanc, B; Perkins, R. J.; Ryan, Philip Michael; Taylor, G.; Valeo, E. J.; Wilson, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Full wave simulations of fusion plasmas show a direct correlation between the location of the fast-wave cut-off, radiofrequency (RF) field amplitude in the scrape-off layer (SOL) and the RF power losses in the SOL observed in the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX). In particular, the RF power losses in the SOL increase significantly when the launched waves transition from evanescent to propagating in that region. Subsequently, a large amplitude electric field occurs in the SOL, driving RF power losses when a proxy collisional loss term is added. A 3D reconstruction of absorbed power in the SOL is presented showing agreement with the RF experiments in NSTX. Loss predictions for the future experiment NSTX-Upgrade (NSTX-U) are also obtained and discussed.

  14. Using flowering and heat-loss models for improving greenhouse energy-use efficiency in annual bedding plant production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In temperate climates, annual bedding plants are typically produced in heated greenhouses from late winter through early summer. Temperature, photoperiod, light intensity, and transplant date are commonly manipulated during commercial production so that plants are in flower for predetermined market ...

  15. Chronic diseases and life events accounted for 2-18 % population attributable risks for adult hearing loss: UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-01-01

    Links between chronic diseases and hearing loss in adults have emerged. However, previous investigations were not complete, and the role of life events was unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to examine the relationships of common chronic diseases and life events and adult hearing loss in a country-wide and population-based study. Data were retrieved from UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007, being cross-sectional, including demographics, self-reported prior health conditions and hearing loss (ever and in the last 12 months), and several major life events. Analyses included Chi square test, t test, logistic regression model, and population attributable risk estimation. People who had prior health conditions including cancer, migraine, dementia, depression, cataracts, chronic bronchitis, allergy, bowel problem, bladder problem, arthritis, muscle problem or skin problem tended to report hearing loss than their counterparts. People who have experienced major life events including post-traumatic stress disorder, serious illness of close relatives, death of family, serious problems with friends, major financial crisis, valuables stolen, being bullied, violence at home, sexual abuse or running away from home were also more likely to experience ever hearing loss problem or that in the last 12 months. 2.0-13.1 % adult hearing loss could be delayed or prevented by managing chronic diseases while 4.1-18.1 % might be delayed or prevented by minimizing the negative effects of life events. Chronic diseases and life events were associated with hearing loss in adults. Better managing lifestyle to minimize detrimental impacts in future health and nursing programs would be suggested.

  16. Keeping Accountability Systems Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Martha

    2007-01-01

    The standards and accountability movement in education has undeniably transformed schooling throughout the United States. Even before President Bush signed the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act into law in January 2002, mandating annual public school testing in English and math for grades 3-8 and once in high school, most states had already…

  17. Measuring Inductive-Heating Coupling Coefficients and Thermal Loss Characteristics as a Function of Crucible Geometry and Material Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Jay

    A power measurement system has been designed for an ultra-high temperature inductively heated molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) reactor. The work presented in this research contributes to three different aspects of the induction heated MOE reactor facility: mathematical modeling of coil-to-workpiece power transfer, numerical modeling of heat transfer within the reactor, and experiments to measure the total hemispherical emittance of potential crucible materials. Facility-specific coupling coefficients for various samples have been experimentally determined for the MOE reactor facility. An analytical model coupling the predicted power input with heat transfer software was developed using COMSOL Multiphysics, and validated with experimental measurements of the steady state temperature gradient inside the reactor. These models were used to support the design of an experiment to measure the total hemispherical emissivity (epsilon) of conductive samples using a transient calorimetric technique. Results of epsilon are presented over a wide range of temperatures for copper, nickel, graphite and molybdenum. Furthermore, an investigation into optimizing the reactor system for heating will be discussed.

  18. The study of aluminum loss and consequent phase transformation in heat-treated acid-leached kaolin

    SciTech Connect

    Foo, Choo Thye; Mahmood, Che Seman; Mohd Salleh, Mohamad Amran

    2011-04-15

    This study investigates the effect of Al leaching during Fe removal from kaolin to mullite. Heat-treated kaolin was obtained by heating natural kaolin at 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900 deg. C. The heat-treated kaolin was then leached at 100 deg. C with 4 M, 3 M, 2 M, 1 M, 0.2 M solution of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.2 M solution of oxalic acid. The dried samples were sintered to 1300 deg. C for 4 h at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min{sup -1}. X-ray diffractometry and differential thermal analysis were used to study the phase transformation of kaolin to mullite. It was found that 700 deg. C is the optimum preheat-treatment temperature to leach out Fe and also Al for both types of the acids used. The majority of the 4 M sulfuric acid-treated kaolins formed the cristobalite phase when sintered. On the other hand, 1 M, 0.2 M sulfuric acid and 0.2 M oxalic acid leached heat-treated kaolin formed mullite and quartz phase after sintering. - Research Highlights: {yields} Preheat-treatment of kaolin improves the leachability of unwanted iron. {yields} The optimum preheat-treatment temperature is 700 deg. C. {yields} Sintered 4 M sulfuric acid-treated kaolin majorly formed the cristobalite phase. {yields} Sintered 0.2 M oxalic acid-treated kaolin formed lesser amorphous silicate phase.

  19. Does heat stress provoke the loss of a continuous layer of cortical granules beneath the plasma membrane during oocyte maturation?

    PubMed

    Andreu-Vázquez, C; López-Gatius, F; García-Ispierto, I; Maya-Soriano, M J; Hunter, R H F; López-Béjar, M

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of heat stress on bovine oocyte maturation. Both nuclear stage and distribution of cortical granules (CG) were simultaneously evaluated in each oocyte. Oocyte overmaturation under standard conditions of culture was also evaluated. For this purpose, logistic regression procedures were used to evaluate possible effects of factors such as heat stress, overmaturation, replicate, CG distribution and metaphase II (MII) morphology on oocyte maturation. Based on the odds ratio, oocytes on heat stressed (HSO) and overmaturated (OMO) oocyte group were, respectively, 14.5 and 5.4 times more likely to show anomalous MII morphology than those matured under control conditions (CO). The likelihood for an oocyte of showing the CG distribution pattern IV (aging oocyte) was 6.3 and 9.3 times higher for HSO and OMO groups, respectively, than for the CO group. The risk of undergoing anomalous oocyte maturation, considering both nuclear stage and distribution of CG was 17.1 and 18 times greater in oocytes cultured in HSO and OMO groups, respectively, than those in the CO group. In conclusion, heat stress proved to be valuable in aging oocytes. Heat stress advanced age for nuclear and cytoplasmic processes in a similar form to that of oocyte overmaturation.

  20. Full wave simulations of fast wave efficiency and power losses in the scrape-off layer of tokamak plasmas in mid/high harmonic and minority heating regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelli, N.; Jaeger, E. F.; Hosea, J. C.; Phillips, C. K.; Berry, L.; Bonoli, P. T.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Green, D.; LeBlanc, B.; Perkins, R. J.; Qin, C. M.; Pinsker, R. I.; Prater, R.; Ryan, P. M.; Taylor, G.; Valeo, E. J.; Wilson, J. R.; Wright, J. C.; Zhang, X. J.

    2015-12-17

    Here, several experiments on different machines and in different fast wave (FW) heating regimes, such as hydrogen minority heating and high harmonic fast waves (HHFW), have found strong interaction between radio-frequency (RF) waves and the scrape-off layer (SOL) region. This paper examines the propagation and the power loss in the SOL by using the full wave code AORSA, in which the edge plasma beyond the last closed flux surface (LCFS) is included in the solution domain and a collisional damping parameter is used as a proxy to represent the real, and most likely nonlinear, damping processes. 2D and 3D AORSA results for the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) have shown a strong transition to higher SOL power losses (driven by the RF field) when the FW cut-off is removed from in front of the antenna by increasing the edge density. Here, full wave simulations have been extended for 'conventional' tokamaks with higher aspect ratios, such as the DIII-D, Alcator C-Mod, and EAST devices. DIII-D results in HHFW regime show similar behavior found in NSTX and NSTX-U, consistent with previous DIII-D experimental observations. In contrast, a different behavior has been found for C-Mod and EAST, which operate in the minority heating regime.

  1. Full wave simulations of fast wave efficiency and power losses in the scrape-off layer of tokamak plasmas in mid/high harmonic and minority heating regimes

    DOE PAGES

    Bertelli, N.; Jaeger, E. F.; Hosea, J. C.; ...

    2015-12-17

    Here, several experiments on different machines and in different fast wave (FW) heating regimes, such as hydrogen minority heating and high harmonic fast waves (HHFW), have found strong interaction between radio-frequency (RF) waves and the scrape-off layer (SOL) region. This paper examines the propagation and the power loss in the SOL by using the full wave code AORSA, in which the edge plasma beyond the last closed flux surface (LCFS) is included in the solution domain and a collisional damping parameter is used as a proxy to represent the real, and most likely nonlinear, damping processes. 2D and 3D AORSAmore » results for the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) have shown a strong transition to higher SOL power losses (driven by the RF field) when the FW cut-off is removed from in front of the antenna by increasing the edge density. Here, full wave simulations have been extended for 'conventional' tokamaks with higher aspect ratios, such as the DIII-D, Alcator C-Mod, and EAST devices. DIII-D results in HHFW regime show similar behavior found in NSTX and NSTX-U, consistent with previous DIII-D experimental observations. In contrast, a different behavior has been found for C-Mod and EAST, which operate in the minority heating regime.« less

  2. Effect of prolonged heat treatment from 48 °C to 63 °C on toughness, cooking loss and color of pork.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Line; Ertbjerg, Per; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Christensen, Mette

    2011-06-01

    The effect of low temperature long time (LTLT) heat treatment at 48 °C, 53 °C, 58 °C, and 63 °C for T(c) (time to reach a core temperature equal to the water bath), T(c)+5h holding time, and T(c)+17h holding time was studied in Longissimus dorsi and Semitendinosus muscles from slaughter pigs and sows. Meat toughness (Warner-Bratzler Shear Force), cooking loss and color (Minolta L*a*b*-values) was measured and in the cooking loss the amount of heat-soluble collagen and activity of cathepsin B+L was determined. Decreasing shear force and increasing cooking loss during LTLT treatment was observed between 53 °C and 58 °C. Furthermore, increasing temperature from 53 °C to 58 °C and increasing time from T(c) to T(c)+17h increased the solubility of collagen. Residual activity of cathepsin B+L in LTLT treated pork was mainly affected by temperature, showing the highest activity at 58 °C and 63 °C.

  3. A laboratory study examining the impact of linen use on low-air-loss support surface heat and water vapor transmission rates.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Rachel; Lachenbruch, Charlie; VanGilder, Catherine

    2013-08-01

    Layers of linens are frequently placed under patients to manage moisture and/or assist with positioning immobile patients, including persons placed on a therapeutic surface because they are at risk for developing pressure ulcers. Because skin microclimate is believed to affect pressure ulcer risk, some therapeutic surfaces are designed to manage skin temperature and humidity (microclimate management). The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of linens and underpads on a low-air-loss (LAL) surface's ability to disperse heat and evaporate moisture. Underpads and transfer sheet combinations (grouped by three common linen functions: immobility, moisture management, and immobility and moisture management) were tested using the sweating guarded hot plate method, which allows for the measurement of the evaporative capacity (g H2O/m2*hour) and the total rate of heat withdrawal (Watts/m2) associated with nine different linen configurations placed on the support surface. Total heat withdrawal and evaporative capacity of the LAL surface with a fitted sheet only was used for comparison (P <0.05) Compared with fitted sheet only, heat withdrawal was significantly reduced by five of eight combinations, and evaporative moisture reduction was significantly reduced by six of eight linen combinations (P <0.05). All combinations that included plastic-containing underpads significantly reduced the surface's ability to dissipate heat and evaporate moisture, and use of the maximum number of layers (nine) reduced heat withdrawal to the level of a static, nonLAL surface. The results of this study suggest that putting additional linens or underpads on LAL surfaces may adversely affect skin temperature and moisture, thereby reducing the pressure ulcer prevention potential of these surfaces. Additional studies to examine the effect of linens and underpads as well as microclimate management strategies on pressure ulcer risk are needed.

  4. a Comparative Study of Oxygen Loss on in Situ Heating in PrMnO3 and BaMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, K. B.; Heinonen, M.; Nordblad, P.; Dalela, S. D.; Panwar, N.; Sen, V.; Agarwal, S. K.; Sharma, Neha

    We have thoroughly investigated the oxygen loss in PrMnO3 and BaMnO3, the end members of the AMnO3 system, on in situ heating in a reducing atmosphere. This was done to drive some oxygen out from them and thus possibly alter the valence of the Mn cation. Sample characterization was done through X-ray diffraction and SEM measurements. The core-level photoemission point to oxygen loss from only BaMnO3 changing some of Mn4+ to Mn3+ in it, transfer of some spectral weight to the highly localized Fehrenbacher-Rice states and an increased Mn 3d-O 2p hybridization. Magnetization measurements show that at low temperatures, the samples depict a canted antiferromagnetic ordering.

  5. On the thermal structure and stability of configurations with heat diffusion and a gain-loss function. I. General results

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez S., M.H.; Parravano, A.; Mendoza B., C.A. )

    1992-10-01

    The range of values of the parameters characterizing the energy transport mechanisms and boundary conditions, for which slablike, cylindrical, and spherical structures are thermally stable, are determined. The configurations are assumed to be heated at a rate about T exp m cooled at a rate about T exp n and with a thermal conductivity coefficient about T[sub k]. The linear stability of the trivial solution of the steady heat balance equation was carried out analytically. The remaining families of solutions were obtained numerically. They were classified, the minimal boundary temperature for steady solutions obtained, their stability analyzed, and their general properties depending on the indexes nu (symmetry), m, n, and k were outlined. 10 refs.

  6. Accounting Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prickett, Charlotte

    This curriculum guide describes the accounting curriculum in the following three areas: accounting clerk, bookkeeper, and nondegreed accountant. The competencies and tasks complement the Arizona validated listing in these areas. The guide lists 24 competencies for nondegreed accountants, 10 competencies for accounting clerks, and 11 competencies…

  7. Atmosphere expansion and mass loss of close-orbit giant exoplanets heated by stellar XUV. I. Modeling of hydrodynamic escape of upper atmospheric material

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Sasunov, Yu. L.; Lammer, H.; Kislyakova, K. G.; Erkaev, N. V.

    2014-11-10

    In the present series of papers we propose a consistent description of the mass loss process. To study in a comprehensive way the effects of the intrinsic magnetic field of a close-orbit giant exoplanet (a so-called hot Jupiter) on atmospheric material escape and the formation of a planetary inner magnetosphere, we start with a hydrodynamic model of an upper atmosphere expansion in this paper. While considering a simple hydrogen atmosphere model, we focus on the self-consistent inclusion of the effects of radiative heating and ionization of the atmospheric gas with its consequent expansion in the outer space. Primary attention is paid to an investigation of the role of the specific conditions at the inner and outer boundaries of the simulation domain, under which different regimes of material escape (free and restricted flow) are formed. A comparative study is performed of different processes, such as X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) heating, material ionization and recombination, H{sub 3}{sup +} cooling, adiabatic and Lyα cooling, and Lyα reabsorption. We confirm the basic consistency of the outcomes of our modeling with the results of other hydrodynamic models of expanding planetary atmospheres. In particular, we determine that, under the typical conditions of an orbital distance of 0.05 AU around a Sun-type star, a hot Jupiter plasma envelope may reach maximum temperatures up to ∼9000 K with a hydrodynamic escape speed of ∼9 km s{sup –1}, resulting in mass loss rates of ∼(4-7) · 10{sup 10} g s{sup –1}. In the range of the considered stellar-planetary parameters and XUV fluxes, that is close to the mass loss in the energy-limited case. The inclusion of planetary intrinsic magnetic fields in the model is a subject of the follow-up paper (Paper II).

  8. Bacterial ice nuclei impact cloud lifetime and radiative properties and reduce atmospheric heat loss in the BRAMS simulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Tassio S.; Gonçalves, Fábio L. T.; Yamasoe, Marcia A.; Martins, Jorge A.; Morris, Cindy E.

