Science.gov

Sample records for account important effects

  1. Acknowledging the importance of BAI accounts.

    PubMed

    Levin, Steve

    2011-09-01

    For hospitals, balance after insurance (BAI) refers to revenue from uninsured patients and from patients with patient responsibility after insurance. BAI is a rapidly growing share of hospital revenue as a result of substitution from high-deductible commercial insurance plans-revenue that tends to convert to cash relatively easily and quickly-meaning that an increasing share of hospital cash flow is now due from the patient. Hospitals should make sure that their self-pay patients receive excellent customer service: It not only improves the likelihood of a greater yield, but also-perhaps more important-helps ensure customer loyalty and willingness to recommend the facility to others.

  2. Accounting Students' Perceptions of Effective Faculty Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfraih, Mishari M.; Alanezi, Faisal S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the attributes of an effective accounting faculty from the student perspective. It also examines similarities and differences in the perceived importance of these attributes between bachelor's and associate's accounting degree students in two public higher education institutions in Kuwait, namely, Kuwait…

  3. Inflation Accounting Methods and their Effectiveness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    accounting and current cost accounting are explained as the major inflation accounting methods. Inflation accounting standards announced in the United...inflation accounting, constant purchasing power accounting, constant dollar accounting, current cost accounting , current value.

  4. Importance of Effective Listening Infomercial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2009-01-01

    This article details an activity intended for use in a course with a unit on effective listening, including listening courses, public speaking, and interpersonal communication. Students will explain the importance of effective and active listening for a target audience by producing an infomercial for a product or service which they design.

  5. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  6. Strategic Accountability Is Key to Making PLCs Effective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Lois Brown

    2017-01-01

    Professional Learning Communities (PLCs) are often criticized for failing to focus on real problems of teaching and learning and for failing to deliver improvement. That is where accountability comes into play. Strategic accountability distinguishes PLCs that are effective from those that are not. Everyone knows what accountability is, but the…

  7. The Effects of Different Teaching Approaches in Introductory Financial Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Bea; Nouri, Hossein; Samanta, Subarna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of the two different teaching approaches in the first accounting course on student performance in a subsequent finance course. The study compares 128 accounting and finance students who took introductory financial accounting by either a user approach or a traditional preparer approach to examine…

  8. A Subcultural Account of Media Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howitt, Dennis; Dembo, Richard

    1974-01-01

    A critical review and analysis of the literature on the effects--aggressive drive, behavior or attitude--of mass media violence, suggesting that the processes of media influence are more subtle than traditional effects formulations imply. (Author/SF)

  9. Experimental methods in aquatic respirometry: the importance of mixing devices and accounting for background respiration.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, G G; Tenzing, P; Clark, T D

    2016-01-01

    In light of an increasing trend in fish biology towards using static respirometry techniques without the inclusion of a mixing mechanism and without accurately accounting for the influence of microbial (background) respiration, this paper quantifies the effect of these approaches on the oxygen consumption rates (ṀO2 ) measured from juvenile barramundi Lates calcarifer (mean ± s.e. mass = 20·31 ± 0·81 g) and adult spiny chromis damselfish Acanthochromis polyacanthus (22·03 ± 2·53 g). Background respiration changed consistently and in a sigmoidal manner over time in the treatment with a mixing device (inline recirculation pump), whereas attempts to measure background respiration in the non-mixed treatment yielded highly variable estimates of ṀO2 that were probably artefacts due to the lack of water movement over the oxygen sensor during measurement periods. This had clear consequences when accounting for background respiration in the calculations of fish ṀO2 . Exclusion of a mixing device caused a significantly lower estimate of ṀO2 in both species and reduced the capacity to detect differences between individuals as well as differences within an individual over time. There was evidence to suggest that the magnitude of these effects was dependent on the spontaneous activity levels of the fish, as the difference between mixed and non-mixed treatments was more pronounced for L. calcarifer (sedentary) than for A. polyacanthus (more spontaneously active). It is clear that respirometry set-ups for sedentary species must contain a mixing device to prevent oxygen stratification inside the respirometer. While more active species may provide a higher level of water mixing during respirometry measurements and theoretically reduce the need for a mixing device, the level of mixing cannot be quantified and may change with diurnal cycles in activity. To ensure consistency across studies without relying on fish activity levels, and to enable accurate assessments of

  10. Internal Evaluation in American Public School Districts: The Importance of Externally Driven Accountability Mandates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jean A.; Rohmer-Hirt, Johnna A.

    2011-01-01

    From the 1980s to the present, educational accountability in the United States has grown dramatically. Such accountability in U.S. school districts, although driven primarily by external demands, has internal manifestations as well. The chapter traces the historical development of internal evaluation in American school districts, then highlights…

  11. Theoretical Underpinnings of the Other Social Effects Account

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    and to help focus on areas where capacity building is needed. The Civic Index focuses on 12 key themes of civic health and provides 363 example...be used in the emerging collaborative planning framework (also termed the four-account framework to stress the importance of all accounts), discusses ...conducting scoping workshops, generally as part of the EIS process Four-account framework defines problems more broadly and focuses on the full

  12. The Negative Testing Effect and Multifactor Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Daniel J.; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2013-01-01

    Across 3 experiments, we investigated the factors that dictate when taking a test improves subsequent memory performance (the "testing effect"). In Experiment 1, participants retrieving a set of targets during a retrieval practice phase ultimately recalled fewer of those targets compared with a group of participants who studied the…

  13. Importance of accounting for detection heterogeneity when estimating abundance: the case of French wolves.

    PubMed

    Cubaynes, Sarah; Pradel, Roger; Choquet, Rémi; Duchamp, Christophe; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique; Marboutin, Eric; Miquel, Christian; Reboulet, Anne-Marie; Poillot, Carole; Taberlet, Pierre; Gimenez, Olivier

    2010-04-01

    Assessing conservation strategies requires reliable estimates of abundance. Because detecting all individuals is most often impossible in free-ranging populations, estimation procedures have to account for a <1 detection probability. Capture-recapture methods allow biologists to cope with this issue of detectability. Nevertheless, capture-recapture models for open populations are built on the assumption that all individuals share the same detection probability, although detection heterogeneity among individuals has led to underestimating abundance of closed populations. We developed multievent capture-recapture models for an open population and proposed an associated estimator of population size that both account for individual detection heterogeneity (IDH). We considered a two-class mixture model with weakly and highly detectable individuals to account for IDH. In a noninvasive capture-recapture study of wolves we based on genotypes identified in feces and hairs, we found a large underestimation of population size (27% on average) occurred when IDH was ignored.

  14. Effects of Accountancy Internship on Subsequent Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwong, K. S.; Lui, Gladie

    1991-01-01

    Explores the effects of accounting internships upon subsequent academic achievement. Reports that grade point averages and degree examination results of 10 Chinese University of Hong Kong students who had been interns were compared to scores of 236 accounting majors who had not. Concludes that internships increased student knowledge and…

  15. IMPORTANCE OF MATERIAL BALANCES AND THEIR STATISTICAL EVALUATION IN RUSSIAN MATERIAL, PROTECTION, CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING

    SciTech Connect

    FISHBONE,L.G.

    1999-07-25

    While substantial work has been performed in the Russian MPC&A Program, much more needs to be done at Russian nuclear facilities to complete four necessary steps. These are (1) periodically measuring the physical inventory of nuclear material, (2) continuously measuring the flows of nuclear material, (3) using the results to close the material balance, particularly at bulk processing facilities, and (4) statistically evaluating any apparent loss of nuclear material. The periodic closing of material balances provides an objective test of the facility's system of nuclear material protection, control and accounting. The statistical evaluation using the uncertainties associated with individual measurement systems involved in the calculation of the material balance provides a fair standard for concluding whether the apparent loss of nuclear material means a diversion or whether the facility's accounting system needs improvement. In particular, if unattractive flow material at a facility is not measured well, the accounting system cannot readily detect the loss of attractive material if the latter substantially derives from the former.

  16. Teacher Quality at the High-School Level: The Importance of Accounting for Tracks. Working Paper 17722. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, C. Kirabo

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in elementary school, high-school teacher effects may be confounded with both selection to tracks and unobserved track-level treatments. I document sizable confounding track effects, and show that traditional tests for the existence of teacher effects are likely biased. After accounting for these biases, high-school algebra and English…

  17. The Effects of Pre-College Accounting on the College Accounting Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Through a research project, the author found that the attitudes of college accounting students toward high school accounting as the starting point for an accounting education and also the introductory financial accounting grades of college students are often closely associated with extensive accounting coursework completed prior to college. (CT)

  18. Evaluating the effectiveness of air quality regulations: A review of accountability studies and frameworks.

    PubMed

    Henneman, Lucas R F; Liu, Cong; Mulholland, James A; Russell, Armistead G

    2017-02-01

    Assessments of past environmental policies-termed accountability studies-contribute important information to the decision-making process used to review the efficacy of past policies, and subsequently aid in the development of effective new policies. These studies have used a variety of methods that have achieved varying levels of success at linking improvements in air quality and/or health to regulations. The Health Effects Institute defines the air pollution accountability framework as a chain of events that includes the regulation of interest, air quality, exposure/dose, and health outcomes, and suggests that accountability research should address impacts for each of these linkages. Early accountability studies investigated short-term, local regulatory actions (for example, coal use banned city-wide on a specific date or traffic pattern changes made for Olympic Games). Recent studies assessed regulations implemented over longer time and larger spatial scales. Studies on broader scales require accountability research methods that account for effects of confounding factors that increase over time and space. Improved estimates of appropriate baseline levels (sometimes termed "counterfactual"-the expected state in a scenario without an intervention) that account for confounders and uncertainties at each link in the accountability chain will help estimate causality with greater certainty. In the direct accountability framework, researchers link outcomes with regulations using statistical methods that bypass the link-by-link approach of classical accountability. Direct accountability results and methods complement the classical approach. New studies should take advantage of advanced planning for accountability studies, new data sources (such as satellite measurements), and new statistical methods. Evaluation of new methods and data sources is necessary to improve investigations of long-term regulations, and associated uncertainty should be accounted for at each link to

  19. Using Instrumental Variables Properly to Account for Selection Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Selection bias is problematic when evaluating the effects of postsecondary interventions on college students, and can lead to biased estimates of program effects. While instrumental variables can be used to account for endogeneity due to self-selection, current practice requires that all five assumptions of instrumental variables be met in order…

  20. Nuclear Material Control and Accountability System Effectiveness Tool (MSET)

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H; Roche, Charles T; Campbell, Billy J; Hammond, Glenn A; Meppen, Bruce W; Brown, Richard F

    2011-01-01

    A nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) has been developed in the United States for use in evaluating material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) systems in nuclear facilities. The project was commissioned by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of International Material Protection and Cooperation. MSET was developed by personnel with experience spanning more than six decades in both the U.S. and international nuclear programs and with experience in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the nuclear power industry. MSET offers significant potential benefits for improving nuclear safeguards and security in any nation with a nuclear program. MSET provides a design basis for developing an MC&A system at a nuclear facility that functions to protect against insider theft or diversion of nuclear materials. MSET analyzes the system and identifies several risk importance factors that show where sustainability is essential for optimal performance and where performance degradation has the greatest impact on total system risk. MSET contains five major components: (1) A functional model that shows how to design, build, implement, and operate a robust nuclear MC&A system (2) A fault tree of the operating MC&A system that adapts PRA methodology to analyze system effectiveness and give a relative risk of failure assessment of the system (3) A questionnaire used to document the facility's current MPC&A system (provides data to evaluate the quality of the system and the level of performance of each basic task performed throughout the material balance area [MBA]) (4) A formal process of applying expert judgment to convert the facility questionnaire data into numeric values representing the performance level of each basic event for use in the fault tree risk assessment calculations (5) PRA software that performs the fault tree risk assessment calculations and produces risk importance factor reports on the

  1. On the Importance of Accounting for Competing Risks in Pediatric Brain Cancer: II. Regression Modeling and Sample Size

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Bee-Choo; Grundy, Richard; Machin, David

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To accurately model the cumulative need for radiotherapy in trials designed to delay or avoid irradiation among children with malignant brain tumor, it is crucial to account for competing events and evaluate how each contributes to the timing of irradiation. An appropriate choice of statistical model is also important for adequate determination of sample size. Methods and Materials: We describe the statistical modeling of competing events (A, radiotherapy after progression; B, no radiotherapy after progression; and C, elective radiotherapy) using proportional cause-specific and subdistribution hazard functions. The procedures of sample size estimation based on each method are outlined. These are illustrated by use of data comparing children with ependymoma and other malignant brain tumors. The results from these two approaches are compared. Results: The cause-specific hazard analysis showed a reduction in hazards among infants with ependymoma for all event types, including Event A (adjusted cause-specific hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-1.28). Conversely, the subdistribution hazard analysis suggested an increase in hazard for Event A (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-2.30), but the reduction in hazards for Events B and C remained. Analysis based on subdistribution hazard requires a larger sample size than the cause-specific hazard approach. Conclusions: Notable differences in effect estimates and anticipated sample size were observed between methods when the main event showed a beneficial effect whereas the competing events showed an adverse effect on the cumulative incidence. The subdistribution hazard is the most appropriate for modeling treatment when its effects on both the main and competing events are of interest.

  2. Nurses' labour supply elasticities: the importance of accounting for extensive margins.

    PubMed

    Hanel, Barbara; Kalb, Guyonne; Scott, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    We estimate a multi-sector model of nursing qualification holders' labour supply in different occupations. A structural approach allows us to model the labour force participation decision, the occupational and shift-type choice, and the decision about hours worked as a joint outcome following from maximising a utility function. Disutility from work is allowed to vary by occupation and also by shift type in the utility function. Our results suggest that average wage elasticities might be higher than previous research has found. This is mainly due to the effect of wages on the decision to enter or exit the profession, which was not included in the previous literature, rather than from its effect on increased working hours for those who already work in the profession.

  3. Physicians in Nursing Homes: Effectiveness of Physician Accountability and Communication

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Julie C; Intrator, Orna; Wetle, Terrie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop a measure of the perceptions of nursing home (NH) Directors of Nursing (DON) on the adequacy of physician care and to examine its variation as well as its construct validity. Design A nationwide cross-sectional study with primary data collection Setting 2043 NHs surveyed August 2009 – April 2011 Participants Directors of Nursing (DONs) and NH Administrators responded to questions pertaining to their perceptions of the care provided by physicians in their NH. Measurements Ten items were used to create three domains: medical staff attentiveness, physician communication, and staff concerns about physician practice. These were combined into an overall summary score measure called “Effectiveness of Physician Accountability and Communication” (EPAC). EPAC construct validity was ascertained from other DON questions and from a complementary survey of NH Administrators. RESULTS The established EPAC score is the first measure to capture specific components of the adequacy of physician care in NHs. EPAC exhibited good construct validity: more effective practices were correlated with greater physician involvement in discussions of Do-Not-Resuscitate orders, the frequency that the Medical Director checked on the medical care delivered by attending physician, the tightness of nursing home's control of its physician resources, and the DON's perception of whether or not avoidable hospitalizations and ER visits could be reduced with greater physician attention to resident needs. Conclusion As increased attention is given to the quality of care provided to vulnerable elders, effective measures of processes of care are essential. The EPAC measure provides an important new metric that can be used in these efforts. The goal is that future studies could use EPAC and its individual domains to shed light on the manner through which physician presence is related to resident outcomes in the NH setting. PMID:25858283

  4. The Performing School: The Effects of Market & Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falabella, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Market and accountability educational reforms have proliferated around the globe, along with high expectations of solving countries' school quality deficits and inequities. In this paper I develop an analytical framework from a critical sociology angle for analyzing the effects of these policies within schools. First I discuss conceptually the…

  5. An interference account of the missing-VP effect

    PubMed Central

    Häussler, Jana; Bader, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Sentences with doubly center-embedded relative clauses in which a verb phrase (VP) is missing are sometimes perceived as grammatical, thus giving rise to an illusion of grammaticality. In this paper, we provide a new account of why missing-VP sentences, which are both complex and ungrammatical, lead to an illusion of grammaticality, the so-called missing-VP effect. We propose that the missing-VP effect in particular, and processing difficulties with multiply center-embedded clauses more generally, are best understood as resulting from interference during cue-based retrieval. When processing a sentence with double center-embedding, a retrieval error due to interference can cause the verb of an embedded clause to be erroneously attached into a higher clause. This can lead to an illusion of grammaticality in the case of missing-VP sentences and to processing complexity in the case of complete sentences with double center-embedding. Evidence for an interference account of the missing-VP effect comes from experiments that have investigated the missing-VP effect in German using a speeded grammaticality judgments procedure. We review this evidence and then present two new experiments that show that the missing-VP effect can be found in German also with less restricting procedures. One experiment was a questionnaire study which required grammaticality judgments from participants without imposing any time constraints. The second experiment used a self-paced reading procedure and did not require any judgments. Both experiments confirm the prior findings of missing-VP effects in German and also show that the missing-VP effect is subject to a primacy effect as known from the memory literature. Based on this evidence, we argue that an account of missing-VP effects in terms of interference during cue-based retrieval is superior to accounts in terms of limited memory resources or in terms of experience with embedded structures. PMID:26136698

  6. Multiple carbon accounting to support just and effective climate policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steininger, Karl W.; Lininger, Christian; Meyer, Lukas H.; Muñoz, Pablo; Schinko, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Negotiating reductions in greenhouse gas emission involves the allocation of emissions and of emission reductions to specific agents, and notably, within the current UN framework, to associated countries. As production takes place in supply chains, increasingly extending over several countries, there are various options available in which emissions originating from one and the same activity may be attributed to different agents along the supply chain and thus to different countries. In this way, several distinct types of national carbon accounts can be constructed. We argue that these accounts will typically differ in the information they provide to individual countries on the effects their actions have on global emissions; and they may also, to varying degrees, prove useful in supporting the pursuit of an effective and just climate policy. None of the accounting systems, however, prove 'best' in achieving these aims under real-world circumstances; we thus suggest compiling reliable data to aid in the consistent calculation of multiple carbon accounts on a global level.

  7. Maturity Effects on Students' Perceptions of How Accounting Scandals Impact the Accounting Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theuri, Peter; Weickgenannt, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the impact of recent ethical scandals on business students' perceptions of the accounting profession and related regulatory reforms, and whether such perceptions may be differentiated by maturity. Student maturity is distinguished by age, class standing, and number of accounting classes taken so far. The study results are based…

  8. A quantum probability account of order effects in inference.

    PubMed

    Trueblood, Jennifer S; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2011-01-01

    Order of information plays a crucial role in the process of updating beliefs across time. In fact, the presence of order effects makes a classical or Bayesian approach to inference difficult. As a result, the existing models of inference, such as the belief-adjustment model, merely provide an ad hoc explanation for these effects. We postulate a quantum inference model for order effects based on the axiomatic principles of quantum probability theory. The quantum inference model explains order effects by transforming a state vector with different sequences of operators for different orderings of information. We demonstrate this process by fitting the quantum model to data collected in a medical diagnostic task and a jury decision-making task. To further test the quantum inference model, a new jury decision-making experiment is developed. Using the results of this experiment, we compare the quantum inference model with two versions of the belief-adjustment model, the adding model and the averaging model. We show that both the quantum model and the adding model provide good fits to the data. To distinguish the quantum model from the adding model, we develop a new experiment involving extreme evidence. The results from this new experiment suggest that the adding model faces limitations when accounting for tasks involving extreme evidence, whereas the quantum inference model does not. Ultimately, we argue that the quantum model provides a more coherent account for order effects that was not possible before.

  9. Engine control techniques to account for fuel effects

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Shankar; Frazier, Timothy R.; Stanton, Donald W.; Xu, Yi; Bunting, Bruce G.; Wolf, Leslie R.

    2014-08-26

    A technique for engine control to account for fuel effects including providing an internal combustion engine and a controller to regulate operation thereof, the engine being operable to combust a fuel to produce an exhaust gas; establishing a plurality of fuel property inputs; establishing a plurality of engine performance inputs; generating engine control information as a function of the fuel property inputs and the engine performance inputs; and accessing the engine control information with the controller to regulate at least one engine operating parameter.

  10. Prerequisite Change and Its Effect on Intermediate Accounting Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiunn; O'Shaughnessy, John; Wagner, Robin

    2005-01-01

    As of Fall 1996, San Francisco State University changed its introductory financial accounting course to focus on a "user's" perspective, de-emphasizing the accounting cycle. Anticipating that these changes could impair subsequent performance, the Department of Accounting instituted a new prerequisite for intermediate accounting: Students would…

  11. A strategic account of the cue-depreciation effect.

    PubMed

    Thapar, A; Greene, R L

    1995-12-01

    A word fragment is less likely to be completed if it is presented incrementally (R______P, R____R _ P, R_I__R_P, R_I__R O P) than if it is presented all at once (e.g., R_I__R O P). This phenomenon is known as the cue-depreciation effect. The present study examined the role of strategies in this phenomenon. The magnitude of the cue-depreciation effect was increased when subjects were asked to adopt a passive generation approach to word fragment completion. The current study investigated an extension of Bruner and Potter's (1964) early hypothesis-generation account of the cue-depreciation effect. Findings demonstrated the influence of completion strategies for a general theory of fragment completion.

  12. The (not so) social Simon effect: a referential coding account.

    PubMed

    Dolk, Thomas; Hommel, Bernhard; Prinz, Wolfgang; Liepelt, Roman

    2013-10-01

    The joint go-nogo Simon effect (social Simon effect, or joint cSE) has been considered as an index of automatic action/task co-representation. Recent findings, however, challenge extreme versions of this social co-representation account by suggesting that the (joint) cSE results from any sufficiently salient event that provides a reference for spatially coding one's own action. By manipulating the salient nature of reference-providing events in an auditory go-nogo Simon task, the present study indeed demonstrates that spatial reference events do not necessarily require social (Experiment 1) or movement features (Experiment 2) to induce action coding. As long as events attract attention in a bottom-up fashion (e.g., auditory rhythmic features; Experiment 3 and 4), events in an auditory go-nogo Simon task seem to be co-represented irrespective of the agent or object producing these events. This suggests that the cSE does not necessarily imply the co-representation of tasks. The theory of event coding provides a comprehensive account of the available evidence on the cSE: the presence of another salient event requires distinguishing the cognitive representation of one's own action from the representation of other events, which can be achieved by referential coding-the spatial coding of one's action relative to the other events.

  13. Empirical Analysis of Retirement Pension and IFRS Adoption Effects on Accounting Information: Glance at IT Industry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews new pension accounting with K-IFRS and provides empirical changes in liability for retirement allowances with adoption of K-IFRS. It will help to understand the effect of pension accounting on individual firm's financial report and the importance of public announcement of actuarial assumptions. Firms that adopted K-IFRS had various changes in retirement liability compared to the previous financial report not based on K-IFRS. Their actuarial assumptions for pension accounting should be announced, but only few of them were published. Data analysis shows that the small differences of the actuarial assumption may result in a big change of retirement related liability. Firms within IT industry also have similar behaviors, which means that additional financial regulations for pension accounting are recommended. PMID:25013868

  14. Empirical analysis of retirement pension and IFRS adoption effects on accounting information: glance at IT industry.

    PubMed

    Kim, JeongYeon

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews new pension accounting with K-IFRS and provides empirical changes in liability for retirement allowances with adoption of K-IFRS. It will help to understand the effect of pension accounting on individual firm's financial report and the importance of public announcement of actuarial assumptions. Firms that adopted K-IFRS had various changes in retirement liability compared to the previous financial report not based on K-IFRS. Their actuarial assumptions for pension accounting should be announced, but only few of them were published. Data analysis shows that the small differences of the actuarial assumption may result in a big change of retirement related liability. Firms within IT industry also have similar behaviors, which means that additional financial regulations for pension accounting are recommended.

  15. Holding Charter Authorizers Accountable: Why It Is Important and How It Might Be Done. NCSRP White Paper Series, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robin J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper takes on the question of whether and how school authorizers should be held accountable for their own performance. The author presents reasons why scrutiny and accountability are needed not only for schools but also for chartering agencies, identifies what types of accountability are present now, and offers ideas for ways accountability…

  16. Accounting for Vegetation Effects in Spatially Distributed Snowmelt Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garen, D. C.; Marks, D.

    2004-05-01

    The effects of vegetation on snowpack energy dynamics can be highly significant and must be taken into account when simulating snowmelt. This becomes challenging, however, for spatially distributed models covering large areas such as river basins. In this case, processes occurring at the scale of individual trees or bushes must be parameterized and upscaled to the size of the model's grid cells, which could range from 10 up to a few hundred meters. An application of a spatially distributed energy balance snowmelt model to the Boise River basin in Idaho, USA has required the development of algorithms to account for the effects of vegetation (especially forest) on the climate input data to the model. This particularly affects the solar and thermal radiation input to the snowpack, including not only the direct effects of the vegetation but also the effect of vegetation debris on the snow albedo. Vegetation effects on vertical profiles of wind speed and temperature could not be considered due to limited measurements, and only a crude estimate of wind speed differences between forested and nonforested grid cells was used. The simulated snow fields were verified using point snow water equivalent and snow depth data as well as satellite images of snow covered area. Although good results were obtained in these comparisons, each of these methods has limitations, in that point measurements are not necessarily representative of a grid cell, and satellite images have a coarse resolution and cannot detect snow under trees. Another test was to use the simulated snowmelt fields as input to a spatially distributed water balance and streamflow simulation model, which indicated that the volume and timing of snowmelt input to the basin were accurately represented. A limitation of the modeling method used is that the models are run independently in sequence, the output of one being stored and becoming the input of the next. This means that there is no opportunity for feedbacks between

  17. Taking side effects into account for HIV medication.

    PubMed

    Costanza, Vicente; Rivadeneira, Pablo S; Biafore, Federico L; D'Attellis, Carlos E

    2010-09-01

    A control-theoretic approach to the problem of designing "low-side-effects" therapies for HIV patients based on highly active drugs is substantiated here. The evolution of side effects during treatment is modeled by an extra differential equation coupled to the dynamics of virions, healthy T-cells, and infected ones. The new equation reflects the dependence of collateral damages on the amount of each dose administered to the patient and on the evolution of the viral load detected by periodical blood analysis. The cost objective accounts for recommended bounds on healthy cells and virions, and also penalizes the appearance of collateral morbidities caused by the medication. The optimization problem is solved by a hybrid dynamic programming scheme that adhere to discrete-time observation and control actions, but by maintaining the continuous-time setup for predicting states and side effects. The resulting optimal strategies employ less drugs than those prescribed by previous optimization studies, but maintaining high doses at the beginning and the end of each period of six months. If an inverse discount rate is applied to favor early actions, and under a mild penalization of the final viral load, then the optimal doses are found to be high at the beginning and decrease afterward, thus causing an apparent stabilization of the main variables. But in this case, the final viral load turns higher than acceptable.

  18. Accounting for Chromatic Atmospheric Effects on Barycentric Corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Ryan T.; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.; Fischer, Debra A.; Jurgenson, Colby A.

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric effects on stellar radial velocity measurements for exoplanet discovery and characterization have not yet been fully investigated for extreme precision levels. We carry out calculations to determine the wavelength dependence of barycentric corrections across optical wavelengths, due to the ubiquitous variations in air mass during observations. We demonstrate that radial velocity errors of at least several cm s‑1 can be incurred if the wavelength dependence is not included in the photon-weighted barycentric corrections. A minimum of four wavelength channels across optical spectra (380–680 nm) are required to account for this effect at the 10 cm s‑1 level, with polynomial fits of the barycentric corrections applied to cover all wavelengths. Additional channels may be required in poor observing conditions or to avoid strong telluric absorption features. Furthermore, consistent flux sampling on the order of seconds throughout the observation is necessary to ensure that accurate photon weights are obtained. Finally, we describe how a multiple-channel exposure meter will be implemented in the EXtreme PREcision Spectrograph (EXPRES).

  19. Bohr effect of hemoglobins: Accounting for differences in magnitude.

    PubMed

    Okonjo, Kehinde O

    2015-09-07

    The basis of the difference in the Bohr effect of various hemoglobins has remained enigmatic for decades. Fourteen amino acid residues, identical in pairs and located at specific 'Bohr group positions' in human hemoglobin, are implicated in the Bohr effect. All 14 are present in mouse, 11 in dog, eight in pigeon and 13 in guinea pig hemoglobin. The Bohr data for human and mouse hemoglobin are identical: the 14 Bohr groups appear at identical positions in both molecules. The dog data are different from the human because three Bohr group positions are occupied by non-ionizable groups in dog hemoglobin; the pigeon data are vastly different from the human because six Bohr group positions are occupied by non-ionizable groups in pigeon hemoglobin. The guinea pig data are quite complex. Quantitative analyses showed that only the pigeon data could be fitted with the Wyman equation for the Bohr effect. We demonstrate that, apart from guinea pig hemoglobin, the difference between the Bohr effect of each of the other hemoglobins and of pigeon hemoglobin can be accounted for quantitatively on the basis of the occupation of some of their Bohr group positions by non-ionizable groups in pigeon hemoglobin. We attribute the anomalous guinea pig result to a new salt-bridge formed in its R2 quaternary structure between the terminal NH3(+) group of one β-chain and the COO(-) terminal group of the partner β-chain in the same molecule. The pKas of this NH3(+) group are 6.33 in the R2 and 4.59 in the T state.

  20. Integrating Effective Writing Skills in the Accounting Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Gordon S.; Arevalo, Claire

    1983-01-01

    The J. M. Tull School of Accounting at the University of Georgia has developed a program that integrates the teaching of writing skills with the regular accounting courses. Students in a three-course sequence write a total of eight papers--technical, memos, or reports--in assignments that resemble writing tasks encountered by professional…

  1. Analysis & commentary: The accountable care organization: whatever its growing pains, the concept is too vitally important to fail.

    PubMed

    Crosson, Francis J

    2011-07-01

    The success of health reform efforts will depend, in part, on creating new and better ways to organize, deliver, and pay for health care. Increasingly central to this idea is the accountable care organization model proposed for Medicare and a slightly different model for commercial health care. But these new health care delivery and payment models face considerable skepticism. Can Medicare succeed with accountable care organizations if physicians can't determine whether patients are in the organization or not? Will commercial hospitals use their clout to create accountable care organizations, leaving physician practices in a weaker position? This article answers those and other criticisms of the developing accountable care organization movement. If the concept fails, the nation may face indiscriminate cuts to health care payments, with resulting reductions in access, service, and quality.

  2. Mental Accounting in Portfolio Choice: Evidence from a Flypaper Effect

    PubMed Central

    Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with mental accounting, we document that investors sometimes choose the asset allocation for one account without considering the asset allocation of their other accounts. The setting is a firm that changed its 401(k) matching rules. Initially, 401(k) enrollees chose the allocation of their own contributions, but the firm chose the match allocation. These enrollees ignored the match allocation when choosing their own-contribution allocation. In the second regime, enrollees simultaneously selected both accounts’ allocations, leading them to mentally integrate the two. Own-contribution allocations before the rule change equal the combined own- and match-contribution allocations afterwards, whereas combined allocations differ sharply across regimes. PMID:20027235

  3. Control of corruption, democratic accountability, and effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Ming; Kang, Minah

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite continued global efforts, HIV/AIDS outcomes in developing countries have not made much progress. Poor governance in recipient countries is often seen as one of the reasons for ineffectiveness of aid efforts to achieve stated objectives and desired outcomes. Objective This study examines the impact of two important dimensions of governance – control of corruption and democratic accountability – on the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance. Design An empirical analysis using dynamic panel Generalized Method of Moments estimation was conducted on 2001–2010 datasets. Results Control of corruption and democratic accountability revealed an independent effect and interaction with the amount of HIV/AIDS aid on incidence of HIV/AIDS, respectively, while none of the two governance variables had a significant effect on HIV/AIDS prevalence. Specifically, in countries with accountability level below −2.269, aid has a detrimental effect on incidence of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The study findings suggest that aid programs need to be preceded or at least accompanied by serious efforts to improve governance in recipient countries and that democratic accountability ought to receive more critical attention. PMID:27189199

  4. Control of corruption, democratic accountability, and effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Ming; Kang, Minah

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite continued global efforts, HIV/AIDS outcomes in developing countries have not made much progress. Poor governance in recipient countries is often seen as one of the reasons for ineffectiveness of aid efforts to achieve stated objectives and desired outcomes. Objective This study examines the impact of two important dimensions of governance - control of corruption and democratic accountability - on the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance. Design An empirical analysis using dynamic panel Generalized Method of Moments estimation was conducted on 2001-2010 datasets. Results Control of corruption and democratic accountability revealed an independent effect and interaction with the amount of HIV/AIDS aid on incidence of HIV/AIDS, respectively, while none of the two governance variables had a significant effect on HIV/AIDS prevalence. Specifically, in countries with accountability level below -2.269, aid has a detrimental effect on incidence of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The study findings suggest that aid programs need to be preceded or at least accompanied by serious efforts to improve governance in recipient countries and that democratic accountability ought to receive more critical attention.

  5. Accounting for Behavior in Treatment Effects: New Applications for Blind Trials.

    PubMed

    Chassang, Sylvain; Snowberg, Erik; Seymour, Ben; Bowles, Cayley

    2015-01-01

    The double-blind randomized controlled trial (DBRCT) is the gold standard of medical research. We show that DBRCTs fail to fully account for the efficacy of treatment if there are interactions between treatment and behavior, for example, if a treatment is more effective when patients change their exercise or diet. Since behavioral or placebo effects depend on patients' beliefs that they are receiving treatment, clinical trials with a single probability of treatment are poorly suited to estimate the additional treatment benefit that arises from such interactions. Here, we propose methods to identify interaction effects, and use those methods in a meta-analysis of data from blinded anti-depressant trials in which participant-level data was available. Out of six eligible studies, which included three for the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor paroxetine, and three for the tricyclic imipramine, three studies had a high (>65%) probability of treatment. We found strong evidence that treatment probability affected the behavior of trial participants, specifically the decision to drop out of a trial. In the case of paroxetine, but not imipramine, there was an interaction between treatment and behavioral changes that enhanced the effectiveness of the drug. These data show that standard blind trials can fail to account for the full value added when there are interactions between a treatment and behavior. We therefore suggest that a new trial design, two-by-two blind trials, will better account for treatment efficacy when interaction effects may be important.

  6. 14 CFR Section 18 - Objective Classification-Cumulative Effect of Changes in Accounting Principles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Changes in Accounting Principles Section 18 Section 18 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... Objective Classification—Cumulative Effect of Changes in Accounting Principles 98Cumulative Effect of Changes in Accounting Principles. Record here the difference between the amount of retained earnings...

  7. Materialism Moderates the Effect of Accounting for Time on Prosocial Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Li, Jibo; Chen, Yingying; Huang, Xiting

    2015-01-01

    Accounting for time is defined as putting a price on time. Researchers have demonstrated that accounting for time reduces the time individuals spend on others; however, its association with monetary donations has not been examined. We hypothesized that accounting for time will activate a utility mindset that would affect one's allocation of time and money. In Study 1, the mediating effect of utility mindsets on the relationship between accounting for time and prosocial behavior was examined. In Study 2, we examined the effect of accounting for time on time spent helping and donating money, and the moderating role of material values on the relationship between accounting for time and prosocial behavior. Results showed that accounting for time activated a mindset of utility maximization that, in turn, reduced participants' prosocial behavior; moreover, materialism moderated the effect of accounting for time on prosocial behavior.

  8. An Assessment of the Effects of Teaching Methods on Academic Performance of Students in Accounting Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosal-Akman, Nazli; Simga-Mugan, Can

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the effect of teaching methods on the academic performance of students in accounting courses. The study was carried out over two semesters at a well-known university in Turkey in principles of financial accounting and managerial accounting courses. Students enrolled in the courses were assigned to treatment and control groups.…

  9. Numerical tool to take nonlocal effects into account in metallo-dielectric multilayers.

    PubMed

    Benedicto, Jessica; Pollès, Rémi; Ciracì, Cristian; Centeno, Emmanuel; Smith, David R; Moreau, Antoine

    2015-08-01

    We provide a numerical tool to quantitatively study the impact of nonlocality arising from free electrons in metals on the optical properties of metallo-dielectric multilayers. We found that scattering matrices are particularly well suited to take into account the electron response through the application of the hydrodynamic model. Though effects due to nonlocality are, in general, quite small, they, nevertheless, can be important for very thin (typically below 10 nm) metallic layers, as in those used in structures characterized by exotic dispersion curves. Such structures include those with a negative refractive index, hyperbolic metamaterials, and near-zero index materials. Higher wave vectors mean larger nonlocal effects, so that it is not surprising that subwavelength imaging capabilities of hyperbolic metamaterials are found to be sensitive to nonlocal effects. We find in all cases that the inclusion of nonlocal effects leads to at least a 5% higher transmission through the considered structure.

  10. Present, Engaged, and Accounted for: The Critical Importance of Addressing Chronic Absence in the Early Grades. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hedy N.; Romero, Mariajose

    2008-01-01

    This report seeks to raise awareness of the critical importance of chronic early absence, synthesize available data on the scope of the challenge, and share emerging insights about how schools and communities can use chronic early absence to identify and address challenges affecting the social, educational and physical well-being of children and…

  11. Importance of measurement of platelet reactivity to ADP in patients with coronary artery disease: an historical account.

    PubMed

    Tantry, Udaya S; Mahla, Elisabeth; Gesheff, Martin G; Gurbel, Paul A

    2013-11-01

    The pivotal roles of platelets in physiological hemostasis and pathological thrombosis at the site of plaque rupture are well established. The latter roles provide the fundamental basis for the most widely implemented pharmacologic management of coronary artery disease--dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin to inhibit platelet thromboxane A2 generation, and a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor to prevent adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet activation. Although suboptimal pharmacodynamic efficacy, also described as high on-treatment platelet reactivity to ADP, has been associated with greater risk for post-stenting ischemic event occurrence, enhanced responsiveness is associated with higher risk for bleeding in selected patients. In this review article, we aim to provide an historical account of the one and a half century long journey starting with the first description of platelets through the first report of ex vivo measurement of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, the first demonstration of an association between ADP-induced platelet aggregation and post-stenting ischemic event occurrence, and finally to the most recent description of a 'therapeutic window' concept for P2Y12 receptor inhibitor therapy.

  12. Effect of Teaching Using Whole Brain Instruction on Accounting Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Li-Tze; Hung, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    McCarthy (1985) constructed the 4MAT teaching model, an eight step instrument developed in 1980, by synthesizing Dewey's experiential learning, Kolb's four learning styles, Jung's personality types, as well as Bogen's left mode and right mode of brain processing preferences. An important implication of this model is that learning retention is…

  13. Accounting for future costs in medical cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, D

    1997-02-01

    Most medical cost-effectiveness analyses include future costs only for related illnesses, but this approach is controversial. This paper demonstrates that cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with lifetime utility maximization only if it includes all future medical and non-medical expenditures. Estimates of the magnitude of these future costs suggest that they may substantially alter both the absolute and relative cost-effectiveness of medical interventions, particularly when an intervention increases length of life more than quality of life. In older populations, current methods overstate the cost-effectiveness of interventions which extend life compared to interventions which improve the quality of life.

  14. A Response-Discrimination Account of the Simon Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansorge, Ulrich; Wuhr, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Simon effects might partly reflect stimulus-triggered response activation. According to the response-discrimination hypothesis, however, stimulus-triggered response activation shows up in Simon effects only when stimulus locations match the top-down selected spatial codes used to discriminate between alternative responses. Five experiments support…

  15. Facilitative Orthographic Neighborhood Effects: The SERIOL Model Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Carol; Lavidor, Michal

    2005-01-01

    A large orthographic neighborhood (N) facilitates lexical decision for central and left visual field/right hemisphere (LVF/RH) presentation, but not for right visual field/left hemisphere (RVF/LH) presentation. Based on the SERIOL model of letter-position encoding, this asymmetric N effect is explained by differential activation patterns at the…

  16. Teacher Effects, Value-Added Models, and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the last decade, the effects of teachers on student performance (typically manifested as state-wide standardized tests) have been re-examined using statistical models that are known as value-added models. These statistical models aim to compute the unique contribution of the teachers in promoting student achievement gains from grade…

  17. An Exploratory Study of the Effect of Professional Internships on Students' Perception of the Importance of Employment Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Brian Patrick; Graybeal, Patricia; Madison, Roland L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors measured the effects of a formal internship on students' perceptions of the importance of traits employees consider during the hiring process. Prior studies have reported that accounting firms perceive students with internship experience as better entry-level accountants. This perception may be related to changes in student beliefs…

  18. Using Importance-Performance Analysis To Evaluate Teaching Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attarian, Aram

    This paper introduces Importance-Performance (IP) analysis as a method to evaluate teaching effectiveness in a university outdoor program. Originally developed for use in the field of marketing, IP analysis is simple and easy to administer, and provides the instructor with a visual representation of what teaching attributes are important, how…

  19. Can conceptual congruency effects between number, time, and space be accounted for by polarity correspondence?

    PubMed

    Santiago, Julio; Lakens, Daniël

    2015-03-01

    Conceptual congruency effects have been interpreted as evidence for the idea that the representations of abstract conceptual dimensions (e.g., power, affective valence, time, number, importance) rest on more concrete dimensions (e.g., space, brightness, weight). However, an alternative theoretical explanation based on the notion of polarity correspondence has recently received empirical support in the domains of valence and morality, which are related to vertical space (e.g., good things are up). In the present study we provide empirical arguments against the applicability of the polarity correspondence account to congruency effects in two conceptual domains related to lateral space: number and time. Following earlier research, we varied the polarity of the response dimension (left-right) by manipulating keyboard eccentricity. In a first experiment we successfully replicated the congruency effect between vertical and lateral space and its interaction with response eccentricity. We then examined whether this modulation of a concrete-concrete congruency effect can be extended to two types of concrete-abstract effects, those between left-right space and number (in both parity and magnitude judgment tasks), and temporal reference. In all three tasks response eccentricity failed to modulate the congruency effects. We conclude that polarity correspondence does not provide an adequate explanation of conceptual congruency effects in the domains of number and time.

  20. The Effect of Web-Based Collaborative Learning Methods to the Accounting Courses in Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, K. W. Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This study mainly explored the effect of applying web-based collaborative learning instruction to the accounting curriculum on student's problem-solving attitudes in Technical Education. The research findings and proposed suggestions would serve as a reference for the development of accounting-related curricula and teaching strategies. To achieve…

  1. "Catalyst Data": Perverse Systemic Effects of Audit and Accountability in Australian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the perverse effects of the new accountability regime central to the Labor government's national reform agenda in schooling. The focus is on National Assessment Program -- Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) results that now act as "catalyst data" and are pivotal to school and system accountability. We offer a case study,…

  2. Cramming: The Effects of School Accountability on College-Bound Students. Working Paper 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Colleen; Figlio, David; Rush, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the first evidence of the effects of school accountability systems on the long-term human capital development of high-performing, college-bound students. The results are mixed. On the one hand, the evidence is consistent that school accountability sanction threats are associated with changes in student study habits. Students…

  3. Framework for an Effective Assessment and Accountability Program: The Philadelphia Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Andrew C.; Chester, Mitchell D.; Schlesinger, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to put in the hands of researchers, practitioners, and policy makers a powerful framework for building and studying the effects of high-quality assessment and accountability programs. The framework is illustrated through a description and analysis of the assessment and accountability program in the School District of…

  4. The Effects of Increased Accountability Standards on Graduation Rates for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mitzi Lee

    2012-01-01

    This research sought to determine if unintended effects of increased accountability standards on graduation rates for students with disabilities existed. Data from one southeastern state were utilized in order to determine if graduation rates were impacted as a result of higher accountability standards. In addition, administrator attitudes on…

  5. Do Contextual Effects Bias Kentucky School District Accountability Index Scores? Occasional Research Paper No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Edward B.

    The system of high-stakes accountability in the Kentucky public schools raises the question of whether teachers and administrators should be held accountable if test scores are influenced by external factors over which educators have no control. This study investigates whether such external factors , or "contextual effects," bias the…

  6. An extended car-following model accounting for the average headway effect in intelligent transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Hua; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Li, Xing-Li; Lo, Siu-Ming

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an extended car-following model is proposed to simulate traffic flow by considering average headway of preceding vehicles group in intelligent transportation systems environment. The stability condition of this model is obtained by using the linear stability analysis. The phase diagram can be divided into three regions classified as the stable, the metastable and the unstable ones. The theoretical result shows that the average headway plays an important role in improving the stabilization of traffic system. The mKdV equation near the critical point is derived to describe the evolution properties of traffic density waves by applying the reductive perturbation method. Furthermore, through the simulation of space-time evolution of the vehicle headway, it is shown that the traffic jam can be suppressed efficiently with taking into account the average headway effect, and the analytical result is consistent with the simulation one.

  7. Rayleigh radiance computations for satellite remote sensing: accounting for the effect of sensor spectral response function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Menghua

    2016-05-30

    To understand and assess the effect of the sensor spectral response function (SRF) on the accuracy of the top of the atmosphere (TOA) Rayleigh-scattering radiance computation, new TOA Rayleigh radiance lookup tables (LUTs) over global oceans and inland waters have been generated. The new Rayleigh LUTs include spectral coverage of 335-2555 nm, all possible solar-sensor geometries, and surface wind speeds of 0-30 m/s. Using the new Rayleigh LUTs, the sensor SRF effect on the accuracy of the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation has been evaluated for spectral bands of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS)-1, showing some important uncertainties for VIIRS-SNPP particularly for large solar- and/or sensor-zenith angles as well as for large Rayleigh optical thicknesses (i.e., short wavelengths) and bands with broad spectral bandwidths. To accurately account for the sensor SRF effect, a new correction algorithm has been developed for VIIRS spectral bands, which improves the TOA Rayleigh radiance accuracy to ~0.01% even for the large solar-zenith angles of 70°-80°, compared with the error of ~0.7% without applying the correction for the VIIRS-SNPP 410 nm band. The same methodology that accounts for the sensor SRF effect on the Rayleigh radiance computation can be used for other satellite sensors. In addition, with the new Rayleigh LUTs, the effect of surface atmospheric pressure variation on the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation can be calculated precisely, and no specific atmospheric pressure correction algorithm is needed. There are some other important applications and advantages to using the new Rayleigh LUTs for satellite remote sensing, including an efficient and accurate TOA Rayleigh radiance computation for hyperspectral satellite remote sensing, detector-based TOA Rayleigh radiance computation, Rayleigh radiance calculations for high altitude

  8. The Importance of Goals to Effective Schools and Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Keith C.

    This paper analyzes the importance of goals for the development of effective schools in general and for minority groups in particular. The first part of the paper reports on a study of the preferred goals of four minority groups in Nova Scotia and how they compared with the goals of the province's Department of Education. The study found that (1)…

  9. Accounting for Case Manager Effects in the Evaluation of Mental Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Carey S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Explored three methods of accounting for case manager effects in tests of efficacy of mental health services (case manager as fixed factor, case manager as random factor, service effects within case manager). Results provide support for effects attributable to case managers and some support for efficacy of habilitation-rehabilitation and community…

  10. Radiative opacities and configuration interaction effects of hot iron plasma using a detailed term accounting model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Fengtao; Zeng, Jiaolong; Yuan, Jianmin

    2003-12-01

    We have calculated the radiative opacities of iron plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium using a detailed term accounting model. The extensive atomic data are obtained by multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) method, with Breit-Pauli relativistic corrections. Extensive configuration interaction (CI) has been included based on LS coupling to obtain energy levels and the bound-bound transition cross sections. A detailed configuration accounting model is applied to evaluate the bound-free absorption cross sections. We simulate two experimental transmission spectra [G. Winhart et al., Phys. Rev. E 53, R1332 (1996); P. T. Springer et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 58, 927 (1997)] to verify our calculation model, one is at a temperature of 22 eV and a density of 10-2 g/cm3 and the other is at a temperature of 20 eV and a lower density of 10-4 g/cm3. It is shown that the strong CI can effectively change the oscillator strengths in contrast to the single configuration HF method. For both of the two simulated transmission spectra good agreement is obtained between the present MCHF results and the experimental data. Spectrally resolved opacities and Planck and Rosseland mean opacities are also calculated. For the isothermal sequence of T=20 eV, when the density decreases from 10-2 to 10-5 g/cm3, the linewidth also decreases so that the iron transition arrays show more discrete line structures and the linewidth becomes very important to the Rosseland mean opacity.

  11. Cost-Effective Control of Infectious Disease Outbreaks Accounting for Societal Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Fast, Shannon M.; González, Marta C.; Markuzon, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies of cost-effective disease prevention have typically focused on the tradeoff between the cost of disease transmission and the cost of applying control measures. We present a novel approach that also accounts for the cost of social disruptions resulting from the spread of disease. These disruptions, which we call social response, can include heightened anxiety, strain on healthcare infrastructure, economic losses, or violence. Methodology The spread of disease and social response are simulated under several different intervention strategies. The modeled social response depends upon the perceived risk of the disease, the extent of disease spread, and the media involvement. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we estimate the total number of infections and total social response for each strategy. We then identify the strategy that minimizes the expected total cost of the disease, which includes the cost of the disease itself, the cost of control measures, and the cost of social response. Conclusions The model-based simulations suggest that the least-cost disease control strategy depends upon the perceived risk of the disease, as well as media intervention. The most cost-effective solution for diseases with low perceived risk was to implement moderate control measures. For diseases with higher perceived severity, such as SARS or Ebola, the most cost-effective strategy shifted toward intervening earlier in the outbreak, with greater resources. When intervention elicited increased media involvement, it remained important to control high severity diseases quickly. For moderate severity diseases, however, it became most cost-effective to implement no intervention and allow the disease to run its course. Our simulation results imply that, when diseases are perceived as severe, the costs of social response have a significant influence on selecting the most cost-effective strategy. PMID:26288274

  12. Assessment Measures Showing Institutional Effectiveness in Relation to External Stakeholder Expectations for Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clites, Mona Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Community colleges face a growing demand from a wide range of stakeholders for more transparent accountability but struggle to select appropriate measures and to use them in effective ways. The multiple demands of various stakeholders, and the calls to respond to those demands in effective and appropriate ways, are leading to a confusing array of…

  13. Population Size Predicts Lexical Diversity, but so Does the Mean Sea Level – Why It Is Important to Correctly Account for the Structure of Temporal Data

    PubMed Central

    Koplenig, Alexander; Müller-Spitzer, Carolin

    2016-01-01

    In order to demonstrate why it is important to correctly account for the (serial dependent) structure of temporal data, we document an apparently spectacular relationship between population size and lexical diversity: for five out of seven investigated languages, there is a strong relationship between population size and lexical diversity of the primary language in this country. We show that this relationship is the result of a misspecified model that does not consider the temporal aspect of the data by presenting a similar but nonsensical relationship between the global annual mean sea level and lexical diversity. Given the fact that in the recent past, several studies were published that present surprising links between different economic, cultural, political and (socio-)demographical variables on the one hand and cultural or linguistic characteristics on the other hand, but seem to suffer from exactly this problem, we explain the cause of the misspecification and show that it has profound consequences. We demonstrate how simple transformation of the time series can often solve problems of this type and argue that the evaluation of the plausibility of a relationship is important in this context. We hope that our paper will help both researchers and reviewers to understand why it is important to use special models for the analysis of data with a natural temporal ordering. PMID:26938719

  14. Accounting for perception, placebo and unmasking effects in estimating treatment effects in randomised clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Jamshidian, Farid; Hubbard, Alan E; Jewell, Nicholas P

    2014-06-01

    There is a rich literature on the role of placebos in experimental design and evaluation of therapeutic agents or interventions. The importance of masking participants, investigators and evaluators to treatment assignment (treatment or placebo) has long been stressed as a key feature of a successful trial design. Nevertheless, there is considerable variability in the technical definition of the placebo effect and the impact of treatment assignments being unmasked. We suggest a formal concept of a 'perception effect' and define unmasking and placebo effects in the context of randomised trials. We employ modern tools from causal inference to derive semi-parametric estimators of such effects. The methods are illustrated on a motivating example from a recent pain trial where the occurrence of treatment-related side effects acts as a proxy for unmasking.

