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Sample records for account important effects

  1. Acknowledging the importance of BAI accounts.

    PubMed

    Levin, Steve

    2011-09-01

    For hospitals, balance after insurance (BAI) refers to revenue from uninsured patients and from patients with patient responsibility after insurance. BAI is a rapidly growing share of hospital revenue as a result of substitution from high-deductible commercial insurance plans-revenue that tends to convert to cash relatively easily and quickly-meaning that an increasing share of hospital cash flow is now due from the patient. Hospitals should make sure that their self-pay patients receive excellent customer service: It not only improves the likelihood of a greater yield, but also-perhaps more important-helps ensure customer loyalty and willingness to recommend the facility to others.

  2. Acknowledging the importance of BAI accounts.

    PubMed

    Levin, Steve

    2011-09-01

    For hospitals, balance after insurance (BAI) refers to revenue from uninsured patients and from patients with patient responsibility after insurance. BAI is a rapidly growing share of hospital revenue as a result of substitution from high-deductible commercial insurance plans-revenue that tends to convert to cash relatively easily and quickly-meaning that an increasing share of hospital cash flow is now due from the patient. Hospitals should make sure that their self-pay patients receive excellent customer service: It not only improves the likelihood of a greater yield, but also-perhaps more important-helps ensure customer loyalty and willingness to recommend the facility to others. PMID:21923047

  3. Importance of Effective Listening Infomercial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2009-01-01

    This article details an activity intended for use in a course with a unit on effective listening, including listening courses, public speaking, and interpersonal communication. Students will explain the importance of effective and active listening for a target audience by producing an infomercial for a product or service which they design.

  4. The Effects of Accountability on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezende, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of a higher education accountability system in Brazil. For each discipline, colleges were assigned a grade that depended on the scores of their students on the ENC, an annual mandatory exam. These grades were then disclosed to the public and colleges were rewarded or penalized based on them. I find that the ENC had…

  5. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, David J., Ed.

    This monograph, prepared to assist Georgia elementary principals to better understand accountability and its implications for educational improvement, sets forth many of the theoretical and philosophical bases from which accountability is being considered. Leon M. Lessinger begins this 5-paper presentation by describing the need for accountability…

  6. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  7. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Controversy surrounding the accountability movement is related to how the movement began in response to dissatisfaction with public schools. Opponents see it as one-sided, somewhat mean-spirited, and a threat to the professional status of teachers. Supporters argue that all other spheres of the workplace have accountability systems and that the…

  8. Responding Effectively to Test-Based Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Laura; Stecher, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 has focused the attention of educators, policy makers, and the public on accountability for performance in public education. Yet many of those who will be responsible for improving school performance lack guidance on how to proceed in the brave new world of NCLB accountability. For the most part, state…

  9. The importance, challenges and prospects of taking work practices into account for healthcare quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Allen, Davina

    2016-06-20

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to underline the importance of taking work practices into account for quality improvement (QI) purposes, highlight some of the challenges of doing so, and suggest strategies for future research and practice. Patient status at a glance, a Lean-inspired QI intervention designed to alleviate nurses of their knowledge mobilisation function, is deployed as an illustrative case. Design/methodology/approach - Ethnographic data and practice-based theories are utilised to describe nurses' knowledge mobilisation work. The assumptions about knowledge sharing embedded in patient status at a glance white boards (PSAGWBs) are analysed drawing on actor network theory. Findings - There is a disparity between nurses' knowledge mobilisation practices and the scripts that inform the design of PSAGWBs. PSAGWBs are designed to be intermediaries and to transport meaning without transformation. When nurses circulate knowledge for patient management purposes, they operate as mediators, translating diverse information sources and modifying meaning for different audiences. PSAGWBs are unlikely to relieve nurses of their knowledge mobilisation function and may actually add to the burdens of this work. Despite this nurses have readily embraced this QI intervention. Research limitations/implications - The study is limited by its focus on a single case and by the inferential (rather than the empirical) nature of its conclusions. Originality/value - This paper illustrates the importance of taking practice into account in healthcare QI, points to some of the challenges of doing so and highlights the potential of practice-based approaches in supporting progress in this field.

  10. Designing More Effective Accountability Report Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbah, Faris M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and design standards and procedures for creating easily interpreted accountability reports cards, consistent with the requirements spelled out in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). The use of public report cards was first raised during the debate that took place immediately prior to the passage…

  11. The importance, challenges and prospects of taking work practices into account for healthcare quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Allen, Davina

    2016-06-20

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to underline the importance of taking work practices into account for quality improvement (QI) purposes, highlight some of the challenges of doing so, and suggest strategies for future research and practice. Patient status at a glance, a Lean-inspired QI intervention designed to alleviate nurses of their knowledge mobilisation function, is deployed as an illustrative case. Design/methodology/approach - Ethnographic data and practice-based theories are utilised to describe nurses' knowledge mobilisation work. The assumptions about knowledge sharing embedded in patient status at a glance white boards (PSAGWBs) are analysed drawing on actor network theory. Findings - There is a disparity between nurses' knowledge mobilisation practices and the scripts that inform the design of PSAGWBs. PSAGWBs are designed to be intermediaries and to transport meaning without transformation. When nurses circulate knowledge for patient management purposes, they operate as mediators, translating diverse information sources and modifying meaning for different audiences. PSAGWBs are unlikely to relieve nurses of their knowledge mobilisation function and may actually add to the burdens of this work. Despite this nurses have readily embraced this QI intervention. Research limitations/implications - The study is limited by its focus on a single case and by the inferential (rather than the empirical) nature of its conclusions. Originality/value - This paper illustrates the importance of taking practice into account in healthcare QI, points to some of the challenges of doing so and highlights the potential of practice-based approaches in supporting progress in this field. PMID:27296886

  12. Attitude Importance and the False Consensus Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabrigar, Leandre R.; Krosnick, Jon A.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the possibility that importance may regulate the magnitude of the false consensus effect. Analysis revealed a strong false consensus effect but no reliable relation between its magnitude and attitude importance. Results contradict assumptions that the false consensus effect arises from attitudes that directly or indirectly influence…

  13. The Effects of Different Teaching Approaches in Introductory Financial Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Bea; Nouri, Hossein; Samanta, Subarna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of the two different teaching approaches in the first accounting course on student performance in a subsequent finance course. The study compares 128 accounting and finance students who took introductory financial accounting by either a user approach or a traditional preparer approach to examine…

  14. Experimental methods in aquatic respirometry: the importance of mixing devices and accounting for background respiration.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, G G; Tenzing, P; Clark, T D

    2016-01-01

    In light of an increasing trend in fish biology towards using static respirometry techniques without the inclusion of a mixing mechanism and without accurately accounting for the influence of microbial (background) respiration, this paper quantifies the effect of these approaches on the oxygen consumption rates (ṀO2 ) measured from juvenile barramundi Lates calcarifer (mean ± s.e. mass = 20·31 ± 0·81 g) and adult spiny chromis damselfish Acanthochromis polyacanthus (22·03 ± 2·53 g). Background respiration changed consistently and in a sigmoidal manner over time in the treatment with a mixing device (inline recirculation pump), whereas attempts to measure background respiration in the non-mixed treatment yielded highly variable estimates of ṀO2 that were probably artefacts due to the lack of water movement over the oxygen sensor during measurement periods. This had clear consequences when accounting for background respiration in the calculations of fish ṀO2 . Exclusion of a mixing device caused a significantly lower estimate of ṀO2 in both species and reduced the capacity to detect differences between individuals as well as differences within an individual over time. There was evidence to suggest that the magnitude of these effects was dependent on the spontaneous activity levels of the fish, as the difference between mixed and non-mixed treatments was more pronounced for L. calcarifer (sedentary) than for A. polyacanthus (more spontaneously active). It is clear that respirometry set-ups for sedentary species must contain a mixing device to prevent oxygen stratification inside the respirometer. While more active species may provide a higher level of water mixing during respirometry measurements and theoretically reduce the need for a mixing device, the level of mixing cannot be quantified and may change with diurnal cycles in activity. To ensure consistency across studies without relying on fish activity levels, and to enable accurate assessments of

  15. Experimental methods in aquatic respirometry: the importance of mixing devices and accounting for background respiration.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, G G; Tenzing, P; Clark, T D

    2016-01-01

    In light of an increasing trend in fish biology towards using static respirometry techniques without the inclusion of a mixing mechanism and without accurately accounting for the influence of microbial (background) respiration, this paper quantifies the effect of these approaches on the oxygen consumption rates (ṀO2 ) measured from juvenile barramundi Lates calcarifer (mean ± s.e. mass = 20·31 ± 0·81 g) and adult spiny chromis damselfish Acanthochromis polyacanthus (22·03 ± 2·53 g). Background respiration changed consistently and in a sigmoidal manner over time in the treatment with a mixing device (inline recirculation pump), whereas attempts to measure background respiration in the non-mixed treatment yielded highly variable estimates of ṀO2 that were probably artefacts due to the lack of water movement over the oxygen sensor during measurement periods. This had clear consequences when accounting for background respiration in the calculations of fish ṀO2 . Exclusion of a mixing device caused a significantly lower estimate of ṀO2 in both species and reduced the capacity to detect differences between individuals as well as differences within an individual over time. There was evidence to suggest that the magnitude of these effects was dependent on the spontaneous activity levels of the fish, as the difference between mixed and non-mixed treatments was more pronounced for L. calcarifer (sedentary) than for A. polyacanthus (more spontaneously active). It is clear that respirometry set-ups for sedentary species must contain a mixing device to prevent oxygen stratification inside the respirometer. While more active species may provide a higher level of water mixing during respirometry measurements and theoretically reduce the need for a mixing device, the level of mixing cannot be quantified and may change with diurnal cycles in activity. To ensure consistency across studies without relying on fish activity levels, and to enable accurate assessments of

  16. Internal Evaluation in American Public School Districts: The Importance of Externally Driven Accountability Mandates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jean A.; Rohmer-Hirt, Johnna A.

    2011-01-01

    From the 1980s to the present, educational accountability in the United States has grown dramatically. Such accountability in U.S. school districts, although driven primarily by external demands, has internal manifestations as well. The chapter traces the historical development of internal evaluation in American school districts, then highlights…

  17. Criteria for Determination of Material Control and Accountability System Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    John Wright

    2008-03-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a test bed for implementation of the Safeguards First Principles Initiative (SFPI), a risk-based approach to Material Control & Accountability (MC&A) requirements. The Comprehensive Assessment of Safeguards Strategies (COMPASS) model is used to determine the effectiveness of MC&A systems under SFPI. Under this model, MC&A is divided into nine primary elements. Each element is divided into sub-elements. Then each sub-element is assigned two values, effectiveness and contribution, that are used to calculate the rating. Effectiveness is a measure of subelement implementation and how well it meets requirements. Contribution is a relative measure of the importance, and functions as a weighting factor. The COMPASS model provides the methodology for calculation of sub-element and element ratings, but not the actual criteria. Each site must develop its own criteria. For the rating to be meaningful, the effectiveness criteria must be objective and based on explicit, measurable criteria. Contribution (weights) must reflect the importance within the MC&A program. This paper details the NTS approach to system effectiveness and contribution values, and will cover the following: the basis for the ratings, an explanation of the contribution “weights,” and the objective, performance based effectiveness criteria. Finally, the evaluation process will be described.

  18. The Negative Testing Effect and Multifactor Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Daniel J.; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2013-01-01

    Across 3 experiments, we investigated the factors that dictate when taking a test improves subsequent memory performance (the "testing effect"). In Experiment 1, participants retrieving a set of targets during a retrieval practice phase ultimately recalled fewer of those targets compared with a group of participants who studied the…

  19. Targeted computational probabilistic corroboration of experimental knee wear simulator: the importance of accounting for variability.

    PubMed

    Strickland, M A; Dressler, M R; Render, T; Browne, M; Taylor, M

    2011-04-01

    Experimental testing is widely used to predict wear of total knee replacement (TKR) devices. Computational models cannot replace this essential in vitro testing, but they do have complementary strengths and capabilities, which make in silico models a valuable support tool for experimental wear investigations. For effective exploitation, these two separate domains should be closely corroborated together; this requires extensive data-sharing and cross-checking at every stage of simulation and testing. However, isolated deterministic corroborations provide only a partial perspective; in vitro testing is inherently variable, and relatively small changes in the environmental and kinematic conditions at the articulating interface can account for considerable variation in the reported wear rates. Understanding these variations will be key to managing uncertainty in the tests, resulting in a 'cleaner' investigation environment for further refining current theories of wear. This study demonstrates the value of probabilistic in silico methods by describing a specific, targeted corroboration of the AMTI knee wear simulator, using rigid body dynamics software models. A deterministic model of the simulator under displacement-control was created for investigation. Firstly, a large sample of experimental data (N>100) was collated, and a probabilistic computational study (N>1000 trials) was used to compare the kinetic performance envelopes for in vitro and in silico models, to more fully corroborate the mechanical model. Secondly, corresponding theoretical wear-rate predictions were compared to the experimentally reported wear data, to assess the robustness of current wear theories to uncertainty (as distinct from the mechanical variability). The results reveal a good corroboration for the physical mechanics of the wear test rig; however they demonstrate that the distributions for wear are not currently well-predicted. The probabilistic domain is found to be far more sensitive at

  20. Effects of Accountancy Internship on Subsequent Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwong, K. S.; Lui, Gladie

    1991-01-01

    Explores the effects of accounting internships upon subsequent academic achievement. Reports that grade point averages and degree examination results of 10 Chinese University of Hong Kong students who had been interns were compared to scores of 236 accounting majors who had not. Concludes that internships increased student knowledge and…

  1. IMPORTANCE OF MATERIAL BALANCES AND THEIR STATISTICAL EVALUATION IN RUSSIAN MATERIAL, PROTECTION, CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING

    SciTech Connect

    FISHBONE,L.G.

    1999-07-25

    While substantial work has been performed in the Russian MPC&A Program, much more needs to be done at Russian nuclear facilities to complete four necessary steps. These are (1) periodically measuring the physical inventory of nuclear material, (2) continuously measuring the flows of nuclear material, (3) using the results to close the material balance, particularly at bulk processing facilities, and (4) statistically evaluating any apparent loss of nuclear material. The periodic closing of material balances provides an objective test of the facility's system of nuclear material protection, control and accounting. The statistical evaluation using the uncertainties associated with individual measurement systems involved in the calculation of the material balance provides a fair standard for concluding whether the apparent loss of nuclear material means a diversion or whether the facility's accounting system needs improvement. In particular, if unattractive flow material at a facility is not measured well, the accounting system cannot readily detect the loss of attractive material if the latter substantially derives from the former.

  2. Metabolism estimates in small boreal lakes: the importance of accounting for vertical fluxes of oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, M.; MacIntyre, S.; Hotchkiss, E. R.; Bergström, A. K.; Karlsson, J.

    2015-12-01

    Lake metabolism models based on the diel oxygen technique often assume that oxygen dynamics are mainly controlled by metabolic processes, only accounting for wind-driven atmospheric gas exchange. However, oxygen dynamics can also be affected by abiotic mass fluxes across oxygen gradients within lakes and atmospheric gas exchange driven by convection. Here, we quantify how much vertical fluxes of oxygen modify epilimnetic metabolism estimates for three pairs of small Swedish boreal lakes, one of each fertilized with nitrate, with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of 7 to 22 mg l-1. Oxygen concentrations were measured every 10 min at 50 cm depth and biweekly across depths profiles during one full open water period. Based on additional two weeks of ten-minute oxygen profiling we calculated vertical fluxes of oxygen using equations for atmospheric gas exchange caused by wind shear (F1) and convection (F2), and lake-internal gas exchange caused by diffusion and mixed layer deepening (F3). We ran three inverse Bayesian models to estimate daily metabolism: (M1) accounting for F1, (M2) accounting for F1 and F2, and (M3) accounting for F1 and F3. Initial results suggest that gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem production (NEP) ranged from 0.1 to 0.2, -0.3 to -0.5 and -0.2 to -0.4 g C m-2 d-1, respectively. GPP and R were higher in fertilized lakes and at the lower end of previous worldwide estimates. Accounting for convection-driven gas exchange increased ER estimates by 10-40% (M2 vs. M1). This bias increased with DOC concentration but was not affected by fertilization. Including lake-internal vertical oxygen fluxes changed GPP and ER estimates by up to ±40% (M3 vs. M1), with inconsistent trends along the DOC-gradient. We conclude that vertical fluxes of oxygen can significantly affect diel oxygen dynamics in oligotrophic humic systems and should therefore be included in metabolism models applied to small boreal lakes.

  3. Teacher Quality at the High-School Level: The Importance of Accounting for Tracks. Working Paper 17722. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, C. Kirabo

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in elementary school, high-school teacher effects may be confounded with both selection to tracks and unobserved track-level treatments. I document sizable confounding track effects, and show that traditional tests for the existence of teacher effects are likely biased. After accounting for these biases, high-school algebra and English…

  4. The Effects of Pre-College Accounting on the College Accounting Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Through a research project, the author found that the attitudes of college accounting students toward high school accounting as the starting point for an accounting education and also the introductory financial accounting grades of college students are often closely associated with extensive accounting coursework completed prior to college. (CT)

  5. Assessing competition in hospital care markets: the importance of accounting for quality differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tay, Abigail

    2003-01-01

    Quality differentiation is especially important in the hospital industry, where the choices of Medicare patients are unaffected by prices. Unlike previous studies that use geographic market concentration to estimate hospital competitiveness, this article emphasizes the importance of quality differentiation in this spatially differentiated market. I estimate a random-coefficients discrete-choice model that predicts patient flow to different hospitals and find that demand responses to both distance and quality are substantial. The estimates suggest that patients do not substitute toward alternative hospitals in proportion to current market shares, implying that geographic market concentration is an inappropriate measure of hospital competitiveness. PMID:15025031

  6. Nuclear Material Control and Accountability System Effectiveness Tool (MSET)

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H; Roche, Charles T; Campbell, Billy J; Hammond, Glenn A; Meppen, Bruce W; Brown, Richard F

    2011-01-01

    A nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) has been developed in the United States for use in evaluating material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) systems in nuclear facilities. The project was commissioned by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of International Material Protection and Cooperation. MSET was developed by personnel with experience spanning more than six decades in both the U.S. and international nuclear programs and with experience in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the nuclear power industry. MSET offers significant potential benefits for improving nuclear safeguards and security in any nation with a nuclear program. MSET provides a design basis for developing an MC&A system at a nuclear facility that functions to protect against insider theft or diversion of nuclear materials. MSET analyzes the system and identifies several risk importance factors that show where sustainability is essential for optimal performance and where performance degradation has the greatest impact on total system risk. MSET contains five major components: (1) A functional model that shows how to design, build, implement, and operate a robust nuclear MC&A system (2) A fault tree of the operating MC&A system that adapts PRA methodology to analyze system effectiveness and give a relative risk of failure assessment of the system (3) A questionnaire used to document the facility's current MPC&A system (provides data to evaluate the quality of the system and the level of performance of each basic task performed throughout the material balance area [MBA]) (4) A formal process of applying expert judgment to convert the facility questionnaire data into numeric values representing the performance level of each basic event for use in the fault tree risk assessment calculations (5) PRA software that performs the fault tree risk assessment calculations and produces risk importance factor reports on the

  7. On the Importance of Accounting for Competing Risks in Pediatric Brain Cancer: II. Regression Modeling and Sample Size

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Bee-Choo; Grundy, Richard; Machin, David

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To accurately model the cumulative need for radiotherapy in trials designed to delay or avoid irradiation among children with malignant brain tumor, it is crucial to account for competing events and evaluate how each contributes to the timing of irradiation. An appropriate choice of statistical model is also important for adequate determination of sample size. Methods and Materials: We describe the statistical modeling of competing events (A, radiotherapy after progression; B, no radiotherapy after progression; and C, elective radiotherapy) using proportional cause-specific and subdistribution hazard functions. The procedures of sample size estimation based on each method are outlined. These are illustrated by use of data comparing children with ependymoma and other malignant brain tumors. The results from these two approaches are compared. Results: The cause-specific hazard analysis showed a reduction in hazards among infants with ependymoma for all event types, including Event A (adjusted cause-specific hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-1.28). Conversely, the subdistribution hazard analysis suggested an increase in hazard for Event A (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-2.30), but the reduction in hazards for Events B and C remained. Analysis based on subdistribution hazard requires a larger sample size than the cause-specific hazard approach. Conclusions: Notable differences in effect estimates and anticipated sample size were observed between methods when the main event showed a beneficial effect whereas the competing events showed an adverse effect on the cumulative incidence. The subdistribution hazard is the most appropriate for modeling treatment when its effects on both the main and competing events are of interest.

  8. The Importance of Interprofessional Practice and Education in the Era of Accountable Care.

    PubMed

    Nester, Jane

    2016-01-01

    In order to succeed in today's health care environment, interprofessional teams are essential. The terms "multidisciplinary care" and "interdisciplinary care" have been replaced by the more contemporary term "interprofessional practice and education" (IPE), which occurs when individuals "from two or more professions learn about, from and with each other to enable effective collaboration and improve health outcomes." This commentary discusses new models of care, team members who contribute to IPE, and incentives and challenges.

  9. The relative importance of decomposition and transport mechanisms in accounting for soil organic carbon profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenet, B.; Eglin, T.; Vasilyeva, N.; Peylin, P.; Ciais, P.; Chenu, C.

    2013-04-01

    Soil is the major terrestrial reservoir of carbon and a substantial part of this carbon is stored in deep layers, typically deeper than 50 cm below the surface. Several studies underlined the quantitative importance of this deep soil organic carbon (SOC) pool and models are needed to better understand this stock and its evolution under climate and land-uses changes. In this study, we tested and compared three simple theoretical models of vertical transport for SOC against SOC profiles measurements from a long-term bare fallow experiment carried out by the Central-Chernozem State Natural Biosphere Reserve in the Kursk Region of Russia. The transport schemes tested are diffusion, advection and both diffusion and advection. They are coupled to three different formulations of soil carbon decomposition kinetics. The first formulation is a first order kinetics widely used in global SOC decomposition models; the second one, so-called "priming" model, links SOC decomposition rate to the amount of fresh organic matter, representing the substrate interactions. The last one is also a first order kinetics, but SOC is split into two pools. Field data are from a set of three bare fallow plots where soil received no input during the past 20, 26 and 58 yr, respectively. Parameters of the models were optimised using a Bayesian method. The best results are obtained when SOC decomposition is assumed to be controlled by fresh organic matter (i.e., the priming model). In comparison to the first-order kinetic model, the priming model reduces the overestimation in the deep layers. We also observed that the transport scheme that improved the fit with the data depended on the soil carbon mineralisation formulation chosen. When soil carbon decomposition was modelled to depend on the fresh organic matter amount, the transport mechanism which improved best the fit to the SOC profile data was the model representing both advection and diffusion. Interestingly, the older the bare fallow is, the

  10. The importance of being agranular: a comparative account of visual and motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Shipp, Stewart

    2005-01-01

    The agranular cortex is an important landmark—anatomically, as the architectural flag of mammalian motor cortex, and historically, as a spur to the development of theories of localization of function. But why, exactly, do agranularity and motor function go together? To address this question, it should be noted that not only does motor cortex lack granular layer four, it also has a relatively thinner layer three. Therefore, it is the two layers which principally constitute the ascending pathways through the sensory (granular) cortex that have regressed in motor cortex: simply stated, motor cortex does not engage in serial reprocessing of incoming sensory data. But why should a granular architecture not be demanded by the downstream relay of motor instructions through the motor cortex? The scant anatomical evidence available regarding laminar patterns suggests that the pathways from frontal and premotor areas to the primary motor cortex actually bear a greater resemblance to the descending, or feedback connections of sensory cortex that avoid the granular layer. The action of feedback connections is generally described as ‘modulatory’ at a cellular level, or ‘selective’ in terms of systems analysis. By contrast, ascending connections may be labelled ‘driving’ or ‘instructive’. Where the motor cortex uses driving inputs, they are most readily identified as sensory signals instructing the visual location of targets and the kinaesthetic state of the body. Visual signals may activate motor concepts, e.g. ‘mirror neurons’, and the motor plan must select the appropriate muscles and forces to put the plan into action, if the decision to move is taken. This, perhaps, is why ‘driving’ motor signals might be inappropriate—the optimal selection and its execution are conditional upon both kinaesthetic and motivational factors. The argument, summarized above, is constructed in honour of Korbinian Brodmann's centenary, and follows two of the fundamental

  11. The Performing School: The Effects of Market & Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falabella, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Market and accountability educational reforms have proliferated around the globe, along with high expectations of solving countries' school quality deficits and inequities. In this paper I develop an analytical framework from a critical sociology angle for analyzing the effects of these policies within schools. First I discuss conceptually…

  12. Contrast effects in spontaneous evaluations: a psychophysical account.

    PubMed

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Teige-Mocigemba, Sarah; Spruyt, Adriaan

    2009-02-01

    In the affective-priming paradigm, target stimuli are preceded by evaluatively polarized prime stimuli and then are to be classified as either good or bad as fast as possible. The typical and robust finding is assimilation: Primes facilitate the processing of evaluatively consistent targets relative to evaluatively inconsistent targets. Nevertheless, contrast effects have repeatedly been observed. The authors propose a new psychophysical account of normal (assimilative) and reversed (contrastive) priming effects and test new predictions derived from it in 5 studies: In Studies 1 and 2, the authors' account is shown to provide a better explanation of contrastive effects in a priming paradigm with two primes than the traditional attentional account does. Furthermore, as predicted by the new account, contrast effects emerge at an intermediate stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA, Study 3) and even with short SOAs when target onset takes participants by surprise (Study 4). Finally, the use of extremely valenced primes triggers corrective efforts (Study 5) as predicted. Implications for priming measures of evaluative associations are discussed. PMID:19159132

  13. An interference account of the missing-VP effect

    PubMed Central

    Häussler, Jana; Bader, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Sentences with doubly center-embedded relative clauses in which a verb phrase (VP) is missing are sometimes perceived as grammatical, thus giving rise to an illusion of grammaticality. In this paper, we provide a new account of why missing-VP sentences, which are both complex and ungrammatical, lead to an illusion of grammaticality, the so-called missing-VP effect. We propose that the missing-VP effect in particular, and processing difficulties with multiply center-embedded clauses more generally, are best understood as resulting from interference during cue-based retrieval. When processing a sentence with double center-embedding, a retrieval error due to interference can cause the verb of an embedded clause to be erroneously attached into a higher clause. This can lead to an illusion of grammaticality in the case of missing-VP sentences and to processing complexity in the case of complete sentences with double center-embedding. Evidence for an interference account of the missing-VP effect comes from experiments that have investigated the missing-VP effect in German using a speeded grammaticality judgments procedure. We review this evidence and then present two new experiments that show that the missing-VP effect can be found in German also with less restricting procedures. One experiment was a questionnaire study which required grammaticality judgments from participants without imposing any time constraints. The second experiment used a self-paced reading procedure and did not require any judgments. Both experiments confirm the prior findings of missing-VP effects in German and also show that the missing-VP effect is subject to a primacy effect as known from the memory literature. Based on this evidence, we argue that an account of missing-VP effects in terms of interference during cue-based retrieval is superior to accounts in terms of limited memory resources or in terms of experience with embedded structures. PMID:26136698

  14. An interference account of the missing-VP effect.

    PubMed

    Häussler, Jana; Bader, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Sentences with doubly center-embedded relative clauses in which a verb phrase (VP) is missing are sometimes perceived as grammatical, thus giving rise to an illusion of grammaticality. In this paper, we provide a new account of why missing-VP sentences, which are both complex and ungrammatical, lead to an illusion of grammaticality, the so-called missing-VP effect. We propose that the missing-VP effect in particular, and processing difficulties with multiply center-embedded clauses more generally, are best understood as resulting from interference during cue-based retrieval. When processing a sentence with double center-embedding, a retrieval error due to interference can cause the verb of an embedded clause to be erroneously attached into a higher clause. This can lead to an illusion of grammaticality in the case of missing-VP sentences and to processing complexity in the case of complete sentences with double center-embedding. Evidence for an interference account of the missing-VP effect comes from experiments that have investigated the missing-VP effect in German using a speeded grammaticality judgments procedure. We review this evidence and then present two new experiments that show that the missing-VP effect can be found in German also with less restricting procedures. One experiment was a questionnaire study which required grammaticality judgments from participants without imposing any time constraints. The second experiment used a self-paced reading procedure and did not require any judgments. Both experiments confirm the prior findings of missing-VP effects in German and also show that the missing-VP effect is subject to a primacy effect as known from the memory literature. Based on this evidence, we argue that an account of missing-VP effects in terms of interference during cue-based retrieval is superior to accounts in terms of limited memory resources or in terms of experience with embedded structures.