    2014-08-01

    This study examines the effect of the bacterial species Pseudomonas syringae acting as ice nuclei (IN) on cloud properties to understand its impact on local radiative budget and heating rates. These bacteria may become active IN at temperatures as warm as -2 °C. Numerical simulations were developed using the Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Model System (BRAMS). To investigate the isolated effect of bacterial IN, four scenarios were created considering only homogeneous and bacterial ice nucleation, with 1, 10 and 100 IN per cubic meter of cloud volume and one with no bacteria. Moreover, two other scenarios were generated: the BRAMS default parameterization and its combination with bacterial IN. The model reproduced a strong convective cell over São Paulo on 3 March 2003. Results showed that bacterial IN may change cloud evolution as well as its microphysical properties, which in turn influence cloud radiative properties. For example, the reflected shortwave irradiance over an averaged domain in a scenario considering bacterial IN added to the BRAMS default parameterization was 14% lower than if bacteria were not considered. Heating rates can also be impacted, especially due to differences in cloud lifetime. Results suggest that the omission of bacterial IN in numerical models, including global cloud models, could neglect relevant ice nucleation processes that potentially influence cloud radiative properties.

  9. Juggling on a rollercoaster? Gains, loss and uncertainties in IVF patients' accounts of volunteering for a U.K. 'egg sharing for research' scheme.

    PubMed

    Haimes, Erica

    2013-06-01

    The past decade has seen a growth in demand for human eggs for stem cell related research and, more recently, for mitochondrial research. That demand has been accompanied by global debates over whether women should be encouraged, by offers of payments, in cash or kind, to provide eggs. Few of these debates have been informed by empirical evidence, let alone by the views of women themselves. This article addresses that gap in knowledge by presenting findings from a UK investigation, conducted 2008-2011, which is the first systematic study of women volunteering to provide eggs under such circumstances. This article focuses on the views and experiences of 25 IVF patients who volunteered for the Newcastle 'egg sharing for research' scheme (NESR), in exchange for reduced IVF fees. This was an interview based study, designed to gain understandings of volunteers' perspectives and reasoning. The interviews show that volunteers approached the scheme as a way of accessing more treatment in pursuit of their goal of having a baby, against a landscape of inadequate state provision of treatment and expensive private treatment. The process of deciding to volunteer raised a wide range of uncertainties about the consequent gains and losses, for women already in the uncertain world of the 'IVF rollercoaster'. However, interviewees preferred to have the option of the NESR, than not, and they juggled the numerous uncertainties with skill and resilience. The article is as revealing of the ongoing challenges of the UK IVF bio-economy as it is of egg provision. This article adds to the growing body of knowledge of the contributions of tissue providers to the global bio-economy. It also contributes to several areas of wider sociological interest, including debates on the social management of 'uncertainty' and discussions at the interface of sociology and ethics.

  10. Juggling on a rollercoaster? Gains, loss and uncertainties in IVF patients' accounts of volunteering for a U.K. ‘egg sharing for research’ scheme

    PubMed Central

    Haimes, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has seen a growth in demand for human eggs for stem cell related research and, more recently, for mitochondrial research. That demand has been accompanied by global debates over whether women should be encouraged, by offers of payments, in cash or kind, to provide eggs. Few of these debates have been informed by empirical evidence, let alone by the views of women themselves. This article addresses that gap in knowledge by presenting findings from a UK investigation, conducted 2008–2011, which is the first systematic study of women volunteering to provide eggs under such circumstances. This article focuses on the views and experiences of 25 IVF patients who volunteered for the Newcastle ‘egg sharing for research’ scheme (NESR), in exchange for reduced IVF fees. This was an interview based study, designed to gain understandings of volunteers' perspectives and reasoning. The interviews show that volunteers approached the scheme as a way of accessing more treatment in pursuit of their goal of having a baby, against a landscape of inadequate state provision of treatment and expensive private treatment. The process of deciding to volunteer raised a wide range of uncertainties about the consequent gains and losses, for women already in the uncertain world of the ‘IVF rollercoaster’. However, interviewees preferred to have the option of the NESR, than not, and they juggled the numerous uncertainties with skill and resilience. The article is as revealing of the ongoing challenges of the UK IVF bio-economy as it is of egg provision. This article adds to the growing body of knowledge of the contributions of tissue providers to the global bio-economy. It also contributes to several areas of wider sociological interest, including debates on the social management of ‘uncertainty’ and discussions at the interface of sociology and ethics. PMID:23608093

  11. Oceanic Mixing Processes in Disko Bay-Ilulissat Icefjord System: Can We Quantify the Heat Loss from the Atlantic Water Layer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djoumna, G.; Holland, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Ilulissat Icefjord (IIF) has been the site of few hydrographic observations. Recent hydrographic data from Disko Bay (DB) showed a significant warming from the below of the cold Polar Water entering DB from the mid-to-late 19901990s onward, and the sill at the fjord mouth prevented the modified West Greenland Irminger Waters (WGIW) to fill the IIF basin. Here we identify and attempt to quantify the fluxes associated with the small-scale processes that contribute to the upward diapycnal fluxes of heat, salt and from the modified WGIW to the surface-mixed layer using five years of summer data (2009 - 2013). The interaction between the WGIW and Egedesminde Dyb trough cutting across the continental shelf from the shelf break into DB creates the cold/warm layering of water masses which contribute to the formation of double diffusive thermohaline staircases. We found evidence of thermohaline staircase consists of series of sharp interfaces across which both TT and SS increase with depth separated by thick well-defined convective layers. We hypothesize that the warming of the PW layer in DB may have been caused by the upward heat fluxes from the AW driven double diffusive convection. Vertical heat fluxes estimated from laboratory-based flux laws for the diffusive regime of double diffusive convection were up to 0.20.2Wm-2^{-2}. The other major player responsible for the Atlantic water heat loss is shear instabilities in the internal wave and tides generated by barotropic tidal flow over the Egedesminde Dyb trough, the continental shelf and across the sill at the entrance of IIF. Using moored pressure data, we found that the fjord could be described as a wave-fjord during neap tide and turns into a tidal jet-fjord during spring tide, therefore a weak nonlinear response due to supercritical conditions with flow separation over the sill and a linear baroclinic tidal response due to the deeper right side of the sill could be expected. We found enhanced eddy diffusivity K

  12. Randomly Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.; Geppert, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    The accountability debate tends to devolve into a battle between the pro-testing and anti-testing crowds. When it comes to the design of a school accountability system, the devil is truly in the details. A well-designed accountability plan may go a long way toward giving school personnel the kinds of signals they need to improve performance.…

  13. Heat transfer from starlings sturnus vulgaris during flight

    PubMed

    Ward; Rayner; MOLler; Jackson; Nachtigall; Speakman

    1999-06-01

    Infrared thermography was used to measure heat transfer by radiation and the surface temperature of starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) (N=4) flying in a wind tunnel at 6-14 m s-1 and at 15-25 degrees C. Heat transfer by forced convection was calculated from bird surface temperature and biophysical modelling of convective heat transfer coefficients. The legs, head and ventral brachial areas (under the wings) were the hottest parts of the bird (mean values 6.8, 6.0 and 5.3 degrees C, respectively, above air temperature). Thermal gradients between the bird surface and the air decreased at higher air temperatures or during slow flight. The legs were trailed in the air stream during slow flight and when air temperature was high; this could increase heat transfer from the legs from 1 to 12 % of heat transfer by convection, radiation and evaporation (overall heat loss). Overall heat loss at a flight speed of 10.2 m s-1 averaged 11. 3 W, of which radiation accounted for 8 % and convection for 81 %. Convection from the ventral brachial areas was the most important route of heat transfer (19 % of overall heat loss). Of the overall heat loss, 55 % occurred by convection and radiation from the wings, although the primaries and secondaries were the coolest parts of the bird (2.2-2.5 degrees C above air temperature). Calculated heat transfer from flying starlings was most sensitive to accurate measurement of air temperature and convective heat transfer coefficients.

  14. A coupled numerical analysis of shield temperatures, heat losses and residual gas pressures in an evacuated super-insulation using thermal and fluid networks. Part II: Unsteady-state conditions (cool-down period)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, H.

    2006-12-01

    This paper analyses the cool-down period of a 300 L super-insulated cryogenic storage tank for liquid nitrogen. Storage tank and evacuated shields are the same as described in part I of this paper where stationary states were investigated. The aim of the present paper is to introduce thermal resistance networks as a tool to quantitatively understand and control also unsteady-states like cool-down of super-insulations. Numerical simulations using thermal resistance networks have been performed to determine time dependence of local shield temperatures and heat loss components. Coupling between radiation and solid conduction is investigated under these conditions. Using the numerical results, we have checked an experimental method suggested in the literature to separate heat losses through the insulation from losses through thermal bridges by measurement of unsteady-state evaporation rates. The results of the simulations confirm that it takes the outer shields much longer to reach stationary temperature; cool-down does not proceed uniformly in the super-insulation. Coupling between different heat transfer modes again is obvious. Thermal emissivity is important also during the early phase of cool-down. Using the obtained numerical results, the experimental method to separate heat loss components could only roughly been confirmed for thick metallic foils.

  15. States turn up the heat. As self-regulation sputters, state legislatures are leading charge for more accountability in governance of not-for-profit hospitals.

    PubMed

    Mantone, Joseph

    2006-01-30

    Recent scandals have pushed some states to tackle transparency and governance issues at healthcare not-for-profits, which the federal government has been reluctant to touch. Rhode Island Lt. Gov. Charles Fogarty, left, supports a bill in his state that would establish a code of ethics for hospital boards. Fogarty sees leaders as getting too comfortable in their jobs and working without accountability.

  16. Industrial water supply for the Kursk TETs-1 heating and electric power plant with the ecological safety of the River Seim taken into account

    SciTech Connect

    Kyakk, V. A.

    2009-09-15

    The Kursk TETs-1 heating and electric power plant is discussed as an illustration of preventing thermal contamination of its water supply (River Seim) by circulating water. An effective water supply system is taken to be one for which the overheating of the water at a monitoring site (near the outlet location) does not exceed an approved level for the water use conditions. The required cooling capacity of a spray pond for circulating and flow-through water supplies is determined.

  17. Heat waves imposed during early pod development in soybean (Glycine max) cause significant yield loss despite a rapid recovery from oxidative stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study is the first field based experiment that uses IR heaters to study the effects of a regionally defined heat wave on soybean physiology and productivity. The heating technology was successful and all of the heat waves were maintained at the target temperature for the three day duration of t...

  18. Accounting Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication identifies 20 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of accounting specialist, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 20 units are as follows:…

  19. Painless Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. W.; And Others

    The computerized Painless Accountability System is a performance objective system from which instructional programs are developed. Three main simplified behavioral response levels characterize this system: (1) cognitive, (2) psychomotor, and (3) affective domains. Each of these objectives are classified by one of 16 descriptors. The second major…

  20. Accountability Overboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chieppo, Charles D.; Gass, James T.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that special interest groups opposed to charter schools and high-stakes testing have hijacked Massachusetts's once-independent board of education and stand poised to water down the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) tests and the accountability system they support. President Barack Obama and Massachusetts…

  1. Bayonet heat exchangers in heat-assisted Stirling heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Yagyu, S.; Fukuyama, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Isshiki, N.; Satoh, I.; Corey, J.; Fellows, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Multi-Temperature Heat Supply System is a research project creating a city energy system with lower environmental load. This system consists of a gas-fueled internal combustion engine and a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump utilizing shaft power and thermal power in a combination of several cylinders. The heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power from engine exhaust heat source. Since this heat pump is operated by proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the system is expected to produce cooling and heating water at high COP. This paper describes heat exchanger development in the project to develop a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump. The heat pump employs the Bayonet type heat exchangers (BHX Type I) for supplying cold and hot water and (BHX Type II) for absorbing exhaust heat from the driving engine. The heat exchanger design concepts are presented and their heat transfer and flow loss characteristics in oscillating gas flow are investigated. The main concern in the BHX Type I is an improvement of gas side heat transfer and the spirally finned tubes were applied to gas side of the heat exchanger. For the BHX Type II, internal heat transfer characteristics are the main concern. Shell-and-tube type heat exchangers are widely used in Stirling machines. However, since brazing is applied to the many tubes for their manufacturing processes, it is very difficult to change flow passages to optimize heat transfer and loss characteristics once they have been made. The challenge was to enhance heat transfer on the gas side to make a highly efficient heat exchanger with fewer parts. It is shown that the Bayonet type heat exchanger can have good performance comparable to conventional heat exchangers.

  2. Application of heat flow models to SOI current mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Feixia; Cheng, Ming-C.

    2004-11-01

    An analytical heat flow model for SOI circuits is presented. The model is able to account for heat exchanges among devices and heat loss from the silicon film and interconnects to the substrate through the buried oxide. The developed model can accurately and efficiently predict the temperature distribution in the interconnect/poly-lines and SOI devices. The model is applied to SOI current mirrors to study heat flow in different layout designs. The results from the developed model are verified with those from Raphael, a 3D numerical simulator that can provide the detailed 3D temperature distribution in interconnect/poly-lines.

  3. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-4T - Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... loss, daily account net gain or loss for such account shall be treated as short-term capital gain or... loss and 40 percent short-term capital gain or loss. If net non-section 1256 position gain or loss and... short-term capital gain or loss and that portion of the daily account net gain or loss attributable...

  4. System for reducing heat losses from indoor swimming pools by use of automatic covers. [Quarterly] report No. 5, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    To maintain comfortable and healthful temperatures in an indoor swimming pool, heat must be continually supplied to the pool water and to fresh air-that must be brought in for ventilation. Nearly all the heat added to the water is lost by evaporation into the air above the water surface. That very moist air must then be removed and replaced with relatively dry outdoor air that requires heating during most of the year. The cost of natural gas for supplying heat in a typical institutional pool is $10,000 to $25,000 Per Year. When the pool is not being used, typically half to two-thirds of the time, evaporation and the resulting heat demands can be eliminated by placing impervious covers on the water surface. On a schedule of use such as at Skyland, the pool can be covered and evaporation suppressed about two-thirds of the time, thereby saving about ten thousand dollars per year. Determination of the actual savings achieved by use of pool covers is the principal objective of this project. The program goal is the development of the technology and tools for achieving major reductions in the nation`s waste of energy.

  5. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation and downstream activation of the ERK/STAT3/RANKL signaling cascade in osteoblasts accounts for the protective effects of estradiol on ethanol-induced bone loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bone loss occurs with chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption in males and cycling females as a result of increased bone resorption. We have demonstrated that in vivo estradiol treatment can reverse this effect. However, the molecular mechanisms of EtOH-induced bone loss and of estrogen protection are la...

  6. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Radish Seeds by Sequential Treatments with Chlorine Dioxide, Drying, and Dry Heat without Loss of Seed Viability ▿

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R.; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    We developed and validated a treatment to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without decreasing seed viability. Treatments with aqueous ClO2 followed by drying and dry-heat treatments were evaluated for efficacy to inactivate the pathogen. Conditions to dry radish seeds after treatment with water (control) or ClO2 were established. When treated seeds with high water activity (aw) (>0.99) were stored at 45°C and 23% relative humidity (RH), the aw decreased to <0.30 within 24 h. Drying high-aw seeds before exposing them to dry-heat treatment (≥60°C) was essential to preserve seed viability. The germination rate of radish seeds which had been immersed in water for 5 min, dried at 45°C and 23% RH for 24 h, and heated at 70°C for 48 h or at 80°C for 24 h was not significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared to that of untreated radish seeds. Sequential treatments with ClO2 (500 μg/ml, 5 min), drying (45°C, 23% RH, 24 h), and dry heating (70°C, 23% RH, 48 h) eliminated E. coli O157:H7 (5.9 log CFU/g) on radish seeds and, consequently, sprouts produced from them without decreasing the germination rate. These sequential treatments are recommended for application to radish seeds intended for sprout production. PMID:21803896

  7. Study on the Principle Mechanisms of Heat Transfer for Cryogenic Insulations: Especially Accounting for the Temperature-Dependent Deposition-Evacuation of the Filling Gas (Self-Evacuating Systems)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, Matthias; Vidi, Stephan; Ebert, Hans-Peter

    2016-11-01

    This study concentrates on the principles of heat transfer within cryogenic insulation systems, especially accounting for self-evacuating systems (deposition-evacuation of the filling gas). These principles allow the extrapolation to other temperatures, gases and other materials with the input of only a few experimentally derived or carefully estimated material properties. The type of gas (e.g. air or CO2) within the porous insulation material dominates the behaviour of the effective thermal conductivity during the cooldown of the cryogenic application. This is due to the specific temperature-dependent saturation gas pressure which determines the contribution of the gas conductivity. The selected material classes include powders, fibrous insulations, foams, aerogels and multilayer insulations in the temperature range of 20 K to 300 K. Novel within this study is an analytical function for the total and the mean thermal conductivity with respect to the temperature, type of gas, external pressure and material class of the insulation. Furthermore, the integral mean value of the thermal conductivity, the so-called mean thermal conductivity, is calculated for a mechanically evacuated insulation material and an insulation material evacuated by deposition-evacuation of the filling gas, respectively. This enables a comparison of the total thermal conductivity of cryogenic insulation materials and their applicability for a self-evacuating cryogenic insulation system.