  15. Importance of geometric phase effects in ultracold chemistry

    DOE PAGES

    Hazra, Jisha; Kendrick, Brian K.; Balakrishnan, Naduvalath

    2015-08-28

    Here, it is demonstrated that the inclusion of the geometric phase has an important effect on ultracold chemical reaction rates. The effect appears in rotationally and vibrationally resolved integral cross sections as well as cross sections summed over all product quantum states. The effect arises from interference between scattering amplitudes of two reaction pathways: a direct path and a looping path that encircle the conical intersection between the two lowest adiabatic electronic potential energy surfaces. It is magnified when the two scattering amplitudes have comparable magnitude and they scatter into the same angular region which occurs in the isotropic scatteringmore » characteristic of the ultracold regime (s-wave scattering). Results are presented for the O + OH → H + O2 reaction for total angular momentum quantum number J = 0–5. Large geometric phase effects occur for collision energies below 0.1 K, but the effect vanishes at higher energies when contributions from different partial waves are included. It is also qualitatively demonstrated that the geometric phase effect can be modulated by applying an external electric field allowing the possibility of quantum control of chemical reactions in the ultracold regime. In this case, the geometric phase plays the role of a “quantum switch” which can turn the reaction “on” or “off”.« less

  16. Importance of geometric phase effects in ultracold chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Jisha; Kendrick, Brian K.; Balakrishnan, Naduvalath

    2015-08-28

    Here, it is demonstrated that the inclusion of the geometric phase has an important effect on ultracold chemical reaction rates. The effect appears in rotationally and vibrationally resolved integral cross sections as well as cross sections summed over all product quantum states. The effect arises from interference between scattering amplitudes of two reaction pathways: a direct path and a looping path that encircle the conical intersection between the two lowest adiabatic electronic potential energy surfaces. It is magnified when the two scattering amplitudes have comparable magnitude and they scatter into the same angular region which occurs in the isotropic scattering characteristic of the ultracold regime (s-wave scattering). Results are presented for the O + OH → H + O2 reaction for total angular momentum quantum number J = 0–5. Large geometric phase effects occur for collision energies below 0.1 K, but the effect vanishes at higher energies when contributions from different partial waves are included. It is also qualitatively demonstrated that the geometric phase effect can be modulated by applying an external electric field allowing the possibility of quantum control of chemical reactions in the ultracold regime. In this case, the geometric phase plays the role of a “quantum switch” which can turn the reaction “on” or “off”.

  17. Does published orthodontic research account for clustering effects during statistical data analysis?

    PubMed

    Koletsi, Despina; Pandis, Nikolaos; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Eliades, Theodore

    2012-06-01

    In orthodontics, multiple site observations within patients or multiple observations collected at consecutive time points are often encountered. Clustered designs require larger sample sizes compared to individual randomized trials and special statistical analyses that account for the fact that observations within clusters are correlated. It is the purpose of this study to assess to what degree clustering effects are considered during design and data analysis in the three major orthodontic journals. The contents of the most recent 24 issues of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJODO), Angle Orthodontist (AO), and European Journal of Orthodontics (EJO) from December 2010 backwards were hand searched. Articles with clustering effects and whether the authors accounted for clustering effects were identified. Additionally, information was collected on: involvement of a statistician, single or multicenter study, number of authors in the publication, geographical area, and statistical significance. From the 1584 articles, after exclusions, 1062 were assessed for clustering effects from which 250 (23.5 per cent) were considered to have clustering effects in the design (kappa = 0.92, 95 per cent CI: 0.67-0.99 for inter rater agreement). From the studies with clustering effects only, 63 (25.20 per cent) had indicated accounting for clustering effects. There was evidence that the studies published in the AO have higher odds of accounting for clustering effects [AO versus AJODO: odds ratio (OR) = 2.17, 95 per cent confidence interval (CI): 1.06-4.43, P = 0.03; EJO versus AJODO: OR = 1.90, 95 per cent CI: 0.84-4.24, non-significant; and EJO versus AO: OR = 1.15, 95 per cent CI: 0.57-2.33, non-significant). The results of this study indicate that only about a quarter of the studies with clustering effects account for this in statistical data analysis.

  18. Team-oriented leadership: the interactive effects of leader group prototypicality, accountability, and team identification.

    PubMed

    Giessner, Steffen R; van Knippenberg, Daan; van Ginkel, Wendy; Sleebos, Ed

    2013-07-01

    We examined the interactive effects of leader group prototypicality, accountability, and team identification on team-oriented behavior of leaders, thus extending the social identity perspective on leadership to the study of leader behavior. An experimental study (N = 152) supported our hypothesis that leader accountability relates more strongly to team-oriented behavior for group nonprototypical leaders than for group prototypical leaders. A multisource field study with leaders (N = 64) and their followers (N = 209) indicated that this interactive effect is more pronounced for leaders who identify more strongly with their team. We discuss how these findings further develop the social identity analysis of leadership.

  19. Hot Electron Effects of Importance for Micron and Submicron Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    AD-AI05 616 ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA COORDINATED SCIENCE LAB F/ B 20/5 HOT ELECTRON EFFECTS OF IMPORTANCE FOR MICRON AND SUBMICRON OEV--ETC(U) SEP BI K...transport in heterolayers which was also treated and partly expanded by B . K. Ridley and P. Price. 2. Transport at Extremely High Electric Fields and Impact...467-469 (19"’)). 4. M. Keever, H. Shichijo, K. Hess, !. P°n-"rje. L. Witkowsi, :. rko; and B . a. Streetman, Measurements of !f{? E].e"’-ron C

  20. On the Importance of Accounting for Competing Risks in Pediatric Cancer Trials Designed to Delay or Avoid Radiotherapy: I. Basic Concepts and First Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Bee-Choo; Grundy, Richard G.; Machin, David

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: In trials designed to delay or avoid irradiation among children with malignant brain tumor, although irradiation after disease progression is an important event, patients who have disease progression may decline radiotherapy (RT), or those without disease progression may opt for elective RT. To accurately describe the cumulative need for RT in such instances, it is crucial to account for these distinct events and to evaluate how each contributes to the delay or advancement of irradiation via a competing risks analysis. Methods and Materials: We describe the summary of competing events in such trials using competing risks methods based on cumulative incidence functions and Gray's test. The results obtained are contrasted with standard survival methods based on Kaplan-Meier curves, cause-specific hazard functions and log-rank test. Results: The Kaplan-Meier method overestimates all event-specific rates. The cause-specific hazard analysis showed reduction in hazards for all events (A: RT after progression; B: no RT after progression; C: elective RT) among children with ependymoma. For event A, a higher cumulative incidence was reported for ependymoma. Although Gray's test failed to detect any difference (p = 0.331) between histologic subtypes, the log-rank test suggested marginal evidence (p = 0.057). Similarly, for event C, the log-rank test found stronger evidence of reduction in hazard among those with ependymoma (p = 0.005) as compared with Gray's test (p = 0.086). Conclusions: To evaluate treatment differences, failing to account for competing risks using appropriate methodology may lead to incorrect interpretations.

  1. Testing the Item-Order Account of Design Effects Using the Production Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonker, Tanya R.; Levene, Merrick; MacLeod, Colin M.

    2014-01-01

    A number of memory phenomena evident in recall in within-subject, mixed-lists designs are reduced or eliminated in between-subject, pure-list designs. The item-order account (McDaniel & Bugg, 2008) proposes that differential retention of order information might underlie this pattern. According to this account, order information may be encoded…

  2. Implications of Climate Change for State Bioassessment Programs and Approaches to Account for Effects (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Implications of Climate Change for State Bioassessment Programs and Approaches to Account for Effects. This report uses biological data collected by four states in wadeable rivers and streams to examine the components ...

  3. Outputs as Educator Effectiveness in the United States: Shifting towards Political Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piro, Jody S.; Mullen, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    The definition of educator effectiveness is being redefined by econometric modeling to evidence student achievement on standardized tests. While the reasons that econometric frameworks are in vogue are many, it is clear that the strength of such models lie in the quantifiable evidence of student learning. Current accountability models frame…

  4. Peer Group Norms and Accountability Moderate the Effect of School Norms on Children's Intergroup Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Luke; Rutland, Adam; Nesdale, Drew

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the interactive effects of school norms, peer norms, and accountability on children's intergroup attitudes. Participants (n = 229) aged 5-11 years, in a between-subjects design, were randomly assigned to a peer group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, learned their school either had an inclusion norm or not, and were…

  5. Identity and Epistemic Emotions during Knowledge Revision: A Potential Account for the Backfire Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevors, Gregory J.; Muis, Krista R.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Sinatra, Gale M.; Winne, Philip H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that for some topics, messages to refute and revise misconceptions may backfire. The current research offers one possible account for this backfire effect (i.e., the ironic strengthening of belief in erroneous information after an attempted refutation) from an educational psychology perspective and examines whether…

  6. A Retrieved Context Account of Spacing and Repetition Effects in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Lynn L.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Repeating an item in a list benefits recall performance, and this benefit increases when the repetitions are spaced apart (Madigan, 1969; Melton, 1970). Retrieved context theory incorporates 2 mechanisms that account for these effects: contextual variability and study-phase retrieval. Specifically, if an item presented at position "i" is…

  7. 76 FR 20974 - Implications of Climate Change for Bioassessment Programs and Approaches To Account for Effects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... AGENCY Implications of Climate Change for Bioassessment Programs and Approaches To Account for Effects... by climate change. The study (1) Investigates the potential to identify biological response signals to climate change within existing bioassessment data from Maine, North Carolina, Ohio, and Utah;...

  8. Effects of Individual Development Accounts (IDAs) on Household Wealth and Saving Taste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jin

    2010-01-01

    This study examines effects of individual development accounts (IDAs) on household wealth of low-income participants. Methods: This study uses longitudinal survey data from the American Dream Demonstration (ADD) involving experimental design (treatment group = 537, control group = 566). Results: Results from quantile regression analysis indicate…

  9. Annual Percentage Rate and Annual Effective Rate: Resolving Confusion in Intermediate Accounting Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicknair, David; Wright, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of confusion in intermediate accounting textbooks regarding the annual percentage rate (APR) and annual effective rate (AER) is presented. The APR and AER are briefly discussed in the context of a note payable and correct formulas for computing each is provided. Representative examples of the types of confusion that we found is presented…

  10. Chloride diffusivity in hardened cement paste from microscale analyses and accounting for binding effects.

    PubMed

    Carrara, P; De Lorenzis, L; Bentz, D P

    2016-08-01

    The diffusion of chloride ions in hardened cement paste (HCP) under steady-state conditions and accounting for the highly heterogeneous nature of the material is investigated. The HCP microstructures are obtained through segmentation of X-ray images of real samples as well as from simulations using the cement hydration model CEMHYD3D. Moreover, the physical and chemical interactions between chloride ions and HCP phases (binding), along with their effects on the diffusive process, are explicitly taken into account. The homogenized diffusivity of the HCP is then derived through a least square homogenization technique. Comparisons between numerical results and experimental data from the literature are presented.

  11. Chloride diffusivity in hardened cement paste from microscale analyses and accounting for binding effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrara, P.; De Lorenzis, L.; Bentz, D. P.

    2016-08-01

    The diffusion of chloride ions in hardened cement paste (HCP) under steady-state conditions and accounting for the highly heterogeneous nature of the material is investigated. The three-dimensional HCP microstructures are obtained through segmentation of x-ray images of real samples as well as from simulations using the cement hydration model CEMHYD3D. Moreover, the physical and chemical interactions between chloride ions and HCP phases (binding), along with their effects on the diffusive process, are explicitly taken into account. The homogenized diffusivity of the HCP is then derived through a least square homogenization technique. Comparisons between numerical results and experimental data from the literature are presented.

  12. Effects of foot orthoses: How important is the practitioner?

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Thierry L; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2012-03-01

    Foot orthoses (FO) are commonly used in the treatment of numerous lower limb problems, pains and injuries. Whilst many studies report their positive effects, and most practitioners would confirm those findings, the available information appears to be anecdotal. As such, the exact mechanisms in which FO work are not fully understood. Therefore, a need exists to study the influence of the inter-practitioner variability in the assessment of orthoses performance. This investigation is central to the understanding of the performance variations in custom-made foot orthoses (CFO). Eleven practitioners took part in the study. Each practitioner completed a clinical assessment of one subject, after which a pair of foot orthoses was manufactured based on casts of the subject's feet using a neutral non-weight bearing plaster cast. Ten trials per condition were recorded during which kinematic and kinetic data were collected. CFO did not have any systematic significant effects (p<0.05) on any kinetic except for the right-leg peak active force. In addition, systematic kinematic effects could be observed mainly for the sagittal plane for forefoot-to-hindfoot and hindfoot-to-tibia peak angles. The results from this study demonstrate that inter-practitioner variability is a major factor in orthotic intervention in treating a single patient and for a specific pathology. It is therefore strongly recommended to use caution when drawing general conclusions from research studies using custommade foot orthoses. The results suggest that CFO effects can differ between limbs. More importantly, their effects are also practitioner-dependant. Great caution should be used when comparing studies on CFO with different practitioners as conclusions could vastly differ.

  13. Public education about normal forgetfulness and dementia: importance and effects.

    PubMed

    Commissaris, C J; Verhey, F R; Ponds, R W; Jolles, J; Kok, G J

    1994-10-01

    In the Netherlands considerable attention has been given to dementia, but hardly any is paid to normal forgetfulness. Two information meetings about the differences between normal forgetfulness and dementia were organized in order to meet current information needs. Evaluation of those meetings gave more insight into the characteristics of people who are worried about their diminishing memory and provided the opportunity of measuring changes in knowledge and anxiety. Almost 50% of the 450 participants indicated that they were worried about their memory; 66% of these people reported being more or less reassured afterwards. Although the level of knowledge increased, no correlation was found between increased knowledge and decreased anxiety. Because of people's anxiety about possible dementia, it is important to provide the general public with more information about this subject. More research, with a control group, is necessary to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of health education in this area.

  14. A computational account of the production effect: Still playing twenty questions with nature.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Randall K; Mewhort, D J K; Hockley, William E

    2016-06-01

    People remember words that they read aloud better than words that they read silently, a result known as the production effect. The standing explanation for the production effect is that producing a word renders it distinctive in memory and, thus, memorable at test. By 1 key account, distinctiveness is defined in terms of sensory feedback. We formalize the sensory-feedback account using MINERVA 2, a standard model of memory. The model accommodates the basic result in recognition as well as the fact that the mixed-list production effect is larger than its pure-list counterpart, that the production effect is robust to forgetting, and that the production and generation effects have additive influences on performance. A final simulation addresses the strength-based account and suggests that it will be more difficult to distinguish a strength-based versus distinctiveness-based explanation than is typically thought. We conclude that the production effect is consistent with existing theory and discuss our analysis in relation to Alan Newell's (1973) classic criticism of psychology and call for an analysis of psychological principles instead of laboratory phenomena. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Dietary Restraint Partially Mediates the Relationship between Impulsivity and Binge Eating Only in Lean Individuals: The Importance of Accounting for Body Mass in Studies of Restraint

    PubMed Central

    Coffino, Jaime A.; Orloff, Natalia C.; Hormes, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating is characteristic of eating and weight-related disorders such as binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and obesity. In light of data suggest impulsivity is associated with overeating specifically in restrained eaters, this study sought to elucidate the exact nature of the associations between these variables, hypothesizing that the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating is mediated by restrained eating. We further hypothesized that the role of dietary restraint as a mediator would be moderated by body mass index (BMI). Study participants (n = 506, 50.6% female) were categorized based on self-reported BMI as under- and normal-weight (BMI < 25, 65.8%, n = 333) or overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25, 34.2%, n = 173) and completed the “restrained eating” subscale of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the “impulse control difficulties” subscale of the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale, and the Binge Eating Scale. Findings provide initial evidence for the hypothesized moderated mediation model, with dietary restraint partially mediating the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating severity only in lean respondents. In respondents with overweight or obesity, impulsivity was significantly correlated with binge eating severity, but not with dietary restraint. Findings inform our conceptualization of dietary restraint as a possible risk factor for binge eating and highlight the importance of accounting for body mass in research on the impact of dietary restraint on eating behaviors. PMID:27757092

  16. A Revised Pilot Study Examining the Effects of the Timing and Size of Classes on Student Performance in Introductory Accounting Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David E., Sr.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to examine the effects of the timing of classes and class size on student performance in introductory accounting courses. Factors affecting student success are important to all stakeholders in the academic community. Previous studies have shown mixed results regarding the effects of class size on student success…

  17. Effectiveness of the Medical Emergency Team: the importance of dose.

    PubMed

    Jones, Daryl; Bellomo, Rinaldo; DeVita, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Up to 17% of hospital admissions are complicated by serious adverse events unrelated to the patients presenting medical condition. Rapid Response Teams (RRTs) review patients during early phase of deterioration to reduce patient morbidity and mortality. However, reports of the efficacy of these teams are varied. The aims of this article were to explore the concept of RRT dose, to assess whether RRT dose improves patient outcomes, and to assess whether there is evidence that inclusion of a physician in the team impacts on the effectiveness of the team. A review of available literature suggested that the method of reporting RRT utilization rate, (RRT dose) is calls per 1,000 admissions. Hospitals with mature RRTs that report improved patient outcome following RRT introduction have a RRT dose between 25.8 and 56.4 calls per 1,000 admissions. Four studies report an association between increasing RRT dose and reduced in-hospital cardiac arrest rates. Another reported that increasing RRT dose reduced in-hospital mortality for surgical but not medical patients. The MERIT study investigators reported a negative relationship between MET-like activity and the incidence of serious adverse events. Fourteen studies reported improved patient outcome in association with the introduction of a RRT, and 13/14 involved a Physician-led MET. These findings suggest that if the RRT is the major method for reviewing serious adverse events, the dose of RRT activation must be sufficient for the frequency and severity of the problem it is intended to treat. If the RRT dose is too low then it is unlikely to improve patient outcomes. Increasing RRT dose appears to be associated with reduction in cardiac arrests. The majority of studies reporting improved patient outcome in association with the introduction of an RRT involve a MET, suggesting that inclusion of a physician in the team is an important determinant of its effectiveness.

  18. Experimental DC extraction of the thermal resistance of bipolar transistors taking into account the Early effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Alessandro, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents three methods to experimentally extract the thermal resistance of bipolar transistors taking into account the Early effect. The approaches are improved variants of recently-proposed techniques relying on common-base DC measurements. The accuracy is numerically verified by making use of a compact model calibrated on I-V characteristics of state-of-the-art SOG BJTs and SiGe:C HBTs.

  19. Accounting Fundamentals for Non-Accountants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this module is to provide an introduction and overview of accounting fundamentals for non-accountants. The module also covers important topics such as communication, internal controls, documentation and recordkeeping.

  20. Keeping Accountability Systems Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Martha

    2007-01-01

    The standards and accountability movement in education has undeniably transformed schooling throughout the United States. Even before President Bush signed the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act into law in January 2002, mandating annual public school testing in English and math for grades 3-8 and once in high school, most states had already…

  1. Importance of steric effects on the efficiency and fidelity of transcription by T7 RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Sébastien; Kool, Eric T

    2011-11-29

    DNA-dependent RNA polymerases such as T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) perform the transcription of DNA into mRNA with high efficiency and high fidelity. Although structural studies have provided a detailed account of the molecular basis of transcription, the relative importance of factors like hydrogen bonds and steric effects remains poorly understood. We report herein the first study aimed at systematically probing the importance of steric and electrostatic effects on the efficiency and fidelity of DNA transcription by T7 RNAP. We used synthetic nonpolar analogues of thymine with sizes varying in subangstrom increments to probe the steric requirements of T7 RNAP during the elongation mode of transcription. Enzymatic assays with internal radiolabeling were performed to compare the efficiency of transcription of modified DNA templates with a natural template containing thymine as a reference. Furthermore, we analyzed effects on the fidelity by measuring the composition of RNA transcripts by enzymatic digestion followed by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography separation. Our results demonstrate that hydrogen bonds play an important role in the efficiency of transcription but, interestingly, do not appear to be required for faithful transcription. Steric effects (size and shape variations) are found to be significant both in insertion of a new RNA base and in extension beyond it.

  2. How Effectively Does the "New" Accountant Communicate? Perceptions by Practitioners and Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, J. Douglas; Sigband, Norman B.

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed accounting department chairpersons and managers of accounting firms to determine their perceptions of (1) how new accountants communicate and (2) available instructional methodologies. Found a strong dissatisfaction with both skills and training. (PD)

  3. Importance of placebo effect in cough clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Cough is a unique symptom because, unlike sneeze and other symptoms, it can be under voluntary control and this complicates clinical trials on cough medicines. All over-the-counter cough medicines (OTC) are very effective treatments because of their placebo effect. The placebo effect is enhanced by expectancy related to advertising, brand, packaging, and formulation. This placebo effect creates a problem for the conduct of clinical trials on OTC cough medicines that attempt to demonstrate the efficacy of a pharmacological agent above that of any placebo effect. Up to 85% of the efficacy of some cough medicines can be attributed to a placebo effect. The placebo effect apparent in clinical trials consists of several components: natural recovery, regression of cough response toward mean, demulcent effect, effect of sweetness, voluntary control, and effects related to expectancy and meaning of the treatment. The placebo effect has been studied most in the pain model, and placebo analgesia is reported to depend on the activation of endogenous opioid systems in the brain; this model may be applicable to cough. A balanced placebo design may help to control for the placebo effect, but this trial design may not be acceptable due to deception of patients. The placebo effect in clinical trials may be controlled by use of a crossover design, where feasible, and the changes in the magnitude of the placebo effect in this study design are discussed.

  4. Causal Inference in Occupational Epidemiology: Accounting for the Healthy Worker Effect by Using Structural Nested Models

    PubMed Central

    Naimi, Ashley I.; Richardson, David B.; Cole, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    In a recent issue of the Journal, Kirkeleit et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(11):1218–1224) provided empirical evidence for the potential of the healthy worker effect in a large cohort of Norwegian workers across a range of occupations. In this commentary, we provide some historical context, define the healthy worker effect by using causal diagrams, and use simulated data to illustrate how structural nested models can be used to estimate exposure effects while accounting for the healthy worker survivor effect in 4 simple steps. We provide technical details and annotated SAS software (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina) code corresponding to the example analysis in the Web Appendices, available at http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/. PMID:24077092

  5. Causal inference in occupational epidemiology: accounting for the healthy worker effect by using structural nested models.

    PubMed

    Naimi, Ashley I; Richardson, David B; Cole, Stephen R

    2013-12-15

    In a recent issue of the Journal, Kirkeleit et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(11):1218-1224) provided empirical evidence for the potential of the healthy worker effect in a large cohort of Norwegian workers across a range of occupations. In this commentary, we provide some historical context, define the healthy worker effect by using causal diagrams, and use simulated data to illustrate how structural nested models can be used to estimate exposure effects while accounting for the healthy worker survivor effect in 4 simple steps. We provide technical details and annotated SAS software (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina) code corresponding to the example analysis in the Web Appendices, available at http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/.

  6. Accounting for missing data in the estimation of contemporary genetic effective population size (N(e) ).

    PubMed

    Peel, D; Waples, R S; Macbeth, G M; Do, C; Ovenden, J R

    2013-03-01

    Theoretical models are often applied to population genetic data sets without fully considering the effect of missing data. Researchers can deal with missing data by removing individuals that have failed to yield genotypes and/or by removing loci that have failed to yield allelic determinations, but despite their best efforts, most data sets still contain some missing data. As a consequence, realized sample size differs among loci, and this poses a problem for unbiased methods that must explicitly account for random sampling error. One commonly used solution for the calculation of contemporary effective population size (N(e) ) is to calculate the effective sample size as an unweighted mean or harmonic mean across loci. This is not ideal because it fails to account for the fact that loci with different numbers of alleles have different information content. Here we consider this problem for genetic estimators of contemporary effective population size (N(e) ). To evaluate bias and precision of several statistical approaches for dealing with missing data, we simulated populations with known N(e) and various degrees of missing data. Across all scenarios, one method of correcting for missing data (fixed-inverse variance-weighted harmonic mean) consistently performed the best for both single-sample and two-sample (temporal) methods of estimating N(e) and outperformed some methods currently in widespread use. The approach adopted here may be a starting point to adjust other population genetics methods that include per-locus sample size components.

  7. Fundamental concepts of effective troponin use: important principles for internists.

    PubMed

    Sara, Jaskanwal D S; Holmes, David R; Jaffe, Allan S

    2015-02-01

    Troponin testing is an essential component of our diagnostic approach to patients in acute medical care settings. With the advent of high-sensitivity troponin assays, its importance will extend to patients in chronic disease settings. Although elevated troponin levels provide diagnostic information, inform treatment decisions, and influence patient prognosis, proper interpretation of the values is essential. This requires an understanding of the operating characteristics of troponin testing; the likelihood ratios associated with a positive/negative test result and the pre- and post-test probabilities related to individual clinical settings. These principles will become more important as high-sensitivity assays become introduced over the coming years in the United States. This article reviews the important principles of troponin testing focusing in particular on acute settings and is aimed at internal medicine and hospital specialists.

  8. Measuring the Imaginary: The Employment Effect of Imported Steel Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert G.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine A. F. Shorrocks's 1971 conclusion in the light of post-1969 events, examining first, the relation between imports and employment; second, the changes in unemployment in the steel industry, both in steel producing centers and nationally; and third the role of capacity utilization. (Author)

  9. Context-Specific Proportion Congruency Effects: An Episodic Learning Account and Computational Model

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, James R.

    2016-01-01

    In the Stroop task, participants identify the print color of color words. The congruency effect is the observation that response times and errors are increased when the word and color are incongruent (e.g., the word “red” in green ink) relative to when they are congruent (e.g., “red” in red). The proportion congruent (PC) effect is the finding that congruency effects are reduced when trials are mostly incongruent rather than mostly congruent. This PC effect can be context-specific. For instance, if trials are mostly incongruent when presented in one location and mostly congruent when presented in another location, the congruency effect is smaller for the former location. Typically, PC effects are interpreted in terms of strategic control of attention in response to conflict, termed conflict adaptation or conflict monitoring. In the present manuscript, however, an episodic learning account is presented for context-specific proportion congruent (CSPC) effects. In particular, it is argued that context-specific contingency learning can explain part of the effect, and context-specific rhythmic responding can explain the rest. Both contingency-based and temporal-based learning can parsimoniously be conceptualized within an episodic learning framework. An adaptation of the Parallel Episodic Processing model is presented. This model successfully simulates CSPC effects, both for contingency-biased and contingency-unbiased (transfer) items. The same fixed-parameter model can explain a range of other findings from the learning, timing, binding, practice, and attentional control domains. PMID:27899907

  10. Human Resource Accounting: Operationalization and Effects of Human Resource Replacement Cost System in Naval Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-20

    MANAGEM UNCLASSIFIED E G FLAMHOLTZ 20 DEC 85 CHRM-85-81 F/G 5/i N Ehhhmhhmhiu I: 1 , flflflfllfl...flmflmEEhEhhhmh ji *..0 w im U .L2= 1.25 1111.4 1.6...PAGE (When O-,*emtered__ READ INSTRUCTIONSREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 1 . REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO 3. RECIPIENT’S...CATALOG NUMBER CHRM - 85 - 01 P- 1 1 / ., "/) , 4. TITLE (endSubit.) Human Resource Accounting: S. TYPEOF REPORT PERIODCOVERED Operationalizatin and Effects

  11. The Effect of Moral Intensity on Ethical Decision Making in Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hui-Ling; Wu, Wei-Pang

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the dimensionality of a moral intensity construct in four ethical accounting scenarios and how the dimensions directly affect the specific processes of moral decision making of accounting students. A survey was conducted with 233 accounting students enrolled in the school of accounting in a university of…

  12. New Accounting Systems and Their Effects on DoD Cost Estimating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    10 D. Current Cost Accounting Systems ................................................. 13 III. TODAY’S ENVIRONMENT: NEW MANUFACTURING AND OLD COSTS...information for internal operations, began following more closely the rules of financial accounting to determine product costs. D. CURRENT COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS...operating environment, which is anticipated to be one of continuous improvement. Many of the current cost accounting systems extensively use standard costs

  13. Importance of an Effective Principal-Counselor Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, LaWanda; Grace, Ronald; King, Gwendolyn

    2014-01-01

    An effective relationship between the principal and school counselor is essential when improving student achievement. To have an effective relationship, there must be communication, trust and respect, leadership, and collaborative planning between the principal and school counselor (College Board, 2011). Principals and school counselors are both…

  14. The word frequency effect in first- and second-language word recognition: a lexical entrenchment account.

    PubMed

    Diependaele, Kevin; Lemhöfer, Kristin; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the origin of differences in the word frequency effect between native speakers and second-language speakers. In a large-scale analysis of English word identification times we find that group-level differences are fully accounted for by the individual language proficiency scores. Furthermore, exactly the same quantitative relation between word frequency and proficiency is found for monolinguals and three different bilingual populations (Dutch-English, French-English, and German-English). We conclude that the larger frequency effects for second-language processing than for native-language processing can be explained by within-language characteristics and thus need not be the consequence of "being bilingual" (i.e., a qualitative difference). More specifically, we argue that language proficiency increases lexical entrenchment, which leads to a reduced frequency effect, irrespective of bilingualism, language dominance, and language similarity.

  15. Predictions of secondary neutrons and their importance to radiation effects inside the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, T W; Colborn, B L

    2001-06-01

    As part of a study funded by NASA MSFC to assess thecontribution of secondary particles in producing radiation damage to optoelectronics devices located on the International Space Station (IS), Monte Carlo calculations have been made to predict secondary spectra vs. shielding inside ISS modules and in electronics boxes attached on the truss (Armstrong and Colborn, 1998). The calculations take into account secondary neutron, proton, and charged pion production from the ambient galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) proton, trapped proton, and neutron albedo environments. Comparisons of the predicted neutron spectra with measurments made on the Mir space station and other spacecraft have also been made (Armstrong and Colborn, 1998). In this paper, some initial results from folding the predicted neutron spectrum inside ISS modules from Armstrong and Colborn (1998) with several types of radiation effects response functions related to electronics damage and astronaut-dose are given. These results provide an estimate of the practical importance of neutrons compared to protons in assessing radiation effects for the ISS. Also, the important neutron energy ranges for producing these effects have been estimated, which provides guidance for onboard neutron measurement requirements.

  16. Importance of real gas effects in entry technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deiwert, George S.

    1995-01-01

    Critical issues concerning real gas effects in hypervelocity flows where the thermochemical nonequilibrium effects are pronounced, are described. Emphasis is on the development and validation of benchmark analysis tools. Approaches to develop and/or enhance phenomenological models, including test techniques to acquire databases, and incorporate them into computational flow field simulation codes are described. The performance characteristics of shock tubes, ballistic ranges and arc heated wind tunnels, state of the art diagnostics are included. The following aerothermodynamic phenomena are discussed: aerodynamic parameters, viscous interactions, turbulent transition, forebody heating/heat transfer, radiative heating, Lee-Base flows and low density real gas.

  17. The Importance of Being a Complement: CED Effects Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurka, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation revisits subject island effects (Ross 1967, Chomsky 1973) cross-linguistically. Controlled acceptability judgment studies in German, English, Japanese and Serbian show that extraction out of specifiers is consistently degraded compared to extraction out of complements, indicating that the Condition on Extraction domains (CED,…

  18. A Guide to Effective Accountability Reporting: Designing Public Reports that Effectively Communicate Accountability, Assessment and Other Quantitative Education Indicators in an Easily Understood Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fast, Ellen Forte

    This guide was developed to serve as a resource for the staffs of state education agencies and local education agencies who are responsible for producing state, district, or school report cards of the type required under many state or district accountability systems as well as under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). The guide is not intended to…

  19. Sequential effects within a short foreperiod context: evidence for the conditioning account of temporal preparation.

    PubMed

    Steinborn, Michael B; Rolke, Bettina; Bratzke, Daniel; Ulrich, Rolf

    2008-10-01

    Responses to an imperative stimulus (IS) are especially fast when they are preceded by a warning signal (WS). When the interval between WS and IS (the foreperiod, FP) is variable, reaction time (RT) is not only influenced by the current FP but also by the FP of the preceding trial. These sequential effects have recently been proposed to originate from a trace conditioning process, in which the individuals learn the temporal WS-IS relationship in a trial-by-trial manner. Research has shown that trace conditioning is maximal when the temporal interval between the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus is between 0.25 and 0.60s. Consequently, one would predict that sequential effects occur especially within short FP contexts. However, this prediction is contradicted by Karlin [Karlin, L. (1959). Reaction time as a function of foreperiod duration and variability. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 185-191] who did not observe the typical sequential effects with short FPs. To investigate temporal preparation for short FPs, three experiments were conducted, examining the sequential FP effect comparably for short and long FP-sets (Experiment 1), assessing the influence of catch trials (Experiment 2) and the case of a very dense FP-range (Experiment 3) on sequential FP effects. The results provide strong evidence for sequential effects within a short FP context and thus support the trace conditioning account of temporal preparation.

  20. Health literacy and its importance for effective communication. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Veronica; Keogh, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    This is the second of two articles exploring the concept of health literacy, an often hidden barrier to effective healthcare communication. Part 1 was published in April ( Lambert and Keogh 2014 ). This article explains how to detect low levels of health literacy among parents and children, and outlines the challenges to assessing health literacy levels, including the stigma and discrimination some people experience. Some basic healthcare communication strategies for supporting health literacy in practice are suggested.

  1. Separation of time-based and trial-based accounts of the partial reinforcement extinction effect.

    PubMed

    Bouton, Mark E; Woods, Amanda M; Todd, Travis P

    2014-01-01

    Two appetitive conditioning experiments with rats examined time-based and trial-based accounts of the partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE). In the PREE, the loss of responding that occurs in extinction is slower when the conditioned stimulus (CS) has been paired with a reinforcer on some of its presentations (partially reinforced) instead of every presentation (continuously reinforced). According to a time-based or "time-accumulation" view (e.g., Gallistel and Gibbon, 2000), the PREE occurs because the organism has learned in partial reinforcement to expect the reinforcer after a larger amount of time has accumulated in the CS over trials. In contrast, according to a trial-based view (e.g., Capaldi, 1967), the PREE occurs because the organism has learned in partial reinforcement to expect the reinforcer after a larger number of CS presentations. Experiment 1 used a procedure that equated partially and continuously reinforced groups on their expected times to reinforcement during conditioning. A PREE was still observed. Experiment 2 then used an extinction procedure that allowed time in the CS and the number of trials to accumulate differentially through extinction. The PREE was still evident when responding was examined as a function of expected time units to the reinforcer, but was eliminated when responding was examined as a function of expected trial units to the reinforcer. There was no evidence that the animal responded according to the ratio of time accumulated during the CS in extinction over the time in the CS expected before the reinforcer. The results thus favor a trial-based account over a time-based account of extinction and the PREE. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Associative and Temporal Learning.

  2. Accounting Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prickett, Charlotte

    This curriculum guide describes the accounting curriculum in the following three areas: accounting clerk, bookkeeper, and nondegreed accountant. The competencies and tasks complement the Arizona validated listing in these areas. The guide lists 24 competencies for nondegreed accountants, 10 competencies for accounting clerks, and 11 competencies…

  3. Effects of an Individual Development Account Program on Retirement Saving: Follow-up Evidence From a Randomized Experiment.

    PubMed

    Grinstein-Weiss, Michal; Sherraden, Michael; Gale, William G; Rohe, William M; Schreiner, Mark; Key, Clinton; Oliphant, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    We examine the 10-year follow-up effects on retirement saving of an individual development account (IDA) program using data from a randomized experiment that ran from 1998 to 2003 in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The IDA program included financial education, encouragement to save, and matching funds for several qualified uses of the saving, including contributions to retirement accounts. The results indicate that as of 2009, 6 years after the program ended, the IDA program had no impact on the propensity to hold a retirement account, the account balance, or the sufficiency of retirement balances to meet retirement expenses.

  4. Implementing Effective Educational Practices at Scales of Social Importance.

    PubMed

    Horner, Robert H; Sugai, George; Fixsen, Dean L

    2017-03-01

    Implementing evidence-based practices is becoming both a goal and standard across medicine, psychology, and education. Initial successes, however, are now leading to questions about how successful demonstrations may be expanded to scales of social importance. In this paper, we review lessons learned about scaling up evidence-based practices gleaned from our experience implementing school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) across more than 23,000 schools in the USA. We draw heavily from the work of Flay et al. (Prev Sci 6:151-175, 2005. doi: 10.1007/s11121-005-5553-y ) related to defining evidence-based practices, the significant contributions from the emerging "implementation science" movement (Fixsen et al. in Implementation research: a synthesis of the literature, University of South Florida, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, The National Implementation Research Network (FMHI Publication #231), Tampa 2005), and guidance we have received from teachers, family members, students, and administrators who have adopted PBIS.

  5. The importance of understanding: Model space moderates goal specificity effects.

    PubMed

    Kistner, Saskia; Burns, Bruce D; Vollmeyer, Regina; Kortenkamp, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The three-space theory of problem solving predicts that the quality of a learner's model and the goal specificity of a task interact on knowledge acquisition. In Experiment 1 participants used a computer simulation of a lever system to learn about torques. They either had to test hypotheses (nonspecific goal), or to produce given values for variables (specific goal). In the good- but not in the poor-model condition they saw torque depicted as an area. Results revealed the predicted interaction. A nonspecific goal only resulted in better learning when a good model of torques was provided. In Experiment 2 participants learned to manipulate the inputs of a system to control its outputs. A nonspecific goal to explore the system helped performance when compared to a specific goal to reach certain values when participants were given a good model, but not when given a poor model that suggested the wrong hypothesis space. Our findings support the three-space theory. They emphasize the importance of understanding for problem solving and stress the need to study underlying processes.

  6. The Effects of Education Accountability on Teachers: Are Policies Too-Stress Provoking for Their Own Good?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryhill, Joseph; Linney, Jean Ann; Fromewick, Jill

    2009-01-01

    Education policies in the United States and other nations have established academic standards and made teachers accountable for improved standardized test scores. Because policies can have unintended effects, in this study we investigated U.S. elementary school teachers' perceptions of their state's accountability policy, particularly its effect…

  7. Can contingency learning alone account for item-specific control? Evidence from within- and between-language ISPC effects.

    PubMed

    Atalay, Nart Bedin; Misirlisoy, Mine

    2012-11-01

    The item-specific proportion congruence (ISPC) manipulation (Jacoby, Lindsay, & Hessels, 2003) produces larger Stroop interference for mostly congruent items than mostly incongruent items. This effect has been attributed to dynamic control over word-reading processes. However, proportion congruence of an item in the ISPC manipulation is completely confounded with response contingency, suggesting the alternative hypothesis, that the ISPC effect is a result of learning response contingencies (Schmidt & Besner, 2008). The current study asks whether the ISPC effect can be explained by a pure stimulus-response contingency-learning account, or whether other control processes play a role as well, by comparing within- and between-language conditions in a bilingual task. Experiment 1 showed that contingency learning for noncolor words was larger for the within-language than the between-language condition. Experiment 2 revealed significant ISPC effects for both within- and between-language conditions; importantly, the effect was larger in the former. The results of the contingency analyses for Experiment 2 were parallel to that of Experiment 1 and did not show an interaction between contingency and congruency. Put together, these sets of results support the view that contingency-learning processes dominate color-word ISPC effects.

  8. Predicting NonInertial Effects with Algebraic Stress Models which Account for Dissipation Rate Anisotropies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongen, T.; Machiels, L.; Gatski, T. B.

    1997-01-01

    Three types of turbulence models which account for rotational effects in noninertial frames of reference are evaluated for the case of incompressible, fully developed rotating turbulent channel flow. The different types of models are a Coriolis-modified eddy-viscosity model, a realizable algebraic stress model, and an algebraic stress model which accounts for dissipation rate anisotropies. A direct numerical simulation of a rotating channel flow is used for the turbulent model validation. This simulation differs from previous studies in that significantly higher rotation numbers are investigated. Flows at these higher rotation numbers are characterized by a relaminarization on the cyclonic or suction side of the channel, and a linear velocity profile on the anticyclonic or pressure side of the channel. The predictive performance of the three types of models are examined in detail, and formulation deficiencies are identified which cause poor predictive performance for some of the models. Criteria are identified which allow for accurate prediction of such flows by algebraic stress models and their corresponding Reynolds stress formulations.

  9. The three most effective strategies for handling patients with overdue accounts.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Many medical practice employees find the collections tasks assigned to them to be a source of discomfort, reluctance, and even dread. This is understandable. Talking about overdue accounts is not something most people want to do. This article focuses on the three most effective strategies that medical practice employees can use to help them feel more confident when they handle patients who have overdue accounts. It provides a sample 135-day collection program and variations of it that many medical practices use. It offers medical practice employees 10 tips to help them develop a stronger, more businesslike attitude when they approach their collection duties. It provides a list of more than 15 daily affirmations that medical practice employees can use to develop a more positive attitude about making collection calls and having one-on-one collection meetings with patients. Finally, this article presents a worst-case scenario exercise to help medical practice employees face their worst fears about collection calls and meetings and to feel more at ease when they confront patients about their debts.

  10. Teachers' perceptions of value and effects of outdoor education during an age of accountability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Thomas R.

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of teachers' perceptions of the value and effects of a residential Outdoor Education experience during an age of accountability, which was defined as the era which commenced with the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Focus group interviews were conducted with four groups of teachers who participated in a residential Outdoor Education experience with their students during the 2004-2005 school year. The major findings of this study were: (1) Teachers perceive value in the OE experience because of the multi-faceted effects upon their students and classes; (2) Teachers perceived the OE experience positively affected their students' learning through providing hands-on and authentic experiences, development of thinking skills, and enhancing the school's curriculum; (3) Teachers perceived the OE experience positively affected their students' social and emotional development as evidenced by an increase in self esteem, independence, maturity, personal responsibility, and an expanded worldview; (4) Teachers perceived the OE experience positively affected their students' sense of community as evidenced by an increase in team building and cohesiveness, more productive staff-student relationships, the emergence of different "star" students, and greater inclusion of special needs students; (5) Teachers perceived students' appreciation of the environment increased; and (6) Teachers did not perceive any imminent changes to their school's Outdoor Education programming due to the accountability provisions of No Child Left behind (2001). This study's findings suggested implications for school administrators, which were that they should: articulate desired effects to stakeholders; communicate connections to learning standards; and expand the OE experience to foster greater environmental issue focus.

  11. Mitochondrial cholesterol: mechanisms of import and effects on mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Martin, Laura A; Kennedy, Barry E; Karten, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondria require cholesterol for biogenesis and membrane maintenance, and for the synthesis of steroids, oxysterols and hepatic bile acids. Multiple pathways mediate the transport of cholesterol from different subcellular pools to mitochondria. In steroidogenic cells, the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) interacts with a mitochondrial protein complex to mediate cholesterol delivery to the inner mitochondrial membrane for conversion to pregnenolone. In non-steroidogenic cells, several members of a protein family defined by the presence of a StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain play key roles in the delivery of cholesterol to mitochondrial membranes. Subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), termed mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAM), form membrane contact sites with mitochondria and may contribute to the transport of ER cholesterol to mitochondria, either independently or in conjunction with lipid-transfer proteins. Model systems of mitochondria enriched with cholesterol in vitro and mitochondria isolated from cells with (patho)physiological mitochondrial cholesterol accumulation clearly demonstrate that mitochondrial cholesterol levels affect mitochondrial function. Increased mitochondrial cholesterol levels have been observed in several diseases, including cancer, ischemia, steatohepatitis and neurodegenerative diseases, and influence disease pathology. Hence, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms maintaining mitochondrial cholesterol homeostasis may reveal additional targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we give a brief overview of mitochondrial cholesterol import in steroidogenic cells, and then focus on cholesterol trafficking pathways that deliver cholesterol to mitochondrial membranes in non-steroidogenic cells. We also briefly discuss the consequences of increased mitochondrial cholesterol levels on mitochondrial function and their potential role in disease pathology.

  12. The Effect of International Financial Reporting Standards Convergence on U. S. Accounting Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Homer L.; Waldrup, Bobby E.; Shea, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Major changes are coming to U.S. financial accounting and accounting education as U. S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and international financial reporting standards (IFRS) converge within the next few years. In 2008, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) published a proposed "road map" for the potential…

  13. A New Approach to Accountability: Creating Effective Learning Environments for Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surr, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a new paradigm for accountability that envisions afterschool programs as learning organizations continually engaged in improving quality. Nearly 20 years into the era of results-based accountability, a new generation of afterschool accountability systems is emerging. Rather than aiming to test whether programs have produced…

  14. The importance of age and smoking in evaluating adverse cytogenetic effects of exposure to environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, J.D.; Moore, D.H. II

    1995-08-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific composite DNA probes (``chromosome painting``) is a reliable and efficient method for detecting structural chromosome aberrations. Painting is now being used to quantify chromosome damage in many human populations. In one such study we evaluated 91 unexposed people ranging in age from birth (cord bloods) to 79. We established a baseline frequency of stable aberrations that showed a highly significant curvi-linear increase with age (p < 0.00001) that accounted for 70% of the variance between donors. The magnitude of this effect illustrates the importance of understanding the cytogenetic changes that occur with age, which is particularly important for quantifying the effects of prior adverse environmental, occupational, or accidental exposure. In this paper we use the data obtained in our previous study to characterize the distribution of stable aberrations by age and pack-years of cigarette smoking. We also provide estimates of the number of cell equivalents that need to be scored to detect a given increase in aberrations above the background level surveyed in this population.

  15. Smoking at the workplace: Effects of genetic and environmental causal accounts on attitudes towards smoking employees and restrictive policies

    PubMed Central

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Zuckerman, Miron; Duberstein, Paul

    2014-01-01

    People hold diverse beliefs regarding the etiologies of individual and group differences in behaviors which, in turn, might affect their attitudes and behaviors. It is important to establish how perceived etiologies for smoking might affect the effectiveness of policy initiatives and prevention efforts. The present study assessed whether exposure to genetic vs. environmental accounts for smoking affects attitudes towards a) workplace-related smoking policies and b) smokers at the workplace. Results indicate that exposure to a genetic explanation led to stronger objections to a smoking restrictive policy compared with a non-genetic explanation. Additionally, participants in the genetic condition were more accepting of a smoker in the workplace than in the environmental condition. Evidently, beliefs about the etiology of smoking influence a range of attitudes related to smokers and smoking related policies. PMID:25530710

  16. Effects of gravity on development: the importance of behavior.

    PubMed

    Alberts, J R; Ronca, A E

    1999-07-01

    Organisms live in four dimensions. With the dimension of time, we recognize that each organism is a lifecycle--an expression of its development. The cycles of differentiation expressed in the timeframe of biotic evolution yields the diversity of life on Earth. Thus, phylogenesis, can be understood as alterations in developmental processes. Species of organisms are thus groupings of individuals that share developmental processes. Natural selection acts throughout the lifecycle to select for developmental features that are adoptively appropriate for the organism's immediate environment. The process of ontogeny occupies an appropriately central position in gravitational biology. The evolution of all life on Earth, and thus the evolution development took place in the presence of gravitational forces. It is thus natural and necessary for biologists to wonder and to hypothesize about the role of gravity in development. We shall discuss some of the ideas and concepts that we believe are fundamental to appreciating the place of developmental analyses in gravitational physiology. We focus on problems relevant to the effects of gravity on vestibular development, and then emphasize issues pertinent to mammalian development.

  17. Principal Effectiveness and Leadership in an Era of Accountability: What Research Says. Brief 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jennifer King

    2010-01-01

    While the importance of principals has long been recognized by educators and researchers, empirical studies on the effectiveness and distribution of principals have been undermined by the lack of data to study principals, their complex work, and their impact on school outcomes. In fact, "little systematic evidence exists about the…

  18. On the Dissociation of Word/Nonword Repetition Effects in Lexical Decision: An Evidence Accumulation Account.

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Marcet, Ana; Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Gomez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    A number of models of visual-word recognition assume that the repetition of an item in a lexical decision experiment increases that item's familiarity/wordness. This would produce not only a facilitative repetition effect for words, but also an inhibitory effect for nonwords (i.e., more familiarity/wordness makes the negative decision slower). We conducted a two-block lexical decision experiment to examine word/nonword repetition effects in the framework of a leading "familiarity/wordness" model of the lexical decision task, namely, the diffusion model (Ratcliff et al., 2004). Results showed that while repeated words were responded to faster than the unrepeated words, repeated nonwords were responded to more slowly than the nonrepeated nonwords. Fits from the diffusion model revealed that the repetition effect for words/nonwords was mainly due to differences in the familiarity/wordness (drift rate) parameter. This word/nonword dissociation favors those accounts that posit that the previous presentation of an item increases its degree of familiarity/wordness.

  19. On the Dissociation of Word/Nonword Repetition Effects in Lexical Decision: An Evidence Accumulation Account

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Manuel; Marcet, Ana; Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Gomez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    A number of models of visual-word recognition assume that the repetition of an item in a lexical decision experiment increases that item's familiarity/wordness. This would produce not only a facilitative repetition effect for words, but also an inhibitory effect for nonwords (i.e., more familiarity/wordness makes the negative decision slower). We conducted a two-block lexical decision experiment to examine word/nonword repetition effects in the framework of a leading “familiarity/wordness” model of the lexical decision task, namely, the diffusion model (Ratcliff et al., 2004). Results showed that while repeated words were responded to faster than the unrepeated words, repeated nonwords were responded to more slowly than the nonrepeated nonwords. Fits from the diffusion model revealed that the repetition effect for words/nonwords was mainly due to differences in the familiarity/wordness (drift rate) parameter. This word/nonword dissociation favors those accounts that posit that the previous presentation of an item increases its degree of familiarity/wordness. PMID:26925021

  20. Effects of accounting rules on utility choices of energy technologies in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinrad, B. I.

    1980-07-01

    Comparisons of the costs of power systems, specifically the cost of nuclear versus other power systems, are discussed. The effects of inconsistent accounting are examined. Five systems that supply electrical power are cost analyzed: (1) light water reactors; (2) liquid metal fast breeder reactors; (3) coal plants, with scrubbers, burning low sulfur or processed high sulfur coal; (4) coal plants with fluidized bed combustion of high sulfur coal; and (5) solar power plants with sufficient storage for baseload use. Cost estimates for the system are made and justified. Cost comparison results show that, contrary to currently accepted conclusions, light water reactors have a decisive cost advantage over coal; if assumed target costs are met, after development, liquid metal fast breeder reactor would be the cheapest system; and if postdevelopment target costs are met, solar power plants are almost competitive with the nuclear systems and are much cheaper than coal.

  1. Kinetics of silver release from microfuel with taking into account the limited-solubility effect

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A. S. Rusinkevich, A. A.

    2014-12-15

    The effect of a limited solubility of silver in silicon carbide on silver release from a microfuel with a TRISO coating is studied. It is shown that a limited solubility affects substantially both concentration profiles and silver release from a microfuel over a broad range of temperatures. A procedure is developed for obtaining fission-product concentration profiles in a microfuel and graphs representing the flow and integrated release of fission products on the basis of data from neutron-physics calculations and results obtained by calculating thermodynamics with the aid of the Ivtanthermo code and kinetics with the aid of the FP-Kinetics code. This procedure takes into account a limited solubility of fission products in protective coatings of microfuel.

  2. 31 CFR 9.4 - Criteria for determining effects of imports on national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... imports on national security. 9.4 Section 9.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury EFFECTS OF IMPORTED ARTICLES ON THE NATIONAL SECURITY § 9.4 Criteria for determining effects of imports on national security. (a) In determining the effect on the national security of imports of...

  3. 31 CFR 9.4 - Criteria for determining effects of imports on national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... imports on national security. 9.4 Section 9.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury EFFECTS OF IMPORTED ARTICLES ON THE NATIONAL SECURITY § 9.4 Criteria for determining effects of imports on national security. (a) In determining the effect on the national security of imports of...

  4. 31 CFR 9.4 - Criteria for determining effects of imports on national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... imports on national security. 9.4 Section 9.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury EFFECTS OF IMPORTED ARTICLES ON THE NATIONAL SECURITY § 9.4 Criteria for determining effects of imports on national security. (a) In determining the effect on the national security of imports of...

  5. 31 CFR 9.4 - Criteria for determining effects of imports on national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... imports on national security. 9.4 Section 9.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury EFFECTS OF IMPORTED ARTICLES ON THE NATIONAL SECURITY § 9.4 Criteria for determining effects of imports on national security. (a) In determining the effect on the national security of imports of...

  6. Sediment erodability in sediment transport modelling: Can we account for biota effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Hir, P.; Monbet, Y.; Orvain, F.