  15. Multiple carbon accounting to support just and effective climate policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steininger, Karl W.; Lininger, Christian; Meyer, Lukas H.; Muñoz, Pablo; Schinko, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Negotiating reductions in greenhouse gas emission involves the allocation of emissions and of emission reductions to specific agents, and notably, within the current UN framework, to associated countries. As production takes place in supply chains, increasingly extending over several countries, there are various options available in which emissions originating from one and the same activity may be attributed to different agents along the supply chain and thus to different countries. In this way, several distinct types of national carbon accounts can be constructed. We argue that these accounts will typically differ in the information they provide to individual countries on the effects their actions have on global emissions; and they may also, to varying degrees, prove useful in supporting the pursuit of an effective and just climate policy. None of the accounting systems, however, prove 'best' in achieving these aims under real-world circumstances; we thus suggest compiling reliable data to aid in the consistent calculation of multiple carbon accounts on a global level.

  16. Accounting for Recoil Effects in Geochronometers: A New Model Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, V. E.; Huber, C.

    2012-12-01

    dated grain is a major control on the magnitude of recoil loss, the first feature is the ability to calculate recoil effects on isotopic compositions for realistic, complex grain shapes and surface roughnesses. This is useful because natural grains may have irregular shapes that do not conform to simple geometric descriptions. Perhaps more importantly, the surface area over which recoiled nuclides are lost can be significantly underestimated when grain surface roughness is not accounted for, since the recoil distances can be of similar characteristic lengthscales to surface roughness features. The second key feature is the ability to incorporate dynamical geologic processes affecting grain surfaces in natural settings, such as dissolution and crystallization. We describe the model and its main components, and point out implications for the geologically-relevant chronometers mentioned above.

  17. Maturity Effects on Students' Perceptions of How Accounting Scandals Impact the Accounting Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theuri, Peter; Weickgenannt, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the impact of recent ethical scandals on business students' perceptions of the accounting profession and related regulatory reforms, and whether such perceptions may be differentiated by maturity. Student maturity is distinguished by age, class standing, and number of accounting classes taken so far. The study results are based…

  18. The Importance of Having an Effective School Crisis Response Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, James A.

    2000-01-01

    Details the components of a public school safety plan and how to develop a crisis response plan with emergency responders. The importance of crisis response team members knowing their roles and being held accountable are stressed. (GR)

  19. Associative Accounts of Recovery-from-Extinction Effects

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Bridget L.; Miller, Ralph R.

    2014-01-01

    Recovery-from-extinction effects (e.g., spontaneous recovery, renewal, reinstatement, and facilitated reacquisition) have become the focus of much research in recent years. However, despite a great deal of empirical data, there are few theoretical explanations for these effects. This paucity poses a severe limitation on our understanding of these behavioral effects, impedes advances in uncovering neural mechanisms of response recovery, and reduces our potential to prevent relapse after exposure therapy. Towards correcting this oversight, this review takes prominent models of associative learning that have been used in the past and continue to be used today to explain Pavlovian conditioning and extinction, and assesses how each model can be applied to account for recovery-from-extinction effects. The models include the Rescorla-Wagner (1972) model, Mackintosh's (1975) attentional model, Pearce and Hall's (1980) attentional model, Wagner's (1981) SOP model, Pearce's (1987) configural model, McLaren and Mackintosh's (2002) elemental model, and Stout and Miller's (2007) SOCR (comparator hypothesis) model. Each model is assessed for how well it explains or does not explain the various recovery-from-extinction phenomena. We offer some suggestions for how the models might be modified to account for these effects in those instances in which they initially fail. PMID:24707062

  20. TOLUENE DOSE-EFFECT META ANALYSIS AND IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    TOLUENE DOSE-EFFECT META ANALYSES AND IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTS
    Benignus, V.A., Research Psychologist, ORD, NHEERL, Human Studies Division,
    919-966-6242, benignus.vernon@epa.gov
    Boyes, W.K., Supervisory Health Scientist, ORD, NHEERL, Neurotoxicology Division
    919-541-...

  1. Engine control techniques to account for fuel effects

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Shankar; Frazier, Timothy R.; Stanton, Donald W.; Xu, Yi; Bunting, Bruce G.; Wolf, Leslie R.

    2014-08-26

    A technique for engine control to account for fuel effects including providing an internal combustion engine and a controller to regulate operation thereof, the engine being operable to combust a fuel to produce an exhaust gas; establishing a plurality of fuel property inputs; establishing a plurality of engine performance inputs; generating engine control information as a function of the fuel property inputs and the engine performance inputs; and accessing the engine control information with the controller to regulate at least one engine operating parameter.

  2. Revisiting heritability accounting for shared environmental effects and maternal inheritance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunyu; Dupuis, Josée; Larson, Martin G; Cupples, L Adrienne; Ordovas, Jose M; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Meigs, James B; Jacques, Paul F; Levy, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Heritability measures the proportion of phenotypic variation attributable to genetic factors. In addition to a shared nuclear genetic component, a number of additional variance components, such as spousal correlation, sibship, household and maternal effects, may have strong contributions to inter-individual phenotype variation. In humans, the confounding effects of these components on heritability have not been studied thoroughly. We sought to obtain unbiased heritability estimates for complex traits in the presence of multiple variance components and also to estimate the contributions of these variance components to complex traits. We compared regression and variance component methods to estimate heritability in simulations when additional variance components existed. We then revisited heritability for several traits in Framingham Heart Study (FHS) participants. Using simulations, we found that failure to account for or misclassification of necessary variance components yielded biased heritability estimates. The direction and magnitude of the bias varied depending on a variance structure and an estimation method. Using the best fitted models to account for necessary variance components, we found that heritability estimates for most FHS traits were overestimated, ranging from 4 to 47 %, when we compared models that considered necessary variance components to models that only considered familial relationships. Spousal correlation explained 14-36 % of phenotypic variation in several anthropometric and lifestyle traits. Maternal and sibling effects also contributed to phenotypic variation, ranging from 3 to 5 % and 4 to 7 %, respectively, in several anthropometric and metabolic traits. Our findings may explain, in part, the missing heritability for some traits.

  3. Prerequisite Change and Its Effect on Intermediate Accounting Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiunn; O'Shaughnessy, John; Wagner, Robin

    2005-01-01

    As of Fall 1996, San Francisco State University changed its introductory financial accounting course to focus on a "user's" perspective, de-emphasizing the accounting cycle. Anticipating that these changes could impair subsequent performance, the Department of Accounting instituted a new prerequisite for intermediate accounting: Students would…

  4. A strategic account of the cue-depreciation effect.

    PubMed

    Thapar, A; Greene, R L

    1995-12-01

    A word fragment is less likely to be completed if it is presented incrementally (R______P, R____R _ P, R_I__R_P, R_I__R O P) than if it is presented all at once (e.g., R_I__R O P). This phenomenon is known as the cue-depreciation effect. The present study examined the role of strategies in this phenomenon. The magnitude of the cue-depreciation effect was increased when subjects were asked to adopt a passive generation approach to word fragment completion. The current study investigated an extension of Bruner and Potter's (1964) early hypothesis-generation account of the cue-depreciation effect. Findings demonstrated the influence of completion strategies for a general theory of fragment completion.

  5. Empirical analysis of retirement pension and IFRS adoption effects on accounting information: glance at IT industry.

    PubMed

    Kim, JeongYeon

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews new pension accounting with K-IFRS and provides empirical changes in liability for retirement allowances with adoption of K-IFRS. It will help to understand the effect of pension accounting on individual firm's financial report and the importance of public announcement of actuarial assumptions. Firms that adopted K-IFRS had various changes in retirement liability compared to the previous financial report not based on K-IFRS. Their actuarial assumptions for pension accounting should be announced, but only few of them were published. Data analysis shows that the small differences of the actuarial assumption may result in a big change of retirement related liability. Firms within IT industry also have similar behaviors, which means that additional financial regulations for pension accounting are recommended. PMID:25013868

  6. Empirical Analysis of Retirement Pension and IFRS Adoption Effects on Accounting Information: Glance at IT Industry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews new pension accounting with K-IFRS and provides empirical changes in liability for retirement allowances with adoption of K-IFRS. It will help to understand the effect of pension accounting on individual firm's financial report and the importance of public announcement of actuarial assumptions. Firms that adopted K-IFRS had various changes in retirement liability compared to the previous financial report not based on K-IFRS. Their actuarial assumptions for pension accounting should be announced, but only few of them were published. Data analysis shows that the small differences of the actuarial assumption may result in a big change of retirement related liability. Firms within IT industry also have similar behaviors, which means that additional financial regulations for pension accounting are recommended. PMID:25013868

  7. Empirical analysis of retirement pension and IFRS adoption effects on accounting information: glance at IT industry.

    PubMed

    Kim, JeongYeon

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews new pension accounting with K-IFRS and provides empirical changes in liability for retirement allowances with adoption of K-IFRS. It will help to understand the effect of pension accounting on individual firm's financial report and the importance of public announcement of actuarial assumptions. Firms that adopted K-IFRS had various changes in retirement liability compared to the previous financial report not based on K-IFRS. Their actuarial assumptions for pension accounting should be announced, but only few of them were published. Data analysis shows that the small differences of the actuarial assumption may result in a big change of retirement related liability. Firms within IT industry also have similar behaviors, which means that additional financial regulations for pension accounting are recommended.

  8. The importance of effective catheter securement.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jayne

    This article examines the importance of securing/fixing indwelling urinary catheters. The Oxford English dictionary interlinks the two words-'secure' and 'fix'-as having the same meaning. To secure the catheter should not be confused with 'support', whereby the weight of the urine drainage bag is supported with the use of velcro straps or a sleeve. The author introduces the need for the concept of this practice to be at the forefront of nurses' minds in all settings, and this is demonstrated through the use of case studies. Current guidance in this area is reviewed, as well as the problems that can arise when catheters are not secured properly and the available products for health professionals to use. PMID:20948482

  9. The importance of effective catheter securement.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jayne

    This article examines the importance of securing/fixing indwelling urinary catheters. The Oxford English dictionary interlinks the two words-'secure' and 'fix'-as having the same meaning. To secure the catheter should not be confused with 'support', whereby the weight of the urine drainage bag is supported with the use of velcro straps or a sleeve. The author introduces the need for the concept of this practice to be at the forefront of nurses' minds in all settings, and this is demonstrated through the use of case studies. Current guidance in this area is reviewed, as well as the problems that can arise when catheters are not secured properly and the available products for health professionals to use.

  10. Importance of effective dimensionality in manganese pnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingl, Manuel; Assmann, Elias; Seth, Priyanka; Krivenko, Igor; Aichhorn, Markus

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the two manganese pnictides BaMn2As2 and LaMnAsO, using fully charge self-consistent density functional plus dynamical mean-field theory calculations. These systems have a nominally half-filled d shell, and as a consequence, electronic correlations are strong, placing these compounds at the verge of a metal-insulator transition. Although their crystal structure is composed of similar building blocks, our analysis shows that the two materials exhibit a very different effective dimensionality, LaMnAsO being a quasi-two-dimensional material in contrast to the much more three-dimensional BaMn2As2 . We demonstrate that the experimentally observed differences in the Néel temperature, the band gap, and the optical properties of the manganese compounds under consideration can be traced back to exactly this effective dimensionality. Our calculations show excellent agreement with measured optical spectra.

  11. Holding Charter Authorizers Accountable: Why It Is Important and How It Might Be Done. NCSRP White Paper Series, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robin J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper takes on the question of whether and how school authorizers should be held accountable for their own performance. The author presents reasons why scrutiny and accountability are needed not only for schools but also for chartering agencies, identifies what types of accountability are present now, and offers ideas for ways accountability…

  12. A neurocomputational account of the face configural effect.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaokun; Biederman, Irving; Shah, Manan P

    2014-01-01

    A striking phenomenon in face perception is the configural effect in which a difference in a single part appears more distinct in the context of a face than it does by itself. The face context would be expected to increase search complexity, rendering discrimination more--not less--difficult. Remarkably, there has never been a biologically plausible explanation of this fundamental signature of face recognition.We show that the configural effect can be simply derived from a model composed of overlapping receptive fields (RFs) characteristic of early cortical simple-cell tuning but also present in face-selective areas. Because of the overlap in RFs, the difference in a single part is not only represented in the RFs centered on it but also propagated to larger RFs centered on distant parts of the face. Dissimilarity values computed from the model between pairs of faces and pairs of face parts closely matched the recognition accuracy of human observers who had learned a set of faces composed of composite parts and were tested on wholes (Which is Larry?) and parts (Which is Larry’s nose?). When stimuli were high versus low passed the contributions of different spatial frequency (SF) bands to the configural effect were largely comparable. Therefore, it was the larger RFs rather than the low SFs that accounted for most of the configural effect. The representation explains why, relative to objects, face recognition is so adversely affected by inversion and contrast reversal and why distinctions between similar faces are ineffable. PMID:25009359

  13. Accounting for Electronic Polarization Effects in Aqueous Sodium Chloride via Molecular Dynamics Aided by Neutron Scattering.

    PubMed

    Kohagen, Miriam; Mason, Philip E; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Modeled ions, described by nonpolarizable force fields, can suffer from unphysical ion pairing and clustering in aqueous solutions well below their solubility limit. The electronic continuum correction takes electronic polarization effects of the solvent into account in an effective way by scaling the charges on the ions, resulting in a much better description of the ionic behavior. Here, we present parameters for the sodium ion consistent with this effective polarizability approach and in agreement with experimental data from neutron scattering, which could be used for simulations of complex aqueous systems where polarization effects are important.

  14. Bohr effect of hemoglobins: Accounting for differences in magnitude.

    PubMed

    Okonjo, Kehinde O

    2015-09-01

    The basis of the difference in the Bohr effect of various hemoglobins has remained enigmatic for decades. Fourteen amino acid residues, identical in pairs and located at specific 'Bohr group positions' in human hemoglobin, are implicated in the Bohr effect. All 14 are present in mouse, 11 in dog, eight in pigeon and 13 in guinea pig hemoglobin. The Bohr data for human and mouse hemoglobin are identical: the 14 Bohr groups appear at identical positions in both molecules. The dog data are different from the human because three Bohr group positions are occupied by non-ionizable groups in dog hemoglobin; the pigeon data are vastly different from the human because six Bohr group positions are occupied by non-ionizable groups in pigeon hemoglobin. The guinea pig data are quite complex. Quantitative analyses showed that only the pigeon data could be fitted with the Wyman equation for the Bohr effect. We demonstrate that, apart from guinea pig hemoglobin, the difference between the Bohr effect of each of the other hemoglobins and of pigeon hemoglobin can be accounted for quantitatively on the basis of the occupation of some of their Bohr group positions by non-ionizable groups in pigeon hemoglobin. We attribute the anomalous guinea pig result to a new salt-bridge formed in its R2 quaternary structure between the terminal NH3(+) group of one β-chain and the COO(-) terminal group of the partner β-chain in the same molecule. The pKas of this NH3(+) group are 6.33 in the R2 and 4.59 in the T state.

  15. Integrating Effective Writing Skills in the Accounting Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Gordon S.; Arevalo, Claire

    1983-01-01

    The J. M. Tull School of Accounting at the University of Georgia has developed a program that integrates the teaching of writing skills with the regular accounting courses. Students in a three-course sequence write a total of eight papers--technical, memos, or reports--in assignments that resemble writing tasks encountered by professional…

  16. Control of corruption, democratic accountability, and effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Ming; Kang, Minah

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite continued global efforts, HIV/AIDS outcomes in developing countries have not made much progress. Poor governance in recipient countries is often seen as one of the reasons for ineffectiveness of aid efforts to achieve stated objectives and desired outcomes. Objective This study examines the impact of two important dimensions of governance – control of corruption and democratic accountability – on the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance. Design An empirical analysis using dynamic panel Generalized Method of Moments estimation was conducted on 2001–2010 datasets. Results Control of corruption and democratic accountability revealed an independent effect and interaction with the amount of HIV/AIDS aid on incidence of HIV/AIDS, respectively, while none of the two governance variables had a significant effect on HIV/AIDS prevalence. Specifically, in countries with accountability level below −2.269, aid has a detrimental effect on incidence of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The study findings suggest that aid programs need to be preceded or at least accompanied by serious efforts to improve governance in recipient countries and that democratic accountability ought to receive more critical attention. PMID:27189199

  17. Analysis & commentary: The accountable care organization: whatever its growing pains, the concept is too vitally important to fail.

    PubMed

    Crosson, Francis J

    2011-07-01

    The success of health reform efforts will depend, in part, on creating new and better ways to organize, deliver, and pay for health care. Increasingly central to this idea is the accountable care organization model proposed for Medicare and a slightly different model for commercial health care. But these new health care delivery and payment models face considerable skepticism. Can Medicare succeed with accountable care organizations if physicians can't determine whether patients are in the organization or not? Will commercial hospitals use their clout to create accountable care organizations, leaving physician practices in a weaker position? This article answers those and other criticisms of the developing accountable care organization movement. If the concept fails, the nation may face indiscriminate cuts to health care payments, with resulting reductions in access, service, and quality. PMID:21734197

  18. Accounting for Basin Effects Will Improve Seismic Risk Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magistrale, Harold

    2010-05-01

    determine the basin amplification factor as a function of depth to Vs=1.5 km/s (a measure of basin depth), and find period-dependent amplifications of ~1.5 to 8 relative to a 1D hard rock reference structure. Recent simulations (Rotan et al., 2009) of a M7 earthquake on the Wasatch fault zone in the Salt Lake basin model show a similar strong effect of basin structure on strong ground motions. These results indicate that the strong influences of basin structures on earthquake ground motions must be accounted for to achieve rational seismic hazard and risk assessments.

  19. Accounting for Behavior in Treatment Effects: New Applications for Blind Trials.

    PubMed

    Chassang, Sylvain; Snowberg, Erik; Seymour, Ben; Bowles, Cayley

    2015-01-01

    The double-blind randomized controlled trial (DBRCT) is the gold standard of medical research. We show that DBRCTs fail to fully account for the efficacy of treatment if there are interactions between treatment and behavior, for example, if a treatment is more effective when patients change their exercise or diet. Since behavioral or placebo effects depend on patients' beliefs that they are receiving treatment, clinical trials with a single probability of treatment are poorly suited to estimate the additional treatment benefit that arises from such interactions. Here, we propose methods to identify interaction effects, and use those methods in a meta-analysis of data from blinded anti-depressant trials in which participant-level data was available. Out of six eligible studies, which included three for the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor paroxetine, and three for the tricyclic imipramine, three studies had a high (>65%) probability of treatment. We found strong evidence that treatment probability affected the behavior of trial participants, specifically the decision to drop out of a trial. In the case of paroxetine, but not imipramine, there was an interaction between treatment and behavioral changes that enhanced the effectiveness of the drug. These data show that standard blind trials can fail to account for the full value added when there are interactions between a treatment and behavior. We therefore suggest that a new trial design, two-by-two blind trials, will better account for treatment efficacy when interaction effects may be important. PMID:26062024

  20. Accounting for Behavior in Treatment Effects: New Applications for Blind Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chassang, Sylvain; Snowberg, Erik; Seymour, Ben; Bowles, Cayley

    2015-01-01

    The double-blind randomized controlled trial (DBRCT) is the gold standard of medical research. We show that DBRCTs fail to fully account for the efficacy of treatment if there are interactions between treatment and behavior, for example, if a treatment is more effective when patients change their exercise or diet. Since behavioral or placebo effects depend on patients’ beliefs that they are receiving treatment, clinical trials with a single probability of treatment are poorly suited to estimate the additional treatment benefit that arises from such interactions. Here, we propose methods to identify interaction effects, and use those methods in a meta-analysis of data from blinded anti-depressant trials in which participant-level data was available. Out of six eligible studies, which included three for the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor paroxetine, and three for the tricyclic imipramine, three studies had a high (>65%) probability of treatment. We found strong evidence that treatment probability affected the behavior of trial participants, specifically the decision to drop out of a trial. In the case of paroxetine, but not imipramine, there was an interaction between treatment and behavioral changes that enhanced the effectiveness of the drug. These data show that standard blind trials can fail to account for the full value added when there are interactions between a treatment and behavior. We therefore suggest that a new trial design, two-by-two blind trials, will better account for treatment efficacy when interaction effects may be important. PMID:26062024

  1. Accounting for Behavior in Treatment Effects: New Applications for Blind Trials.

    PubMed

    Chassang, Sylvain; Snowberg, Erik; Seymour, Ben; Bowles, Cayley

    2015-01-01

    The double-blind randomized controlled trial (DBRCT) is the gold standard of medical research. We show that DBRCTs fail to fully account for the efficacy of treatment if there are interactions between treatment and behavior, for example, if a treatment is more effective when patients change their exercise or diet. Since behavioral or placebo effects depend on patients' beliefs that they are receiving treatment, clinical trials with a single probability of treatment are poorly suited to estimate the additional treatment benefit that arises from such interactions. Here, we propose methods to identify interaction effects, and use those methods in a meta-analysis of data from blinded anti-depressant trials in which participant-level data was available. Out of six eligible studies, which included three for the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor paroxetine, and three for the tricyclic imipramine, three studies had a high (>65%) probability of treatment. We found strong evidence that treatment probability affected the behavior of trial participants, specifically the decision to drop out of a trial. In the case of paroxetine, but not imipramine, there was an interaction between treatment and behavioral changes that enhanced the effectiveness of the drug. These data show that standard blind trials can fail to account for the full value added when there are interactions between a treatment and behavior. We therefore suggest that a new trial design, two-by-two blind trials, will better account for treatment efficacy when interaction effects may be important.

  2. 14 CFR Section 18 - Objective Classification-Cumulative Effect of Changes in Accounting Principles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Changes in Accounting Principles Section 18 Section 18 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... Objective Classification—Cumulative Effect of Changes in Accounting Principles 98Cumulative Effect of Changes in Accounting Principles. Record here the difference between the amount of retained earnings...

  3. Materialism Moderates the Effect of Accounting for Time on Prosocial Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Li, Jibo; Chen, Yingying; Huang, Xiting

    2015-01-01

    Accounting for time is defined as putting a price on time. Researchers have demonstrated that accounting for time reduces the time individuals spend on others; however, its association with monetary donations has not been examined. We hypothesized that accounting for time will activate a utility mindset that would affect one's allocation of time and money. In Study 1, the mediating effect of utility mindsets on the relationship between accounting for time and prosocial behavior was examined. In Study 2, we examined the effect of accounting for time on time spent helping and donating money, and the moderating role of material values on the relationship between accounting for time and prosocial behavior. Results showed that accounting for time activated a mindset of utility maximization that, in turn, reduced participants' prosocial behavior; moreover, materialism moderated the effect of accounting for time on prosocial behavior.