  8. GAM-HEAT: A computer code to compute heat transfer in complex enclosures. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.E.; Taylor, J.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report discusses the GAM{underscore}HEAT code which was developed for heat transfer analyses associated with postulated Double Ended Guilliotine Break Loss Of Coolant Accidents (DEGB LOCA) resulting in a drained reactor vessel. In these analyses the gamma radiation resulting from fission product decay constitutes the primary source of energy as a function of time. This energy is deposited into the various reactor components and is re-radiated as thermal energy. The code accounts for all radiant heat exchanges within and leaving the reactor enclosure. The SRS reactors constitute complex radiant exchange enclosures since there are many assemblies of various types within the primary enclosure and most of the assemblies themselves constitute enclosures. GAM-HEAT accounts for this complexity by processing externally generated view factors and connectivity matrices as discussed below, and also accounts for convective, conductive, and advective heat exchanges. The code is structured such that it is applicable for many situations involving heat exchange between surfaces within a radiatively passive medium.

  9. GAM-HEAT: A computer code to compute heat transfer in complex enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.E.; Taylor, J.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report discusses the GAM[underscore]HEAT code which was developed for heat transfer analyses associated with postulated Double Ended Guilliotine Break Loss Of Coolant Accidents (DEGB LOCA) resulting in a drained reactor vessel. In these analyses the gamma radiation resulting from fission product decay constitutes the primary source of energy as a function of time. This energy is deposited into the various reactor components and is re-radiated as thermal energy. The code accounts for all radiant heat exchanges within and leaving the reactor enclosure. The SRS reactors constitute complex radiant exchange enclosures since there are many assemblies of various types within the primary enclosure and most of the assemblies themselves constitute enclosures. GAM-HEAT accounts for this complexity by processing externally generated view factors and connectivity matrices as discussed below, and also accounts for convective, conductive, and advective heat exchanges. The code is structured such that it is applicable for many situations involving heat exchange between surfaces within a radiatively passive medium.

  10. Heat-Related Illnesses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    immersion is rapid (see Chapter 3). Convection Heat loss to air and water vapor molecules circulating around the body is termed convection. As ambient...Skin temperature is believed to have an effect on sweating and heat loss , since a person resting in a warm environment with elevated skin temperature...exercise, rapid (10-20 minutes) decreases in central blood volume occur due to several mechanisms, including osmotic loss of plasma water into working

  11. Mass loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Leo

    1987-01-01

    Observational evidence for mass loss from cool stars is reviewed. Spectra line profiles are used for the derivation of mass-loss rates with the aid of the equation of continuity. This equation implies steady mass loss with spherical symmetry. Data from binary stars, Mira variables, and red giants in globular clusters are examined. Silicate emission is discussed as a useful indicator of mass loss in the middle infrared spectra. The use of thermal millimeter-wave radiation, Very Large Array (VLA) measurement of radio emission, and OH/IR masers are discussed as a tool for mass loss measurement. Evidence for nonsteady mass loss is also reviewed.

  12. Heat transfer in GTA welding arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huft, Nathan J.

    Heat transfer characteristics of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) arcs with arc currents of 50 to 125 A and arc lengths of 3 to 11 mm were measured experimentally through wet calorimetry. The data collected were used to calculate how much heat reported to the cathode and anode and how much was lost from the arc column. A Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) macro was written to further analyze the data and account for Joule heating within the electrodes and radiation and convection losses from the arc, providing a detailed account of how heat was generated and dissipated within the system. These values were then used to calculate arc efficiencies, arc column voltages, and anode and cathode fall voltages. Trends were noted for variances in the arc column voltage, power dissipated from the arc column, and the total power dissipated by the system with changing arc length. Trends for variances in the anode and cathode fall voltages, total power dissipated, Joule heating within the torches and electrodes with changing arc current were also noted. In addition, the power distribution between the anode and cathode for each combination of arc length and arc current was examined. Keywords: Gas Tungsten Arc Welding, GTAW, anode fall, cathode fall, heat transfer, wet calorimetry

  13. Transfer of radiative heat through clothing ensembles.

    PubMed

    Lotens, W A; Pieters, A M

    1995-06-01

    A mathematical model was designed to calculate the temperature and dry heat transfer in the various layers of a clothing ensemble, and the total heat loss of a human who is irradiated for a certain fraction of his or her area. The clothing ensemble that is irradiated by an external heat source is considered to be composed of underclothing, trapped air, and outer fabric. The model was experimentally tested with heat balance methods, using subjects, varying the activity, wind, and radiation characteristics of the outer garment of two-layer ensembles. In two experiments the subjects could only give off dry heat because they were wrapped in plastic foil. The model appeared to be correct within about 1 degree C (rms error) and 10 Wm-2 (rms error). In a third experiment, sweat evaporation was also taken into account, showing that the resulting physiological heat load of 10 to 30% of the intercepted additional radiation is compensated by additional sweating. The resulting heat strain was rather mild. It is concluded that the mathematical model is a valid tool for the investigation of heat transfer through two-layer ensembles in radiant environments.

  14. Loss of p14(ARF) confers resistance to heat shock- and oxidative stress-mediated cell death by upregulating β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Damalas, Alexander; Velimezi, Georgia; Kalaitzakis, Alexander; Liontos, Michalis; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Gorgoulis, Vassilis; Angelidis, Charalampos

    2011-04-15

    The p14(ARF) is a key tumor suppressor induced mainly by oncogenic stimuli. Although p14(ARF) does not seem to respond to DNA damage, there are very few data regarding its role in other forms of stress, such as heat shock (HS) and oxidative stress (OS). Here, we report that suppression of p14(ARF) increased resistance to cell death when cells were treated with H(2) O(2) or subjected to HS. In this setting, protection from cell death was mediated by elevated levels and activity of β-catenin, as downregulation of β-catenin alleviated the protective role of p14(ARF) silencing. Moreover, Hsp70 was shown to regulate β-catenin protein levels by interacting with p14(ARF) , suggesting that Hsp70, p14(ARF) and β-catenin form a regulatory network. This novel pathway triggers cell death signals when cells are exposed to HS and OS.

  15. Optimal scheduling of heat-integrated multipurpose plants

    SciTech Connect

    Papageorgiou, L.G.; Shah, N.; Pantelides, C.C. . Centre for Process Systems Engineering)

    1994-12-01

    A systematic mathematical framework for scheduling the operation of multipurpose batch/semicontinuous plants involving heat-integrated unit operations is presented. The approach advocated takes direct account of the trade-offs between maximal exploitation of heat integration and other scheduling objectives and constraints. Both direct and indirect heat integration are considered. In the former case, heat transfer takes place directly between the fluids undergoing processing in the heat-integrated unit operations, and therefore a degree of time overlap of these operations must be ensured. It is shown that this involves only relatively minor modifications to existing detailed scheduling formulations. Indirect heat integration utilizes a heat transfer medium (HTM) which acts as a mechanism both for transferring heat from one operation to another and for storing energy over time. This provides a degree of decoupling with respect to the timing of the operations involved. The mathematical formulation presented in this paper is based on a detailed characterization of the variation of the mass and energy holdups of HTM over time. In particular, it takes account of the limitations on energy storage due to heat loss to the environment. A modified branch-and-bound procedure is proposed for the solution of the resulting nonconvex mixed integer nonlinear programming problem.

  16. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... thyroid disease , can interfere with hair production and cause hair loss. People with lupus can also lose hair. The hormone imbalance that happens in polycystic ovary syndrome can cause hair loss in teen girls as well as ...

  17. Heat transfer in a compact tubular heat exchanger with helium gas at 3.5 MPa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Douglas A.; Glover, Michael P.

    1990-01-01

    A compact heat exchanger was constructed consisting of circular tubes in parallel brazed to a grooved base plate. This tube specimen heat exchanger was tested in an apparatus which radiatively heated the specimen on one side at a heat flux of up to 54 W/sq cm, and cooled the specimen with helium gas at 3.5 MPa and Reynolds numbers of 3000 to 35,000. The measured friction factor of the tube specimen was lower than that of a circular tube with fully developed turbulent flow, although the uncertainty was high due to entrance and exit losses. The measured Nusselt number, when modified to account for differences in fluid properties between the wall and the cooling fluid, agreed with past correlations for fully developed turbulent flow in circular tubes.

  18. Temperature and heat flux measurement techniques for aeroengine fire test: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, I.; Abu Talib, A. R.; Sultan, M. T. H.; Saadon, S.

    2016-10-01

    This review is made of studies whereby some types of fire test measuring instrument were compared based on their mode of operation, sensing ability, temperature resistance and their calibration mode used for aero-engine applications. The study discusses issues affecting temperature and heat flux measurement, methods of measurement, calibration and uncertainties that occur in the fire test. It is found that the temperature and heat flux measurements of the flame from the standard burner need to be corrected and taken into account for radiation heat loss. Methods for temperature and heat flux measurements, as well as uncertainties analysis, were also discussed.

  19. Alternating current losses in superconducting coils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wipf, S. L.; Guderjahn, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    Report examines relationship between coil loss and frequency and heat loss in coil as a function of the magnetic field H. Information is of value to manufacturers of superconducting magnets, motors and generators.

  20. Out of the frying pan into the air--emersion behaviour and evaporative heat loss in an amphibious mangrove fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus).

    PubMed

    Gibson, Daniel J; Sylvester, Emma V A; Turko, Andy J; Tattersall, Glenn J; Wright, Patricia A

    2015-10-01

    Amphibious fishes often emerse (leave water) when faced with unfavourable water conditions. How amphibious fishes cope with the risks of rising water temperatures may depend, in part, on the plasticity of behavioural mechanisms such as emersion thresholds. We hypothesized that the emersion threshold is reversibly plastic and thus dependent on recent acclimation history rather than on conditions during early development. Kryptolebias marmoratus were reared for 1 year at 25 or 30°C and acclimated as adults (one week) to either 25 or 30°C before exposure to an acute increase in water temperature. The emersion threshold temperature and acute thermal tolerance were significantly increased in adult fish acclimated to 30°C, but rearing temperature had no significant effect. Using a thermal imaging camera, we also showed that emersed fish in a low humidity aerial environment (30°C) lost significantly more heat (3.3°C min(-1)) than those in a high humidity environment (1.6°C min(-1)). In the field, mean relative humidity was 84%. These results provide evidence of behavioural avoidance of high temperatures and the first quantification of evaporative cooling in an amphibious fish. Furthermore, the avoidance response was reversibly plastic, flexibility that may be important for tropical amphibious fishes under increasing pressures from climatic change.

  1. Substantial reduction of the heat losses to ambient air by natural convection from horizontal in-tube flows: impact of an axial bundle of passive baffles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, A.; Cortés, C.

    This paper is concerned with a distinct and effective technique to insulate horizontal tubes carrying hot fluids without using the variety of insulating materials traditionally utilized in industry. The tubes transport hot fluids and are exposed to a natural convection environment of air at standard atmospheric temperature and pressure. Essentially, an ``equivalent quantity of insulation'' is provided by an envelope of straight symmetric baffles made from a low conductivity material that is affixed to the outer surface of the horizontal tubes. A simple 1-D lumped model of comparable precision to the customary 2-D differential model serves to regulate the thermal interaction between the two perpendicular fluid streams, one horizontal due to internal forced convection and the other vertical due to external natural convection in air. All computations are algebraic and lead to a rapid determination of the two quantities that are indispensable to design engineers: the mean bulk temperatures of the internal hot fluid moving either laminarly or turbulently, together with the degraded levels of heat transfer rates.

  2. Loss of the small heat shock protein αA-crystallin does not lead to detectable defects in early zebrafish lens development.

    PubMed

    Posner, Mason; Skiba, Jackie; Brown, Mary; Liang, Jennifer O; Nussbaum, Justin; Prior, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Alpha crystallins are small heat shock proteins essential to normal ocular lens function. They also help maintain homeostasis in many non-ocular vertebrate tissues and their expression levels change in multiple diseases of the nervous and cardiovascular system and during cancer. The specific roles that α-crystallins may play in eye development are unclear. Studies with knockout mice suggested that only one of the two mammalian α-crystallins is required for normal early lens development. However, studies in two fish species suggested that reduction of αA-crystallin alone could inhibit normal fiber cell differentiation, cause cataract and contribute to lens degeneration. In this study we used synthetic antisense morpholino oligomers to suppress the expression of zebrafish αA-crystallin to directly test the hypothesis that, unlike mammals, the zebrafish requires αA-crystallin for normal early lens development. Despite the reduction of zebrafish αA-crystallin protein to undetectable levels by western analysis through 4 days of development we found no changes in fiber cell differentiation, lens morphology or transparency. In contrast, suppression of AQP0a expression, previously shown to cause lens cataract, produced irregularly shaped lenses, delay in fiber cell differentiation and lens opacities detectable by confocal microscopy. The normal development observed in αA-crystallin deficient zebrafish embryos may reflect similarly non-essential roles for this protein in the early stages of both zebrafish and mammalian lens development. This finding has ramifications for a growing number of researchers taking advantage of the zebrafish's transparent external embryos to study vertebrate eye development. Our demonstration that lens cataracts can be visualized in three-dimensions by confocal microscopy in a living zebrafish provides a new tool for studying the causes, development and prevention of lens opacities.

  3. System for reducing heat losses from indoor swimming pools by use of automatic covers. Final report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This final report is an account of the principal activities of Lof Energy Systems, Inc. in a two-year project funded by the Energy Related Inventions Program (ERIP) of the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary objective has been the development of a fully practical and economical system for saving energy in indoor swimming pools by use of motorized covers. The goal is wide-spread use of a fully developed product, in institutional swimming pools. Four major tasks, depicted in the accompanying Performance Schedule, have been completed, and one other has been initiated and its completion committed. Principal accomplishments have been the selection and improvement of cover materials and designs, lengthening and strengthening of reels and improvements in motorized components and their control, design and installation of pool covers in full scale demonstration and evaluation of fully developed commercial system, preparation and dissemination of manuals and reports, finalization of arrangements for Underwriters Laboratory certification of products, and final report preparation and submission. Of greatest significance has been the successful demonstration of the fully developed system and the verification and reporting by an energy consultant of the large savings resulting from pool cover use. Probably the best evidence of success of the DOE-ERIP project in advancing this invention to a commercial stage is its acceptance for sale by the Lincoln Equipment Company, a national distributor of swimming pool supplies and equipment. A copy of the relevant page in the Lincoln catalog is included in this report as Annex A. Representatives of that company now offer Tof motorized pool cover systems to their pool owner customers. In addition to the plans for securing UL certification the company expects to continue making design improvements that can increase system reliability, durability, and cost-effectiveness.

  4. Accounting Fundamentals for Non-Accountants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this module is to provide an introduction and overview of accounting fundamentals for non-accountants. The module also covers important topics such as communication, internal controls, documentation and recordkeeping.

  5. GAM-HEAT -- a computer code to compute heat transfer in complex enclosures. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.E.; Taylor, J.R.; Kielpinski, A.L.; Steimke, J.L.

    1991-02-01

    The GAM-HEAT code was developed for heat transfer analyses associated with postulated Double Ended Guillotine Break Loss Of Coolant Accidents (DEGB LOCA) resulting in a drained reactor vessel. In these analyses the gamma radiation resulting from fission product decay constitutes the primary source of energy as a function of time. This energy is deposited into the various reactor components and is re- radiated as thermal energy. The code accounts for all radiant heat exchanges within and leaving the reactor enclosure. The SRS reactors constitute complex radiant exchange enclosures since there are many assemblies of various types within the primary enclosure and most of the assemblies themselves constitute enclosures. GAM-HEAT accounts for this complexity by processing externally generated view factors and connectivity matrices, and also accounts for convective, conductive, and advective heat exchanges. The code is applicable for many situations involving heat exchange between surfaces within a radiatively passive medium. The GAM-HEAT code has been exercised extensively for computing transient temperatures in SRS reactors with specific charges and control components. Results from these computations have been used to establish the need for and to evaluate hardware modifications designed to mitigate results of postulated accident scenarios, and to assist in the specification of safe reactor operating power limits. The code utilizes temperature dependence on material properties. The efficiency of the code has been enhanced by the use of an iterative equation solver. Verification of the code to date consists of comparisons with parallel efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory and with similar efforts at Westinghouse Science and Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA, and benchmarked using problems with known analytical or iterated solutions. All comparisons and tests yield results that indicate the GAM-HEAT code performs as intended.