    2007-05-01

    Sediment erosion results from hydrodynamic forcing, represented by the bottom shear stress (BSS), and from the erodability of the sediment, defined by the critical erosion shear stress and the erosion rate. Abundant literature has dealt with the effects of biological components on sediment erodability and concluded that sediment processes are highly sensitive to the biota. However, very few sediment transport models account for these effects. We provide some background on the computation of BSS, and on the classical erosion laws for fine sand and mud, followed by a brief review of biota effects with the aim of quantifying the latter into generic formulations, where applicable. The effects of macrophytes, microphytobenthos, and macrofauna are considered in succession. Marine vegetation enhances the bottom dissipation of current energy, but also reduces shear stress at the sediment-water interface, which can be significant when the shoot density is high. The microphytobenthos and secreted extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) stabilise the sediment, and an increase of up to a factor of 5 can be assigned to the erosion threshold on muddy beds. However, the consequences with respect to the erosion rate are debatable since, once the protective biofilm is eroded, the underlying sediment probably has the same erosion behaviour as bare sediment. In addition, the development of benthic diatoms tends to be seasonal, so that stabilising effects are likely to be minimal in winter. Macrofaunal effects are characterised by extreme variability. For muddy sediments, destabilisation seems to be the general trend; this can become critical when benthic communities settle on consolidated sediments that would not be eroded if they remained bare. Biodeposition and bioresuspension fluxes are mentioned, for comparison with hydrodynamically induced erosion rates. Unlike the microphytobenthos, epifaunal benthic organisms create local roughness and are likely to change the BSS generated

  7. Motion analysis of a motorcycle taking into account the rider's effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shaopeng; Murakami, Shintaroh; Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, to analyse the rider's effects on the motion of a motorcycle, we model a rider-motorcycle system by taking into account the leaning motion of the rider's upper torso and his/her arm connection with the handlebars. The nonlinearity of the tyre force is introduced by utilising hyperbolic tangent functions to approximate a Magic Formula tyre model. On the basis of a derived nonlinear state-space model, we analyse the effects of not only the rider's arms but also his/her postures during steady turning by simulations. The rider's postures including lean-with, lean-in and lean-out are realised by adding the lean torque to the rider's upper torso. The motorcycle motion and the rider's effects are analysed in the case where the friction coefficient of the road surface changes severely during steady turning. In addition, a linearised state-space model is derived during steady turning, and a stability analysis of the rider-motorcycle system is performed.

  8. A Comparison of Four Approaches to Account for Method Effects in Latent State-Trait Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Christian; Lockhart, Ginger

    2012-01-01

    Latent state-trait (LST) analysis is frequently applied in psychological research to determine the degree to which observed scores reflect stable person-specific effects, effects of situations and/or person-situation interactions, and random measurement error. Most LST applications use multiple repeatedly measured observed variables as indicators of latent trait and latent state residual factors. In practice, such indicators often show shared indicator-specific (or methods) variance over time. In this article, the authors compare four approaches to account for such method effects in LST models and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each approach based on theoretical considerations, simulations, and applications to actual data sets. The simulation study revealed that the LST model with indicator-specific traits (Eid, 1996) and the LST model with M − 1 correlated method factors (Eid, Schneider, & Schwenkmezger, 1999) performed well, whereas the model with M orthogonal method factors used in the early work of Steyer, Ferring, and Schmitt (1992) and the correlated uniqueness approach (Kenny, 1976) showed limitations under conditions of either low or high method-specificity. Recommendations for the choice of an appropriate model are provided. PMID:22309958

  9. A comparison of four approaches to account for method effects in latent state-trait analyses.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Christian; Lockhart, Ginger

    2012-06-01

    Latent state-trait (LST) analysis is frequently applied in psychological research to determine the degree to which observed scores reflect stable person-specific effects, effects of situations and/or person-situation interactions, and random measurement error. Most LST applications use multiple repeatedly measured observed variables as indicators of latent trait and latent state residual factors. In practice, such indicators often show shared indicator-specific (or method) variance over time. In this article, the authors compare 4 approaches to account for such method effects in LST models and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each approach based on theoretical considerations, simulations, and applications to actual data sets. The simulation study revealed that the LST model with indicator-specific traits (Eid, 1996) and the LST model with M - 1 correlated method factors (Eid, Schneider, & Schwenkmezger, 1999) performed well, whereas the model with M orthogonal method factors used in the early work of Steyer, Ferring, and Schmitt (1992) and the correlated uniqueness approach (Kenny, 1976) showed limitations under conditions of either low or high method-specificity. Recommendations for the choice of an appropriate model are provided.

  10. Effects of prestudy and poststudy rest on memory: Support for temporal interference accounts of forgetting.

    PubMed

    Ecker, Ullrich K H; Tay, Jia-Xin; Brown, Gordon D A

    2015-06-01

    According to interference-based theories of memory, including temporal-distinctiveness theory, both prestudy and poststudy rest should have beneficial impacts on memory performance. Specifically, higher temporal isolation of a memorandum should reduce proactive and/or retroactive interference, and thus should result in better recall. In the present study, we investigated the effects of prestudy and poststudy rest in a free recall paradigm. Participants studied three lists of words, separated by either a short or a long period of low mental activity (a tone-detection task). Recall targeted the second list; this list was studied in one of four conditions, defined by the fully crossed factors of prestudy and poststudy rest duration. Two experiments revealed a beneficial effect of prestudy rest (and, to a lesser extent, of poststudy rest) on list recall. This result is in line with interference-based theories of memory. By contrast, a beneficial effect of prestudy rest is not predicted by consolidation accounts of memory and forgetting; our results thus require additional assumptions and/or a better specification of the consolidation process and its time course in order to be reconciled with consolidation theory.

  11. Individual differences in information order effects: the importance of right-hemisphere access in belief updating.

    PubMed

    Jasper, John D; Kunzler, J Scott; Prichard, Eric C; Christman, Stephen D

    2014-05-01

    The order in which information is received alters the evaluation of causal hypotheses. Specifically, research suggests that the last piece of information oftentimes has the greatest impact on the evaluation and that the difference in subjective value between two pieces of information is an important factor influencing the magnitude of this recency effect. The present paper extends this line of work by exploring individual differences in this phenomenon via one's degree of handedness. Two hundred and five participants were given two hypothetical scenarios and related causal hypotheses accompanied by two pieces of additional information and asked to revise their belief in each hypothesis as information accumulated. Results confirmed predictions that 1) inconsistent/mixed-handers (those who use their non-dominant hand for at least some activities) show a larger effect with two pieces of inconsistent weak or strong information, and 2) neither mixed-handers nor consistent/strong-handers (those who use their dominant hand for almost all activities) show an effect with strong and weak pieces of consistent information. Mixed-handers' susceptibility to persuasive arguments and Ramachandran's (1995; Ramachandran and Blakeslee, 1998) belief-updating theory centered around communication between the two halves of the brain and functional access to the right hemisphere are used to account for these data.

  12. An enhanced temperature index model for debris-covered glaciers accounting for thickness effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carenzo, M.; Pellicciotti, F.; Mabillard, J.; Reid, T.; Brock, B. W.

    2016-08-01

    Debris-covered glaciers are increasingly studied because it is assumed that debris cover extent and thickness could increase in a warming climate, with more regular rockfalls from the surrounding slopes and more englacial melt-out material. Debris energy-balance models have been developed to account for the melt rate enhancement/reduction due to a thin/thick debris layer, respectively. However, such models require a large amount of input data that are not often available, especially in remote mountain areas such as the Himalaya, and can be difficult to extrapolate. Due to their lower data requirements, empirical models have been used extensively in clean glacier melt modelling. For debris-covered glaciers, however, they generally simplify the debris effect by using a single melt-reduction factor which does not account for the influence of varying debris thickness on melt and prescribe a constant reduction for the entire melt across a glacier. In this paper, we present a new temperature-index model that accounts for debris thickness in the computation of melt rates at the debris-ice interface. The model empirical parameters are optimized at the point scale for varying debris thicknesses against melt rates simulated by a physically-based debris energy balance model. The latter is validated against ablation stake readings and surface temperature measurements. Each parameter is then related to a plausible set of debris thickness values to provide a general and transferable parameterization. We develop the model on Miage Glacier, Italy, and then test its transferability on Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland. The performance of the new debris temperature-index (DETI) model in simulating the glacier melt rate at the point scale is comparable to the one of the physically based approach, and the definition of model parameters as a function of debris thickness allows the simulation of the nonlinear relationship of melt rate to debris thickness, summarised by the

  13. Groups and Solos in Context: The Effects of Accountability on Team Negotiation.

    PubMed

    O'Connor

    1997-12-01

    This study examines whether and how accountability to constituents affects the cognitions, performance, and outcomes of team and solo negotiators. Previous findings for solos were replicated here: solo negotiators respond competitively when they are accountable to constituents. For teams, however, accountability pressures were distributed across the members resulting in each team member experiencing little responsibility for outcomes. As a consequence, teams did not respond to accountability pressures by behaving contentiously as solos did. Analysis of negotiators' perceptions of advantage reveals that solos who negotiate under conditions of high accountability consider themselves to be at a disadvantage in the negotiation even before the negotiation begins. These perceptions may underlie the accountability/competitive relation that characterizes solo negotiation. Implications for negotiation research as well as the study of groups in organizations are discussed. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  14. 31 CFR 9.4 - Criteria for determining effects of imports on national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria for determining effects of... Treasury EFFECTS OF IMPORTED ARTICLES ON THE NATIONAL SECURITY § 9.4 Criteria for determining effects of imports on national security. (a) In determining the effect on the national security of imports of...

  15. Acceptance and Efficacy of Metacognitive Training (MCT) on Positive Symptoms and Delusions in Patients With Schizophrenia: A Meta-analysis Taking Into Account Important Moderators.

    PubMed

    Eichner, Carolin; Berna, Fabrice

    2016-07-01

    Metacognitive training (MCT) is a new, widely used intervention for psychosis. The present meta-analysis examines the efficacy of MCT in schizophrenia. Fifteen studies comparing effects of MCT on positive symptoms, delusions or acceptance of MCT with a control group were included in this meta-analysis. These studies comprised a total of 408 patients in the MCT condition and 399 in the control condition. The moderating effects of masking of outcome assessment, randomization, incomplete outcome data, use of an active control intervention, and individual vs group MCT were investigated. Possible effects of sensitivity analyses and publication bias were also examined. The results show a significant overall effect of MCT for positive symptoms (g = -0.34, 95% CI [-0.53, -0.15]), delusions (g = -0.41, 95% CI [-0.74, -0.07]) and acceptance of the intervention (g = -0.84, 95% CI [-1.37, -0.31]). Using only studies being at low risk for bias regarding randomization, masking and incomplete outcome data reduced effect sizes for positive symptoms and delusions (g = -0.28, 95% CI [-0.50, -0.06] and g = -0.18, 95% CI [-0.43, 0.06]), respectively. This meta-analysis demonstrates that MCT exerts a small to moderate effect on delusions and positive symptoms and a large effect on acceptance of the intervention. The effect on delusions is reduced, but remains significant when potential biases are considered.

  16. Band structures of laterally coupled quantum dots, accounting for electromechanical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar, Sanjay; Melnik, Roderick; Patil, Sunil

    2010-09-01

    In a series of recent papers we demonstrated that coupled electro-mechanical effects can lead to pronounced contributions in band structure calculations of low dimensional semiconductor nanostructures (LDSNs) such as quantum dots, wires, and even wells. Some such effects are essentially nonlinear. Both strain and piezoelectric effects have been used as tuning parameters for the optical response of LDSNs in photonics, band gap engineering and other applications. However, these effects have been largely neglected in literature while laterally coupled quantum dots (QDs) have been studied. The superposition of electron wave functions in these QDs become important in the design of optoelectronic devices as well in tayloring properties of QDs in other applications areas. At the same time, laterally grown QDs coupled with electric and mechanical fields are becoming increasingly important in many applications of LDSN-based systems, in particular where the tunneling of electron wave function through wetting layer (WL) becomes important and the distance between the dots is treated as a tuning parameter. Indeed, as electric and elastic effects are often significant in LDSNs, it is reasonable to expect that the separation between the QDs may also be used as a tuning parameter in the application of logic devices, for example, OR gates, AND gates and others. In this contribution, by using the fully coupled model of electroelasticity, we build on our previous results while analyzing the influence of these effects on optoelectronic properties of QDs. Results are reported for III-V type semiconductors with a major focus given to GaN/AlN based QD systems.

  17. Estimating the acute health effects of coarse particulate matter accounting for exposure measurement error.

    PubMed

    Chang, Howard H; Peng, Roger D; Dominici, Francesca

    2011-10-01

    In air pollution epidemiology, there is a growing interest in estimating the health effects of coarse particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm. Coarse PM concentrations can exhibit considerable spatial heterogeneity because the particles travel shorter distances and do not remain suspended in the atmosphere for an extended period of time. In this paper, we develop a modeling approach for estimating the short-term effects of air pollution in time series analysis when the ambient concentrations vary spatially within the study region. Specifically, our approach quantifies the error in the exposure variable by characterizing, on any given day, the disagreement in ambient concentrations measured across monitoring stations. This is accomplished by viewing monitor-level measurements as error-prone repeated measurements of the unobserved population average exposure. Inference is carried out in a Bayesian framework to fully account for uncertainty in the estimation of model parameters. Finally, by using different exposure indicators, we investigate the sensitivity of the association between coarse PM and daily hospital admissions based on a recent national multisite time series analysis. Among Medicare enrollees from 59 US counties between the period 1999 and 2005, we find a consistent positive association between coarse PM and same-day admission for cardiovascular diseases.

  18. A retrieved context account of spacing and repetition effects in free recall

    PubMed Central

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Repeating an item in a list benefits recall performance, and this benefit increases when the repetitions are spaced apart (Madigan, 1969; Melton, 1970). Retrieved context theory incorporates two mechanisms that account for these effects: contextual variability and study-phase retrieval. Specifically, if an item presented at position i is repeated at position j, this leads to retrieval of its context from its initial presentation at i (study-phase retrieval) and this retrieved context will be used to update the current state of context (contextual variability). Here we consider predictions of a computational model that embodies retrieved context theory, the context maintenance and retrieval model (CMR; Polyn, Norman, & Kahana, 2009). CMR makes the novel prediction that subjects are more likely to successively recall items that follow a shared repeated item (e.g. i + 1, j + 1) because both items are associated with the context of the repeated item presented at i and j. CMR also predicts that the probability of recalling at least one of two studied items should increase with the items’ spacing (Lohnas, Polyn, & Kahana, 2011). We tested these predictions in a new experiment and CMR’s predictions were upheld. These findings suggest that retrieved context theory offers an integrated explanation for repetition and spacing effects in free recall tasks. PMID:24564545

  19. Carbon savings with transatlantic trade in pellets: accounting for market-driven effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiwei; Dwivedi, Puneet; Abt, Robert; Khanna, Madhu

    2015-11-01

    Exports of pellets from the United States (US) are growing significantly to meet the demand for renewable energy in the European Union. This transatlantic trade in pellets has raised questions about the greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of these pellets and their effects on conventional forest product markets in the US. This paper examines the GHG intensity of pellets exported from the US using either forest biomass only or forest and agricultural biomass combined. We develop an integrated dynamic, price-endogenous, partial equilibrium model of the forestry, agricultural, and transportation sectors in the US to investigate not only the direct life-cycle GHG intensity of pellets but also the accompanying indirect market and land use effects induced by changes in prices of forest and agricultural products over the 2007-2032 period. Across different scenarios of high and low pellet demand that can be met with either forest biomass only or with forest and agricultural biomass, we find that the GHG intensity of pellet based electricity is 74% to 85% lower than that of coal-based electricity. We also find that the GHG intensity of pellets produced using agricultural and forest biomass is 28% to 34% lower than that of pellets produced using forest biomass only. GHG effects due to induced direct and indirect changes in forest carbon stock caused by changes in harvest rotations, changes in land use and in conventional wood production account for 11% to 26% of the overall GHG intensity of pellets produced from forest biomass only; these effects are negative with the use of forest and agricultural biomass.

  20. Policy Recommendations: Effective Accountability Mechanisms for New York State's English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aung, Khin Mai; Alvarez, Gisela

    2012-01-01

    In September 2011, the New York State Department of Education convened a School and District Accountability Think Tank to provide public input regarding the creation of a second generation educational accountability system for the State's Elementary and Secondary Education Act waiver application. The Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund…

  1. Evaluating the Effects of Child Savings Accounts Program Participation on Parental Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okech, David

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Using baseline and second wave data, the study evaluated the impact of child savings accounts participation on parenting stress, personal mastery, and economic strain with N = 381 lower income parents who decided to join and those who did not join in a child development savings account program. Methods: Structural equation modeling for…

  2. The Effect of Teaching Methods on Examination Performance and Attitudes in an Introductory Financial Accounting Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcheggiani, Joseph; Davis, Karel A.; Sander, James F.

    1999-01-01

    Comparison of accounting students taught with a group Socratic method (n=22) and interactive lecture method (n=15) found no evidence that either method significantly improved examination scores. Student attitudes toward the course or the accounting profession did not differ. (SK)

  3. National greenhouse-gas accounting for effective climate policy on international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kander, Astrid; Jiborn, Magnus; Moran, Daniel D.; Wiedmann, Thomas O.

    2015-05-01

    National greenhouse-gas accounting should reflect how countries’ policies and behaviours affect global emissions. Actions that contribute to reduced global emissions should be credited, and actions that increase them should be penalized. This is essential if accounting is to serve as accurate guidance for climate policy. Yet this principle is not satisfied by the two most common accounting methods. Production-based accounting used under the Kyoto Protocol does not account for carbon leakage--the phenomenon of countries reducing their domestic emissions by shifting carbon-intensive production abroad. Consumption-based accounting (also called carbon footprinting) does not credit countries for cleaning up their export industries, and it also punishes some types of trade that could contribute to more carbon efficient production worldwide. We propose an improvement to consumption-based carbon accounting that takes technology differences in export sectors into account and thereby tends to more correctly reflect how national policy changes affect total global emissions. We also present empirical results showing how this new measure redraws the global emissions map.

  4. Efficiency and Effectiveness in Higher Education: Who Is Accountable for What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, John

    2008-01-01

    There is little doubt that the modern university is far different to that of the early 90s and the work of academics has changed considerably over this time driven by the efficiency and accountability agenda. In taking stock of the changes, it needs to be recognised that often the cry for efficiency and accountability has been used as a mechanism…

  5. The Influence of Socioeconomic Factors on Kentucky's Public School Accountability System: Does Poverty Impact School Effectiveness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Under the Commonwealth Accountability Testing System (CATS), Kentucky's public schools have been assigned individualized "baseline" and "improvement goal" indices based upon past school performance in relation to the 2014 statewide index goal of 100. Each school's CATS Accountability Index, a measure of school performance based…

  6. Characterization of a novel mechanism accounting for the adverse cholinergic effects of the anticancer drug irinotecan

    PubMed Central

    Blandizzi, Corrado; De Paolis, Barbara; Colucci, Rocchina; Lazzeri, Gloria; Baschiera, Fabio; Del Tacca, Mario

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates the mechanisms accounting for the adverse cholinergic effects of the antitumour drug irinotecan. The activity of irinotecan and its active metabolite, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN-38), was assayed in models suitable for pharmacological studies on cholinergic system. Irinotecan moderately inhibited human or electric eel acetylcholinesterase activity, SN-38 had no effect, whereas physostigmine blocked both the enzymes with high potency and efficacy. Irinotecan and SN-38 did not affect spontaneous or electrically-induced contractile activity of human colonic muscle. Acetylcholine and dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) caused phasic contractions or relaxations, respectively. Physostigmine enhanced the motor responses elicited by electrical stimulation. Although irinotecan and SN-38 did not modify the basal contractile activity of guinea-pig ileum longitudinal muscle strips, irinotecan 100 μM moderately enhanced cholinergic twitch contractions. Acetylcholine or DMPP caused phasic contractions, whereas physostigmine enhanced the twitch responses. Electrically-induced [3H]-acetylcholine release was reduced by irinotecan (100 μM) or physostigmine (0.1 μM). Intravenous irinotecan stimulated gastric acid secretion in rats, but no effects were obtained with SN-38, physostigmine or i.c.v. irinotecan. Hypersecretion induced by irinotecan was partly prevented by ondansetron, and unaffected by capsazepine. In the presence of atropine, vagotomy and systemic or vagal ablation of capsaicin-sensitive afferent fibres, irinotecan did not stimulate gastric secretion. The present results indicate that irinotecan and SN-38 do not act as specific acetylcholinesterase blockers or acetylcholine receptor agonists. It is rather suggested that irinotecan promotes a parasympathetic discharge to peripheral organs, mediated by capsaicin-sensitive vagal afferent fibres, and that serotonin 5-HT3 receptors are implicated in the genesis of vago-vagal reflex

  7. A unifying modeling of plant shoot gravitropism with an explicit account of the effects of growth

    PubMed Central

    Bastien, Renaud; Douady, Stéphane; Moulia, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Gravitropism, the slow reorientation of plant growth in response to gravity, is a major determinant of the form and posture of land plants. Recently a universal model of shoot gravitropism, the AC model, was presented, in which the dynamics of the tropic movement is only determined by the conflicting controls of (1) graviception that tends to curve the plants toward the vertical, and (2) proprioception that tends to keep the stem straight. This model was found to be valid for many species and over two orders of magnitude of organ size. However, the motor of the movement, the elongation, was purposely neglected in the AC model. If growth effects are to be taken into account, it is necessary to consider the material derivative, i.e., the rate of change of curvature bound to expanding and convected organ elements. Here we show that it is possible to rewrite the material equation of curvature in a compact simplified form that directly expresses the curvature variation as a function of the median elongation and of the distribution of the differential growth. By using this extended model, called the ACĖ model, growth is found to have two main destabilizing effects on the tropic movement: (1) passive orientation drift, which occurs when a curved element elongates without differential growth, and (2) fixed curvature, when an element leaves the elongation zone and is no longer able to actively change its curvature. By comparing the AC and ACĖ models to experiments, these two effects are found to be negligible. Our results show that the simplified AC mode can be used to analyze gravitropism and posture control in actively elongating plant organs without significant information loss. PMID:24782876

  8. Seismology of adolescent neutron stars: Accounting for thermal effects and crust elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, C. J.; Ho, W. C. G.; Andersson, N.

    2015-09-01

    We study the oscillations of relativistic stars, incorporating key physics associated with internal composition, thermal gradients and crust elasticity. Our aim is to develop a formalism which is able to account for the state-of-the-art understanding of the complex physics associated with these systems. As a first step, we build models using a modern equation of state including composition gradients and density discontinuities associated with internal phase transitions (like the crust-core transition and the point where muons first appear in the core). In order to understand the nature of the oscillation spectrum, we carry out cooling simulations to provide realistic snapshots of the temperature distribution in the interior as the star evolves through adolescence. The associated thermal pressure is incorporated in the perturbation analysis, and we discuss the presence of g -modes arising as a result of thermal effects. We also consider interface modes due to phase-transitions and the gradual formation of the star's crust and the emergence of a set of shear modes.

  9. A common signal detection model accounts for both perception and discrimination of the watercolor effect.

    PubMed

    Devinck, Frédéric; Knoblauch, Kenneth

    2012-03-21

    Establishing the relation between perception and discrimination is a fundamental objective in psychophysics, with the goal of characterizing the neural mechanisms mediating perception. Here, we show that a procedure for estimating a perceptual scale based on a signal detection model also predicts discrimination performance. We use a recently developed procedure, Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling (MLDS), to measure the perceptual strength of a long-range, color, filling-in phenomenon, the Watercolor Effect (WCE), as a function of the luminance ratio between the two components of its generating contour. MLDS is based on an equal-variance, gaussian, signal detection model and yields a perceptual scale with interval properties. The strength of the fill-in percept increased 10-15 times the estimate of the internal noise level for a 3-fold increase in the luminance ratio. Each observer's estimated scale predicted discrimination performance in a subsequent paired-comparison task. A common signal detection model accounts for both the appearance and discrimination data. Since signal detection theory provides a common metric for relating discrimination performance and neural response, the results have implications for comparing perceptual and neural response functions.

  10. Calibration function for the Orbitrap FTMS accounting for the space charge effect.

    PubMed

    Gorshkov, Mikhail V; Good, David M; Lyutvinskiy, Yaroslav; Yang, Hongqian; Zubarev, Roman A

    2010-11-01

    Ion storage in an electrostatic trap has been implemented with the introduction of the Orbitrap Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS), which demonstrates performance similar to high-field ion cyclotron resonance MS. High mass spectral characteristics resulted in rapid acceptance of the Orbitrap FTMS for Life Sciences applications. The basics of Orbitrap operation are well documented; however, like in any ion trap MS technology, its performance is limited by interactions between the ion clouds. These interactions result in ion cloud couplings, systematic errors in measured masses, interference between ion clouds of different size yet with close m/z ratios, etc. In this work, we have characterized the space-charge effect on the measured frequency for the Orbitrap FTMS, looking for the possibility to achieve sub-ppm levels of mass measurement accuracy (MMA) for peptides in a wide range of total ion population. As a result of this characterization, we proposed an m/z calibration law for the Orbitrap FTMS that accounts for the total ion population present in the trap during a data acquisition event. Using this law, we were able to achieve a zero-space charge MMA limit of 80 ppb for the commercial Orbitrap FTMS system and sub-ppm level of MMA over a wide range of total ion populations with the automatic gain control values varying from 10 to 10(7).

  11. Accounting for the effects of Sastrugi in the CERES Clear-Sky Antarctic shortwave ADMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, J.; Su, W.

    2015-01-01

    The Cloud and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Instruments on NASA's Terra, Aqua and Soumi-NPP satellites are used to provide a long-term measurement of the Earth's energy budget. To accomplish this, the radiances measured by the instruments must be inverted to fluxes by the use of a scene-type dependent angular distribution model (ADM). For permanent snow scenes over Antarctica, shortwave ADMs are created by compositing radiance measurements over the full viewing zenith and azimuth range. However, the presence of small-scale wind blown roughness features called sastrugi cause the BRDF of the snow to vary significantly based upon the solar azimuth angle and location. This can result in monthly regional biases as large as ±15 Wm-2 in the inverted TOA SW flux. In this paper we created a set of ADMs that account for the sastrugi effect by using measurements from the Multi-Angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) instrument to derive statistical relationships between radiance from different viewing angles. These ADMs reduce the monthly regional biases to ±5 Wm-2 and the monthly-mean biases are reduced by up to 50%. These improved ADMs are used as part of the next edition of the CERES data.

  12. Randomly Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.; Geppert, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    The accountability debate tends to devolve into a battle between the pro-testing and anti-testing crowds. When it comes to the design of a school accountability system, the devil is truly in the details. A well-designed accountability plan may go a long way toward giving school personnel the kinds of signals they need to improve performance.…

  13. Investigation of the feasibility of an analytical method of accounting for the effects of atmospheric drag on satellite motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    An analytic technique for accounting for the joint effects of Earth oblateness and atmospheric drag on close-Earth satellites is investigated. The technique is analytic in the sense that explicit solutions to the Lagrange planetary equations are given; consequently, no numerical integrations are required in the solution process. The atmospheric density in the technique described is represented by a rotating spherical exponential model with superposed effects of the oblate atmosphere and the diurnal variations. A computer program implementing the process is discussed and sample output is compared with output from program NSEP (Numerical Satellite Ephemeris Program). NSEP uses a numerical integration technique to account for atmospheric drag effects.

  14. Classical spin glass system in external field with taking into account relaxation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorkyan, A. S. Abajyan, H. G.

    2013-08-15

    We study statistical properties of disordered spin systems under the influence of an external field with taking into account relaxation effects. For description of system the spatial 1D Heisenberg spin-glass Hamiltonian is used. In addition, we suppose that interactions occur between nearest-neighboring spins and they are random. Exact solutions which define angular configuration of the spin in nodes were obtained from the equations of stationary points of Hamiltonian and the corresponding conditions for the energy local minimum. On the basis of these recurrent solutions an effective parallel algorithm is developed for simulation of stabile spin-chains of an arbitrary length. It is shown that by way of an independent order of N{sup 2} numerical simulations (where N is number of spin in each chain) it is possible to generate ensemble of spin-chains, which is completely ergodic which is equivalent to full self-averaging of spin-chains' vector polarization. Distributions of different parameters (energy, average polarization by coordinates, and spin-spin interaction constant) of unperturbed system are calculated. In particular, analytically is proved and numerically is shown, that for the Heisenberg nearest-neighboring Hamiltonian model, the distribution of spin-spin interaction constants as opposed to widely used Gauss-Edwards-Anderson distribution satisfies Levy alpha-stable distribution law. This distribution is nonanalytic function and does not have variance. In the work we have in detail studied critical properties of an ensemble depending on value of external field parameters (from amplitude and frequency) and have shown that even at weak external fields the spin-glass systemis strongly frustrated. It is shown that frustrations have fractal behavior, they are selfsimilar and do not disappear at scale decreasing of area. By the numerical computation is shown that the average polarization of spin-glass on a different coordinates can have values which can lead to

  15. Effects of organic farming on biodiversity and ecosystem services: taking landscape complexity into account.

    PubMed

    Winqvist, Camilla; Ahnström, Johan; Bengtsson, Jan

    2012-02-01

    The recent intensification of the arable landscape by modern agriculture has had negative effects on biodiversity. Organic farming has been introduced to mitigate negative effects, but is organic farming beneficial to biodiversity? In this review, we summarize recent research on the effects of organic farming on arable biodiversity of plants, arthropods, soil biota, birds, and mammals. The ecosystem services of pollination, biological control, seed predation, and decomposition are also included in this review. So far, organic farming seems to enhance the species richness and abundance of many common taxa, but its effects are often species specific and trait or context dependant. The landscape surrounding the focal field or farm also seems to be important. Landscape either enhances or reduces the positive effects of organic farming or acts via interactions where the surrounding landscape affects biodiversity or ecosystem services differently on organic and conventional farms. Finally, we discuss some of the potential mechanisms behind these results and how organic farming may develop in the future to increase its potential for sustaining biodiversity and associated ecosystem services.

  16. Interactions between the Isolated-Interactive Elements Effect and Levels of Learner Expertise: Experimental Evidence from an Accountancy Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blayney, Paul; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated interactions between the isolated-interactive elements effect and levels of learner expertise with first year undergraduate university accounting students. The isolated-interactive elements effect occurs when learning is facilitated by initially presenting elements of information sequentially in an isolated form rather than…

  17. On the Problem-Size Effect in Small Additions: Can We Really Discard Any Counting-Based Account?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Thevenot, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The problem-size effect in simple additions, that is the increase in response times (RTs) and error rates with the size of the operands, is one of the most robust effects in cognitive arithmetic. Current accounts focus on factors that could affect speed of retrieval of the answers from long-term memory such as the occurrence of interference in a…

  18. 15 CFR 705.4 - Criteria for determining effect of imports on the national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for determining effect of... SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS EFFECT OF IMPORTED ARTICLES ON THE NATIONAL SECURITY § 705.4 Criteria for determining effect of imports on the national security. (a) To determine the effect on...

  19. The importance of context in delivering effective EIA: Case studies from East Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Marara, Madeleine; Okello, Nick; Kuhanwa, Zainab; Douven, Wim; Beevers, Lindsay Leentvaar, Jan

    2011-04-15

    This paper reviews and compares the condition of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) system in three countries in the East Africa region: Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania. The criteria used for the evaluation and the comparison of each system are based on the elements of the legal, administrative and procedural frameworks, as well as the context in which they operate. These criteria are adapted from the evaluation and quality control criteria derived from a number of literature sources. The study reveals that the EIA systems of Kenya and Tanzania are at a similar stage in their development. The two countries, the first to introduce the EIA concept into their jurisdiction in this part of Africa, therefore have more experience than Rwanda in the practice of environmental impact assessment, where the legislation and process requires more time to mature both from the governmental and societal perspective. The analysis of the administrative and procedural frameworks highlights the weakness in the autonomy of the competent authority, in all three countries. Finally a major finding of this study is that the contextual set up i.e. the socio-economic and political situation plays an important role in the performance of an EIA system. The context in developing countries is very different from developed countries where the EIA concept originates. Interpreting EIA conditions in countries like Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania requires that the analysis for determining the effectiveness of their systems should be undertaken within a relevant framework, taking into account the specific requirements of those countries.

  20. Improved Ionospheric Correction for DGPS by taking into account the Horizontal Gradient Effect over the Equatorial Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajoo, Karthigesu

    Improved Ionospheric Correction for DGPS by taking into account the Horizontal Gradient Effect over the Equatorial Region K Nagarajoo Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia 86400 Parit Raja Johor Darul Takzim Email: karthi@uthm.edu.my DGPS is a system where the range error at a reference station will be eliminated from the range measurement at the user, which `view' the same satellite, presuming that the satellite's path to both the reference station and the user experience common errors due to the ionosphere, clock errors, multipath etc. In this assumption, the error due to the ionospheric refraction is assumed to be the same for the two closely spaced paths (such as a baseline length between reference station and the user is 10km) and thus the presence of ionospheric horizontal gradient is ignored. If a user's path is exposed to a drastically large ionosphere gradient (i.e., over the equatorial region), the large difference of ionosphere delays between the reference station and the user can result in significant position error for the user. Apart from that, the difference in the elevation angle at the reference and the user that `view' the same satellite to get the range measurement does also introduce some millimetre to centimetre of range difference. The neglect of the effect due to the presence of an ionospheric horizontal gradient and the elevation angle's difference (at both ends of the baseline) will cause a significant amount of error in the final DGPS user positioning. In this work, those two effects have been investigated in order to obtain a more accurate ionospheric correction for DGPS and have been found to be roughly comparable showing that they are both important. By performing ray-tracing calculations (using Jones 3-D Ray Tracing program) with and without a linear horizontal ionosphere gradient, the effects of elevation angle and horizontal gradient have been separated and a final positioning improvement of about 8cm has been shown at the user of a

  1. Assessing the effects of mining subsidence on an internationally important wetland site

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, R.N.; Wessemann, H.; Benyon, P.R.; Peace, S.W.

    1998-12-31

    The Lower Derwent Valley (LDV) is a flood plain of international importance for its wintering birds and is designated a Special Protection Area for Birds (SPA) under the 1979 European Communities Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds. And is also a candidate to be a Special Area for Conservation (SAC) under the 1992 EC Directive on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and Wild Fauna and Flora on account of the extent of a particular type of flood meadow vegetation. The working of coal by the UK`s largest mine (RJB`s Selby Complex), around and under the LDV, has been taking place since the 1980`s with further mining proposed into the next century. A detailed review of the potential impact of past and future mining on the biological interest of the potentially affected part of the LDV began in 1994, this included extensive and detailed site studies of wintering and breeding birds, grassland communities, invertebrates, soils, and hydrology. The key factor identified was the potential change in the incidence and nature of flooding caused by drainage from the flood plain being impeded by high river levels. The potential for change, using the field data, has been modeled. Due to the small degree of mining subsidence predicted and the larger background variation in existing site conditions, the potential effect on both the notified wintering birds and flood meadow vegetation features has been assessed to be undetectable. However, due to the importance of the site both long-term monitoring provisions and mitigation measures have been agreed with English nature, the agency charged with advising the UK Government. This has enabled mining to proceed within an agreed area. The offered paper will describe the studies and modeling undertaken, and the monitoring and mitigation agreed.

  2. The effect of roughness elements on wind erosion: The importance of surface shear stress distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Representation of surface roughness effects on aeolian sediment transport is a key source of uncertainty in wind erosion models. Drag partitioning schemes are used to account for roughness by scaling the soil entrainment threshold by the ratio of shear stress on roughness elements to that on the veg...

  3. Excel in the Accounting Curriculum: Perceptions from Accounting Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandran Rackliffe, Usha; Ragland, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Public accounting firms emphasize the importance of accounting graduates being proficient in Excel. Since many accounting graduates often aspire to work in public accounting, a question arises as to whether there should be an emphasis on Excel in accounting education. The purpose of this paper is to specifically look at this issue by examining…

  4. Effectiveness of Pavement Management System and its Effects to the Closing of Final Account in Construction Project in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Zarabizan; Ismail, Syuhaida; Yusof, Aminah Md

    2013-04-01

    Federal roads maintenance needs a systematic and effective mechanism to ensure that the roads are in good condition and provide comfort to the road user. In implementing effective maintenance, budget is main the factor limiting this endeavor. Thus Public Works Department (PWD) Malaysia used Highway Development and Management (HDM-4) System to help the management of PWD Malaysia in determining the location and length of the road to be repaired according to the priority based on its analysis. For that purpose, PWD Malaysia has applied Pavement Management System (PMS) which utilizes HDM-4 as the analysis engine to conduct technical and economic analysis in generating annual work programs for pavement maintenance. As a result, a lot of feedback and comment have been received from Supervisory and Roads Maintenance Unit (UPPJ) Zonal on the accuracy of the system output and problems that arise in the closing of final account. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to evaluate current system accuracy in terms of generating the annual work program for periodic pavement maintenance, to identify factors contributing to the system inaccuracy in selecting the location and length of roads that require for treatment and to propose improvement measures for the system accuracy. The factors affecting the closing of final account caused by result received from the pavement management system are also defined. The scope of this paper is on the existing HDM-4 System which cover four states specifically Perlis, Selangor, Kelantan and Johor which is analysed via the work program output data for the purpose of evaluating the system accuracy. The method used in this paper includes case study, interview, discussion and analysis of the HDM-4 System output data. This paper has identified work history not updated and the analysis is not using the current data as factors contributing to the system accuracy. From the result of this paper, it is found that HDM-4's system accuracy used by PWD

  5. Accountability studies of air pollution and health effects: lessons learned and recommendations for future natural experiment opportunities.

    PubMed

    Rich, David Q

    2017-03-01

    To address limitations of observational epidemiology studies of air pollution and health effects, including residual confounding by temporal and spatial factors, several studies have taken advantage of 'natural experiments', where an environmental policy or air quality intervention has resulted in reductions in ambient air pollution concentrations. Researchers have examined whether the population impacted by these air quality improvements, also experienced improvements in various health indices (e.g. reduced morbidity/mortality). In this paper, I review key accountability studies done previously and new studies done over the past several years in Beijing, Atlanta, London, Ireland, and other locations, describing study design and analysis strengths and limitations of each. As new 'natural experiment' opportunities arise, several lessons learned from these studies should be applied when planning a new accountability study. Comparison of health outcomes during the intervention to both before and after the intervention in the population of interest, as well as use of a control population to assess whether any temporal changes in the population of interest were also seen in populations not impacted by air quality improvements, should aid in minimizing residual confounding by these long term time trends. Use of either detailed health records for a population, or prospectively collected data on relevant mechanistic biomarkers coupled with such morbidity/mortality data may provide a more thorough assessment of if the intervention beneficially impacted the health of the community, and if so by what mechanism(s). Further, prospective measurement of a large suite of air pollutants may allow a more thorough understanding of what pollutant source(s) is/are responsible for any health benefit observed. The importance of using multiple statistical analysis methods in each paper and the difference in how the timing of the air pollution/outcome association may impact which of these

  6. Re-evaluation of the 1976 Guatemala earthquake taking into account the environmental effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfido, Sabina; Esposito, Eliana; Spiga, Efisio; Sacchi, Marco; Molisso, Flavia; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Guatemala is one of the most seismically active countries in Central America.The largest earthquakes are produced by along the subduction zone of the Cocos and Caribbean plates in the Middle America Trench in the Pacific Ocean. Large earthquakes are also triggered along the boundary between the North American and the Caribbean plates, defined by a zone of large left lateral strike-slip faults that run through Guatemala from the Swan Fracture Zone in the Caribbean Sea. The earthquakes generated along these transcurrent faults, although less frequent, have a great importance to seismic hazard in Central America, more than the subduction-related earthquakes, because of their shallow ipocenters and the proximity of many cities and villages to these active structures. The most destructive event in this region was the earthquake occurred on 4, February 1976 in Guatemala, associated with the Motagua fault, causing 23 000 deaths, and 77 200 injuries. This study attempts at reconstructing the coseismic effects on the environment, to better assess the intensities according to the ESI scale 2007. For the Guatemala 1976 earthquake (M=7,5), the original scientific seismic, geological and macroseismic reports have been reviewed in order to highlight effects on natural environment. The maximum estimated intensity was IX MM in Gualan, in the Mixco area and in the centre of Guatemala City. Intensities value were underestimated despite there was a high level of damages, in fact several towns and villages were totally destroyed and although the earthquake triggered very large and spectacular primary and secondary ground effects. On the basis of all the gathered information has been possible to detect and to localize coseismic environmental effects, and classify them into six main types: surface faulting, slope movements, ground cracks, ground settlements, hydrological changes and tsunami. Primary effects was identified in the Motagua Valley and the mountainous area W of the valley, a

  7. Demonstrating accountability.

    PubMed

    Melton, V B

    1983-01-01

    Clearly, the department of education has an important role to play in assisting the hospital to become more effective and efficient. The key competencies required of today's manager and practitioner are educational needs assessment, evaluation, and measurement. ASHET educational programs, including the highly successful teleconference "Productivity and Performance Improvement" broadcast nationally last fall, are addressing this need for increased knowledge and skill in educational diagnosis. The key to the success of the health care education and training field depends, to a large extent, on the value, productivity, quality, and cost-effectiveness of our education programs and activities. With the advent of cost-per-case reimbursement, these will play an increasingly important part in the expectations that will be placed on education in the coming years.

  8. Force field development for actinyl ions via quantum mechanical calculations: an approach to account for many body solvation effects.

    PubMed

    Rai, Neeraj; Tiwari, Surya P; Maginn, Edward J

    2012-09-06

    Advances in computational algorithms and methodologies make it possible to use highly accurate quantum mechanical calculations to develop force fields (pair-wise additive intermolecular potentials) for condensed phase simulations. Despite these advances, this approach faces numerous hurdles for the case of actinyl ions, AcO2(n+) (high-oxidation-state actinide dioxo cations), mainly due to the complex electronic structure resulting from an interplay of s, p, d, and f valence orbitals. Traditional methods use a pair of molecules (“dimer”) to generate a potential energy surface (PES) for force field parametrization based on the assumption that many body polarization effects are negligible. We show that this is a poor approximation for aqueous phase uranyl ions and present an alternative approach for the development of actinyl ion force fields that includes important many body solvation effects. Force fields are developed for the UO2(2+) ion with the SPC/Fw, TIP3P, TIP4P, and TIP5P water models and are validated by carrying out detailed molecular simulations on the uranyl aqua ion, one of the most characterized actinide systems. It is shown that the force fields faithfully reproduce available experimental structural data and hydration free energies. Failure to account for solvation effects when generating PES leads to overbinding between UO2(2+) and water, resulting in incorrect hydration free energies and coordination numbers. A detailed analysis of arrangement of water molecules in the first and second solvation shell of UO2(2+) is presented. The use of a simple functional form involving the sum of Lennard-Jones + Coulomb potentials makes the new force field compatible with a large number of available molecular simulation engines and common force fields.

  9. Drivers of Teaching Effectiveness: Views from Accounting Educator Exemplars in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wygal, Donald E.; Watty, Kim; Stout, David E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the views, obtained via a survey instrument created by the authors and reported in studies by Stout and Wygal, of 22 accounting educator teaching exemplars from Australia. Each of these individuals has been cited for teaching excellence through receipt of one or more formal teaching awards. The paper responds to calls in…

  10. Data, Numbers and Accountability: The Complexity, Nature and Effects of Data Use in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This article draws upon research in one school in Queensland, Australia, to explore how the push to data influences teacher work and subsequent student learning. This "rise of data," often oriented towards "external" and performative processes of accountability, exhibits itself in many ways, but is particularly evident in…

  11. Accounting for Movement between Childcare Classrooms: Does It Change Teacher Effects Interpretations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setodji, Claude Messan; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Schaack, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Child care studies that have examined links between teachers' qualifications and children's outcomes often ignore teachers' and children's transitions between classrooms at a center throughout the day and only take into account head teacher qualifications. The objective of this investigation was to examine these traditional assumptions and to…

  12. When Does Accountability Work? Texas System Had Mixed Effects on College Graduation Rates and Future Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, David J.; Cohodes, Sarah; Jennings, Jennifer; Jencks, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    When congress passed the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), standardized testing in public schools became the law of the land. The ambitious legislation identified test-based accountability as the key to improving schools and, by extension, the long-term prospects of American schoolchildren. Thirteen years later, the debate over the federal…

  13. Student Accountability and Formative Assessment and Its Effects on Motivation and Academic Achievement in Developmental Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukounas, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether high student accountability and formative assessment affected student motivation, learning and resource management strategies, and achievement in developmental algebra I. The setting was a fifteen-week semester at a community college in suburban New York. Two sections of developmental algebra I…

  14. Accuracy of Teachers' Tracking Decisions: Short- and Long-Term Effects of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine; Glock, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Bias in teachers' judgment formation and decision making has long been acknowledged. More specifically, studies have repeatedly demonstrated discrepancies between teacher ratings of minority and majority students with similar academic profiles. Studies have also demonstrated that increasing accountability reduced bias. Little is known, however,…

  15. The Effect of Podcasted Review Sessions on Accounting I Students' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badowski, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Podcasting is a relatively new and yet unproven technology, especially when pertaining to higher education. The goal of this research was to address the issue of the educational significance of podcasting review sessions in Principles of Accounting I, by systematically conducting experimental embedded design research to build a case for its…

  16. NAPLAN, MySchool and Accountability: Teacher Perceptions of the Effects of Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores Rizvi and Lingard's (2010) idea of the "local vernacular" of the global education policy trend of using high-stakes testing to increase accountability and transparency, and by extension quality, within schools and education systems in Australia. In the first part of the paper a brief context of the policy trajectory…

  17. Researchers' choice of the number and range of levels in experiments affects the resultant variance-accounted-for effect size.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kensuke; Hoshino, Takahiro

    2016-08-08

    In psychology, the reporting of variance-accounted-for effect size indices has been recommended and widely accepted through the movement away from null hypothesis significance testing. However, most researchers have paid insufficient attention to the fact that effect sizes depend on the choice of the number of levels and their ranges in experiments. Moreover, the functional form of how and how much this choice affects the resultant effect size has not thus far been studied. We show that the relationship between the population effect size and number and range of levels is given as an explicit function under reasonable assumptions. Counterintuitively, it is found that researchers may affect the resultant effect size to be either double or half simply by suitably choosing the number of levels and their ranges. Through a simulation study, we confirm that this relation also applies to sample effect size indices in much the same way. Therefore, the variance-accounted-for effect size would be substantially affected by the basic research design such as the number of levels. Simple cross-study comparisons and a meta-analysis of variance-accounted-for effect sizes would generally be irrational unless differences in research designs are explicitly considered.

  18. Analysis of Conductor Impedances Accounting for Skin Effect and Nonlinear Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, M P; Ong, M M; Brown, C G; Speer, R D

    2011-07-20

    It is often necessary to protect sensitive electrical equipment from pulsed electric and magnetic fields. To accomplish this electromagnetic shielding structures similar to Faraday Cages are often implemented. If the equipment is inside a facility that has been reinforced with rebar, the rebar can be used as part of a lighting protection system. Unfortunately, such shields are not perfect and allow electromagnetic fields to be created inside due to discontinuities in the structure, penetrations, and finite conductivity of the shield. In order to perform an analysis of such a structure it is important to first determine the effect of the finite impedance of the conductors used in the shield. In this paper we will discuss the impedances of different cylindrical conductors in the time domain. For a time varying pulse the currents created in the conductor will have different spectral components, which will affect the current density due to skin effects. Many construction materials use iron and different types of steels that have a nonlinear permeability. The nonlinear material can have an effect on the impedance of the conductor depending on the B-H curve. Although closed form solutions exist for the impedances of cylindrical conductors made of linear materials, computational techniques are needed for nonlinear materials. Simulations of such impedances are often technically challenging due to the need for a computational mesh to be able to resolve the skin depths for the different spectral components in the pulse. The results of such simulations in the time domain will be shown and used to determine the impedances of cylindrical conductors for lightning current pulses that have low frequency content.

  19. The Effects of Student Response Systems on Performance and Satisfaction: An Investigation in a Tax Accounting Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Richard G.; Hsu, Maxwell

    2007-01-01

    Does the use of student response systems (clickers) in the classroom increase student performance on exams? Do students perceive a benefit to using clickers in the classroom? This study investigates the effect of student response systems on accounting students' learning outcome and perceived satisfaction. Results show that, though the use of…

  20. Does HPA-Axis Dysregulation Account for the Effects of Income on Effortful Control and Adjustment in Preschool Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen; Fisher, Phil; Moran, Lyndsey

    2013-01-01

    The effects of low income on children's adjustment might be accounted for by disruptions to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and to the development of effortful control. Using longitudinal data and a community sample of preschool-age children (N?=?306, 36-39?months) and their mothers, recruited to over-represent low-income…

  1. Exploring the Effects of Social Exchange Relationships on the Scholarly Productivity of New Faculty Members in Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugrin, Joseph C.; Odom, Marcus D.; Pearson, J. Michael; Bahmanziari, Tammy R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how social relationships between new accounting faculty members and their former dissertation chairs can influence the publishing productivity of the new faculty members in their early academic careers. The focus on social relationships offers a unique approach to studying the effectiveness doctoral education. Our findings show…

  2. Whatever Gave You that Idea? False Memories Following Equivalence Training: A Behavioral Account of the Misinformation Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Challies, Danna M.; Hunt, Maree; Garry, Maryanne; Harper, David N.

    2011-01-01

    The misinformation effect is a term used in the cognitive psychological literature to describe both experimental and real-world instances in which misleading information is incorporated into an account of an historical event. In many real-world situations, it is not possible to identify a distinct source of misinformation, and it appears that the…

  3. The Effects of Personal Accountability and Personal Responsibility Instruction on Select Off-Task and Positive Social Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Tom; Balderson, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of personal accountability and personal responsibility instructional treatments on elementary-age, urban, at-risk physical education students. A multiple treatment (ABAD, ACAD, ADA, control) behavior-analysis design was implemented across four distinct matched class settings to determine the separate and combined…

  4. Long-Term Effects of Individual Development Accounts on Postsecondary Education: Follow-Up Evidence from a Randomized Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstein-Weiss, Michal; Sherraden, Michael; Gale, William G.; Rohe, William M.; Schreiner, Mark; Key, Clinton

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents evidence from a randomized field experiment testing the impact of a 3-year matched savings program on educational outcomes 10 years after the start of the experiment. We examine the effect of an Individual Development Account (IDA) program on (1) educational enrollment, (2) degree completion, and (3) increased education level.…

  5. An Interactive Activation Model of Context Effects in Letter Perception: Part 1. An Account of Basic Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, James L.; Rumelhart, David E.

    1981-01-01

    A model of context effects in perception is applied to perception of letters. Perception results from excitatory and inhibitory interactions of detectors for visual features, letters, and words. The model produces facilitation for letters in pronounceable pseudowords as well as words and accounts for rule-governed performance without any rules.…

  6. Short-Run Effects of Accountability Pressures on Teacher Policies and Practices in the Voucher System in Santiago, Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elacqua, Gregory; Martínez, Matías; Santos, Humberto; Urbina, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This research analyzes the impact of the Adjusted Voucher Law´s school rankings on low-performing schools in Santiago, Chile, and provides evidence on the effects of the pressures of accountability systems on teacher policies and practices. The empirical strategy is based on the fact that schools are ranked according to their position on a set of…

  7. Effects of biomass burning on climate, accounting for heat and moisture fluxes, black and brown carbon, and cloud absorption effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2014-07-01

    This paper examines the effects on climate and air pollution of open biomass burning (BB) when heat and moisture fluxes, gases and aerosols (including black and brown carbon, tar balls, and reflective particles), cloud absorption effects (CAEs) I and II, and aerosol semidirect and indirect effects on clouds are treated. It also examines the climate impacts of most anthropogenic heat and moisture fluxes (AHFs and AMFs). Transient 20 year simulations indicate BB may cause a net global warming of ~0.4 K because CAE I (~32% of BB warming), CAE II, semidirect effects, AHFs (~7%), AMFs, and aerosol absorption outweigh direct aerosol cooling and indirect effects, contrary to previous BB studies that did not treat CAEs, AHFs, AMFs, or brown carbon. Some BB warming can be understood in terms of the anticorrelation between instantaneous direct radiative forcing (DRF) changes and surface temperature changes in clouds containing absorbing aerosols. BB may cause ~250,000 (73,000-435,000) premature mortalities/yr, with >90% from particles. AHFs from all sources and AMFs + AHFs from power plants and electricity use each may cause a statistically significant +0.03 K global warming. Solar plus thermal-IR DRFs were +0.033 (+0.027) W/m2 for all AHFs globally without (with) evaporating cooling water, +0.009 W/m2 for AMFs globally, +0.52 W/m2 (94.3% solar) for all-source BC outside of clouds plus interstitially between cloud drops at the cloud relative humidity, and +0.06 W/m2 (99.7% solar) for BC inclusions in cloud hydrometeor particles. Modeled post-1850 biomass, biofuel, and fossil fuel burning, AHFs, AMFs, and urban surfaces accounted for most observed global warming.