  4. An Assessment of the Effects of Teaching Methods on Academic Performance of Students in Accounting Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosal-Akman, Nazli; Simga-Mugan, Can

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the effect of teaching methods on the academic performance of students in accounting courses. The study was carried out over two semesters at a well-known university in Turkey in principles of financial accounting and managerial accounting courses. Students enrolled in the courses were assigned to treatment and control groups.…

  5. A Pilot Study Examining the Effects of Time Constraints on Student Performance in Accounting Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David E., Sr.; Scott, John

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects, if any, of time constraints on the success of accounting students completing exams. This study examined how time allowed to take exams affected the grades on examinations in three different accounting classes. Two were sophomore classes and one was a senior accounting class. This limited pilot…

  6. The effect of accountable care organizations on oncology practice.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Lawrence N

    2014-01-01

    Cancer care accounts for a significant portion of the rise in health care costs, and therefore, as national efforts escalate to control cost, cancer care will be a focus of concern. Cost increases in cancer care are related to many factors, including increasing cancer incidence in an aging population, the introduction of new high-cost therapeutics, and the high cost of end-of-life care. Accountable care organizations (ACOs) have been one of the major efforts directed at controlling health care costs. How cancer care will fit into the rubric of ACOs is not entirely clear but will certainly evolve over the coming years. The oncology profession has the opportunity to play a role in this evolution or could leave the evolution to others driving the process, such as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), private payers, and ACOs. Ideally all parties will work together to provide a construct for high-value, high-quality care for patients with cancer while contributing to cost control in overall health care. PMID:24857141

  7. Menopause and the virtuous woman: the importance of the moral order in accounting for medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Christine; Breheny, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not to use hormone replacement therapy (HRT) around the time of menopause is seen as an important decision for many mid-aged women. Recent studies of information provided to women to assist them in making a medical decision about the use of HRT have highlighted the importance of understanding the broader social context of the decision. In this article we examine one important aspect of western mid-aged women's social world: the moral order and the imperative of virtue. Qualitative data from a survey, focus group discussions, and interviews with mid-aged women about HRT use are used to provide examples of the importance of the local moral order in women's talk about menopause and HRT use. The implications of these data will be discussed in terms of the different narrative resources available to construct menopause and HRT, the role of morality, and the demonstration of virtue in daily social life, including medical decision making.

  8. An Exploratory Study of the Effect of Professional Internships on Students' Perception of the Importance of Employment Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Brian Patrick; Graybeal, Patricia; Madison, Roland L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors measured the effects of a formal internship on students' perceptions of the importance of traits employees consider during the hiring process. Prior studies have reported that accounting firms perceive students with internship experience as better entry-level accountants. This perception may be related to changes in student beliefs…

  9. Present, Engaged, and Accounted for: The Critical Importance of Addressing Chronic Absence in the Early Grades. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hedy N.; Romero, Mariajose

    2008-01-01

    This report seeks to raise awareness of the critical importance of chronic early absence, synthesize available data on the scope of the challenge, and share emerging insights about how schools and communities can use chronic early absence to identify and address challenges affecting the social, educational and physical well-being of children and…

  10. Young Children's Memory for Televised Stories: Effects of Importance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Elizabeth Pugzles; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Effects of the importance of plot-relevant information on 4- to 6-year-old children's memory for four televised stories was examined in two experiments. Free recall and cued recall of idea units rated for importance by college students were assessed. Recognition following failed cued recall was also assessed. (Author/BN)

  11. Effect of Teaching Using Whole Brain Instruction on Accounting Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Li-Tze; Hung, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    McCarthy (1985) constructed the 4MAT teaching model, an eight step instrument developed in 1980, by synthesizing Dewey's experiential learning, Kolb's four learning styles, Jung's personality types, as well as Bogen's left mode and right mode of brain processing preferences. An important implication of this model is that learning retention is…

  12. A Response-Discrimination Account of the Simon Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansorge, Ulrich; Wuhr, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Simon effects might partly reflect stimulus-triggered response activation. According to the response-discrimination hypothesis, however, stimulus-triggered response activation shows up in Simon effects only when stimulus locations match the top-down selected spatial codes used to discriminate between alternative responses. Five experiments support…

  13. Returns to Education: Accounting for Enrolment and Completion Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hérault, Nicolas; Zakirova, Rezida

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature by separately analysing the course enrolment and completion effects of vocational education and training (VET) as well as higher education. Moreover, we investigate the persistence of these wage effects over time while controlling for two potential selection biases. We take advantage of the Longitudinal…

  14. Meander migration modeling accounting for the effect of riparian vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eke, E.; Parker, G.

    2010-12-01

    A numerical model is proposed to study the development of meandering rivers so as to reproduce patterns of both migration and spatial/temporal width variation pattern observed in nature. The model comprises of: a) a depth-averaged channel hydrodynamic/morphodynamic model developed using a two-parameter perturbation expansion technique that considers perturbations induced by curvature and spatial channel width variation and b) a bank migration model which separately considers bank erosional and depositional processes. Unlike most previous meandering river models where channel migration is characterized only in terms of bank erosion, channel dynamics are here defined at channel banks which are allowed to migrate independently via deposition/erosion based on the local flow field and bank characteristics. A bank erodes (deposits) if the near bank Shields stress computed from the flow field is greater (less) than a specified threshold. This threshold Shields number is equivalent to the formative Shields stress characterizing bankfull flow. Excessive bank erosion is controlled by means of natural armoring provided by cohesive/rooted slump blocks produced when a stream erodes into the lower non-cohesive part of a composite bank. Bank deposition is largely due to sediment trapping by vegetation; resultant channel narrowing is related to both a natural rate of vegetal encroachment and flow characteristics. This new model allows the channel freedom to vary in width both spatially and in time as it migrates, so accounting for the bi-directional coupling between vegetation and flow dynamics and reproducing more realistic planform geometries. Preliminary results based on the model are presented.

  15. Facilitative Orthographic Neighborhood Effects: The SERIOL Model Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Carol; Lavidor, Michal

    2005-01-01

    A large orthographic neighborhood (N) facilitates lexical decision for central and left visual field/right hemisphere (LVF/RH) presentation, but not for right visual field/left hemisphere (RVF/LH) presentation. Based on the SERIOL model of letter-position encoding, this asymmetric N effect is explained by differential activation patterns at the…

  16. Testing the item-order account of design effects using the production effect.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Tanya R; Levene, Merrick; Macleod, Colin M

    2014-03-01

    A number of memory phenomena evident in recall in within-subject, mixed-lists designs are reduced or eliminated in between-subject, pure-list designs. The item-order account (McDaniel & Bugg, 2008) proposes that differential retention of order information might underlie this pattern. According to this account, order information may be encoded when a common form of processing is used alone in a list (e.g., reading), but not when an unusual form of processing is used (e.g., generation) or when a common form and an unusual form are mixed within a list. The production effect--better memory for words said aloud than for words read silently--shows this same design-contingent pattern. In 2 experiments, we investigated whether differential order retention might underlie the production effect. Consistent with the item-order account, we found that retention of order information was better in pure silent lists than in either pure aloud lists or mixed lists, as measured using an order reconstruction test. Moreover, in Experiment 2, order was better preserved in free recall of pure silent lists than of either pure aloud or mixed lists. Thus, production joins the set of tasks identified by McDaniel and Bugg (2008), and our findings suggest a role for order processing in explaining the production effect.

  17. Can conceptual congruency effects between number, time, and space be accounted for by polarity correspondence?

    PubMed

    Santiago, Julio; Lakens, Daniël

    2015-03-01

    Conceptual congruency effects have been interpreted as evidence for the idea that the representations of abstract conceptual dimensions (e.g., power, affective valence, time, number, importance) rest on more concrete dimensions (e.g., space, brightness, weight). However, an alternative theoretical explanation based on the notion of polarity correspondence has recently received empirical support in the domains of valence and morality, which are related to vertical space (e.g., good things are up). In the present study we provide empirical arguments against the applicability of the polarity correspondence account to congruency effects in two conceptual domains related to lateral space: number and time. Following earlier research, we varied the polarity of the response dimension (left-right) by manipulating keyboard eccentricity. In a first experiment we successfully replicated the congruency effect between vertical and lateral space and its interaction with response eccentricity. We then examined whether this modulation of a concrete-concrete congruency effect can be extended to two types of concrete-abstract effects, those between left-right space and number (in both parity and magnitude judgment tasks), and temporal reference. In all three tasks response eccentricity failed to modulate the congruency effects. We conclude that polarity correspondence does not provide an adequate explanation of conceptual congruency effects in the domains of number and time.

  18. The neural correlates of placebo effects: a disruption account.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Matthew D; Jarcho, Johanna M; Berman, Steve; Naliboff, Bruce D; Suyenobu, Brandall Y; Mandelkern, Mark; Mayer, Emeran A

    2004-05-01

    The neurocognitive pathways by which placebo effects operate are poorly understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging was used to assess the brain response of patients with chronic abdominal pain (irritable bowel syndrome; IBS) to induced intestinal discomfort both before and after a 3-week placebo regimen. A daily symptom diary was used to measure symptom improvement. Increases in right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (RVLPFC) activity from pre- to post-placebo predicted self-reported symptom improvement, and this relationship was mediated by changes in dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC), typically associated with pain unpleasantness. These results are consistent with disruption theory [Lieberman, M.D., 2003. Reflective and reflexive judgment processes: a social cognitive neuroscience approach. In: Forgas, J.P., Williams, K.R., von Hippel, W. (Eds.), Social Judgments: Explicit and Implicit Processes. Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, pp. 44-67], which proposes that activation of prefrontal regions associated with thinking about negative affect can diminish dACC and amygdala reactivity to negative affect stimuli. This is the first study to identify a neural pathway from a region of the brain associated with placebos and affective thought to a region closely linked to the placebo-related outcome of diminished pain unpleasantness.

  19. The Importance of Goals to Effective Schools and Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Keith C.

    This paper analyzes the importance of goals for the development of effective schools in general and for minority groups in particular. The first part of the paper reports on a study of the preferred goals of four minority groups in Nova Scotia and how they compared with the goals of the province's Department of Education. The study found that (1)…

  20. "Catalyst Data": Perverse Systemic Effects of Audit and Accountability in Australian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the perverse effects of the new accountability regime central to the Labor government's national reform agenda in schooling. The focus is on National Assessment Program -- Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) results that now act as "catalyst data" and are pivotal to school and system accountability. We offer a case…

  1. Assessing the Comparative Effectiveness of Teaching Undergraduate Intermediate Accounting in the Online Classroom Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Anne J.; Dereshiwsky, Mary I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study assessing the comparative effectiveness of teaching an undergraduate intermediate accounting course in the online classroom format. Students in a large state university were offered an opportunity to complete the first course in intermediate accounting either online or on-campus. Students were required to…

  2. Cramming: The Effects of School Accountability on College-Bound Students. Working Paper 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Colleen; Figlio, David; Rush, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the first evidence of the effects of school accountability systems on the long-term human capital development of high-performing, college-bound students. The results are mixed. On the one hand, the evidence is consistent that school accountability sanction threats are associated with changes in student study habits. Students…

  3. The Effect of Web-Based Collaborative Learning Methods to the Accounting Courses in Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, K. W. Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This study mainly explored the effect of applying web-based collaborative learning instruction to the accounting curriculum on student's problem-solving attitudes in Technical Education. The research findings and proposed suggestions would serve as a reference for the development of accounting-related curricula and teaching strategies. To achieve…

  4. [Importance of researches on chronic effects by manufactured nanomaterials].

    PubMed

    Hirose, Akihiko; Takagi, Atsuya; Nishimura, Tetsuji; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Yoshimitsu; Ogata, Akio; Nakae, Dai; Hino, Okio; Kanno, Jun

    2011-02-01

    Manufactured nanomaterials are the most important substances for the nanotechnology. The nanomaterials possess different physico-chemical properties from bulk materials. The new properties may lead to biologically beneficial effects and/or adverse effects. However, there are no standardized evaluation methods at present. Some domestic research projects and international OECD programs are ongoing, in order to share the health impact information of nanomaterials or to standardize the evaluation methods. From 2005, our institutes have been conducting the research on the establishment of health risk assessment methodology of manufactured nanomaterials. In the course of the research project, we revealed that the nanomaterials were competent to cause chronic effects, by analyzing the intraperitoneal administration studies and carcinogenic promotion studies. These studies suggested that even aggregated nanomaterials were crumbled into nanosized particles inside the body during the long-term, and the particles were transferred to other organs. Also investigations of the toxicokinetic properties of nanomaterials after exposure are important to predict the chronically targeted tissues. The long lasting particles/fibers in the particular tissues may cause chronic adverse effects. Therefore, focusing on the toxicological characterization of chronic effects was considered to be most appropriate approach for establishing the risk assessment methods of nanomaterials.

  5. Rayleigh radiance computations for satellite remote sensing: accounting for the effect of sensor spectral response function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Menghua

    2016-05-30

    To understand and assess the effect of the sensor spectral response function (SRF) on the accuracy of the top of the atmosphere (TOA) Rayleigh-scattering radiance computation, new TOA Rayleigh radiance lookup tables (LUTs) over global oceans and inland waters have been generated. The new Rayleigh LUTs include spectral coverage of 335-2555 nm, all possible solar-sensor geometries, and surface wind speeds of 0-30 m/s. Using the new Rayleigh LUTs, the sensor SRF effect on the accuracy of the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation has been evaluated for spectral bands of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS)-1, showing some important uncertainties for VIIRS-SNPP particularly for large solar- and/or sensor-zenith angles as well as for large Rayleigh optical thicknesses (i.e., short wavelengths) and bands with broad spectral bandwidths. To accurately account for the sensor SRF effect, a new correction algorithm has been developed for VIIRS spectral bands, which improves the TOA Rayleigh radiance accuracy to ~0.01% even for the large solar-zenith angles of 70°-80°, compared with the error of ~0.7% without applying the correction for the VIIRS-SNPP 410 nm band. The same methodology that accounts for the sensor SRF effect on the Rayleigh radiance computation can be used for other satellite sensors. In addition, with the new Rayleigh LUTs, the effect of surface atmospheric pressure variation on the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation can be calculated precisely, and no specific atmospheric pressure correction algorithm is needed. There are some other important applications and advantages to using the new Rayleigh LUTs for satellite remote sensing, including an efficient and accurate TOA Rayleigh radiance computation for hyperspectral satellite remote sensing, detector-based TOA Rayleigh radiance computation, Rayleigh radiance calculations for high altitude

  6. Rayleigh radiance computations for satellite remote sensing: accounting for the effect of sensor spectral response function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Menghua

    2016-05-30

    To understand and assess the effect of the sensor spectral response function (SRF) on the accuracy of the top of the atmosphere (TOA) Rayleigh-scattering radiance computation, new TOA Rayleigh radiance lookup tables (LUTs) over global oceans and inland waters have been generated. The new Rayleigh LUTs include spectral coverage of 335-2555 nm, all possible solar-sensor geometries, and surface wind speeds of 0-30 m/s. Using the new Rayleigh LUTs, the sensor SRF effect on the accuracy of the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation has been evaluated for spectral bands of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS)-1, showing some important uncertainties for VIIRS-SNPP particularly for large solar- and/or sensor-zenith angles as well as for large Rayleigh optical thicknesses (i.e., short wavelengths) and bands with broad spectral bandwidths. To accurately account for the sensor SRF effect, a new correction algorithm has been developed for VIIRS spectral bands, which improves the TOA Rayleigh radiance accuracy to ~0.01% even for the large solar-zenith angles of 70°-80°, compared with the error of ~0.7% without applying the correction for the VIIRS-SNPP 410 nm band. The same methodology that accounts for the sensor SRF effect on the Rayleigh radiance computation can be used for other satellite sensors. In addition, with the new Rayleigh LUTs, the effect of surface atmospheric pressure variation on the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation can be calculated precisely, and no specific atmospheric pressure correction algorithm is needed. There are some other important applications and advantages to using the new Rayleigh LUTs for satellite remote sensing, including an efficient and accurate TOA Rayleigh radiance computation for hyperspectral satellite remote sensing, detector-based TOA Rayleigh radiance computation, Rayleigh radiance calculations for high altitude

  7. Importance of geometric phase effects in ultracold chemistry

    DOE PAGES

    Hazra, Jisha; Kendrick, Brian K.; Balakrishnan, Naduvalath

    2015-08-28

    Here, it is demonstrated that the inclusion of the geometric phase has an important effect on ultracold chemical reaction rates. The effect appears in rotationally and vibrationally resolved integral cross sections as well as cross sections summed over all product quantum states. The effect arises from interference between scattering amplitudes of two reaction pathways: a direct path and a looping path that encircle the conical intersection between the two lowest adiabatic electronic potential energy surfaces. It is magnified when the two scattering amplitudes have comparable magnitude and they scatter into the same angular region which occurs in the isotropic scatteringmore » characteristic of the ultracold regime (s-wave scattering). Results are presented for the O + OH → H + O2 reaction for total angular momentum quantum number J = 0–5. Large geometric phase effects occur for collision energies below 0.1 K, but the effect vanishes at higher energies when contributions from different partial waves are included. It is also qualitatively demonstrated that the geometric phase effect can be modulated by applying an external electric field allowing the possibility of quantum control of chemical reactions in the ultracold regime. In this case, the geometric phase plays the role of a “quantum switch” which can turn the reaction “on” or “off”.« less

  8. Importance of geometric phase effects in ultracold chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Jisha; Kendrick, Brian K.; Balakrishnan, Naduvalath

    2015-08-28

    Here, it is demonstrated that the inclusion of the geometric phase has an important effect on ultracold chemical reaction rates. The effect appears in rotationally and vibrationally resolved integral cross sections as well as cross sections summed over all product quantum states. The effect arises from interference between scattering amplitudes of two reaction pathways: a direct path and a looping path that encircle the conical intersection between the two lowest adiabatic electronic potential energy surfaces. It is magnified when the two scattering amplitudes have comparable magnitude and they scatter into the same angular region which occurs in the isotropic scattering characteristic of the ultracold regime (s-wave scattering). Results are presented for the O + OH → H + O2 reaction for total angular momentum quantum number J = 0–5. Large geometric phase effects occur for collision energies below 0.1 K, but the effect vanishes at higher energies when contributions from different partial waves are included. It is also qualitatively demonstrated that the geometric phase effect can be modulated by applying an external electric field allowing the possibility of quantum control of chemical reactions in the ultracold regime. In this case, the geometric phase plays the role of a “quantum switch” which can turn the reaction “on” or “off”.

  9. Sampling over Nonuniform Distributions: A Neural Efficiency Account of the Primacy Effect in Statistical Learning.

    PubMed

    Karuza, Elisabeth A; Li, Ping; Weiss, Daniel J; Bulgarelli, Federica; Zinszer, Benjamin D; Aslin, Richard N

    2016-10-01

    Successful knowledge acquisition requires a cognitive system that is both sensitive to statistical information and able to distinguish among multiple structures (i.e., to detect pattern shifts and form distinct representations). Extensive behavioral evidence has highlighted the importance of cues to structural change, demonstrating how, without them, learners fail to detect pattern shifts and are biased in favor of early experience. Here, we seek a neural account of the mechanism underpinning this primacy effect in learning. During fMRI scanning, adult participants were presented with two artificial languages: a familiar language (L1) on which they had been pretrained followed by a novel language (L2). The languages were composed of the same syllable inventory organized according to unique statistical structures. In the absence of cues to the transition between languages, posttest familiarity judgments revealed that learners on average more accurately segmented words from the familiar language compared with the novel one. Univariate activation and functional connectivity analyses showed that participants with the strongest learning of L1 had decreased recruitment of fronto-subcortical and posterior parietal regions, in addition to a dissociation between downstream regions and early auditory cortex. Participants with a strong new language learning capacity (i.e., higher L2 scores) showed the opposite trend. Thus, we suggest that a bias toward neural efficiency, particularly as manifested by decreased sampling from the environment, accounts for the primacy effect in learning. Potential implications of this hypothesis are discussed, including the possibility that "inefficient" learning systems may be more sensitive to structural changes in a dynamic environment. PMID:27315265

  10. Sampling over Nonuniform Distributions: A Neural Efficiency Account of the Primacy Effect in Statistical Learning.

    PubMed

    Karuza, Elisabeth A; Li, Ping; Weiss, Daniel J; Bulgarelli, Federica; Zinszer, Benjamin D; Aslin, Richard N

    2016-10-01

    Successful knowledge acquisition requires a cognitive system that is both sensitive to statistical information and able to distinguish among multiple structures (i.e., to detect pattern shifts and form distinct representations). Extensive behavioral evidence has highlighted the importance of cues to structural change, demonstrating how, without them, learners fail to detect pattern shifts and are biased in favor of early experience. Here, we seek a neural account of the mechanism underpinning this primacy effect in learning. During fMRI scanning, adult participants were presented with two artificial languages: a familiar language (L1) on which they had been pretrained followed by a novel language (L2). The languages were composed of the same syllable inventory organized according to unique statistical structures. In the absence of cues to the transition between languages, posttest familiarity judgments revealed that learners on average more accurately segmented words from the familiar language compared with the novel one. Univariate activation and functional connectivity analyses showed that participants with the strongest learning of L1 had decreased recruitment of fronto-subcortical and posterior parietal regions, in addition to a dissociation between downstream regions and early auditory cortex. Participants with a strong new language learning capacity (i.e., higher L2 scores) showed the opposite trend. Thus, we suggest that a bias toward neural efficiency, particularly as manifested by decreased sampling from the environment, accounts for the primacy effect in learning. Potential implications of this hypothesis are discussed, including the possibility that "inefficient" learning systems may be more sensitive to structural changes in a dynamic environment.

  11. Remembered study mode: support for the distinctiveness account of the production effect.

    PubMed

    Ozubko, Jason D; Major, Jennifer; MacLeod, Colin M

    2014-01-01

    The production effect is the finding that words spoken aloud at study are subsequently remembered better than are words read silently at study. According to the distinctiveness account, aloud words are remembered better because the act of speaking those words aloud is encoded and later recovery of this information can be used to infer that those words were studied. An alternative account (the strength-based account) is that memory strength is simply greater for words read aloud. To discriminate these two accounts, we investigated study mode judgements (i.e., "aloud"/"silent"/"new" ratings): The strength-based account predicts that "aloud" responses should positively correlate with memory strength, whereas the distinctiveness account predicts that accuracy of study mode judgements will be independent of memory strength. Across three experiments, where the strength of some silent words was increased by repetition, study mode was discriminable regardless of strength-even when the strength of aloud and repeated silent items was equivalent. Consistent with the distinctiveness account, we conclude that memory for "aloudness" is independent of memory strength and a likely candidate to explain the production effect.

  12. The Importance of Geometric Effects in Coronal Loop Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikić, Zoran; Lionello, Roberto; Mok, Yung; Linker, Jon A.; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2013-08-01

    We systematically investigate the effects of geometrical assumptions in one-dimensional (1D) models of coronal loops. Many investigations of coronal loops have been based on restrictive assumptions, including symmetry in the loop shape and heating profile, and a uniform cross-sectional area. Starting with a solution for a symmetric uniform-area loop with uniform heating, we gradually relax these restrictive assumptions to consider the effects of nonuniform area, nonuniform heating, a nonsymmetric loop shape, and nonsymmetric heating, to show that the character of the solutions can change in important ways. We find that loops with nonuniform cross-sectional area are more likely to experience thermal nonequilibrium, and that they produce significantly enhanced coronal emission, compared with their uniform-area counterparts. We identify a process of incomplete condensation in loops experiencing thermal nonequilibrium during which the coronal parts of loops never fully cool to chromospheric temperatures. These solutions are characterized by persistent siphon flows. Their properties agree with observations (Lionello et al.) and may not suffer from the drawbacks that led Klimchuk et al. to conclude that thermal nonequilibrium is not consistent with observations. We show that our 1D results are qualitatively similar to those seen in a three-dimensional model of an active region. Our results suggest that thermal nonequilibrium may play an important role in the behavior of coronal loops, and that its dismissal by Klimchuk et al., whose model suffered from some of the restrictive assumptions we described, may have been premature.

  13. THE IMPORTANCE OF GEOMETRIC EFFECTS IN CORONAL LOOP MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Mikic, Zoran; Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Mok, Yung; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2013-08-20

    We systematically investigate the effects of geometrical assumptions in one-dimensional (1D) models of coronal loops. Many investigations of coronal loops have been based on restrictive assumptions, including symmetry in the loop shape and heating profile, and a uniform cross-sectional area. Starting with a solution for a symmetric uniform-area loop with uniform heating, we gradually relax these restrictive assumptions to consider the effects of nonuniform area, nonuniform heating, a nonsymmetric loop shape, and nonsymmetric heating, to show that the character of the solutions can change in important ways. We find that loops with nonuniform cross-sectional area are more likely to experience thermal nonequilibrium, and that they produce significantly enhanced coronal emission, compared with their uniform-area counterparts. We identify a process of incomplete condensation in loops experiencing thermal nonequilibrium during which the coronal parts of loops never fully cool to chromospheric temperatures. These solutions are characterized by persistent siphon flows. Their properties agree with observations (Lionello et al.) and may not suffer from the drawbacks that led Klimchuk et al. to conclude that thermal nonequilibrium is not consistent with observations. We show that our 1D results are qualitatively similar to those seen in a three-dimensional model of an active region. Our results suggest that thermal nonequilibrium may play an important role in the behavior of coronal loops, and that its dismissal by Klimchuk et al., whose model suffered from some of the restrictive assumptions we described, may have been premature.

  14. Cost-Effective Control of Infectious Disease Outbreaks Accounting for Societal Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Fast, Shannon M.; González, Marta C.; Markuzon, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies of cost-effective disease prevention have typically focused on the tradeoff between the cost of disease transmission and the cost of applying control measures. We present a novel approach that also accounts for the cost of social disruptions resulting from the spread of disease. These disruptions, which we call social response, can include heightened anxiety, strain on healthcare infrastructure, economic losses, or violence. Methodology The spread of disease and social response are simulated under several different intervention strategies. The modeled social response depends upon the perceived risk of the disease, the extent of disease spread, and the media involvement. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we estimate the total number of infections and total social response for each strategy. We then identify the strategy that minimizes the expected total cost of the disease, which includes the cost of the disease itself, the cost of control measures, and the cost of social response. Conclusions The model-based simulations suggest that the least-cost disease control strategy depends upon the perceived risk of the disease, as well as media intervention. The most cost-effective solution for diseases with low perceived risk was to implement moderate control measures. For diseases with higher perceived severity, such as SARS or Ebola, the most cost-effective strategy shifted toward intervening earlier in the outbreak, with greater resources. When intervention elicited increased media involvement, it remained important to control high severity diseases quickly. For moderate severity diseases, however, it became most cost-effective to implement no intervention and allow the disease to run its course. Our simulation results imply that, when diseases are perceived as severe, the costs of social response have a significant influence on selecting the most cost-effective strategy. PMID:26288274

  15. Population Size Predicts Lexical Diversity, but so Does the Mean Sea Level --Why It Is Important to Correctly Account for the Structure of Temporal Data.