  6. Polymorphisms of heat shock protein 70 genes (HSPA1A, HSPA1B and HSPA1L) and susceptibility of noise-induced hearing loss in a Chinese population: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanhong; Yu, Shanfa; Gu, Guizhen; Chen, Guoshun; Zheng, Yuxin; Jiao, Jie; Zhou, Wenhui; Wu, Hui; Zhang, Zengrui; Zhang, Huanling; He, Lihua; Yang, Qiuyue; Xu, Xiangrong

    2017-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is the second-most frequent form of sensorineural hearing loss. When exposed to the same noise, some workers develop NIHL while others do not, suggesting that NIHL may be associated with genetic factors. To explore the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) genes (HSPA1A, HSPA1B and HSPA1L) and susceptibility to NIHL in Han Chinese workers exposed to noise, a case-control association study was carried out with 286 hearing loss cases and 286 matched with gender, age, type of work, and exposure time, drawn from a population of 3790 noise-exposed workers. Four SNPs were selected and genotyped. Subsequently, the effects of the alleles and genotypes of the three HSP70 genes (HSPA1A, HSPA1B and HSPA1L) on NIHL were analyzed by using a conditional logistic regression. A generalized multiple dimensionality reduction (GMDR) was applied to further detect an interaction between the four SNPs. Compared with the combined genotypes CC/TC, carriers of the TT genotype of rs2763979 appeared to show greater susceptibility to NIHL (P = 0.042, adjusted OR = 1.731, 95% CI 1.021–2.935). A significant interaction between rs2763979 and CNE was found (P = 0.029), and a significant association was found between TT of s2763979 and NIHL (P = 0.024, adjusted OR = 5.694, 95%CI 1.256-25.817) in the 96 dB (A)≤CNE<101 dB (A) group. The results suggest that the rs2763979 locus of the HSP70 genes may be associated with susceptibility to NIHL in Chinese individuals, and other HSP70 genes may also be susceptibility genes for NIHL, but the results must be further replicated in additional independent sample sets. PMID:28182740

  7. Polymorphisms of heat shock protein 70 genes (HSPA1A, HSPA1B and HSPA1L) and susceptibility of noise-induced hearing loss in a Chinese population: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhong; Yu, Shanfa; Gu, Guizhen; Chen, Guoshun; Zheng, Yuxin; Jiao, Jie; Zhou, Wenhui; Wu, Hui; Zhang, Zengrui; Zhang, Huanling; He, Lihua; Yang, Qiuyue; Xu, Xiangrong

    2017-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is the second-most frequent form of sensorineural hearing loss. When exposed to the same noise, some workers develop NIHL while others do not, suggesting that NIHL may be associated with genetic factors. To explore the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) genes (HSPA1A, HSPA1B and HSPA1L) and susceptibility to NIHL in Han Chinese workers exposed to noise, a case-control association study was carried out with 286 hearing loss cases and 286 matched with gender, age, type of work, and exposure time, drawn from a population of 3790 noise-exposed workers. Four SNPs were selected and genotyped. Subsequently, the effects of the alleles and genotypes of the three HSP70 genes (HSPA1A, HSPA1B and HSPA1L) on NIHL were analyzed by using a conditional logistic regression. A generalized multiple dimensionality reduction (GMDR) was applied to further detect an interaction between the four SNPs. Compared with the combined genotypes CC/TC, carriers of the TT genotype of rs2763979 appeared to show greater susceptibility to NIHL (P = 0.042, adjusted OR = 1.731, 95% CI 1.021-2.935). A significant interaction between rs2763979 and CNE was found (P = 0.029), and a significant association was found between TT of s2763979 and NIHL (P = 0.024, adjusted OR = 5.694, 95%CI 1.256-25.817) in the 96 dB (A)≤CNE<101 dB (A) group. The results suggest that the rs2763979 locus of the HSP70 genes may be associated with susceptibility to NIHL in Chinese individuals, and other HSP70 genes may also be susceptibility genes for NIHL, but the results must be further replicated in additional independent sample sets.

  8. Accounting: Accountants Need Verbal Skill Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Bruce L.

    1978-01-01

    Verbal skills training is one aspect of accounting education not usually included in secondary and postsecondary accounting courses. The author discusses the need for verbal competency and methods of incorporating it into accounting courses, particularly a variation of the Keller plan of individualized instruction. (MF)

  9. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss in teens: Illnesses or medical conditions. Endocrine (hormonal) conditions, such as uncontrolled diabetes or thyroid disease , can interfere with hair production and cause hair loss. People with lupus can also lose hair. The hormone imbalance that happens in polycystic ovary syndrome can cause ...

  10. Pregnancy Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... and painful this loss can be. You might wonder if you'll ever have a baby to hold and call your own. But surviving the emotional impact of pregnancy loss is possible. And many women go on to have successful pregnancies. Expand all | ...

  11. Congenital hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Korver, Anna M H; Smith, Richard J H; Van Camp, Guy; Schleiss, Mark R; Bitner-Glindzicz, Maria A K; Lustig, Lawrence R; Usami, Shin-Ichi; Boudewyns, An N

    2017-01-12

    Congenital hearing loss (hearing loss that is present at birth) is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in children. In the majority of developed countries, neonatal hearing screening programmes enable early detection; early intervention will prevent delays in speech and language development and has long-lasting beneficial effects on social and emotional development and quality of life. A diagnosis of hearing loss is usually followed by a search for an underlying aetiology. Congenital hearing loss might be attributed to environmental and prenatal factors, which prevail in low-income settings; congenital infections, particularly cytomegalovirus infection, are also a common risk factor for hearing loss. Genetic causes probably account for the majority of cases in developed countries; mutations can affect any component of the hearing pathway, in particular, inner ear homeostasis (endolymph production and maintenance) and mechano-electrical transduction (the conversion of a mechanical stimulus into electrochemical activity). Once the underlying cause of hearing loss is established, it might direct therapeutic decision making and guide prevention and (genetic) counselling. Management options include specific antimicrobial therapies, surgical treatment of craniofacial abnormalities and implantable or non-implantable hearing devices. An improved understanding of the pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms that underlie hearing loss and increased awareness of recent advances in genetic testing will promote the development of new treatment and screening strategies.

  12. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  13. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  14. Memory loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003257.htm Memory loss To use the sharing features on this ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  15. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... topic was provided by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Topic last reviewed: December ... a total loss of hearing. It can be hereditary or it can result from disease, trauma, certain ...

  16. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  17. Fusion heating technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, A.J.

    1982-06-01

    John Lawson established the criterion that in order to produce more energy from fusion than is necessary to heat the plasma and replenish the radiation losses, a minimum value for both the product of plasma density and confinement time t, and the temperature must be achieved. There are two types of plasma heating: neutral beam and electromagnetic wave heating. A neutral beam system is shown. Main development work on negative ion beamlines has focused on the difficult problem of the production of high current sources. The development of a 30 keV-1 ampere multisecond source module is close to being accomplished. In electromagnetic heating, the launcher, which provides the means of coupling the power to the plasma, is most important. The status of heating development is reviewed. Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), lower hybrid heating (HHH), and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) are reviewed.

  18. Basic Comfort Heating Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempster, Chalmer T.

    The material in this beginning book for vocational students presents fundamental principles needed to understand the heating aspect of the sheet metal trade and supplies practical experience to the student so that he may become familiar with the process of determining heat loss for average structures. Six areas covered are: (1) Background…

  19. Fundamentals of heat measurement. [heat flux transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerashchenko, O. A.

    1979-01-01

    Various methods and devices for obtaining experimental data on heat flux density over wide ranges of temperature and pressure are examined. Laboratory tests and device fabrication details are supplemented by theoretical analyses of heat-conduction and thermoelectric effects, providing design guidelines and information relevant to further research and development. A theory defining the measure of correspondence between transducer signal and the measured heat flux is established for individual (isolated) heat flux transducers subject to space and time-dependent loading. An analysis of the properties of stacked (series-connected) transducers of various types (sandwich-type, plane, and spiral) is used to derive a similarity theory providing general governing relationships. The transducers examined are used in 36 types of derivative devices involving direct heat loss measurements, heat conduction studies, radiation pyrometry, calorimetry in medicine and industry and nuclear reactor dosimetry.

  20. Volatile Loss and Classification of Kuiper Belt Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. E.; Oza, A.; Young, L. A.; Volkov, A. N.; Schmidt, C.

    2015-08-01

    Observations indicate that some of the largest Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) have retained volatiles in the gas phase (e.g., Pluto), while others have surface volatiles that might support a seasonal atmosphere (e.g., Eris). Since the presence of an atmosphere can affect their reflectance spectra and thermal balance, Schaller & Brown examined the role of volatile escape driven by solar heating of the surface. Guided by recent simulations, we estimate the loss of primordial N2 for several large KBOs, accounting for escape driven by UV/EUV heating of the upper atmosphere as well as by solar heating of the surface. For the latter we present new simulations and for the former we scale recent detailed simulations of escape from Pluto using the energy limited escape model validated recently by molecular kinetic simulations. Unlike what has been assumed to date, we show that unless the N2 atmosphere is thin (<˜1018 N2 cm-2) and/or the radius small (<˜200-300 km), escape is primarily driven by the UV/EUV radiation absorbed in the upper atmosphere. This affects the discussion of the relationship between atmospheric loss and the observed surface properties for a number of the KBOs examined. Our long-term goal is to connect detailed atmospheric loss simulations with a model for volatile transport for individual KBOs.

  1. VOLATILE LOSS AND CLASSIFICATION OF KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. E.; Schmidt, C.; Oza, A.; Young, L. A.; Volkov, A. N.

    2015-08-10

    Observations indicate that some of the largest Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) have retained volatiles in the gas phase (e.g., Pluto), while others have surface volatiles that might support a seasonal atmosphere (e.g., Eris). Since the presence of an atmosphere can affect their reflectance spectra and thermal balance, Schaller and Brown examined the role of volatile escape driven by solar heating of the surface. Guided by recent simulations, we estimate the loss of primordial N{sub 2} for several large KBOs, accounting for escape driven by UV/EUV heating of the upper atmosphere as well as by solar heating of the surface. For the latter we present new simulations and for the former we scale recent detailed simulations of escape from Pluto using the energy limited escape model validated recently by molecular kinetic simulations. Unlike what has been assumed to date, we show that unless the N{sub 2} atmosphere is thin (<∼10{sup 18} N{sub 2} cm{sup −2}) and/or the radius small (<∼200–300 km), escape is primarily driven by the UV/EUV radiation absorbed in the upper atmosphere. This affects the discussion of the relationship between atmospheric loss and the observed surface properties for a number of the KBOs examined. Our long-term goal is to connect detailed atmospheric loss simulations with a model for volatile transport for individual KBOs.

  2. International Accounting and the Accounting Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laribee, Stephen F.

    The American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) has been instrumental in internationalizing the accounting curriculum by means of accreditation requirements and standards. Colleges and universities have met the AACSB requirements either by providing separate international accounting courses or by integrating international topics…

  3. Structural and heat-flow implications of infrared anomalies at Mt. Hood, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, Jules D.; Frank, David

    1977-01-01

    Surface thermal features occur in an area of 9700 m2 at Mt. Hood, on the basis of an aerial line-scan survey made April 26, 1973. The distribution of the thermal areas below the summit of Mt. Hood, shown on planimetrically corrected maps at 1:12,000, suggests structural control by a fracture system and brecciated zone peripheral to a hornblende-dacite plug dome (Crater Rock), and by a concentric fracture system that may have been associated with development of the present crater. The extent and inferred temperature of the thermal areas permits a preliminary estimate of a heat discharge of 10 megawatts, by analogy with similar fumarole and thermal fields of Mt. Baker, Washington. This figure includes a heat loss of 4 megawatts (MW) via conduction, diffusion, evaporation, and radiation to the atmosphere, and a somewhat less certain loss of 6MW via fumarolic mass transfer of vapor and advective heat loss from runoff and ice melt. The first part of the estimate is based on two-point models for differential radiant exitance and differential flux via conduction, diffusion, evaporation, and radiation from heat balance of the ground surface. Alternate methods for estimating volcanogenic geothermal flux that assume a quasi-steady state heat flow also yield estimates in the 5-11 MW range. Heat loss equivalent to cooling of the dacite plug dome is judged to be insufficient to account for the heat flux at the fumarole fields.

  4. A coupled numerical analysis of shield temperatures, heat losses and residual gas pressures in an evacuated super-insulation using thermal and fluid networks. Part III: Unsteady-state conditions (evacuation period)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, H.

    2006-12-01

    This paper analyses the evacuation period of a 300 L super-insulated cryogenic storage tank for liquid nitrogen. Storage tank and radiation shields are the same as in part I of this paper. The present analysis extends application of stationary fluid networks to unsteady-states to determine local, residual gas pressures between shields and the evacuation time of a multilayer super-insulation. Parameter tests comprise magnitude of desorption from radiation shields, spacers and container walls and their influence on length of the evacuation period. Calculation of the integrals over time-dependent desorption rates roughly confirms weight losses of radiation shields obtained after heating and out-gassing the materials, as reported in the literature. After flooding the insulation space with dry N 2-gas, the evacuation time can enormously be reduced, from 72 to 4 h, to obtain a residual gas pressure of 0.01 Pa in-between shields of this storage tank. Permeation of nitrogen through container walls is of no importance for residual gas pressures. The simulations finally compare freezing H 2O-layers adsorbed on shields, spacers and container walls with flooding of the materials.

  5. A Harmonious Accounting Duo?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schapperle, Robert F.; Hardiman, Patrick F.

    1992-01-01

    Accountants have urged "harmonization" of standards between the Governmental Accounting Standards Board and the Financial Accounting Standards Board, recommending similar reporting of like transactions. However, varying display of similar accounting events does not necessarily indicate disharmony. The potential for problems because of…

  6. Dissection of Heat Tolerance Mechanisms in Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress severely limits plant productivity and causes extensive economic loss to US agriculture. Understanding heat adaptation mechanisms in crop plants is crucial to the success of developing heat tolerant varieties. Heat waves (heat stress) often occur sporadically during the growing season o...

  7. Custom accounts receivable modeling.

    PubMed

    Veazie, J

    1994-04-01

    In hospital and clinic management, accounts are valued as units and handled equally--a $20 account receives the same minimum number of statements as a $20,000 account. Quite often, the sheer number of accounts a hospital or clinic has to handle forces executives to manage accounts by default and failure--accounts mature on an aging track and, if left unpaid by patients, eventually are sent to collections personnel. Of the bad-debt accounts placed with collections agencies, many are misclassified as charity or hardship cases, while others could be collected by hospital or clinic staff with a limited amount of additional effort.

  8. Fluid loss control differences of crosslinked and linear fracturing fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Zigrye, J.L.; Sievert, J.A.; Whitfill, D.L.

    1983-10-01

    Three fracturing fluids-a cross-linked guar, a delayed hydrating guar and a linear guar-were tested for fluid loss control at set time intervals while being conditioned in a heated, pressurized flow loop. Each fluid was tested with three different fluid loss additive systems: diesel, silica flour, and a combination of diesel and silica flour. The cross-linked system was also tested with two additional fluid loss additive systems. They were diesel plus an anionic surfactant and the combination of diesel/silica flour plus the anionic surfactant. These tests show that the fluid loss of cross-linked fracturing fluids is best controlled by using diesel in combination with a surfactant or a properly sized particulate material. The fluid loss of linear fluids is controlled best with particulate additives. Therefore, it is important to take into account the type of fracturing fluid that is being used for a particular job when planning which fluid loss additives to use.