  8. The effect of Health Savings Accounts on group health insurance coverage.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jinqi

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents new empirical evidence on the impact of tax subsidies for Health Savings Accounts (HSAs) on group insurance coverage. HSAs are tax-free health care expenditure savings accounts. Coupled with high deductible health insurance plans (HDHPs), they together represent new health insurance options. The tax advantage of HSAs expands the group health insurance market by making health care more affordable. Using individual level data from the Current Population Survey and exploiting policy variation by state and year from 2004 to 2012, I find that HSA tax subsidies increase small-group coverage by a statistically significant 2.5 percentage points, although not coverage in larger firms. Moreover, if the tax price of HSA contribution decreases by 10 cents, small-group insurance coverage increases by almost 2 percentage points. I also find that for older workers or less-educated workers, HSA subsidies are associated with 2-3 percentage point increase in their group insurance coverage.

  9. Material hardship and 529 college savings plan participation: the mitigating effects of Child Development Accounts.

    PubMed

    Wikoff, Nora; Huang, Jin; Kim, Youngmi; Sherraden, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Experience of material hardship can adversely affect a family's ability to make long-term investments in children's development. We examine whether material hardship is associated with one indicator of such investments: participation in a tax-advantaged college savings plan (529 plan). Data for this study come from the SEED for Oklahoma Kids (SEED OK) experiment, an intervention that offers Child Development Accounts with financial incentives to encourage the accumulation of college savings for children from the time of their birth. Results show that material hardship is negatively associated with 529-plan participation, and this association varies by treatment status. At all levels of material hardship, treatment-group mothers are more likely to hold accounts than control-group mothers. These findings suggest that CDAs can be a useful policy tool to support families' financial preparation for college.

  10. An efficient constraint to account for mistuning effects in the optimal design of engine rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Durbha V.; Pierre, Christophe; Ottarsson, Gisli

    1992-01-01

    Blade-to-blade differences in structural properties, unavoidable in practice due to manufacturing tolerances, can have significant influence on the vibratory response of engine rotor blade. Accounting for these differences, also known as mistuning, in design and in optimization procedures is generally not possible. This note presents an easily calculated constraint that can be used in design and optimization procedures to control the sensitivity of final designs to mistuning.

  11. Accounting for Heterogeneity in Relative Treatment Effects for Use in Cost-Effectiveness Models and Value-of-Information Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Marta O.; Palmer, Stephen; Ades, Anthony E.; Harrison, David; Shankar-Hari, Manu; Rowan, Kathy M.

    2015-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) models are routinely used to inform health care policy. Key model inputs include relative effectiveness of competing treatments, typically informed by meta-analysis. Heterogeneity is ubiquitous in meta-analysis, and random effects models are usually used when there is variability in effects across studies. In the absence of observed treatment effect modifiers, various summaries from the random effects distribution (random effects mean, predictive distribution, random effects distribution, or study-specific estimate [shrunken or independent of other studies]) can be used depending on the relationship between the setting for the decision (population characteristics, treatment definitions, and other contextual factors) and the included studies. If covariates have been measured that could potentially explain the heterogeneity, then these can be included in a meta-regression model. We describe how covariates can be included in a network meta-analysis model and how the output from such an analysis can be used in a CEA model. We outline a model selection procedure to help choose between competing models and stress the importance of clinical input. We illustrate the approach with a health technology assessment of intravenous immunoglobulin for the management of adult patients with severe sepsis in an intensive care setting, which exemplifies how risk of bias information can be incorporated into CEA models. We show that the results of the CEA and value-of-information analyses are sensitive to the model and highlight the importance of sensitivity analyses when conducting CEA in the presence of heterogeneity. The methods presented extend naturally to heterogeneity in other model inputs, such as baseline risk. PMID:25712447

  12. Paternal effects on functional gender account for cryptic dioecy in a perennial plant.

    PubMed Central

    Verdú, Miguel; Montilla, Ana I.; Pannell, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Natural selection operates on the mating strategies of hermaphrodites through their functional gender, i.e. their relative success as male versus female parents. Because functional gender will tend to be strongly influenced by sex allocation, it is often estimated in plants by counting seeds and pollen grains. However, a plant's functional gender must also depend on the fate of the seeds and pollen grains it produces. We provide clear evidence of a paternal effect on the functional gender of a plant that is independent of the resources invested in pollen. In the Mediterranean tree Fraxinus ornus, males coexist with hermaphrodites that disperse viable pollen and that sire seeds; the population would thus appear to be functionally androdioecious. However, we found that seedlings sired by hermaphrodites grew significantly less well than those sired by males, suggesting that hermaphrodites may be functionally less male than they seem. The observed 1 : 1 sex ratios in F. ornus, which have hitherto been difficult to explain in the light of the seed-siring ability of hermaphrodites, support our interpretation that this species is cryptically dioecious. Our results underscore the importance of considering progeny quality when estimating gender, and caution against inferring androdioecy on the basis of a siring ability of hermaphrodites alone. PMID:15451691

  13. The "name-ease" effect and its dual impact on importance judgments.

    PubMed

    Labroo, Aparna A; Lambotte, Soraya; Zhang, Yan

    2009-12-01

    ABSTRACT- We demonstrate that merely naming a research finding elicits feelings of ease (a "name-ease" effect). These feelings of ease can reduce or enhance the finding's perceived importance depending on whether people are making inferences about how understandable or how memorable the finding is. When people assess their understanding of a finding, feelings of ease reduce the finding's perceived importance. This is because people usually invest effort to understand important information but also mistakenly infer the reverse-namely, that information that requires effort to be understood is important. In contrast, when people assess the memorability of a finding, feelings of ease increase the finding's perceived importance. Because people usually recall important information easily, in this case they equate ease with importance. Psychological effects, economic principles, math theorems, jury cases, and decisions to fund medical research can all show these effects.

  14. Monitoring groundwater: optimising networks to take account of cost effectiveness, legal requirements and enforcement realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, A.; Spray, C.

    2013-12-01

    The quality of monitoring networks and modeling in environmental regulation is increasingly important. This is particularly true with respect to groundwater management, where data may be limited, physical processes poorly understood and timescales very long. The powers of regulators may be fatally undermined by poor or non-existent networks, primarily through mismatches between the legal standards that networks must meet, actual capacity and the evidentiary standards of courts. For example, in the second and third implementation reports on the Water Framework Directive, the European Commission drew attention to gaps in the standards of mandatory monitoring networks, where the standard did not meet the reality. In that context, groundwater monitoring networks should provide a reliable picture of groundwater levels and a ';coherent and comprehensive' overview of chemical status so that anthropogenically influenced long-term upward trends in pollutant levels can be tracked. Confidence in this overview should be such that 'the uncertainty from the monitoring process should not add significantly to the uncertainty of controlling the risk', with densities being sufficient to allow assessment of the impact of abstractions and discharges on levels in groundwater bodies at risk. The fact that the legal requirements for the quality of monitoring networks are set out in very vague terms highlights the many variables that can influence the design of monitoring networks. However, the quality of a monitoring network as part of the armory of environmental regulators is potentially of crucial importance. If, as part of enforcement proceedings, a regulator takes an offender to court and relies on conclusions derived from monitoring networks, a defendant may be entitled to question those conclusions. If the credibility, reliability or relevance of a monitoring network can be undermined, because it is too sparse, for example, this could have dramatic consequences on the ability of a

  15. Accounting for the effect of turbulence on wind turbine power curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifton, A.; Wagner, Rozenn

    2014-06-01

    Wind turbines require methods to predict the power produced as inflow conditions change. We compare the standard method of binning with a turbulence renormalization method and a machine learning approach using a data set derived from simulations. The method of binning is unable to cope with changes in turbulence; the turbulence renormalization method cannot account for changes in shear other than by using the the equivalent wind speed, which is derived from wind speed data at multiple heights in the rotor disk. The machine learning method is best able to predict the power as conditions change, and could be modified to include additional inflow variables such as veer or yaw error.

  16. Optimization of Internal Margin to Account for Dosimetric Effects of Respiratory Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Mutaf, Yildirim D. Brinkmann, Debra H.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: Use of internal margins to account for respiratory motion of the target volumes is a common strategy in radiotherapy of mobile tumors. Although efficient for tumor coverage, this expansion also risks increased toxicity to nearby healthy organs and therefore requires a careful selection of appropriate margins. In this study, we demonstrate an optimization of the internal margin used to account for respiration motion. Methods and Materials: Three-dimensional conformal treatment plans for phantom spherical target volumes as well as clinical treatment plans of 11 patients were evaluated retrospectively for optimum internal margin selection. A software-based simulation of respiration motion was performed for all cases. Moreover, the interplay with treatment setup uncertainties and corresponding margins was investigated in the phantom study. Results: Optimum internal margins in both phantom and patient studies were found to be substantially smaller than the actual target displacement due to respiration. The optimal internal margin was also observed to be approximately independent of the setup margins. Furthermore, no statistically significant dependence on target size and shape was observed in the group of 11 patients. Conclusions: These findings present significant implications for treatment planning of mobile targets, such as tumors found in the lung and upper abdomen. We conclude that the full motion amplitude for the internal margin is overly conservative, and optimization of the internal margin provides improved sparing of nearby organs at risk without sacrificing dosimetric coverage for the target.

  17. Effects of a social accountability approach, CARE’s Community Score Card, on reproductive health-related outcomes in Malawi: A cluster-randomized controlled evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Galavotti, Christine; Sebert Kuhlmann, Anne; Msiska, Thumbiko; Hastings, Phil; Marti, C. Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Background Social accountability approaches, which emphasize mutual responsibility and accountability by community members, health care workers, and local health officials for improving health outcomes in the community, are increasingly being employed in low-resource settings. We evaluated the effects of a social accountability approach, CARE’s Community Score Card (CSC), on reproductive health outcomes in Ntcheu district, Malawi using a cluster-randomized control design. Methods We matched 10 pairs of communities, randomly assigning one from each pair to intervention and control arms. We conducted two independent cross-sectional surveys of women who had given birth in the last 12 months, at baseline and at two years post-baseline. Using difference-in-difference (DiD) and local average treatment effect (LATE) estimates, we evaluated the effects on outcomes including modern contraceptive use, antenatal and postnatal care service utilization, and service satisfaction. We also evaluated changes in indicators developed by community members and service providers in the intervention areas. Results DiD analyses showed significantly greater improvements in the proportion of women receiving a home visit during pregnancy (B = 0.20, P < .01), receiving a postnatal visit (B = 0.06, P = .01), and overall service satisfaction (B = 0.16, P < .001) in intervention compared to control areas. LATE analyses estimated significant effects of the CSC intervention on home visits by health workers (114% higher in intervention compared to control) (B = 1.14, P < .001) and current use of modern contraceptives (57% higher) (B = 0.57, P < .01). All 13 community- and provider-developed indicators improved, with 6 of them showing significant improvements. Conclusions By facilitating the relationship between community members, health service providers, and local government officials, the CSC contributed to important improvements in reproductive health-related outcomes. Further, the CSC builds

  18. 77 FR 202 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updated Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting References

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... 9000-AM00 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updated Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting... accounting standards owing to the Financial Accounting Standards Board's Accounting Standards Codification of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. DATES: Effective Date: February 2, 2012. FOR FURTHER...

  19. Unit days in accounts receivable: a management tool.

    PubMed

    Davis, J L

    1984-10-01

    The importance and usefulness of the statistic "Days in accounts receivable" are well known among patient accounts managers. The same principles that apply to that well-known statistic may also be effectively applied to a single unit within any patient accounting department. With the calculation of a unit days in accounts receivable, the same evaluation and measurements of efficiency may be applied to individual files and patient accounts representatives. The results allow individual employees participation in the same measurable goals and objectives as are applied to the overall operation of the department, as well as supplying the patient accounts manager an additional valuable tool in analyzing total accounts receivable.

  20. Conflicting effects of context in change detection and visual search: A dual process account.

    PubMed

    LaPointe, Mitchell R P; Milliken, Bruce

    2017-03-01

    Congruent contexts often facilitate performance in visual search and categorisation tasks using natural scenes. A congruent context is thought to contain predictive information about the types of objects likely to be encountered, as well as their location. However, in change detection tasks, changes embedded in congruent contexts often produce impaired performance relative to incongruent contexts. Using a stimulus set controlled for object perceptual salience, we compare performance across change detection and visual search tasks, as well as a hybrid of these 2 tasks. The results support a dual process account with opposing influences of context congruency on change detection and object identification processes, which contribute differentially to performance in visual search and change detection tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Time lag model for batch bioreactor simulation accounting the effect of micro-organism mortality.

    PubMed

    Zahariev, Andrey; Kiskinov, Hristo; Angelov, Angel; Zlatev, Stoyan

    2015-01-02

    In the present work, a generalization of the classical model of Monod accounting the influence of both delayed and instant mortalities on the dynamics of the micro-organism population is proposed. The model was analysed and compared with respect to its quality and applicability for simulation of the cultivation process of micro-organisms. Existence of a unique global positive solution of the Cauchy problem for the proposed model is proved and explicit relations between the decay parameters and the nutrition substrate concentration are obtained. These mathematical results allow us to calculate the nutrient substrate concentration which guarantees that the biomass concentration is maximal for every specific type of taxonomic groups of micro-organisms (bacteria, yeasts).

  2. 31 CFR 537.514 - Importation of certain personal and household effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 2003, is authorized to import into the United States personal and household effects that are products... household effects that are products of Burma, including accompanied baggage and articles for family use... household effects. 537.514 Section 537.514 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

  3. 31 CFR 537.514 - Importation of certain personal and household effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 2003, is authorized to import into the United States personal and household effects that are products... household effects that are products of Burma, including accompanied baggage and articles for family use... household effects. 537.514 Section 537.514 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

  4. A Pathway to Educational Accountability: The Relationship between Effective School Characteristics and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Günal, Yurdagül; Demirtasli, R. Nükhet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine perceptions of secondary school students towards effectiveness of their school in terms of effective school characteristics such as "Secure and Regular Environment," "High Academic Expectations," "Instructional Leadership," "Learning Opportunities," "Monitoring…

  5. A Consideration of Factors Accounting for Goal Effectiveness: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James H.

    This research paper presents a model of organizational effectiveness based on the open system perspective and tests four hypotheses concerning organizational effectiveness factors. Organizational effectiveness can be defined as the extent to which a social system makes progress toward objectives based on the four phases of organizational…

  6. Advanced Numerical Imaging Procedure Accounting for Non-Ideal Effects in GPR Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comite, Davide; Galli, Alessandro; Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The capability to provide fast and reliable imaging of targets and interfaces in non-accessible probed scenarios is a topic of great scientific interest, and many investigations have shown that Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) can provide an efficient technique to conduct this kind of analysis in various applications of geophysical nature and civil engineering. In these cases, the development of an efficient and accurate imaging procedure is strongly dependent on the capability of accounting for the incident field that activates the scattering phenomenon. In this frame, based on a suitable implementation of an electromagnetic (EM) CAD tool (CST Microwave Studio), it has been possible to accurately and efficiently model the radiation pattern of real antennas in environments typically considered in GPR surveys [1]. A typical scenario of our interest is constituted by targets hidden in a ground medium, described by certain EM parameters and probed by a movable GPR using interfacial antennas [2]. The transmitting and receiving antennas considered here are Vivaldi ones, but a wide variety of other antennas can be modeled and designed, similar to those ones available in commercial GPR systems. Hence, an advanced version of a well-known microwave tomography approach (MTA) [3] has been implemented, both in the canonical 2D scalar case and in the more realistic 3D vectorial one. Such an approach is able to account for the real distribution of the radiated and scattered EM fields. Comparisons of results obtained by means of a 'conventional' implementation of the MTA, where the antennas are modeled as ideal line sources, and by means of our 'advanced' approach, which instead takes into account the radiation features of the chosen antenna type, have been carried out and discussed. Since the antenna radiation patterns are modified by the probed environment, whose EM features and the possible stratified structure usually are not exactly known, the imaging capabilities of the MTA

  7. Accounting Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication identifies 20 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of accounting specialist, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 20 units are as follows:…

  8. Painless Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. W.; And Others

    The computerized Painless Accountability System is a performance objective system from which instructional programs are developed. Three main simplified behavioral response levels characterize this system: (1) cognitive, (2) psychomotor, and (3) affective domains. Each of these objectives are classified by one of 16 descriptors. The second major…

  9. Accountability Overboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chieppo, Charles D.; Gass, James T.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that special interest groups opposed to charter schools and high-stakes testing have hijacked Massachusetts's once-independent board of education and stand poised to water down the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) tests and the accountability system they support. President Barack Obama and Massachusetts…

  10. 15 CFR 705.4 - Criteria for determining effect of imports on the national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... imports on the national security. 705.4 Section 705.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS EFFECT OF IMPORTED ARTICLES ON THE NATIONAL SECURITY § 705.4...

  11. 15 CFR 705.4 - Criteria for determining effect of imports on the national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... imports on the national security. 705.4 Section 705.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS EFFECT OF IMPORTED ARTICLES ON THE NATIONAL SECURITY § 705.4...

  12. 15 CFR 705.4 - Criteria for determining effect of imports on the national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... imports on the national security. 705.4 Section 705.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS EFFECT OF IMPORTED ARTICLES ON THE NATIONAL SECURITY § 705.4...

  13. Stability of Large-Scale Oceanic Flows and the Importance of Non-Local Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    2009-09 DOCTORAL DISSERTATION by Hristina G. Hristova June 2009 Stability of Large -Scale Oceanic Flows and the Importance of Non-Local Effects MIT...MITIWHOI 2009-09 Stability of Large -Scale Oceanic Flows and the Importance of Non-Local Effects by Hristina G. Hristova Massachusetts Institute of...part is permitted for any purpose of the United States Government. This thesis should be cited as: Hristina G. Hristova, 2009. Stability of Large -Scale

  14. A full Bayes before-after study accounting for temporal and spatial effects: Evaluating the safety impact of new signal installations.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Emanuele; Sayed, Tarek; El-Basyouny, Karim

    2016-09-01

    Recently, important advances in road safety statistics have been brought about by methods able to address issues other than the choice of the best error structure for modeling crash data. In particular, accounting for spatial and temporal interdependence, i.e., the notion that the collision occurrence of a site or unit times depend on those of others, has become an important issue that needs further research. Overall, autoregressive models can be used for this purpose as they can specify that the output variable depends on its own previous values and on a stochastic term. Spatial effects have been investigated and applied mostly in the context of developing safety performance functions (SPFs) to relate crash occurrence to highway characteristics. Hence, there is a need for studies that attempt to estimate the effectiveness of safety countermeasures by including the spatial interdependence of road sites within the context of an observational before-after (BA) study. Moreover, the combination of temporal dynamics and spatial effects on crash frequency has not been explored in depth for SPF development. Therefore, the main goal of this research was to carry out a BA study accounting for spatial effects and temporal dynamics in evaluating the effectiveness of a road safety treatment. The countermeasure analyzed was the installation of traffic signals at unsignalized urban/suburban intersections in British Columbia (Canada). The full Bayes approach was selected as the statistical framework to develop the models. The results demonstrated that zone variation was a major component of total crash variability and that spatial effects were alleviated by clustering intersections together. Finally, the methodology used also allowed estimation of the treatment's effectiveness in the form of crash modification factors and functions with time trends.

  15. Bad-good constraints on a polarity correspondence account for the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) and markedness association of response codes (MARC) effects.

    PubMed

    Leth-Steensen, Craig; Citta, Richie

    2016-01-01

    Performance in numerical classification tasks involving either parity or magnitude judgements is quicker when small numbers are mapped onto a left-sided response and large numbers onto a right-sided response than for the opposite mapping (i.e., the spatial-numerical association of response codes or SNARC effect). Recent research by Gevers et al. [Gevers, W., Santens, S., Dhooge, E., Chen, Q., Van den Bossche, L., Fias, W., & Verguts, T. (2010). Verbal-spatial and visuospatial coding of number-space interactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 139, 180-190] suggests that this effect also arises for vocal "left" and "right" responding, indicating that verbal-spatial coding has a role to play in determining it. Another presumably verbal-based, spatial-numerical mapping phenomenon is the linguistic markedness association of response codes (MARC) effect whereby responding in parity tasks is quicker when odd numbers are mapped onto left-sided responses and even numbers onto right-sided responses. A recent account of both the SNARC and MARC effects is based on the polarity correspondence principle [Proctor, R. W., & Cho, Y. S. (2006). Polarity correspondence: A general principle for performance of speeded binary classification tasks. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 416-442]. This account assumes that stimulus and response alternatives are coded along any number of dimensions in terms of - and + polarities with quicker responding when the polarity codes for the stimulus and the response correspond. In the present study, even-odd parity judgements were made using either "left" and "right" or "bad" and "good" vocal responses. Results indicated that a SNARC effect was indeed present for the former type of vocal responding, providing further evidence for the sufficiency of the verbal-spatial coding account for this effect. However, the decided lack of an analogous SNARC-like effect in the results for the latter type of vocal responding provides an important

  16. A Comparison of Four Approaches to Account for Method Effects in Latent State-Trait Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Christian; Lockhart, Ginger

    2012-01-01

    Latent state-trait (LST) analysis is frequently applied in psychological research to determine the degree to which observed scores reflect stable person-specific effects, effects of situations and/or person-situation interactions, and random measurement error. Most LST applications use multiple repeatedly measured observed variables as indicators…

  17. Testing Probability Matching and Episodic Retrieval Accounts of Response Repetition Effects in Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Erik M.

    2011-01-01

    This study takes inventory of available evidence on response repetition (RR) effects in task switching, in particular the evidence for RR cost when the task switches. The review reveals that relatively few task-switching studies in which RR effects were addressed have shown statistical support for RR cost, and that almost all are affected by 1 of…

  18. Auditioning the distinctiveness account: Expanding the production effect to the auditory modality reveals the superiority of writing over vocalising.

    PubMed

    Mama, Yaniv; Icht, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The production effect (PE) documents the advantage in memory performance for words that are read aloud during study, rather than words that are read silently. Until now, the PE was examined in the visual modality, as the participants read the study words. In the present study, we extended the PE phenomenon and used the auditory modality at study. This novel methodology provides a critical test of the distinctiveness account. Accordingly, the participants heard the study words and learned them by vocal production (saying aloud) or by writing, followed by a free recall test. The use of the auditory modality yielded a memory advantage for words that were written during study over words that were vocally produced. We explain this result in light of the encoding distinctiveness account, suggesting that the PE is determined by the number of different encoding processes involved in learning, emphasising the essential role of active production.

  19. Situational Force Scoring: Accounting for Combined Arms Effects in Aggregate Combat Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Army War College Model, Historical Evaluation and Research Organization (HERO), November 1982. -21- and Monti Callero . An important alternative approach...i ii l .... .... .. .. . ... • • •,, o , •,: , o •. .. : -.. . ............. .. . . . . 4-d, ,,i , b .:h l•. i...Slift" •[)’• II.-•DA$1-....... .... O ’ . .l .... ......... l .. . . .. t ieY 5•$6.6-11 Iaq -s# w D 1-LO01 i op Fig. D.4--Surviving Armor and Infantry

  20. Importance of calcium in the inotropic effect of hyperosomotic agents, norepinephrine, paired electrical stimulation, and treppe.

    PubMed

    Willerson, J T; Crie, J S; Adcock, R C; Templeton, G H; Wildenthal, K

    1975-01-01

    The data obtained from these studies demonstrate that the inotropic effect of hyperosmolar mannitol and sucrose and of paired electrical stimulation is critically influenced by extracellular calcium concentration. The inotropic effect of norepinephrine is not prevented by maximal functional extracellular calcium concentrations. Inhibition of systolic calcium flux at the cell membrane by D600 does not prevent the inotropic effect of hyperosmolar mannitol or of paired electrical stimulation but it does prevent the inotropic effect of hyperosmolar intropic effect of treppe. Thus, intracellular calcium regulation appears to be of major importance in the inotropic effect in isolated cardiac muscle of mannitol and paired pacing while systolic calcium flux at the cell membrane appears to be of major importance in the inotropic effect of treppe.

  1. Appraisal and coping styles account for the effects of temperament on preadolescent adjustment.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephanie F; Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J

    2014-06-01

    Temperament, appraisal, and coping are known to underlie emotion regulation, yet less is known about how these processes relate to each other across time. We examined temperamental fear, frustration, effortful control, and impulsivity, positive and threat appraisals, and active and avoidant coping as processes underpinning the emotion regulation of pre-adolescent children managing stressful events. Appraisal and coping styles were tested as mediators of the longitudinal effects of temperamental emotionality and self-regulation on adjustment using a community sample (N=316) of preadolescent children (8-12 years at T1) studied across one year. High threat appraisals were concurrently related to high fear and impulsivity, whereas effortful control predicted relative decreases in threat appraisal. High fear was concurrently related to high positive appraisal, and impulsivity predicted increases in positive appraisal. Fear was concurrently related to greater avoidant coping, and impulsivity predicted increases in avoidance. Frustration predicted decreases in active coping. These findings suggest temperament, or dispositional aspects of reactivity and regulation, relates to concurrent appraisal and coping processes and additionally predicts change in these processes. Significant indirect effects indicated that appraisal and coping mediated the effects of temperament on adjustment. Threat appraisal mediated the effects of fear and effortful control on internalizing and externalizing problems, and avoidant coping mediated the effect of impulsivity on internalizing problems. These mediated effects suggest that one pathway through which temperament influences adjustment is pre-adolescents' appraisal and coping. Findings highlight temperament, appraisal and coping as emotion regulation processes relevant to children's adjustment in response to stress.

  2. Accounting for the drug life cycle and future drug prices in cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Economic evaluations of health technologies typically assume constant real drug prices and model only the cohort of patients currently eligible for treatment. It has recently been suggested that, in the UK, we should assume that real drug prices decrease at 4% per annum and, in New Zealand, that real drug prices decrease at 2% per annum and at patent expiry the drug price falls. It has also recently been suggested that we should model multiple future incident cohorts. In this article, the cost effectiveness of drugs is modelled based on these ideas. Algebraic expressions are developed to capture all costs and benefits over the entire life cycle of a new drug. The lifetime of a new drug in the UK, a key model parameter, is estimated as 33 years, based on the historical lifetime of drugs in England over the last 27 years. Under the proposed methodology, cost effectiveness is calculated for seven new drugs recently appraised in the UK. Cost effectiveness as assessed in the future is also estimated. Whilst the article is framed in mathematics, the findings and recommendations are also explained in non-mathematical language. The 'life-cycle correction factor' is introduced, which is used to convert estimates of cost effectiveness as traditionally calculated into estimates under the proposed methodology. Under the proposed methodology, all seven drugs appear far more cost effective in the UK than published. For example, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio decreases by 46%, from £61, 900 to £33, 500 per QALY, for cinacalcet versus best supportive care for end-stage renal disease, and by 45%, from £31,100 to £17,000 per QALY, for imatinib versus interferon-α for chronic myeloid leukaemia. Assuming real drug prices decrease over time, the chance that a drug is publicly funded increases over time, and is greater when modelling multiple cohorts than with a single cohort. Using the methodology (compared with traditional methodology) all drugs in the UK and New

  3. Calculation of NMR chemical shifts in organic solids: accounting for motional effects.

    PubMed

    Dumez, Jean-Nicolas; Pickard, Chris J

    2009-03-14

    NMR chemical shifts were calculated from first principles for well defined crystalline organic solids. These density functional theory calculations were carried out within the plane-wave pseudopotential framework, in which truly extended systems are implicitly considered. The influence of motional effects was assessed by averaging over vibrational modes or over snapshots taken from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. It is observed that the zero-point correction to chemical shifts can be significant, and that thermal effects are particularly noticeable for shielding anisotropies and for a temperature-dependent chemical shift. This study provides insight into the development of highly accurate first principles calculations of chemical shifts in solids, highlighting the role of motional effects on well defined systems.

  4. Appraisal and coping styles account for the effects of temperament on preadolescent adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Stephanie F.; Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.

    2014-01-01

    Temperament, appraisal, and coping are known to underlie emotion regulation, yet less is known about how these processes relate to each other across time. We examined temperamental fear, frustration, effortful control, and impulsivity, positive and threat appraisals, and active and avoidant coping as processes underpinning the emotion regulation of pre-adolescent children managing stressful events. Appraisal and coping styles were tested as mediators of the longitudinal effects of temperamental emotionality and self-regulation on adjustment using a community sample (N=316) of preadolescent children (8–12 years at T1) studied across one year. High threat appraisals were concurrently related to high fear and impulsivity, whereas effortful control predicted relative decreases in threat appraisal. High fear was concurrently related to high positive appraisal, and impulsivity predicted increases in positive appraisal. Fear was concurrently related to greater avoidant coping, and impulsivity predicted increases in avoidance. Frustration predicted decreases in active coping. These findings suggest temperament, or dispositional aspects of reactivity and regulation, relates to concurrent appraisal and coping processes and additionally predicts change in these processes. Significant indirect effects indicated that appraisal and coping mediated the effects of temperament on adjustment. Threat appraisal mediated the effects of fear and effortful control on internalizing and externalizing problems, and avoidant coping mediated the effect of impulsivity on internalizing problems. These mediated effects suggest that one pathway through which temperament influences adjustment is pre-adolescents’ appraisal and coping. Findings highlight temperament, appraisal and coping as emotion regulation processes relevant to children’s adjustment in response to stress. PMID:25821237

  5. Effect of combined motor and spatial cues on mathematical reasoning: a polarity correspondence account.

    PubMed

    Verselder, Hélène; Freddi, Sébastien; Dru, Vincent

    2016-08-27

    We examined whether combined motor or spatial polarities could influence accuracy in two mathematical operations. Four experiments were conducted and showed that, when two corresponding polarities were activated, accuracy in multiplicative operations was greater than when non-corresponding polarities were activated, whereas no effect was found for additive operations. These results were established with motor cues (Left/Right and Arm Extension/Flexion, as behavioral approach-avoidance tendencies) and perceptual spatial cues (Left/Right and DOWN/UP cues). A polarity correspondence effect was established and proposed for multiplication. A combination of polarities was associated with a corresponding combination of numerical digits, assessed with mathematical operations, such as multiplication.

  6. Does HPA-Axis Dysregulation Account for the Effects of Income on Effortful Control and Adjustment in Preschool Children?

    PubMed Central

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen; Fisher, Phil; Moran, Lyndsey

    2014-01-01

    The effects of low income on children's adjustment might be accounted for by disruptions to hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and to the development of effortful control. Using longitudinal data and a community sample of preschool-age children (N = 306, 36–39 months) and their mothers, recruited to over-represent low-income families, we explored the associations among diurnal cortisol levels and effortful control, and we tested a model in which diurnal cortisol and effortful control account for the effects of family income on child adjustment. Continuous indicators of morning cortisol level and diurnal slope, as well as dichotomous indicators reflecting low morning levels and flat diurnal slope, were examined as predictors of rank-order changes in two dimensions of effortful control, executive control and delay ability. Low income was related to a flat diurnal cortisol slope, and above the effects of family income, a flat diurnal cortisol slope predicted lower social competence. Low morning cortisol level predicted smaller gains in executive control and higher total adjustment problems. Further, delay ability predicted lower adjustment problems above the effects of income and diurnal cortisol levels. The results suggest that HPA-axis dysregulation and effortful control contribute additively to children's adjustment. PMID:25414597

  7. Does HPA-Axis Dysregulation Account for the Effects of Income on Effortful Control and Adjustment in Preschool Children?

    PubMed

    Lengua, Liliana J; Zalewski, Maureen; Fisher, Phil; Moran, Lyndsey

    2013-09-01

    The effects of low income on children's adjustment might be accounted for by disruptions to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and to the development of effortful control. Using longitudinal data and a community sample of preschool-age children (N = 306, 36-39 months) and their mothers, recruited to over-represent low-income families, we explored the associations among diurnal cortisol levels and effortful control, and we tested a model in which diurnal cortisol and effortful control account for the effects of family income on child adjustment. Continuous indicators of morning cortisol level and diurnal slope, as well as dichotomous indicators reflecting low morning levels and flat diurnal slope, were examined as predictors of rank-order changes in two dimensions of effortful control, executive control and delay ability. Low income was related to a flat diurnal cortisol slope, and above the effects of family income, a flat diurnal cortisol slope predicted lower social competence. Low morning cortisol level predicted smaller gains in executive control and higher total adjustment problems. Further, delay ability predicted lower adjustment problems above the effects of income and diurnal cortisol levels. The results suggest that HPA-axis dysregulation and effortful control contribute additively to children's adjustment.

  8. The Effects of Closed-Loop Medical Devices on the Autonomy and Accountability of Persons and Systems.

    PubMed

    Kellmeyer, Philipp; Cochrane, Thomas; Müller, Oliver; Mitchell, Christine; Ball, Tonio; Fins, Joseph J; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2016-10-01

    Closed-loop medical devices such as brain-computer interfaces are an emerging and rapidly advancing neurotechnology. The target patients for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are often severely paralyzed, and thus particularly vulnerable in terms of personal autonomy, decisionmaking capacity, and agency. Here we analyze the effects of closed-loop medical devices on the autonomy and accountability of both persons (as patients or research participants) and neurotechnological closed-loop medical systems. We show that although BCIs can strengthen patient autonomy by preserving or restoring communicative abilities and/or motor control, closed-loop devices may also create challenges for moral and legal accountability. We advocate the development of a comprehensive ethical and legal framework to address the challenges of emerging closed-loop neurotechnologies like BCIs and stress the centrality of informed consent and refusal as a means to foster accountability. We propose the creation of an international neuroethics task force with members from medical neuroscience, neuroengineering, computer science, medical law, and medical ethics, as well as representatives of patient advocacy groups and the public.

  9. Analysis of bistability in molecular J aggregates under their resonant optical excitation taking into account multiparticle effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterov, L. A.; Fedorov, S. V.; Rosanov, N. N.; Levinsky, B. N.; Fainberg, B. D.

    2013-10-01

    Using a model of a homogeneous chain of molecules, we have analyzed bistability in resonantly excited J aggregates taking into account three-particle contributions to the exciton-exciton annihilation. These contributions, which have an interference nature, have previously been calculated in a work by B.N. Levinsky, L.A. Nesterov, B.D. Fainberg, and N.N. Rosanov (Opt. Spectrosc. 115 (3), 406 (2013)) in the course of derivation of equations of motion for J aggregates from first principles. Factorization of expectation values that correspond to these contributions leads to a closed system of equations in which not only pair, but also triple, interactions between molecules of the chain are taken into account. Numerical calculations have been performed, and their results have been compared with those obtained in calculations without taking into account three-particle contributions. We have shown that, on the whole, the inclusion of three-particle interference contributions in equations of motion leads to a restriction of the domain of existence of hysteresis. This, in turn, makes it possible to more reliably single out a real range of parameters in which nonlinear optical effects can considerably manifest themselves.

  10. Accounting for baryonic effects in cosmic shear tomography: determining a minimal set of nuisance parameters using PCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eifler, Tim; Krause, Elisabeth; Dodelson, Scott; Zentner, Andrew R.; Hearin, Andrew P.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2015-12-01

    Systematic uncertainties that have been subdominant in past large-scale structure (LSS) surveys are likely to exceed statistical uncertainties of current and future LSS data sets, potentially limiting the extraction of cosmological information. Here we present a general framework (Principal Component Analysis - PCA - marginalization) to consistently incorporate systematic effects into a likelihood analysis. This technique naturally accounts for degeneracies between nuisance parameters and can substantially reduce the dimension of the parameter space that needs to be sampled. As a practical application, we apply PCA marginalization to account for baryonic physics as an uncertainty in cosmic shear tomography. Specifically, we use COSMOLIKE to run simulated likelihood analyses on three independent sets of numerical simulations, each covering a wide range of baryonic scenarios differing in cooling, star formation, and feedback mechanisms. We simulate a Stage III (Dark Energy Survey) and Stage IV (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope/Euclid) survey and find a substantial bias in cosmological constraints if baryonic physics is not accounted for. We then show that PCA marginalization (employing at most three to four nuisance parameters) removes this bias. Our study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain robust, precise constraints on the dark energy equation of state even in the presence of large levels of systematic uncertainty in astrophysical processes. We conclude that the PCA marginalization technique is a powerful, general tool for addressing many of the challenges facing the precision cosmology programme.

  11. Accounting for baryonic effects in cosmic shear tomography: Determining a minimal set of nuisance parameters using PCA

    SciTech Connect

    Eifler, Tim; Krause, Elisabeth; Dodelson, Scott; Zentner, Andrew; Hearin, Andrew; Gnedin, Nickolay

    2014-05-28

    Systematic uncertainties that have been subdominant in past large-scale structure (LSS) surveys are likely to exceed statistical uncertainties of current and future LSS data sets, potentially limiting the extraction of cosmological information. Here we present a general framework (PCA marginalization) to consistently incorporate systematic effects into a likelihood analysis. This technique naturally accounts for degeneracies between nuisance parameters and can substantially reduce the dimension of the parameter space that needs to be sampled. As a practical application, we apply PCA marginalization to account for baryonic physics as an uncertainty in cosmic shear tomography. Specifically, we use CosmoLike to run simulated likelihood analyses on three independent sets of numerical simulations, each covering a wide range of baryonic scenarios differing in cooling, star formation, and feedback mechanisms. We simulate a Stage III (Dark Energy Survey) and Stage IV (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope/Euclid) survey and find a substantial bias in cosmological constraints if baryonic physics is not accounted for. We then show that PCA marginalization (employing at most 3 to 4 nuisance parameters) removes this bias. Our study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain robust, precise constraints on the dark energy equation of state even in the presence of large levels of systematic uncertainty in astrophysical processes. We conclude that the PCA marginalization technique is a powerful, general tool for addressing many of the challenges facing the precision cosmology program.

  12. International Comparisons of School Effectiveness: The Second Component of the "Crisis Account" in England?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    International comparisons of school effectiveness and outcomes have been used to suggest that British schools are underperforming and British students are underachieving, a view that permeated official publications in the 1990s. A review of some international studies and the difficulties of making international comparisons reveals no evidence of…

  13. A Closer Look at Public Higher Education in South Carolina: Institutional Effectiveness, Accountability, and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, Columbia.

    This publication examines data reported annually by South Carolina's public institutions of higher education as part of institutional effectiveness reporting. Data are displayed on the 33 public institutions of higher education within groupings of institutions. The 11 sections highlight various aspects of higher education: (1) "Mission…

  14. A Closer Look at Public Higher Education in South Carolina: Institutional Effectiveness, Accountability, and Performance, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Garrison

    2009-01-01

    This report provides an annual overview of data reported by South Carolina's public institutions of higher education as part of institutional effectiveness reporting and as part of the process of performance funding. Prior to the January 2000 edition, this document was entitled "Minding Our P's and Q's: Indications of Productivity and Quality…

  15. The Relationship between Student Transfers and District Academic Performance: Accounting for Feedback Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsch, David M.; Zimmer, David M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws attention to a subtle, but concerning, empirical challenge common in panel data models that seek to estimate the relationship between student transfers and district academic performance. Specifically, if such models have a dynamic element, and if the estimator controls for unobserved traits by including district-level effects,…

  16. Accounting for spatial effects in land use regression for urban air pollution modeling.

    PubMed

    Bertazzon, Stefania; Johnson, Markey; Eccles, Kristin; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2015-01-01

    In order to accurately assess air pollution risks, health studies require spatially resolved pollution concentrations. Land-use regression (LUR) models estimate ambient concentrations at a fine spatial scale. However, spatial effects such as spatial non-stationarity and spatial autocorrelation can reduce the accuracy of LUR estimates by increasing regression errors and uncertainty; and statistical methods for resolving these effects--e.g., spatially autoregressive (SAR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models--may be difficult to apply simultaneously. We used an alternate approach to address spatial non-stationarity and spatial autocorrelation in LUR models for nitrogen dioxide. Traditional models were re-specified to include a variable capturing wind speed and direction, and re-fit as GWR models. Mean R(2) values for the resulting GWR-wind models (summer: 0.86, winter: 0.73) showed a 10-20% improvement over traditional LUR models. GWR-wind models effectively addressed both spatial effects and produced meaningful predictive models. These results suggest a useful method for improving spatially explicit models.

  17. Accounting for Beneficial Effects of Worked Examples in Tutored Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salden, Ron J. C. M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Renkl, Alexander; Aleven, Vincent; McLaren, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have tested the addition of worked examples to tutored problem solving, a more effective instructional approach than the untutored problem solving used in prior worked example research. These studies involved Cognitive Tutors, software designed to support problem solving while minimizing extraneous cognitive load by providing…

  18. From Sunshine to Double Arrows: An Evaluation Window Account of Negative Compatibility Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Dittrich, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    In category priming, target stimuli are to be sorted into 2 categories. Prime stimuli preceding targets typically facilitate processing of targets when primes and targets are members of the same category, relative to the case in which both stem from different categories, a positive compatibility effect (PCE). But negative compatibility effects…

  19. The Effect of School Inputs on Labor Market Returns that Account for Selective Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHenry, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I estimate the effect of state school inputs on labor market returns to schooling. The method follows Card and Krueger (1992) and Heckman et al. (1996), but I extend their analysis in two ways. First, I correct state-level returns to schooling for selective migration, adapting a method from Dahl (2002). Second, I use more recent…

  20. Effects of Discussion Postings on Retention and Success Rates in Community College Introductory Accounting Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Nammy K.

    2012-01-01

    Higher incidence of student under achievements and attrition rate continue to pose significant challenges for the organizational effectiveness of community colleges. Restructuring the classroom at each academic departmental level to better accommodate the needs of the students should be considered by community colleges as part of an institutional…

  1. 3 CFR 13576 - Executive Order 13576 of June 13, 2011. Delivering an Efficient, Effective, and Accountable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Executive Order 13576 of June 13, 2011. Delivering... Executive Orders Executive Order 13576 of June 13, 2011 EO 13576 Delivering an Efficient, Effective, and... technologies and approaches for preventing and identifying fraud and abuse that have the potential to...

  2. The Importance of Being First: Exploring Priority and Diversity Effects in a Grassland Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Weidlich, Emanuela W. A.; von Gillhaussen, Philipp; Delory, Benjamin M.; Blossfeld, Stephan; Poorter, Hendrik; Temperton, Vicky M.

    2017-01-01

    Diversity of species and order of arrival can have strong effects on ecosystem functioning and community composition, but these two have rarely been explicitly combined in experimental setups. We measured the effects of both species diversity and order of arrival on ecosystem function and community composition in a grassland field experiment, thus combining biodiversity and assembly approaches. We studied the effect of order of arrival of three plant functional groups (PFGs: grasses, legumes, and non-leguminous forbs) and of sowing low and high diversity seed mixtures (9 or 21 species) on species composition and aboveground biomass. The experiment was set up in two different soil types. Differences in PFG order of arrival affected the biomass, the number of species and community composition. As expected, we found higher aboveground biomass when sowing legumes before the other PFGs, but this effect was not continuous over time. We did not find a positive effect of sown diversity on aboveground biomass (even if it influenced species richness as expected). No interaction were found between the two studied factors. We found that sowing legumes first may be a good method for increasing productivity whilst maintaining diversity of central European grasslands, although the potential for long-lasting effects needs further study. In addition, the mechanisms behind the non-continuous priority effects we found need to be further researched, taking weather and plant-soil feedbacks into account. PMID:28119707

  3. The Importance of Being First: Exploring Priority and Diversity Effects in a Grassland Field Experiment.

    PubMed

    Weidlich, Emanuela W A; von Gillhaussen, Philipp; Delory, Benjamin M; Blossfeld, Stephan; Poorter, Hendrik; Temperton, Vicky M

    2016-01-01

    Diversity of species and order of arrival can have strong effects on ecosystem functioning and community composition, but these two have rarely been explicitly combined in experimental setups. We measured the effects of both species diversity and order of arrival on ecosystem function and community composition in a grassland field experiment, thus combining biodiversity and assembly approaches. We studied the effect of order of arrival of three plant functional groups (PFGs: grasses, legumes, and non-leguminous forbs) and of sowing low and high diversity seed mixtures (9 or 21 species) on species composition and aboveground biomass. The experiment was set up in two different soil types. Differences in PFG order of arrival affected the biomass, the number of species and community composition. As expected, we found higher aboveground biomass when sowing legumes before the other PFGs, but this effect was not continuous over time. We did not find a positive effect of sown diversity on aboveground biomass (even if it influenced species richness as expected). No interaction were found between the two studied factors. We found that sowing legumes first may be a good method for increasing productivity whilst maintaining diversity of central European grasslands, although the potential for long-lasting effects needs further study. In addition, the mechanisms behind the non-continuous priority effects we found need to be further researched, taking weather and plant-soil feedbacks into account.

  4. Relative importance of grain boundaries and size effects in thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline materials.

    PubMed

    Dong, Huicong; Wen, Bin; Melnik, Roderick

    2014-11-13

    A theoretical model for describing effective thermal conductivity (ETC) of nanocrystalline materials has been proposed, so that the ETC can be easily obtained from its grain size, single crystal thermal conductivity, single crystal phonon mean free path (PMFP), and the Kaptiza thermal resistance. In addition, the relative importance between grain boundaries (GBs) and size effects on the ETC of nanocrystalline diamond at 300 K has been studied. It has been demonstrated that with increasing grain size, both GBs and size effects become weaker, while size effects become stronger on thermal conductivity than GBs effects.

  5. Risk-based maintenance modeling. Prioritization of maintenance importances and quantification of maintenance effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Vesely, W.E.; Rezos, J.T.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes methods for prioritizing the risk importances of maintenances using a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). Approaches then are described for quantifying their reliability and risk effects. Two different PRA importance measures, minimal cutset importances and risk reduction importances, were used to prioritize maintenances; the findings show that both give similar results if appropriate criteria are used. The justifications for the particular importance measures also are developed. The methods developed to quantify the reliability and risk effects of maintenance actions are extensions of the usual reliability models now used in PRAs. These extended models consider degraded states of the component, and quantify the benefits of maintenance in correcting degradations and preventing failures. The negative effects of maintenance, including downtimes, also are included. These models are specific types of Markov models. The data for these models can be obtained from plant maintenance logs and from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS). To explore the potential usefulness of these models, the authors analyzed a range of postulated values of input data. These models were used to examine maintenance effects on a components reliability and performance for various maintenance programs and component data. Maintenance schedules were analyzed to optimize the component`s availability. In specific cases, the effects of maintenance were found to be large.

  6. Crash Simulation of Roll Formed Parts by Damage Modelling Taking Into Account Preforming Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Till, Edwin T.; Hackl, Benjamin; Schauer, Hermann

    2011-08-01

    Complex phase steels of strength levels up to 1200 MPa are suitable to roll forming. These may be applied in automotive structures for enhancing the crashworthiness, e. g. as stiffeners in doors. Even though the strain hardening of the material is low there is considerable bending formability. However ductility decreases with the strength level. Higher strength requires more focus to the structural integrity of the part during the process planning stage and with respect to the crash behavior. Nowadays numerical simulation is used as a process design tool for roll-forming in a production environment. The assessment of the stability of a roll forming process is quite challenging for AHSS grades. There are two objectives of the present work. First to provide a reliable assessment tool to the roll forming analyst for failure prediction. Second to establish simulation procedures in order to predict the part's behavior in crash applications taking into account damage and failure. Today adequate ductile fracture models are available which can be used in forming and crash applications. These continuum models are based on failure strain curves or surfaces which depend on the stress triaxiality (e. g. Crach or GISSMO) and may additionally include the Lode angle (extended Mohr Coulomb or extended GISSMO model). A challenging task is to obtain the respective failure strain curves. In the paper the procedure is described in detail how these failure strain curves are obtained using small scale tests within voestalpine Stahl, notch tensile-, bulge and shear tests. It is shown that capturing the surface strains is not sufficient for obtaining reliable material failure parameters. The simulation tool for roll-forming at the site of voestalpine Krems is Copra® FEA RF, which is a 3D continuum finite element solver based on MSC.Marc. The simulation environment for crash applications is LS-DYNA. Shell elements are used for this type of analyses. A major task is to provide results of

  7. The effects of drugs on human models of emotional processing: an account of antidepressant drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Abbie; Harmer, Catherine J

    2015-12-01

    Human models of emotional processing suggest that the direct effect of successful antidepressant drug treatment may be to modify biases in the processing of emotional information. Negative biases in emotional processing are documented in depression, and single or short-term dosing with conventional antidepressant drugs reverses these biases in depressed patients prior to any subjective change in mood. Antidepressant drug treatments also modulate emotional processing in healthy volunteers, which allows the consideration of the psychological effects of these drugs without the confound of changes in mood. As such, human models of emotional processing may prove to be useful for testing the efficacy of novel treatments and for matching treatments to individual patients or subgroups of patients.

  8. Effective Transport Properties Accounting for Electrochemical Reactions of Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Catalyst Layers

    SciTech Connect

    Pharoah, Jon; Choi, Hae-Won; Chueh, Chih-Che; Harvey, David

    2011-07-01

    There has been a rapidly growing interest in three-dimensional micro-structural reconstruction of fuel cell electrodes so as to derive more accurate descriptors of the pertinent geometric and effective transport properties. Due to the limited accessibility of experiments based reconstruction techniques, such as dual-beam focused ion beam-scanning electro microscopy or micro X-Ray computed tomography, within sample micro-structures of the catalyst layers in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), a particle based numerical model is used in this study to reconstruct sample microstructure of the catalyst layers in PEMFCs. Then the reconstructed sample structure is converted into the computational grid using body-fitted/cut-cell based unstructured meshing technique. Finally, finite volume methods (FVM) are applied to calculate effective properties on computational sample domains.

  9. The effects of drugs on human models of emotional processing: an account of antidepressant drug treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pringle, Abbie; Harmer, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Human models of emotional processing suggest that the direct effect of successful antidepressant drug treatment may be to modify biases in the processing of emotional information. Negative biases in emotional processing are documented in depression, and single or short-term dosing with conventional antidepressant drugs reverses these biases in depressed patients prior to any subjective change in mood. Antidepressant drug treatments also modulate emotional processing in healthy volunteers, which allows the consideration of the psychological effects of these drugs without the confound of changes in mood. As such, human models of emotional processing may prove to be useful for testing the efficacy of novel treatments and for matching treatments to individual patients or subgroups of patients. PMID:26869848

  10. Re-Examining Gravitational Tunneling Radiation when taking into account Quantum Gravity Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, John; Prescott, Trevor; Blado, Gardo

    2015-03-01

    Although shown to theoretically exist, Hawking Radiation has yet to be detected. The paper entitled ``Gravitational Tunneling Radiation'' by Mario Rabinowitz proposed a possible explanation by considering the gravitational tunneling effects in the presence of other bodies in the vicinity of the black hole. Rabinowitz showed that the power radiated (through gravitational radiation) by a black hole,PR, is related to the power generated by Hawking Radiation, PSH by PR/T ~PSH where T is the gravitational tunneling probability. The presence of other bodies lowers the gravitational barrier which in turn increases the gravitational tunneling probability thereby decreasing the Hawking radiation, PSH. In this paper, we examine the modification of T in the presence of quantum gravity effects by incorporating the Generalized Uncertainty Principle.

  11. Enacting multiple methamphetamines: the ontological politics of public discourse and consumer accounts of a drug and its effects.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Robyn; Moore, David

    2013-05-01

    Over the last decade in Australia, methamphetamine has come to be seen as a significant issue for drug research, policy and practice. Concerns have been expressed over its potency, the increasing prevalence of its use and its potential for producing greater levels, and more severe forms, of harm compared to amphetamine or other drugs. In this article, we critically examine some of the ways in which methamphetamine and its effects are produced and reproduced within and through Australian public discourse, focusing in particular on the associations made between methamphetamine and psychosis. We show how public discourse enacts methamphetamine as an anterior, stable, singular and definite object routinely linked to the severe psychological 'harm' of psychosis. We contrast the enactment of methamphetamine within public discourse with how methamphetamine is enacted by consumers of the drug. In their accounts, consumers perform different methamphetamine objects and offer different interpretations of the relationships of these objects to psychological problems and of the ontological nature (i.e. relating to what is real, what is, what exists) of these problems. In examining public discourse and consumer accounts, we challenge conventional ontological understandings of methamphetamine as anterior, singular, stable and definite, and of its psychological effects as indicative of pathology. In line with recent critical social research on drugs, we draw on social studies of science and technology that focus on the performativity of scientific knowledge and material practices. We suggest that recognising the ontological contingency, and therefore the multiplicity, of methamphetamine offers a critical counterpoint to conventional research, policy and practice accounts of methamphetamine and its psychological effects.