    PubMed

    Koplenig, Alexander; Müller-Spitzer, Carolin

    2016-01-01

    In order to demonstrate why it is important to correctly account for the (serial dependent) structure of temporal data, we document an apparently spectacular relationship between population size and lexical diversity: for five out of seven investigated languages, there is a strong relationship between population size and lexical diversity of the primary language in this country. We show that this relationship is the result of a misspecified model that does not consider the temporal aspect of the data by presenting a similar but nonsensical relationship between the global annual mean sea level and lexical diversity. Given the fact that in the recent past, several studies were published that present surprising links between different economic, cultural, political and (socio-)demographical variables on the one hand and cultural or linguistic characteristics on the other hand, but seem to suffer from exactly this problem, we explain the cause of the misspecification and show that it has profound consequences. We demonstrate how simple transformation of the time series can often solve problems of this type and argue that the evaluation of the plausibility of a relationship is important in this context. We hope that our paper will help both researchers and reviewers to understand why it is important to use special models for the analysis of data with a natural temporal ordering. PMID:26938719

  16. Population Size Predicts Lexical Diversity, but so Does the Mean Sea Level --Why It Is Important to Correctly Account for the Structure of Temporal Data.

    PubMed

    Koplenig, Alexander; Müller-Spitzer, Carolin

    2016-01-01

    In order to demonstrate why it is important to correctly account for the (serial dependent) structure of temporal data, we document an apparently spectacular relationship between population size and lexical diversity: for five out of seven investigated languages, there is a strong relationship between population size and lexical diversity of the primary language in this country. We show that this relationship is the result of a misspecified model that does not consider the temporal aspect of the data by presenting a similar but nonsensical relationship between the global annual mean sea level and lexical diversity. Given the fact that in the recent past, several studies were published that present surprising links between different economic, cultural, political and (socio-)demographical variables on the one hand and cultural or linguistic characteristics on the other hand, but seem to suffer from exactly this problem, we explain the cause of the misspecification and show that it has profound consequences. We demonstrate how simple transformation of the time series can often solve problems of this type and argue that the evaluation of the plausibility of a relationship is important in this context. We hope that our paper will help both researchers and reviewers to understand why it is important to use special models for the analysis of data with a natural temporal ordering.

  17. Population Size Predicts Lexical Diversity, but so Does the Mean Sea Level – Why It Is Important to Correctly Account for the Structure of Temporal Data

    PubMed Central

    Koplenig, Alexander; Müller-Spitzer, Carolin

    2016-01-01

    In order to demonstrate why it is important to correctly account for the (serial dependent) structure of temporal data, we document an apparently spectacular relationship between population size and lexical diversity: for five out of seven investigated languages, there is a strong relationship between population size and lexical diversity of the primary language in this country. We show that this relationship is the result of a misspecified model that does not consider the temporal aspect of the data by presenting a similar but nonsensical relationship between the global annual mean sea level and lexical diversity. Given the fact that in the recent past, several studies were published that present surprising links between different economic, cultural, political and (socio-)demographical variables on the one hand and cultural or linguistic characteristics on the other hand, but seem to suffer from exactly this problem, we explain the cause of the misspecification and show that it has profound consequences. We demonstrate how simple transformation of the time series can often solve problems of this type and argue that the evaluation of the plausibility of a relationship is important in this context. We hope that our paper will help both researchers and reviewers to understand why it is important to use special models for the analysis of data with a natural temporal ordering. PMID:26938719

  18. Beta-1 integrin-mediated adhesion may be initiated by multiple incomplete bonds, thus accounting for the functional importance of receptor clustering.

    PubMed

    Vitte, Joana; Benoliel, Anne-Marie; Eymeric, Philippe; Bongrand, Pierre; Pierres, Anne

    2004-06-01

    The regulation of cell integrin receptors involves modulation of membrane expression, shift between different affinity states, and topographical redistribution on the cell membrane. Here we attempted to assess quantitatively the functional importance of receptor clustering. We studied beta-1 integrin-mediated attachment of THP-1 cells to fibronectin-coated surfaces under low shear flow. Cells displayed multiple binding events with a half-life of the order of 1 s. The duration of binding events after the first second after arrest was quantitatively accounted for by a model assuming the existence of a short-time intermediate binding state with 3.6 s(-1) dissociation rate and 1.3 s(-1) transition frequency toward a more stable state. Cell binding to surfaces coated with lower fibronectin densities was concluded to be mediated by single molecular interactions, whereas multiple bonds were formed <1 s after contact with higher fibronectin surface densities. Cell treatment with microfilament inhibitors or a neutral antiintegrin antibody decreased bond number without changing aforementioned kinetic parameters whereas a function enhancing antibody increased the rate of bond formation and/or the lifetime of intermediate state. Receptor aggregation was induced by treating cells with neutral antiintegrin antibody and antiimmunoglobulin antibodies. A semiquantitative confocal microscopy study suggested that this treatment increased between 40% and 100% the average number of integrin receptors located in a volume of approximately 0.045 microm(3) surrounding each integrin. This aggregation induced up to 2.7-fold increase of the average number of bonds. Flow cytometric analysis of fluorescent ligand binding showed that THP-1 cells displayed low-affinity beta-1 integrins with a dissociation constant in the micromolar range. It is concluded that the initial step of cell adhesion was mediated by multiple incomplete bonds rather than a single equilibrium-state ligand receptor

  19. Team-oriented leadership: the interactive effects of leader group prototypicality, accountability, and team identification.

    PubMed

    Giessner, Steffen R; van Knippenberg, Daan; van Ginkel, Wendy; Sleebos, Ed

    2013-07-01

    We examined the interactive effects of leader group prototypicality, accountability, and team identification on team-oriented behavior of leaders, thus extending the social identity perspective on leadership to the study of leader behavior. An experimental study (N = 152) supported our hypothesis that leader accountability relates more strongly to team-oriented behavior for group nonprototypical leaders than for group prototypical leaders. A multisource field study with leaders (N = 64) and their followers (N = 209) indicated that this interactive effect is more pronounced for leaders who identify more strongly with their team. We discuss how these findings further develop the social identity analysis of leadership.

  20. Effect of pulsed-column-inventory uncertainty on dynamic materials accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Ostenak, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Reprocessing plants worldwide use the Purex solvent-extraction process and pulsed-column contactors to separate and purify uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuels. The importance of contactor in-process inventory to dynamic materials accounting in reprocessing plants is illustrated using the Allied-General Nuclear Services Plutonium Purification Process (PPP) of the now decommissioned Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant. This study shows that (1) good estimates of column inventory are essential for detecting short-term losses of in-process materials, but that (2) input-output (transfer) measurement correlations limit the accounting sensitivity for longer accounting periods (greater than or equal to 1 wk for the PPP). 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Testing the Item-Order Account of Design Effects Using the Production Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonker, Tanya R.; Levene, Merrick; MacLeod, Colin M.

    2014-01-01

    A number of memory phenomena evident in recall in within-subject, mixed-lists designs are reduced or eliminated in between-subject, pure-list designs. The item-order account (McDaniel & Bugg, 2008) proposes that differential retention of order information might underlie this pattern. According to this account, order information may be encoded…

  2. EFFECTIVE COLLECTION AGENCY USE: THE IMPORTANCE OF INTERNAL POLICIES.

    PubMed

    Scroggins, Robert C

    2014-11-25

    Increasing patient accountability for the cost of healthcare means physician practices likely will need to improve their internal collection processes and consider contracting with an outside collection agency. But choosing a good collection agency is the second priority. The first is establishing well-thought-out and specific internal procedures for collecting as much as possible before turning to an outside collection agency. PMID:26242061

  3. On the Importance of Accounting for Competing Risks in Pediatric Cancer Trials Designed to Delay or Avoid Radiotherapy: I. Basic Concepts and First Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Bee-Choo; Grundy, Richard G.; Machin, David

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: In trials designed to delay or avoid irradiation among children with malignant brain tumor, although irradiation after disease progression is an important event, patients who have disease progression may decline radiotherapy (RT), or those without disease progression may opt for elective RT. To accurately describe the cumulative need for RT in such instances, it is crucial to account for these distinct events and to evaluate how each contributes to the delay or advancement of irradiation via a competing risks analysis. Methods and Materials: We describe the summary of competing events in such trials using competing risks methods based on cumulative incidence functions and Gray's test. The results obtained are contrasted with standard survival methods based on Kaplan-Meier curves, cause-specific hazard functions and log-rank test. Results: The Kaplan-Meier method overestimates all event-specific rates. The cause-specific hazard analysis showed reduction in hazards for all events (A: RT after progression; B: no RT after progression; C: elective RT) among children with ependymoma. For event A, a higher cumulative incidence was reported for ependymoma. Although Gray's test failed to detect any difference (p = 0.331) between histologic subtypes, the log-rank test suggested marginal evidence (p = 0.057). Similarly, for event C, the log-rank test found stronger evidence of reduction in hazard among those with ependymoma (p = 0.005) as compared with Gray's test (p = 0.086). Conclusions: To evaluate treatment differences, failing to account for competing risks using appropriate methodology may lead to incorrect interpretations.

  4. Peer Group Norms and Accountability Moderate the Effect of School Norms on Children's Intergroup Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Luke; Rutland, Adam; Nesdale, Drew

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the interactive effects of school norms, peer norms, and accountability on children's intergroup attitudes. Participants (n = 229) aged 5-11 years, in a between-subjects design, were randomly assigned to a peer group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, learned their school either had an inclusion norm or not, and were…

  5. The District Effect: Systemic Responses to High Stakes Accountability Policies in Six Southern States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opfer, V. Darleen; Henry, Gary T.; Mashburn, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    High stakes accountability (HSA) reforms were enacted in state after state and federally through the No Child Left Behind law, based on the belief that incentives that have consequences attached are effective ways to motivate educators to improve student performance. Our focus for this article is on school district level responses to HSA reforms…

  6. 76 FR 20974 - Implications of Climate Change for Bioassessment Programs and Approaches To Account for Effects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... AGENCY Implications of Climate Change for Bioassessment Programs and Approaches To Account for Effects... external peer review workshop to review the external review draft report titled, ``Implications of Climate... by climate change. The study (1) Investigates the potential to identify biological response...

  7. Identity and Epistemic Emotions during Knowledge Revision: A Potential Account for the Backfire Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevors, Gregory J.; Muis, Krista R.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Sinatra, Gale M.; Winne, Philip H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that for some topics, messages to refute and revise misconceptions may backfire. The current research offers one possible account for this backfire effect (i.e., the ironic strengthening of belief in erroneous information after an attempted refutation) from an educational psychology perspective and examines whether…

  8. A Retrieved Context Account of Spacing and Repetition Effects in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Lynn L.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Repeating an item in a list benefits recall performance, and this benefit increases when the repetitions are spaced apart (Madigan, 1969; Melton, 1970). Retrieved context theory incorporates 2 mechanisms that account for these effects: contextual variability and study-phase retrieval. Specifically, if an item presented at position "i" is…

  9. Effects of Individual Development Accounts (IDAs) on Household Wealth and Saving Taste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jin

    2010-01-01

    This study examines effects of individual development accounts (IDAs) on household wealth of low-income participants. Methods: This study uses longitudinal survey data from the American Dream Demonstration (ADD) involving experimental design (treatment group = 537, control group = 566). Results: Results from quantile regression analysis indicate…

  10. Contrasting Effects of Instructional Leadership Practices on Student Learning in a High Accountability Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moosung; Walker, Allan; Chui, Yuk Ling

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of different dimensions of instructional leadership on student learning in Hong Kong secondary schools, whose broader institutional contexts are critically characterized by high accountability policy environments. Design/methodology/approach: This study utilizes standardized test scores…

  11. Outputs as Educator Effectiveness in the United States: Shifting towards Political Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piro, Jody S.; Mullen, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    The definition of educator effectiveness is being redefined by econometric modeling to evidence student achievement on standardized tests. While the reasons that econometric frameworks are in vogue are many, it is clear that the strength of such models lie in the quantifiable evidence of student learning. Current accountability models frame…

  12. Annual Percentage Rate and Annual Effective Rate: Resolving Confusion in Intermediate Accounting Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicknair, David; Wright, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of confusion in intermediate accounting textbooks regarding the annual percentage rate (APR) and annual effective rate (AER) is presented. The APR and AER are briefly discussed in the context of a note payable and correct formulas for computing each is provided. Representative examples of the types of confusion that we found is presented…

  13. Chloride diffusivity in hardened cement paste from microscale analyses and accounting for binding effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrara, P.; De Lorenzis, L.; Bentz, D. P.

    2016-08-01

    The diffusion of chloride ions in hardened cement paste (HCP) under steady-state conditions and accounting for the highly heterogeneous nature of the material is investigated. The three-dimensional HCP microstructures are obtained through segmentation of x-ray images of real samples as well as from simulations using the cement hydration model CEMHYD3D. Moreover, the physical and chemical interactions between chloride ions and HCP phases (binding), along with their effects on the diffusive process, are explicitly taken into account. The homogenized diffusivity of the HCP is then derived through a least square homogenization technique. Comparisons between numerical results and experimental data from the literature are presented.

  14. Proportion congruency and practice: A contingency learning account of asymmetric list shifting effects.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, James R

    2016-09-01

    Performance is impaired when a distracting stimulus is incongruent with the target stimulus (e.g., "green" printed in red). This congruency effect is decreased when the proportion of incongruent trials is increased, termed the proportion congruent effect. This effect is typically interpreted in terms of the adaptation of attention in response to conflict. In contrast, the contingency account argues that the effect is driven by the learning of predictive relationships between words and responses. In a recent report, Abrahamse, Duthoo, Notebaert, and Risko (2013) demonstrated larger changes in the magnitude of the proportion congruent effect when switching from a mostly congruent list to a mostly incongruent list, relative to the reverse order. They argued that this asymmetric list shifting effect fits only with the conflict adaptation perspective. However, the current paper presents reanalyses of this data and an adaptation of the Parallel Episodic Processing model that together demonstrate how the contingency account can explain these findings equally well when considering the generally accepted notion that performance improves with practice. The contingency account may still be the most parsimonious view. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. A computational account of the production effect: Still playing twenty questions with nature.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Randall K; Mewhort, D J K; Hockley, William E

    2016-06-01

    People remember words that they read aloud better than words that they read silently, a result known as the production effect. The standing explanation for the production effect is that producing a word renders it distinctive in memory and, thus, memorable at test. By 1 key account, distinctiveness is defined in terms of sensory feedback. We formalize the sensory-feedback account using MINERVA 2, a standard model of memory. The model accommodates the basic result in recognition as well as the fact that the mixed-list production effect is larger than its pure-list counterpart, that the production effect is robust to forgetting, and that the production and generation effects have additive influences on performance. A final simulation addresses the strength-based account and suggests that it will be more difficult to distinguish a strength-based versus distinctiveness-based explanation than is typically thought. We conclude that the production effect is consistent with existing theory and discuss our analysis in relation to Alan Newell's (1973) classic criticism of psychology and call for an analysis of psychological principles instead of laboratory phenomena. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Proportion congruency and practice: A contingency learning account of asymmetric list shifting effects.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, James R

    2016-09-01

    Performance is impaired when a distracting stimulus is incongruent with the target stimulus (e.g., "green" printed in red). This congruency effect is decreased when the proportion of incongruent trials is increased, termed the proportion congruent effect. This effect is typically interpreted in terms of the adaptation of attention in response to conflict. In contrast, the contingency account argues that the effect is driven by the learning of predictive relationships between words and responses. In a recent report, Abrahamse, Duthoo, Notebaert, and Risko (2013) demonstrated larger changes in the magnitude of the proportion congruent effect when switching from a mostly congruent list to a mostly incongruent list, relative to the reverse order. They argued that this asymmetric list shifting effect fits only with the conflict adaptation perspective. However, the current paper presents reanalyses of this data and an adaptation of the Parallel Episodic Processing model that together demonstrate how the contingency account can explain these findings equally well when considering the generally accepted notion that performance improves with practice. The contingency account may still be the most parsimonious view. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27585071

  17. A Revised Pilot Study Examining the Effects of the Timing and Size of Classes on Student Performance in Introductory Accounting Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David E., Sr.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to examine the effects of the timing of classes and class size on student performance in introductory accounting courses. Factors affecting student success are important to all stakeholders in the academic community. Previous studies have shown mixed results regarding the effects of class size on student success…

  18. Dietary Restraint Partially Mediates the Relationship between Impulsivity and Binge Eating Only in Lean Individuals: The Importance of Accounting for Body Mass in Studies of Restraint

    PubMed Central

    Coffino, Jaime A.; Orloff, Natalia C.; Hormes, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating is characteristic of eating and weight-related disorders such as binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and obesity. In light of data suggest impulsivity is associated with overeating specifically in restrained eaters, this study sought to elucidate the exact nature of the associations between these variables, hypothesizing that the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating is mediated by restrained eating. We further hypothesized that the role of dietary restraint as a mediator would be moderated by body mass index (BMI). Study participants (n = 506, 50.6% female) were categorized based on self-reported BMI as under- and normal-weight (BMI < 25, 65.8%, n = 333) or overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25, 34.2%, n = 173) and completed the “restrained eating” subscale of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the “impulse control difficulties” subscale of the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale, and the Binge Eating Scale. Findings provide initial evidence for the hypothesized moderated mediation model, with dietary restraint partially mediating the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating severity only in lean respondents. In respondents with overweight or obesity, impulsivity was significantly correlated with binge eating severity, but not with dietary restraint. Findings inform our conceptualization of dietary restraint as a possible risk factor for binge eating and highlight the importance of accounting for body mass in research on the impact of dietary restraint on eating behaviors. PMID:27757092

  19. Candidate mechanisms accounting for effects of physical activity on breast carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Henry J; Jiang, Weiqin; Zhu, Zongjian

    2009-09-01

    Evidence is strong that a reduction in risk for breast cancer is associated with moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA); however, there is limited understanding of the role of type, intensity, duration, and frequency of PA and their mechanisms in accounting for this health benefit. The objective of this review is to stimulate investigations of candidate mechanisms that may account for the effects of the intensity and duration of aerobic PA on breast cancer risk and tumor burden. Three hypotheses are considered: 1) the mTOR network hypothesis: PA inhibits carcinogenesis by suppressing the activation of the mTOR signaling network in mammary carcinomas; 2) the hormesis hypothesis: the carcinogenic response to PA is nonlinear and accounted for by a physiological cellular stress response; and 3) the metabolic reprogramming hypothesis: PA limits the amount of glucose and glutamine available to mammary carcinomas thereby inducing apoptosis because tumor-associated metabolic programming is reversed. To link these hypotheses to systemic effects of PA, it is recommended that consideration be given to determining: 1) what contracting muscle releases into circulation or removes from circulation that would directly modulate the carcinogenic process in epithelial cells; 2) whether the effects of muscle contraction on epithelial cell carcinogenesis are exerted in an endocrine, paracrine, autocrine, or intracrine manner; and 3) if the effects of muscle contraction on malignant cells differ from effects on normal or premalignant cells that do not manifest the hallmarks of malignancy. PMID:19588523

  20. Importance versus intensity of ecological effects: why context matters.

    PubMed

    Kikvidze, Zaal; Suzuki, Maki; Brooker, Rob

    2011-08-01

    In any ecological study, target organisms are usually impacted by multiple environmental drivers. In plant interaction research, recent debate has focussed on the importance of competition; that is, its role in regulating plant success relative to other environmental drivers. Despite being clearly and specifically defined, the apparently simple concept of the importance of competition has been commonly overlooked, and its recognition has helped reconcile long-running debates about the dependence of competition on environmental severity. In this review, we argue that extending this formalised concept of importance to other aspects of ecology would be beneficial. We discuss approaches for measuring importance, and provide examples where explicit acknowledgement of this simple concept might promote understanding and resolve debate. PMID:21550129

  1. Evaluating the effectiveness of conservation site networks under climate change: accounting for uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Robert; Crosby, Mike; Huntley, Brian; Hole, David G; Butchart, Stuart H M; Collingham, Yvonne; Kalra, Mohit; Rajkumar, Jagadish; Rahmani, Asad; Pandey, Mitra; Gurung, Hum; Trai, Le Trong; Van Quang, Nguyen; Willis, Stephen G

    2013-04-01

    We forecasted potential impacts of climate change on the ability of a network of key sites for bird conservation (Important Bird Areas; IBAs) to provide suitable climate for 370 bird species of current conservation concern in two Asian biodiversity hotspots: the Eastern Himalaya and Lower Mekong. Comparable studies have largely not accounted for uncertainty, which may lead to inappropriate conclusions. We quantified the contribution of four sources of variation (choice of general circulation models, emission scenarios and species distribution modelling methods and variation in species distribution data) to uncertainty in forecasts and tested if our projections were robust to these uncertainties. Declines in the availability of suitable climate within the IBA network by 2100 were forecast as 'extremely likely' for 45% of species, whereas increases were projected for only 2%. Thus, we predict almost 24 times as many 'losers' as 'winners'. However, for no species was suitable climate 'extremely likely' to be completely lost from the network. Considerable turnover (median = 43%, 95% CI = 35-69%) in species compositions of most IBAs were projected by 2100. Climatic conditions in 47% of IBAs were projected as 'extremely likely' to become suitable for fewer priority species. However, no IBA was forecast to become suitable for more species. Variation among General Circulation Models and Species Distribution Models contributed most to uncertainty among forecasts. This uncertainty precluded firm conclusions for 53% of species and IBAs because 95% confidence intervals included projections of no change. Considering this uncertainty, however, allows robust recommendations concerning the remaining species and IBAs. Overall, while the IBA network will continue to sustain bird conservation, climate change will modify which species each site will be suitable for. Thus, adaptive management of the network, including modified site conservation strategies and facilitating species

  2. A recency-based account of the primacy effect in free recall.

    PubMed

    Tan, L; Ward, G

    2000-11-01

    Seven experiments investigated the role of rehearsal in free recall to determine whether accounts of recency effects based on the ratio rule could be extended to provide an account of primacy effects based on the number, distribution, and recency of the rehearsals of the study items. Primacy items were rehearsed more often and further toward the end of the list than middle items, particularly with a slow presentation rate (Experiment 1) and with high-frequency words (Experiment 2). Recency, but not primacy, was reduced by a filled delay (Experiment 3), although significant recency survived a filled retention interval when a fixed-rehearsal strategy was used (Experiment 4). Experimenter-presented schedules of rehearsals resulted in similar serial position curves to those observed with participant-generated rehearsals (Experiment 5) and were used to confirm the main findings in Experiments 6 and 7.

  3. Survival analysis approach to account for non-exponential decay rate effects in lifetime experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coakley, K. J.; Dewey, M. S.; Huber, M. G.; Huffer, C. R.; Huffman, P. R.; Marley, D. E.; Mumm, H. P.; O`Shaughnessy, C. M.; Schelhammer, K. W.; Thompson, A. K.; Yue, A. T.

    2016-03-01

    In experiments that measure the lifetime of trapped particles, in addition to loss mechanisms with exponential survival probability functions, particles can be lost by mechanisms with non-exponential survival probability functions. Failure to account for such loss mechanisms produces systematic measurement error and associated systematic uncertainties in these measurements. In this work, we develop a general competing risks survival analysis method to account for the joint effect of loss mechanisms with either exponential or non-exponential survival probability functions, and a method to quantify the size of systematic effects and associated uncertainties for lifetime estimates. As a case study, we apply our survival analysis formalism and method to the Ultra Cold Neutron lifetime experiment at NIST. In this experiment, neutrons can escape a magnetic trap before they decay due to a wall loss mechanism with an associated non-exponential survival probability function.

  4. Accounting for strong localized heterogeneities and local transport effect in core calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggieri, J.M.; Doriath, J.Y.; Finck, P.J.; Boyer, R.

    1996-09-01

    Two methods based on the variational nodal transport method have been developed to account for localized heterogeneities and local transport effects in full core calculations. A local mesh refinement technique relies on using the projected partial ingoing surface currents produced during coarse-mesh iterations as boundary conditions for fine-mesh calculations embedded within the coarse-mesh calculations. The outgoing fine-mesh partial currents are averaged to serve in the coarse-mesh iterations. Then, a mixed transport-diffusion method using two levels of angular approximations for the surface partial currents depending on the node considered has been implemented to account for local transport effects in full core diffusion calculations. These methods have been tested for a model of the Superphenix complementary shutdown rods.