  9. Estimates of heat stress relief needs for Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Berman, A

    2005-06-01

    Estimates of environmental heat stress are required for heat stress relief measures in cattle. Heat stress is commonly assessed by the temperature-humidity index (THI), the sum of dry and wet bulb temperatures. The THI does not include an interaction between temperature and humidity, although evaporative heat loss increases with rising air temperature. Coat, air velocity, and radiation effects also are not accounted for in the THI. The Holstein dairy cow is the primary target of heat stress relief, followed by feedlot cattle. Heat stress may be estimated for a variety of conditions by thermal balance models. The models consist of animal-specific data (BW, metabolic heat production, tissue and coat insulation, skin water loss, coat depth, and minimal and maximal tidal volumes) and of general heat exchange equations. A thermal balance simulation model was modified to adapt it for Holstein cows by using Holstein data for the animal characteristics in the model, and was validated by comparing its outputs to experimental data. Model outputs include radiant, convective, skin evaporative, respiratory heat loss and rate of change of body temperature. Effects of milk production (35 and 45 kg/d), hair coat depth (3 and 6 mm), air temperature (20 to 45 degrees C), air velocity (0.2 to 2.0 m/s), air humidity (0.8 to 3.9 kPa), and exposed body surface (100, 75, and 50%) on thermal balance outputs were examined. Environmental conditions at which respiratory heat loss attained approximately 50% of its maximal value were defined as thresholds for intermediate heat stress. Air velocity increased and humidity significantly decreased threshold temperatures, particularly at higher coat depth. The effect of air velocity was amplified at high humidity. Increasing milk production from 35 to 45 kg/d decreased threshold temperature by 5 degrees C. In the lying cow, the lower air velocity in the proximity of body surface and the smaller exposed surface markedly decrease threshold

  10. Technique of multilevel adjustment calculation of the heat-hydraulic mode of the major heat supply systems with the intermediate control stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokarev, V. V.; Shalaginova, Z. I.

    2016-01-01

    A new technique for heat-hydraulic calculation to organize the normal operating modes of the heat supply systems intended to decide the tasks of planning and mode selecting, which ensures the required thermal loads at adherence of all restrictions on its parameters, is proposed. The main feature of the technique is in the determination of the parameters of throttling devices on the network and inlets into the buildings of consumers taking into account the differentiated corrections to the flow rates on the compensation of the heat losses in the network. The technique involves the decision of the multilevel adjustment calculation task, in which the deviations of the boundary mode parameters (pressure, flow rate, temperature) in place of the decomposition of the heat supply system model on the levels of main and distribution heating networks taking into account the intermediate control stages on the central heat points (CHP) are minimized. At each level, the task of single-level adjustment heat-hydraulic calculation is decided, which is mathematically defined as an optimization task where the internal air temperature deviation is minimized of the required value with the given accuracy a priori. The technique is realized as part of the ANGARA-TS data-computing system and allows developing the adjusting procedures to improve the heat supply quality and availability of heating consumers, determining the minimum necessary values of heads on the sources and pumping stations.

  11. Heating of solar and stellar chromospheres and coronae by MHD waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1992-01-01

    The two general classes of models that deal with the required heating of stellar chromospheres and coronae assume that outer stellar atmospheres are heated by hydrodynamic or by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves and that these waves are generated by turbulent motions in the stellar convection zones. This paper considers the types of MHD waves and the source of these waves in stars like sun, the efficiency of the generation of MHD waves, and the manner of propagation and energy dissipation of MHD waves. It is shown that the basic criteria for the validity of any theory of MHD wave heating must account for the mean level of heating observed in stellar chromospheres and coronae, and for the range of radiative losses observed for a given spectral type. It is also required that the MHD wave heating theory accounts for the existence of inhomogeneities in stellar atmospheres. The results obtained indicate that magnetic tube waves might supply enough energy for the chromospheric and coronal heating and might also account for the observed range of variations of stellar radiative losses for a given spectral type.

  12. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and an indoor design temperature of 70 F, including internal and external ducts, and excluding infiltration, ventilation and condensation control, shall not exceed the Btu/(hr.) (sq. ft.) (F) of the... shall be provided with thermal insulation. (c) Manufactured homes designed for Uo Value Zone 3 shall...

  13. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... certain diseases, such as thyroid problems, diabetes, or lupus. If you take certain medicines or have chemotherapy for cancer, you may also lose your hair. Other causes are stress, a low protein diet, a family history, or poor nutrition. Treatment for hair loss depends ...

  14. Limb Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... limb. Learning how to use it takes time. Physical therapy can help you adapt. Recovery from the loss of a limb can be hard. Sadness, anger, and frustration are common. If you are having a tough time, talk to your doctor. Treatment with medicine or counseling can help.

  15. LMAL Accounting Office 1936

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1936-01-01

    Accounting Office: The Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory's accounting office, 1936, with photographs of the Wright brothers on the wall. Although the Lab was named after Samuel P. Langley, most of the NACA staff held the Wrights as their heroes.

  16. Calculation of prompt loss and toroidal field ripple loss under neutral beam injection on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bin; Hao, Baolong; White, Roscoe; Wang, Jinfang; Zang, Qing; Han, Xiaofeng; Hu, Chundong

    2017-02-01

    Neutral beam injection is a major auxiliary heating method in the EAST experimental campaign. This paper gives detailed calculations of beam loss with different plasma equilibria using the guiding center code ORBIT and NUBEAM/TRANSP. Increasing plasma current can dramatically lower the beam ion prompt loss and ripple loss. Countercurrent beam injection gives a much larger prompt loss fraction than co-injection, and ripple-induced collisionless stochastic diffusion is the dominant loss channel.

  17. Calculation of prompt loss and toroidal field ripple loss under neutral beam injection on EAST

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Bin; Hao, Baolong; White, Roscoe; ...

    2016-12-09

    Here, neutral beam injection is a major auxiliary heating method in the EAST experimental campaign. This paper gives detailed calculations of beam loss with different plasma equilibria using the guiding center code ORBIT and NUBEAM/TRANSP. Increasing plasma current can dramatically lower the beam ion prompt loss and ripple loss. Countercurrent beam injection gives a much larger prompt loss fraction than co-injection, and ripple-induced collisionless stochastic diffusion is the dominant loss channel.

  18. Intelligent Accountability in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Onora

    2013-01-01

    Systems of accountability are "second order" ways of using evidence of the standard to which "first order" tasks are carried out for a great variety of purposes. However, more accountability is not always better, and processes of holding to account can impose high costs without securing substantial benefits. At their worst,…

  19. Accounting Education in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Karen F.; Reed, Ronald O.; Greiman, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Almost on a daily basis new accounting rules and laws are put into use, creating information that must be known and learned by the accounting faculty and then introduced to and understood by the accounting student. Even with the 150 hours of education now required for CPA licensure, it is impossible to teach and learn all there is to learn. Over…

  20. Automated Accounting. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Duane R.

    This curriculum guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting College Edition Version 2.0 software in their accounting programs. The module consists of four units containing assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting. The first…

  1. Accounting & Computing Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avani, Nathan T.; And Others

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching a competency-based accounting and computing course that is designed to prepare students for employability in the following occupational areas: inventory control clerk, invoice clerk, payroll clerk, traffic clerk, general ledger bookkeeper, accounting clerk, account information clerk,…

  2. The Accounting Capstone Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Henry; Norris, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Capstone courses in accounting programs bring students experiences integrating across the curriculum (University of Washington, 2005) and offer unique (Sanyal, 2003) and transformative experiences (Sill, Harward, & Cooper, 2009). Students take many accounting courses without preparing complete sets of financial statements. Accountants not only…

  3. Utilizing thermal isostasy to estimate sub-lithospheric heat flow and anomalous crustal radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasterok, D.; Gard, M.

    2016-09-01

    While surface heat flow relates to the heat loss through the lithosphere, it can be difficult to quantify and separate the heat produced internally through radiogenic decay from the heat transferred across the base of the lithosphere by mantle convection. In this study, we apply a thermo-isostatic analysis to Australia and estimate the sub-lithospheric and radiogenic heat flow components by employing a simple 1-D conservation of energy model. We estimate an anomalous radiogenic heat production across much of eastern Australia generally accounting for >50 mW m-2, while western Australia appears to have high crustal compositionally corrected elevation, possibly related to chemical buoyancy of the mantle lithosphere. A moderately high sub-lithospheric heat flow (∼40 mW m-2) along the eastern and southeastern coast, including Tasmania, is coincident with locations of Cenozoic volcanism and supports an edge-driven convection hypothesis. However, the pattern of sub-lithospheric heat flow along the margin does not support the existence of hotspot tracks. Thermo-isostatic models such as these improve our ability to identify and quantify crustal from mantle sources of heat loss and add valuable constraints on tectonic and geodynamic models of the continental lithosphere's physical state and evolution.

  4. Accounting: "Balancing Out" the Accounting Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Coleen

    1979-01-01

    The vocational accounting laboratory is a viable, meaningful educational experience for high school seniors, due to the uniqueness of its educational approach and the direct involvement of the professional and business community. A balance of experiences is provided to match individual needs and goals of students. (CT)

  5. Heat Islands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  6. Individual Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Andersen, Ture; Poulsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR), held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2015. The following collection of papers results from some of the work that was presented and discussed at the symposium. PMID:27566802

  7. Experimental investigations of uncovered-bundle heat transfer and two-phase mixture-level swell under high-pressure low heat-flux conditions. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T. M.; Miller, R. J.; White, M. D.

    1982-03-01

    Results are reported from a series of uncovered-bundle heat transfer and mixture-level swell tests. Experimental testing was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF). The THTF is an electrically heated bundle test loop configured to produce conditions similar to those in a small-break loss-of-coolant accident. The objective of heat transfer testing was to acquire heat transfer coefficients and fluid conditions in a partially uncovered bundle. Testing was performed in a quasi-steady-state mode with the heated core 30 to 40% uncovered. Linear heat rates varied from 0.32 to 2.22 kW/m.rod (0.1 to 0.68 kW/ft.rod). Under these conditions peak clad temperatures in excess of 1050 K (1430/sup 0/F) were observed, and total heat transfer coefficients ranged from 0.0045 to 0.037 W/cm/sup 2/.K (8 to 65 Btu/h.ft/sup 2/./sup 0/F). Spacer grids were observed to enhance heat transfer at, and downstream of, the grid. Radiation heat transfer was calculated to account for as much as 65% of total heat transfer in low-flow tests.

  8. Chemical heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Leonard

    1980-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  9. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. Findikakis

    2004-11-01

    water. For temperatures in the trans-boiling regime (95 C to 114 C), the additional energy required to vaporize the pore water is accounted for in the rock-mass heat capacity. The rock-grain heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that explicitly account for the thermodynamic effects of the water within the rock porosity. The rock-mass heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that do not explicitly account for these thermodynamic effects, particularly boiling. The term specific heat is often used synonymously with heat capacity; however, the latter term is used throughout this document.

  10. Two Dimensional Heat Transfer around Penetrations in Multilayer Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wesley L.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Jumper, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this task was to quantify thermal losses involving integrating MLI into real life situations. Testing specifically focused on the effects of penetrations (including structural attachments, electrical conduit/feedthroughs, and fluid lines) through MLI. While there have been attempts at quantifying these losses both analytically and experimentally, none have included a thorough investigation of the methods and materials that could be used in such applications. To attempt to quantify the excess heat load coming into the system due to the integration losses, a calorimeter was designed to study two dimensional heat transfer through penetrated MLI. The test matrix was designed to take as many variables into account as was possible with the limited test duration and system size. The parameters varied were the attachment mechanism, the buffer material (for buffer attachment mechanisms only), the thickness of the buffer, and the penetration material. The work done under this task is an attempt to measure the parasitic heat loads and affected insulation areas produced by system integration, to model the parasitic loads, and from the model produce engineering equations to allow for the determination of parasitic heat loads in future applications. The methods of integration investigated were no integration, using a buffer to thermally isolate the strut from the MLI, and temperature matching the MLI on the strut. Several materials were investigated as a buffer material including aerogel blankets, aerogel bead packages, cryolite, and even an evacuated vacuum space (in essence a no buffer condition).

  11. Emerging accounting trends accounting for leases.

    PubMed

    Valletta, Robert; Huggins, Brian

    2010-12-01

    A new model for lease accounting can have a significant impact on hospitals and healthcare organizations. The new approach proposes a "right-of-use" model that involves complex estimates and significant administrative burden. Hospitals and health systems that draw heavily on lease arrangements should start preparing for the new approach now even though guidance and a final rule are not expected until mid-2011. This article highlights a number of considerations from the lessee point of view.

  12. 14 CFR Sec. 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-4 System of accounts coding. (a) A four digit control number is... digit code assigned to each profit and loss account denote a detailed area of financial activity or... sequentially within blocks, designating more general classifications of financial activity and...

  13. Alfvén Wave Heating of the Solar Chromosphere: 1.5D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arber, T. D.; Brady, C. S.; Shelyag, S.

    2016-02-01

    Physical processes that may lead to solar chromospheric heating are analyzed using high-resolution 1.5D non-ideal MHD modeling. We demonstrate that it is possible to heat the chromospheric plasma by direct resistive dissipation of high-frequency Alfvén waves through Pedersen resistivity. However, this is unlikely to be sufficient to balance radiative and conductive losses unless unrealistic field strengths or photospheric velocities are used. The precise heating profile is determined by the input driving spectrum, since in 1.5D there is no possibility of Alfvén wave turbulence. The inclusion of the Hall term does not affect the heating rates. If plasma compressibility is taken into account, shocks are produced through the ponderomotive coupling of Alfvén waves to slow modes and shock heating dominates the resistive dissipation. In 1.5D shock coalescence amplifies the effects of shocks, and for compressible simulations with realistic driver spectra, the heating rate exceeds that required to match radiative and conductive losses. Thus, while the heating rates for these 1.5D simulations are an overestimate, they do show that ponderomotive coupling of Alfvén waves to sound waves is more important in chromospheric heating than Pedersen dissipation through ion-neutral collisions.

  14. ALFVÉN WAVE HEATING OF THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE: 1.5D MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Arber, T. D.; Brady, C. S.; Shelyag, S.

    2016-02-01

    Physical processes that may lead to solar chromospheric heating are analyzed using high-resolution 1.5D non-ideal MHD modeling. We demonstrate that it is possible to heat the chromospheric plasma by direct resistive dissipation of high-frequency Alfvén waves through Pedersen resistivity. However, this is unlikely to be sufficient to balance radiative and conductive losses unless unrealistic field strengths or photospheric velocities are used. The precise heating profile is determined by the input driving spectrum, since in 1.5D there is no possibility of Alfvén wave turbulence. The inclusion of the Hall term does not affect the heating rates. If plasma compressibility is taken into account, shocks are produced through the ponderomotive coupling of Alfvén waves to slow modes and shock heating dominates the resistive dissipation. In 1.5D shock coalescence amplifies the effects of shocks, and for compressible simulations with realistic driver spectra, the heating rate exceeds that required to match radiative and conductive losses. Thus, while the heating rates for these 1.5D simulations are an overestimate, they do show that ponderomotive coupling of Alfvén waves to sound waves is more important in chromospheric heating than Pedersen dissipation through ion–neutral collisions.

  15. Loss and Transcendence Life Themes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weenolsen, Patricia

    Psychologists have often observed an underlying pattern or theme in the accounts that individuals give of their lives. To test a humanistic-existential approach to human development, 48 women were interviewed with the Loss and Transcendence (L/T) Life History Form. The L/T Life Theme is expressed in two ways: the expanded version includes the…

  16. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  17. Leadership for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    2001-01-01

    This document explores issues of leadership for accountability and reviews five resources on the subject. These include: (1) "Accountability by Carrots and Sticks: Will Incentives and Sanctions Motivate Students, Teachers, and Administrators for Peak Performance?" (Larry Lashway); (2) "Organizing Schools for Teacher Learning"…

  18. The Choreography of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2006-01-01

    The prevailing performance discourse in education claims school improvements can be achieved through transparent accountability procedures. The article identifies how teachers generate performances of their work in order to satisfy accountability demands. By identifying sources of teachers' knowledge that produce choreographed performances, I…

  19. Cluster Guide. Accounting Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaverton School District 48, OR.

    Based on a recent task inventory of key occupations in the accounting cluster taken in the Portland, Oregon, area, this curriculum guide is intended to assist administrators and teachers in the design and implementation of high school accounting cluster programs. The guide is divided into four major sections: program organization and…

  20. The Accountability Illusion: Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  1. The Accountability Illusion: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  2. The Accountability Illusion: Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  3. The Accountability Illusion: Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  4. The Accountability Illusion: Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  5. The Evolution of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Campus 2020: Thinking ahead is a policy in British Columbia (BC), Canada, that attempted to hold universities accountable to performance. Within, I demonstrate how this Canadian articulation of educational accountability intended to develop "governmentality constellations" to control the university and regulate its knowledge output. This…

  6. The Coming Accounting Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Tim V.

    2007-01-01

    The accounting profession is facing a potential crisis not only from the overall shortage of accounting faculty driven by smaller numbers of new faculty entering the profession as many existing faculty retire but also from changes that have been less well documented. This includes: (1) changes in attitude towards the roles of teaching, service and…

  7. Accountability in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chippendale, P. R., Ed.; Wilkes, Paula V., Ed.

    This collection of papers delivered at a conference on accountability held at Darling Downs Institute of Advanced Education in Australia examines the meaning of accountability in education for teachers, lecturers, government, parents, administrators, education authorities, and the society at large. In Part 1, W. G. Walker attempts to answer the…

  8. The Accountability Illusion: Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  9. Heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilli, P. V.