  12. Its preferential interactions with biopolymers account for diverse observed effects of trehalose.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jiang; Gierasch, Lila M; Liu, Zhicheng

    2015-07-07

    Biopolymer homeostasis underlies the health of organisms, and protective osmolytes have emerged as one strategy used by Nature to preserve biopolymer homeostasis. However, a great deal remains unknown about the mechanism of action of osmolytes. Trehalose, as a prominent example, stabilizes proteins against denaturation by extreme temperature and denaturants, preserves membrane integrity upon freezing or in dry conditions, inhibits polyQ-mediated protein aggregation, and suppresses the aggregation of denatured proteins. The underlying thermodynamic mechanisms of such diverse effects of trehalose remain unclear or controversial. In this study, we applied the surface-additive method developed in the Record laboratory to attack this issue. We characterized the key features of trehalose-biopolymer preferential interactions and found that trehalose has strong unfavorable interactions with aliphatic carbon and significant favorable interactions with amide/anionic oxygen. This dissection has allowed us to elucidate the diverse effects of trehalose and to identify the crucial functional group(s) responsible for its effects. With (semi)quantitative thermodynamic analysis, we discovered that 1) the unfavorable interaction of trehalose with hydrophobic surfaces is the dominant factor in its effect on protein stability, 2) the favorable interaction of trehalose with polar amides enables it to inhibit polyQ-mediated protein aggregation and the aggregation of denatured protein in general, and 3) the favorable interaction of trehalose with phosphate oxygens, together with its unfavorable interaction with aliphatic carbons, enables trehalose to preserve membrane integrity in aqueous solution. These results provide a basis for a full understanding of the role of trehalose in biopolymer homeostasis and the reason behind its evolutionary selection as an osmolyte, as well as for a better application of trehalose as a chemical chaperone.

  13. Interaction of two neighboring laser beams taking into account the effects of plasma hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Hueller, S.; Mounaix, P.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.; Pesme, D.

    1997-07-01

    The interaction between two neighboring laser beams focused in a hot underdense homogeneous plasma is investigated using the non-paraxial wave coupling code KOLIBRI [S. H{umlt u}ller {ital et al.}, Phys. Scr. {bold T63}, 151 (1996)] in two and three spatial dimensions. Both the plasma hydrodynamic evolution and the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) aspects are studied in the case of strongly damped ion sound waves. The hydrodynamic effects consist in ponderomotively driven density perturbations located between the beams which may, in turn, influence strongly the light propagation through the plasma. The two beams are found to merge whenever the distance between them is smaller than or of the order of their diameter. Concerning the SBS aspect, it is found that due to interference effects between the beams, the spatial amplification of the backscattered light is asymmetric with respect to the laser axis. SBS can also enforce the hydrodynamic effects and the beam merging. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Effective Boolean dynamics analysis to identify functionally important genes in large-scale signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Hung-Cuong; Kwon, Yung-Keun

    2015-11-01

    Efficiently identifying functionally important genes in order to understand the minimal requirements of normal cellular development is challenging. To this end, a variety of structural measures have been proposed and their effectiveness has been investigated in recent literature; however, few studies have shown the effectiveness of dynamics-based measures. This led us to investigate a dynamic measure to identify functionally important genes, and the effectiveness of which was verified through application on two large-scale human signaling networks. We specifically consider Boolean sensitivity-based dynamics against an update-rule perturbation (BSU) as a dynamic measure. Through investigations on two large-scale human signaling networks, we found that genes with relatively high BSU values show slower evolutionary rate and higher proportions of essential genes and drug targets than other genes. Gene-ontology analysis showed clear differences between the former and latter groups of genes. Furthermore, we compare the identification accuracies of essential genes and drug targets via BSU and five well-known structural measures. Although BSU did not always show the best performance, it effectively identified the putative set of genes, which is significantly different from the results obtained via the structural measures. Most interestingly, BSU showed the highest synergy effect in identifying the functionally important genes in conjunction with other measures. Our results imply that Boolean-sensitive dynamics can be used as a measure to effectively identify functionally important genes in signaling networks.

  15. Behavioral momentum theory fails to account for the effects of reinforcement rate on resurgence.

    PubMed

    Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A

    2016-05-01

    The behavioral-momentum model of resurgence predicts reinforcer rates within a resurgence preparation should have three effects on target behavior. First, higher reinforcer rates in baseline (Phase 1) produce more persistent target behavior during extinction plus alternative reinforcement. Second, higher rate alternative reinforcement during Phase 2 generates greater disruption of target responding during extinction. Finally, higher rates of either reinforcement source should produce greater responding when alternative reinforcement is suspended in Phase 3. Recent empirical reports have produced mixed results in terms of these predictions. Thus, the present experiment further examined reinforcer-rate effects on persistence and resurgence. Rats pressed target levers for high-rate or low-rate variable-interval food during Phase 1. In Phase 2, target-lever pressing was extinguished, an alternative nose-poke became available, and nose-poking produced either high-rate variable-interval, low-rate variable-interval, or no (an extinction control) alternative reinforcement. Alternative reinforcement was suspended in Phase 3. For groups that received no alternative reinforcement, target-lever pressing was less persistent following high-rate than low-rate Phase-1 reinforcement. Target behavior was more persistent with low-rate alternative reinforcement than with high-rate alternative reinforcement or extinction alone. Finally, no differences in Phase-3 responding were observed for groups that received either high-rate or low-rate alternative reinforcement, and resurgence occurred only following high-rate alternative reinforcement. These findings are inconsistent with the momentum-based model of resurgence. We conclude this model mischaracterizes the effects of reinforcer rates on persistence and resurgence of operant behavior.

  16. The Effect of Suffering on Generativity: Accounts of Elderly African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Background This article focuses on attitudes to and behaviors of generativity in 6 older African American (AA) men. Methods Data on generativity emerged from in-depth qualitative research that explored experiences of suffering in community-dwelling persons aged 80 years and over. Results For these AA men, experiences of racism were salient in stories of suffering, and suffering was intricately related to attitudes and behaviors of generativity. We placed men's narratives, showing the link between suffering and generativity, in 3 categories: Generativity is rooted in (a) suffering and in empathy for suffering others, (b) experiences of redemption from suffering, and (c) religious belief that assuages suffering. Conclusions These AA men's generative behaviors were shaped by unique life experiences, including experiences of suffering. Bequeathing a legacy to succeeding generations was tied to suffering experiences, to the personal and communal identities that emerged from suffering, to the importance of inter- and intragenerational community, and to what men believed others needed from them. PMID:19182225

  17. Control of automatic processes: A parallel distributed-processing account of the Stroop effect. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.D.; Dunbar, K.; McClelland, J.L.

    1989-11-22

    A growing body of evidence suggests that traditional views of automaticity are in need of revision. For example, automaticity has often been treated as an all-or-none phenomenon, and traditional theories have held that automatic processes are independent of attention. Yet recent empirical data suggest that automatic processes are continuous, and furthermore are subject to attentional control. In this paper we present a model of attention which addresses these issues. Using a parallel distributed processing framework we propose that the attributes of automaticity depend upon the strength of a processing pathway and that strength increases with training. Using the Stroop effect as an example, we show how automatic processes are continuous and emerge gradually with practice. Specifically, we present a computational model of the Stroop task which simulates the time course of processing as well as the effects of learning. This was accomplished by combining the cascade mechanism described by McClelland (1979) with the back propagation learning algorithm (Rumelhart, Hinton, Williams, 1986). The model is able to simulate performance in the standard Stroop task, as well as aspects of performance in variants of this task which manipulate SOA, response set, and degree of practice. In the discussion we contrast our model with other models, and indicate how it relates to many of the central issues in the literature on attention, automaticity, and interference.

  18. Accounting for nonmonotonic precursor duration effects with gain reduction in the temporal window modela

    PubMed Central

    Roverud, Elin; Strickland, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of forward masking are not clearly understood. The temporal window model (TWM) proposes that masking occurs via a neural mechanism that integrates within a temporal window. The medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR), a sound-evoked reflex that reduces cochlear amplifier gain, may also contribute to forward masking if the preceding sound reduces gain for the signal. Psychophysical evidence of gain reduction can be observed using a growth of masking (GOM) paradigm with an off-frequency forward masker and a precursor. The basilar membrane input/output (I/O) function is estimated from the GOM function, and the I/O function gain is reduced by the precursor. In this study, the effect of precursor duration on this gain reduction effect was examined for on- and off-frequency precursors. With on-frequency precursors, thresholds increased with increasing precursor duration, then decreased (rolled over) for longer durations. Thresholds with off-frequency precursors continued to increase with increasing precursor duration. These results are not consistent with solely neural masking, but may reflect gain reduction that selectively affects on-frequency stimuli. The TWM was modified to include history-dependent gain reduction to simulate the MOCR, called the temporal window model-gain reduction (TWM-GR). The TWM-GR predicted rollover and the differences with on- and off-frequency precursors whereas the TWM did not. PMID:24606271

  19. An Intersensory Interaction Account of Priming Effects-and Their Absence.

    PubMed

    Klatzky, Roberta L; Creswell, J David

    2014-01-01

    Psychological researchers have found that exposures to stimuli (primes) can subsequently influence people's behavior by pathways that would seem to be quite remote. For example, people exposed to words associated with older adults may walk more slowly. Recently priming studies, particularly those showing dramatic effects on social behavior, have been under scrutiny because of the unreliability of empirical results. In this article, we shed light on the issue by describing a general model of intersensory interaction, in which two or more sources of information provide an estimate or "bid" on a property of the world, with the perceptual outcome being a weighted combination of the bids. When it is extended by adding bids that stem from memory or inference, the model identifies systematic factors that might undermine priming, including random variation in estimates, contextual influences on memory retrieval and inference, competition among information sources, and cognitive control. These factors are not only explanatory but are predictive of when priming effects can be expected. Our hope is that by promoting the understanding of underlying processes that may explain how primes can influence behavior, the bidding model and the general approach that it represents offer novel insights into the hotly debated area of priming research.

  20. Effects of state-level firearm seller accountability policies on firearm trafficking.

    PubMed

    Webster, Daniel W; Vernick, Jon S; Bulzacchelli, Maria T

    2009-07-01

    Criminals illegally obtaining firearms represent a great risk to many urban residents. This cross-sectional study of 54 US cities uses data on state laws governing gun sales, a survey of law enforcement agencies' practices to promote compliance with gun sales laws, and crime gun trace data to examine associations between these policies and practices with gun trafficking indicators. Higher levels of local gun ownership were linked with greater intrastate gun trafficking. Regression models estimate that comprehensive regulation and oversight of gun dealers and state regulation of private sales of handguns were each associated with significantly lower levels of intrastate gun trafficking. Discretionary permit-to-purchase licensing laws' negative association with intrastate trafficking disappeared when local gun ownership is controlled. The effects of these relatively restrictive gun purchase laws on trafficking may be mediated by the laws' lowering of gun ownership. Relatively low prevalence of gun ownership may also be a prerequisite for passage of discretionary purchase. We observed no effect on intrastate trafficking of laws limiting handgun sales to a maximum of one per person per month.

  1. Cognitive levels of performance account for hemispheric lateralisation effects in dyslexic and normally reading children.

    PubMed

    Heim, Stefan; Grande, Marion; Meffert, Elisabeth; Eickhoff, Simon B; Schreiber, Helen; Kukolja, Juraj; Shah, Nadim Jon; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

    2010-12-01

    Recent theories of developmental dyslexia explain reading deficits in terms of deficient phonological awareness, attention, visual and auditory processing, or automaticity. Since dyslexia has a neurobiological basis, the question arises how the reader's proficiency in these cognitive variables affects the brain regions involved in visual word recognition. This question was addressed in two fMRI experiments with 19 normally reading children (Experiment 1) and 19 children with dyslexia (Experiment 2). First, reading-specific brain activation was assessed by contrasting the BOLD signal for reading aloud words vs. overtly naming pictures of real objects. Next, ANCOVAs with brain activation during reading the individuals' scores for all five cognitive variables assessed outside the scanner as covariates were performed. Whereas the normal readers' brain activation during reading showed co-variation effects predominantly in the right hemisphere, the reverse pattern was observed for the dyslexics. In particular, middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal cortex, and precuneus showed contralateral effects for controls as compared to dyslexics. In line with earlier findings in the literature, these data hint at a global change in hemispheric asymmetry during cognitive processing in dyslexic readers, which, in turn, might affect reading proficiency.

  2. Effects of past and recent blood pressure and cholesterol level on coronary heart disease and stroke mortality, accounting for measurement error.

    PubMed

    Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Lanti, Mariapaola; Menotti, Alessandro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Tolonen, Hanna; Nissinen, Aulikki; Nedeljkovic, Srecko; Kafatos, Anthony; Kromhout, Daan

    2007-02-15

    The authors aimed to quantify the effects of current systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum total cholesterol on the risk of mortality in comparison with SBP or serum cholesterol 25 years previously, taking measurement error into account. The authors reanalyzed 35-year follow-up data on mortality due to coronary heart disease and stroke among subjects aged 65 years or more from nine cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. The two-step method of Tsiatis et al. (J Am Stat Assoc 1995;90:27-37) was used to adjust for regression dilution bias, and results were compared with those obtained using more commonly applied methods of adjustment for regression dilution bias. It was found that the commonly used univariate adjustment for regression dilution bias overestimates the effects of both SBP and cholesterol compared with multivariate methods. Also, the two-step method makes better use of the information available, resulting in smaller confidence intervals. Results comparing recent and past exposure indicated that past SBP is more important than recent SBP in terms of its effect on coronary heart disease mortality, while both recent and past values seem to be important for effects of cholesterol on coronary heart disease mortality and effects of SBP on stroke mortality. Associations between serum cholesterol concentration and risk of stroke mortality are weak.

  3. Can Aerosol Direct Radiative Effects Account for Analysis Increments of Temperature in the Tropical Atlantic?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    da Silva, Arlindo M.; Alpert, Pinhas

    2016-01-01

    In the late 1990's, prior to the launch of the Terra satellite, atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) did not include aerosol processes because aerosols were not properly monitored on a global scale and their spatial distributions were not known well enough for their incorporation in operational GCMs. At the time of the first GEOS Reanalysis (Schubert et al. 1993), long time series of analysis increments (the corrections to the atmospheric state by all available meteorological observations) became readily available, enabling detailed analysis of the GEOS-1 errors on a global scale. Such analysis revealed that temperature biases were particularly pronounced in the Tropical Atlantic region, with patterns depicting a remarkable similarity to dust plumes emanating from the African continent as evidenced by TOMS aerosol index maps. Yoram Kaufman was instrumental encouraging us to pursue this issue further, resulting in the study reported in Alpert et al. (1998) where we attempted to assess aerosol forcing by studying the errors of a the GEOS-1 GCM without aerosol physics within a data assimilation system. Based on this analysis, Alpert et al. (1998) put forward that dust aerosols are an important source of inaccuracies in numerical weather-prediction models in the Tropical Atlantic region, although a direct verification of this hypothesis was not possible back then. Nearly 20 years later, numerical prediction models have increased in resolution and complexity of physical parameterizations, including the representation of aerosols and their interactions with the circulation. Moreover, with the advent of NASA's EOS program and subsequent satellites, atmospheric aerosols are now monitored globally on a routine basis, and their assimilation in global models are becoming well established. In this talk we will reexamine the Alpert et al. (1998) hypothesis using the most recent version of the GEOS-5 Data Assimilation System with assimilation of aerosols. We will

  4. Explicit accounting of electronic effects on the Hugoniot of porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Bishnupriya; Menon, S. V. G.

    2016-03-01

    A generalized enthalpy based equation of state, which includes thermal electron excitations explicitly, is formulated from simple considerations. Its application to obtain Hugoniot of materials needs simultaneous evaluation of pressure-volume curve and temperature, the latter requiring solution of a differential equation. The errors involved in two recent papers [Huayun et al., J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5917 (2002); 92, 5924 (2002)], which employed this approach, are brought out and discussed. In addition to developing the correct set of equations, the present work also provides a numerical method to implement this approach. Constant pressure specific heat of ions and electrons and ionic enthalpy parameter, needed for applications, are calculated using a three component equation of state. The method is applied to porous Cu with different initial porosities. Comparison of results with experimental data shows good agreement. It is found that temperatures along the Hugoniot of porous materials are significantly modified due to electronic effects.

  5. Effects of spatial configurations on visual change detection: an account of bias changes.

    PubMed

    Boduroglu, Aysecan; Shah, Priti

    2009-12-01

    In order to determine whether people encode spatial configuration information when encoding visual displays, in four experiments, we investigated whether changes in task-irrelevant spatial configuration information would influence color change detection accuracy. In a change detection task, when objects in the test display were presented in new random locations, rather than identical or different locations preserving the overall configuration, participants were more likely to report that the colors had changed. This consistent bias across four experiments suggested that people encode task-irrelevant spatial configuration along with object information. Experiment 4 also demonstrated that only a low-false-alarm group of participants effectively bound spatial configuration information to object information, suggesting that these types of binding processes are open to strategic influences.

  6. Accounting for the effect of TDS and NCG on Salton Sea reservoir response

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Steven J.

    1992-01-01

    The Salton Sea reservoir, located in Imperial County, Ca., is unique in several ways from most liquid-dominated geothermal reservoirs that have been developed to date. One of these differences is the presence of hyper-saline brines containing up to 28% TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) and up to 0.2% NCG (Non-Condensible Gas). A simple material and energy balance model has been developed to study the effect of TDS and NCG on Salton Sea reservoir response. This study demonstrated that during the development of a two-phase system the partitioning of the NCG into the vapor phase and the consequential concentration of the TDS in the brine drastically alters the reservoir fluid properties. In modeling pressure depletion of hyper-saline reservoirs, such as the Salton Sea, these changes in reservoir fluid composition were shown to seriously affect the simulation results. As a result of these findings, a compositional fluid property package was developed using published data on H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}-NaCl mixtures. This fluid property package was then incorporated into the simulation program used by Unocal. Validation of the fluid property package in this simulation program was made using measured reservoir temperature, surface enthalpy, and surface flash data. The development of a compositional simulation program for geothermal applications has advanced our ability to study depletion mechanisms that are sensitive to compositional changes. This program is currently being used to study the effect of injection and steam cap development on long term operations and to develop a field model of the Salton Sea reservoir.

  7. Response function theories that account for size distribution effects - A review. [mathematical models concerning composite propellant heterogeneity effects on combustion instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents theoretical models developed to account for the heterogeneity of composite propellants in expressing the pressure-coupled combustion response function. It is noted that the model of Lengelle and Williams (1968) furnishes a viable basis to explain the effects of heterogeneity.

  8. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  9. Accounting for a mirror-image conformation as a subtle effect in protein folding

    PubMed Central

    Kachlishvili, Khatuna; Maisuradze, Gia G.; Martin, Osvaldo A.; Liwo, Adam; Vila, Jorge A.; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2014-01-01

    By using local (free-energy profiles along the amino acid sequence and 13Cα chemical shifts) and global (principal component) analyses to examine the molecular dynamics of protein-folding trajectories, generated with the coarse-grained united-residue force field, for the B domain of staphylococcal protein A, we are able to (i) provide the main reason for formation of the mirror-image conformation of this protein, namely, a slow formation of the second loop and part of the third helix (Asp29–Asn35), caused by the presence of multiple local conformational states in this portion of the protein; (ii) show that formation of the mirror-image topology is a subtle effect resulting from local interactions; (iii) provide a mechanism for how protein A overcomes the barrier between the metastable mirror-image state and the native state; and (iv) offer a plausible reason to explain why protein A does not remain in the metastable mirror-image state even though the mirror-image and native conformations are at least energetically compatible. PMID:24912167

  10. Propagation Effects of Importance to the NASA/JPL Deep Space Network (DSN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slobin, Steve

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents Propagation Effects of Importance To The NASA/JPL Deep Space Network (DSN). The topics include: 1) DSN Antennas; 2) Deep Space Telecom Link Basics; 3) DSN Propagation Region of Interest; 4) Ka-Band Weather Effects Models and Examples; 5) Existing Goldstone Ka-Band Atmosphere Attenuation Model; 6) Existing Goldstone Atmosphere Noise Temperature Model; and 7) Ka-Band delta (G/T) Relative to Vacuum Condition. This paper summarizes the topics above.

  11. A Selective Account of Effective Paradigms and Significant Outcomes in the Discovery of Inspirational Marine Natural Products⊥†

    PubMed Central

    Sashidhara, Koneni V.; White, Kimberly N.; Crews, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Marine natural products continue to be a source of significant molecular structures that serve as a stimulus to seed further significant research. This account reviews some of the major advances in the study of marine biomolecules made at UC Santa Cruz over more than three decades. The continuing challenge of discovery and characterization of what we term “inspirational molecular structures”, will be presented in a comprehensive fashion. Examples of privileged molecular structures and their impact on biomedicinal research will be an important theme. The three major groups of organisms explored include: seaweeds, sponges, and marine derived fungi, and the study of their active principles has greatly benefited from synergistic collaborations with both academic and biopharmaceutical groups. The concluding sections of this chronicle will touch on prospects for future outcomes involving new sources and strategies. PMID:19209899

  12. Nitrogen deposition mediates the effects and importance of chance in changing biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ximei; Liu, Wei; Bai, Yongfei; Zhang, Guangming; Han, Xingguo

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen deposition is changing biodiversity on Earth. We need to understand the underlying mechanisms to conserve biodiversity better. Both selection and chance are potential mechanisms, and they may operate concurrently. Then, what are the respective effects of selection and chance, what is their relative importance and how do they change with increasing nitrogen deposition rate? Here, we performed a 6-year nitrogen addition experiment (0-28 g N/m(2) /year) in a typical steppe ecosystem of Inner Mongolia to investigate the community structure of plants, bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA). We developed an experimentally based calculation method to first separate the structural variations between plots into the effects of selection (S) and chance (C), and then calculate their relative importance. Our results showed that as nitrogen addition rate increased, S for both plants and bacteria increased, but C for plants first increased and then decreased, and C for bacteria also increased; meanwhile, both S and C for AOA changed nonlinearly. As nitrogen addition rate increased, the importance of chance decreased on the whole for all these communities, but it decreased nonlinearly for plants and bacteria, with a local increase at certain intermediate rates. At all treatments, the importance of chance was <0.5 for plants, but >0.5 for AOA. These results demonstrated that nitrogen deposition changed biodiversity by mediating the effects and importance of chance, implicating different strategies should be adopted in conserving biodiversity according to nitrogen deposition rate and community properties.

  13. Assessing and accounting for the effects of model error in Bayesian solutions to hydrogeophysical inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepke, C.; Irving, J.; Roubinet, D.

    2014-12-01

    Geophysical methods have gained much interest in hydrology over the past two decades because of their ability to provide estimates of the spatial distribution of subsurface properties at a scale that is often relevant to key hydrological processes. Because of an increased desire to quantify uncertainty in hydrological predictions, many hydrogeophysical inverse problems have recently been posed within a Bayesian framework, such that estimates of hydrological properties and their corresponding uncertainties can be obtained. With the Bayesian approach, it is often necessary to make significant approximations to the associated hydrological and geophysical forward models such that stochastic sampling from the posterior distribution, for example using Markov-chain-Monte-Carlo (MCMC) methods, is computationally feasible. These approximations lead to model structural errors, which, so far, have not been properly treated in hydrogeophysical inverse problems. Here, we study the inverse problem of estimating unsaturated hydraulic properties, namely the van Genuchten-Mualem (VGM) parameters, in a layered subsurface from time-lapse, zero-offset-profile (ZOP) ground penetrating radar (GPR) data, collected over the course of an infiltration experiment. In particular, we investigate the effects of assumptions made for computational tractability of the stochastic inversion on model prediction errors as a function of depth and time. These assumptions are that (i) infiltration is purely vertical and can be modeled by the 1D Richards equation, and (ii) the petrophysical relationship between water content and relative dielectric permittivity is known. Results indicate that model errors for this problem are far from Gaussian and independently identically distributed, which has been the common assumption in previous efforts in this domain. In order to develop a more appropriate likelihood formulation, we use (i) a stochastic description of the model error that is obtained through

  14. `Effective' collisions in weakly magnetized collisionless plasma: importance of Pitaevski's effect for magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev M.; Artemyev, Anton V.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we revisit the paradigm of space science turbulent dissipation traditionally considered as myth (Coroniti, Space Sci. Rev., vol. 42, 1985, pp. 399-410). We demonstrate that due to approach introduced by Pitaevskii (Sov. J. Expl Theor. Phys., vol. 44, 1963, pp. 969-979 (in Russian)) (the effect of a finite Larmor radius on a classical collision integral) dissipation induced by effective interaction with microturbulence produces a significant effect on plasma dynamics, especially in the vicinity of the reconnection region. We estimate the multiplication factor of collision frequency in the collision integral for short wavelength perturbations. For waves propagating transverse to the background magnetic field, this factor is approximately ρekx)2 an electron gyroradius and where kx a transverse wavenumber. We consider recent spacecraft observations in the Earth's magnetotail reconnection region to the estimate possible impact of this multiplication factor. For small-scale reconnection regions this factor can significantly increase the effective collision frequency produced both by lower-hybrid drift turbulence and by kinetic Alfvén waves. We discuss the possibility that the Pitaevskii's effect may be responsible for the excitation of a resistive electron tearing mode in thin current sheets formed in the outflow region of the primary X-line.

  15. Child Health in Peru: Importance of Regional Variation and Community Effects on Children's Height and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Heeju

    2007-01-01

    In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the…

  16. The Effects of Media Reports on Disease Spread and Important Public Health Measurements.

    PubMed

    Collinson, Shannon; Khan, Kamran; Heffernan, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the spread of influenza to reduce the effects of infection on a population is an important mandate of public health. Mass media reports on an epidemic or pandemic can provide important information to the public, and in turn, can induce positive healthy behaviour practices (i.e., handwashing, social distancing) in the individuals, that will reduce the probability of contracting the disease. Mass media fatigue, however, can dampen these effects. Mathematical models can be used to study the effects of mass media reports on epidemic/pandemic outcomes. In this study we employ a stochastic agent based model to provide a quantification of mass media reports on the variability in important public health measurements. We also include mass media report data compiled by the Global Public Health Intelligence Network, to study the effects of mass media reports in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We find that the report rate and the rate at which individuals relax their healthy behaviours (media fatigue) greatly affect the variability in important public health measurements. When the mass media reporting data is included in the model, two peaks of infection result.

  17. The Effects of Media Reports on Disease Spread and Important Public Health Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Collinson, Shannon; Khan, Kamran; Heffernan, Jane M.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the spread of influenza to reduce the effects of infection on a population is an important mandate of public health. Mass media reports on an epidemic or pandemic can provide important information to the public, and in turn, can induce positive healthy behaviour practices (i.e., handwashing, social distancing) in the individuals, that will reduce the probability of contracting the disease. Mass media fatigue, however, can dampen these effects. Mathematical models can be used to study the effects of mass media reports on epidemic/pandemic outcomes. In this study we employ a stochastic agent based model to provide a quantification of mass media reports on the variability in important public health measurements. We also include mass media report data compiled by the Global Public Health Intelligence Network, to study the effects of mass media reports in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We find that the report rate and the rate at which individuals relax their healthy behaviours (media fatigue) greatly affect the variability in important public health measurements. When the mass media reporting data is included in the model, two peaks of infection result. PMID:26528909

  18. 77 FR 14568 - Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... COMMISSION Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain.... ACTION: Notice of opportunity to provide written comments in connection with the Commission's third..., including deadlines for filing written submissions, in connection with the preparation of its third...

  19. 78 FR 16297 - Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... COMMISSION Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain... Commission. ACTION: Notice of opportunity to provide written comments in connection with the Commission's... schedule, including deadlines for filing written submissions, in connection with the preparation of...

  20. 31 CFR 545.510 - Importation of household and personal effects authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation of household and personal effects authorized. 545.510 Section 545.510 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN...

  1. 31 CFR 537.514 - Importation of certain personal and household effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation of certain personal and household effects. 537.514 Section 537.514 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE...

  2. The Internet's effect on personality traits: An important casualty of the "Internet addiction" paradigm.

    PubMed

    Aboujaoude, Elias

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims The "Internet addiction" paradigm has been criticized for several shortcomings, including inattention to specific online behaviors, not distinguishing the Internet from other media, insufficient focus on comorbidities, and definitions that do not take into account the constant access now possible. The paradigm's biggest casualty, however, may be that it has diverted attention away from subtle personality changes that seem to occur online, including in users who cannot be considered "addicted" under any definition. Methods A narrative assessment of the literature was conducted, focusing on the Internet's effects on personality traits as revealed in studies of Internet users. Results Impulsivity, narcissism, and aggression are some of the personality traits that seem to be nurtured by the Internet, with possible negative offline consequences. Discussion Ignoring the Internet's subtle effects on personality as we embrace an addiction model that implies severe pathology makes the majority of Internet users feel deceptively immune to the psychological effects of new technologies. It also limits our understanding of the big cultural shifts that are happening as a result. Conclusion The Internet's potentially negative effect on personality, and by extension on society at large, is a fundamental part of online psychology, one well worthy of further investigation.

  3. Life-Cycle Costing of Food Waste Management in Denmark: Importance of Indirect Effects.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Tonini, Davide; Møller, Flemming; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-04-19

    Prevention has been suggested as the preferred food waste management solution compared to alternatives such as conversion to animal fodder or to energy. In this study we used societal life-cycle costing, as a welfare economic assessment, and environmental life-cycle costing, as a financial assessment combined with life-cycle assessment, to evaluate food waste management. Both life-cycle costing assessments included direct and indirect effects. The latter are related to income effects, accounting for the marginal consumption induced when alternative scenarios lead to different household expenses, and the land-use-changes effect, associated with food production. The results highlighted that prevention, while providing the highest welfare gains as more services/goods could be consumed with the same income, could also incur the highest environmental impacts if the monetary savings from unpurchased food commodities were spent on goods/services with a more environmentally damaging production than that of the (prevented) food. This was not the case when savings were used, e.g., for health care, education, and insurances. This study demonstrates that income effects, although uncertain, should be included whenever alternative scenarios incur different financial costs. Furthermore, it highlights that food prevention measures should not only demote the purchase of unconsumed food but also promote a low-impact use of the savings generated.

  4. The effect of glyphosate on import into a sink leaf of sugar beet

    SciTech Connect

    Shieh, Wenjang; Geiger, D.R. )

    1990-05-01

    The basis for glyphosate inducted limitation of carbon import into developing leaves was studied in sugar beet. To separate the effects of the herbicide on export from those on import, glyphosate was supplied to a developing leaf from two exporting source leaves which fed the sink leaf. Carbon import into the sink leaf was determined by supplying {sup 14}CO{sub 2} to a third source leaf which also supplies carbon to the monitored sink leaf. Import into the sink leaf decreased within 2 to 3 h after glyphosate application, even though photosynthesis and export in the source leaf supplying {sup 14}C were unaffected. Reduced import into the sink leaf was accompanied by increased import by the tap root. Elongation of the sink leaf was only slightly decreased following arrival of glyphosate. Photosynthesis by the sink leaf was not inhibited. The results to data support the view that import is slowed by the inhibition of synthesis of structural or storage compounds in the developing leaves.

  5. Trust-Building in Electronic Markets: Relative Importance and Interaction Effects of Trust-Building Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tams, Stefan

    We examine the relative and complementary effectiveness of trust-building strategies in online environments. While prior research has examined various antecedents to trust, we investigated two trust-building mechanisms more in depth: Web site trust and vendor reputation. We tried to understand the relative effectiveness of these two important mechanisms to provide online businesses with a clear recommendation of how to establish trust in an effective and efficient manner. Drawing from the literature on trust, we proposed vendor reputation to be more effective than Web site trust. Moreover, we examined a potential complementary effect of these mechanisms so as to provide online businesses with a deeper understanding of how to derive superior trust. We hypothesize a small such effect. The study proposes a laboratory experiment to test the model.

  6. Solving Accounting Problems: Differences between Accounting Experts and Novices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, P. Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Performance of 90 accounting experts (faculty and practitioners) and 60 novices (senior accounting majors) was compared. Experts applied more accounting principles to solving problems. There were no differences in types of principles applied and no correlation between (1) principles applied and number of breadth comments or (2) importance placed…

  7. Estimating the effective nitrogen import: An example for the North Sea-Baltic Sea boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radtke, H.; Maar, M.

    2016-10-01

    Semienclosed water bodies such as the Baltic Sea are prone to eutrophication problems. If local nutrient abatement measures are taken to tackle these problems, their success may be limited if a strong nutrient exchange with the adjacent waters exists. The quantification of this exchange is therefore essential to estimate its impact on the ecosystem status. At the example of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, we illustrate that neither gross transports nor net transports of nutrients have a strong informative value in this context. Instead, we define an "effective import" as the import of nutrients which have not been inside the Baltic Sea before and estimate it in an ecological model with a nutrient-tagging technique. This effective import of bioreactive nitrogen from the Skagerrak to the Kattegat amounts to 103 kt/yr; from Kattegat to Belt Sea it is 54 kt/yr. The nitrogen exchange is therefore 30% stronger than other estimates, e.g., based on import in the deep water, suggest. An isolated view on the Baltic Sea and the North Sea in terms of eutrophication, as it is practiced in management today, is therefore questionable. Nitrogen imported from the North Sea typically spreads eastward up to the Bornholm Basin but can be transported into the deep waters of the Gotland Basin during Major Baltic Inflows in a significant amount.

  8. Landscape of fear influences the relative importance of consumptive and nonconsumptive predator effects.

    PubMed

    Matassa, Catherine M; Trussell, Geoffrey C

    2011-12-01

    Predators can initiate trophic cascades by consuming and/or scaring their prey. Although both forms of predator effect can increase the overall abundance of prey's resources, nonconsumptive effects may be more important to the spatial and temporal distribution of resources because predation risk often determines where and when prey choose to forage. Our experiment characterized temporal and spatial variation in the strength of consumptive and nonconsumptive predator effects in a rocky intertidal food chain consisting of the predatory green crab (Carcinus maenas), an intermediate consumer (the dogwhelk, Nucella lapillus), and barnacles (Semibalanus balanoides) as a resource. We tracked the survival of individual barnacles through time to map the strength of predator effects in experimental communities. These maps revealed striking spatiotemporal patterns in Nucella foraging behavior in response to each predator effect. However, only the nonconsumptive effect of green crabs produced strong spatial patterns in barnacle survivorship. Predation risk may play a pivotal role in determining the small-scale distribution patterns of this important rocky intertidal foundation species. We suggest that the effects of predation risk on individual foraging behavior may scale up to shape community structure and dynamics at a landscape level.

  9. The Effects of the 150-Credit-Hour Requirement for the Certified Public Accountant (CPA) Exam On the Career Intentions of Women and Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierstaker, James Lloyd; Howe, Martha A.; Seol, Inshik

    2005-01-01

    In most states, students who sit for the certified public accountant (CPA) examination are now required to have 150 credit hours of college education. In this article, the authors examined the effects of this requirement on the career intentions of women and minorities. The authors collected data from 600 accounting students and the results…

  10. The effect of the developing role of the maternity support worker on the professional accountability of the midwife.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Catriona J; Marshall, Jayne E

    2011-06-01

    The recent rise in the number of maternity support workers (MSWs) in the United Kingdom (UK) has been welcomed by midwifery managers and supported by social policy surrounding improvements in maternity care. The training and role of the MSW varies considerably. Whilst most training is undertaken through clinical practice, more recent advances in the preparation of MSWs have resulted in them not only being trained to National Vocational Qualification (NVQ) Level 3, but also to foundation certificate or degree level. Consequently some MSWs are performing tasks that would traditionally be undertaken by a midwife, potentially leading to the erosion of the midwife's role in the future. From current evidence, midwives are not fully aware of how the developing role of MSWs may affect their own professional accountability. This paper therefore aims to challenge midwives into reconsidering how MSWs may be effectively incorporated into the midwifery team such that the quality of care is not compromised and the midwife's professional accountability is never put at risk.

  11. Do delivery routes of intranasally administered oxytocin account for observed effects on social cognition and behavior? A two-level model.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Daniel S; Alvares, Gail A; Hickie, Ian B; Guastella, Adam J

    2015-02-01

    Accumulating evidence demonstrates the important role of oxytocin (OT) in the modulation of social cognition and behavior. This has led many to suggest that the intranasal administration of OT may benefit psychiatric disorders characterized by social dysfunction, such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. Here, we review nasal anatomy and OT pathways to central and peripheral destinations, along with the impact of OT delivery to these destinations on social behavior and cognition. The primary goal of this review is to describe how these identified pathways may contribute to mechanisms of OT action on social cognition and behavior (that is, modulation of social information processing, anxiolytic effects, increases in approach-behaviors). We propose a two-level model involving three pathways to account for responses observed in both social cognition and behavior after intranasal OT administration and suggest avenues for future research to advance this research field.

  12. Shared spatial effects on quantitative genetic parameters: accounting for spatial autocorrelation and home range overlap reduces estimates of heritability in wild red deer.

    PubMed

    Stopher, Katie V; Walling, Craig A; Morris, Alison; Guinness, Fiona E; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Pemberton, Josephine M; Nussey, Daniel H

    2012-08-01

    Social structure, limited dispersal, and spatial heterogeneity in resources are ubiquitous in wild vertebrate populations. As a result, relatives share environments as well as genes, and environmental and genetic sources of similarity between individuals are potentially confounded. Quantitative genetic studies in the wild therefore typically account for easily captured shared environmental effects (e.g., parent, nest, or region). Fine-scale spatial effects are likely to be just as important in wild vertebrates, but have been largely ignored. We used data from wild red deer to build "animal models" to estimate additive genetic variance and heritability in four female traits (spring and rut home range size, offspring birth weight, and lifetime breeding success). We then, separately, incorporated spatial autocorrelation and a matrix of home range overlap into these models to estimate the effect of location or shared habitat on phenotypic variation. These terms explained a substantial amount of variation in all traits and their inclusion resulted in reductions in heritability estimates, up to an order of magnitude up for home range size. Our results highlight the potential of multiple covariance matrices to dissect environmental, social, and genetic contributions to phenotypic variation, and the importance of considering fine-scale spatial processes in quantitative genetic studies.

  13. Effects of reducing the deficit with an oil-import tariff

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, R.H.; Dunstan, R.H.

    1985-09-01

    Reducing the federal budget deficit with an oil import tariff would be more detrimental to the economy than would other commonly used tax policies. Although most taxes reduce economic growth by raising prices or lowering income, the magnitudes of the induced distortions are different for different tax policies. Simulations reveal that a broader-based tax that raises identical revenue, such as an income tax surcharge, has smaller adverse effects on GNP and inflation than does an oil import tariff. The simulations also show that an import tariff would provide short-term protection to the energy industry by raising energy prices, but the gains in the energy sector are dwarfed by the losses in the rest of the economy. 12 references, 4 figures.

  14. Whatever Gave You That Idea? False Memories Following Equivalence Training: A Behavioral Account of the Misinformation Effect

    PubMed Central

    Challies, Danna M; Hunt, Maree; Garry, Maryanne; Harper, David N

    2011-01-01

    The misinformation effect is a term used in the cognitive psychological literature to describe both experimental and real-world instances in which misleading information is incorporated into an account of an historical event. In many real-world situations, it is not possible to identify a distinct source of misinformation, and it appears that the witness may have inferred a false memory by integrating information from a variety of sources. In a stimulus equivalence task, a small number of trained relations between some members of a class of arbitrary stimuli result in a large number of untrained, or emergent relations, between all members of the class. Misleading information was introduced into a simple memory task between a learning phase and a recognition test by means of a match-to-sample stimulus equivalence task that included both stimuli from the original learning task and novel stimuli. At the recognition test, participants given equivalence training were more likely to misidentify patterns than those who were not given such training. The misinformation effect was distinct from the effects of prior stimulus exposure, or partial stimulus control. In summary, stimulus equivalence processes may underlie some real-world manifestations of the misinformation effect. PMID:22084495

  15. Unknown age in health disorders: A method to account for its cumulative effect and an application to feline viruses interactions.

    PubMed

    Hellard, Eléonore; Pontier, Dominique; Siberchicot, Aurélie; Sauvage, Frank; Fouchet, David

    2015-06-01

    Parasite interactions have been widely evidenced experimentally but field studies remain rare. Such studies are essential to detect interactions of interest and access (co)infection probabilities but face methodological obstacles. Confounding factors can create statistical associations, i.e. false parasite interactions. Among them, host age is a crucial covariate. It influences host exposition and susceptibility to many infections, and has a mechanical effect, older individuals being more at risk because of a longer exposure time. However, age is difficult to estimate in natural populations. Hence, one should be able to deal at least with its cumulative effect. Using a SI type dynamic model, we showed that the cumulative effect of age can generate false interactions theoretically (deterministic modeling) and with a real dataset of feline viruses (stochastic modeling). The risk to wrongly conclude to an association was maximal when parasites induced long-lasting antibodies and had similar forces of infection. We then proposed a method to correct for this effect (and for other potentially confounding shared risk factors) and made it available in a new R package, Interatrix. We also applied the correction to the feline viruses. It offers a way to account for an often neglected confounding factor and should help identifying parasite interactions in the field, a necessary step towards a better understanding of their mechanisms and consequences.

  16. Analytical modeling of demagnetizing effect in magnetoelectric ferrite/PZT/ferrite trilayers taking into account a mechanical coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyau, V.; Aubert, A.; LoBue, M.; Mazaleyrat, F.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the demagnetizing effect in ferrite/PZT/ferrite magnetoelectric (ME) trilayer composites consisting of commercial PZT discs bonded by epoxy layers to Ni-Co-Zn ferrite discs made by a reactive Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique. ME voltage coefficients (transversal mode) were measured on ferrite/PZT/ferrite trilayer ME samples with different thicknesses or phase volume ratio in order to highlight the influence of the magnetic field penetration governed by these geometrical parameters. Experimental ME coefficients and voltages were compared to analytical calculations using a quasi-static model. Theoretical demagnetizing factors of two magnetic discs that interact together in parallel magnetic structures were derived from an analytical calculation based on a superposition method. These factors were introduced in ME voltage calculations which take account of the demagnetizing effect. To fit the experimental results, a mechanical coupling factor was also introduced in the theoretical formula. This reflects the differential strain that exists in the ferrite and PZT layers due to shear effects near the edge of the ME samples and within the bonding epoxy layers. From this study, an optimization in magnitude of the ME voltage is obtained. Lastly, an analytical calculation of demagnetizing effect was conducted for layered ME composites containing higher numbers of alternated layers (n ≥ 5). The advantage of such a structure is then discussed.

  17. A vine copula mixed effect model for trivariate meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies accounting for disease prevalence.

    PubMed

    Nikoloulopoulos, Aristidis K

    2015-08-11

    A bivariate copula mixed model has been recently proposed to synthesize diagnostic test accuracy studies and it has been shown that it is superior to the standard generalized linear mixed model in this context. Here, we call trivariate vine copulas to extend the bivariate meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies by accounting for disease prevalence. Our vine copula mixed model includes the trivariate generalized linear mixed model as a special case and can also operate on the original scale of sensitivity, specificity, and disease prevalence. Our general methodology is illustrated by re-analyzing the data of two published meta-analyses. Our study suggests that there can be an improvement on trivariate generalized linear mixed model in fit to data and makes the argument for moving to vine copula random effects models especially because of their richness, including reflection asymmetric tail dependence, and computational feasibility despite their three dimensionality.

  18. Possible energy effects of a US ban on Libyan oil imports

    SciTech Connect

    Peach, J.D.

    1982-02-24

    Under current slack market conditions, a ban on trade with Libya is not likely to have a major impact on US oil supplies or prices. Current US oil imports from Libya are small, and oil is readily available from other sources. Libya could experience a temporary loss of oil revenues until it found new customers. Tight market conditions - unlikely in 1982 - would maximize the potential adverse effects on the United States and minimize those on Libya. US oil companies - both those producing and refining Libyan oil - are more likely to feel the adverse effects of a trade ban than the United States as a whole. Although a ban would probably prevent direct imports of Libyan oil from entering the United States, some Libyan oil could still enter the country as products refined elsewhere.

  19. Effective case presentations--an important clinical skill for nurse practitioners.

    PubMed

    Coralli, Connie H

    2006-05-01

    Effective case presentations are an important component of the nurse practitioner's skills, yet very little literature exists to guide the development of this skill, and frequently little priority is given to teaching this skill during the education of the nurse practitioner. This report discusses the importance of effective case presentations, describes the organization of the presentation, and outlines the appropriate information to be included. The main components of a case presentation-introduction, history of the present illness, physical examination, diagnostic studies, differential diagnosis, management, and summary of the case-are discussed in detail. Examples of a formal and an informal case presentation are presented and used to illustrate key points in the text.

  20. STREAM II-V5: REVISION OF STREAM II-V4 TO ACCOUNT FOR THE EFFECTS OF RAINFALL EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.

    2010-02-01

    STREAM II-V4 is the aqueous transport module currently used by the Savannah River Site emergency response Weather Information Display (WIND) system. The transport model of the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) was used by STREAM II to perform contaminant transport calculations. WASP5 is a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) water quality analysis program that simulates contaminant transport and fate through surface water. STREAM II-V4 predicts peak concentration and peak concentration arrival time at downstream locations for releases from the SRS facilities to the Savannah River. The input flows for STREAM II-V4 are derived from the historical flow records measured by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The stream flow for STREAM II-V4 is fixed and the flow only varies with the month in which the releases are taking place. Therefore, the effects of flow surge due to a severe storm are not accounted for by STREAM II-V4. STREAM II-V4 has been revised to account for the effects of a storm event. The steps used in this method are: (1) generate rainfall hyetographs as a function of total rainfall in inches (or millimeters) and rainfall duration in hours; (2) generate watershed runoff flow based on the rainfall hyetographs from step 1; (3) calculate the variation of stream segment volume (cross section) as a function of flow from step 2; (4) implement the results from steps 2 and 3 into the STREAM II model. The revised model (STREAM II-V5) will find the proper stream inlet flow based on the total rainfall and rainfall duration as input by the user. STREAM II-V5 adjusts the stream segment volumes (cross sections) based on the stream inlet flow. The rainfall based stream flow and the adjusted stream segment volumes are then used for contaminant transport calculations.

  1. Theory of end-labeled free-solution electrophoresis: is the end effect important?

    PubMed

    Chubynsky, Mykyta V; Slater, Gary W

    2014-03-01

    In the theory of free-solution electrophoresis of a polyelectrolyte (such as the DNA) conjugated with a "drag-tag," the conjugate is divided into segments of equal hydrodynamic friction and its electrophoretic mobility is calculated as a weighted average of the mobilities of individual segments. If all the weights are assumed equal, then for an electrically neutral drag-tag, the elution time t is predicted to depend linearly on the inverse DNA length 1/M. While it is well-known that the equal-weights assumption is approximate and in reality the weights increase toward the ends, this "end effect" has been assumed to be small, since in experiments the t(1/M) dependence seems to be nearly perfectly linear. We challenge this assumption pointing out that some experimental linear fits do not extrapolate to the free (i.e. untagged) DNA elution time in the limit 1/M→0, indicating nonlinearity outside the fitting range. We show that a theory for a flexible polymer taking the end effect into account produces a nonlinear curve that, however, can be fitted with a straight line over a limited range of 1/M typical of experiments, but with a "wrong" intercept, which explains the experimental results without additional assumptions. We also study the influence of the flexibilities of the charged and neutral parts.

  2. Theoretical investigation of polarization effects in solution: Importance of solvent collective motions

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Tateki

    2015-01-22

    Recent theoretical studies on interesting topics related to polarization effects in solutions are presented. As one of interesting topics, ionic liquids (ILs) solvents are focused on. The collective dynamics of electronic polarizability through interionic dynamics and the effect of polarization in ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF{sub 6}]), are studied with molecular dynamics simulation. Also, the time-dependent polarization effect on the probe betaine dye molecule, pyridinium N-phenoxide, in water is investigated by a time-dependent reference interaction site model self-consistent field (time-dependent RISM-SCF) approach. The importance of considering polarization effects on solution systems related to solvent collective motions is shown.

  3. Theoretical investigation of polarization effects in solution: Importance of solvent collective motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Tateki

    2015-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies on interesting topics related to polarization effects in solutions are presented. As one of interesting topics, ionic liquids (ILs) solvents are focused on. The collective dynamics of electronic polarizability through interionic dynamics and the effect of polarization in ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF6]), are studied with molecular dynamics simulation. Also, the time-dependent polarization effect on the probe betaine dye molecule, pyridinium N-phenoxide, in water is investigated by a time-dependent reference interaction site model self-consistent field (time-dependent RISM-SCF) approach. The importance of considering polarization effects on solution systems related to solvent collective motions is shown.

  4. Reciprocal effects of pesticides and pathogens on amphibian hosts: The importance of exposure order and timing.

    PubMed

    Pochini, Katherine M; Hoverman, Jason T

    2017-02-01

    Ecological communities are increasingly exposed to natural and anthropogenic stressors. While the effects of individual stressors have been broadly investigated, there is growing evidence that multiple stressors are frequently encountered underscoring the need to examine interactive effects. Pesticides and infectious diseases are two common stressors that regularly occur together in nature. Given the documented lethal and sublethal effects of each stressor on individuals, there is the potential for interactive effects that alter disease outcomes and pesticide toxicity. Using larval wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus), we examined the reciprocal interaction between insecticides (carbaryl and thiamethoxam) and the viral pathogen ranavirus by testing whether: (1) prior ranavirus infection influences pesticide toxicity and (2) sublethal pesticide exposure increases susceptibility to and transmission of ranavirus. We found that prior infection with ranavirus increased pesticide toxicity; median lethal concentration (LC50) estimates were reduced by 72 and 55% for carbaryl and thiamethoxam, respectively. Importantly, LC50 estimates were reduced to concentrations found in natural systems. This is the first demonstration that an infection can alter pesticide toxicity. We also found that prior pesticide exposure exacerbated disease-induced mortality by increasing mortality rates, but effects on infection prevalence and transmission of the pathogen were minimal. Collectively, our results underscore the importance of incorporating complexity (i.e. order and timing of exposures) into research examining the interactions between natural and anthropogenic stressors. Given the environmental heterogeneity present in nature, such research will provide a more comprehensive understanding of how stressors affect wildlife.

  5. Accounting 202, 302.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide consists of guidelines for conducting two secondary-level introductory accounting courses. Intended for vocational business education students, the courses are designed to introduce financial principles and practices important to personal and business life, to promote development of clerical and bookkeeping skills sufficient…

  6. Full Accounting for Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Marie-Louise

    1988-01-01

    Given the curriculum's importance in the educational process, curriculum evaluation should be considered as essential as a district financial audit. When Fenwick English conducted a 1979 curriculum audit of Columbus, Ohio, schools, the accounting firm encountered numerous problems concerning development, review, and management practices. Planning…

  7. Accounting for uncertainty in confounder and effect modifier selection when estimating average causal effects in generalized linear models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi; Dominici, Francesca; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Zigler, Corwin Matthew

    2015-09-01

    Confounder selection and adjustment are essential elements of assessing the causal effect of an exposure or treatment in observational studies. Building upon work by Wang et al. (2012, Biometrics 68, 661-671) and Lefebvre et al. (2014, Statistics in Medicine 33, 2797-2813), we propose and evaluate a Bayesian method to estimate average causal effects in studies with a large number of potential confounders, relatively few observations, likely interactions between confounders and the exposure of interest, and uncertainty on which confounders and interaction terms should be included. Our method is applicable across all exposures and outcomes that can be handled through generalized linear models. In this general setting, estimation of the average causal effect is different from estimation of the exposure coefficient in the outcome model due to noncollapsibility. We implement a Bayesian bootstrap procedure to integrate over the distribution of potential confounders and to estimate the causal effect. Our method permits estimation of both the overall population causal effect and effects in specified subpopulations, providing clear characterization of heterogeneous exposure effects that may vary considerably across different covariate profiles. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed method performs well in small sample size situations with 100-150 observations and 50 covariates. The method is applied to data on 15,060 US Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with a malignant brain tumor between 2000 and 2009 to evaluate whether surgery reduces hospital readmissions within 30 days of diagnosis.

  8. Accounting for outcome misclassification in estimates of the effect of occupational asbestos exposure on lung cancer death.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jessie K; Cole, Stephen R; Chu, Haitao; Olshan, Andrew F; Richardson, David B

    2014-03-01

    In studies of the health effects of asbestos, lung cancer death is subject to misclassification. We used modified maximum likelihood to explore the effects of outcome misclassification on the rate ratio of lung cancer death per 100 fiber-years per milliliter of cumulative asbestos exposure in a cohort study of textile workers in Charleston, South Carolina, followed from 1940 to 2001. The standard covariate-adjusted estimate of the rate ratio was 1.94 (95% confidence interval: 1.55, 2.44), and modified maximum likelihood produced similar results when we assumed that the specificity of outcome classification was 0.98. With sensitivity assumed to be 0.80 and specificity assumed to be 0.95, estimated rate ratios were further from the null and less precise (rate ratio = 2.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.59, 2.98). In the present context, standard estimates for the effect of asbestos on lung cancer death were similar to estimates accounting for the limited misclassification. However, sensitivity analysis using modified maximum likelihood was needed to verify the robustness of standard estimates, and this approach will provide unbiased estimates in settings with more misclassification.