  5. Measuring the Imaginary: The Employment Effect of Imported Steel Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert G.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine A. F. Shorrocks's 1971 conclusion in the light of post-1969 events, examining first, the relation between imports and employment; second, the changes in unemployment in the steel industry, both in steel producing centers and nationally; and third the role of capacity utilization. (Author)

  6. Importance of an Effective Principal-Counselor Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, LaWanda; Grace, Ronald; King, Gwendolyn

    2014-01-01

    An effective relationship between the principal and school counselor is essential when improving student achievement. To have an effective relationship, there must be communication, trust and respect, leadership, and collaborative planning between the principal and school counselor (College Board, 2011). Principals and school counselors are both…

  7. Evaluation of antithrombotic effect: Importance of testing components and methodologies.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Junichiro; Tamura, Yukinori; Ijiri, Yoshinobu; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Murakami, Masahiro; Matsuo, Osamu

    2015-08-01

    The beneficial antithrombotic effect of some dietary components may offer the most promising approach of prevention of cardiovascular diseases and arterial thrombosis. The major stumbling block in finding effective dietary components is the lack of physiologically relevant techniques which can detect potential antithrombotic effect in humans. The presently used platelet function and coagulation tests do not allow the assessment of global thrombotic status and their value in screening dietary components for antithrombotic effect is questionable. Most of these in vitro tests ignore the effect of flow and shear stress, thrombin generation and vascular endothelium, the major contributors to arterial thrombogenesis in humans. As a gold standard, we employed the helium-neon (He-Ne) laser-induced thrombosis test in murine carotid artery and mesenteric microvessels, as the pathomechanism of this test closely reflects arterial thrombogenesis in humans. Results obtained with laser thrombosis test were compared with various shear-induced in vitro platelet function tests which use native blood (Haemostatometry, Thrombotic Status Analyser, Global Thrombosis Test-GTT). Contribution of vascular endothelium to thrombogenesis was assessed by measuring flow-mediated vasodilation (FMV) in vivo. The combination of the two shear-induced ex vivo thrombosis tests (Haemostatometry and GTT) with FMV correlated most closely with the laser-thrombosis test. Our findings suggest that combining the commercially available point-of-care GTT with the FMV test could provide a better assessment of the overall thrombotic status than either of the two tests alone. PMID:26370524

  8. Predictions of secondary neutrons and their importance to radiation effects inside the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    2001-01-01

    As part of a study funded by NASA MSFC to assess thecontribution of secondary particles in producing radiation damage to optoelectronics devices located on the International Space Station (IS), Monte Carlo calculations have been made to predict secondary spectra vs. shielding inside ISS modules and in electronics boxes attached on the truss (Armstrong and Colborn, 1998). The calculations take into account secondary neutron, proton, and charged pion production from the ambient galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) proton, trapped proton, and neutron albedo environments. Comparisons of the predicted neutron spectra with measurments made on the Mir space station and other spacecraft have also been made (Armstrong and Colborn, 1998). In this paper, some initial results from folding the predicted neutron spectrum inside ISS modules from Armstrong and Colborn (1998) with several types of radiation effects response functions related to electronics damage and astronaut-dose are given. These results provide an estimate of the practical importance of neutrons compared to protons in assessing radiation effects for the ISS. Also, the important neutron energy ranges for producing these effects have been estimated, which provides guidance for onboard neutron measurement requirements.

  9. Predictions of secondary neutrons and their importance to radiation effects inside the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, T W; Colborn, B L

    2001-06-01

    As part of a study funded by NASA MSFC to assess thecontribution of secondary particles in producing radiation damage to optoelectronics devices located on the International Space Station (IS), Monte Carlo calculations have been made to predict secondary spectra vs. shielding inside ISS modules and in electronics boxes attached on the truss (Armstrong and Colborn, 1998). The calculations take into account secondary neutron, proton, and charged pion production from the ambient galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) proton, trapped proton, and neutron albedo environments. Comparisons of the predicted neutron spectra with measurments made on the Mir space station and other spacecraft have also been made (Armstrong and Colborn, 1998). In this paper, some initial results from folding the predicted neutron spectrum inside ISS modules from Armstrong and Colborn (1998) with several types of radiation effects response functions related to electronics damage and astronaut-dose are given. These results provide an estimate of the practical importance of neutrons compared to protons in assessing radiation effects for the ISS. Also, the important neutron energy ranges for producing these effects have been estimated, which provides guidance for onboard neutron measurement requirements. PMID:11852942

  10. Predictions of secondary neutrons and their importance to radiation effects inside the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, T W; Colborn, B L

    2001-06-01

    As part of a study funded by NASA MSFC to assess thecontribution of secondary particles in producing radiation damage to optoelectronics devices located on the International Space Station (IS), Monte Carlo calculations have been made to predict secondary spectra vs. shielding inside ISS modules and in electronics boxes attached on the truss (Armstrong and Colborn, 1998). The calculations take into account secondary neutron, proton, and charged pion production from the ambient galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) proton, trapped proton, and neutron albedo environments. Comparisons of the predicted neutron spectra with measurments made on the Mir space station and other spacecraft have also been made (Armstrong and Colborn, 1998). In this paper, some initial results from folding the predicted neutron spectrum inside ISS modules from Armstrong and Colborn (1998) with several types of radiation effects response functions related to electronics damage and astronaut-dose are given. These results provide an estimate of the practical importance of neutrons compared to protons in assessing radiation effects for the ISS. Also, the important neutron energy ranges for producing these effects have been estimated, which provides guidance for onboard neutron measurement requirements.

  11. The Importance of Being a Complement: CED Effects Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurka, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation revisits subject island effects (Ross 1967, Chomsky 1973) cross-linguistically. Controlled acceptability judgment studies in German, English, Japanese and Serbian show that extraction out of specifiers is consistently degraded compared to extraction out of complements, indicating that the Condition on Extraction domains (CED,…

  12. Health literacy and its importance for effective communication. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Veronica; Keogh, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    This is the second of two articles exploring the concept of health literacy, an often hidden barrier to effective healthcare communication. Part 1 was published in April ( Lambert and Keogh 2014 ). This article explains how to detect low levels of health literacy among parents and children, and outlines the challenges to assessing health literacy levels, including the stigma and discrimination some people experience. Some basic healthcare communication strategies for supporting health literacy in practice are suggested.

  13. The drug effectiveness review project: an important step forward.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Mark; Santa, John

    2006-01-01

    Peter Neumann's paper on the Drug Effectiveness Review Project (DERP) is a constructive if incomplete point of departure for discussing the work done by the project and the use of that work by decision-makers in states and elsewhere. This Perspective attempts to establish the proper context for judging the DERP by comparing its product and processes with those commonly produced and used by industry and other parties. It also provides a direct response to the criticisms of the project noted by Neumann. PMID:16757487

  14. Effects and Side Effects of Inspections and Accountability in Education: An Overview of Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wolf, Inge F.; Janssens, Frans J. G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of studies into effects and side effects of control mechanisms in education. We focus on effects and side effects of inspection visits and public performance indicators. A first conclusion is that the studies do not provide us with a clear answer to the question of whether inspections have positive causal effects on…

  15. The importance of understanding: Model space moderates goal specificity effects.

    PubMed

    Kistner, Saskia; Burns, Bruce D; Vollmeyer, Regina; Kortenkamp, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The three-space theory of problem solving predicts that the quality of a learner's model and the goal specificity of a task interact on knowledge acquisition. In Experiment 1 participants used a computer simulation of a lever system to learn about torques. They either had to test hypotheses (nonspecific goal), or to produce given values for variables (specific goal). In the good- but not in the poor-model condition they saw torque depicted as an area. Results revealed the predicted interaction. A nonspecific goal only resulted in better learning when a good model of torques was provided. In Experiment 2 participants learned to manipulate the inputs of a system to control its outputs. A nonspecific goal to explore the system helped performance when compared to a specific goal to reach certain values when participants were given a good model, but not when given a poor model that suggested the wrong hypothesis space. Our findings support the three-space theory. They emphasize the importance of understanding for problem solving and stress the need to study underlying processes.

  16. A recency-based account of the list length effect in free recall.

    PubMed

    Ward, Geoff

    2002-09-01

    Free recall was examined using the overt rehearsal methodology with lists of 10, 20, and 30 words. The standard list length effects were obtained: As list length increased, there was an increase in the number and a decrease in the proportion of words that were recalled. There were significant primacy and recency effects with all list lengths. However, when the data were replotted in terms of when the words were last rehearsed, recall was characterized by extended recency effects, and the data from the different list lengths were superimposed upon one another. These findings support a recency-based account of episodic memory. The list length effect reflects the facts that unrehearsed words are less recent with longer lists, and that with longer lists, a reduced proportion of primacy and middle items may be rehearsed to later positions.

  17. Causal Inference in Occupational Epidemiology: Accounting for the Healthy Worker Effect by Using Structural Nested Models

    PubMed Central

    Naimi, Ashley I.; Richardson, David B.; Cole, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    In a recent issue of the Journal, Kirkeleit et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(11):1218–1224) provided empirical evidence for the potential of the healthy worker effect in a large cohort of Norwegian workers across a range of occupations. In this commentary, we provide some historical context, define the healthy worker effect by using causal diagrams, and use simulated data to illustrate how structural nested models can be used to estimate exposure effects while accounting for the healthy worker survivor effect in 4 simple steps. We provide technical details and annotated SAS software (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina) code corresponding to the example analysis in the Web Appendices, available at http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/. PMID:24077092

  18. The importance of age and smoking in evaluating adverse cytogenetic effects of exposure to environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, J.D.; Moore, D.H. II

    1995-08-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific composite DNA probes (``chromosome painting``) is a reliable and efficient method for detecting structural chromosome aberrations. Painting is now being used to quantify chromosome damage in many human populations. In one such study we evaluated 91 unexposed people ranging in age from birth (cord bloods) to 79. We established a baseline frequency of stable aberrations that showed a highly significant curvi-linear increase with age (p < 0.00001) that accounted for 70% of the variance between donors. The magnitude of this effect illustrates the importance of understanding the cytogenetic changes that occur with age, which is particularly important for quantifying the effects of prior adverse environmental, occupational, or accidental exposure. In this paper we use the data obtained in our previous study to characterize the distribution of stable aberrations by age and pack-years of cigarette smoking. We also provide estimates of the number of cell equivalents that need to be scored to detect a given increase in aberrations above the background level surveyed in this population.

  19. The Effect of Moral Intensity on Ethical Decision Making in Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hui-Ling; Wu, Wei-Pang

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the dimensionality of a moral intensity construct in four ethical accounting scenarios and how the dimensions directly affect the specific processes of moral decision making of accounting students. A survey was conducted with 233 accounting students enrolled in the school of accounting in a university of…

  20. The word frequency effect in first- and second-language word recognition: a lexical entrenchment account.

    PubMed

    Diependaele, Kevin; Lemhöfer, Kristin; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the origin of differences in the word frequency effect between native speakers and second-language speakers. In a large-scale analysis of English word identification times we find that group-level differences are fully accounted for by the individual language proficiency scores. Furthermore, exactly the same quantitative relation between word frequency and proficiency is found for monolinguals and three different bilingual populations (Dutch-English, French-English, and German-English). We conclude that the larger frequency effects for second-language processing than for native-language processing can be explained by within-language characteristics and thus need not be the consequence of "being bilingual" (i.e., a qualitative difference). More specifically, we argue that language proficiency increases lexical entrenchment, which leads to a reduced frequency effect, irrespective of bilingualism, language dominance, and language similarity.

  1. Importance of Airflow for Physiologic and Ergogenic Effects of Precooling

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shawnda A.; Cheung, Stephen; Cotter, James D.

    2014-01-01

    the extent of the physiologic and ergogenic benefits for typical athlete-endurance situations. Precooling increases work capacity effectively when airflow is restricted but may have little or no benefit when airflow is present. PMID:25144598

  2. Early and Late Electrophysiological Effects of Distractor Frequency in Picture Naming: Reconciling Input and Output Accounts.

    PubMed

    Riès, Stephanie K; Fraser, Douglas; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I

    2015-10-01

    The "distractor-frequency effect" refers to the finding that high-frequency (HF) distractor words slow picture naming less than low-frequency distractors in the picture-word interference paradigm. Rival input and output accounts of this effect have been proposed. The former attributes the effect to attentional selection mechanisms operating during distractor recognition, whereas the latter attributes it to monitoring/decision mechanisms operating on distractor and target responses in an articulatory buffer. Using high-density (128-channel) EEG, we tested hypotheses from these rival accounts. In addition to conducting stimulus- and response-locked whole-brain corrected analyses, we investigated the correct-related negativity, an ERP observed on correct trials at fronto-central electrodes proposed to reflect the involvement of domain general monitoring. The whole-brain ERP analysis revealed a significant effect of distractor frequency at inferior right frontal and temporal sites between 100 and 300-msec post-stimulus onset, during which lexical access is thought to occur. Response-locked, region of interest (ROI) analyses of fronto-central electrodes revealed a correct-related negativity starting 121 msec before and peaking 125 msec after vocal onset on the grand averages. Slope analysis of this component revealed a significant difference between HF and low-frequency distractor words, with the former associated with a steeper slope on the time window spanning from 100 msec before to 100 msec after vocal onset. The finding of ERP effects in time windows and components corresponding to both lexical processing and monitoring suggests the distractor frequency effect is most likely associated with more than one physiological mechanism.

  3. Individual differences in information order effects: the importance of right-hemisphere access in belief updating.

    PubMed

    Jasper, John D; Kunzler, J Scott; Prichard, Eric C; Christman, Stephen D

    2014-05-01

    The order in which information is received alters the evaluation of causal hypotheses. Specifically, research suggests that the last piece of information oftentimes has the greatest impact on the evaluation and that the difference in subjective value between two pieces of information is an important factor influencing the magnitude of this recency effect. The present paper extends this line of work by exploring individual differences in this phenomenon via one's degree of handedness. Two hundred and five participants were given two hypothetical scenarios and related causal hypotheses accompanied by two pieces of additional information and asked to revise their belief in each hypothesis as information accumulated. Results confirmed predictions that 1) inconsistent/mixed-handers (those who use their non-dominant hand for at least some activities) show a larger effect with two pieces of inconsistent weak or strong information, and 2) neither mixed-handers nor consistent/strong-handers (those who use their dominant hand for almost all activities) show an effect with strong and weak pieces of consistent information. Mixed-handers' susceptibility to persuasive arguments and Ramachandran's (1995; Ramachandran and Blakeslee, 1998) belief-updating theory centered around communication between the two halves of the brain and functional access to the right hemisphere are used to account for these data.

  4. ACCOUNTING FOR CALIBRATION UNCERTAINTIES IN X-RAY ANALYSIS: EFFECTIVE AREAS IN SPECTRAL FITTING

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyunsook; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Ratzlaff, Pete; Siemiginowska, Aneta E-mail: vkashyap@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: rpete@head.cfa.harvard.edu

    2011-04-20

    While considerable advance has been made to account for statistical uncertainties in astronomical analyses, systematic instrumental uncertainties have been generally ignored. This can be crucial to a proper interpretation of analysis results because instrumental calibration uncertainty is a form of systematic uncertainty. Ignoring it can underestimate error bars and introduce bias into the fitted values of model parameters. Accounting for such uncertainties currently requires extensive case-specific simulations if using existing analysis packages. Here, we present general statistical methods that incorporate calibration uncertainties into spectral analysis of high-energy data. We first present a method based on multiple imputation that can be applied with any fitting method, but is necessarily approximate. We then describe a more exact Bayesian approach that works in conjunction with a Markov chain Monte Carlo based fitting. We explore methods for improving computational efficiency, and in particular detail a method of summarizing calibration uncertainties with a principal component analysis of samples of plausible calibration files. This method is implemented using recently codified Chandra effective area uncertainties for low-resolution spectral analysis and is verified using both simulated and actual Chandra data. Our procedure for incorporating effective area uncertainty is easily generalized to other types of calibration uncertainties.

  5. A repetition-suppression account of between-trial effects in a modified Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Juvina, Ion; Taatgen, Niels A

    2009-05-01

    Theories that postulate cognitive inhibition are very common in psychology and cognitive neuroscience [e.g., Hasher, L., Lustig, C., & Zacks, R. T. (2007). Inhibitory mechanisms and the control of attention. In A. Conway, C. Jarrold, M. Kane, A. Miyake, A. Towse, & J. Towse (Eds.), Variation in working memory (pp. 227-249). New York, NY: Oxford, University Press], although they have recently been severely criticized [e.g., MacLeod, C. M., Dodd, M. D., Sheard, E. D., Wilson, D. E., & Bibi, U. (2003). In opposition to inhibition. In H. Ross (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 43, pp. 163-214). Elsevier Science]. This paper poses and attempts to answer the question whether a research program with cognitive inhibition as its main theoretical assumption is still worth pursuing. We present a set of empirical data from a modified Stroop paradigm that replicates previously reported findings. These findings refer to between-trial effects previously described in the literature on Stroop, negative priming, and inhibition-of-return. Existing theoretical accounts fail to explain all these effects in an integrated way. A repetition-suppression mechanism is proposed in order to account for these data. This mechanism is instantiated as a computational cognitive model. The theoretical implications of this model are discussed.

  6. Accounting for the tongue-and-groove effect using a robust direct aperture optimization approach

    SciTech Connect

    Salari, Ehsan; Men Chunhua; Romeijn, H. Edwin

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: Traditionally, the tongue-and-groove effect due to the multileaf collimator architecture in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has typically been deferred to the leaf sequencing stage. The authors propose a new direct aperture optimization method for IMRT treatment planning that explicitly incorporates dose calculation inaccuracies due to the tongue-and-groove effect into the treatment plan optimization stage. Methods: The authors avoid having to accurately estimate the dosimetric effects of the tongue-and-groove architecture by using lower and upper bounds on the dose distribution delivered to the patient. They then develop a model that yields a treatment plan that is robust with respect to the corresponding dose calculation inaccuracies. Results: Tests on a set of ten clinical head-and-neck cancer cases demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method in developing robust treatment plans with tight dose distributions in targets and critical structures. This is contrasted with the very loose bounds on the dose distribution that are obtained by solving a traditional treatment plan optimization model that ignores tongue-and-groove effects in the treatment planning stage. Conclusions: A robust direct aperture optimization approach is proposed to account for the dosimetric inaccuracies caused by the tongue-and-groove effect. The experiments validate the ability of the proposed approach in designing robust treatment plans regardless of the exact consequences of the tongue-and-groove architecture.

  7. Accounting for the effects of volcanoes and ENSO in comparisons of modeled and observed temperature trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santer, B. D.; Wigley, T. M. L.; Doutriaux, C.; Boyle, J. S.; Hansen, J. E.; Jones, P. D.; Meehl, G. A.; Roeckner, E.; Sengupta, S.; Taylor, K. E.

    2001-11-01

    Several previous studies have attempted to remove the effects of explosive volcanic eruptions and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability from time series of globally averaged surface and tropospheric temperatures. Such work has largely ignored the nonzero correlation between volcanic signals and ENSO. Here we account for this collinearity using an iterative procedure. We remove estimated volcano and ENSO signals from the observed global mean temperature data, and then calculate trends over 1979-1999 in the residuals. Residual trends are sensitive to the choice of index used for removing ENSO effects and to uncertainties in key volcanic parameters. Despite these sensitivities, residual surface and lower tropospheric (2LT) trends are almost always larger than trends in the raw observational data. After removal of volcano and ENSO effects, the differential warming between the surface and lower troposphere is generally reduced. These results suggest that the net effect of volcanoes and ENSO over 1979-1999 was to reduce globally averaged surface and tropospheric temperatures and cool the troposphere by more than the surface. ENSO and incomplete volcanic forcing effects can hamper reliable assessment of the true correspondence between modeled and observed trends. In the second part of our study, we remove these effects from model data and compare simulated and observed residual trends. Residual temperature trends are not significantly different at the surface. In the lower troposphere the statistical significance of trend differences depends on the experiment considered, the choice of ENSO index, and the volcanic signal decay time. The simulated difference between surface and tropospheric warming rates is significantly smaller than observed in 51 out of 54 cases considered. We also examine multiple realizations of model experiments with relatively complete estimates of natural and anthropogenic forcing. ENSO and volcanic effects are not removed from these

  8. A Guide to Effective Accountability Reporting: Designing Public Reports that Effectively Communicate Accountability, Assessment and Other Quantitative Education Indicators in an Easily Understood Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fast, Ellen Forte

    This guide was developed to serve as a resource for the staffs of state education agencies and local education agencies who are responsible for producing state, district, or school report cards of the type required under many state or district accountability systems as well as under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). The guide is not intended to…

  9. Competition and cooperation among similar representations: toward a unified account of facilitative and inhibitory effects of lexical neighbors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Mirman, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    One of the core principles of how the mind works is the graded, parallel activation of multiple related or similar representations. Parallel activation of multiple representations has been particularly important in the development of theories and models of language processing, where coactivated representations (neighbors) have been shown to exhibit both facilitative and inhibitory effects on word recognition and production. Researchers generally ascribe these effects to interactive activation and competition, but there is no unified explanation for why the effects are facilitative in some cases and inhibitory in others. We present a series of simulations of a simple domain-general interactive activation and competition model that is broadly consistent with more specialized domain-specific models of lexical processing. The results showed that interactive activation and competition can indeed account for the complex pattern of reversals. Critically, the simulations revealed a core computational principle that determines whether neighbor effects are facilitative or inhibitory: strongly active neighbors exert a net inhibitory effect, and weakly active neighbors exert a net facilitative effect.

  10. Can contingency learning alone account for item-specific control? Evidence from within- and between-language ISPC effects.

    PubMed

    Atalay, Nart Bedin; Misirlisoy, Mine

    2012-11-01

    The item-specific proportion congruence (ISPC) manipulation (Jacoby, Lindsay, & Hessels, 2003) produces larger Stroop interference for mostly congruent items than mostly incongruent items. This effect has been attributed to dynamic control over word-reading processes. However, proportion congruence of an item in the ISPC manipulation is completely confounded with response contingency, suggesting the alternative hypothesis, that the ISPC effect is a result of learning response contingencies (Schmidt & Besner, 2008). The current study asks whether the ISPC effect can be explained by a pure stimulus-response contingency-learning account, or whether other control processes play a role as well, by comparing within- and between-language conditions in a bilingual task. Experiment 1 showed that contingency learning for noncolor words was larger for the within-language than the between-language condition. Experiment 2 revealed significant ISPC effects for both within- and between-language conditions; importantly, the effect was larger in the former. The results of the contingency analyses for Experiment 2 were parallel to that of Experiment 1 and did not show an interaction between contingency and congruency. Put together, these sets of results support the view that contingency-learning processes dominate color-word ISPC effects.

  11. Effects of an Individual Development Account Program on Retirement Saving: Follow-up Evidence From a Randomized Experiment.

    PubMed

    Grinstein-Weiss, Michal; Sherraden, Michael; Gale, William G; Rohe, William M; Schreiner, Mark; Key, Clinton; Oliphant, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    We examine the 10-year follow-up effects on retirement saving of an individual development account (IDA) program using data from a randomized experiment that ran from 1998 to 2003 in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The IDA program included financial education, encouragement to save, and matching funds for several qualified uses of the saving, including contributions to retirement accounts. The results indicate that as of 2009, 6 years after the program ended, the IDA program had no impact on the propensity to hold a retirement account, the account balance, or the sufficiency of retirement balances to meet retirement expenses.

  12. Political Skill as Neutralizer of Felt Accountability-Job Tension Effects on Job Performance Ratings: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochwarter, Wayne A.; Ferris, Gerald R.; Gavin, Mark B.; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Hall, Angela T.; Frink, Dwight D.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of felt accountability, political skill, and job tension on job performance ratings. Specifically, we hypothesized that felt accountability would lead to higher (lower) job performance ratings when coupled with high (low) levels of political skill, and that these relationships would be mediated by job tension. Data…

  13. Keeping management effects separate from environmental effects in terrestrial carbon accounting.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Richard A

    2013-09-01

    This study proposes that carbon fluxes identified as being from land use and land-cover change (LULCC) include only that component of a flux that can be attributed to LULCC, exclusive of the effects of environmental change (CO2 , climate, N, etc.). This proposal seems too obvious to need saying, but published estimates of the LULCC flux are widely variable for reasons that have more to do with modeling environmental effects than with LULCC.

  14. Smoking at the workplace: Effects of genetic and environmental causal accounts on attitudes towards smoking employees and restrictive policies

    PubMed Central

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Zuckerman, Miron; Duberstein, Paul

    2014-01-01

    People hold diverse beliefs regarding the etiologies of individual and group differences in behaviors which, in turn, might affect their attitudes and behaviors. It is important to establish how perceived etiologies for smoking might affect the effectiveness of policy initiatives and prevention efforts. The present study assessed whether exposure to genetic vs. environmental accounts for smoking affects attitudes towards a) workplace-related smoking policies and b) smokers at the workplace. Results indicate that exposure to a genetic explanation led to stronger objections to a smoking restrictive policy compared with a non-genetic explanation. Additionally, participants in the genetic condition were more accepting of a smoker in the workplace than in the environmental condition. Evidently, beliefs about the etiology of smoking influence a range of attitudes related to smokers and smoking related policies. PMID:25530710

  15. 31 CFR 9.4 - Criteria for determining effects of imports on national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... article which is the subject of the investigation, the Secretary is required to take into consideration... Treasury EFFECTS OF IMPORTED ARTICLES ON THE NATIONAL SECURITY § 9.4 Criteria for determining effects of... affected by imports of the article....

  16. Predicting NonInertial Effects with Algebraic Stress Models which Account for Dissipation Rate Anisotropies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongen, T.; Machiels, L.; Gatski, T. B.

    1997-01-01

    Three types of turbulence models which account for rotational effects in noninertial frames of reference are evaluated for the case of incompressible, fully developed rotating turbulent channel flow. The different types of models are a Coriolis-modified eddy-viscosity model, a realizable algebraic stress model, and an algebraic stress model which accounts for dissipation rate anisotropies. A direct numerical simulation of a rotating channel flow is used for the turbulent model validation. This simulation differs from previous studies in that significantly higher rotation numbers are investigated. Flows at these higher rotation numbers are characterized by a relaminarization on the cyclonic or suction side of the channel, and a linear velocity profile on the anticyclonic or pressure side of the channel. The predictive performance of the three types of models are examined in detail, and formulation deficiencies are identified which cause poor predictive performance for some of the models. Criteria are identified which allow for accurate prediction of such flows by algebraic stress models and their corresponding Reynolds stress formulations.