    1982-11-01

    Heat pumps for residential/commercial space heating and hot tap water make use of free energy of direct or indirect solar heat and save from about 40 to about 70 percent of energy if compared to a conventional heating system with the same energy basis. In addition, the electrically driven compressor heat pump is able to substitute between 40% (bivalent alternative operation) to 100% (monovalent operation) of the fuel oil of an oilfired heating furnace. For average Central European conditions, solar space heating systems with high solar coverage factor show the following sequence of increasing cost effectiveness: pure solar systems (without heat pumps); heat pump assisted solar systems; solar assisted heat pump systems; subsoil/water heat pumps; air/water heat pumps; air/air heat pumps.

  10. Antarctic sea ice losses drive gains in benthic carbon drawdown.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D K A

    2015-09-21

    Climate forcing of sea-ice losses from the Arctic and West Antarctic are blueing the poles. These losses are accelerating, reducing Earth's albedo and increasing heat absorption. Subarctic forest (area expansion and increased growth) and ice-shelf losses (resulting in new phytoplankton blooms which are eaten by benthos) are the only significant described negative feedbacks acting to counteract the effects of increasing CO2 on a warming planet, together accounting for uptake of ∼10(7) tonnes of carbon per year. Most sea-ice loss to date has occurred over polar continental shelves, which are richly, but patchily, colonised by benthic animals. Most polar benthos feeds on microscopic algae (phytoplankton), which has shown increased blooms coincident with sea-ice losses. Here, growth responses of Antarctic shelf benthos to sea-ice losses and phytoplankton increases were investigated. Analysis of two decades of benthic collections showed strong increases in annual production of shelf seabed carbon in West Antarctic bryozoans. These were calculated to have nearly doubled to >2x10(5) tonnes of carbon per year since the 1980s. Annual production of bryozoans is median within wider Antarctic benthos, so upscaling to include other benthos (combined study species typically constitute ∼3% benthic biomass) suggests an increased drawdown of ∼2.9x10(6) tonnes of carbon per year. This drawdown could become sequestration because polar continental shelves are typically deeper than most modern iceberg scouring, bacterial breakdown rates are slow, and benthos is easily buried. To date, most sea-ice losses have been Arctic, so, if hyperboreal benthos shows a similar increase in drawdown, polar continental shelves would represent Earth's largest negative feedback to climate change.

  11. 77 FR 43542 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards Pension Harmonization Rule AGENCY: Cost Accounting... correcting amendments. SUMMARY: The Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting...

  12. Numerical modeling of the thermoelectric cooler with a complementary equation for heat circulation in air gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, En; Wu, Xiaojie; Yu, Yuesen; Xiu, Junrui

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical model is developed by combining thermodynamics with heat transfer theory. Taking inner and external multi-irreversibility into account, it is with a complementary equation for heat circulation in air gaps of a steady cooling system with commercial thermoelectric modules operating in refrigeration mode. With two modes concerned, the equation presents the heat flowing through air gaps which forms heat circulations between both sides of thermoelectric coolers (TECs). In numerical modelling, a TEC is separated as two temperature controlled constant heat flux reservoirs in a thermal resistance network. In order to obtain the parameter values, an experimental apparatus with a commercial thermoelectric cooler was built to characterize the performance of a TEC with heat source and sink assembly. At constant power dissipation, steady temperatures of heat source and both sides of the thermoelectric cooler were compared with those in a standard numerical model. The method displayed that the relationship between Φf and the ratio Φ_{c}'/Φ_{c} was linear as expected. Then, for verifying the accuracy of proposed numerical model, the data in another system were recorded. It is evident that the experimental results are in good agreement with simulation(proposed model) data at different heat transfer rates. The error is small and mainly results from the instabilities of thermal resistances with temperature change and heat flux, heat loss of the device vertical surfaces and measurements.

  13. Human Resource Accounting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    I AD-RI54 787 HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 1/2 F MONTEREY CR J C MARTINS DEC 84 1UNCLASSIFIED /G 5/9 NL -~~ .. 2. . L...Monterey, California JUN1im THESISG HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING by Joaquim C. Martins LLJ.. December 1984 Thesis Advisor: R.A. McGonigal Approved for...REPORT & PECRI00 COVERED Master’s Thesis; Human Resource Accounting Dcme 94- ’ 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTOR(*) . CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER

  14. Heat Pipes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction, function, and applications of heat pipes. Suggests using the heat pipe to teach principles related to heat transfer and gives sources for obtaining instructional kits for this purpose. (GS)

  15. Ideas for the Accounting Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerby, Debra; Romine, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Innovative ideas for accounting education include having students study accounting across historical periods, using businesses for student research, exploring nontraditional accounting careers, and collaborating with professional associations. (SK)

  16. Adjoint-based constrained topology optimization for viscous flows, including heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontoleontos, E. A.; Papoutsis-Kiachagias, E. M.; Zymaris, A. S.; Papadimitriou, D. I.; Giannakoglou, K. C.

    2013-08-01

    In fluid mechanics, topology optimization is used for designing flow passages, connecting predefined inlets and outlets, with optimal performance based on selected criteria. In this article, the continuous adjoint approach to topology optimization in incompressible ducted flows with heat transfer is presented. A variable porosity field, to be determined during the optimization, is the means to define the optimal topology. The objective functions take into account viscous losses and the amount of heat transfer. Turbulent flows are handled using the Spalart-Allmaras model and the proposed adjoint is exact, i.e. the adjoint to the turbulence model equation is formulated and solved, too. This is an important novelty in this article which extends the porosity-based method to account for heat transfer flow problems in turbulent flows. In problems such as the design of manifolds, constraints on the outlet flow direction, rates and mean outlet temperatures are imposed.

  17. Readability of Accounting Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razek, Joseph R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This article describes the results of a survey of the readability of most of the intermediate and advanced accounting textbooks currently in use at colleges and universities throughout the United States. (CT)

  18. Accounting Equals Applied Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sondra

    1997-01-01

    Argues that students should be given mathematics credits for completing accounting classes. Demonstrates that, although the terminology is different, the mathematical concepts are the same as those used in an introductory algebra class. (JOW)

  19. The unified cycle model of a class of solar-driven heat engines and their optimum performance characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yue; Lin, Bihong; Chen, Jincan

    2005-04-01

    The unified cycle model of a class of solar-driven heat engines is presented, in which the heat loss of the solar collector and the external and internal irreversibilities of the heat engine are taken into account and used to investigate the optimal performance of the cyclic system. The maximum overall efficiency of the system is calculated. The optimally operating temperature of the solar collector, the optimal temperatures of the cyclic working substance, and the optimal ratio of the heat-transfer areas of the heat engine are determined. The influence of the heat loss of the solar collector and the external and internal irreversibilities of the heat engine on the cyclic performance is discussed in detail. Some important characteristic curves are given. It is more important that the results obtained from the unified cycle model are very general and useful, from which the optimal performance of the solar-driven Brayton, Braysson, and Carnot heat engines and some solar-driven heat engines can be directly derived.

  20. Absorption-heat-pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  1. 18 CFR 367.1840 - Account 184, Clearing accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1840 Account 184, Clearing accounts. This account must include undistributed balances in clearing accounts at the date of the balance sheet... accounts. 367.1840 Section 367.1840 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  2. A water and heat management model for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.V.; White, R.E. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    Proper water and heat management are essential for obtaining high-power-density performance at high energy efficiency for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells. A water and heat management model was developed and used to investigate the effectiveness of various humidification designs. The model accounts for water transport across the membrane by electro-osmosis and diffusion, heat transfer from the solid phase to the gas phase and latent heat associated with water evaporation and condensation in the flow channels. Results from the model showed that at high current (> 1A/cm[sup 2]) ohmic loss in the membrane accounts for a large fraction of the voltage loss in the cell and back diffusion of water from the cathode side of the membrane is insufficient to keep the membrane hydrated (i.e., conductive). Consequently, to minimize this ohmic loss the anode stream must be humidified, and when air is used instead of pure oxygen the cathode stream must also be humidified.

  3. NCSX Plasma Heating Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H. W.; Spong, D.; Majeski, R.; Zarnstorff, M.

    2008-01-18

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral beam injection, and radio-frequency (rf). Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, neutral beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The experimental plan requires 3 MW of 50-keV balanced neutral beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 ms for initial experiments, to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 s. Subsequent upgrades will add 3MW of neutral beam injection (NBI). This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M NBI system. In addition, estimations are given for beam heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size and magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of rf heating by mode conversion ion Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the rf system lend themselves to current drive, so if current drive became desirable for any reason, only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The rf system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possiblyIBW-generated sheared flows.

  4. Accounting for the environment.

    PubMed

    Lutz, E; Munasinghe, M

    1991-03-01

    Environmental awareness in the 1980s has led to efforts to improve the current UN System of National Accounts (SNA) for better measurement of the value of environmental resources when estimating income. National governments, the UN, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank are interested in solving this issue. The World Bank relies heavily on national aggregates in income accounts compiled by means of the SNA that was published in 1968 and stressed gross domestic product (GDP). GDP measures mainly market activity, but it takes does not consider the consumption of natural capital, and indirectly inhibits sustained development. The deficiencies of the current method of accounting are inconsistent treatment of manmade and natural capital, the omission of natural resources and their depletion from balance sheets, and pollution cleanup costs from national income. In the calculation of GDP pollution is overlooked, and beneficial environmental inputs are valued at zero. The calculation of environmentally adjusted net domestic product (EDP) and environmentally adjusted net income (ENI) would lower income and growth rate, as the World Resources Institute found with respect to Indonesia for 1971-84. When depreciation for oil, timber, and top soil was included the net domestic product (NDP) was only 4% compared with a 7.1% GDP. The World Bank has advocated environmental accounting since 1983 in SNA revisions. The 1989 revised Blue Book of the SNA takes environment concerns into account. Relevant research is under way in Mexico and Papua New Guinea using the UN Statistical Office framework as a system for environmentally adjusted economic accounts that computes EDP and ENI and integrates environmental data with national accounts while preserving SNA concepts.

  5. A Prototype Flux-Plate Heat-Flow Sensor for Venus Surface Heat-Flow Determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Paul; Reyes, Celso; Smrekar, Suzanne E.

    2005-01-01

    Venus is the most Earth-like planet in the Solar System in terms of size, and the densities of the two planets are almost identical when selfcompression of the two planets is taken into account. Venus is the closest planet to Earth, and the simplest interpretation of their similar densities is that their bulk compositions are almost identical. Models of the thermal evolution of Venus predict interior temperatures very similar to those indicated for the regions of Earth subject to solid-state convection, but even global analyses of the coarse Pioneer Venus elevation data suggest Venus does not lose heat by the same primary heat loss mechanism as Earth, i.e., seafloor spreading. The comparative paucity of impact craters on Venus has been interpreted as evidence for relatively recent resurfacing of the planet associated with widespread volcanic and tectonic activity. The difference in the gross tectonic styles of Venus and Earth, and the origins of some of the enigmatic volcano-tectonic features on Venus, such as the coronae, appear to be intrinsically related to Venus heat loss mechanism(s). An important parameter in understanding Venus geological evolution, therefore, is its present surface heat flow. Before the complications of survival in the hostile Venus surface environment were tackled, a prototype fluxplate heat-flow sensor was built and tested for use under synthetic stable terrestrial surface conditions. The design parameters for this prototype were that it should operate on a conforming (sand) surface, with a small, self-contained power and recording system, capable of operating without servicing for at least several days. The precision and accuracy of the system should be < 5 mW/sq m. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  6. Effect of the load size on the efficiency of microwave heating under stop flow and continuous flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Patil, Narendra G; Rebrov, Evgeny V; Eränen, Kari; Benaskar, Faysal; Meuldijk, Jan; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka; Hessel, Volker; Hulshof, Lumbertus A; Murzin, Dmitry Yu; Schouten, Jaap C

    2012-01-01

    A novel heating efficiency analysis of the microwave heated stop-flow (i.e. stagnant liquid) and continuous-flow reactors has been presented. The thermal losses to the surrounding air by natural convection have been taken into account for heating efficiency calculation of the microwave heating process. The effect of the load diameter in the range of 4-29 mm on the heating efficiency of ethylene glycol was studied in a single mode microwave cavity under continuous flow and stop-flow conditions. The variation of the microwave absorbing properties of the load with temperature was estimated. Under stop-flow conditions, the heating efficiency depends on the load diameter. The highest heating efficiency has been observed at the load diameter close to the half wavelength of the electromagnetic field in the corresponding medium. Under continuous-flow conditions, the heating efficiency increased linearly. However, microwave leakage above the propagation diameter restricted further experimentation at higher load diameters. Contrary to the stop-flow conditions, the load temperature did not raise monotonously from the inlet to outlet under continuous-flow conditions. This was due to the combined effect of lagging convective heat fluxes in comparison to volumetric heating. This severely disturbs the uniformity of the electromagnetic field in the axial direction and creates areas of high and low field intensity along the load Length decreasing the heating efficiency as compared to stop-flow conditions.

  7. Thinking about Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Accountability is a key component of healthcare reforms, in Canada and internationally, but there is increasing recognition that one size does not fit all. A more nuanced understanding begins with clarifying what is meant by accountability, including specifying for what, by whom, to whom and how. These papers arise from a Partnership for Health System Improvement (PHSI), funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), on approaches to accountability that examined accountability across multiple healthcare subsectors in Ontario. The partnership features collaboration among an interdisciplinary team, working with senior policy makers, to clarify what is known about best practices to achieve accountability under various circumstances. This paper presents our conceptual framework. It examines potential approaches (policy instruments) and postulates that their outcomes may vary by subsector depending upon (a) the policy goals being pursued, (b) governance/ownership structures and relationships and (c) the types of goods and services being delivered, and their production characteristics (e.g., contestability, measurability and complexity). PMID:25305385

  8. Heat Rash

    MedlinePlus

    ... clear up the heat rash?Should I use diaper ointment on my child?What caused my heat rash?Should I stop exercising until the heat rash clears up?What is the best way to prevent heat rash? Last Updated: April 2014 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Tags: ...

  9. Heat and freshwater budgets of the Nordic seas computed from atmospheric reanalysis and ocean observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segtnan, O. H.; Furevik, T.; Jenkins, A. D.

    2011-11-01

    The heat and freshwater budgets of the Nordic seas are computed from atmospheric reanalysis data and ocean observations, mainly taken during the period 1990-1999. The total heat loss is 198 TW and the freshwater gain 52 mSv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1), with residuals equal to 1 TW and 3 mSv, respectively. Budgets are also computed for three subregions within the Nordic seas: the Norwegian Sea, the Barents Sea and the Greenland/Iceland Sea. Without accounting for transfer of heat and freshwater across the Arctic Front, which separates the Greenland/Iceland Sea from the Norwegian Sea, the residuals of the heat and freshwater budgets range from -36 TW to 34 TW and from -16 mSv to 19 mSv, respectively. To close the budgets of all subregions cross-frontal fluxes of -35 TW and 17 mSv, caused either by eddy shedding along the Arctic Front or ocean currents not accounted for, must be included. Combined with observations of the average temperature and salinity on both sides of the Arctic Front these values indicate a rate of cross-frontal water exchange of approximately 4 Sv. The most intense water mass modifications occur in the Norwegian Sea, where ocean heat loss and freshwater input are equal to 119 TW and 41 mSv, respectively.

  10. Radiative losses of a birdcage resonator.

    PubMed

    Harpen, M D

    1993-05-01

    We present a derivation of the losses in a birdcage resonator due to radiation. We also present an expression for the radiation limited Q. It is shown that in head coil imaging at 63 MHz radiative losses may account for 20% of the total loss with a radiation limited Q on the order of 150. The results are shown to be consistent with those reported in the recent literature.