  9. Broadband Noise of Fans - With Unsteady Coupling Theory to Account for Rotor and Stator Reflection/Transmission Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B.

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the effects on broadband noise generation of unsteady coupling between a rotor and stator in the fan stage of a turbofan engine. Whereas previous acoustic analyses treated the blade rows as isolated cascades, the present work accounts for reflection and transmission effects at both blade rows by tracking the mode and frequency scattering of pressure and vortical waves. The fan stage is modeled in rectilinear geometry to take advantage of a previously existing unsteady cascade theory for 3D perturbation waves and thereby use a realistic 3D turbulence spectrum. In the analysis, it was found that the set of participating modes divides itself naturally into "independent mode subsets" that couple only among themselves and not to the other such subsets. This principle is the basis for the analysis and considerably reduces computational effort. It also provides a simple, accurate scheme for modal averaging for further efficiency. Computed results for a coupled fan stage are compared with calculations for isolated blade rows. It is found that coupling increases downstream noise by 2 to 4 dB. Upstream noise is lower for isolated cascades and is further reduced by including coupling effects. In comparison with test data, the increase in the upstream/downstream differential indicates that broadband noise from turbulent inflow at the stator dominates downstream noise but is not a significant contributor to upstream noise.

  10. Making Accountability Really Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Lauren B.

    2006-01-01

    Standards-based education has now reached a stage where it is possible to evaluate its overall effectiveness. Several earlier papers in the special issue of "Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice" on "Test Scores and State Accountability" (Volume 24, Number 4) examined specific state policies and their effects on schools…

  11. Why do we yawn? The importance of evidence for specific yawn-induced effects.

    PubMed

    Guggisberg, Adrian G; Mathis, Johannes; Schnider, Armin; Hess, Christian W

    2011-04-01

    Gallup (this issue) believes that our recent review on the function of yawning (Guggisberg et al., 2010) is unbalanced and that it ignores evidence for his thermoregulation hypothesis. Here we address these criticisms and show them to be untenable. While we never claimed that the social hypothesis of yawning has "definite experimental support", we emphasize the importance of experimental evidence for specific effects of yawns when considering why we yawn. The only specific effect of yawning that could be demonstrated so far is its contagiousness in humans, some non-human primates, and possibly dogs, whereas all studies investigating physiological consequences of yawns were unable to observe specific yawn-induced effects in the individual of any species. The argument that from an evolutionary perspective, yawns must have a "primitive" physiological function arises from imprecise reasoning.

  12. [Does the diuretic effect of calcium inhibitors play an important role in the hypertensive efficacy?].

    PubMed

    Maldonado Martin, A; Gil Extremera, B; Rubio Luengo, M A

    1995-04-08

    Calcium ions play an important role in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Calcium antagonists, a group of first line drugs in the treatment of hypertension, reduce the intracellular content of calcium in vascular smooth muscle cells, and decrease the peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure. These drugs differ from other vasodilators in that they also have natriuretic effects; thus they can affect the kidney on three levels: Renal haemodynamics are affected by increased renal blood flow, and increased glomerular filtration rate. Changes in the renin-angiotensin system can decrease aldosterone secretion. Finally, they affect sodium management by acting directly on the renal tubule, increasing sodium excretion and inhibiting tubular reabsorption of this ion. The natriuretic effect of calcium antagonists is independent of the subject's sodium balance. The vasodilating action of these drugs is therefore accompanied by a natriuretic effect that makes satisfactory control of hypertension possible without placing the patient on a low-salt or salt-free diet.

  13. Climatic effects on breeding grounds are more important drivers of breeding phenology in migrant birds than carry-over effects from wintering grounds

    PubMed Central

    Ockendon, Nancy; Leech, Dave; Pearce-Higgins, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance migrants may be particularly vulnerable to climate change on both wintering and breeding grounds. However, the relative importance of climatic variables at different stages of the annual cycle is poorly understood, even in well-studied Palaearctic migrant species. Using a national dataset spanning 46 years, we investigate the impact of wintering ground precipitation and breeding ground temperature on breeding phenology and clutch size of 19 UK migrants. Although both spring temperature and arid zone precipitation were significantly correlated with laying date, the former accounted for 3.5 times more inter-annual variation. Neither climate variable strongly affected clutch size. Thus, although carry-over effects had some impact, they were weaker drivers of reproductive traits than conditions on the breeding grounds. PMID:24196517

  14. Climatic effects on breeding grounds are more important drivers of breeding phenology in migrant birds than carry-over effects from wintering grounds.

    PubMed

    Ockendon, Nancy; Leech, Dave; Pearce-Higgins, James W

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance migrants may be particularly vulnerable to climate change on both wintering and breeding grounds. However, the relative importance of climatic variables at different stages of the annual cycle is poorly understood, even in well-studied Palaearctic migrant species. Using a national dataset spanning 46 years, we investigate the impact of wintering ground precipitation and breeding ground temperature on breeding phenology and clutch size of 19 UK migrants. Although both spring temperature and arid zone precipitation were significantly correlated with laying date, the former accounted for 3.5 times more inter-annual variation. Neither climate variable strongly affected clutch size. Thus, although carry-over effects had some impact, they were weaker drivers of reproductive traits than conditions on the breeding grounds.

  15. Physiological Roles and Adverse Effects of the Two Cystine Importers of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Chonoles Imlay, Karin R.; Korshunov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT When cystine is added to Escherichia coli, the bacterium becomes remarkably sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. This effect is due to enlarged intracellular pools of cysteine, which can drive Fenton chemistry. Genetic analysis linked the sensitivity to YdjN, a secondary transporter that along with the FliY-YecSC ABC system is responsible for cystine uptake. FliY-YecSC has a nanomolar Km and is essential for import of trace cystine, whereas YdjN has a micromolar Km and is the predominant importer when cystine is more abundant. Oddly, both systems are strongly induced by the CysB response to sulfur scarcity. The FliY-YecSC system can import a variety of biomolecules, including diaminopimelate; it is therefore vulnerable to competitive inhibition, presumably warranting YdjN induction under low-sulfur conditions. But the consequence is that if micromolar cystine then becomes available, the abundant YdjN massively overimports it, at >30 times the total sulfur demand of the cell. The imported cystine is rapidly reduced to cysteine in a glutathione-dependent process. This action avoids the hazard of disulfide stress, but it precludes feedback inhibition of YdjN by cystine. We conjecture that YdjN possesses no cysteine allosteric site because the isostructural amino acid serine might inappropriately bind in its place. Instead, the cell partially resolves the overaccumulation of cysteine by immediately excreting it, completing a futile import/reduction/export cycle that consumes a large amount of cellular energy. These unique, wasteful, and dangerous features of cystine metabolism are reproduced by other bacteria. We propose to rename ydjN as tcyP and fliY-yecSC as tcyJLN. IMPORTANCE In general, intracellular metabolite pools are kept at steady, nontoxic levels by a sophisticated combination of transcriptional and allosteric controls. Surprisingly, in E. coli allosteric control is utterly absent from the primary importer of cystine. This flaw allows massive overimport

  16. The Moderating Effect of Success Importance on the Relationship Between Listening Demand and Listening Effort.

    PubMed

    Richter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A common element of the psychophysiological research on listening effort is the focus on listening demand as determinant of effort. The article discusses preceding studies and theorizing on effort to show that the link between listening demand and listening effort is moderated by various variables. Moreover, I will present a recent study that examined the joint effect of listening demand and success importance on effort-related cardiovascular reactivity in an auditory discrimination task. Results for pre-ejection period reactivity-an indicator of sympathetic activity-supported the hypothesis that the relationship between listening demand and listening effort is moderated by other variables: Pre-ejection period reactivity was higher in the high-demand-high-success-importance condition than in the other three conditions. This new finding as well as the findings of previous research on effort suggest that a broader perspective on the determinants of listening effort is warranted.

  17. Estimation of a star's radius from its effective temperature and surface gravity taking into account stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sichevskij, S. G.

    2016-09-01

    A method for determining the radius of a star based on its effective temperature and surface gravity together with computations of the star's structure and evolution is proposed. Rotating and nonrotating stellar models are considered, making it possible to take into account uncertainties associated with the lack of data on the rotational velocities of the stars considered. Each point of an evolutionary track is assigned a weight in accordance with the rate of the stellar evolution and the initial mass function. This enables a more correct estimation of the stellar radius. The method is used to calculate the radius corresponding to the effective temperature and surface gravity obtained from theoretical spectra derived from model stellar atmospheres. This makes it possible to calculate not only the color indices, but also the brightness of the star, enabling estimation of the distance to the star based on photometric observations. The method has been tested and its accuracy estimated using more than a hundred binaries and two dozen well-studied bright stars. The derived radius estimates for stars near the main sequence display systematic deviations that do not exceed 0.03%, and standard deviations for the relative errors below 3.87%. Data on well studied bright stars have enabled verification of the applicability of the method for the red giant branch, and hence proved the possibility of applying it in this densely populated area of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.

  18. Evaluation of touch-sensitive screen tablet terminal button size and spacing accounting for effect of fingertip contact angle.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, T; Doi, K; Fujimoto, H

    2015-08-01

    Touch-sensitive screen terminals enabling intuitive operation are used as input interfaces in a wide range of fields. Tablet terminals are one of the most common devices with a touch-sensitive screen. They have a feature of good portability, enabling use under various conditions. On the other hand, they require a GUI designed to prevent decrease of usability under various conditions. For example, the angle of fingertip contact with the display changes according to finger posture during operation and how the case is held. When a human fingertip makes contact with an object, the contact area between the fingertip and contact object increases or decreases as the contact angle changes. A touch-sensitive screen detects positions using the change in capacitance of the area touched by the fingertip; hence, differences in contact area between the touch-sensitive screen and fingertip resulting from different forefinger angles during operation could possibly affect operability. However, this effect has never been studied. We therefore conducted an experiment to investigate the relationship between size/spacing and operability, while taking the effect of fingertip contact angle into account. As a result, we have been able to specify the button size and spacing conditions that enable accurate and fast operation regardless of the forefinger contact angle.

  19. Determining Relative Importance and Effective Settings for Genetic Algorithm Control Parameters.

    PubMed

    Mills, K L; Filliben, J J; Haines, A L

    2015-01-01

    Setting the control parameters of a genetic algorithm to obtain good results is a long-standing problem. We define an experiment design and analysis method to determine relative importance and effective settings for control parameters of any evolutionary algorithm, and we apply this method to a classic binary-encoded genetic algorithm (GA). Subsequently, as reported elsewhere, we applied the GA, with the control parameter settings determined here, to steer a population of cloud-computing simulators toward behaviors that reveal degraded performance and system collapse. GA-steered simulators could serve as a design tool, empowering system engineers to identify and mitigate low-probability, costly failure scenarios. In the existing GA literature, we uncovered conflicting opinions and evidence regarding key GA control parameters and effective settings to adopt. Consequently, we designed and executed an experiment to determine relative importance and effective settings for seven GA control parameters, when applied across a set of numerical optimization problems drawn from the literature. This paper describes our experiment design, analysis, and results. We found that crossover most significantly influenced GA success, followed by mutation rate and population size and then by rerandomization point and elite selection. Selection method and the precision used within the chromosome to represent numerical values had least influence. Our findings are robust over 60 numerical optimization problems.

  20. Cryptic biodiversity effects: importance of functional redundancy revealed through addition of food web complexity.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Stacy M; Pardee, Gabriella L; Gonthier, David J

    2012-05-01

    Interactions between predators and the degree of functional redundancy among multiple predator species may determine whether herbivores experience increased or decreased predation risk. Specialist parasites can modify predator behavior, yet rarely have cascading effects on multiple predator species and prey been evaluated. We examined influences of specialist phorid parasites (Pseudacteon spp.) on three predatory ant species and herbivores in a coffee agroecosystem. Specifically, we examined whether changes in ant richness affected fruit damage by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and whether phorids altered multi-predator effects. Each ant species reduced borer damage, and without phorids, increasing predator richness did not further decrease borer damage. However, with phorids, activity of one ant species was reduced, indicating that the presence of multiple ant species was necessary to limit borer damage. In addition, phorid presence revealed synergistic effects of multiple ant species, not observed without the presence of this parasite. Thus, a trait-mediated cascade resulting from a parasite-induced predator behavioral change revealed the importance of functional redundancy, predator diversity, and food web complexity for control of this important pest.

  1. Toxicity and sublethal effects of sulfoxaflor on the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fengxiang; Lu, Yongyue; Wang, Lei

    2017-05-01

    To understand whether sulfoxaflor, a novel neonicotinoid, poses unacceptable risks to the environment, it is important to assess its effects on nontarget insects. Therefore, the effects of short-term exposure (28 days) of free-feeding sublethal concentrations (1-2μg/ml) of sulfoxaflor to the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, were investigated. The following parameters were evaluated to determine the impact of exposure: colony growth, food consumption (sugar water and locusts), and interspecific interactions. Sulfoxaflor exposure produced significant negative effects on S. invicta colony growth, with cumulative colony weight losses of 83.36% and 100.00% after treatment with 1μg/ml and 2μg/ml, respectively. The consumption of sugar water (containing sulfoxaflor) of surviving colonies decreased with increasing sulfoxaflor concentration. Moreover, the consumption of locusts decreased after treatment with 2μg/ml, but not 1μg/ml, sulfoxaflor. Sulfoxaflor treatment for 14 days led to reduced aggressiveness of S. invicta workers in interspecific confrontations (S. invicta vs. unexposed Pheidole fervida), and their probability of survival of aggressive encounters was reduced significantly to 48% of that of control ants. Our results indicate that sublethal concentrations of sulfoxaflor are likely to have a negative impact on ants.

  2. Coherent-backscatter effect - A vector formulation accounting for polarization and absorption effects and small or large scatterers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Kenneth J.

    1992-01-01

    Previous theoretical work on the coherent-backscatter effect in the context of speckle time autocorrelation has gone beyond the diffusion approximation and the assumption of isotropic (point) scatterers. This paper extends the theory to include the effects of polarization and absorption, and to give the angular line shape. The results are expressions for angular variations valid for small and large scatterers and linear and circular polarizations, in lossless or lossy media. Calculations show that multiple anisotropic scattering results in the preservation of incident polarization. Application to a problem in radar astronomy is considered. It is shown that the unusual radar measurements (high reflectivity and polarization ratios) of Jupiter's icy Galilean satellites can be explained by coherent backscatter from anisotropic (forward) scatterers.

  3. Accountability and the Politics of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirks, A. W.

    Political effectiveness is important for English and language arts teachers. A videotape presentation stressing educational accountability (not included in this document) and a list of the educational issues affected by pending bills in the Kansas state legislature both point to the necessity of political involvement. There are three lessons to…

  4. Accountability--State and Community Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    Ways in which state governments can effectively deal with seriously underachieving schools are presented in this report. Governors and other state leaders are beginning to understand how important it is for students to be better prepared and that, as policymakers, they are obligated to demand accountability from students, from schools, and from…

  5. Habitat effects on the relative importance of trait- and density-mediated indirect interactions.

    PubMed

    Trussell, Geoffrey C; Ewanchuk, Patrick J; Matassa, Catherine M

    2006-11-01

    Classical views of trophic cascades emphasize the primacy of consumptive predator effects on prey populations to the transmission of indirect effects [density-mediated indirect interactions (DMIIs)]. However, trophic cascades can also emerge without changes in the density of interacting species because of non-consumptive predator effects on prey traits such as foraging behaviour [trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMIIs)]. Although ecologists appreciate this point, measurements of the relative importance of each indirect predator effect are rare. Experiments with a three-level, rocky shore food chain containing an invasive predatory crab (Carcinus maenas), an intermediate consumer (the snail, Nucella lapillus) and a basal resource (the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides) revealed that the strength of TMIIs is comparable with, or exceeds, that of DMIIs. Moreover, the sign and strength of each indirect predator effect depends on whether it is measured in risky or refuge habitats. Because habitat shifts are often responsible for the emergence of TMIIs, attention to the sign and strength of these interactions in both habitats will improve our understanding of the link between individual behaviour and community dynamics.

  6. Important electromigration effects of carbon dioxide in capillary electrophoresis at high pH.

    PubMed

    Malá, Zdena; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2011-06-01

    This paper deals with unwanted effects of carbonate in capillary zone electrophoretic analyses of anions in alkaline BGEs with indirect UV absorption and conductivity detection. Computer simulations and experimental study of selected model systems have shown that carbon dioxide absorbed from air into BGEs and samples induce important electrophoretic effects like formation of new additional zones and/or boundaries that may further induce strong and pronounced temporary changes in the migration of analytes. Examples are reduction of the pH of alkaline BGEs around pH 11 by up to 1 unit or formation of a pronounced detectable carbon dioxide peak comparable with peaks of analytes at 1 mM level. The higher the pH of the BGE, the stronger these effects and the broader their spectrum, involving (i) changes of effective mobilities and selectivity due to changes in pH of the BGE, (ii) occurrence of additional system zones appearing in form of peaks, dips or more complex disturbances in the detection signal, (iii) temporary interactions with the sample components and subsequent modification of the separation process and of its result. This paper reveals all these effects and brings the knowledge necessary to prevent problems with qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the analysis results.

  7. Strain effects and intermixing at the Si surface: Importance of long-range elastic corrections in first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Machado-Charry, Eduardo; Pochet, Pascal; Mousseau, Normand

    2014-10-06

    Here we investigate Ge mixing at the Si(001) surface and characterize the 2 N Si(001) reconstruction by means of hybrid quantum and molecular mechanics calculations (QM/MM). Avoiding fake elastic dampening, this scheme allows to correctly take into account long range deformation induced by reconstructed and defective surfaces. We focus in particular on the dimer vacancy line (DVL) and its interaction with Ge adatoms. We first show that calculated formation energies for these defects are highly dependent on the choice of chemical potential and that the latter must be chosen carefully. Characterizing the effect of the DVL on the deformation field, we also find that the DVL favors Ge segregation in the fourth layer close to the DVL. Using the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau) and QM/MM, we show that a complex diffusion path permits the substitution of the Ge atom in the fourth layer, with barriers compatible with mixing observed at intermediate temperature. We also show that the use of QM/MM results in much more signi cant corrections at the saddle points (up to 0.5 eV) that at minima, demonstrating its importance for describing kinetics correctly.

  8. Strain effects and intermixing at the Si surface: Importance of long-range elastic corrections in first-principles calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Machado-Charry, Eduardo; Pochet, Pascal; ...

    2014-10-06

    Here we investigate Ge mixing at the Si(001) surface and characterize the 2 N Si(001) reconstruction by means of hybrid quantum and molecular mechanics calculations (QM/MM). Avoiding fake elastic dampening, this scheme allows to correctly take into account long range deformation induced by reconstructed and defective surfaces. We focus in particular on the dimer vacancy line (DVL) and its interaction with Ge adatoms. We first show that calculated formation energies for these defects are highly dependent on the choice of chemical potential and that the latter must be chosen carefully. Characterizing the effect of the DVL on the deformation field,more » we also find that the DVL favors Ge segregation in the fourth layer close to the DVL. Using the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau) and QM/MM, we show that a complex diffusion path permits the substitution of the Ge atom in the fourth layer, with barriers compatible with mixing observed at intermediate temperature. We also show that the use of QM/MM results in much more signi cant corrections at the saddle points (up to 0.5 eV) that at minima, demonstrating its importance for describing kinetics correctly.« less

  9. Strain effects and intermixing at the Si surface: Importance of long-range elastic corrections in first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Machado-Charry, Eduardo; Pochet, Pascal; Mousseau, Normand

    2014-10-01

    We investigate Ge mixing at the Si(001) surface and characterize the 2×N Si(001) reconstruction by means of hybrid quantum and molecular mechanics calculations (QM/MM). Avoiding fake elastic dampening, this scheme allows to correctly take into account long-range deformation induced by reconstructed and defective surfaces. We focus in particular on the dimer vacancy line (DVL) and its interaction with Ge adatoms. We first show that calculated formation energies for these defects are highly dependent on the choice of chemical potential and that the latter must be chosen carefully. Characterizing the effect of the DVL on the deformation field, we also find that the DVL favors Ge segregation in the fourth layer close to the DVL. Using the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau) and QM/MM, we show that a complex diffusion path permits the substitution of the Ge atom in the fourth layer, with barriers compatible with mixing observed at intermediate temperature. We also show that the use of QM/MM results in much more significant corrections at the saddle points (up to 0.5 eV) that at minima, demonstrating its importance for describing kinetics correctly.

  10. Effect size indices for analyses of measurement equivalence: understanding the practical importance of differences between groups.

    PubMed

    Nye, Christopher D; Drasgow, Fritz

    2011-09-01

    Because of the practical, theoretical, and legal implications of differential item functioning (DIF) for organizational assessments, studies of measurement equivalence are a necessary first step before scores can be compared across individuals from different groups. However, commonly recommended criteria for evaluating results from these analyses have several important limitations. The present study proposes an effect size index for confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) studies of measurement equivalence to address 1 of these limitations. The application of this index is illustrated with personality data from American English, Greek, and Chinese samples. Results showed a range of nonequivalence across these samples, and these differences were linked to the observed effects of DIF on the outcomes of the assessment (i.e., group-level mean differences and adverse impact).

  11. Nonthermal microwave effects revisited: on the importance of internal temperature monitoring and agitation in microwave chemistry.

    PubMed

    Herrero, M Antonia; Kremsner, Jennifer M; Kappe, C Oliver

    2008-01-04

    The concept of nonthermal microwave effects has received considerable attention in recent years and is the subject of intense debate in the scientific community. Nonthermal microwave effects have been postulated to result from a direct stabilizing interaction of the electric field with specific (polar) molecules in the reaction medium that is not related to a macroscopic temperature effect. In order to probe the existence of nonthermal microwave effects, four synthetic transformations (Diels-Alder cycloaddition, alkylation of triphenylphosphine and 1,2,4-triazole, direct amide bond formation) were reevaluated under both microwave dielectric heating and conventional thermal heating. In all four cases, previous studies have claimed the existence of nonthermal microwave effects in these reactions. Experimentally, significant differences in conversion and/or product distribution comparing the conventionally and microwave-heated experiments performed at the same measured reaction temperature were found. The current reevaluation of these reactions was performed in a dedicated reactor setup that allowed accurate internal reaction temperature measurements using a multiple fiber-optic probe system. Using this technology, the importance of efficient stirring and internal temperature measurement in microwave-heated reactions was made evident. Inefficient agitation leads to temperature gradients within the reaction mixture due to field inhomogeneities in the microwave cavity. Using external infrared temperature sensors in some cases results in significant inaccuracies in the temperature measurement. Applying the fiber-optic probe temperature monitoring device, a critical reevaluation of all four reactions has provided no evidence for the existence of nonthermal microwave effects. Ensuring efficient agitation of the reaction mixture via magnetic stirring, no significant differences in terms of conversion and selectivity between experiments performed under microwave or oil bath

  12. Clustering of Vector Control Interventions Has Important Consequences for Their Effectiveness: A Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Lutambi, Angelina Mageni; Chitnis, Nakul; Briët, Olivier J. T.; Smith, Thomas A.; Penny, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Vector control interventions have resulted in considerable reductions in malaria morbidity and mortality. When universal coverage cannot be achieved for financial or logistical reasons, the spatial arrangement of vector control is potentially important for optimizing benefits. This study investigated the effect of spatial clustering of vector control interventions on reducing the population of biting mosquitoes. A discrete-space continuous-time mathematical model of mosquito population dynamics and dispersal was extended to incorporate vector control interventions of insecticide treated bednets (ITNs), Indoor residual Spraying (IRS), and larviciding. Simulations were run at varying levels of coverage and degree of spatial clustering. At medium to high coverage levels of each of the interventions or in combination was more effective to spatially spread these interventions than to cluster them. Suggesting that when financial resources are limited, unclustered distribution of these interventions is more effective. Although it is often stated that locally high coverage is needed to achieve a community effect of ITNs or IRS, our results suggest that if the coverage of ITNs or IRS are insufficient to achieve universal coverage, and there is no targeting of high risk areas, the overall effects on mosquito densities are much greater if they are distributed in an unclustered way, rather than clustered in specific localities. Also, given that interventions are often delivered preferentially to accessible areas, and are therefore clustered, our model results show this may be inefficient. This study provides evidence that the effectiveness of an intervention can be highly dependent on its spatial distribution. Vector control plans should consider the spatial arrangement of any intervention package to ensure effectiveness is maximized. PMID:24823656

  13. VALIDATION OF NUCLEAR MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTABILITY (MC&A) SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS TOOL (MSET) AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY (INL)

    SciTech Connect

    Meppen, Bruce; Haga, Roger; Moedl, Kelley; Bean, Tom; Sanders, Jeff; Thom, Mary Alice

    2008-07-01

    A Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) Functional Model has been developed to describe MC&A systems at facilities possessing Category I or II Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Emphasis is on achieving the objectives of 144 “Fundamental Elements” in key areas ranging from categorization of nuclear material to establishment of Material Balance Areas (MBAs), controlling access, performing quality measurements of inventories and transfers, timely reporting all activities, and detecting and investigating anomalies. An MC&A System Effectiveness Tool (MSET), including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) technology for evaluating MC&A effectiveness and relative risk, has been developed to accompany the Functional Model. The functional model and MSET were introduced at the 48th annual International Nuclear Material Management (INMM) annual meeting in July, 20071,2. A survey/questionnaire is used to accumulate comprehensive data regarding the MC&A elements at a facility. Data is converted from the questionnaire to numerical values using the DELPHI method and exercises are conducted to evaluate the overall effectiveness of an MC&A system. In 2007 a peer review was conducted and a questionnaire was completed for a hypothetical facility and exercises were conducted. In the first quarter of 2008, a questionnaire was completed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and MSET exercises were conducted. The experience gained from conducting the MSET exercises at INL helped evaluate the completeness and consistency of the MC&A Functional Model, descriptions of fundamental elements of the MC&A Functional Model, relationship between the MC&A Functional Model and the MC&A PRA tool and usefulness of the MSET questionnaire data collection process.

  14. Quorum Sensing Influences Vibrio harveyi Growth Rates in a Manner Not Fully Accounted For by the Marker Effect of Bioluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Nackerdien, Zeena E.; Keynan, Alexander; Bassler, Bonnie L.; Lederberg, Joshua; Thaler, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Background The light-emitting Vibrios provide excellent material for studying the interaction of cellular communication with growth rate because bioluminescence is a convenient marker for quorum sensing. However, the use of bioluminescence as a marker is complicated because bioluminescence itself may affect growth rate, e.g. by diverting energy. Methodology/Principal Findings The marker effect was explored via growth rate studies in isogenic Vibrio harveyi (Vh) strains altered in quorum sensing on the one hand, and bioluminescence on the other. By hypothesis, growth rate is energy limited: mutants deficient in quorum sensing grow faster because wild type quorum sensing unleashes bioluminescence and bioluminescence diverts energy. Findings reported here confirm a role for bioluminescence in limiting Vh growth rate, at least under the conditions tested. However, the results argue that the bioluminescence is insufficient to explain the relationship of growth rate and quorum sensing in Vh. A Vh mutant null for all genes encoding the bioluminescence pathway grew faster than wild type but not as fast as null mutants in quorum sensing. Vh quorum sensing mutants showed altered growth rates that do not always rank with their relative increase or decrease in bioluminescence. In addition, the cell-free culture fluids of a rapidly growing Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) strain increased the growth rate of wild type Vh without significantly altering Vh's bioluminescence. The same cell-free culture fluid increased the bioluminescence of Vh quorum mutants. Conclusions/Significance The effect of quorum sensing on Vh growth rate can be either positive or negative and includes both bioluminescence-dependent and independent components. Bioluminescence tends to slow growth rate but not enough to account for the effects of quorum sensing on growth rate. PMID:18301749

  15. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION AS AN IMPORTANT SKILL FOR QUALITY CARE IN ELDERLY PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Dorit

    2014-10-01

    The increase in the number of older people in the world emphasizes the need to reevaluate and change health care policy and care services priorities. The provision of health care for this growing population has consequently become an important worldwide concern. The purpose of this article is to highlight the challenges stemming from the growing number of elderly people and their need for care. Collaborative and coordinated health care services for elderly people should be focused on the ethical issues deriving from the interpersonal relationships between the professional caregiver and the older person. Any discussion on ethics and aging should be focused on the roles of autonomy, informed consent, respect, advance directive, end of life decisions and privacy. In addition, such a discussion should stress the important role of effective communication and its effect on the older person's adherence with the recommended treatment. The desired consequence should be the empowerment of positive and successful experiences attained by the recipients of the health care services.

  16. The human factor: the critical importance of effective teamwork and communication in providing safe care.

    PubMed

    Leonard, M; Graham, S; Bonacum, D

    2004-10-01

    Effective communication and teamwork is essential for the delivery of high quality, safe patient care. Communication failures are an extremely common cause of inadvertent patient harm. The complexity of medical care, coupled with the inherent limitations of human performance, make it critically important that clinicians have standardised communication tools, create an environment in which individuals can speak up and express concerns, and share common "critical language" to alert team members to unsafe situations. All too frequently, effective communication is situation or personality dependent. Other high reliability domains, such as commercial aviation, have shown that the adoption of standardised tools and behaviours is a very effective strategy in enhancing teamwork and reducing risk. We describe our ongoing patient safety implementation using this approach within Kaiser Permanente, a non-profit American healthcare system providing care for 8.3 million patients. We describe specific clinical experience in the application of surgical briefings, properties of high reliability perinatal care, the value of critical event training and simulation, and benefits of a standardised communication process in the care of patients transferred from hospitals to skilled nursing facilities. Additionally, lessons learned as to effective techniques in achieving cultural change, evidence of improving the quality of the work environment, practice transfer strategies, critical success factors, and the evolving methods of demonstrating the benefit of such work are described.

  17. Experimental evidence of environmental effects on age-specific reproductive success: the importance of resource quality.

    PubMed Central

    Pärt, T.

    2001-01-01

    Age-specific access to high-quality resources (e.g. territory or nest site) might be an important determinant for improved reproductive performance with increasing age. I experimentally investigated the effects of territory quality versus other age-related improvements in breeding competence (e.g. foraging skills, breeding experience and local knowledge) on age-specific reproductive success. Territory quality (i.e. territory field layer height) was manipulated in year 2 of northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) that were breeding in the same territory in two consecutive years. Changing territory quality by changing field layer height had a strong effect on within-individual change in the reproductive success of wheatears. This effect was mainly due to a corresponding change in nest predation risk. When territory quality was kept constant (i.e. no between-year change in territory field layer height), within-individual reproductive success did not change between subsequent years. Thus, age-related improvements in foraging skills, breeding experience and local familiarity had no significant effect on within-individual changes in reproductive success. Increased reproductive success with increased age in northern wheatears is therefore mainly explained by an improved access to high-quality territories with increasing age. I conclude that age-dependent access to high-quality breeding resources might be a widespread phenomenon in nature. PMID:11674875

  18. Can hormones contained in mothers' milk account for the beneficial effect of breast-feeding on obesity in children?

    PubMed

    Savino, Francesco; Fissore, Maria F; Liguori, Stefania A; Oggero, Roberto

    2009-12-01

    Nutrition and growth during infancy are an emerging issue because of their potential link to metabolic health disorders in later life. Moreover, prolonged breast-feeding appears to be associated with a lower risk of obesity than formula feeding. Human milk is a source of various hormones and growth factors, namely adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), ghrelin, resistin and obestatin, which are involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. These compounds are either not found in commercial milk formulas or their presence is still controversial. Diet-related differences during infancy in serum levels of factors involved in energy metabolism might explain anthropometric differences and also differences in dietary habits between breast-fed (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants later in life, and may thus have long-term health consequences. In this context, the recent finding of higher leptin levels and lower ghrelin levels in BF than in FF infants suggests that differences in hormonal values together with different protein intake could account for the differences in growth between BF and FF infants both during infancy and later in life. In this review, we examine the data related to hormones contained in mothers' milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity and metabolic-related disorders.

  19. Detecting letters and words in prose passages: a test of alternative theoretical accounts of the missing letter effect.

    PubMed

    Healy, Alice F; Cunningham, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    College students searched for either h or the in prose passages in which every h occurred in the test word the. In Experiment 1, passage versions differed in that the critical noun phrases were either the alone (i.e., in citation form as a noun referring to itself) or "the definite article." Many more detection errors occurred for letter than word target items, especially with "the definite article." In Experiment 2, passage versions differed in that a given noun phrase containing the test word the occurred as a subject in one version and an object in the other. Again, many more detection errors occurred when the target item was the letter h than when it was the letter sequence the. Also, with letter but not letter sequence targets, more detection errors occurred for object than subject noun phrases. In Experiment 3, passages were presented either in regular format or with all capital letters. Students made more detection errors with the regular than with the capitals format, many more errors occurred when participants searched for letters than for letter sequences, and the effect of target item was larger with regular than with capitals format. These findings suggest that accounts of detection errors in reading must include the influence of unitization and processing time or attentional allocation.

  20. Effect of Accounting for Crash Severity on the Relationship between Mass Reduction and Crash Frequency and Risk per Crash

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Tom P.

    2016-05-20

    Previous analyses have indicated that mass reduction is associated with an increase in crash frequency (crashes per VMT), but a decrease in fatality or casualty risk once a crash has occurred, across all types of light-duty vehicles. These results are counter-intuitive: one would expect that lighter, and perhaps smaller, vehicles have better handling and shorter braking distances, and thus should be able to avoid crashes that heavier vehicles cannot. And one would expect that heavier vehicles would have lower risk once a crash has occurred than lighter vehicles. However, these trends occur under several alternative regression model specifications. This report tests whether these results continue to hold after accounting for crash severity, by excluding crashes that result in relatively minor damage to the vehicle(s) involved in the crash. Excluding non-severe crashes from the initial LBNL Phase 2 and simultaneous two-stage regression models for the most part has little effect on the unexpected relationships observed in the baseline regression models. This finding suggests that other subtle differences in vehicles and/or their drivers, or perhaps biases in the data reported in state crash databases, are causing the unexpected results from the regression models.

  1. The Written Communication Skills That Matter Most for Accountants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tracey J.; Simons, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of effective written communication skills to the discipline of accounting, faculty must emphasize these skills in their classroom in order to adequately prepare students for successful careers in the field. Since 2000, only two studies in the accounting literature have examined which written communication skills are needed by…

  2. Relative importance of perch and facilitative effects on nucleation in tropical woodland in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    Individual trees in open vegetation such as woodlands can act as "nuclei" for the colonization of forest tree species, which consequently lead to the formation of forest patches. This phenomenon is known as nucleation. The mechanism of nucleation is generally attributed to two factors: trees provide perches for frugivores that increase seed deposition (perch effect), and tree crowns ameliorate environmental conditions, which improves seedling establishment (facilitative effect). Few studies have attempted to distinguish the relative importance of these two factors. In this study, I separated these two effects in a woodland in northern Malawi. I chose Ficus natalensis as a potential nuclei tree because large individuals of this species are commonly located at the center of forest patches within open woodland at the study site. I monitored several environmental variables, seedling survival, seedling composition, and seed rain at three microsites: under F. natalensis, under Brachystegia floribunda (a dominant woodland species), and in open sites. Both tree species provided similar favorable conditions for the establishment of forest species compared to open sites. Thus, the survival of forest tree seedlings under F. natalensis and B. floribunda was similar, and substantially higher than seedling survival in open sites. However, communities of naturally occurring seedlings differed significantly between F. natalensis and B. floribunda. These results indicate that the facilitative effect alone cannot explain the nucleation pattern. I attribute this result to the perch effect of F. natalensis because the forest seedling species recorded under F. natalensis reportedly have small, brightly colored diaspores, which are indicative of dispersal by birds. Seed deposition of forest species under F. natalensis was significantly higher than that under B. floribunda or in open sites. My findings reinforce the idea that trees will lead to nucleation when they enhance seed

  3. Surface and Atmospheric Parameter Retrieval From AVIRIS Data: The Importance of Non-Linear Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green Robert O.; Moreno, Jose F.

    1996-01-01

    AVIRIS data represent a new and important approach for the retrieval of atmospheric and surface parameters from optical remote sensing data. Not only as a test for future space systems, but also as an operational airborne remote sensing system, the development of algorithms to retrieve information from AVIRIS data is an important step to these new approaches and capabilities. Many things have been learned since AVIRIS became operational, and the successive technical improvements in the hardware and the more sophisticated calibration techniques employed have increased the quality of the data to the point of almost meeting optimum user requirements. However, the potential capabilities of imaging spectrometry over the standard multispectral techniques have still not been fully demonstrated. Reasons for this are the technical difficulties in handling the data, the critical aspect of calibration for advanced retrieval methods, and the lack of proper models with which to invert the measured AVIRIS radiances in all the spectral channels. To achieve the potential of imaging spectrometry, these issues must be addressed. In this paper, an algorithm to retrieve information about both atmospheric and surface parameters from AVIRIS data, by using model inversion techniques, is described. Emphasis is put on the derivation of the model itself as well as proper inversion techniques, robust to noise in the data and an inadequate ability of the model to describe natural variability in the data. The problem of non-linear effects is addressed, as it has been demonstrated to be a major source of error in the numerical values retrieved by more simple, linear-based approaches. Non-linear effects are especially critical for the retrieval of surface parameters where both scattering and absorption effects are coupled, as well as in the cases of significant multiple-scattering contributions. However, sophisticated modeling approaches can handle such non-linear effects, which are especially

  4. Microbial effects on the development of forensically important blow fly species.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Esther R; Bulling, Mark T; Barnes, Kate M

    2016-09-01

    Colonisation times and development rates of specific blow fly species are used to estimate the minimum Post Mortem Interval (mPMI). The presence or absence of bacteria on a corpse can potentially affect the development and survival of blow fly larvae. Therefore an understanding of microbial-insect interactions is important for improving the interpretation of mPMI estimations. In this study, the effect of two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) on the growth rate and survival of three forensically important blow fly species (Lucilia sericata, Calliphora vicina and Calliphora vomitoria) was investigated. Sterile larvae were raised in a controlled environment (16:8h day: night light cycle, 23:21°C day: night temperature cycle and a constant 35% relative humidity) on four artificial diets prepared with 100μl of 10(5) CFU bacterial solutions as follows: (1) E. coli, (2) S. aureus, (3) a 50:50 E. coli:S. aureus mix and (4) a sterile bacteria-free control diet. Daily measurements (length, width and weight) were taken from first instar larvae through to the emergence of adult flies. Survival rates were also determined at pupation and adult emergence. Results indicate that bacteria were not essential for the development of any of the blow fly species. However, larval growth rates were affected by bacterial diet, with effects differing between blow fly species. Peak larval weights also varied according to species-diet combination; C. vomitoria had the largest weight on E. coli and mixed diets, C. vicina had the largest weight on S. aureus diets, and treatment had no significant effect on the peak larval weight of L. sericata. These results indicate the potential for the bacteria that larvae are exposed to during development on a corpse to alter both developmental rates and larval weight in some blow fly species.

  5. The importance of vertical velocity variability for estimates of the indirect aerosol effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R. E. L.; Stier, P.; Jones, A.; Johnson, C. E.; Mann, G. W.; Bellouin, N.; Partridge, D. G.; Kipling, Z.

    2014-06-01

    The activation of aerosols to form cloud droplets is dependent upon vertical velocities whose local variability is not typically resolved at the GCM grid scale. Consequently, it is necessary to represent the subgrid-scale variability of vertical velocity in the calculation of cloud droplet number concentration. This study uses the UK Chemistry and Aerosols community model (UKCA) within the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model (HadGEM3), coupled for the first time to an explicit aerosol activation parameterisation, and hence known as UKCA-Activate. We explore the range of uncertainty in estimates of the indirect aerosol effects attributable to the choice of parameterisation of the subgrid-scale variability of vertical velocity in HadGEM-UKCA. Results of simulations demonstrate that the use of a characteristic vertical velocity cannot replicate results derived with a distribution of vertical velocities, and is to be discouraged in GCMs. This study focuses on the effect of the variance (σw2) of a Gaussian pdf (probability density function) of vertical velocity. Fixed values of σw (spanning the range measured in situ by nine flight campaigns found in the literature) and a configuration in which σw depends on turbulent kinetic energy are tested. Results from the mid-range fixed σw and TKE-based configurations both compare well with observed vertical velocity distributions and cloud droplet number concentrations. The radiative flux perturbation due to the total effects of anthropogenic aerosol is estimated at -1.9 W m-2 with σw = 0.1 m s-1, -2.1 W m-2 with σw derived from TKE, -2.25 W m-2 with σw = 0.4 m s-1, and -2.3 W m-2 with σw = 0.7 m s-1. The breadth of this range is 0.4 W m-2, which is comparable to a substantial fraction of the total diversity of current aerosol forcing estimates. Reducing the uncertainty in the parameterisation of σw would therefore be an important step towards reducing the uncertainty in estimates of the indirect aerosol effects

  6. Professional Capital as Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael; Rincón-Gallardo, Santiago; Hargreaves, Andy

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to clarify and spells out the responsibilities of policy makers to create the conditions for an effective accountability system that produces substantial improvements in student learning, strengthens the teaching profession, and provides transparency of results to the public. The authors point out that U.S. policy makers will need…

  7. Accountability for Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Productivity gains in higher education won't be made just by improving cost effectiveness or even performance. They need to be documented, communicated, and integrated into a strategic agenda to increase attainment. This requires special attention to "accountability" for productivity, meaning public presentation and communication of evidence about…

  8. Curtail Accountability, Cultivate Attainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wraga, William G.

    2011-01-01

    The current test-driven accountability movement, codified in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 ([NCLB] 2002), was a misguided idea that will have the effect not of improving the education of children and youth, but of indicting the public school system of the United States. To improve education in the United States, politicians, policy makers,…

  9. Biotransformation effect of Bombyx Mori L. may play an important role in treating diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, La; Li, Yin; Guo, Xin-Feng; Liu, Xu-Sheng

    2016-11-01

    Compared with herbal drugs, medicine processed from animals (animal medicine) was thought to have more bioactive substances and higher activities. Biotransformation effect often plays an important role in their effect. However, researches about effect of animal medicine on diabetic nephropathy and applying animal medicine as natural bio-transformer were seldom reported. The purpose of this paper was to reveal the use of Bombyx Mori L. on diabetic nephropathy from ancient to modern times. The classical literature indicated that Saosi Decoction (), which contains Bombyx Mori L. or silkworm cocoon, was applied to treat disorders congruent with modern disease diabetic nephropathy from the Ming to Qing Dynasty in ancient China. Modern studies showed that Bombyx Mori L. contains four main active constituents. Among these, 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) and quercetin showed promising potential to be new agents in diabetic nephropathy treatment. The concentrations of 1-DNJ and the activities of quercetin in Bombyx Mori L. are higher than in mulberry leaves, because of the biotransformation in the Bombyx Mori L. body. However, these specifific components need further human and mechanistic studies to determine their therapeutic potential for this challenging condition.

  10. Effects of environmental enrichment on sensitivity to cocaine in female rats: importance of control rates of behavior

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark A.; Iordanou, Jordan C.; Cohen, Marika B.; Cole, Kathryn T.; Gergans, Samantha R.; Lyle, Megan A.; Schmidt, Karl T.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental enrichment produces functional changes in mesolimbic dopamine transmission and alters sensitivity to psychomotor stimulants. These manipulations also alter the control rate of many behaviors that are sensitive to stimulant administration, which can make comparison of drug effects between isolated and enriched subjects difficult. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of environmental enrichment on control rates of behavior and on sensitivity to cocaine in tests of locomotor activity, drug self-administration, conditioned place preference, and toxicity. In the locomotor activity test, isolated rats exhibited greater activity after the administration of cocaine, but also had higher control rates of activity. When locomotor activity was expressed as a percentage of saline control values, enriched rats exhibited a greater increase relative to their own control than isolated rats. In the drug self-administration procedure, isolated rats had higher breakpoints on a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement when responding was maintained by cocaine; however, isolated rats also had higher breakpoints in saline substitution tests and higher rates of inactive lever responding. When the self-administration data were expressed as a percentage of these control values, enriched rats exhibited a greater increase in responding relative to their own control rates than isolated rats. No differences were observed between isolated and enriched rats under control conditions in the place preference and toxicity studies. In both of these procedures, enriched rats were more sensitive than isolated rats to all the doses of cocaine tested. These data emphasize the importance of considering control rates of behavior in studies examining environmental enrichment and drug sensitivity, and suggest that environmental enrichment increases sensitivity to cocaine across a range of dependent measures whether differences in control rates of behavior are taken into

  11. The importance of reproductive barriers and the effect of allopolyploidization on crop breeding

    PubMed Central

    Tonosaki, Kaoru; Osabe, Kenji; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Fujimoto, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Inter-specific hybrids are a useful source for increasing genetic diversity. Some reproductive barriers before and/or after fertilization prevent production of hybrid plants by inter-specific crossing. Therefore, techniques to overcome the reproductive barrier have been developed, and have contributed to hybridization breeding. In recent studies, identification of molecules involved in plant reproduction has been studied to understand the mechanisms of reproductive barriers. Revealing the molecular mechanisms of reproductive barriers may allow us to overcome reproductive barriers in inter-specific crossing, and to efficiently produce inter-specific hybrids in cross-combinations that cannot be produced through artificial techniques. Inter-specific hybrid plants can potentially serve as an elite material for plant breeding, produced through the merging of genomes of parental species by allopolyploidization. Allopolyploidization provides some benefits, such as heterosis, increased genetic diversity and phenotypic variability, which are caused by dynamic changes of the genome and epigenome. Understanding of allopolyploidization mechanisms is important for practical utilization of inter-specific hybrids as a breeding material. This review discusses the importance of reproductive barriers and the effect of allopolyploidization in crop breeding programs. PMID:27436943

  12. Decompensation: A Novel Approach to Accounting for Stress Arising From the Effects of Ideology and Social Norms.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Damien W; Treharne, Gareth J

    2017-01-01

    To date, research that has drawn on Meyer's (2003) minority stress model has largely taken for granted the premises underpinning it. In this article we provide a close reading of how "stress" is conceptualized in the model and suggest that aspects of the model do not attend to the institutionalized nature of stressors experienced by people with marginalized identities, particularly lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals. As a counter to this, we highlight the importance of a focus on the effects of ideology and social norms in terms of stress, and we argue why an intersectional approach is necessary to ensure recognition of multiple axes of marginalization and privilege. The article then outlines the concept of decompensation and suggests that it may offer one way to reconsider the effects of ideology and social norms. The decompensation approach centers on the need for social change rather than solely relying on individuals to be resilient.

  13. Acyl substrate preferences of an IAA-amido synthetase account for variations in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening caused by different auxinic compounds indicating the importance of auxin conjugation in plant development.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Christine; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    Nine Gretchen Hagen (GH3) genes were identified in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and six of these were predicted on the basis of protein sequence similarity to act as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases. The activity of these enzymes is thought to be important in controlling free IAA levels and one auxin-inducible grapevine GH3 protein, GH3-1, has previously been implicated in the berry ripening process. Ex planta assays showed that the expression of only one other GH3 gene, GH3-2, increased following the treatment of grape berries with auxinic compounds. One of these was the naturally occurring IAA and the other two were synthetic, α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA). The determination of steady-state kinetic parameters for the recombinant GH3-1 and GH3-2 proteins revealed that both enzymes efficiently conjugated aspartic acid (Asp) to IAA and less well to NAA, while BTOA was a poor substrate. GH3-2 gene expression was induced by IAA treatment of pre-ripening berries with an associated increase in levels of IAA-Asp and a decrease in free IAA levels. This indicates that GH3-2 responded to excess auxin to maintain low levels of free IAA. Grape berry ripening was not affected by IAA application prior to veraison (ripening onset) but was considerably delayed by NAA and even more so by BTOA. The differential effects of the three auxinic compounds on berry ripening can therefore be explained by the induction and acyl substrate specificity of GH3-2. These results further indicate an important role for GH3 proteins in controlling auxin-related plant developmental processes.

  14. Acyl substrate preferences of an IAA-amido synthetase account for variations in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening caused by different auxinic compounds indicating the importance of auxin conjugation in plant development

    PubMed Central

    Böttcher, Christine; Boss, Paul K.; Davies, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Nine Gretchen Hagen (GH3) genes were identified in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and six of these were predicted on the basis of protein sequence similarity to act as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases. The activity of these enzymes is thought to be important in controlling free IAA levels and one auxin-inducible grapevine GH3 protein, GH3-1, has previously been implicated in the berry ripening process. Ex planta assays showed that the expression of only one other GH3 gene, GH3-2, increased following the treatment of grape berries with auxinic compounds. One of these was the naturally occurring IAA and the other two were synthetic, α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA). The determination of steady-state kinetic parameters for the recombinant GH3-1 and GH3-2 proteins revealed that both enzymes efficiently conjugated aspartic acid (Asp) to IAA and less well to NAA, while BTOA was a poor substrate. GH3-2 gene expression was induced by IAA treatment of pre-ripening berries with an associated increase in levels of IAA-Asp and a decrease in free IAA levels. This indicates that GH3-2 responded to excess auxin to maintain low levels of free IAA. Grape berry ripening was not affected by IAA application prior to veraison (ripening onset) but was considerably delayed by NAA and even more so by BTOA. The differential effects of the three auxinic compounds on berry ripening can therefore be explained by the induction and acyl substrate specificity of GH3-2. These results further indicate an important role for GH3 proteins in controlling auxin-related plant developmental processes. PMID:21543520

  15. Effects of Land Use on Lake Nutrients: The Importance of Scale, Hydrologic Connectivity, and Region

    PubMed Central

    Soranno, Patricia A.; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Wagner, Tyler; Webster, Katherine E.; Bremigan, Mary Tate

    2015-01-01

    Catchment land uses, particularly agriculture and urban uses, have long been recognized as major drivers of nutrient concentrations in surface waters. However, few simple models have been developed that relate the amount of catchment land use to downstream freshwater nutrients. Nor are existing models applicable to large numbers of freshwaters across broad spatial extents such as regions or continents. This research aims to increase model performance by exploring three factors that affect the relationship between land use and downstream nutrients in freshwater: the spatial extent for measuring land use, hydrologic connectivity, and the regional differences in both the amount of nutrients and effects of land use on them. We quantified the effects of these three factors that relate land use to lake total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) in 346 north temperate lakes in 7 regions in Michigan, USA. We used a linear mixed modeling framework to examine the importance of spatial extent, lake hydrologic class, and region on models with individual lake nutrients as the response variable, and individual land use types as the predictor variables. Our modeling approach was chosen to avoid problems of multi-collinearity among predictor variables and a lack of independence of lakes within regions, both of which are common problems in broad-scale analyses of freshwaters. We found that all three factors influence land use-lake nutrient relationships. The strongest evidence was for the effect of lake hydrologic connectivity, followed by region, and finally, the spatial extent of land use measurements. Incorporating these three factors into relatively simple models of land use effects on lake nutrients should help to improve predictions and understanding of land use-lake nutrient interactions at broad scales. PMID:26267813

  16. Effects of land use on lake nutrients: The importance of scale, hydrologic connectivity, and region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soranno, Patricia A.; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Wagner, Tyler; Webster, Katherine E.; Bremigan, Mary Tate

    2015-01-01

    Catchment land uses, particularly agriculture and urban uses, have long been recognized as major drivers of nutrient concentrations in surface waters. However, few simple models have been developed that relate the amount of catchment land use to downstream freshwater nutrients. Nor are existing models applicable to large numbers of freshwaters across broad spatial extents such as regions or continents. This research aims to increase model performance by exploring three factors that affect the relationship between land use and downstream nutrients in freshwater: the spatial extent for measuring land use, hydrologic connectivity, and the regional differences in both the amount of nutrients and effects of land use on them. We quantified the effects of these three factors that relate land use to lake total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) in 346 north temperate lakes in 7 regions in Michigan, USA. We used a linear mixed modeling framework to examine the importance of spatial extent, lake hydrologic class, and region on models with individual lake nutrients as the response variable, and individual land use types as the predictor variables. Our modeling approach was chosen to avoid problems of multi-collinearity among predictor variables and a lack of independence of lakes within regions, both of which are common problems in broad-scale analyses of freshwaters. We found that all three factors influence land use-lake nutrient relationships. The strongest evidence was for the effect of lake hydrologic connectivity, followed by region, and finally, the spatial extent of land use measurements. Incorporating these three factors into relatively simple models of land use effects on lake nutrients should help to improve predictions and understanding of land use-lake nutrient interactions at broad scales.