  17. A Bayesian hierarchical method to account for random effects in cytogenetic dosimetry based on calibration curves.

    PubMed

    Mano, Shuhei; Suto, Yumiko

    2014-11-01

    The dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) is one of the most sensitive and reliable methods of inferring doses of radiation exposure in patients. In DCA, one calibration curve is prepared in advance by in vitro irradiation to blood samples from one or sometimes multiple healthy donors in considering possible inter-individual variability. Although the standard method has been demonstrated to be quite accurate for actual dose estimates, it cannot account for random effects, which come from such as the blood donor used to prepare the calibration curve, the radiation-exposed patient, and the examiners. To date, it is unknown how these random effects impact on the standard method of dose estimation. We propose a novel Bayesian hierarchical method that incorporates random effects into the dose estimation. To demonstrate dose estimation by the proposed method and to assess the impact of inter-individual variability in samples from multiple donors on the estimation, peripheral blood samples from 13 occupationally non-exposed, non-smoking, healthy individuals were collected and irradiated with gamma rays. The results clearly showed significant inter-individual variability and the standard method using a sample from a single donor gave anti-conservative confidence interval of the irradiated dose. In contrast, the Bayesian credible interval for irradiated dose calculated by the proposed method using samples from multiple donors properly covered the actual doses. Although the classical confidence interval of calibration curve with accounting inter-individual variability in samples from multiple donors was roughly coincident with the Bayesian credible interval, the proposed method has better reasoning and potential for extensions.

  18. Teachers' perceptions of value and effects of outdoor education during an age of accountability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Thomas R.

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of teachers' perceptions of the value and effects of a residential Outdoor Education experience during an age of accountability, which was defined as the era which commenced with the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Focus group interviews were conducted with four groups of teachers who participated in a residential Outdoor Education experience with their students during the 2004-2005 school year. The major findings of this study were: (1) Teachers perceive value in the OE experience because of the multi-faceted effects upon their students and classes; (2) Teachers perceived the OE experience positively affected their students' learning through providing hands-on and authentic experiences, development of thinking skills, and enhancing the school's curriculum; (3) Teachers perceived the OE experience positively affected their students' social and emotional development as evidenced by an increase in self esteem, independence, maturity, personal responsibility, and an expanded worldview; (4) Teachers perceived the OE experience positively affected their students' sense of community as evidenced by an increase in team building and cohesiveness, more productive staff-student relationships, the emergence of different "star" students, and greater inclusion of special needs students; (5) Teachers perceived students' appreciation of the environment increased; and (6) Teachers did not perceive any imminent changes to their school's Outdoor Education programming due to the accountability provisions of No Child Left behind (2001). This study's findings suggested implications for school administrators, which were that they should: articulate desired effects to stakeholders; communicate connections to learning standards; and expand the OE experience to foster greater environmental issue focus.

  19. The Effect of International Financial Reporting Standards Convergence on U. S. Accounting Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Homer L.; Waldrup, Bobby E.; Shea, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Major changes are coming to U.S. financial accounting and accounting education as U. S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and international financial reporting standards (IFRS) converge within the next few years. In 2008, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) published a proposed "road map" for the potential…

  20. The Effects of Accountability System Design on Teachers' Use of Test Score Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Many studies have concluded that educational accountability policies increase data use, but we know little about how to design accountability systems to encourage productive versus distortive uses of test score data. Purpose: I propose that five features of accountability systems affect how test score data are used and examine…

  1. Principal Effectiveness and Leadership in an Era of Accountability: What Research Says. Brief 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jennifer King

    2010-01-01

    While the importance of principals has long been recognized by educators and researchers, empirical studies on the effectiveness and distribution of principals have been undermined by the lack of data to study principals, their complex work, and their impact on school outcomes. In fact, "little systematic evidence exists about the…

  2. On the Dissociation of Word/Nonword Repetition Effects in Lexical Decision: An Evidence Accumulation Account.

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Marcet, Ana; Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Gomez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    A number of models of visual-word recognition assume that the repetition of an item in a lexical decision experiment increases that item's familiarity/wordness. This would produce not only a facilitative repetition effect for words, but also an inhibitory effect for nonwords (i.e., more familiarity/wordness makes the negative decision slower). We conducted a two-block lexical decision experiment to examine word/nonword repetition effects in the framework of a leading "familiarity/wordness" model of the lexical decision task, namely, the diffusion model (Ratcliff et al., 2004). Results showed that while repeated words were responded to faster than the unrepeated words, repeated nonwords were responded to more slowly than the nonrepeated nonwords. Fits from the diffusion model revealed that the repetition effect for words/nonwords was mainly due to differences in the familiarity/wordness (drift rate) parameter. This word/nonword dissociation favors those accounts that posit that the previous presentation of an item increases its degree of familiarity/wordness.

  3. On the Dissociation of Word/Nonword Repetition Effects in Lexical Decision: An Evidence Accumulation Account

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Manuel; Marcet, Ana; Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Gomez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    A number of models of visual-word recognition assume that the repetition of an item in a lexical decision experiment increases that item's familiarity/wordness. This would produce not only a facilitative repetition effect for words, but also an inhibitory effect for nonwords (i.e., more familiarity/wordness makes the negative decision slower). We conducted a two-block lexical decision experiment to examine word/nonword repetition effects in the framework of a leading “familiarity/wordness” model of the lexical decision task, namely, the diffusion model (Ratcliff et al., 2004). Results showed that while repeated words were responded to faster than the unrepeated words, repeated nonwords were responded to more slowly than the nonrepeated nonwords. Fits from the diffusion model revealed that the repetition effect for words/nonwords was mainly due to differences in the familiarity/wordness (drift rate) parameter. This word/nonword dissociation favors those accounts that posit that the previous presentation of an item increases its degree of familiarity/wordness. PMID:26925021

  4. On the Dissociation of Word/Nonword Repetition Effects in Lexical Decision: An Evidence Accumulation Account.

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Marcet, Ana; Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Gomez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    A number of models of visual-word recognition assume that the repetition of an item in a lexical decision experiment increases that item's familiarity/wordness. This would produce not only a facilitative repetition effect for words, but also an inhibitory effect for nonwords (i.e., more familiarity/wordness makes the negative decision slower). We conducted a two-block lexical decision experiment to examine word/nonword repetition effects in the framework of a leading "familiarity/wordness" model of the lexical decision task, namely, the diffusion model (Ratcliff et al., 2004). Results showed that while repeated words were responded to faster than the unrepeated words, repeated nonwords were responded to more slowly than the nonrepeated nonwords. Fits from the diffusion model revealed that the repetition effect for words/nonwords was mainly due to differences in the familiarity/wordness (drift rate) parameter. This word/nonword dissociation favors those accounts that posit that the previous presentation of an item increases its degree of familiarity/wordness. PMID:26925021

  5. Calibration of LR-115 for 222Rn monitoring taking into account the plateout effect.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, A A R; Yoshimura, E M

    2003-01-01

    The dose received by people exposed to indoor radon is mainly due to radon progeny. This fact points to the establishment of techniques that access either radon and progeny together, or only radon progeny concentration. In this work a low cost and easy to use methodology is presented to determine the total indoor alpha emission concentration. It is based on passive detection using LR-115 and CR-39 detectors, taking into account the plateout effect. A calibration of LR-115 track density response was done by indoor exposure in controlled environments and dwellings, places where 222Rn and progeny concentration were measured with CR-39. The calibration factor obtained showed great dependence on the ambient condition: (0.69 +/- 0.04) cm for controlled environments and (0.43 +/- 0.03) cm for dwellings.

  6. Kinetics of silver release from microfuel with taking into account the limited-solubility effect

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A. S. Rusinkevich, A. A.

    2014-12-15

    The effect of a limited solubility of silver in silicon carbide on silver release from a microfuel with a TRISO coating is studied. It is shown that a limited solubility affects substantially both concentration profiles and silver release from a microfuel over a broad range of temperatures. A procedure is developed for obtaining fission-product concentration profiles in a microfuel and graphs representing the flow and integrated release of fission products on the basis of data from neutron-physics calculations and results obtained by calculating thermodynamics with the aid of the Ivtanthermo code and kinetics with the aid of the FP-Kinetics code. This procedure takes into account a limited solubility of fission products in protective coatings of microfuel.

  7. Effects of feedback accountability and self-rating information on employee appraisals: a replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Shore, Ted H; Tashchian, Armen

    2007-06-01

    The influence of feedback accountability and self-rating information on employee performance appraisals was examined. Undergraduate business student participants assumed the role of "supervisor" and evaluated a fictitious "subordinate" whose performance on a clerical task was either moderately poor or very good. Participants were either given fictitious self-rating information, or no self-rating information, and were told they were expected to provide performance feedback to their ratee, or there was no feedback expectation. As expected, in Study 1 both self-rating information and expected feedback-sharing independently resulted in lenient ratings for poor performance, and the combined effects resulted in the highest ratings. By contrast, results for good performance (Study 2) were not significant. Implications of the findings for human resource management practice and research were discussed.

  8. Sediment erodability in sediment transport modelling: Can we account for biota effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Hir, P.; Monbet, Y.; Orvain, F.

    2007-05-01

    Sediment erosion results from hydrodynamic forcing, represented by the bottom shear stress (BSS), and from the erodability of the sediment, defined by the critical erosion shear stress and the erosion rate. Abundant literature has dealt with the effects of biological components on sediment erodability and concluded that sediment processes are highly sensitive to the biota. However, very few sediment transport models account for these effects. We provide some background on the computation of BSS, and on the classical erosion laws for fine sand and mud, followed by a brief review of biota effects with the aim of quantifying the latter into generic formulations, where applicable. The effects of macrophytes, microphytobenthos, and macrofauna are considered in succession. Marine vegetation enhances the bottom dissipation of current energy, but also reduces shear stress at the sediment-water interface, which can be significant when the shoot density is high. The microphytobenthos and secreted extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) stabilise the sediment, and an increase of up to a factor of 5 can be assigned to the erosion threshold on muddy beds. However, the consequences with respect to the erosion rate are debatable since, once the protective biofilm is eroded, the underlying sediment probably has the same erosion behaviour as bare sediment. In addition, the development of benthic diatoms tends to be seasonal, so that stabilising effects are likely to be minimal in winter. Macrofaunal effects are characterised by extreme variability. For muddy sediments, destabilisation seems to be the general trend; this can become critical when benthic communities settle on consolidated sediments that would not be eroded if they remained bare. Biodeposition and bioresuspension fluxes are mentioned, for comparison with hydrodynamically induced erosion rates. Unlike the microphytobenthos, epifaunal benthic organisms create local roughness and are likely to change the BSS generated

  9. Effects of prestudy and poststudy rest on memory: Support for temporal interference accounts of forgetting.

    PubMed

    Ecker, Ullrich K H; Tay, Jia-Xin; Brown, Gordon D A

    2015-06-01

    According to interference-based theories of memory, including temporal-distinctiveness theory, both prestudy and poststudy rest should have beneficial impacts on memory performance. Specifically, higher temporal isolation of a memorandum should reduce proactive and/or retroactive interference, and thus should result in better recall. In the present study, we investigated the effects of prestudy and poststudy rest in a free recall paradigm. Participants studied three lists of words, separated by either a short or a long period of low mental activity (a tone-detection task). Recall targeted the second list; this list was studied in one of four conditions, defined by the fully crossed factors of prestudy and poststudy rest duration. Two experiments revealed a beneficial effect of prestudy rest (and, to a lesser extent, of poststudy rest) on list recall. This result is in line with interference-based theories of memory. By contrast, a beneficial effect of prestudy rest is not predicted by consolidation accounts of memory and forgetting; our results thus require additional assumptions and/or a better specification of the consolidation process and its time course in order to be reconciled with consolidation theory.

  10. A Comparison of Four Approaches to Account for Method Effects in Latent State-Trait Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Christian; Lockhart, Ginger

    2012-01-01

    Latent state-trait (LST) analysis is frequently applied in psychological research to determine the degree to which observed scores reflect stable person-specific effects, effects of situations and/or person-situation interactions, and random measurement error. Most LST applications use multiple repeatedly measured observed variables as indicators of latent trait and latent state residual factors. In practice, such indicators often show shared indicator-specific (or methods) variance over time. In this article, the authors compare four approaches to account for such method effects in LST models and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each approach based on theoretical considerations, simulations, and applications to actual data sets. The simulation study revealed that the LST model with indicator-specific traits (Eid, 1996) and the LST model with M − 1 correlated method factors (Eid, Schneider, & Schwenkmezger, 1999) performed well, whereas the model with M orthogonal method factors used in the early work of Steyer, Ferring, and Schmitt (1992) and the correlated uniqueness approach (Kenny, 1976) showed limitations under conditions of either low or high method-specificity. Recommendations for the choice of an appropriate model are provided. PMID:22309958

  11. Motion analysis of a motorcycle taking into account the rider's effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shaopeng; Murakami, Shintaroh; Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, to analyse the rider's effects on the motion of a motorcycle, we model a rider-motorcycle system by taking into account the leaning motion of the rider's upper torso and his/her arm connection with the handlebars. The nonlinearity of the tyre force is introduced by utilising hyperbolic tangent functions to approximate a Magic Formula tyre model. On the basis of a derived nonlinear state-space model, we analyse the effects of not only the rider's arms but also his/her postures during steady turning by simulations. The rider's postures including lean-with, lean-in and lean-out are realised by adding the lean torque to the rider's upper torso. The motorcycle motion and the rider's effects are analysed in the case where the friction coefficient of the road surface changes severely during steady turning. In addition, a linearised state-space model is derived during steady turning, and a stability analysis of the rider-motorcycle system is performed.

  12. Effects of prestudy and poststudy rest on memory: Support for temporal interference accounts of forgetting.

    PubMed

    Ecker, Ullrich K H; Tay, Jia-Xin; Brown, Gordon D A

    2015-06-01

    According to interference-based theories of memory, including temporal-distinctiveness theory, both prestudy and poststudy rest should have beneficial impacts on memory performance. Specifically, higher temporal isolation of a memorandum should reduce proactive and/or retroactive interference, and thus should result in better recall. In the present study, we investigated the effects of prestudy and poststudy rest in a free recall paradigm. Participants studied three lists of words, separated by either a short or a long period of low mental activity (a tone-detection task). Recall targeted the second list; this list was studied in one of four conditions, defined by the fully crossed factors of prestudy and poststudy rest duration. Two experiments revealed a beneficial effect of prestudy rest (and, to a lesser extent, of poststudy rest) on list recall. This result is in line with interference-based theories of memory. By contrast, a beneficial effect of prestudy rest is not predicted by consolidation accounts of memory and forgetting; our results thus require additional assumptions and/or a better specification of the consolidation process and its time course in order to be reconciled with consolidation theory. PMID:25257711

  13. An enhanced temperature index model for debris-covered glaciers accounting for thickness effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carenzo, M.; Pellicciotti, F.; Mabillard, J.; Reid, T.; Brock, B. W.

    2016-08-01

    Debris-covered glaciers are increasingly studied because it is assumed that debris cover extent and thickness could increase in a warming climate, with more regular rockfalls from the surrounding slopes and more englacial melt-out material. Debris energy-balance models have been developed to account for the melt rate enhancement/reduction due to a thin/thick debris layer, respectively. However, such models require a large amount of input data that are not often available, especially in remote mountain areas such as the Himalaya, and can be difficult to extrapolate. Due to their lower data requirements, empirical models have been used extensively in clean glacier melt modelling. For debris-covered glaciers, however, they generally simplify the debris effect by using a single melt-reduction factor which does not account for the influence of varying debris thickness on melt and prescribe a constant reduction for the entire melt across a glacier. In this paper, we present a new temperature-index model that accounts for debris thickness in the computation of melt rates at the debris-ice interface. The model empirical parameters are optimized at the point scale for varying debris thicknesses against melt rates simulated by a physically-based debris energy balance model. The latter is validated against ablation stake readings and surface temperature measurements. Each parameter is then related to a plausible set of debris thickness values to provide a general and transferable parameterization. We develop the model on Miage Glacier, Italy, and then test its transferability on Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland. The performance of the new debris temperature-index (DETI) model in simulating the glacier melt rate at the point scale is comparable to the one of the physically based approach, and the definition of model parameters as a function of debris thickness allows the simulation of the nonlinear relationship of melt rate to debris thickness, summarised by the

  14. Groups and Solos in Context: The Effects of Accountability on Team Negotiation.

    PubMed

    O'Connor

    1997-12-01

    This study examines whether and how accountability to constituents affects the cognitions, performance, and outcomes of team and solo negotiators. Previous findings for solos were replicated here: solo negotiators respond competitively when they are accountable to constituents. For teams, however, accountability pressures were distributed across the members resulting in each team member experiencing little responsibility for outcomes. As a consequence, teams did not respond to accountability pressures by behaving contentiously as solos did. Analysis of negotiators' perceptions of advantage reveals that solos who negotiate under conditions of high accountability consider themselves to be at a disadvantage in the negotiation even before the negotiation begins. These perceptions may underlie the accountability/competitive relation that characterizes solo negotiation. Implications for negotiation research as well as the study of groups in organizations are discussed. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. PMID:9606172

  15. The essential iron-sulfur protein Rli1 is an important target accounting for inhibition of cell growth by reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Alhebshi, Alawiah; Sideri, Theodora C; Holland, Sara L; Avery, Simon V

    2012-09-01

    Oxidative stress mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is linked to degenerative conditions in humans and damage to an array of cellular components. However, it is unclear which molecular target(s) may be the primary "Achilles' heel" of organisms, accounting for the inhibitory action of ROS. Rli1p (ABCE1) is an essential and highly conserved protein of eukaryotes and archaea that requires notoriously ROS-labile cofactors (Fe-S clusters) for its functions in protein synthesis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that ROS toxicity is caused by Rli1p dysfunction. In addition to being essential, Rli1p activity (in nuclear ribosomal-subunit export) was shown to be impaired by mild oxidative stress in yeast. Furthermore, prooxidant resistance was decreased by RLI1 repression and increased by RLI1 overexpression. This Rlip1 dependency was abolished during anaerobicity and accentuated in cells expressing a FeS cluster-defective Rli1p construct. The protein's FeS clusters appeared ROS labile during in vitro incubations, but less so in vivo. Instead, it was primarily (55)FeS-cluster supply to Rli1p that was defective in prooxidant-exposed cells. The data indicate that, owing to its essential nature but dependency on ROS-labile FeS clusters, Rli1p function is a primary target of ROS action. Such insight could help inform new approaches for combating oxidative stress-related disease.

  16. The importance of context in delivering effective EIA: Case studies from East Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Marara, Madeleine; Okello, Nick; Kuhanwa, Zainab; Douven, Wim; Beevers, Lindsay Leentvaar, Jan

    2011-04-15

    This paper reviews and compares the condition of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) system in three countries in the East Africa region: Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania. The criteria used for the evaluation and the comparison of each system are based on the elements of the legal, administrative and procedural frameworks, as well as the context in which they operate. These criteria are adapted from the evaluation and quality control criteria derived from a number of literature sources. The study reveals that the EIA systems of Kenya and Tanzania are at a similar stage in their development. The two countries, the first to introduce the EIA concept into their jurisdiction in this part of Africa, therefore have more experience than Rwanda in the practice of environmental impact assessment, where the legislation and process requires more time to mature both from the governmental and societal perspective. The analysis of the administrative and procedural frameworks highlights the weakness in the autonomy of the competent authority, in all three countries. Finally a major finding of this study is that the contextual set up i.e. the socio-economic and political situation plays an important role in the performance of an EIA system. The context in developing countries is very different from developed countries where the EIA concept originates. Interpreting EIA conditions in countries like Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania requires that the analysis for determining the effectiveness of their systems should be undertaken within a relevant framework, taking into account the specific requirements of those countries.

  17. Pragmatic versus form-based accounts of referential contrast: evidence for effects of informativity expectations.

    PubMed

    Sedivy, Julie C

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing the relationship between form-based linguistic knowledge and representation of context has long been of importance in the study of on-line language processing. Recent experimental research has shown evidence of very rapid effects of referential context in resolving local indeterminacies on-line. However, there has been no consensus regarding the nature of these context effects. The current paper summarizes recent work covering a range of phenomena for which referential contrast has been shown to influence on-line processing, including prenominal and post-nominal modification, focus operators, and intonational focus. The results of the body of work suggest that referential context effects are not limited to situations in which the linguistic form of the utterance directly specifies the point of contact with context. Rather, context effects of a pragmatic, Gricean nature appear to be possible, suggesting the relationship between linguistic form and context in rapid on-line processing can be of a very indirect nature.

  18. Interstellar cloud shapes - A minimum-hypothesis account involving a purely gravitational effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleck, Robert C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The effect produced by the anisotropic gravitational field on the shape of a nonspherical, self-gravitating interstellar cloud is examined. The projected axial ratios observed for molecular clouds can be accounted for if clouds are not generally in a state of strict dynamical equilibrium. For clouds having spectral line widths dominated by supersonic turbulent motions, this purely gravitational effect predicts a mean true axial ratio q about 0.3 for both oblate and prolate cloud geometries. Clouds having p less than about 0.3 are likely to be prolate and quite elongated. The observational data on molecular cloud cores, which have essentially thermal line widths, can be fitted equally well to either oblate or prolate spheroids having q between 0.1 and 0.4 with q about 0.2 providing the best match: highly elongated cores are again more likely to be prolate. While other processes certainly operate throughout the Galaxy to influence cloud shape, it appears plausible that at least some clouds may be shaped principally by their anisotropic gravitational field.

  19. 76 FR 5821 - Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain... investigation No. 332-503, Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for... Import Allowance Program (EIAP) and directed the Commission to conduct annual reviews of the program...

  20. Carbon savings with transatlantic trade in pellets: accounting for market-driven effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiwei; Dwivedi, Puneet; Abt, Robert; Khanna, Madhu

    2015-11-01

    Exports of pellets from the United States (US) are growing significantly to meet the demand for renewable energy in the European Union. This transatlantic trade in pellets has raised questions about the greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of these pellets and their effects on conventional forest product markets in the US. This paper examines the GHG intensity of pellets exported from the US using either forest biomass only or forest and agricultural biomass combined. We develop an integrated dynamic, price-endogenous, partial equilibrium model of the forestry, agricultural, and transportation sectors in the US to investigate not only the direct life-cycle GHG intensity of pellets but also the accompanying indirect market and land use effects induced by changes in prices of forest and agricultural products over the 2007-2032 period. Across different scenarios of high and low pellet demand that can be met with either forest biomass only or with forest and agricultural biomass, we find that the GHG intensity of pellet based electricity is 74% to 85% lower than that of coal-based electricity. We also find that the GHG intensity of pellets produced using agricultural and forest biomass is 28% to 34% lower than that of pellets produced using forest biomass only. GHG effects due to induced direct and indirect changes in forest carbon stock caused by changes in harvest rotations, changes in land use and in conventional wood production account for 11% to 26% of the overall GHG intensity of pellets produced from forest biomass only; these effects are negative with the use of forest and agricultural biomass.

  1. Statistical Thermodynamics for Actin-Myosin Binding: The Crucial Importance of Hydration Effects.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Hiraku; Hayashi, Tomohiko; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2016-06-01

    Actomyosin is an important molecular motor, and the binding of actin and myosin is an essential research target in biophysics. Nevertheless, the physical factors driving or opposing the binding are still unclear. Here, we investigate the role of water in actin-myosin binding using the most reliable statistical-mechanical method currently available for assessing biomolecules immersed in water. This method is characterized as follows: water is treated not as a dielectric continuum but as an ensemble of molecules; the polyatomic structures of proteins are taken into consideration; and the binding free energy is decomposed into physically insightful entropic and energetic components by accounting for the hydration effect to its full extent. We find that the actin-myosin binding brings large gains of electrostatic and Lennard-Jones attractive interactions. However, these gains are accompanied by even larger losses of actin-water and myosin-water electrostatic and LJ attractive interactions. Although roughly half of the energy increase due to the losses is cancelled out by the energy decrease arising from structural reorganization of the water released upon binding, the remaining energy increase is still larger than the energy decrease brought by the gains mentioned above. Hence, the net change in system energy is positive, which opposes binding. Importantly, the binding is driven by a large gain of configurational entropy of water, which surpasses the positive change in system energy and the conformational entropy loss occurring for actin and myosin. The principal physical origin of the large water-entropy gain is as follows: the actin-myosin interface is closely packed with the achievement of high shape complementarity on the atomic level, leading to a large increase in the total volume available to the translational displacement of water molecules in the system and a resultant reduction of water crowding (i.e., entropic correlations among water molecules). PMID

  2. The effect of roughness elements on wind erosion: The importance of surface shear stress distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Representation of surface roughness effects on aeolian sediment transport is a key source of uncertainty in wind erosion models. Drag partitioning schemes are used to account for roughness by scaling the soil entrainment threshold by the ratio of shear stress on roughness elements to that on the veg...

  3. Efficiency and Effectiveness in Higher Education: Who Is Accountable for What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, John

    2008-01-01

    There is little doubt that the modern university is far different to that of the early 90s and the work of academics has changed considerably over this time driven by the efficiency and accountability agenda. In taking stock of the changes, it needs to be recognised that often the cry for efficiency and accountability has been used as a mechanism…

  4. National greenhouse-gas accounting for effective climate policy on international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kander, Astrid; Jiborn, Magnus; Moran, Daniel D.; Wiedmann, Thomas O.

    2015-05-01

    National greenhouse-gas accounting should reflect how countries’ policies and behaviours affect global emissions. Actions that contribute to reduced global emissions should be credited, and actions that increase them should be penalized. This is essential if accounting is to serve as accurate guidance for climate policy. Yet this principle is not satisfied by the two most common accounting methods. Production-based accounting used under the Kyoto Protocol does not account for carbon leakage--the phenomenon of countries reducing their domestic emissions by shifting carbon-intensive production abroad. Consumption-based accounting (also called carbon footprinting) does not credit countries for cleaning up their export industries, and it also punishes some types of trade that could contribute to more carbon efficient production worldwide. We propose an improvement to consumption-based carbon accounting that takes technology differences in export sectors into account and thereby tends to more correctly reflect how national policy changes affect total global emissions. We also present empirical results showing how this new measure redraws the global emissions map.