  11. Cyclic high temperature heat storage using borehole heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boockmeyer, Anke; Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The transition of the German energy supply towards mainly renewable energy sources like wind or solar power, termed "Energiewende", makes energy storage a requirement in order to compensate their fluctuating production and to ensure a reliable energy and power supply. One option is to store heat in the subsurface using borehole heat exchangers (BHEs). Efficiency of thermal storage is increasing with increasing temperatures, as heat at high temperatures is more easily injected and extracted than at temperatures at ambient levels. This work aims at quantifying achievable storage capacities, storage cycle times, injection and extraction rates as well as thermal and hydraulic effects induced in the subsurface for a BHE storage site in the shallow subsurface. To achieve these aims, simulation of these highly dynamic storage sites is performed. A detailed, high-resolution numerical simulation model was developed, that accounts for all BHE components in geometrical detail and incorporates the governing processes. This model was verified using high quality experimental data and is shown to achieve accurate simulation results with excellent fit to the available experimental data, but also leads to large computational times due to the large numerical meshes required for discretizing the highly transient effects. An approximate numerical model for each type of BHE (single U, double U and coaxial) that reduces the number of elements and the simulation time significantly was therefore developed for use in larger scale simulations. The approximate numerical model still includes all BHE components and represents the temporal and spatial temperature distribution with a deviation of less than 2% from the fully discretized model. Simulation times are reduced by a factor of ~10 for single U-tube BHEs, ~20 for double U-tube BHEs and ~150 for coaxial BHEs. This model is then used to investigate achievable storage capacity, injection and extraction rates as well as induced effects for

  12. Called to Account: New Directions in School Accountability. Quality Counts. Education Week. Volume 35, Number 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Virginia B., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    For the past decade and a half, the fight to improve America's schools has been fought largely on two fronts: academic standards as one battleground, and accountability the other, with the issue of mandatory testing adding heat to a very public--and increasingly politicized--debate. The questions for policymakers and educators are as direct as…

  13. Tidal Heating in Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Jennifer; Wisdom, J.

    2007-07-01

    The heating in Enceladus in an equilibrium resonant configuration with other saturnian satellites can be estimated independently of the physical properties of Enceladus. Our results update the values obtained for the equilibrium tidal heating found by Lissauer et al. (1984) and Peale (2003). We find that equilibrium tidal heating cannot account for the heat that is observed to be coming from Enceladus, and current heating rates are even less for conventional estimates of the Love number for Enceladus. Even allowing for a much larger dynamic Love number, as can occur in viscoelastic models (Ross and Schubert, 1989), the equilibrium tidal heating is less than the heat observed to be coming from Enceladus. One resolution is that the tidal equilibrium is unstable and that the system oscillates about equilibrium. Yoder (1981) suggested that Enceladus might oscillate about equilibrium if the Q of Enceladus is stress dependent. An alternate suggestion was made by Ojakangas and Stevenson (1986), who emphasized the possible temperature dependence of Q. In these models Enceladus would now be releasing heat stored during a recent high eccentricity phase. However, we have shown that the Ojakangas and Stevenson model does not produce oscillations for parameters appropriate for Enceladus. Other low-order resonance configurations are possible for the saturnian satellites in the past. These include the 3:2 Mimas-Enceladus and the 3:4 Enceladus-Tethys resonances. The latter resonance has no equilibrium because the orbits are diverging, and the former has an equilibrium heating rate of only 0.48 GW. So equilibrium heating at past resonances is no more successful at explaining past resurfacing events than equilibrium heating is at explaining the present activity.

  14. Irreversible Heating Measurement with Microsecond Pulse Magnet: Example of the α-θ Phase Transition of Solid Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Toshihiro; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H.; Takeyama, Shojiro; Kobayashi, Tatsuo C.

    2016-09-01

    Dissipation inevitably occurs in first-order phase transitions, leading to irreversible heating. Conversely, the irreversible heating effect may indicate the occurrence of the first-order phase transition. We measured the temperature change at the magnetic-field-induced α-θ phase transition of solid oxygen. A significant temperature increase from 13 to 37 K, amounting to 700 J/mol, due to irreversible heating was observed at the first-order phase transition. We argue that the hysteresis loss of the magnetization curve and the dissipative structural transformation account for the irreversible heating. The measurement of irreversible heating can be utilized to detect the first-order phase transition in combination with an ultrahigh magnetic fields generated in a time of µs order.

  15. Viewpoints on Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Innovators Press, Tucson, AZ.

    This booklet contains five papers which examine the activities, successes, and pitfalls encountered by educators who are introducing accountability techniques into instructional programs where they did not exist in the past. The papers are based on actual programs and offer possible solutions in the areas considered, which are 1) performance…

  16. Making Accountability Really Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Lauren B.

    2006-01-01

    Standards-based education has now reached a stage where it is possible to evaluate its overall effectiveness. Several earlier papers in the special issue of "Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice" on "Test Scores and State Accountability" (Volume 24, Number 4) examined specific state policies and their effects on schools…

  17. Accountability Update, March 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    This report provides the Washington State legislature, the Governor, and other interested parties with an update on the accountability performance of each of the state's public baccalaureate institutions (Central Washington University, Eastern Washington University, Evergreen State College, Washington State University, Western Washington…

  18. Educational Accounting Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Sam B.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" reviews the functions, procedures, and reports with which school business officials must be familiar in order to interpret and make decisions regarding the school district's financial position. Among the accounting functions discussed are financial management, internal auditing,…

  19. Professional Capital as Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael; Rincón-Gallardo, Santiago; Hargreaves, Andy

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to clarify and spells out the responsibilities of policy makers to create the conditions for an effective accountability system that produces substantial improvements in student learning, strengthens the teaching profession, and provides transparency of results to the public. The authors point out that U.S. policy makers will need…

  20. Accountability for Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Productivity gains in higher education won't be made just by improving cost effectiveness or even performance. They need to be documented, communicated, and integrated into a strategic agenda to increase attainment. This requires special attention to "accountability" for productivity, meaning public presentation and communication of evidence about…

  1. Legal responsibility and accountability.

    PubMed

    Cox, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Shifting boundaries in healthcare roles have led to anxiety among some nurses about their legal responsibilities and accountabilities. This is partly because of a lack of education about legal principles that underpin healthcare delivery. This article explains the law in terms of standards of care, duty of care, vicarious liability and indemnity insurance.

  2. Democracy, Accountability, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Meira

    2011-01-01

    Educational standards, assessments, and accountability systems are of immense political moment around the world. But there is no developed theory exploring the role that these systems should play within a democratic polity in particular. On the one hand, well-designed standards are public goods, supported by assessment and accountability…

  3. Community Accountability Conferencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsborne, Margaret

    Community Accountability Conferencing (CAC) was first introduced in Queensland, Australia schools in early 1994 after a serious assault in the school community. Some family members, students, and staff were dissatisfied with the solution of suspending the offenders. Seeking an alternative, comprehensive intervention strategy, the school community…

  4. Planning for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuneo, Tim; Bell, Shareen; Welsh-Gray, Carol

    1999-01-01

    Through its Challenge 2000 program, Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network's 21st Century Education Initiative has been working with K-12 schools to improve student performance in literature, math, and science. Clearly stated standards, appropriate assessments, formal monitoring, critical friends, and systemwide accountability are keys to success.…

  5. Institutional Accountability Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    This document discusses Santa Fe Community College's (SFCC) (Florida) five accountability measures. The type of data available provided on these measures is as follows: (1) District High School Enrollment Report and Retention and Success Rate Report; (2) Associate of Arts Degree Transfer Performance in the State University System; (3) Licensure…

  6. Fiscal Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Housing and Community Development, Sacramento. Indian Assistance Program.

    Written in simple, easy to understand form, the manual provides a vehicle for the untrained person in bookkeeping to control funds received from grants for Indian Tribal Councils and Indian organizations. The method used to control grants (federal, state, or private) is fund accounting, designed to organize rendering services on a non-profit…

  7. Curtail Accountability, Cultivate Attainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wraga, William G.

    2011-01-01

    The current test-driven accountability movement, codified in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 ([NCLB] 2002), was a misguided idea that will have the effect not of improving the education of children and youth, but of indicting the public school system of the United States. To improve education in the United States, politicians, policy makers,…

  8. Higher Education Accountability Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Washington state's public four-year universities and college have submitted their 2003-05 accountability plans to the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB). The state operating budget directs the Board to review these plans and set biennial performance targets for each institution. For 2003-05, the four-year institutions are reporting on a…

  9. Accounting 202, 302.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide consists of guidelines for conducting two secondary-level introductory accounting courses. Intended for vocational business education students, the courses are designed to introduce financial principles and practices important to personal and business life, to promote development of clerical and bookkeeping skills sufficient…

  10. Student Attendance Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitas, Joseph M.

    In response to state legislation authorizing procedures for changes in academic calendars and measurement of student workload in California community colleges, this manual from the Chancellor's Office provides guidelines for student attendance accounting. Chapter 1 explains general items such as the academic calendar, admissions policies, student…

  11. Full Accounting for Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Marie-Louise

    1988-01-01

    Given the curriculum's importance in the educational process, curriculum evaluation should be considered as essential as a district financial audit. When Fenwick English conducted a 1979 curriculum audit of Columbus, Ohio, schools, the accounting firm encountered numerous problems concerning development, review, and management practices. Planning…

  12. Excel in the Accounting Curriculum: Perceptions from Accounting Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandran Rackliffe, Usha; Ragland, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Public accounting firms emphasize the importance of accounting graduates being proficient in Excel. Since many accounting graduates often aspire to work in public accounting, a question arises as to whether there should be an emphasis on Excel in accounting education. The purpose of this paper is to specifically look at this issue by examining…

  13. A Pariah Profession? Some Student Perceptions of Accounting and Accountancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Roy; Murphy, Vivienne

    1995-01-01

    Existing literature and a survey of 106 undergraduate accounting students in the United Kingdom were analyzed for perceptions of the accounting profession and the academic discipline of accounting. Results suggest that among accounting and nonaccounting students alike, there exist coexisting perceptions of accounting as having high status and low…

  14. 18 CFR 367.1420 - Account 142, Customer accounts receivable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 142, Customer... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1420 Account 142, Customer accounts receivable. (a) This account must include amounts due from customers for service, and...

  15. MATERIAL CONTROL ACCOUNTING INMM

    SciTech Connect

    Hasty, T.

    2009-06-14

    Since 1996, the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC - formerly known as K-26), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have been cooperating under the cooperative Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program between the Russian Federation and the U.S. Governments. Since MCC continues to operate a reactor for steam and electricity production for the site and city of Zheleznogorsk which results in production of the weapons grade plutonium, one of the goals of the MPC&A program is to support implementation of an expanded comprehensive nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) program. To date MCC has completed upgrades identified in the initial gap analysis and documented in the site MC&A Plan and is implementing additional upgrades identified during an update to the gap analysis. The scope of these upgrades includes implementation of MCC organization structure relating to MC&A, establishing material balance area structure for special nuclear materials (SNM) storage and bulk processing areas, and material control functions including SNM portal monitors at target locations. Material accounting function upgrades include enhancements in the conduct of physical inventories, limit of error inventory difference procedure enhancements, implementation of basic computerized accounting system for four SNM storage areas, implementation of measurement equipment for improved accountability reporting, and both new and revised site-level MC&A procedures. This paper will discuss the implementation of MC&A upgrades at MCC based on the requirements established in the comprehensive MC&A plan developed by the Mining and Chemical Combine as part of the MPC&A Program.

  16. A fast feedback controlled magnetic drive for the ASDEX Upgrade fast-ion loss detectors.

    PubMed

    Ayllon-Guerola, J; Gonzalez-Martin, J; Garcia-Munoz, M; Rivero-Rodriguez, J; Herrmann, A; Vorbrugg, S; Leitenstern, P; Zoletnik, S; Galdon, J; Garcia Lopez, J; Rodriguez-Ramos, M; Sanchis-Sanchez, L; Dominguez, A D; Kocan, M; Gunn, J P; Garcia-Vallejo, D; Dominguez, J

    2016-11-01

    A magnetically driven fast-ion loss detector system for the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak has been designed and will be presented here. The device is feedback controlled to adapt the detector head position to the heat load and physics requirements. Dynamic simulations have been performed taking into account effects such as friction, coil self-induction, and eddy currents. A real time positioning control algorithm to maximize the detector operational window has been developed. This algorithm considers dynamical behavior and mechanical resistance as well as measured and predicted thermal loads. The mechanical design and real time predictive algorithm presented here may be used for other reciprocating systems.

  17. A fast feedback controlled magnetic drive for the ASDEX Upgrade fast-ion loss detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayllon-Guerola, J.; Gonzalez-Martin, J.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Rivero-Rodriguez, J.; Herrmann, A.; Vorbrugg, S.; Leitenstern, P.; Zoletnik, S.; Galdon, J.; Garcia Lopez, J.; Rodriguez-Ramos, M.; Sanchis-Sanchez, L.; Dominguez, A. D.; Kocan, M.; Gunn, J. P.; Garcia-Vallejo, D.; Dominguez, J.

    2016-11-01

    A magnetically driven fast-ion loss detector system for the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak has been designed and will be presented here. The device is feedback controlled to adapt the detector head position to the heat load and physics requirements. Dynamic simulations have been performed taking into account effects such as friction, coil self-induction, and eddy currents. A real time positioning control algorithm to maximize the detector operational window has been developed. This algorithm considers dynamical behavior and mechanical resistance as well as measured and predicted thermal loads. The mechanical design and real time predictive algorithm presented here may be used for other reciprocating systems.

  18. Loss of coolant analysis for the tower shielding reactor 2

    SciTech Connect

    Radcliff, T.D.; Williams, P.T.

    1990-06-01

    The operational limits of the Tower Shielding Reactor-2 (TSR-2) have been revised to account for placing the reactor in a beam shield, which reduces convection cooling during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A detailed heat transfer analysis was performed to set operating time limits which preclude fuel damage during a LOCA. Since a LOCA is survivable, the pressure boundary need not be safety related, minimizing seismic and inspection requirements. Measurements of reactor component emittance for this analysis revealed that aluminum oxidized in water may have emittance much higher than accepted values, allowing higher operating limits than were originally expected. These limits could be increased further with analytical or hardware improvements. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Pulse beam heating of the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlicky, Marian

    1990-12-01

    A response of the solar atmosphere to pulse beam heating is computed using a one-dimensional hybrid code. While the hydrodynamic part of this program is used to compute the atmospheric response, the pulse beam decelerated by electron-electron and electron-neutral hydrogen interactions in the dense layers of the solar atmosphere is represented by particles. In this new description of an electron beam, the finite transit time of accelerated electrons in the flare loops is taken into account and the hard X-ray radiation is computed directly. Four different pulse beams are considered and their effects are compared. Moreover, the return current losses of the pulse beam are discussed.

  20. Assessment of seismic loss dependence using copula.

    PubMed

    Goda, Katsuichiro; Ren, Jiandong

    2010-07-01

    The catastrophic nature of seismic risk is attributed to spatiotemporal correlation of seismic losses of buildings and infrastructure. For seismic risk management, such correlated seismic effects must be adequately taken into account, since they affect the probability distribution of aggregate seismic losses of spatially distributed structures significantly, and its upper tail behavior can be of particular importance. To investigate seismic loss dependence for two closely located portfolios of buildings, simulated seismic loss samples, which are obtained from a seismic risk model of spatially distributed buildings by taking spatiotemporally correlated ground motions into account, are employed. The characterization considers a loss frequency model that incorporates one dependent random component acting as a common shock to all buildings, and a copula-based loss severity model, which facilitates the separate construction of marginal loss distribution functions and nonlinear copula function with upper tail dependence. The proposed method is applied to groups of wood-frame buildings located in southwestern British Columbia. Analysis results indicate that the dependence structure of aggregate seismic losses can be adequately modeled by the right heavy tail copula or Gumbel copula, and that for the considered example, overall accuracy of the proposed method is satisfactory at probability levels of practical interest (at most 10% estimation error of fractiles of aggregate seismic loss). The developed statistical seismic loss model may be adopted in dynamic financial analysis for achieving faster evaluation with reasonable accuracy.