  17. What fraction of DNA double-strand breaks produced by the direct effect is accounted for by radical pairs?

    PubMed

    Peoples, Anita R; Mercer, Kermit R; Bernhard, William A

    2010-07-22

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine what fraction of double strand breaks (dsb's), generated by the direct effect of ionizing radiation on DNA, can be accounted for by radical pairs. A radical pair is defined as two radicals trapped within a separation distance of <3 nm. Q-band EPR was used to measure the yield of radical pairs in calf thymus DNA films X-irradiated at 4 K. The EPR spectrum of DNA showed no evidence of radical pairs. To determine the relative sensitivity for radical pair detection via Q-band EPR, we measured the yield of radical pairs in single crystals of thymine, G(rp-Thy). Under the same conditions employed for DNA, G(rp-Thy) was approximately 8 nmol/J. The value of G(rp-Thy), in conjunction with the measured signal-to-noise, was used to calculate an upper limit for the yield of radical pairs in DNA, G(max)(rp-DNA) < 0.7-1.4 nmol/J. The upper limit, G(max)(rp-DNA), was compared with the yield of dsb's, G(total)(dsb) = 10 nmol/J, previously measured in pUC18 DNA films by Purkayastha, S.; Milligan, J. R.; Bernhard, W. A. Radiat. Res. 2007, 168, 357. We found that G(total)(dsb) > 2 x G(max)(rp-DNA), implying that a significant fraction of dsb's were not derived from a pair of trappable radicals. At least one of the two precursors needed to form a dsb was a diamagnetic (molecular) product. The hypothesis is that EPR silent lesions are formed through a molecular pathway. For example, a two-electron oxidation of deoxyribose would result in a deoxyribose carbocation intermediate that ultimately leads to a strand break.

  18. Accounting for the effects of sastrugi in the CERES clear-sky Antarctic shortwave angular distribution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, J.; Su, W.

    2015-08-01

    The Cloud and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on NASA's Terra, Aqua and Soumi NPP satellites are used to provide a long-term measurement of Earth's energy budget. To accomplish this, the radiances measured by the instruments must be inverted to fluxes by the use of a scene-type-dependent angular distribution model (ADM). For permanent snow scenes over Antarctica, shortwave (SW) ADMs are created by compositing radiance measurements over the full viewing zenith and azimuth range. However, the presence of small-scale wind blown roughness features called sastrugi cause the BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function) of the snow to vary significantly based upon the solar azimuth angle and location. This can result in monthly regional biases between -12 and 7.5 Wm-2 in the inverted TOA (top-of-atmosphere) SW flux. The bias is assessed by comparing the CERES shortwave fluxes derived from nadir observations with those from all viewing zenith angles, as the sastrugi affect fluxes inverted from the oblique viewing angles more than for the nadir viewing angles. In this paper we further describe the clear-sky Antarctic ADMs from Su et al. (2015). These ADMs account for the sastrugi effect by using measurements from the Multi-Angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) instrument to derive statistical relationships between radiance from different viewing angles. We show here that these ADMs reduce the bias and artifacts in the CERES SW flux caused by sastrugi, both locally and Antarctic-wide. The regional monthly biases from sastrugi are reduced to between -5 and 7 Wm-2, and the monthly-mean biases over Antarctica are reduced by up to 0.64 Wm-2, a decrease of 74 %. These improved ADMs are used as part of the Edition 4 CERES SSF (Single Scanner Footprint) data.

  19. HIV-Infected Adolescent, Young Adult and Pregnant Smokers: Important Targets for Effective Tobacco Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Escota, Gerome; Önen, Nur

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed. PMID:23778059

  20. Importance of temperature effect on the electrophoretic behavior of charge-regulated particles.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jyh-Ping; Tai, Yi-Hsuan; Yeh, Li-Hsien; Tseng, Shiojenn

    2012-01-10

    The Joule heating effect is inevitable in electrophoresis operations. To assess its influence on the performance of electrophoresis, we consider the case of a charge-regulated particle in a solution containing multiple ionic species at temperatures ranging from 298 to 308 K. Using an aqueous SiO(2) dispersion as an example, we show that an increase in the temperature leads to a decrease in both the dielectric constant and the viscosity of the liquid phase, and an increase in both the diffusivity of ions and the particle surface potential. For a particle having a constant surface potential, its electrophoretic mobility is most influenced by the variation in the liquid viscosity as the temperature varies, but for a charged-regulated particle both the liquid viscosity and the surface potential can play an important role. Depending upon the level of pH, the degree of increase in the mobility can be on the order of 40% for a 5 K increase in the temperature. The presence of double-layer polarization, which is significant when the surface potential is sufficiently high, has the effect of inhibiting that increase in the mobility. This implies that the influence of the temperature on the mobility of the particle is most significant when the pH is close to the point of zero charge.

  1. Pseudomoniasis phytotherapy: a review on most important Iranian medicinal plants effective on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Hassanzadazar, Hassan; Taherikalani, Morovat

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium found in water and soil. It is a normal flora in skin and gastrointestinal tract of human beings. P. aeruginosa as an opportunistic pathogen involved in nosocomial infections having multiple pathogenic factors and shows high rate of resistance to different antibiotics. The aim of this study was to identify the most important native medicinal plants of Iran effective on P. aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: All required information was obtained by searching keywords such as P. aeruginosa, medicinal plant extracts or essential oils in published articles in authentic scientific databases such as Science Direct, Wiley-Blackwell, Springer, Google scholar, Scientific Information Database (SID) and Magiran. Results: According to the literature review, our results showed 12 different native medicinal plants were effective against P. aeruginosa in Iran including Eucalyptus camadulensis, Marticaria chamomilla, Ferula gummosa Boiss, Lawsonia inermis, Ocimumgra tissimum, Allium sativum, Satureja hortensis L, Satureja bachtiarica Bunge, Satureja khuzestanica (Jamzad), Thymus daenensis Celak, Thymus carmanicus Jalals and Camellia sinensis. Conclusion: Phytochemical analysis has shown that bioactive compounds of medicinal plants with their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties can be good alternatives for the synthetic medicines in food and drug industry. PMID:28149496

  2. Developing effective messages about potable recycled water: The importance of message structure and content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J.; Fielding, K. S.; Gardner, J.; Leviston, Z.; Green, M.

    2015-04-01

    Community opposition is a barrier to potable recycled water schemes. Effective communication strategies about such schemes are needed. Drawing on social psychological literature, two experimental studies are presented, which explore messages that improve public perceptions of potable recycled water. The Elaboration-Likelihood Model of information processing and attitude change is tested and supported. Study 1 (N = 415) premeasured support for recycled water, and trust in government information at Time 1. Messages varied in complexity and sidedness were presented at Time 2 (3 weeks later), and support and trust were remeasured. Support increased after receiving information, provided that participants received complex rather than simple information. Trust in government was also higher after receiving information. There was tentative evidence of this in response to two-sided messages rather than one-sided messages. Initial attitudes to recycled water moderated responses to information. Those initially neutral or ambivalent responded differently to simple and one-sided messages, compared to participants with positive or negative attitudes. Study 2 (N = 957) tested the effectiveness of information about the low relative risks, and/or benefits of potable recycled water, compared to control groups. Messages about the low risks resulted in higher support when the issue of recycled water was relevant. Messages about benefits resulted in higher perceived issue relevance, but did not translate into greater support. The results highlight the importance of understanding people's motivation to process information, and need to tailor communication to match attitudes and stage of recycled water schemes' development.

  3. Effects of genotypic and phenotypic variation on establishment are important for conservation, invasion, and infection biology

    PubMed Central

    Forsman, Anders

    2014-01-01

    There is abundant evidence that the probability of successful establishment in novel environments increases with number of individuals in founder groups and with number of repeated introductions. Theory posits that the genotypic and phenotypic variation among individuals should also be important, but few studies have examined whether founder diversity influences establishment independent of propagule pressure, nor whether the effect is model or context dependent. I summarize the results of 18 experimental studies and report on a metaanalysis that provides strong evidence that higher levels of genotypic and phenotypic diversity in founder groups increase establishment success in plants and animals. The effect of diversity is stronger in experiments carried out under natural conditions in the wild than under seminatural or standardized laboratory conditions. The realization that genetic and phenotypic variation is key to successful establishment may improve the outcome of reintroduction and translocation programs used to vitalize or restore declining and extinct populations. Founder diversity may also improve the ability of invasive species to establish and subsequently spread in environments outside of their native community, and enhance the ability of pathogens and parasites to colonize and invade the environment constituted by their hosts. It is argued that exchange of ideas, methodological approaches, and insights of the role of diversity for establishment in different contexts may further our knowledge, vitalize future research, and improve management plans in different disciplines. PMID:24367109

  4. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited availability of data and, moreover, the different scopes of the accounting lead to many ways of quantifying emissions and producing the accounts. The importance of transparency in GHG accounting is emphasised regarding waste type, waste composition, time period considered, GHGs included, global warming potential (GWP) assigned to the GHGs, counting of biogenic carbon dioxide, choice of system boundaries, interactions with the energy system, and generic emissions factors. In order to enhance transparency and consistency, a format called the upstream-operating-downstream framework (UOD) is proposed for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities.

  5. Continuous multi-plot measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O and H2O in a managed boreal forest - The importance of accounting for all greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestin, P.; Mölder, M.; Sundqvist, E.; Båth, A.; Lehner, I.; Weslien, P.; Klemedtsson, L.; Lindroth, A.

    2015-12-01

    In order to assess the effects of different management practices on the exchange of greenhouse gases (GHG), it is desirable to perform repeated and parallel measurements on both experimental and control plots. Here we demonstrate how a system system combining eddy covariance and gradient techniques can be used to perform this assessment in a managed forest ecosystem.The net effects of clear-cutting and stump harvesting on GHG fluxes were studied at the ICOS site Norunda, Sweden. Micrometeorological measurements (i.e., flux-gradient measurements in 3 m tall towers) allowed for quantification of CO2, CH4 and H2O fluxes (from May 2010) as well as N2O and H2O fluxes (from June 2011) at two stump harvested plots and two control plots. There was one wetter and one drier plot of each treatment. Air was continuously sampled at two heights in the towers and gas concentrations were analyzed for CH4, CO2, H2O (LGR DLT-100, Los Gatos Research) and N2O, H2O (QCL Mini Monitor, Aerodyne Research). Friction velocities and sensible heat fluxes were measured by sonic anemometers (Gill Windmaster, Gill Instruments Ltd). Automatic chamber measurements (CO2, CH4, H2O) were carried out in the adjacent forest stand and at the clear-cut during 2010.Average CO2 emissions for the first year ranged between 14.4-20.2 ton CO2 ha-1 yr-1. The clear-cut became waterlogged after harvest and a comparison of flux-gradient data and chamber data (from the adjacent forest stand) indicated a switch from a weak CH4 sink to a significant source at all plots. The CH4 emissions ranged between 0.8-4.5 ton CO2-eq. ha-1 yr-1. N2O emissions ranged between 0.4-2.6 ton CO2-eq. ha-1 yr-1. Enhanced N2O emission on the drier stump harvested plot was the only clear treatment effect on GHG fluxes that was observed. Mean CH4 and N2O emissions for the first year of measurements amounted up to 29% and 20% of the mean annual CO2 emissions, respectively. This highlights the importance of including all GHGs

  6. Activity and biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Mulla, M S; Su, T

    1999-06-01

    Botanical insecticides are relatively safe and degradable, and are readily available sources of biopesticides. The most prominent phytochemical pesticides in recent years are those derived from neem trees, which have been studied extensively in the fields of entomology and phytochemistry, and have uses for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The neem products have been obtained from several species of neem trees in the family Meliaceae. Six species in this family have been the subject of botanical pesticide research. They are Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Azadirachta excelsa Jack, Azadirachta siamens Valeton, Melia azedarach L., Melia toosendan Sieb. and Zucc., and Melia volkensii Gürke. The Meliaceae, especially A. indica (Indian neem tree), contains at least 35 biologically active principles. Azadirachtin is the predominant insecticidal active ingredient in the seed, leaves, and other parts of the neem tree. Azadirachtin and other compounds in neem products exhibit various modes of action against insects such as antifeedancy, growth regulation, fecundity suppression and sterilization, oviposition repellency or attractancy, changes in biological fitness, and blocking development of vector-borne pathogens. Some of these bioactivity parameters of neem products have been investigated at least in some species of insects of medical and veterinary importance, such as mosquitoes, flies, triatomines, cockroaches, fleas, lice, and others. Here we review, synthesize, and analyze published information on the activity, modes of action, and other biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. The amount of information on the activity, use, and application of neem products for the control of disease vectors and human and animal pests is limited. Additional research is needed to determine the potential usefulness of neem products in vector control programs.

  7. SeqSIMLA2: simulating correlated quantitative traits accounting for shared environmental effects in user-specified pedigree structure.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ren-Hua; Tsai, Wei-Yun; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Hung, Kuan-Yi; Hsiung, Chao A; Hauser, Elizabeth R

    2015-01-01

    Simulation tools that simulate sequence data in unrelated cases and controls or in families with quantitative traits or disease status are important for genetic studies. The simulation tools can be used to evaluate the statistical power for detecting the causal variants when planning a genetic epidemiology study, or to evaluate the statistical properties for new methods. We previously developed SeqSIMLA version 1 (SeqSIMLA1), which simulates family or case-control data with a disease or quantitative trait model. SeqSIMLA1, and several other tools that simulate quantitative traits, do not specifically model the shared environmental effects among relatives on a trait. However, shared environmental effects are commonly observed for some traits in families, such as body mass index. SeqSIMLA1 simulates a fixed three-generation family structure. However, it would be ideal to simulate prespecified pedigree structures for studies involving large pedigrees. Thus, we extended SeqSIMLA1 to create SeqSIMLA2, which can simulate correlated traits and considers the shared environmental effects. SeqSIMLA2 can also simulate prespecified large pedigree structures. There are no restrictions on the number of individuals that can be simulated in a pedigree. We used a blood pressure example to demonstrate that SeqSIMLA2 can simulate realistic correlation structures between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure among relatives. We also showed that SeqSIMLA2 can simulate large pedigrees with large chromosomal regions in a reasonable time frame.

  8. 19 CFR 207.41 - Commission review of agreements to eliminate the injurious effect of subsidized imports or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... injurious effect of subsidized imports or imports sold at less than fair value. 207.41 Section 207.41... OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM... less than fair value. If the administering authority determines to suspend an investigation...

  9. 19 CFR 207.41 - Commission review of agreements to eliminate the injurious effect of subsidized imports or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... injurious effect of subsidized imports or imports sold at less than fair value. 207.41 Section 207.41... OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM... less than fair value. If the administering authority determines to suspend an investigation...

  10. 19 CFR 207.41 - Commission review of agreements to eliminate the injurious effect of subsidized imports or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... injurious effect of subsidized imports or imports sold at less than fair value. 207.41 Section 207.41... OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM... less than fair value. If the administering authority determines to suspend an investigation...

  11. 19 CFR 207.41 - Commission review of agreements to eliminate the injurious effect of subsidized imports or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... injurious effect of subsidized imports or imports sold at less than fair value. 207.41 Section 207.41... OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM... less than fair value. If the administering authority determines to suspend an investigation...

  12. 19 CFR 207.41 - Commission review of agreements to eliminate the injurious effect of subsidized imports or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... injurious effect of subsidized imports or imports sold at less than fair value. 207.41 Section 207.41... OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM... less than fair value. If the administering authority determines to suspend an investigation...

  13. Effects of social defeat on sleep and behaviour: importance of the confrontational behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kinn Rød, Anne Marie; Murison, Robert; Mrdalj, Jelena; Milde, Anne Marita; Jellestad, Finn Konow; Øvernes, Leif Arvid; Grønli, Janne

    2014-03-29

    We studied the short- and long-term effects of a double social defeat (SD) on sleep parameters, EEG power, behaviour in the open field emergence test, corticosterone responsiveness, and acoustic startle responses. Pre-stress levels of corticosterone were assessed before all rats were surgically implanted with telemetric transmitters for sleep recording, and allowed 3weeks of recovery. Rats in the SD group (n=10) were exposed to 1hour SD on two consecutive days, while control rats (n=10) were left undisturbed. Telemetric sleep recordings were performed before SD (day -1), day 1 post SD, and once weekly for 3weeks thereafter. The open field emergence test was performed on day 9 and weekly for 2weeks thereafter. Blood samples for measures of corticosterone responsiveness were drawn after the last emergence test (day 23). Acoustic startle responses were tested on day 24 post SD. Overall, SD rats as a group were not affected by the social conflict. Effects of SD seemed, however, to vary according to the behaviours that the intruder displayed during the social confrontation with the resident. Compared to those SD rats showing quick submission (SDS, n=5), SD rats fighting the resident during one or both SD confrontations before defeat (SDF, n=5) showed more fragmented slow wave sleep, both in SWS1 and SWS2. They also showed longer latency to leave the start box and spent less time in the open field arena compared to SDS rats. In the startle test, SDF rats failed to show response decrement at the lowest sound level. Our results indicate that how animals behave during a social confrontation is more important than exposure to the SD procedure itself, and that rapid submission during a social confrontation might be more adaptive than fighting back.

  14. Exploring the importance of quantum effects in nucleation: the archetypical Ne(n) case.

    PubMed

    Unn-Toc, Wesley; Halberstadt, Nadine; Meier, Christoph; Mella, Massimo

    2012-07-07

    The effect of quantum mechanics (QM) on the details of the nucleation process is explored employing Ne clusters as test cases due to their semi-quantal nature. In particular, we investigate the impact of quantum mechanics on both condensation and dissociation rates in the framework of the microcanonical ensemble. Using both classical trajectories and two semi-quantal approaches (zero point averaged dynamics, ZPAD, and Gaussian-based time dependent Hartree, G-TDH) to model cluster and collision dynamics, we simulate the dissociation and monomer capture for Ne(8) as a function of the cluster internal energy, impact parameter and collision speed. The results for the capture probability P(s)(b) as a function of the impact parameter suggest that classical trajectories always underestimate capture probabilities with respect to ZPAD, albeit at most by 15%-20% in the cases we studied. They also do so in some important situations when using G-TDH. More interestingly, dissociation rates k(diss) are grossly overestimated by classical mechanics, at least by one order of magnitude. We interpret both behaviours as mainly due to the reduced amount of kinetic energy available to a quantum cluster for a chosen total internal energy. We also find that the decrease in monomer dissociation energy due to zero point energy effects plays a key role in defining dissociation rates. In fact, semi-quantal and classical results for k(diss) seem to follow a common "corresponding states" behaviour when the proper definition of internal and dissociation energies are used in a transition state model estimation of the evaporation rate constants.

  15. Exploring the importance of quantum effects in nucleation: The archetypical Nen case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unn-Toc, Wesley; Halberstadt, Nadine; Meier, Christoph; Mella, Massimo

    2012-07-01

    The effect of quantum mechanics (QM) on the details of the nucleation process is explored employing Ne clusters as test cases due to their semi-quantal nature. In particular, we investigate the impact of quantum mechanics on both condensation and dissociation rates in the framework of the microcanonical ensemble. Using both classical trajectories and two semi-quantal approaches (zero point averaged dynamics, ZPAD, and Gaussian-based time dependent Hartree, G-TDH) to model cluster and collision dynamics, we simulate the dissociation and monomer capture for Ne8 as a function of the cluster internal energy, impact parameter and collision speed. The results for the capture probability Ps(b) as a function of the impact parameter suggest that classical trajectories always underestimate capture probabilities with respect to ZPAD, albeit at most by 15%-20% in the cases we studied. They also do so in some important situations when using G-TDH. More interestingly, dissociation rates kdiss are grossly overestimated by classical mechanics, at least by one order of magnitude. We interpret both behaviours as mainly due to the reduced amount of kinetic energy available to a quantum cluster for a chosen total internal energy. We also find that the decrease in monomer dissociation energy due to zero point energy effects plays a key role in defining dissociation rates. In fact, semi-quantal and classical results for kdiss seem to follow a common "corresponding states" behaviour when the proper definition of internal and dissociation energies are used in a transition state model estimation of the evaporation rate constants.

  16. Are Non-Newtonian Effects Important in Hemodynamic Simulations of Patients With Autogenous Fistula?

    PubMed

    Javid Mahmoudzadeh Akherat, S M; Cassel, Kevin; Boghosian, Michael; Dhar, Promila; Hammes, Mary

    2017-04-01

    Given the current emphasis on accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of cardiovascular flows, which incorporates realistic blood vessel geometries and cardiac waveforms, it is necessary to revisit the conventional wisdom regarding the influences of non-Newtonian effects. In this study, patient-specific reconstructed 3D geometries, whole blood viscosity data, and venous pulses postdialysis access surgery are used as the basis for the hemodynamic simulations of renal failure patients with native fistula access. Rheological analysis of the viscometry data initially suggested that the correct choice of constitutive relations to capture the non-Newtonian behavior of blood is important because the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient cohort under observation experience drastic variations in hematocrit (Hct) levels and whole blood viscosity throughout the hemodialysis treatment. For this purpose, various constitutive relations have been tested and implemented in CFD practice, namely Quemada and Casson. Because of the specific interest in neointimal hyperplasia and the onset of stenosis in this study, particular attention is placed on differences in nonhomeostatic wall shear stress (WSS) as that drives the venous adaptation process that leads to venous geometric evolution over time in ESRD patients. Surprisingly, the CFD results exhibit no major differences in the flow field and general flow characteristics of a non-Newtonian simulation and a corresponding identical Newtonian counterpart. It is found that the vein's geometric features and the dialysis-induced flow rate have far greater influence on the WSS distribution within the numerical domain.

  17. Effects of consumptive water use on biodiversity in wetlands of international importance.

    PubMed

    Verones, Francesca; Saner, Dominik; Pfister, Stephan; Baisero, Daniele; Rondinini, Carlo; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Wetlands are complex ecosystems that harbor a large diversity of species. Wetlands are among the most threatened ecosystems on our planet, due to human influences such as conversion and drainage. We assessed impacts from water consumption on the species richness of waterbirds, nonresidential birds, water-dependent mammals, reptiles and amphibians in wetlands, considering a larger number of taxa than previous life cycle impact assessment methods. Effect factors (EF) were derived for 1184 wetlands of international importance. EFs quantify the number of global species-equivalents lost per m(2) of wetland area loss. Vulnerability and range size of species were included to reflect conservation values. Further, we derived spatially explicit characterization factors (CFs) that distinguish between surface water and groundwater consumption. All relevant watershed areas that are contributing to feeding the respective wetlands were determined for CF applications. In an example of rose production, we compared damages of water consumption in Kenya and The Netherlands. In both cases, the impact was largest for waterbirds. The total impact from water consumption in Kenya was 67 times larger than in The Netherlands, due to larger species richness and species' vulnerability in Kenya, as well as more arid conditions and larger amounts of water consumed.

  18. The importance of effective communication in interprofessional practice: perspectives of maternity clinicians.

    PubMed

    Watson, Bernadette M; Heatley, Michelle L; Gallois, Cindy; Kruske, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Midwives and doctors require effective information-sharing strategies to provide safe and evidence-based care for women and infants, but this can be difficult to achieve. This article describes maternity care professionals' perceptions of communication in their current workplace in Australia. We invoke social identity theory (SIT) to explore how these perceptions affect interprofessional practice. A survey was conducted with 337 participants (281 midwives and 56 doctors). Using exploratory factor analysis we developed three scales that measured interprofessional workplace practice collaboration. Results indicated an intergroup environment in maternity care in which the professionals found exchange of ideas difficult, and where differences with respect to decision making and professional skills were apparent. Although scores on some measures of collaboration were high, the two professions differed on their ratings of the importance of team behaviors, information sharing, and interprofessional socialization as indicators of collaborative practice. These results highlight the complexities among maternity care providers with different professional identities, and demonstrate the impact of professional identity on interprofessional communication.

  19. General methodology to optimize damping functions to account for charge penetration effects in electrostatic calculations using multicentered multipolar expansions.

    PubMed

    Werneck, Araken S; Filho, Tarcísio M Rocha; Dardenne, Laurent E

    2008-01-17

    We developed a methodology to optimize exponential damping functions to account for charge penetration effects when computing molecular electrostatic properties using the multicentered multipolar expansion method (MME). This methodology is based in the optimization of a damping parameter set using a two-step fast local fitting procedure and the ab initio (Hartree-Fock/6-31G** and 6-31G**+) electrostatic potential calculated in a set of concentric grid of points as reference. The principal aspect of the methodology is a first local fitting step which generates a focused initial guess to improve the performance of a simplex method avoiding the use of multiple runs and the choice of initial guesses. Three different strategies for the determination of optimized damping parameters were tested in the following studies: (1) investigation of the error in the calculation of the electrostatic interaction energy for five hydrogen-bonded dimers at standard and nonstandard hydrogen-bonded geometries and at nonequilibrium geometries; (2) calculation of the electrostatic molecular properties (potential and electric field) for eight small molecular systems (methanol, ammonia, water, formamide, dichloromethane, acetone, dimethyl sulfoxide, and acetonitrile) and for the 20 amino acids. Our results show that the methodology performs well not only for small molecules but also for relatively larger molecular systems. The analysis of the distinct parameter sets associated with different optimization strategies show that (i) a specific parameter set is more suitable and more general for electrostatic interaction energy calculations, with an average absolute error of 0.46 kcal/mol at hydrogen-bond geometries; (ii) a second parameter set is more suitable for electrostatic potential and electric field calculations at and outside the van der Waals (vdW) envelope, with an average error decrease >72% at the vdW surface. A more general amino acid damping parameter set was constructed from the

  20. Educators' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the Desired Results System: A Study of the California Department of Education Accountability Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaleghi, Farahnaz

    2010-01-01

    The deluge of early child development research over the past 20 years has sparked an unprecedented public interest in the first years of children's lives. Research indicates that quality early education promotes the overall development of a healthy child. The Desired Results System, a standards-based accountability initiative of the California…

  1. Federal Policy and the Teacher Labor Market: Exploring the Effects of NCB School Accountability on Teacher Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Min; Saultz, Andrew; Ye, Yincheng

    2017-01-01

    The media suggest that accountability pressure increases teacher stress and drives teachers away from teaching, resulting in teachers leaving disadvantaged schools that serve larger proportions of poor and minority students. However, no prior work has systematically examined the changes in the national trends of teacher turnover in response to No…

  2. Study of the Effect of Education and Academic Environment on Emotional Intelligence on Accounting Students in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Mahdi; Zadeh, Mohammadreza Abbas; Ghaderi, Alireza; Tabasi, Alaleh Zhian

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate the relation between education and academic environment on emotional intelligence of accounting students in state and non-state universities in Iran. In order to collecting data Bar-on emotional intelligence test and SCL 90 questionnaire administrated among 476 students in different subjects including…

  3. The Effects of Project Based Learning on 21st Century Skills and No Child Left Behind Accountability Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Lisa Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine ways "Digital Biographies," a Project Based Learning Unit, developed 21st century skills while simultaneously supporting NCLB accountability standards. The main goal of this study was to inform professional practice by exploring ways to address two separate, seemingly opposing, demands of…

  4. Race to the Top Leaves Children and Future Citizens behind: The Devastating Effects of Centralization, Standardization, and High Stakes Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onosko, Joe

    2011-01-01

    President Barack Obama's Race to the Top (RTT) is a profoundly flawed educational reform plan that increases standardization, centralization, and test-based accountability in our nation's schools. Following a brief summary of the interest groups supporting the plan, who is currently participating in this race, why so many states voluntarily…

  5. Learning Efficacy and Cost-Effectiveness of Print versus e-Book Instructional Material in an Introductory Financial Accounting Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annand, David

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the concurrent development of paper-based and e-book versions of a textbook and related instructional material used in an introductory-level financial accounting course. Break-even analysis is used to compare costs of the two media. A study conducted with 109 students is also used to evaluate the two media with respect to…

  6. Accounting: Accountants Need Verbal Skill Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Bruce L.

    1978-01-01

    Verbal skills training is one aspect of accounting education not usually included in secondary and postsecondary accounting courses. The author discusses the need for verbal competency and methods of incorporating it into accounting courses, particularly a variation of the Keller plan of individualized instruction. (MF)

  7. [Myiases of economic importance].

    PubMed

    Touré, S M

    1994-12-01

    A simplified list of the principal Diptera capable of causing myiasis is followed by a brief presentation of the biology, lesions inflicted, and methods of treatment and control of the myiases of economic importance. Cochliomyiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax is of greatest interest, in view of the damage and losses caused by this disease. A brief account of the outbreak of infestation in Libya illustrates the danger of this parasite. Other important traumatic myiases are described: that due to Chrysomya bezziana, which causes an African myiasis similar to cochliomyiasis, and those due to Lucilia cuprina and related species. Hypodermyiasis (warble fly infestation) and oestrosis (nasal bot fly infestation in sheep) still cause major economic losses in domestic animals, justifying their inclusion in control campaigns. The same applies to stomach bot flies of the family Gasterophilidae. The account of each myiasis includes notes on parasiticides which have been found to be effective. Given the rapidity with which a parasite can now be transported from one continent to another, it is important for Veterinary Services to be well-informed and vigilant.

  8. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Three Methods of Instruction in Introduction to Accounting on Achievement, Attitude and Problem Solving Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, Joseph E.

    This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of two methods of individualized instruction compared to the traditional textbook-lecture method in teaching introductory accounting courses. The two experimental class sections and the control class section involved in the study enrolled a total of 71 students. In the first individualized…

  9. 26 CFR 1.551-5 - Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of shareholders. 1.551-5 Section 1.551-5 Internal Revenue... holding company and basis of stock in hands of shareholders. (a) Sections 551(e) and 551(f) are...

  10. 26 CFR 1.551-5 - Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of shareholders. 1.551-5 Section 1.551-5 Internal Revenue... holding company and basis of stock in hands of shareholders. (a) Sections 551(e) and 551(f) are...

  11. 26 CFR 1.551-5 - Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of shareholders. 1.551-5 Section 1.551-5 Internal Revenue... holding company and basis of stock in hands of shareholders. (a) Sections 551(e) and 551(f) are...

  12. 26 CFR 1.551-5 - Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of shareholders. 1.551-5 Section 1.551-5 Internal Revenue... holding company and basis of stock in hands of shareholders. (a) Sections 551(e) and 551(f) are...

  13. 26 CFR 1.551-5 - Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of shareholders. 1.551-5 Section 1.551-5 Internal Revenue... holding company and basis of stock in hands of shareholders. (a) Sections 551(e) and 551(f) are...

  14. Choosing Important Health Outcomes for Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Updated Review and Identification of Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Gorst, Sarah L.; Gargon, Elizabeth; Clarke, Mike; Smith, Valerie; Williamson, Paula R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The COMET (Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials) Initiative promotes the development and application of core outcome sets (COS), including relevant studies in an online database. In order to keep the database current, an annual search of the literature is undertaken. This study aimed to update a previous systematic review, in order to identify any further studies where a COS has been developed. Furthermore, no prioritization for COS development has previously been undertaken, therefore this study also aimed to identify COS relevant to the world’s most prevalent health conditions. Methods The methods used in this updated review followed the same approach used in the original review and the previous update. A survey was also sent to the corresponding authors of COS identified for inclusion in this review, to ascertain what lessons they had learnt from developing their COS. Additionally, the COMET database was searched to identify COS that might be relevant to the conditions with the highest global prevalence. Results Twenty-five reports relating to 22 new studies were eligible for inclusion in the review. Further improvements were identified in relation to the description of the scope of the COS, use of the Delphi technique, and the inclusion of patient participants within the development process. Additionally, 33 published and ongoing COS were identified for 13 of the world’s most prevalent conditions. Conclusion The development of a reporting guideline and minimum standards should contribute towards future improvements in development and reporting of COS. This study has also described a first approach to identifying gaps in existing COS, and to priority setting in this area. Important gaps have been identified, on the basis of global burden of disease, and the development and application of COS in these areas should be considered a priority. PMID:27973622

  15. Salt effects on functional traits in model and in economically important Lotus species.

    PubMed

    Uchiya, P; Escaray, F J; Bilenca, D; Pieckenstain, F; Ruiz, O A; Menéndez, A B

    2016-07-01

    A common stress on plants is NaCl-derived soil salinity. Genus Lotus comprises model and economically important species, which have been studied regarding physiological responses to salinity. Leaf area ratio (LAR), root length ratio (RLR) and their components, specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass fraction (LMF) and specific root length (SRL) and root mass fraction (RMF) might be affected by high soil salinity. We characterised L. tenuis, L. corniculatus, L. filicaulis, L. creticus, L. burtii and L. japonicus grown under different salt concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 mm NaCl) on the basis of SLA, LMF, SRL and RMF using PCA. We also assessed effects of different salt concentrations on LAR and RLR in each species, and explored whether changes in these traits provide fitness benefit. Salinity (150 mm NaCl) increased LAR in L. burtii and L. corniculatus, but not in the remaining species. The highest salt concentration caused a decrease of RLR in L. japonicus Gifu, but not in the remaining species. Changes in LAR and RLR would not be adaptive, according to adaptiveness analysis, with the exception of SLA changes in L. corniculatus. PCA revealed that under favourable conditions plants optimise surfaces for light and nutrient acquisition (SLA and SRL), whereas at higher salt concentrations they favour carbon allocation to leaves and roots (LMF and RMF) in detriment to their surfaces. PCA also showed that L. creticus subjected to saline treatment was distinguished from the remaining Lotus species. We suggest that augmented carbon partitioning to leaves and roots could constitute a salt-alleviating mechanism through toxic ion dilution.

  16. Tic Tac TOE: Effects of Predictability and Importance on Acoustic Prominence in Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Duane G.; Arnold, Jennifer E.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Importance and predictability each have been argued to contribute to acoustic prominence. To investigate whether these factors are independent or two aspects of the same phenomenon, naive participants played a verbal variant of Tic Tac Toe. Both importance and predictability contributed independently to the acoustic prominence of a word, but in…

  17. Dairy Cattle Breeding Effectiveness Analysis under the Conditions of Import Substitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokarev, Yuri A.; Merkushova, Nina I.; Bakanach, Olga V.; Proskurina, Natalya V.; Sazhina, Natalia S.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problem is inspired by the strategic importance of dairy farming to the national economy, which is especially evident in the context of the EU economic sanctions against the Russian Federation and carrying out the import substitution policy. First and foremost, this policy applies to food commodities, including milk.…

  18. Effect of selected psychological characteristics upon choice-shift patterns found within hierarchical groups of public accountants.

    PubMed

    Kent, D Donald; Arnold, Donald F; Nydegger, Rudy V

    2002-08-01

    The goals of this study were to examine, first, the relationship between choice shift and three psychological variables (social desirability, locus of control, and moral reasoning) and, second, the influence of these and subjects' employment position on the choice-shift phenomenon within the context of a professional accounting setting. The sample of 60 subjects (four auditors per group, each holding different employment ranks within their firms, yielding 15 groups, each from a different small to medium size CPA firm), participated in three group decision-making tasks related to common accounting and auditing risk-assessment issues. The exercise consisted of three iterations of a standard choice-shift exercise followed by three standardized tests to mcasure the selected psychological characteristics. Analysis indicated that choice shifts were not significantly affected by subjects' psychological characteristics. Instead, subjects' position in an organization influenced choice shift, and the higher the position, the less absolute shift shown.

  19. Random regression models to account for the effect of genotype by environment interaction due to heat stress on the milk yield of Holstein cows under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Santana, Mário L; Bignardi, Annaiza Braga; Pereira, Rodrigo Junqueira; Menéndez-Buxadera, Alberto; El Faro, Lenira

    2016-02-01

    The present study had the following objectives: to compare random regression models (RRM) considering the time-dependent (days in milk, DIM) and/or temperature × humidity-dependent (THI) covariate for genetic evaluation; to identify the effect of genotype by environment interaction (G×E) due to heat stress on milk yield; and to quantify the loss of milk yield due to heat stress across lactation of cows under tropical conditions. A total of 937,771 test-day records from 3603 first lactations of Brazilian Holstein cows obtained between 2007 and 2013 were analyzed. An important reduction in milk yield due to heat stress was observed for THI values above 66 (-0.23 kg/day/THI). Three phases of milk yield loss were identified during lactation, the most damaging one at the end of lactation (-0.27 kg/day/THI). Using the most complex RRM, the additive genetic variance could be altered simultaneously as a function of both DIM and THI values. This model could be recommended for the genetic evaluation taking into account the effect of G×E. The response to selection in the comfort zone (THI ≤ 66) is expected to be higher than that obtained in the heat stress zone (THI > 66) of the animals. The genetic correlations between milk yield in the comfort and heat stress zones were less than unity at opposite extremes of the environmental gradient. Thus, the best animals for milk yield in the comfort zone are not necessarily the best in the zone of heat stress and, therefore, G×E due to heat stress should not be neglected in the genetic evaluation.

  20. Shift in power to hospital accountants.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, L G; Rayburn, J M

    1996-01-01

    With the introduction of the Prospective Payment System, hospital accountants' role changed from reimbursement maximizers to an important role in decision making. Faced with increased competition, many hospitals are installing financial controls. Many hospitals are engaging in promotion and health awareness campaigns and expanding their services to stabilize income and reduce the effects of a changing environment. Thus, hospitals operate in a more competitive environment with much uncertainty. When faced with uncertainty, organizations often believe that they must convince society that their existence is legitimate. Increasing specialization and organizational complexity in healthcare professions have made the expert important. Experts, such as the role assumed by hospital accountants, maintain power because the organization depends on them for their special skills and information. Scarce resources coupled with uncertainty move hospital accountants as experts into the power equation in the changing control of the U.S. healthcare system. Since accountants often serve as monitors of scarce resources, information about the resource allocation directly affects the distribution of power. This places hospital accountants in a critical role of assisting their institutions in adapting to a new environment.

  1. Which Feedback Is More Effective for Pursuing Multiple Goals of Differing Importance? The Interaction Effects of Goal Importance and Performance Feedback Type on Self-Regulation and Task Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyunjoo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how performance feedback type (progress vs. distance) affects Korean college students' self-regulation and task achievement according to relative goal importance in the pursuit of multiple goals. For this study, 146 students participated in a computerised task. The results showed the interaction effects of goal importance and…

  2. Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; James, Kristina; Escobar, Gabriel; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Li, Sherian Xu; Carroll, Kecia N.; Walsh, Eileen; Mitchel, Edward; Das, Suman; Kumar, Rajesh; Yu, Chang; Dupont, William D.; Hartert, Tina V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma. Methods We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma) cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI) during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS), mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated. Results Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI) and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course) were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling) was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal

  3. Effects of common groundwater ions on chromate removal by magnetite: Importance of chromate adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Meena, Amanda H.; Arai, Yuji

    2016-04-29

    Reductive precipitation of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) with magnetite is a well-known Cr(VI) remediation method to improve water quality. The rapid (< a few hr) reduction of soluble Cr(VI) to insoluble Cr(III) species by Fe(II) in magnetite has been the primary focus of the Cr(VI) removal process in the past. However, the contribution of simultaneous Cr(VI) adsorption processes in aged magnetite has been largely ignored, leaving uncertainties in evaluating the application of in situ Cr remediation technologies for aqueous systems. In this study, effects of common groundwater ions (i.e., nitrate and sulfate) on Cr(VI) sorption to magnetite were investigated using batch geochemical experiments in conjunction with X-ray absorption spectroscopy. As a result, in both nitrate and sulfate electrolytes, batch sorption experiments showed that Cr(VI) sorption decreases with increasing pH from 4 to 8. In this pH range, Cr(VI) sorption decreased with increasing ionic strength of sulfate from 0.01 to 0.1 M whereas nitrate concentrations did not alter the Cr(VI) sorption behavior. This indicates the background electrolyte specific Cr(VI) sorption process in magnetite. Under the same ionic strength, Cr(VI) removal in sulfate containing solutions was greater than that in nitrate solutions. This is because the oxidation of Fe(II) by nitrate is more thermodynamically favorable than by sulfate, leaving less reduction capacity of magnetite to reduce Cr(VI) in the nitrate media. X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis supports the macroscopic evidence that more than 75 % of total Cr on the magnetite surfaces was adsorbed Cr(VI) species after 48 h. In conclusion, this experimental geochemical study showed that the adsorption process of Cr(VI) anions was as important as the reductive precipitation of Cr(III) in describing the removal of Cr(VI) by magnetite, and these interfacial adsorption processes could be impacted by common groundwater ions like sulfate and nitrate. The results of

  4. Effects of common groundwater ions on chromate removal by magnetite: Importance of chromate adsorption

    DOE PAGES

    Meena, Amanda H.; Arai, Yuji

    2016-04-29

    Reductive precipitation of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) with magnetite is a well-known Cr(VI) remediation method to improve water quality. The rapid (< a few hr) reduction of soluble Cr(VI) to insoluble Cr(III) species by Fe(II) in magnetite has been the primary focus of the Cr(VI) removal process in the past. However, the contribution of simultaneous Cr(VI) adsorption processes in aged magnetite has been largely ignored, leaving uncertainties in evaluating the application of in situ Cr remediation technologies for aqueous systems. In this study, effects of common groundwater ions (i.e., nitrate and sulfate) on Cr(VI) sorption to magnetite were investigated using batchmore » geochemical experiments in conjunction with X-ray absorption spectroscopy. As a result, in both nitrate and sulfate electrolytes, batch sorption experiments showed that Cr(VI) sorption decreases with increasing pH from 4 to 8. In this pH range, Cr(VI) sorption decreased with increasing ionic strength of sulfate from 0.01 to 0.1 M whereas nitrate concentrations did not alter the Cr(VI) sorption behavior. This indicates the background electrolyte specific Cr(VI) sorption process in magnetite. Under the same ionic strength, Cr(VI) removal in sulfate containing solutions was greater than that in nitrate solutions. This is because the oxidation of Fe(II) by nitrate is more thermodynamically favorable than by sulfate, leaving less reduction capacity of magnetite to reduce Cr(VI) in the nitrate media. X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis supports the macroscopic evidence that more than 75 % of total Cr on the magnetite surfaces was adsorbed Cr(VI) species after 48 h. In conclusion, this experimental geochemical study showed that the adsorption process of Cr(VI) anions was as important as the reductive precipitation of Cr(III) in describing the removal of Cr(VI) by magnetite, and these interfacial adsorption processes could be impacted by common groundwater ions like sulfate and nitrate. The

  5. Importance of Many-Body Effects in the Kernel of Hemoglobin for Ligand Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Cédric; O'Regan, David D.; Hine, Nicholas D. M.; Littlewood, Peter B.; Kotliar, Gabriel; Payne, Mike C.

    2013-03-01

    We propose a mechanism for binding of diatomic ligands to heme based on a dynamical orbital selection process. This scenario may be described as bonding determined by local valence fluctuations. We support this model using linear-scaling first-principles calculations, in combination with dynamical mean-field theory, applied to heme, the kernel of the hemoglobin metalloprotein central to human respiration. We find that variations in Hund’s exchange coupling induce a reduction of the iron 3d density, with a concomitant increase of valence fluctuations. We discuss the comparison between our computed optical absorption spectra and experimental data, our picture accounting for the observation of optical transitions in the infrared regime, and how the Hund’s coupling reduces, by a factor of 5, the strong imbalance in the binding energies of heme with CO and O2 ligands.

  6. 31 CFR 537.511 - Importation of accompanied baggage and household effects of U.S. diplomatic and consular officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... products of Burma as accompanied baggage or household effects, provided that such products are not intended... household effects of U.S. diplomatic and consular officials. 537.511 Section 537.511 Money and Finance... Policy § 537.511 Importation of accompanied baggage and household effects of U.S. diplomatic and...

  7. 31 CFR 537.511 - Importation of accompanied baggage and household effects of U.S. diplomatic and consular officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... products of Burma as accompanied baggage or household effects, provided that such products are not intended... household effects of U.S. diplomatic and consular officials. 537.511 Section 537.511 Money and Finance... Policy § 537.511 Importation of accompanied baggage and household effects of U.S. diplomatic and...

  8. 31 CFR 537.511 - Importation of accompanied baggage and household effects of U.S. diplomatic and consular officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... products of Burma as accompanied baggage or household effects, provided that such products are not intended... and household effects of U.S. diplomatic and consular officials. 537.511 Section 537.511 Money and... Policy § 537.511 Importation of accompanied baggage and household effects of U.S. diplomatic and...

  9. Efficacy and Accountability in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitzug, Ulrich C.

    This study examined the relationship among accountability, efficacy, and organizational effectiveness by integrating findings from 17 research and development reports on Management by Objectives (MBO), an intervention that incorporates elements and processes of both accountability (goal-setting, measuring and monitoring, feedback) and efficacy…

  10. Teacher Accountability: Trends and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the growing public demand for holding teachers accountable for student performance. Asserts that this position assumes that effectiveness can be measured, whereas the incluence teachers have on student achievement is complex and variable, and may be less than that of family and peers. Describes various State-effort accountability plans.…

  11. An Accounting International Experience Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Leigh Redd; Rudolph, Holly R.; Seay, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Accounting students need practical opportunities to personally experience other cultures and international business practices if they are to effectively compete in today's global marketplace. In order to address this need, the Department of Accounting at Murray State University offers an international experience course which includes a short-term…

  12. School Centered Evidence Based Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Achievement scores drive much of the effort in today's accountability system, however, there is much more that occurs in every school, every day. School Centered Evidence Based Accountability can be used from micro to macro giving School Boards and Administration a process for monitoring the results of the entire school operation effectively and…

  13. Revised Accounting for Business Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Arlette C.; Key, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has recently issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 141 (Revised 2007) Business Combinations. The object of this Statement is to improve the relevance, representational faithfulness, and comparability of reported information about a business combination and its effects. This Statement…

  14. 77 FR 76071 - The Economic Effects of Significant U.S. Import Restraints: Eighth Update Special Topic: Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION The Economic Effects of Significant U.S. Import Restraints: Eighth Update Special Topic: Services' Contribution to Manufacturing AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of...

  15. 75 FR 64351 - The Economic Effects of Significant U.S. Import Restraints: Seventh Update; Special Topic: Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION The Economic Effects of Significant U.S. Import Restraints: Seventh Update; Special Topic: Global Supply Chains AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of seventh...

  16. Estimating the Effect of Climate Change on Crop Yields and Farmland Values: The Importance of Extreme Temperatures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a presentation titled Estimating the Effect of Climate Change on Crop Yields and Farmland Values: The Importance of Extreme Temperatures that was given for the National Center for Environmental Economics

  17. Effects of Ability, Race, and Socioeconomic Status on Perceived Importance of Capacities, Interests, and Values in Occupational Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Donald H.; Bledsoe, Joseph C.

    1980-01-01

    Responses of 480 Georgia students (ages 11 to 18 years) to the Dalton Vocational Importance Questionnaire developed to test Ginzberg's theory of occupational choice were analyzed to determine effects of ability, race, and socioeconomic status on perceived importance of capacities, interests, and values. (Author)

  18. 15 CFR 705.4 - Criteria for determining effect of imports on the national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... imported article under investigation, consider the following: (1) The impact of foreign competition on the... projected national defense requirements; (3) The existing and anticipated availabilities of human resources... the national defense; (4) The growth requirements of domestic industries to meet national...

  19. Report: EPA Does Not Effectively Control or Monitor Imports of Hazardous Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #15-P-0172, July 6, 2015. The EPA lacks explicit authority to block imported shipments of hazardous waste that lack prior EPA consent. This could lead to improper handling and disposal, resulting in unknown human and environmental exposure to toxic

  20. How Principals Level the Playing Field of Accountability in Florida's High-Poverty/Low-Performing Schools--Part III: Effects of High-Poverty Schools on Teacher Recruitment and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touchton, Debra; Acker-Hocevar, Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Report on part of a study of 10 principals who were asked about their views toward the state's accountability measures in reference to their schools and their roles, and what, if any, effect external accountability had on internal accountability or developing the organizational capacity of their school. (Contains 19 references.) (WFA)

  1. Hospitals' Internal Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K.; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387

  2. International Accounting and the Accounting Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laribee, Stephen F.

    The American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) has been instrumental in internationalizing the accounting curriculum by means of accreditation requirements and standards. Colleges and universities have met the AACSB requirements either by providing separate international accounting courses or by integrating international topics…

  3. ASSESSING THE IMPORTANCE OF THE BEHAVIORAL EFFECT OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO TOLUENE IN HUMANS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing interest in being able to evaluate potential benefit-cost relationships of controlling exposure to toxic substances. Behavioral effects of acute toluene exposure could be subjected to benefit-cost analysis if it's effects were quantitatively compared to tho...

  4. Improving the Effectiveness of Learning through Hypermedia-Based Instruction: The Importance of Learner Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Herman G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of hypermedia-based instruction focuses on studies of eighth-grade junior high school students that investigated differences in cognitive style during information-seeking behavior and learning, the effect of social context (collaborative versus individual study), and the effects of magnet school students' self-regulation of study time.…

  5. The relationship of intelligence and memory to interrogative suggestibility: the importance of range effects.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1988-05-01

    This paper looks at the relationship between intelligence, memory and interrogative suggestibility, particularly with reference to range effects. The subjects were 60 normal subjects and 100 forensic patients who had completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Clear range effects of IQ and memory were evident in their relationship with suggestibility.

  6. Effect of Yeast Hulls on Stuck and Sluggish Wine Fermentations: Importance of the Lipid Component

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, Eeva; Ingledew, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of yeast hulls (yeast ghosts) on sluggish or stuck white wine fermentations was studied. The enhancing effect on yeast growth and fermentation rate displayed by the hulls was shown to be similar to the effect provided by lipid extract from the same hulls. Unsaturated fatty acids and sterols were incorporated into the yeast from lipid extracts during fermentation carried out under oxygen-limited conditions. Adsorption of toxic medium-chain fatty acid (decanoic acid) onto the yeast hulls took place through a dialysis membrane. However, when the hulls were placed inside a dialysis bag, the increase in yeast growth and fermentation rate seen when freely suspended hulls were used did not occur. Accordingly, the effect of yeast hulls in preventing stuck fermentations cannot be attributed only to the adsorption and consequent removal of medium-chain fatty acids from the juice. PMID:16347950

  7. Critical importance of stimulus unawareness for the production of subliminal psychodynamic activation effects. An attributional model.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, R F

    1992-02-01

    This paper describes a new theoretical model of subliminal psychodynamic activation (SPA) effects. The model conceptualizes subliminal-supraliminal differences in SPA effects as being due to differences in subjects' attributions for the changes in anxiety level that are produced by subliminal versus supraliminal SPA stimuli. Changes in anxiety level produced by supraliminal SPA stimuli can be attributed by subjects to the experimental procedures, diminishing the impact of these messages on subjects' responses. In contrast, subjects cannot attribute changes in anxiety level produced by subliminal SPA stimuli to the experimental procedures. Therefore, no "discounting" (i.e., situational) attributions for subliminally induced changes in anxiety levels are available to subjects, and subliminal SPA messages produce significantly stronger effects on responding than do supraliminal SPA messages. The attributional model of SPA effects is discussed in the context of other long-term research programs investigating subliminal phenomena. The implications of this model for clinical treatment and empirical research utilizing the SPA paradigm are discussed.

  8. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    PubMed

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.

  9. A Harmonious Accounting Duo?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schapperle, Robert F.; Hardiman, Patrick F.

    1992-01-01

    Accountants have urged "harmonization" of standards between the Governmental Accounting Standards Board and the Financial Accounting Standards Board, recommending similar reporting of like transactions. However, varying display of similar accounting events does not necessarily indicate disharmony. The potential for problems because of…

  10. The effects of general and homophobic victimization on adolescents' psychosocial and educational concerns: the importance of intersecting identities and parent support.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Mereish, Ethan H; Digiovanni, Craig D; Koenig, Brian W

    2011-10-01

    Many adolescents experience peer victimization, which often can be homophobic. Applying the minority stress model with attention to intersecting social identities, this study tested the effects of general and homophobic victimization on several educational outcomes through suicidality and school belonging among 15,923 adolescents in Grades 7 through 12 on account of their sexual orientation and race/ethnicity. Parent support also was tested as a moderator of these effects. Homophobic victimization had different effects on suicidality across groups, indicating the importance of considering individuals' multiple social identities. However, homophobic victimization had universal negative effects on school belonging for all groups. Nearly all indirect effects of general and homophobic victimization on reported grades, truancy, and importance of graduating were significant through suicidality and school belonging across groups. Parent support was most consistent in moderating the effects of general and homophobic victimization on suicidality for heterosexual White and racial/ethnic minority youth. In nearly all cases, it did not moderate the effects of general or homophobic victimization for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth. Furthermore, in most cases, parent support did not moderate the effects of general or homophobic victimization on school belonging. Findings underscore the need for counseling psychologists to work with parents of all youth on ways to provide support to those who experience homophobic victimization. Furthermore, they highlight the need for counseling psychologists to be involved as social justice advocates in the passage and implementation of school policies that address homophobic bullying and other forms of bias-based bullying and harassment.