  5. The Effect of Teaching Methods on Examination Performance and Attitudes in an Introductory Financial Accounting Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcheggiani, Joseph; Davis, Karel A.; Sander, James F.

    1999-01-01

    Comparison of accounting students taught with a group Socratic method (n=22) and interactive lecture method (n=15) found no evidence that either method significantly improved examination scores. Student attitudes toward the course or the accounting profession did not differ. (SK)

  6. Evaluating the Effects of Child Savings Accounts Program Participation on Parental Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okech, David

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Using baseline and second wave data, the study evaluated the impact of child savings accounts participation on parenting stress, personal mastery, and economic strain with N = 381 lower income parents who decided to join and those who did not join in a child development savings account program. Methods: Structural equation modeling for…

  7. Policy Recommendations: Effective Accountability Mechanisms for New York State's English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aung, Khin Mai; Alvarez, Gisela

    2012-01-01

    In September 2011, the New York State Department of Education convened a School and District Accountability Think Tank to provide public input regarding the creation of a second generation educational accountability system for the State's Elementary and Secondary Education Act waiver application. The Asian American Legal Defense and Education…

  8. A unifying modeling of plant shoot gravitropism with an explicit account of the effects of growth

    PubMed Central

    Bastien, Renaud; Douady, Stéphane; Moulia, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Gravitropism, the slow reorientation of plant growth in response to gravity, is a major determinant of the form and posture of land plants. Recently a universal model of shoot gravitropism, the AC model, was presented, in which the dynamics of the tropic movement is only determined by the conflicting controls of (1) graviception that tends to curve the plants toward the vertical, and (2) proprioception that tends to keep the stem straight. This model was found to be valid for many species and over two orders of magnitude of organ size. However, the motor of the movement, the elongation, was purposely neglected in the AC model. If growth effects are to be taken into account, it is necessary to consider the material derivative, i.e., the rate of change of curvature bound to expanding and convected organ elements. Here we show that it is possible to rewrite the material equation of curvature in a compact simplified form that directly expresses the curvature variation as a function of the median elongation and of the distribution of the differential growth. By using this extended model, called the ACĖ model, growth is found to have two main destabilizing effects on the tropic movement: (1) passive orientation drift, which occurs when a curved element elongates without differential growth, and (2) fixed curvature, when an element leaves the elongation zone and is no longer able to actively change its curvature. By comparing the AC and ACĖ models to experiments, these two effects are found to be negligible. Our results show that the simplified AC mode can be used to analyze gravitropism and posture control in actively elongating plant organs without significant information loss. PMID:24782876

  9. Early Efforts By Medicare Accountable Care Organizations Have Limited Effect On Mental Illness Care And Management.

    PubMed

    Busch, Alisa B; Huskamp, Haiden A; McWilliams, J Michael

    2016-07-01

    People with mental illness use more health care and have worse outcomes than those without such illnesses. In response to incentives to reduce spending, accountable care organizations (ACOs) may therefore attempt to improve their management of mental illness. We examined changes in mental health spending, utilization, and quality measures associated with ACO contracts in the Medicare Shared Savings Program and Pioneer model for beneficiaries with mental illness, using Medicare claims for the period 2008-13 and difference-in-differences comparisons with local non-ACO providers. Pioneer contracts were associated with lower spending on mental health admissions in the first year of the contract, an effect that was attenuated in the second year. Otherwise, ACO contracts were associated with no changes in mental health spending or readmissions, outpatient follow-up after mental health admissions, rates of depression diagnosis, or mental health status. These results suggest that ACOs have not yet focused on mental illness or have been largely unsuccessful in early efforts to improve their management of it.

  10. Calibration function for the Orbitrap FTMS accounting for the space charge effect.

    PubMed

    Gorshkov, Mikhail V; Good, David M; Lyutvinskiy, Yaroslav; Yang, Hongqian; Zubarev, Roman A

    2010-11-01

    Ion storage in an electrostatic trap has been implemented with the introduction of the Orbitrap Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS), which demonstrates performance similar to high-field ion cyclotron resonance MS. High mass spectral characteristics resulted in rapid acceptance of the Orbitrap FTMS for Life Sciences applications. The basics of Orbitrap operation are well documented; however, like in any ion trap MS technology, its performance is limited by interactions between the ion clouds. These interactions result in ion cloud couplings, systematic errors in measured masses, interference between ion clouds of different size yet with close m/z ratios, etc. In this work, we have characterized the space-charge effect on the measured frequency for the Orbitrap FTMS, looking for the possibility to achieve sub-ppm levels of mass measurement accuracy (MMA) for peptides in a wide range of total ion population. As a result of this characterization, we proposed an m/z calibration law for the Orbitrap FTMS that accounts for the total ion population present in the trap during a data acquisition event. Using this law, we were able to achieve a zero-space charge MMA limit of 80 ppb for the commercial Orbitrap FTMS system and sub-ppm level of MMA over a wide range of total ion populations with the automatic gain control values varying from 10 to 10(7).

  11. Early Efforts By Medicare Accountable Care Organizations Have Limited Effect On Mental Illness Care And Management.

    PubMed

    Busch, Alisa B; Huskamp, Haiden A; McWilliams, J Michael

    2016-07-01

    People with mental illness use more health care and have worse outcomes than those without such illnesses. In response to incentives to reduce spending, accountable care organizations (ACOs) may therefore attempt to improve their management of mental illness. We examined changes in mental health spending, utilization, and quality measures associated with ACO contracts in the Medicare Shared Savings Program and Pioneer model for beneficiaries with mental illness, using Medicare claims for the period 2008-13 and difference-in-differences comparisons with local non-ACO providers. Pioneer contracts were associated with lower spending on mental health admissions in the first year of the contract, an effect that was attenuated in the second year. Otherwise, ACO contracts were associated with no changes in mental health spending or readmissions, outpatient follow-up after mental health admissions, rates of depression diagnosis, or mental health status. These results suggest that ACOs have not yet focused on mental illness or have been largely unsuccessful in early efforts to improve their management of it. PMID:27385241

  12. Seismology of adolescent neutron stars: Accounting for thermal effects and crust elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, C. J.; Ho, W. C. G.; Andersson, N.

    2015-09-01

    We study the oscillations of relativistic stars, incorporating key physics associated with internal composition, thermal gradients and crust elasticity. Our aim is to develop a formalism which is able to account for the state-of-the-art understanding of the complex physics associated with these systems. As a first step, we build models using a modern equation of state including composition gradients and density discontinuities associated with internal phase transitions (like the crust-core transition and the point where muons first appear in the core). In order to understand the nature of the oscillation spectrum, we carry out cooling simulations to provide realistic snapshots of the temperature distribution in the interior as the star evolves through adolescence. The associated thermal pressure is incorporated in the perturbation analysis, and we discuss the presence of g -modes arising as a result of thermal effects. We also consider interface modes due to phase-transitions and the gradual formation of the star's crust and the emergence of a set of shear modes.

  13. A common signal detection model accounts for both perception and discrimination of the watercolor effect.

    PubMed

    Devinck, Frédéric; Knoblauch, Kenneth

    2012-03-21

    Establishing the relation between perception and discrimination is a fundamental objective in psychophysics, with the goal of characterizing the neural mechanisms mediating perception. Here, we show that a procedure for estimating a perceptual scale based on a signal detection model also predicts discrimination performance. We use a recently developed procedure, Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling (MLDS), to measure the perceptual strength of a long-range, color, filling-in phenomenon, the Watercolor Effect (WCE), as a function of the luminance ratio between the two components of its generating contour. MLDS is based on an equal-variance, gaussian, signal detection model and yields a perceptual scale with interval properties. The strength of the fill-in percept increased 10-15 times the estimate of the internal noise level for a 3-fold increase in the luminance ratio. Each observer's estimated scale predicted discrimination performance in a subsequent paired-comparison task. A common signal detection model accounts for both the appearance and discrimination data. Since signal detection theory provides a common metric for relating discrimination performance and neural response, the results have implications for comparing perceptual and neural response functions.

  14. Basic processes in reading: a critical review of pseudohomophone effects in reading aloud and a new computational account.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Michael; Besner, Derek

    2005-08-01

    There are pervasive lexical influences on the time that it takes to read aloud novel letter strings that sound like real words (e.g., brane from brain). However, the literature presents a complicated picture, given that the time taken to read aloud such items is sometimes shorter and sometimes longer than a control string (e.g.,frane) and that the time to read aloud is sometimes affected by the frequency of the base word and other times is not. In the present review, we first organize these data to show that there is considerably more consistency than has previously been acknowledged. We then consider six different accounts that have been proposed to explain various aspects of these data. Four of them immediately fail in one way or another. The remaining two accounts may be able to explain these findings, but they either make counterintuitive assumptions or invoke a novel mechanism solely to explain these findings. A new account is advanced that is able to explain all of the effects reviewed here and has none of the problems associated with the other accounts. According to this account, different types of lexical knowledge are used when pseudohomophones and nonword controls are read aloud in mixed and pure lists. This account is then implemented in Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, and Ziegler's (2001) dual route cascaded model in order to provide an existence proof that it accommodates all of the effects, while retaining the ability to simulate three standard effects seen in nonword reading aloud. PMID:16447376

  15. Investigation of the feasibility of an analytical method of accounting for the effects of atmospheric drag on satellite motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    An analytic technique for accounting for the joint effects of Earth oblateness and atmospheric drag on close-Earth satellites is investigated. The technique is analytic in the sense that explicit solutions to the Lagrange planetary equations are given; consequently, no numerical integrations are required in the solution process. The atmospheric density in the technique described is represented by a rotating spherical exponential model with superposed effects of the oblate atmosphere and the diurnal variations. A computer program implementing the process is discussed and sample output is compared with output from program NSEP (Numerical Satellite Ephemeris Program). NSEP uses a numerical integration technique to account for atmospheric drag effects.

  16. Heterozygosity-fitness correlations in a wild mammal population: accounting for parental and environmental effects.

    PubMed

    Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Christopher; Buesching, Christina D; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry; Dugdale, Hannah L

    2014-06-01

    HFCs (heterozygosity-fitness correlations) measure the direct relationship between an individual's genetic diversity and fitness. The effects of parental heterozygosity and the environment on HFCs are currently under-researched. We investigated these in a high-density U.K. population of European badgers (Meles meles), using a multimodel capture-mark-recapture framework and 35 microsatellite loci. We detected interannual variation in first-year, but not adult, survival probability. Adult females had higher annual survival probabilities than adult males. Cubs with more heterozygous fathers had higher first-year survival, but only in wetter summers; there was no relationship with individual or maternal heterozygosity. Moist soil conditions enhance badger food supply (earthworms), improving survival. In dryer years, higher indiscriminate mortality rates appear to mask differential heterozygosity-related survival effects. This paternal interaction was significant in the most supported model; however, the model-averaged estimate had a relative importance of 0.50 and overlapped zero slightly. First-year survival probabilities were not correlated with the inbreeding coefficient (f); however, small sample sizes limited the power to detect inbreeding depression. Correlations between individual heterozygosity and inbreeding were weak, in line with published meta-analyses showing that HFCs tend to be weak. We found support for general rather than local heterozygosity effects on first-year survival probability, and g2 indicated that our markers had power to detect inbreeding. We emphasize the importance of assessing how environmental stressors can influence the magnitude and direction of HFCs and of considering how parental genetic diversity can affect fitness-related traits, which could play an important role in the evolution of mate choice. PMID:25360289

  17. Heterozygosity–fitness correlations in a wild mammal population: accounting for parental and environmental effects

    PubMed Central

    Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Christopher; Buesching, Christina D; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry; Dugdale, Hannah L

    2014-01-01

    HFCs (heterozygosity–fitness correlations) measure the direct relationship between an individual's genetic diversity and fitness. The effects of parental heterozygosity and the environment on HFCs are currently under-researched. We investigated these in a high-density U.K. population of European badgers (Meles meles), using a multimodel capture–mark–recapture framework and 35 microsatellite loci. We detected interannual variation in first-year, but not adult, survival probability. Adult females had higher annual survival probabilities than adult males. Cubs with more heterozygous fathers had higher first-year survival, but only in wetter summers; there was no relationship with individual or maternal heterozygosity. Moist soil conditions enhance badger food supply (earthworms), improving survival. In dryer years, higher indiscriminate mortality rates appear to mask differential heterozygosity-related survival effects. This paternal interaction was significant in the most supported model; however, the model-averaged estimate had a relative importance of 0.50 and overlapped zero slightly. First-year survival probabilities were not correlated with the inbreeding coefficient (f); however, small sample sizes limited the power to detect inbreeding depression. Correlations between individual heterozygosity and inbreeding were weak, in line with published meta-analyses showing that HFCs tend to be weak. We found support for general rather than local heterozygosity effects on first-year survival probability, and g2 indicated that our markers had power to detect inbreeding. We emphasize the importance of assessing how environmental stressors can influence the magnitude and direction of HFCs and of considering how parental genetic diversity can affect fitness-related traits, which could play an important role in the evolution of mate choice. PMID:25360289

  18. Heterozygosity-fitness correlations in a wild mammal population: accounting for parental and environmental effects.

    PubMed

    Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Christopher; Buesching, Christina D; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry; Dugdale, Hannah L

    2014-06-01

    HFCs (heterozygosity-fitness correlations) measure the direct relationship between an individual's genetic diversity and fitness. The effects of parental heterozygosity and the environment on HFCs are currently under-researched. We investigated these in a high-density U.K. population of European badgers (Meles meles), using a multimodel capture-mark-recapture framework and 35 microsatellite loci. We detected interannual variation in first-year, but not adult, survival probability. Adult females had higher annual survival probabilities than adult males. Cubs with more heterozygous fathers had higher first-year survival, but only in wetter summers; there was no relationship with individual or maternal heterozygosity. Moist soil conditions enhance badger food supply (earthworms), improving survival. In dryer years, higher indiscriminate mortality rates appear to mask differential heterozygosity-related survival effects. This paternal interaction was significant in the most supported model; however, the model-averaged estimate had a relative importance of 0.50 and overlapped zero slightly. First-year survival probabilities were not correlated with the inbreeding coefficient (f); however, small sample sizes limited the power to detect inbreeding depression. Correlations between individual heterozygosity and inbreeding were weak, in line with published meta-analyses showing that HFCs tend to be weak. We found support for general rather than local heterozygosity effects on first-year survival probability, and g2 indicated that our markers had power to detect inbreeding. We emphasize the importance of assessing how environmental stressors can influence the magnitude and direction of HFCs and of considering how parental genetic diversity can affect fitness-related traits, which could play an important role in the evolution of mate choice.

  19. Effects of organic farming on biodiversity and ecosystem services: taking landscape complexity into account.

    PubMed

    Winqvist, Camilla; Ahnström, Johan; Bengtsson, Jan

    2012-02-01

    The recent intensification of the arable landscape by modern agriculture has had negative effects on biodiversity. Organic farming has been introduced to mitigate negative effects, but is organic farming beneficial to biodiversity? In this review, we summarize recent research on the effects of organic farming on arable biodiversity of plants, arthropods, soil biota, birds, and mammals. The ecosystem services of pollination, biological control, seed predation, and decomposition are also included in this review. So far, organic farming seems to enhance the species richness and abundance of many common taxa, but its effects are often species specific and trait or context dependant. The landscape surrounding the focal field or farm also seems to be important. Landscape either enhances or reduces the positive effects of organic farming or acts via interactions where the surrounding landscape affects biodiversity or ecosystem services differently on organic and conventional farms. Finally, we discuss some of the potential mechanisms behind these results and how organic farming may develop in the future to increase its potential for sustaining biodiversity and associated ecosystem services.

  20. Classical spin glass system in external field with taking into account relaxation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorkyan, A. S. Abajyan, H. G.

    2013-08-15

    We study statistical properties of disordered spin systems under the influence of an external field with taking into account relaxation effects. For description of system the spatial 1D Heisenberg spin-glass Hamiltonian is used. In addition, we suppose that interactions occur between nearest-neighboring spins and they are random. Exact solutions which define angular configuration of the spin in nodes were obtained from the equations of stationary points of Hamiltonian and the corresponding conditions for the energy local minimum. On the basis of these recurrent solutions an effective parallel algorithm is developed for simulation of stabile spin-chains of an arbitrary length. It is shown that by way of an independent order of N{sup 2} numerical simulations (where N is number of spin in each chain) it is possible to generate ensemble of spin-chains, which is completely ergodic which is equivalent to full self-averaging of spin-chains' vector polarization. Distributions of different parameters (energy, average polarization by coordinates, and spin-spin interaction constant) of unperturbed system are calculated. In particular, analytically is proved and numerically is shown, that for the Heisenberg nearest-neighboring Hamiltonian model, the distribution of spin-spin interaction constants as opposed to widely used Gauss-Edwards-Anderson distribution satisfies Levy alpha-stable distribution law. This distribution is nonanalytic function and does not have variance. In the work we have in detail studied critical properties of an ensemble depending on value of external field parameters (from amplitude and frequency) and have shown that even at weak external fields the spin-glass systemis strongly frustrated. It is shown that frustrations have fractal behavior, they are selfsimilar and do not disappear at scale decreasing of area. By the numerical computation is shown that the average polarization of spin-glass on a different coordinates can have values which can lead to

  1. Interactions between the Isolated-Interactive Elements Effect and Levels of Learner Expertise: Experimental Evidence from an Accountancy Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blayney, Paul; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated interactions between the isolated-interactive elements effect and levels of learner expertise with first year undergraduate university accounting students. The isolated-interactive elements effect occurs when learning is facilitated by initially presenting elements of information sequentially in an isolated form rather than…

  2. Toward an Human Resource Accounting (HRA)-Based Model for Designing an Organizational Effectiveness Audit in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myroon, John L.

    The major purpose of this paper was to develop a Human Resource Accounting (HRA) macro-model that could be used for designing a school organizational effectiveness audit. Initially, the paper reviewed the advent and definition of HRA. In order to develop the proposed model, the different approaches to measuring effectiveness were reviewed,…

  3. On the Problem-Size Effect in Small Additions: Can We Really Discard Any Counting-Based Account?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Thevenot, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The problem-size effect in simple additions, that is the increase in response times (RTs) and error rates with the size of the operands, is one of the most robust effects in cognitive arithmetic. Current accounts focus on factors that could affect speed of retrieval of the answers from long-term memory such as the occurrence of interference in a…

  4. 5 CFR 1655.9 - Effect of loans on individual account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contributions and attributable earnings, pro rata from each TSP Fund in which the account is invested and pro rata from tax-deferred and tax-exempt balances. (c) Loan payments, including both principal...

  5. Environmental characteristics associated with campylobacteriosis: accounting for the effect of age and season.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, J; Michel, P; Berke, O; Ravel, A; Gosselin, P

    2012-02-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a leading cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis. An ecological study was undertaken to explore the association between environmental characteristics and incidence of campylobacteriosis in relation to four age groups and two seasonal periods. A multi-level Poisson regression model was used for modelling at the municipal level. High ruminant density was positively associated with incidence of campylobacteriosis, with a reduced effect as people become older. High poultry density and presence of a large poultry slaughterhouse were also associated with higher incidence, but only for people aged 16-34 years. The effect of ruminant density, poultry density, and slaughterhouses were constant across seasonal periods. Other associations were detected with population density and average daily precipitation. Close contacts with farm animals are probably involved in the associations observed. The specificity of age and season on this important disease must be considered in further studies and in the design of preventive measures.

  6. Improved Ionospheric Correction for DGPS by taking into account the Horizontal Gradient Effect over the Equatorial Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajoo, Karthigesu

    Improved Ionospheric Correction for DGPS by taking into account the Horizontal Gradient Effect over the Equatorial Region K Nagarajoo Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia 86400 Parit Raja Johor Darul Takzim Email: karthi@uthm.edu.my DGPS is a system where the range error at a reference station will be eliminated from the range measurement at the user, which `view' the same satellite, presuming that the satellite's path to both the reference station and the user experience common errors due to the ionosphere, clock errors, multipath etc. In this assumption, the error due to the ionospheric refraction is assumed to be the same for the two closely spaced paths (such as a baseline length between reference station and the user is 10km) and thus the presence of ionospheric horizontal gradient is ignored. If a user's path is exposed to a drastically large ionosphere gradient (i.e., over the equatorial region), the large difference of ionosphere delays between the reference station and the user can result in significant position error for the user. Apart from that, the difference in the elevation angle at the reference and the user that `view' the same satellite to get the range measurement does also introduce some millimetre to centimetre of range difference. The neglect of the effect due to the presence of an ionospheric horizontal gradient and the elevation angle's difference (at both ends of the baseline) will cause a significant amount of error in the final DGPS user positioning. In this work, those two effects have been investigated in order to obtain a more accurate ionospheric correction for DGPS and have been found to be roughly comparable showing that they are both important. By performing ray-tracing calculations (using Jones 3-D Ray Tracing program) with and without a linear horizontal ionosphere gradient, the effects of elevation angle and horizontal gradient have been separated and a final positioning improvement of about 8cm has been shown at the user of a

  7. 31 CFR 537.514 - Importation of certain personal and household effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation of certain personal and... personal and household effects. (a) A U.S. person who maintained a residence in Burma prior to July 28, 2003, is authorized to import into the United States personal and household effects that are...

  8. 77 FR 14568 - Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... COMMISSION Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain... review in investigation No. 332-503, Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain Apparel from the Dominican Republic, Third Annual Review. DATES: April...

  9. 78 FR 16297 - Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... COMMISSION Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain... fourth annual review in investigation No. 332-503, Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain Apparel from the Dominican Republic, Fourth Annual Review. DATES:...

  10. The Accounting for Materials with Strength Differential Effect in Calculating the Durability in Order to Raise the Exploitation Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakubovskiy, U. E.; Krivchun, N. A.; Kolosov, V. I.; Umanskaya, O. L.

    2016-08-01

    The article is devoted to the mathematical model of bending of machines and constructions. The fact that they are made of multimodulus materials is taken into consideration. The priority is given to the multilayer qualities of such materials. The peculiarity of their deformation under real conditions due to the reciprocal slip of layers is taken into account. The redistribution of forces between the layers is achieved through the variable joint rigidity which is also represented in the given article. The construction of the mathematical model is given in details. The calculation method of bending of composite plates with layers of material with strength differential effect is described. While calculating the stress-strained state, the influence of rigidity of the multilayer bonding was taken into consideration.

  11. Effectiveness of Pavement Management System and its Effects to the Closing of Final Account in Construction Project in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Zarabizan; Ismail, Syuhaida; Yusof, Aminah Md

    2013-04-01

    Federal roads maintenance needs a systematic and effective mechanism to ensure that the roads are in good condition and provide comfort to the road user. In implementing effective maintenance, budget is main the factor limiting this endeavor. Thus Public Works Department (PWD) Malaysia used Highway Development and Management (HDM-4) System to help the management of PWD Malaysia in determining the location and length of the road to be repaired according to the priority based on its analysis. For that purpose, PWD Malaysia has applied Pavement Management System (PMS) which utilizes HDM-4 as the analysis engine to conduct technical and economic analysis in generating annual work programs for pavement maintenance. As a result, a lot of feedback and comment have been received from Supervisory and Roads Maintenance Unit (UPPJ) Zonal on the accuracy of the system output and problems that arise in the closing of final account. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to evaluate current system accuracy in terms of generating the annual work program for periodic pavement maintenance, to identify factors contributing to the system inaccuracy in selecting the location and length of roads that require for treatment and to propose improvement measures for the system accuracy. The factors affecting the closing of final account caused by result received from the pavement management system are also defined. The scope of this paper is on the existing HDM-4 System which cover four states specifically Perlis, Selangor, Kelantan and Johor which is analysed via the work program output data for the purpose of evaluating the system accuracy. The method used in this paper includes case study, interview, discussion and analysis of the HDM-4 System output data. This paper has identified work history not updated and the analysis is not using the current data as factors contributing to the system accuracy. From the result of this paper, it is found that HDM-4's system accuracy used by PWD

  12. Educational Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincoffs, Edmund L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses educational accountability as the paradigm of performance contracting, presents some arguments for and against accountability, and discusses the goals of education and the responsibility of the teacher. (Author/PG)

  13. Predicting relationship and life satisfaction from personality in nationally representative samples from three countries: the relative importance of actor, partner, and similarity effects.

    PubMed

    Dyrenforth, Portia S; Kashy, Deborah A; Donnellan, M Brent; Lucas, Richard E

    2010-10-01

    Three very large, nationally representative samples of married couples were used to examine the relative importance of 3 types of personality effects on relationship and life satisfaction: actor effects, partner effects, and similarity effects. Using data sets from Australia (N = 5,278), the United Kingdom (N = 6,554), and Germany (N = 11,418) provided an opportunity to test whether effects replicated across samples. Actor effects accounted for approximately 6% of the variance in relationship satisfaction and between 10% and 15% of the variance in life satisfaction. Partner effects (which were largest for Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Emotional Stability) accounted for between 1% and 3% of the variance in relationship satisfaction and between 1% and 2% of the variance in life satisfaction. Couple similarity consistently explained less than .5% of the variance in life and relationship satisfaction after controlling for actor and partner effects.