  1. First-Person Accounts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gribs, H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Personal accounts describe the lives of 2 individuals with deaf-blindness, one an 87-year-old woman who was deaf from birth and became totally blind over a 50-year period and the other of a woman who became deaf-blind as a result of a fever at the age of 7. Managing activities of daily life and experiencing sensory hallucinations are among topics…

  2. Managing global accounts.

    PubMed

    Yip, George S; Bink, Audrey J M

    2007-09-01

    Global account management--which treats a multinational customer's operations as one integrated account, with coherent terms for pricing, product specifications, and service--has proliferated over the past decade. Yet according to the authors' research, only about a third of the suppliers that have offered GAM are pleased with the results. The unhappy majority may be suffering from confusion about when, how, and to whom to provide it. Yip, the director of research and innovation at Capgemini, and Bink, the head of marketing communications at Uxbridge College, have found that GAM can improve customer satisfaction by 20% or more and can raise both profits and revenues by at least 15% within just a few years of its introduction. They provide guidelines to help companies achieve similar results. The first steps are determining whether your products or services are appropriate for GAM, whether your customers want such a program, whether those customers are crucial to your strategy, and how GAM might affect your competitive advantage. If moving forward makes sense, the authors' exhibit, "A Scorecard for Selecting Global Accounts," can help you target the right customers. The final step is deciding which of three basic forms to offer: coordination GAM (in which national operations remain relatively strong), control GAM (in which the global operation and the national operations are fairly balanced), and separate GAM (in which a new business unit has total responsibility for global accounts). Given the difficulty and expense of providing multiple varieties, the vast majority of companies should initially customize just one---and they should be careful not to start with a choice that is too ambitious for either themselves or their customers to handle.

  3. Accounting for Every Kilowatt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Equation 1. One estimate of the energy density of diesel fuel (ρdiesel) coupled with the efficiency (η) of a 60-kilowatt generator op- erating at...are going. Reduc- ing demand without reducing our capability requires appliance -level feedback, which current smart-meter technology does not...event. Accountability Soldiers need appliance -level feedback to reduce electrical consumption. Specifically, they need to know what loads are currently

  4. Integrated Cost Accounting System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-27

    few other companies. Harvard Business Review contained articles explaining the ideas behind the new costing methods and examples of applications...technical report. Peter Drucker in an article in Harvard Business Review ’carefully explains that accounting must change in response to the changes in...Kaplan in a Harvard Business Review article develop the idea of four levels of activities: facility sustaining activities; product-sustaining activities

  5. Hospitals' Internal Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K.; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387

  6. Inflation Accounting Methods and their Effectiveness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    accounting and current cost accounting are explained as the major inflation accounting methods. Inflation accounting standards announced in the United...inflation accounting, constant purchasing power accounting, constant dollar accounting, current cost accounting , current value.

  7. Earth tides, global heat flow, and tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaw, H.R.

    1970-01-01

    The power of a heat engine ignited by tidal energy can account for geologically reasonable rates of average magma production and sea floor spreading. These rates control similarity of heat flux over continents and oceans because of an inverse relationship between respective depth intervals for mass transfer and consequent distributions of radiogenic heat production.

  8. Earth tides, global heat flow, and tectonics.

    PubMed

    Shaw, H R

    1970-05-29

    The power of a heat engine ignited by tidal energy can account for geologically reasonable rates of average magma production and sea floor spreading. These rates control similarity of heat flux over continents and oceans because of an inverse relationship between respective depth intervals for mass transfer and consequent distributions of radiogenic heat production.

  9. Heat Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms include heavy sweating, rapid breathing and a fast, weak pulse Heat cramps - muscle pains or spasms that happen during heavy exercise Heat rash - skin irritation from excessive sweating Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  10. Heat Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stress Learn some tips to protect workers including: acclimatization, rest breaks, and fluid recommendations. NIOSH Workplace Solution: ... Blog: Adjusting to Work in the Heat: Why Acclimatization Matters The natural adaptation to the heat takes ...

  11. Extreme Heat

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Biological Threats Chemical Threats Cyber Incident Drought Earthquakes Extreme Heat Explosions Floods Hazardous Materials Incidents Home ... Emergencies Biological Threats Chemical Threats Cyber ... Heat Explosions Floods Hazardous Materials Incidents Home ...

  12. Hearing Loss in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

  13. Influence of thermal losses at the gate contact of Si nanowire transistors: A phenomenological treatment in quantum transport theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhyner, Reto; Luisier, Mathieu

    2017-03-01

    A quantum mechanical simulation approach relying on the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, combining atomistic electron and phonon transport, and accounting for phonon losses at the gate contact is presented in this paper. To correctly capture self-heating effects in ultra-scaled gate-all-around nanowire field-effect transistors, it is necessary to go beyond electron-phonon and anharmonic phonon-phonon interactions. A phenomenological self-energy derived from Fourier's law is therefore introduced to model heat flows through oxide layers. It is found that in an NWFET with a channel length of 15 nm turning on thermal losses at the gate contact leads to a decrease in the maximum lattice temperature by more than 100 K and to a 10% increase in the device current in the ON-state.

  14. Effects of heat-stress on production in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    West, J W

    2003-06-01

    The southeastern United States is characterized as humid subtropical and is subject to extended periods of high ambient temperature and relative humidity. Because the primary nonevaporative means of cooling for the cow (radiation, conduction, convection) become less effective with rising ambient temperature, the cow becomes increasingly reliant upon evaporative cooling in the form of sweating and panting. High relative humidity compromises evaporative cooling, so that under hot, humid conditions common to the Southeast in summer the dairy cow cannot dissipate sufficient body heat to prevent a rise in body temperature. Increasing air temperature, temperature-humidity index and rising rectal temperature above critical thresholds are related to decreased dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield and to reduced efficiency of milk yield. Modifications including shade, barns which enhance passive ventilation, and the addition of fans and sprinklers increase body heat loss, lowering body temperature and improving DMI. New technologies including tunnel ventilation are being investigated to determine if they offer cooling advantages. Genetic selection for heat tolerance may be possible, but continued selection for greater performance in the absence of consideration for heat tolerance will result in greater susceptibility to heat stress. The nutritional needs of the cow change during heat stress, and ration reformulation to account for decreased DMI, the need to increase nutrient density, changing nutrient requirements, avoiding nutrient excesses and maintenance of normal rumen function is necessary. Maintaining cow performance in hot, humid climatic conditions in the future will likely require improved cooling capability, continued advances in nutritional formulation, and the need for genetic advancement which includes selection for heat tolerance or the identification of genetic traits which enhance heat tolerance.

  15. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  16. Effect of foam on temperature prediction and heat recovery potential from biological wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Corbala-Robles, L; Volcke, E I P; Samijn, A; Ronsse, F; Pieters, J G

    2016-05-15

    Heat is an important resource in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) which can be recovered. A prerequisite to determine the theoretical heat recovery potential is an accurate heat balance model for temperature prediction. The insulating effect of foam present on the basin surface and its influence on temperature prediction were assessed in this study. Experiments were carried out to characterize the foam layer and its insulating properties. A refined dynamic temperature prediction model, taking into account the effect of foam, was set up. Simulation studies for a WWTP treating highly concentrated (manure) wastewater revealed that the foam layer had a significant effect on temperature prediction (3.8 ± 0.7 K over the year) and thus on the theoretical heat recovery potential (30% reduction when foam is not considered). Seasonal effects on the individual heat losses and heat gains were assessed. Additionally, the effects of the critical basin temperature above which heat is recovered, foam thickness, surface evaporation rate reduction and the non-absorbed solar radiation on the theoretical heat recovery potential were evaluated.

  17. Skin to skin care:heat balance.

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, H

    1996-01-01

    Skin to skin care has been practised in primitive and high technology cultures for body temperature preservation in neonates. Regional skin temperature and heat flow was measured in moderately hypothermic term neonates to quantitate the heat transfer occurring during one hour of skin to skin care. Nine healthy newborns with a mean rectal temperature of 36.3 degrees C were placed skin to skin on their mothers' chests. The mean (SD) rectal temperature increased by 0.7 (0.4) degrees C to 37.0 degrees C. The heat loss was high (70 Wm-2) from the unprotected skin of the head to the surrounding air. Minute heat losses occurred from covered areas; and heat was initially gained from areas in contact with the mother's skin. The total dry heat loss during skin to skin care corresponded to heat loss during incubator care at 32-32.5 degrees C. The reduced heat loss, and to a minor extent, the initial heat flux from the mothers allowed heat to be conserved, leading to rewarming. PMID:8949698

  18. 40 CFR 86.1234-96 - Running loss test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... °F on average) during the running loss test, measured at the inlet to the cooling fan in front of the... flow through the impingers should be minimized to prevent any losses. (C) Turn off all the fans... of air intake equipment, if applicable, shall be minimized to avoid loss of heat from the...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1234-96 - Running loss test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... °F on average) during the running loss test, measured at the inlet to the cooling fan in front of the... flow through the impingers should be minimized to prevent any losses. (C) Turn off all the fans... of air intake equipment, if applicable, shall be minimized to avoid loss of heat from the...

  20. 40 CFR 86.134-96 - Running loss test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... °F on average) during the running loss test, measured at the inlet to the cooling fan in front of the... flow through the impingers should be minimized to prevent any losses. (C) Turn off all the fans... of air intake equipment, if applicable, shall be minimized to avoid loss of heat from the...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1234-96 - Running loss test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... °F on average) during the running loss test, measured at the inlet to the cooling fan in front of the... flow through the impingers should be minimized to prevent any losses. (C) Turn off all the fans... of air intake equipment, if applicable, shall be minimized to avoid loss of heat from the...

  2. 40 CFR 86.134-96 - Running loss test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... °F on average) during the running loss test, measured at the inlet to the cooling fan in front of the... flow through the impingers should be minimized to prevent any losses. (C) Turn off all the fans... of air intake equipment, if applicable, shall be minimized to avoid loss of heat from the...

  3. 40 CFR 86.134-96 - Running loss test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... °F on average) during the running loss test, measured at the inlet to the cooling fan in front of the... flow through the impingers should be minimized to prevent any losses. (C) Turn off all the fans... of air intake equipment, if applicable, shall be minimized to avoid loss of heat from the...

  4. 40 CFR 86.134-96 - Running loss test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 95±5 °F (95±2 °F on average) during the running loss test, measured at the inlet to the cooling fan... flow through the impingers should be minimized to prevent any losses. (C) Turn off all the fans... of air intake equipment, if applicable, shall be minimized to avoid loss of heat from the...

  5. 40 CFR 86.134-96 - Running loss test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... °F on average) during the running loss test, measured at the inlet to the cooling fan in front of the... flow through the impingers should be minimized to prevent any losses. (C) Turn off all the fans... of air intake equipment, if applicable, shall be minimized to avoid loss of heat from the...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1234-96 - Running loss test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... °F on average) during the running loss test, measured at the inlet to the cooling fan in front of the... flow through the impingers should be minimized to prevent any losses. (C) Turn off all the fans... of air intake equipment, if applicable, shall be minimized to avoid loss of heat from the...

  7. Heat flux and information backflow in cold environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, R.; Maniscalco, S.; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2016-07-01

    We examine non-Markovian effects in an open quantum system from the point of view of information flow. To this end, we consider the spin-boson model with a cold reservoir, accounting for the exact time-dependent correlations between the system and the bath to study the exchange of information and heat. We use an information-theoretic measure of the relevant memory effects and demonstrate that the information backflow from the reservoir to the system does not necessarily correlate with the backflow of heat. We also examine the influence of temperature and coupling strength on the loss and gain of information between the system and the bath. Finally, we discuss how additional driving changes the backflow of information, giving rise to potential applications in reservoir engineering.

  8. Loss restlessness and gain calmness: durable effects of losses and gains on choice switching.

    PubMed

    Yechiam, Eldad; Zahavi, Gal; Arditi, Eli

    2015-08-01

    While the traditional conceptualization of the effect of losses focuses on bias in the subjective weight of losses compared with respective gains, some accounts suggest more global task-related effects of losses. Based on a recent attentional theory, we predicted a positive after-effect of losses on choice switching in later tasks. In two experimental studies, we found increased choice switching rates in tasks with losses compared to tasks with no losses. Additionally, this heightened shifting behavior was maintained in subsequent tasks that do not include losses, a phenomenon we refer to as "loss restlessness." Conversely, gains were found to have an opposite "calming" effect on choice switching. Surprisingly, the loss restlessness phenomenon was observed following an all-losses payoff regime but not after a task with symmetric mixed gains and losses. This suggests that the unresolved mental account following an all-losses regime increases search behavior. Potential implications to macro level phenomena, such as the leverage effect, are discussed.

  9. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Weight Loss Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Weight Loss Surgery A A ... Risks and Side Effects? What Is Weight Loss Surgery? For some people, being overweight is about more ...

  10. Early Pregnancy Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called early pregnancy loss , miscarriage , or spontaneous abortion . How common is early pregnancy loss? Early pregnancy ... testes that can fertilize a female egg. Spontaneous Abortion: The medical term for early pregnancy loss. Trimester: ...

  11. The Integration of Behavioral Accounting in Undergraduate Accounting Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Phillip G.; Cao, Le Thi

    1986-01-01

    The study reported here is part of a continuing project with the goal of determining the place of behavioral accounting in the accounting curricula. While the first two studies focused on the graduate accounting curricula and the practitioners' opinions on the subject, this study concentrates on the behavioral accounting content of undergraduate…

  12. New Frontiers: Training Forensic Accountants within the Accounting Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswamy, Vinita

    2007-01-01

    Accountants have recently been subject to very unpleasant publicity following the collapse of Enron and other major companies. There has been a plethora of accounting failures and accounting restatements of falsified earnings, with litigations and prosecutions taking place every day. As the FASB struggles to tighten the loopholes in accounting,…

  13. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    PubMed

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.

  14. Performance and Accountability Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Fiscal Year 2002 Performance and Accountability Report is presented. Over the past year, significant changes have been implemented to greatly improve NASA's management while continuing to break new ground in science and technology. Excellent progress has been made in implementing the President's Management Agenda. NASA is leading the government in its implementation of the five government-wide initiatives. NASA received an unqualified audit opinion on FY 2002 financial statements. The vast majority of performance goals have been achieved, furthering each area of NASA's mission. The contents include: 1) NASA Vision and Mission; 2) Management's Discussion and Analysis; 3) Performance; and 4) Financial.

  15. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Heat Pipes were originally developed by NASA and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory during the 1960s to dissipate excessive heat build- up in critical areas of spacecraft and maintain even temperatures of satellites. Heat pipes are tubular devices where a working fluid alternately evaporates and condenses, transferring heat from one region of the tube to another. KONA Corporation refined and applied the same technology to solve complex heating requirements of hot runner systems in injection molds. KONA Hot Runner Systems are used throughout the plastics industry for products ranging in size from tiny medical devices to large single cavity automobile bumpers and instrument panels.

  16. Rotation and particle loss in Tore Supra

    SciTech Connect

    R. B. White; F. W. Perkins; X. Garbet; C. Bourdelle; V. Basiuk; L. G. Eriksson

    2000-06-13

    Although plasma heating with ICRF imparts negligible angular momentum to a tokamak plasma, the high energy particles give significant torque to the plasma through diamagnetic effects. This effect has been directly modeled through guiding center simulations. It is found that heating in Tore Supra, with the location of the resonance surface on the high field side of the magnetic axis, can produce negative central rotation of up to 40 km/sec. Particle loss also contributes to negative rotation, but this is not the dominant effect in most discharges. In this work the authors examine the effect of collisions and strong plasma rotation on the loss of high energy particles.

  17. 14 CFR Sec. 1-3 - General description of system of accounts and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-3 General description of system of accounts and... reflect the varying needs and capacities of different air carriers without impairing basic accounting... and loss elements which are recorded during the current accounting year are subclassified as...

  18. Automated Accounting. Payroll. Instructor Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Duane R.

    This teacher's guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting Payroll Version 3.0 edition software in their accounting programs. The module contains assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting--payroll. Basic accounting skills are…

  19. Where Are the Accounting Professors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Jui-Chin; Sun, Huey-Lian

    2008-01-01

    Accounting education is facing a crisis of shortage of accounting faculty. This study discusses the reasons behind the shortage and offers suggestions to increase the supply of accounting faculty. Our suggestions are as followings. First, educators should begin promoting accounting academia as one of the career choices to undergraduate and…

  20. Revamping High School Accounting Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittner, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Provides ideas for updating accounting courses: convert to semester length; focus on financial reporting/analysis, financial statements, the accounting cycle; turn textbook exercises into practice sets for the accounting cycle; teach about corporate accounting; and address individual line items on financial statements. (SK)