  11. Assessing the Perceived Importance of Skin Cancer: How Question-Order Effects Are Influenced by Issue Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimal, Rajiv N.; Real, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Question-order effects refer to systematic differences in responses that can be attributed to the manner in which questions assessing attitudes and cognitions are asked. This article hypothesized that question-order effects in assessing the perceived importance of skin cancer would be moderated by the extent to which people are involved with the…

  12. Cost Accounting in the Automated Manufacturing Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    current cost accounting systems...Bennett et al., 1987]. First, users of cost accounting information express different levels of satisfaction with the 65 effectiveness of current cost accounting systems...Bennett et al., 1987). For example, it was found that, ආ percent of the users are unhappy with current cost accounting

  13. Why edge effects are important on the intrinsic loss mechanisms of graphene nanoresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jin-Wu; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate edge effects on the quality factor of graphene nanoresonators with different edge configurations and of various sizes. If the periodic boundary condition is applied, very high quality factors (3 × 105) are obtained for all kinds of graphene nanoresonators. However, if the free boundary condition is applied, quality factors will be greatly reduced by two effects resulting from free edges: the imaginary edge vibration effect and the artificial effect. Imaginary edge vibrations will flip between a pair of doubly degenerate warping states during the mechanical oscillation of nanoresonators. The flipping process breaks the coherence of the mechanical oscillation of the nanoresonator, which is the dominant mechanism for extremely low quality factors. There is an artificial effect if the mechanical oscillation of the graphene nanoresonator is actuated according to an artificial vibration (non-natural vibration of the system), which slightly reduces the quality factor. The artificial effect can be eliminated by actuating the mechanical oscillation according to a natural vibration of the nanoresonator. Our simulations provide an explanation for the recent experiment, where the measured quality factor is low and varies between identical samples with free edges.

  14. Custom accounts receivable modeling.

    PubMed

    Veazie, J

    1994-04-01

    In hospital and clinic management, accounts are valued as units and handled equally--a $20 account receives the same minimum number of statements as a $20,000 account. Quite often, the sheer number of accounts a hospital or clinic has to handle forces executives to manage accounts by default and failure--accounts mature on an aging track and, if left unpaid by patients, eventually are sent to collections personnel. Of the bad-debt accounts placed with collections agencies, many are misclassified as charity or hardship cases, while others could be collected by hospital or clinic staff with a limited amount of additional effort.

  15. Bias at the racetrack: effects of individual expertise and task importance on predecision reevaluation of alternatives.

    PubMed

    Brownstein, Aaron L; Read, Stephen J; Simon, Dan

    2004-07-01

    These studies were designed to test cognitive dissonance theory's assertion that alternatives are not reevaluated before a choice. Participants viewed information about horses in a simulated race and rated each one's chance of winning three times before placing their bet and once after placing it. It was found that ratings of the chosen horse increased within the predecision period as well as after betting. Predecision bolstering occurred even when participants did not expect to bet, and predecision preference increased with task importance and participant expertise. The findings are attributed to maintenance of consistency throughout a cognitive system.

  16. Health effects of residential wood smoke particles: the importance of combustion conditions and physicochemical particle properties

    PubMed Central

    Kocbach Bølling, Anette; Pagels, Joakim; Yttri, Karl Espen; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Schwarze, Per E; Boman, Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    Background Residential wood combustion is now recognized as a major particle source in many developed countries, and the number of studies investigating the negative health effects associated with wood smoke exposure is currently increasing. The combustion appliances in use today provide highly variable combustion conditions resulting in large variations in the physicochemical characteristics of the emitted particles. These differences in physicochemical properties are likely to influence the biological effects induced by the wood smoke particles. Outline The focus of this review is to discuss the present knowledge on physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles from different combustion conditions in relation to wood smoke-induced health effects. In addition, the human wood smoke exposure in developed countries is explored in order to identify the particle characteristics that are relevant for experimental studies of wood smoke-induced health effects. Finally, recent experimental studies regarding wood smoke exposure are discussed with respect to the applied combustion conditions and particle properties. Conclusion Overall, the reviewed literature regarding the physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles provides a relatively clear picture of how these properties vary with the combustion conditions, whereas particle emissions from specific classes of combustion appliances are less well characterised. The major gaps in knowledge concern; (i) characterisation of the atmospheric transformations of wood smoke particles, (ii) characterisation of the physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles in ambient and indoor environments, and (iii) identification of the physicochemical properties that influence the biological effects of wood smoke particles. PMID:19891791

  17. Evolution in response to social selection: the importance of interactive effects of traits on fitness.

    PubMed

    Westneat, David F

    2012-03-01

    Social interactions have a powerful effect on the evolutionary process. Recent attempts to synthesize models of social selection with equations for indirect genetic effects (McGlothlin et al. 2010) provide a broad theoretical base from which to study selection and evolutionary response in the context of social interactions. However, this framework concludes that social selection will lead to evolution only if the traits carried by social partners are nonrandomly associated. I suggest this conclusion is incomplete, and that traits that do not covary between social partners can nevertheless lead to evolution via interactive effects on fitness. Such effects occur when there are functional interactions between traits, and as an example I use the interplay in water striders (Gerridae) between grasping appendages carried by males and spines by females. Functional interactive effects between traits can be incorporated into both the equations for social selection and the general model of social evolution proposed by McGlothlin et al. These expanded equations would accommodate adaptive coevolution in social interactions, integrate the quantitative genetic approach to social evolution with game theoretical approaches, and stimulate some new questions about the process of social evolution.

  18. Differential Effects of Parental Controls on Adolescent Substance Use: For Whom Is the Family Most Important?

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Van Horn, M. Lee; Hawkins, J. David; Jaki, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objective Social control theory assumes that the ability of social constraints to deter juvenile delinquency will be invariant across individuals. This paper tests this hypothesis and examines the degree to which there are differential effects of parental controls on adolescent substance use. Methods Analyses are based on self-reported data from 7,349 10th-grade students and rely on regression mixture models to identify latent classes of individuals who may vary in the effects of parental controls on drug use. Results All parental controls were significantly related to adolescent drug use, with higher levels of control associated with less drug use. The effects of instrumental parental controls (e.g., parental management strategies) on drug use were shown to vary across individuals, while expressive controls (e.g., parent/child attachment) had uniform effects in reducing drug use. Specifically, poor family management and more favorable parental attitudes regarding children’s drug use and delinquency had stronger effects on drug use for students who reported greater attachment to their neighborhoods, less acceptance of adolescent drug use by neighborhood residents, and fewer delinquent peers, compared to those with greater community and peer risk exposure. Parental influences were also stronger for Caucasian students versus those from other racial/ethnic groups, but no differences in effects were found based on students’ gender or commitment to school. Conclusions The findings demonstrate support for social control theory, and also help to refine and add precision to this perspective by identifying groups of individuals for whom parental controls are most influential. Further, they offer an innovative methodology that can be applied to any criminological theory to examine the complex forces that result in illegal behavior. PMID:25339794

  19. A theoretical analysis of mixed convection in aquifer storage and recovery: How important are density effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, James D.; Simmons, Craig T.; Dillon, Peter J.

    2007-09-01

    SummaryAquifer storage and recovery (ASR) involves the injection of freshwater into a confined aquifer and represents an alternative to surface water storage. This paper investigates the hydrogeologic parameters governing density effects in a mixed convection system during the injection, storage and recovery of a freshwater bubble in a saline (isotropic and homogeneous) aquifer. The vertical interface between injected freshwater and ambient saltwater is inherently unstable due to the density difference between the two fluids. This instability can potentially lead to macroscopic rotation of the interface, leading to premature breakthrough of salt at the bottom of the well and hence reduce the volume of water that is recoverable at an acceptable quality. Significance of density effects during injection was found to depend on the mixed convection ratio (a ratio of the characteristic velocities from forced convection due to pumping, to free convection due to concentration differences), with the greatest interface tilt occurring with high density contrasts plus slow injection rates and high hydraulic conductivities. During storage, the extent of the density effect depends on the storage duration and hydraulic conductivity. During recovery, the breakthrough curve shape is profoundly different in density-dominated cases compared with advection and dispersion-dominated cases. Dispersive mixing was found to attenuate density effects in all three phases of ASR. This study demonstrates that the density contrast alone is insufficient as a decision parameter when choosing whether density effects are negligible. Even when modelling ASR scenarios where the density contrast is low and would traditionally be considered negligible, the decision to include or neglect fluid density in the model should be based on a full mixed convection analysis, as considered in this study. Density effects in ASR are shown to depend on the relative influences of the density difference, hydraulic

  20. Charge is an important determinant of hemodynamic and adverse cardiovascular effects of cationic drugs.

    PubMed

    Pugsley, Michael K; Authier, Simon; Curtis, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Cationic compounds are diverse and atypical therapeutic substances. In the present study we examined whether a prototypical class effect of cationic drugs in the cardiovascular system exists and whether this might be predictable on the basis of chemistry. The dose-dependent effects of cationic compounds of varying molecular weights and charge were examined on the blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and the ECG in anesthetized rats. The compounds examined were protamine, hexadimethrine, tetraethylammonium (TEA), low molecular weight poly-L-lysine (LMW-PLL) and high molecular weight PLL (HMW-PLL). All of the compounds examined except TEA produced a dose-dependent reduction in BP. No changes occurred in HR even when high doses were administered. The ECG effects of these cationic compounds included a dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval, especially at higher doses. All compounds transiently decreased the size of the P-wave after i.v. bolus administration whereas only protamine and hexadimethrine prolonged the PR and QRS intervals and only at the highest dose (32 mg/kg) administered. All cationic compounds, except TEA and saline, evoked ventricular premature beats (VPB), and protamine and HMW-PLL also evoked brief episodes of ventricular tachycardia (VT). The incidence and frequency of arrhythmias was not dose-dependent and no animals experienced protracted episodes of arrhythmia incidence. These dose dependent effects of the polycationic compounds tested suggest a collective mechanism of action that relates the effect of charge of the compound to the onset and persistence of observed cardiovascular toxicity, and adverse cardiovascular effect risk appears to be predictable on this basis.

  1. Global environmental change effects on ecosystems: the importance of land-use legacies.

    PubMed

    Perring, Michael P; De Frenne, Pieter; Baeten, Lander; Maes, Sybryn L; Depauw, Leen; Blondeel, Haben; Carón, María M; Verheyen, Kris

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in ecology is to predict how multiple global environmental changes will affect future ecosystem patterns (e.g. plant community composition) and processes (e.g. nutrient cycling). Here, we highlight arguments for the necessary inclusion of land-use legacies in this endeavour. Alterations in resources and conditions engendered by previous land use, together with influences on plant community processes such as dispersal, selection, drift and speciation, have steered communities and ecosystem functions onto trajectories of change. These trajectories may be modulated by contemporary environmental changes such as climate warming and nitrogen deposition. We performed a literature review which suggests that these potential interactions have rarely been investigated. This crucial oversight is potentially due to an assumption that knowledge of the contemporary state allows accurate projection into the future. Lessons from other complex dynamic systems, and the recent recognition of the importance of previous conditions in explaining contemporary and future ecosystem properties, demand the testing of this assumption. Vegetation resurvey databases across gradients of land use and environmental change, complemented by rigorous experiments, offer a means to test for interactions between land-use legacies and multiple environmental changes. Implementing these tests in the context of a trait-based framework will allow biologists to synthesize compositional and functional ecosystem responses. This will further our understanding of the importance of land-use legacies in determining future ecosystem properties, and soundly inform conservation and restoration management actions.

  2. Bioturbation effects of Corophium volutator: Importance of density and behavioural activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Backer, A.; Van Coillie, F.; Montserrat, F.; Provoost, P.; Van Colen, C.; Vincx, M.; Degraer, S.

    2011-01-01

    Bioturbation is one of the major processes influencing ecosystem functioning. Population parameters such as species density, burrow density and species-specific life modes, determine the impact of bioturbation on the ecosystem. A laboratory experiment was developed, using microcosms mimicking a marine intertidal sediment-water interface which allowed for quantification of different population parameters. The vertical redistribution, bioturbation rate and maximum penetration depth of two sizes (41 and 129 μm) of luminophores were measured in five treatments (control, low density of burrows with and without Corophium (1989 ind./m 2), and high density of burrows with and without Corophium (14,921 ind./m 2)) after 1, 7 and 14 days. Results indicate that the behavioural activities of Corophium are of the utmost importance in sediment reworking, since they contributed to a five-fold increase in bioturbation rate compared to the passive transport induced by the static structure of the burrows. Furthermore, density is an important parameter because only high densities play a prominent role in particle transport and hence in organic matter processing, while the role of low Corophium densities is limited in sediment reworking. No evidence for differentiation in sediment size fractions was observed. Finally, bioturbation rates in this study were low compared to other studies, and these results suggest an influence of the tidal rhythmicity in the behavioural activity of Corophium on the bioturbation rate.

  3. Effects of environmental temperature on oviposition behavior in three blow fly species of forensic importance.

    PubMed

    Ody, Helen; Bulling, Mark T; Barnes, Kate M

    2017-03-14

    A number of factors are known to affect blow fly behavior with respect to oviposition. Current research indicates that temperature is the most significant factor. However temperature thresholds for oviposition in forensically important blow flies have not been well studied. Here, the oviposition behavior of three species of forensically important blow fly species (Calliphora vicina, Calliphora vomitoria and Lucilia sericata,) was studied under controlled laboratory conditions over a range of temperatures (10-40°C). Lower temperature thresholds for oviposition of 16°C and 17.5°C were established for C. vomitoria and L. sericata respectively, whilst C. vicina continued to lay eggs at 10°C. C. vomitoria and L. sericata both continued to lay eggs at 40°C, whilst the highest temperature at which oviposition occurred in C. vicina was 35°C. Within these thresholds there was considerable variation in the number of surviving pupae, with a general pattern of a single peak within the range of temperatures at which eggs were laid, but with the pattern being much less distinct for L. sericata.

  4. Importance of correlation effects in hcp iron revealed by a pressure-induced electronic topological transition.

    PubMed

    Glazyrin, K; Pourovskii, L V; Dubrovinsky, L; Narygina, O; McCammon, C; Hewener, B; Schünemann, V; Wolny, J; Muffler, K; Chumakov, A I; Crichton, W; Hanfland, M; Prakapenka, V B; Tasnádi, F; Ekholm, M; Aichhorn, M; Vildosola, V; Ruban, A V; Katsnelson, M I; Abrikosov, I A

    2013-03-15

    We discover that hcp phases of Fe and Fe(0.9)Ni(0.1) undergo an electronic topological transition at pressures of about 40 GPa. This topological change of the Fermi surface manifests itself through anomalous behavior of the Debye sound velocity, c/a lattice parameter ratio, and Mössbauer center shift observed in our experiments. First-principles simulations within the dynamic mean field approach demonstrate that the transition is induced by many-electron effects. It is absent in one-electron calculations and represents a clear signature of correlation effects in hcp Fe.

  5. Importance of cost-effectiveness and value in cancer care and healthcare policy

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ravinder; Goodney, Philip P.; Wong, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    The cost of cancer care in the U.S. has increased by fivefold over the last three decades. Rising cancer prevalence, costly pharmaceuticals, physician and facility fees have all contributed to the expenditure. As our healthcare system shifts from volume to value, greater scrutiny of interventions with clinical equipoise is required. Traditionally, quality adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) have served as surrogate markers for value. However, these calculations fail to incorporate population or patient preferences. The diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer, breast cancer and thyroid cancer are used as a framework to discuss value and cost-effectiveness. PMID:27334052

  6. Habitat diversity and ecosystem multifunctionality-The importance of direct and indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Alsterberg, Christian; Roger, Fabian; Sundbäck, Kristina; Juhanson, Jaanis; Hulth, Stefan; Hallin, Sara; Gamfeldt, Lars

    2017-02-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are facing habitat homogenization due to human activities. Although it is commonly proposed that such habitat homogenization can have negative repercussions for ecosystem functioning, this question has yet to receive explicit scientific attention. We expand on the framework for evaluating the functional consequences of biodiversity loss by scaling up from the level of species to the level of the entire habitats. Just as species diversity generally fosters ecosystem functioning through positive interspecies interactions, we hypothesize that different habitats within ecosystems can facilitate each other through structural complementarity and through exchange of material and energy across habitats. We show that experimental ecosystems comprised of a diversity of habitats show higher levels of multiple ecosystem functions than ecosystems with low habitat diversity. Our results demonstrate that the effect of habitat diversity on multifunctionality varies with season; it has direct effects on ecosystem functioning in summer and indirect effects, via changes in species diversity, in autumn, but no effect in spring. We propose that joint consideration of habitat diversity and species diversity will prove valuable for both environmental management and basic research.

  7. The Importance of Indirect Teaching Behaviour and Its Educational Effects in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Hyunwoo; Choi, Euichang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical education teacher behaviour has been a subject of study in physical education including physical education teacher education for 30 years. However, the research on teacher behaviour has tended to focus on direct teaching behaviour (DTB) to demonstrate the benefits of effective teaching, centred on a technical understanding of…

  8. Habitat diversity and ecosystem multifunctionality—The importance of direct and indirect effects

    PubMed Central

    Alsterberg, Christian; Roger, Fabian; Sundbäck, Kristina; Juhanson, Jaanis; Hulth, Stefan; Hallin, Sara; Gamfeldt, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are facing habitat homogenization due to human activities. Although it is commonly proposed that such habitat homogenization can have negative repercussions for ecosystem functioning, this question has yet to receive explicit scientific attention. We expand on the framework for evaluating the functional consequences of biodiversity loss by scaling up from the level of species to the level of the entire habitats. Just as species diversity generally fosters ecosystem functioning through positive interspecies interactions, we hypothesize that different habitats within ecosystems can facilitate each other through structural complementarity and through exchange of material and energy across habitats. We show that experimental ecosystems comprised of a diversity of habitats show higher levels of multiple ecosystem functions than ecosystems with low habitat diversity. Our results demonstrate that the effect of habitat diversity on multifunctionality varies with season; it has direct effects on ecosystem functioning in summer and indirect effects, via changes in species diversity, in autumn, but no effect in spring. We propose that joint consideration of habitat diversity and species diversity will prove valuable for both environmental management and basic research. PMID:28246634

  9. The importance of being thiomethylated: formation, fate, and effects of methylated thioarsenicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    AbstractAlthough inorganic arsenic has long been recognized as a potent toxicant and carcinogen in humans, recent evidence shows that at least some of its effects are mediated by methylated metabolites. Elucidating the conversion of inorganic arsenic to mono-, di-, and tri-methyl...

  10. The Effects of Color to the Eye and its Importance for Heliport Lighting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    understanding of the anatomy of the eye is needed because our perception of color, and its effect on our visual and neural systems, begins as light...Handbook of Sensory Phisiology ,Vol. 11/4. New York: Springer, Verlay. (1972). Nagy, Allen L. and Robert R. Sanchez. "Critical Color Differences

  11. Competition and Cooperation among Similar Representations: Toward a Unified Account of Facilitative and Inhibitory Effects of Lexical Neighbors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Qi; Mirman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    One of the core principles of how the mind works is the graded, parallel activation of multiple related or similar representations. Parallel activation of multiple representations has been particularly important in the development of theories and models of language processing, where coactivated representations ("neighbors") have been shown to…

  12. The Academic and Behavioral Effects of a Child Savings Account Program on At-Risk High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Johnny S.; Johnson, Toni K.

    2012-01-01

    Economic strains play an important factor in students not only dropping out of school but also for not being able to attend college. As the cost of college tuition increases, many youths may perceive that the possibility of attending college may be out of their reach for financial reasons. Using data drawn from the savings for education,…

  13. Detrimental effects of ocean acidification on the economically important Mediterranean red coral (Corallium rubrum).

    PubMed

    Bramanti, L; Movilla, J; Guron, M; Calvo, E; Gori, A; Dominguez-Carrió, C; Grinyó, J; Lopez-Sanz, A; Martinez-Quintana, A; Pelejero, C; Ziveri, P; Rossi, S

    2013-06-01

    The mean predicted decrease of 0.3-0.4 pH units in the global surface ocean by the end of the century has prompted urgent research to assess the potential effects of ocean acidification on the marine environment, with strong emphasis on calcifying organisms. Among them, the Mediterranean red coral (Corallium rubrum) is expected to be particularly susceptible to acidification effects, due to the elevated solubility of its Mg-calcite skeleton. This, together with the large overexploitation of this species, depicts a bleak future for this organism over the next decades. In this study, we evaluated the effects of low pH on the species from aquaria experiments. Several colonies of C. rubrum were long-term maintained for 314 days in aquaria at two different pH levels (8.10 and 7.81, pHT ). Calcification rate, spicule morphology, major biochemical constituents (protein, carbohydrates and lipids) and fatty acids composition were measured periodically. Exposure to lower pH conditions caused a significant decrease in the skeletal growth rate in comparison with the control treatment. Similarly, the spicule morphology clearly differed between both treatments at the end of the experiment, with aberrant shapes being observed only under the acidified conditions. On the other hand, while total organic matter was significantly higher under low pH conditions, no significant differences were detected between treatments regarding total carbohydrate, lipid, protein and fatty acid composition. However, the lower variability found among samples maintained in acidified conditions relative to controls, suggests a possible effect of pH decrease on the metabolism of the colonies. Our results show, for the first time, evidence of detrimental ocean acidification effects on this valuable and endangered coral species.

  14. Accounting for Dispersion and time-dependent Input Signals during Gas Tracer Tests and their Effect on the Estimation of Reaeration, Respiration and Photosynthesis in Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Julia; Osenbrück, Karsten; Olaf, Cirpka

    2015-04-01

    The variation of dissolved oxygen (DO) in streams, are caused by a number of processes, of which respiration and primary production are considered to be the most important ones (Odum, 1956; Staehr et al., 2012). Measuring respiration and photosynthesis rates in streams based on recorded time series of DO requires good knowledge on the reaeration fluxes at the given locations. For this, gas tracer tests can be conducted, and reaeration coefficients determined from the observed decrease in gas concentration along the stretch (Genereux and Hemond, 1990): ( ) --1- -cup- k2 = t2 - t1 ln Rcdown (1) with the gas concentrations measured at an upstream location, cup[ML-3], and a downstream location, cdown. t1[T] andt2 [T] denote the measurement times at the two locations and R [-] represents the recovery rate which can also be obtained from conservative tracer data. The typical procedure for analysis, however, contains a number of assumptions, as it neglects dispersion and does not take into account possible fluctuations of the input signal. We derive the influence of these aspects mathematically and illustrate them on the basis of field data obtained from a propane gas tracer test. For this, we compare the reaeration coefficients obtained from approaches with dispersion and/or a time-dependent input signals to the standard approach. Travel times and travel time distributions between the different measurement stations are obtained from a simultaneously performed conservative tracer test with fluorescein. In order to show the carry-over effect to metabolic rates, we furthermore estimate respiration and photosynthesis rates from the calculated reaeration coefficients and measured oxygen data. This way, we are able to show that neglecting dispersion significantly underestimates reaeration, and the impact of the time-dependent input concentration cannot be disregarded either. When estimated reaeration rates are used to calculate respiration and photosynthesis from measured

  15. Importance and effects of altered workplace ergonomics in modern radiology suites.

    PubMed

    Harisinghani, Mukesh G; Blake, Michael A; Saksena, Mansi; Hahn, Peter F; Gervais, Debra; Zalis, Michael; da Silva Dias Fernandes, Leonor; Mueller, Peter R

    2004-01-01

    The transition from a film-based to a filmless soft-copy picture archiving and communication system (PACS)-based environment has resulted in improved work flow as well as increased productivity, diagnostic accuracy, and job satisfaction. Adapting to this filmless environment in an efficient manner requires seamless integration of various components such as PACS workstations, the Internet and hospital intranet, speech recognition software, paperless electronic hospital medical records, e-mail, office software, and telecommunications. However, the importance of optimizing workplace ergonomics has received little attention. Factors such as the position of the work chair, workstation table, keyboard, mouse, and monitors, along with monitor refresh rates and ambient room lighting, have become secondary considerations. Paying close attention to the basics of workplace ergonomics can go a long way in increasing productivity and reducing fatigue, thus allowing full realization of the potential benefits of a PACS. Optimization of workplace ergonomics should be considered in the basic design of any modern radiology suite.

  16. Wheat forecast economics effect study. [value of improved information on crop inventories, production, imports and exports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehra, R. K.; Rouhani, R.; Jones, S.; Schick, I.

    1980-01-01

    A model to assess the value of improved information regarding the inventories, productions, exports, and imports of crop on a worldwide basis is discussed. A previously proposed model is interpreted in a stochastic control setting and the underlying assumptions of the model are revealed. In solving the stochastic optimization problem, the Markov programming approach is much more powerful and exact as compared to the dynamic programming-simulation approach of the original model. The convergence of a dual variable Markov programming algorithm is shown to be fast and efficient. A computer program for the general model of multicountry-multiperiod is developed. As an example, the case of one country-two periods is treated and the results are presented in detail. A comparison with the original model results reveals certain interesting aspects of the algorithms and the dependence of the value of information on the incremental cost function.

  17. Effects of Problem-Based Learning on Recognition Learning and Transfer Accounting for GPA and Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergstrom, Cassendra M.; Pugh, Kevin J.; Phillips, Michael M.; Machlev, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Conflicting research results have stirred controversy over the effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL) compared to direct instruction at fostering content learning, particularly for novices. We addressed this by investigating effectiveness with respect to recognition learning and transfer and conducting an aptitude-treatment interaction…

  18. [Effects of air pollution on human health and their importance in Mexico City].

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Maite; Jáuregui-Renaud, Kathrine; Hermosillo, Antonio G; Márquez, Manlio F; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    The impact of air pollution on human health is a complicated problem. In this review, we describe the main health effects of exposure to ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, lead and particulate matter. Geographical characteristics of the metropolitan area of Mexico City that favor pollutant persistence with adverse effects on the population are described; the use of the Indice Metropolitano de la Calidad del Aire (IMECA), current norms, and present programs to diminish this problem are discussed. Evidence shows that through these actions, air quality has improved. However, some pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, still exceed the standard. To further improve air quality in the city, existing programs should continue and multidisciplinary research, both basic and applied, is required.

  19. Interactions between demography and environmental effects are important determinants of population dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Gamelon, Marlène; Grøtan, Vidar; Nilsson, Anna L. K.; Engen, Steinar; Hurrell, James W.; Jerstad, Kurt; Phillips, Adam S.; Røstad, Ole W.; Slagsvold, Tore; Walseng, Bjørn; Stenseth, Nils C.; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2017-01-01

    Climate change will affect the population dynamics of many species, yet the consequences for the long-term persistence of populations are poorly understood. A major reason for this is that density-dependent feedback effects caused by fluctuations in population size are considered independent of stochastic variation in the environment. We show that an interplay between winter temperature and population density can influence the persistence of a small passerine population under global warming. Although warmer winters favor an increased mean population size, density-dependent feedback can cause the local population to be less buffered against occasional poor environmental conditions (cold winters). This shows that it is essential to go beyond the population size and explore climate effects on the full dynamics to elaborate targeted management actions. PMID:28164157

  20. Pathogenic marine microbes influence the effects of climate change on a commercially important tropical bivalve

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Lucy M.; Alsterberg, Christian; Turner, Andrew D.; Girisha, S. K.; Rai, Ashwin; Havenhand, Jonathan N.; Venugopal, M. N.; Karunasagar, Indrani; Godhe, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that climate change will increase the prevalence of toxic algae and harmful bacteria, which can accumulate in marine bivalves. However, we know little about any possible interactions between exposure to these microorganisms and the effects of climate change on bivalve health, or about how this may affect the bivalve toxin-pathogen load. In mesocosm experiments, mussels, Perna viridis, were subjected to simulated climate change (warming and/or hyposalinity) and exposed to harmful bacteria and/or toxin-producing dinoflagellates. We found significant interactions between climate change and these microbes on metabolic and/or immunobiological function and toxin-pathogen load in mussels. Surprisingly, however, these effects were virtually eliminated when mussels were exposed to both harmful microorganisms simultaneously. This study is the first to examine the effects of climate change on determining mussel toxin-pathogen load in an ecologically relevant, multi-trophic context. The results may have considerable implications for seafood safety. PMID:27576351

  1. The importance of context dependency for understanding the effects of low flow events on fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, Annika W.

    2014-01-01

    The natural hydrology of streams and rivers has been extensively altered by dam construction, water diversion, and climate change. An increased frequency of low-flow events will affect fish by changing habitat availability, resource availability, and reproductive cues. I reviewed the literature to characterize the approaches taken to assess low-flow events and fish, the main effects of low-flow events on fish, and the associated mechanistic drivers. Most studies are focused on temperate streams and are comparative in nature. Decreased stream flow is associated with decreased survival, growth, and abundance of fish populations and shifts in community composition, but effects are variable. This variability in effects is probably caused by context dependence. I propose 3 main sources of context dependence that drive the variation in fish responses to low-flow events: attributes of the low-flow event, attributes of the habitat, and attributes of the fish. Awareness of these sources of context dependence can help managers interpret and explain data, predict vulnerability of fish communities, and prioritize appropriate management actions.

  2. [Gender and kidney diseases: the clinical importance and mechanisms of modifying effects].

    PubMed

    Grzegorczyk, Katarzyna; Krajewska, Magdalena; Weyde, Wacław; Jakuszko, Katarzyna; Gniewek, Andrzej; Klinger, Marian

    2011-12-29

    This review focuses on the underlying pathways of gender-dependent renal diseases and presents specific examples of diseases influenced by gender. In the literature it has been shown, in many clinical and experimental observations, that the incidence and the rate of progression of renal disease are influenced by many gender-dependent factors, such as kidney and glomerular size, differences in glomerular hemodynamics, and direct effects of sex hormones on renal tissue and signal pathways such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and signal molecules (e.g. nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, cytokines and growth factors). It has been shown that the main female hormone, 17 β estradiol, is capable of inhibiting inflammatory and pro apoptotic processes and protects the renal tissue. In contrast, the male hormones, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone, have the opposite effect. Hormonal manipulation by male or female castration changes the course of renal disease progression and confirms the influence of the sex hormones. Female gender is therefore considered a protective factor in many kidney diseases, such as primary glomerulonephritis, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and hypertensive nephropathy. Similarly, women are more predisposed to autoimmune diseases with secondary glomerulonephritis, e.g. systemic lupus erythematosus, as the female sex hormones have the ability of autoimmune process activation. After menopause the protective effect of female gender is not observed, which confirms the role of the female sex hormones.

  3. Evaluating the Effects of Climate Change on Water Supplies and Operations: How Important are Feedbacks between Groundwater and Surface Water Use and Management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, I. M.; Hanson, R. T.; Boyce, S. E.; Llewellyn, D.

    2015-12-01

    subsequent changes in baseflow and seepage, can significantly exacerbate the direct effects of climate change on surface water. These results, while limited to a simple test case, underscore the importance of accounting for the coupled response of surface-water and groundwater management in climate change analyses.

  4. Exposure to sub-chronic unpredictable stress accounts for antidepressant-like effects in hamsters treated with BDNF and CNQX.

    PubMed

    Alò, Raffaella; Mele, Maria; Fazzari, Gilda; Avolio, Ennio; Canonaco, Marcello

    2015-09-01

    Recent evidences indicate that cerebral neurotrophic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor plus signaling pathways of the glutamatergic neuroreceptor system (L-Glu) are determinant modulators of depression-like states. In the present study, the type of interaction(s) exerted by the AMPAergic antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxalin-2,3-dione (CNQX) and the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on depression-like behaviors in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were investigated. Sub-chronic administration of BDNF in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of stressed hamsters was responsible for very evident (p<0.001) sucrose consumption along with notably elevated swimming bouts and reduced immobility states in the forced swim test (FST). Meanwhile, CNQX displayed evident anxiolytic actions in the elevated plus maze (EPM) as shown by marked (p<0.01) increases of movements to and from both arms. Interestingly cerebral neurodegeneration events, which are viewed during depression states, were reduced following treatment with both compounds. Contextually, marked mRNA expression levels of the BDNF receptor (tropomyosin-related kinase B; TrkB) were detected in DG and the oriens-pyramidalis of HIP (Or-Py) while a moderate (p<0.05) up-regulation was registered in the amygdalar central nucleus (CeA) and the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMH) of hamsters treated with BDNF. Similarly, this treatment caused moderate increases of the major stress protein (Hsp70) in DG and Or-Py. Conversely, while CNQX induced similar TrkB expression levels, it instead accounted for a moderate reduction of Hsp70 mRNAs in the same brain areas. Overall these results support crucial roles played by BDNF and AMPAergic neurosignaling mechanisms during distinct adaptive responses of depression- and anxiety-like states in hamsters.

  5. Edge Effects Are Important in Supporting Beetle Biodiversity in a Gravel-Bed River Floodplain

    PubMed Central

    Langhans, Simone D.; Tockner, Klement

    2014-01-01

    Understanding complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems is essential for developing sound management and conservation strategies. Gravel-bed river floodplains are composed of an interlinked mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial habitats hosting a diverse, specialized, and endangered fauna. Therefore, they serve as excellent models to investigate the biodiversity of multiple ecotones and related edge effects. In this study, we investigated the abundance, composition, richness, and conservation status of beetle assemblages at varying sediment depth (0, 0.1, 0.6 and 1.1 m), distance from the channel (1, 5, 20, and 60–100 m, and 5 m within the riparian forest), and time of the year (February–November) across a 200 m-wide gravel bar at the near-natural Tagliamento River (Italy), to detect edge effects in four floodplain ecotones: aquatic-terrestrial, forest-active floodplain, sediment-air, and sediment-groundwater. We used conventional pitfall traps and novel tube traps to sample beetles comparably on the sediment surface and within the unsaturated sediments. We found a total of 308 beetle species (including 87 of conservation concern) that showed multiple, significant positive edge effects across the floodplain ecotones, mainly driven by spatial heterogeneity: Total and red list beetle abundance and richness peaked on the sediment surface, at channel margins, and at the edge of the riparian forest. All ecotones possessed edge/habitat specialists. Most red list species occurred on the sediment surface, including five species previously considered extinct – yet two of these species occurred in higher densities in the unsaturated sediments. Conservation and management efforts along gravel-bed rivers must therefore promote a dynamic flow and sediment regime to create and maintain habitat heterogeneity and ecotone diversity, which support a unique and high biodiversity. PMID:25545280

  6. Edge effects are important in supporting beetle biodiversity in a gravel-bed river floodplain.

    PubMed

    Langhans, Simone D; Tockner, Klement

    2014-01-01

    Understanding complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems is essential for developing sound management and conservation strategies. Gravel-bed river floodplains are composed of an interlinked mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial habitats hosting a diverse, specialized, and endangered fauna. Therefore, they serve as excellent models to investigate the biodiversity of multiple ecotones and related edge effects. In this study, we investigated the abundance, composition, richness, and conservation status of beetle assemblages at varying sediment depth (0, 0.1, 0.6 and 1.1 m), distance from the channel (1, 5, 20, and 60-100 m, and 5 m within the riparian forest), and time of the year (February-November) across a 200 m-wide gravel bar at the near-natural Tagliamento River (Italy), to detect edge effects in four floodplain ecotones: aquatic-terrestrial, forest-active floodplain, sediment-air, and sediment-groundwater. We used conventional pitfall traps and novel tube traps to sample beetles comparably on the sediment surface and within the unsaturated sediments. We found a total of 308 beetle species (including 87 of conservation concern) that showed multiple, significant positive edge effects across the floodplain ecotones, mainly driven by spatial heterogeneity: Total and red list beetle abundance and richness peaked on the sediment surface, at channel margins, and at the edge of the riparian forest. All ecotones possessed edge/habitat specialists. Most red list species occurred on the sediment surface, including five species previously considered extinct--yet two of these species occurred in higher densities in the unsaturated sediments. Conservation and management efforts along gravel-bed rivers must therefore promote a dynamic flow and sediment regime to create and maintain habitat heterogeneity and ecotone diversity, which support a unique and high biodiversity.

  7. Importance of Solcoseryl in infertility. 2. Effects of Solcoseryl with pathological spermiogram findings in vivo.

    PubMed

    Heise, H; Mattheus, A; Hofmann, R

    1980-01-01

    44 patients with different spermiogram findings were treated with Solcoseryl¿ (Messrs. Solco, Basel, Switzerland). Among the findings were 39 cases of oligozoospermia, 26 cases of asthenozoospermia and 7 cases of hypospermia. 20 subjects had already received other treatment without success. Treatment in these 20 cases had been terminted at least six months prior to our studies. All patients received 10 injections comprising 1 ampule each of Solcoseryl¿ at intervals of 1 day with breaks at the weekends. The spermiograms were analysed upon completion of treatment and two weeks, four weeks, three months and six months after completion of treatment. The effects of Solcoseryl¿ proved to be completely independent of previous treatment. The most noticeable improvement in he findings following Solcoseryl¿ application was the sperm count. This effect was observed already upon completion of treatment and reached a maximum two weeks later. The effect then decreased. In a few cases, however, sperm numbers continued to decline for up to two weeks after therapy before subsequently increasing. The findings for 44% of the patients with asthenozoospermia were at least temporarily normal after the treatment. In a few of these patients, however, the number of dead sperm also increased immeditely after therapy. Severe cases of asthenozoospermia were not influenced by Solcoseryl¿ treatment. Improvement was also found in the case of hypospermia. In view of the objective improvement of the parameters of the ejaculate and the fact that gravidity has so far occurred in 11 (25%) of the wives of the patients treated with Solcoseryl¿ (in some cases after the first three-monthly examination), attempted treatment with Solcoseryl¿ is recommended.

  8. NHE8 plays an important role in mucosal protection via its effect on bacterial adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Xu, Hua; Zhang, Bo; Johansson, Malin E. V.; Li, Jing; Hansson, Gunnar C.

    2013-01-01

    The Na+/H+ exchanger NHE8 is expressed on the apical membrane of intestinal epithelial cells and is particularly abundant in the colon. Our previous study showed that Muc2 expression was significantly reduced in NHE8-knockout (NHE8−/−) mice, suggesting that NHE8 plays a role in mucosal protection in the colon. The current study confirms and extends our studies on the role of NHE8 in mucosal protection. The number of bacteria attached on the distal colon was significantly increased in NHE8−/− mice compared with their wild-type littermates. As expected, IL-4 expression was markedly increased in NHE8−/− mice compared with wild-type mice. Immunohistochemistry showed disorganization in the mucin layer of NHE8−/− mice, suggesting a possible direct bacteria-epithelia interaction. Furthermore, NHE8−/− mice were susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate-induced mucosal injury. In wild-type mice, dextran sodium sulfate treatment inhibited colonic NHE8 expression. In Caco-2 cells, the absence of NHE8 expression resulted in higher adhesion rates of Salmonella typhimurium but not Lactobacillus plantarum. Similarly, in vivo, S. typhimurium adhesion rate was increased in NHE8−/− mice compared with wild-type mice. Our study suggests that NHE8 plays important roles in protecting intestinal epithelia from infectious bacterial adherence. PMID:23657568

  9. Effectiveness of an innovative prototype subtracted diversity array (SDA) for fingerprinting plant species of medicinal importance.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Ruchira; Hai Niu, Lin; Coram, Tristan E; Kong, Stephan; Kaganovitch, Janna; Xue, Charlie C L; Li, Chun G; Pang, Edwin C K

    2009-08-01

    The accurate identification of medicinal plants is becoming increasingly important due to reported concerns about purity, quality and safety. The previously developed prototype subtracted diversity array (SDA) had been validated for the ability to distinguish clade-level targets in a phylogenetically accurate manner. This study represents the rigorous investigation of the SDA for genotyping capabilities, including the genotyping of plant species not included during the construction of the SDA, as well as to lower classification levels including family and species. The results show that the SDA, in its current form, has the ability to accurately genotype species not included during SDA development to clade level. Additionally, for those species that were included during SDA development, genotyping is successful to the family level, and to the species level with minor exceptions. Twenty polymorphic SDA features were sequenced in a first attempt to characterize the polymorphic DNA between species, which showed that transposon-like sequences may be valuable as polymorphic features to differentiate angiosperm families and species. Future refinements of the SDA to allow more sensitive genotyping are discussed with the overall goal of accurate medicinal plant identification in mind.

  10. Importance of Correctly Describing Charge-Transfer Excitations for Understanding the Chemical Effect in SERS

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Justin E.; Morton, Seth M.; Jensen, Lasse

    2012-09-06

    The enhancement mechanism due to the molecule-surface chemical coupling in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is governed to a large extent by the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the metal and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the molecule. Here, we investigate the importance of correctly describing charge-transfer excitations, using time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), when calculating the chemical coupling in SERS. It is well-known that TDDFT, using traditional functionals, underestimates the position of charge-transfer excitations. Here, we show that this leads to a significant overestimation of the chemical coupling mechanism in SERS. Significantly smaller enhancements are found using long-range corrected (LC) functionals as compared with a traditional generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and hybrid functionals. Enhancement factors are found to be smaller than 530 and typically less than 50. Our results show that it is essential to correctly describe charge-transfer excitations for predicting the chemical enhancement in SERS.

  11. Modeling Self-Induced Effects is Important for Flow-Relative Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Amy; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2015-11-01

    For aquatic animals, self-generated stimulation has the potential to mask signals from external sources. Fish, which sense their near field using their lateral lines, have developed passive and active means of subtracting the flow signals generated by their self motions, which not only mask biologically relevant stimuli, but also render control deficient. While prior work in this field estimates the orientation of a vehicle as a linear function of the difference in pressure between opposite sides, we demonstrate that a high performance controller cannot operate using simply this linear relationship, because in a hydrodynamic environment, the external flow and the self-induced flow combine in a nonlinear way. A misinterpretation of the hydrodynamic interactions due to simplistic signal manipulation can be catastrophic, leading to instability or collision. Overall, we demonstrate the importance of model-based control in the underwater environment, and propose a robust controller which uses flow-relative feedback from a sensor inspired by the lateral line of fish.

  12. Effective follow-up consultations: the importance of patient-centered communication and shared decision making.

    PubMed

    Brand, Paul L P; Stiggelbout, Anne M

    2013-12-01

    Paediatricians spend a considerable proportion of their time performing follow-up visits for children with chronic conditions, but they rarely receive specific training on how best to perform such consultations. The traditional method of running a follow-up consultation is based on the doctor's agenda, and is problem-oriented. Patients and parents, however, prefer a patient-centered, and solution-focused approach. Although many physicians now recognize the importance of addressing the patient's perspective in a follow-up consultation, a number of barriers hamper its implementation in practice, including time constraints, lack of appropriate training, and a strong tradition of the biomedical, doctor-centered approach. Addressing the patient's perspective successfully can be achieved through shared decision making, clinicians and patients making decisions together based on the best clinical evidence. Research shows that shared decision making not only increases patient, parent, and physician satisfaction with the consultation, but also may improve health outcomes. Shared decision making involves building a physician-patient-parent partnership, agreeing on the problem at hand, laying out the available options with their benefits and risks, eliciting the patient's views and preferences on these options, and agreeing on a course of action. Shared decision making requires specific communication skills, which can be learned, and should be mastered through deliberate practice.

  13. Gas adsorption and desorption effects on cylinders and their importance for long-term gas records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuenberger, M. C.; Schibig, M. F.; Nyfeler, P.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that gases adsorb on many surfaces, in particular metal surfaces. There are two main forms responsible for these effects (i) physisorption and (ii) chemisorption. Physisorption is associated with lower binding energies in the order of 1-10 kJ mol-1, compared to chemisorption which ranges from 100 to 1000 kJ mol-1. Furthermore, chemisorption only forms monolayers, contrasting physisorption that can form multilayer adsorption. The reverse process is called desorption and follows similar mathematical laws; however, it can be influenced by hysteresis effects. In the present experiment, we investigated the adsorption/desorption phenomena on three steel and three aluminium cylinders containing compressed air in our laboratory and under controlled conditions in a climate chamber, respectively. Our observations from completely decanting one steel and two aluminium cylinders are in agreement with the pressure dependence of physisorption for CO2, CH4, and H2O. The CO2 results for both cylinder types are in excellent agreement with the pressure dependence of a monolayer adsorption model. However, mole fraction changes due to adsorption on aluminium (< 0.05 and 0 ppm for CO2 and H2O) were significantly lower than on steel (< 0.41 ppm and about < 2.5 ppm, respectively). The CO2 amount adsorbed (5.8 × 1019 CO2 molecules) corresponds to about the fivefold monolayer adsorption, indicating that the effective surface exposed for adsorption is significantly larger than the geometric surface area. Adsorption/desorption effects were minimal for CH4 and for CO but require further attention since they were only studied on one aluminium cylinder with a very low mole fraction. In the climate chamber, the cylinders were exposed to temperatures between -10 and +50 °C to determine the corresponding temperature coefficients of adsorption. Again, we found distinctly different values for CO2, ranging from 0.0014 to 0.0184 ppm °C-1 for steel cylinders and -0.0002 to -0

  14. A nonlinear BOLD model accounting for refractory effect by applying the longitudinal relaxation in NMR to the linear BOLD model.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwan-Jin

    2009-09-01

    A mathematical model to regress the nonlinear blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal has been developed by incorporating the refractory effect into the linear BOLD model of the biphasic gamma variate function. The refractory effect was modeled as a relaxation of two separate BOLD capacities corresponding to the biphasic components of the BOLD signal in analogy with longitudinal relaxation of magnetization in NMR. When tested with the published fMRI data of finger tapping, the nonlinear BOLD model with the refractory effect reproduced the nonlinear BOLD effects such as reduced poststimulus undershoot and saddle pattern in a prolonged stimulation as well as the reduced BOLD signal for repetitive stimulation.

  15. The effect of excess copper on growth and physiology of important food crops: a review.

    PubMed

    Adrees, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Abbas, Farhat; Farid, Mujahid; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Irshad, Muhammad Kashif; Bharwana, Saima Aslam

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, copper (Cu) pollution in agricultural soils, due to arbitrary use of pesticides, fungicides, industrial effluent and wastewater irrigation, present a major concern for sustainable agrifood production especially in developing countries. The world's major food requirement is fulfilled through agricultural food crops. The Cu-induced losses in growth and yield of food crops probably exceeds from all other causes of food safety and security threats. Here, we review the adverse effects of Cu excess on growth and yield of essential food crops. Numerous studies reported the Cu-induced growth inhibition, oxidative damage and antioxidant response in agricultural food crops such as wheat, rice, maize, sunflower and cucumber. This article also describes the toxic levels of Cu in crops that decreased plant growth and yield due to alterations in mineral nutrition, photosynthesis, enzyme activities and decrease in chlorophyll biosynthesis. The response of various crops to elevated Cu concentrations varies depending upon nature of crop and cultivars used. This review could be helpful to understand the Cu toxicity and the mechanism of its tolerance in food crops. We recommend that Cu-tolerant crops should be grown on Cu-contaminated soils in order to ameliorate the toxic effects for sustainable farming systems and to meet the food demands of the intensively increasing population.

  16. p53 is important for the anti-proliferative effect of ibuprofen in colon carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, Astrid; Schiffmann, Susanne; Birod, Kerstin; Maier, Thorsten J.; Wobst, Ivonne; Geisslinger, Gerd

    2008-01-25

    S-ibuprofen which inhibits the cyclooxygenase-1/-2 and R-ibuprofen which shows no COX-inhibition at therapeutic concentrations have anti-carcinogenic effects in human colon cancer cells; however, the molecular mechanisms for these effects are still unknown. Using HCT-116 colon carcinoma cell lines, expressing either the wild-type form of p53 (HCT-116 p53{sup wt}) or being p(HCT-116 p53{sup -/-}), we demonstrated that both induction of a cell cycle block and apoptosis after S- and R-ibuprofen treatment is in part dependent on p53. Also in the in vivo nude mice model HCT-116 p53{sup -/-} xenografts were less sensitive for S- and R-ibuprofen treatment than HCT-116 p53{sup wt} cells. Furthermore, results indicate that induction of apoptosis in HCT-116 p53{sup wt} cells after ibuprofen treatment is in part dependent on a signalling pathway including the neutrophin receptor p75{sup NTR}, p53 and Bax.

  17. The Community College Effect Revisited: The Importance of Attending to Heterogeneity and Complex Counterfactuals*

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Jennie E.; Pfeffer, Fabian T.; Goldrick-Rab, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges are controversial educational institutions, often said to simultaneously expand college opportunities and diminish baccalaureate attainment. We assess the seemingly contradictory functions of community colleges by attending to effect heterogeneity and to alternative counterfactual conditions. Using data on postsecondary outcomes of high school graduates of Chicago Public Schools, we find that enrolling at a community college penalizes more advantaged students who otherwise would have attended four-year colleges, particularly highly selective schools; however, these students represent a relatively small portion of the community college population, and these estimates are almost certainly biased. On the other hand, enrolling at a community college has a modest positive effect on bachelor's degree completion for disadvantaged students who otherwise would not have attended college; these students represent the majority of community college goers. We conclude that discussions among scholars, policymakers, and practitioners should move beyond considering the pros and cons of community college attendance for students in general to attending to the implications of community college attendance for targeted groups of students. PMID:25825705

  18. Selection Effects in Identifying Magnetic Clouds and the Importance of the Closest Approach Parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Wu, Chin-Chun

    2010-01-01

    This study is motivated by the unusually low number of magnetic clouds (MCs) that are strictly identified within interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), as observed at 1 AU; this is usually estimated to be around 30% or lower. But a looser definition of MCs may significantly increase this percentage. Another motivation is the unexpected shape of the occurrence distribution of the observers' "closest approach distances" (measured from a MC's axis, and called CA) which drops off somewhat rapidly as |CA| (in % of MC radius) approaches 100%, based on earlier studies. We suggest, for various geometrical and physical reasons, that the |CA|-distribution should be somewhere between a uniform one and the one actually observed, and therefore the 30% estimate should be higher. So we ask, When there is a failure to identify a MC within an ICME, is it occasionally due to a large |CA| passage, making MC identification more difficult, i.e., is it due to an event selection effect? In attempting to answer this question we examine WIND data to obtain an accurate distribution of the number of MCs vs. |CA| distance, whether the event is ICME-related or not, where initially a large number of cases (N=98) are considered. This gives a frequence distribution that is far from uniform, confirming earlier studies. This along with the fact that there are many ICME identification-parameters that do not depend on |CA| suggest that, indeed an MC event selection effect may explain at least part of the low ratio of (No. MCs)/(No. ICMEs). We also show that there is an acceptable geometrical and physical consistency in the relationships for both average "normalized" magnetic field intensity change and field direction change vs. |CA| within a MC, suggesting that our estimates of |CA|, B(sub 0) (magnetic field intensity on the axis), and choice of a proper "cloud coordinate" system (all needed in the analysis) are acceptably accurate. Therefore the MC fitting model (Lepping et al., 1990) is

  19. Indirect effects of red imported fire ants on Attwater's prairie‐chicken brood survival

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Rebecca E.; Lehnen, Sarah E.; Drees, Bastiaan M.; Toepfer, John E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The invasive red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) has negatively affected a host of taxonomic groups throughout its acquired North American range. Many studies have hypothesized indirect trophic impacts, but few documented those impacts. We evaluated invertebrate abundance as a factor limiting juvenile survival of the endangered Attwater's prairie‐chicken (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri), and whether fire ants reduce invertebrate numbers and biomass. From 2009–2013, we monitored survival of Attwater's prairie‐chicken broods (n = 63) with radio telemetry during the first 2 weeks post‐hatch and collected daily invertebrate samples at brood sites. Broods located in areas with the highest median invertebrate count (338 invertebrates/25 sweeps) had a survival probability of 0.83 at 2 weeks post‐hatch compared to 0.07 for broods located in areas with the lowest median invertebrate count (18 invertebrates/25 sweeps). During 2011–2012, we evaluated the reduction of fire ants on invertebrate numbers and biomass by aerially treating areas with Extinguish Plus™ in an impact‐reference study design. Treated fields had 27% more individual invertebrates and 26% higher invertebrate biomass than reference fields. Our results clearly document that invertebrate abundance affects Attwater's prairie‐chicken brood survival and that fire ants may indirectly contribute to low brood survival by suppressing invertebrate abundance. We posit that within the fire ant's acquired North American range, fire ants are likely contributing to declines of other insectivorous species. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:26900176

  20. Faculty Perspectives on International Accounting Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, L. Murphy; Salter, Stephen B.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 63 professors specializing in international accounting identified the following topics as most important to incorporate into the curriculum: (1) foreign currency translation; (2) international accounting standards; (3) comparative standards and harmonizing of accounting standards; (4) reporting and disclosure problems of multinational…