  14. Re-evaluation of the 1976 Guatemala earthquake taking into account the environmental effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfido, Sabina; Esposito, Eliana; Spiga, Efisio; Sacchi, Marco; Molisso, Flavia; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Guatemala is one of the most seismically active countries in Central America.The largest earthquakes are produced by along the subduction zone of the Cocos and Caribbean plates in the Middle America Trench in the Pacific Ocean. Large earthquakes are also triggered along the boundary between the North American and the Caribbean plates, defined by a zone of large left lateral strike-slip faults that run through Guatemala from the Swan Fracture Zone in the Caribbean Sea. The earthquakes generated along these transcurrent faults, although less frequent, have a great importance to seismic hazard in Central America, more than the subduction-related earthquakes, because of their shallow ipocenters and the proximity of many cities and villages to these active structures. The most destructive event in this region was the earthquake occurred on 4, February 1976 in Guatemala, associated with the Motagua fault, causing 23 000 deaths, and 77 200 injuries. This study attempts at reconstructing the coseismic effects on the environment, to better assess the intensities according to the ESI scale 2007. For the Guatemala 1976 earthquake (M=7,5), the original scientific seismic, geological and macroseismic reports have been reviewed in order to highlight effects on natural environment. The maximum estimated intensity was IX MM in Gualan, in the Mixco area and in the centre of Guatemala City. Intensities value were underestimated despite there was a high level of damages, in fact several towns and villages were totally destroyed and although the earthquake triggered very large and spectacular primary and secondary ground effects. On the basis of all the gathered information has been possible to detect and to localize coseismic environmental effects, and classify them into six main types: surface faulting, slope movements, ground cracks, ground settlements, hydrological changes and tsunami. Primary effects was identified in the Motagua Valley and the mountainous area W of the valley, a

  15. NNSA's next generation safeguards initiative to define an effective state system of accounting and control

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Rebecca S; Sunshine, Alexander; Matthews, Caroline; Frazer, Sarah; Matthews, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    The International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP), the international outreach component of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), is a collaborative program that endeavors to strengthen international safeguards at all stages of nuclear development. One of the critical ways the program achieves this objective is through working with partners to increase the effectiveness of the State System of Accountancy for and Control of Nuclear Materials (SSAC) - the essential elements of national, regulatory and facility safeguards competencies that work as a system to provide the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the world the full assurance of the state's adherence to its safeguards agreements. INSEP provides assistance in developing a state's SSAC in a number of areas, from developing national legislation governing the possession and use of nuclear material to working with nuclear facility operators to developing good practices in waste management. INSEP has collaborated with foreign partners in peaceful nuclear applications for over two decades, but recently, it has focused its efforts on strengthening SSACs due to the growth of nuclear power worldwide, particularly in countries with limited nuclear infrastructures. This new area of focus has prompted INSEP to develop a model of SSAC competencies that will serve not only as a structure for its engagement with partner states, but also as a means to facilitate coordination with other states that provide training and assistance, and as a mechanism for evaluating the effectiveness of its work in reaching its intended objectives. While this model uses as its starting point the requirements on a State that are presented in the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement and the Additional Protocol, it is not, in itself, a requirements document or guidance for implementing requirements. It is rather an analysis of what capabilities will be needed in a State to be able to meet requirements and to

  16. Computation of the effective mechanical response of biological networks accounting for large configuration changes.

    PubMed

    El Nady, K; Ganghoffer, J F

    2016-05-01

    The asymptotic homogenization technique is involved to derive the effective elastic response of biological membranes viewed as repetitive beam networks. Thereby, a systematic methodology is established, allowing the prediction of the overall mechanical properties of biological membranes in the nonlinear regime, reflecting the influence of the geometrical and mechanical micro-parameters of the network structure on the overall response of the equivalent continuum. Biomembranes networks are classified based on nodal connectivity, so that we analyze in this work 3, 4 and 6-connectivity networks, which are representative of most biological networks. The individual filaments of the network are described as undulated beams prone to entropic elasticity, with tensile moduli determined from their persistence length. The effective micropolar continuum evaluated as a continuum substitute of the biological network has a kinematics reflecting the discrete network deformation modes, involving a nodal displacement and a microrotation. The statics involves the classical Cauchy stress and internal moments encapsulated into couple stresses, which develop internal work in duality to microcurvatures reflecting local network undulations. The relative ratio of the characteristic bending length of the effective micropolar continuum to the unit cell size determines the relevant choice of the equivalent medium. In most cases, the Cauchy continuum is sufficient to model biomembranes. The peptidoglycan network may exhibit a re-entrant hexagonal configuration due to thermal or pressure fluctuations, for which micropolar effects become important. The homogenized responses are in good agreement with FE simulations performed over the whole network. The predictive nature of the employed homogenization technique allows the identification of a strain energy density of a hyperelastic model, for the purpose of performing structural calculations of the shape evolutions of biomembranes.

  17. Computation of the effective mechanical response of biological networks accounting for large configuration changes.

    PubMed

    El Nady, K; Ganghoffer, J F

    2016-05-01

    The asymptotic homogenization technique is involved to derive the effective elastic response of biological membranes viewed as repetitive beam networks. Thereby, a systematic methodology is established, allowing the prediction of the overall mechanical properties of biological membranes in the nonlinear regime, reflecting the influence of the geometrical and mechanical micro-parameters of the network structure on the overall response of the equivalent continuum. Biomembranes networks are classified based on nodal connectivity, so that we analyze in this work 3, 4 and 6-connectivity networks, which are representative of most biological networks. The individual filaments of the network are described as undulated beams prone to entropic elasticity, with tensile moduli determined from their persistence length. The effective micropolar continuum evaluated as a continuum substitute of the biological network has a kinematics reflecting the discrete network deformation modes, involving a nodal displacement and a microrotation. The statics involves the classical Cauchy stress and internal moments encapsulated into couple stresses, which develop internal work in duality to microcurvatures reflecting local network undulations. The relative ratio of the characteristic bending length of the effective micropolar continuum to the unit cell size determines the relevant choice of the equivalent medium. In most cases, the Cauchy continuum is sufficient to model biomembranes. The peptidoglycan network may exhibit a re-entrant hexagonal configuration due to thermal or pressure fluctuations, for which micropolar effects become important. The homogenized responses are in good agreement with FE simulations performed over the whole network. The predictive nature of the employed homogenization technique allows the identification of a strain energy density of a hyperelastic model, for the purpose of performing structural calculations of the shape evolutions of biomembranes. PMID:26541071

  18. Importance of Relativistic Effects and Electron Correlation in Structure Factors and Electron Density of Diphenyl Mercury and Triphenyl Bismuth.

    PubMed

    Bučinský, Lukáš; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Grabowsky, Simon

    2016-08-25

    This study investigates the possibility of detecting relativistic effects and electron correlation in single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments using the examples of diphenyl mercury (HgPh2) and triphenyl bismuth (BiPh3). In detail, the importance of electron correlation (ECORR), relativistic effects (REL) [distinguishing between total, scalar and spin-orbit (SO) coupling relativistic effects] and picture change error (PCE) on the theoretical electron density, its topology and its Laplacian using infinite order two component (IOTC) wave functions is discussed. This is to develop an understanding of the order of magnitude and shape of these different effects as they manifest in the electron density. Subsequently, the same effects are considered for the theoretical structure factors. It becomes clear that SO and PCE are negligible, but ECORR and scalar REL are important in low- and medium-order reflections on absolute and relative scales-not in the high-order region. As a further step, Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) and subsequent X-ray constrained wavefunction (XCW) fitting have been performed for the compound HgPh2 with various relativistic and nonrelativistic wave functions against the experimental structure factors. IOTC calculations of theoretical structure factors and relativistic HAR as well as relativistic XCW fitting are presented for the first time, accounting for both scalar and spin-orbit relativistic effects. PMID:27434184

  19. Importance of Relativistic Effects and Electron Correlation in Structure Factors and Electron Density of Diphenyl Mercury and Triphenyl Bismuth.

    PubMed

    Bučinský, Lukáš; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Grabowsky, Simon

    2016-08-25

    This study investigates the possibility of detecting relativistic effects and electron correlation in single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments using the examples of diphenyl mercury (HgPh2) and triphenyl bismuth (BiPh3). In detail, the importance of electron correlation (ECORR), relativistic effects (REL) [distinguishing between total, scalar and spin-orbit (SO) coupling relativistic effects] and picture change error (PCE) on the theoretical electron density, its topology and its Laplacian using infinite order two component (IOTC) wave functions is discussed. This is to develop an understanding of the order of magnitude and shape of these different effects as they manifest in the electron density. Subsequently, the same effects are considered for the theoretical structure factors. It becomes clear that SO and PCE are negligible, but ECORR and scalar REL are important in low- and medium-order reflections on absolute and relative scales-not in the high-order region. As a further step, Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) and subsequent X-ray constrained wavefunction (XCW) fitting have been performed for the compound HgPh2 with various relativistic and nonrelativistic wave functions against the experimental structure factors. IOTC calculations of theoretical structure factors and relativistic HAR as well as relativistic XCW fitting are presented for the first time, accounting for both scalar and spin-orbit relativistic effects.

  20. Excel in the Accounting Curriculum: Perceptions from Accounting Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandran Rackliffe, Usha; Ragland, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Public accounting firms emphasize the importance of accounting graduates being proficient in Excel. Since many accounting graduates often aspire to work in public accounting, a question arises as to whether there should be an emphasis on Excel in accounting education. The purpose of this paper is to specifically look at this issue by examining…

  1. When Does Accountability Work? Texas System Had Mixed Effects on College Graduation Rates and Future Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, David J.; Cohodes, Sarah; Jennings, Jennifer; Jencks, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    When congress passed the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), standardized testing in public schools became the law of the land. The ambitious legislation identified test-based accountability as the key to improving schools and, by extension, the long-term prospects of American schoolchildren. Thirteen years later, the debate over the federal…

  2. The Effect of Podcasted Review Sessions on Accounting I Students' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badowski, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Podcasting is a relatively new and yet unproven technology, especially when pertaining to higher education. The goal of this research was to address the issue of the educational significance of podcasting review sessions in Principles of Accounting I, by systematically conducting experimental embedded design research to build a case for its…

  3. Drivers of Teaching Effectiveness: Views from Accounting Educator Exemplars in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wygal, Donald E.; Watty, Kim; Stout, David E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the views, obtained via a survey instrument created by the authors and reported in studies by Stout and Wygal, of 22 accounting educator teaching exemplars from Australia. Each of these individuals has been cited for teaching excellence through receipt of one or more formal teaching awards. The paper responds to calls in…

  4. Measuring the Effect of Distance Education on the Learning Experience: Teaching Accounting via PictureTel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnar, Michael A.; Brown, Scott W.; Mayall, Hayley J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a distance education instrument developed to assess students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in a college-level accounting course presented via distance education using compressed video called PictureTel. Results indicated that specific items, related to instructor characteristics, could be used to predict students' choices about…

  5. Are Performance-Based Accountability Systems Effective? Evidence from Five Sectors. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuschner, Kristin J.

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades, performance-based accountability systems (PBASs), which link financial or other incentives to measured performance as a means of improving services, have gained popularity among policymakers. Although PBASs can vary widely across sectors, they share three main components: goals (i.e., one or more long-term outcomes to…

  6. The Effect of ESEA Waiver Plans on High School Graduation Rate Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Phillip; Cardichon, Jessica; Jones, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Based on an extensive analysis of state waiver plans, this report shows that recent progress in holding schools accountable for how many students they graduate from high school--the ultimate goal of K-12 education--may be slowed in some states based on waivers recently granted under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), currently…

  7. Data, Numbers and Accountability: The Complexity, Nature and Effects of Data Use in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This article draws upon research in one school in Queensland, Australia, to explore how the push to data influences teacher work and subsequent student learning. This "rise of data," often oriented towards "external" and performative processes of accountability, exhibits itself in many ways, but is particularly evident in…

  8. Accounting for Movement between Childcare Classrooms: Does It Change Teacher Effects Interpretations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setodji, Claude Messan; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Schaack, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Child care studies that have examined links between teachers' qualifications and children's outcomes often ignore teachers' and children's transitions between classrooms at a center throughout the day and only take into account head teacher qualifications. The objective of this investigation was to examine these traditional assumptions and to…

  9. Accuracy of Teachers' Tracking Decisions: Short- and Long-Term Effects of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine; Glock, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Bias in teachers' judgment formation and decision making has long been acknowledged. More specifically, studies have repeatedly demonstrated discrepancies between teacher ratings of minority and majority students with similar academic profiles. Studies have also demonstrated that increasing accountability reduced bias. Little is known, however,…

  10. NAPLAN, MySchool and Accountability: Teacher Perceptions of the Effects of Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores Rizvi and Lingard's (2010) idea of the "local vernacular" of the global education policy trend of using high-stakes testing to increase accountability and transparency, and by extension quality, within schools and education systems in Australia. In the first part of the paper a brief context of the policy…

  11. Jumping at the Chance: The Effects of Accountability Incentives on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauen, Douglas Lee

    2013-01-01

    Pay for performance plans are spreading across the country due to the Obama administration's $4 billion Race to the Top initiative, which places a high priority on merit pay. Through a program that involved public accountability and bonuses, the state of North Carolina awarded more than $1 billion in school-based performance bonuses for meeting…

  12. Long-Term Effects of Individual Development Accounts on Postsecondary Education: Follow-Up Evidence from a Randomized Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstein-Weiss, Michal; Sherraden, Michael; Gale, William G.; Rohe, William M.; Schreiner, Mark; Key, Clinton

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents evidence from a randomized field experiment testing the impact of a 3-year matched savings program on educational outcomes 10 years after the start of the experiment. We examine the effect of an Individual Development Account (IDA) program on (1) educational enrollment, (2) degree completion, and (3) increased education level.…

  13. Does HPA-Axis Dysregulation Account for the Effects of Income on Effortful Control and Adjustment in Preschool Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen; Fisher, Phil; Moran, Lyndsey

    2013-01-01

    The effects of low income on children's adjustment might be accounted for by disruptions to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and to the development of effortful control. Using longitudinal data and a community sample of preschool-age children (N?=?306, 36-39?months) and their mothers, recruited to over-represent low-income…

  14. The Effects of Student Response Systems on Performance and Satisfaction: An Investigation in a Tax Accounting Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Richard G.; Hsu, Maxwell

    2007-01-01

    Does the use of student response systems (clickers) in the classroom increase student performance on exams? Do students perceive a benefit to using clickers in the classroom? This study investigates the effect of student response systems on accounting students' learning outcome and perceived satisfaction. Results show that, though the use of…

  15. The Effect of Prior Knowledge and Feedback Type Design on Student Achievement and Satisfaction in Introductory Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of student prior knowledge and feedback type on student achievement and satisfaction in an introductory managerial accounting course using computer-based formative assessment tools. The study involved a redesign of the existing Job Order Costing unit using the ADDIE model of instructional design. The…

  16. Whatever Gave You that Idea? False Memories Following Equivalence Training: A Behavioral Account of the Misinformation Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Challies, Danna M.; Hunt, Maree; Garry, Maryanne; Harper, David N.

    2011-01-01

    The misinformation effect is a term used in the cognitive psychological literature to describe both experimental and real-world instances in which misleading information is incorporated into an account of an historical event. In many real-world situations, it is not possible to identify a distinct source of misinformation, and it appears that the…

  17. Exploring the Effects of Social Exchange Relationships on the Scholarly Productivity of New Faculty Members in Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugrin, Joseph C.; Odom, Marcus D.; Pearson, J. Michael; Bahmanziari, Tammy R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how social relationships between new accounting faculty members and their former dissertation chairs can influence the publishing productivity of the new faculty members in their early academic careers. The focus on social relationships offers a unique approach to studying the effectiveness doctoral education. Our findings show…

  18. Analysis of Conductor Impedances Accounting for Skin Effect and Nonlinear Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, M P; Ong, M M; Brown, C G; Speer, R D

    2011-07-20

    It is often necessary to protect sensitive electrical equipment from pulsed electric and magnetic fields. To accomplish this electromagnetic shielding structures similar to Faraday Cages are often implemented. If the equipment is inside a facility that has been reinforced with rebar, the rebar can be used as part of a lighting protection system. Unfortunately, such shields are not perfect and allow electromagnetic fields to be created inside due to discontinuities in the structure, penetrations, and finite conductivity of the shield. In order to perform an analysis of such a structure it is important to first determine the effect of the finite impedance of the conductors used in the shield. In this paper we will discuss the impedances of different cylindrical conductors in the time domain. For a time varying pulse the currents created in the conductor will have different spectral components, which will affect the current density due to skin effects. Many construction materials use iron and different types of steels that have a nonlinear permeability. The nonlinear material can have an effect on the impedance of the conductor depending on the B-H curve. Although closed form solutions exist for the impedances of cylindrical conductors made of linear materials, computational techniques are needed for nonlinear materials. Simulations of such impedances are often technically challenging due to the need for a computational mesh to be able to resolve the skin depths for the different spectral components in the pulse. The results of such simulations in the time domain will be shown and used to determine the impedances of cylindrical conductors for lightning current pulses that have low frequency content.

  19. Accounting for Heterogeneity in Relative Treatment Effects for Use in Cost-Effectiveness Models and Value-of-Information Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Marta O.; Palmer, Stephen; Ades, Anthony E.; Harrison, David; Shankar-Hari, Manu; Rowan, Kathy M.

    2015-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) models are routinely used to inform health care policy. Key model inputs include relative effectiveness of competing treatments, typically informed by meta-analysis. Heterogeneity is ubiquitous in meta-analysis, and random effects models are usually used when there is variability in effects across studies. In the absence of observed treatment effect modifiers, various summaries from the random effects distribution (random effects mean, predictive distribution, random effects distribution, or study-specific estimate [shrunken or independent of other studies]) can be used depending on the relationship between the setting for the decision (population characteristics, treatment definitions, and other contextual factors) and the included studies. If covariates have been measured that could potentially explain the heterogeneity, then these can be included in a meta-regression model. We describe how covariates can be included in a network meta-analysis model and how the output from such an analysis can be used in a CEA model. We outline a model selection procedure to help choose between competing models and stress the importance of clinical input. We illustrate the approach with a health technology assessment of intravenous immunoglobulin for the management of adult patients with severe sepsis in an intensive care setting, which exemplifies how risk of bias information can be incorporated into CEA models. We show that the results of the CEA and value-of-information analyses are sensitive to the model and highlight the importance of sensitivity analyses when conducting CEA in the presence of heterogeneity. The methods presented extend naturally to heterogeneity in other model inputs, such as baseline risk. PMID:25712447

  20. EVAPORISATION: a new vapor pressure model taking into account neighbour effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compernolle, Steven; Ceulemans, Karl; Muller, Jean-Francois

    2010-05-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a complex mixture of water and organic molecules. The vapor pressure of an organic molecule is one of the most important properties regulating its partitioning to the particulate phase, but as it is unknown for most- typically polyfunctional- organic molecules in Biogenic SOA it has to be estimated by a vapor pressure model fitted to experimental data. While a lot of vapor pressure data is generally available for hydrocarbons and monofunctional compounds, much less data are available for bifunctional compounds. For compounds with more functional groups, data is sparse and relatively inaccurate. We have developed a vapor pressure model, EVAPORISATION (Estimation of VApor Pressure of ORganics, Including effects Such As The Interaction of Neighbours), starting from the group-contribution principle: each functional group gives a contribution to the logarithm of the vapor pressure. On top of that, second order effects -chemically rationalized- are added due to carbon skeleton, nonadditivity of functional groups and -for neighbouring functional groups- intramolecular interactions . These effects can be very significant: eg. when two carbonyl groups are neighbouring, the vapor pressure is about 1 order of magnitude higher than when they are nonneighbouring. Due to the lack of data, some of these effects must be estimated by analogy. The method is compared to several other vapor pressure estimation techniques, such as SIMPOL (Pankow et al. 2008), SPARC (Hilal et al. 2003), and the methods of Myrdal and Yalkowsky (1997), Capouet and Muller (2006), Nannoolal et al. (2008), Moller et al. (2008). We extended some of these methods as they are not able to treat hydroperoxides, peracids, peroxy acyl nitrates. With our model BOREAM, outlined in a previous publication (Capouet et al. 2008), several smog chamber experiments are simulated, and the impact of vapor pressure method choice is elucidated. It turns out that the choice of the vapor

  1. An efficient constraint to account for mistuning effects in the optimal design of engine rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Durbha V.; Pierre, Christophe; Ottarsson, Gisli

    1992-01-01

    Blade-to-blade differences in structural properties, unavoidable in practice due to manufacturing tolerances, can have significant influence on the vibratory response of engine rotor blade. Accounting for these differences, also known as mistuning, in design and in optimization procedures is generally not possible. This note presents an easily calculated constraint that can be used in design and optimization procedures to control the sensitivity of final designs to mistuning.

  2. Excuses, excuses: accounting for the effects of partner violence on marital satisfaction and stability.

    PubMed

    Katz, J; Arias, I; Beach, S R; Brody, G; Roman, P

    1995-01-01

    For both theoretical and practical reasons, it is important to understand processes that lead to marital dissatisfaction and dissolution among women who are targets of relationship violence. Because attributional tendencies may often forecast marital behavior and because alcohol use is often seen as providing an excuse for deviant behavior, we examine two potential moderators of the associations between husband violence and wife marital outcomes: wife attributional style and husband problem drinking tendencies. A community sample of married couples (N = 66) completed a comprehensive battery of marital assessments. Results suggested that responsibility attributions moderated the association between husband violence and wives' marital dissatisfaction but exerted a direct effect on wives' disposition toward divorce. Husband problem drinking moderated the impact of husband violence only on wives' disposition toward divorce. As would be expected from an "excuse" model of the associations between violence and marital outcomes, violence had less of an impact on marital satisfaction and divorce ideation when wives attributed responsibility for negative spouse behavior as external to their husbands and when husbands were problem drinkers, respectively.

  3. Accounting for the effect of turbulence on wind turbine power curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifton, A.; Wagner, Rozenn

    2014-06-01

    Wind turbines require methods to predict the power produced as inflow conditions change. We compare the standard method of binning with a turbulence renormalization method and a machine learning approach using a data set derived from simulations. The method of binning is unable to cope with changes in turbulence; the turbulence renormalization method cannot account for changes in shear other than by using the the equivalent wind speed, which is derived from wind speed data at multiple heights in the rotor disk. The machine learning method is best able to predict the power as conditions change, and could be modified to include additional inflow variables such as veer or yaw error.

  4. Pseudo-dynamic source characterization accounting for rough-fault effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galis, Martin; Thingbaijam, Kiran K. S.; Mai, P. Martin

    2016-04-01

    Broadband ground-motion simulations, ideally for frequencies up to ~10Hz or higher, are important for earthquake engineering; for example, seismic hazard analysis for critical facilities. An issue with such simulations is realistic generation of radiated wave-field in the desired frequency range. Numerical simulations of dynamic ruptures propagating on rough faults suggest that fault roughness is necessary for realistic high-frequency radiation. However, simulations of dynamic ruptures are too expensive for routine applications. Therefore, simplified synthetic kinematic models are often used. They are usually based on rigorous statistical analysis of rupture models inferred by inversions of seismic and/or geodetic data. However, due to limited resolution of the inversions, these models are valid only for low-frequency range. In addition to the slip, parameters such as rupture-onset time, rise time and source time functions are needed for complete spatiotemporal characterization of the earthquake rupture. But these parameters are poorly resolved in the source inversions. To obtain a physically consistent quantification of these parameters, we simulate and analyze spontaneous dynamic ruptures on rough faults. First, by analyzing the impact of fault roughness on the rupture and seismic radiation, we develop equivalent planar-fault kinematic analogues of the dynamic ruptures. Next, we investigate the spatial interdependencies between the source parameters to allow consistent modeling that emulates the observed behavior of dynamic ruptures capturing the rough-fault effects. Based on these analyses, we formulate a framework for pseudo-dynamic source model, physically consistent with the dynamic ruptures on rough faults.

  5. A Visitor's Guide to Effect Sizes--Statistical Significance versus Practical (Clinical) Importance of Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Xu, Gang

    2004-01-01

    Effect Sizes (ES) are an increasingly important index used to quantify the degree of practical significance of study results. This paper gives an introduction to the computation and interpretation of effect sizes from the perspective of the consumer of the research literature. The key points made are: (1) "ES" is a useful indicator of the…

  6. Accounting for network effects in neuronal responses using L1 regularized point process models.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan C; Kass, Robert E; Smith, Matthew A; Lee, Tai Sing

    2010-01-01

    Activity of a neuron, even in the early sensory areas, is not simply a function of its local receptive field or tuning properties, but depends on global context of the stimulus, as well as the neural context. This suggests the activity of the surrounding neurons and global brain states can exert considerable influence on the activity of a neuron. In this paper we implemented an L1 regularized point process model to assess the contribution of multiple factors to the firing rate of many individual units recorded simultaneously from V1 with a 96-electrode "Utah" array. We found that the spikes of surrounding neurons indeed provide strong predictions of a neuron's response, in addition to the neuron's receptive field transfer function. We also found that the same spikes could be accounted for with the local field potentials, a surrogate measure of global network states. This work shows that accounting for network fluctuations can improve estimates of single trial firing rate and stimulus-response transfer functions. PMID:22162918

  7. Optimization of Internal Margin to Account for Dosimetric Effects of Respiratory Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Mutaf, Yildirim D. Brinkmann, Debra H.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: Use of internal margins to account for respiratory motion of the target volumes is a common strategy in radiotherapy of mobile tumors. Although efficient for tumor coverage, this expansion also risks increased toxicity to nearby healthy organs and therefore requires a careful selection of appropriate margins. In this study, we demonstrate an optimization of the internal margin used to account for respiration motion. Methods and Materials: Three-dimensional conformal treatment plans for phantom spherical target volumes as well as clinical treatment plans of 11 patients were evaluated retrospectively for optimum internal margin selection. A software-based simulation of respiration motion was performed for all cases. Moreover, the interplay with treatment setup uncertainties and corresponding margins was investigated in the phantom study. Results: Optimum internal margins in both phantom and patient studies were found to be substantially smaller than the actual target displacement due to respiration. The optimal internal margin was also observed to be approximately independent of the setup margins. Furthermore, no statistically significant dependence on target size and shape was observed in the group of 11 patients. Conclusions: These findings present significant implications for treatment planning of mobile targets, such as tumors found in the lung and upper abdomen. We conclude that the full motion amplitude for the internal margin is overly conservative, and optimization of the internal margin provides improved sparing of nearby organs at risk without sacrificing dosimetric coverage for the target.

  8. Relative importance of grain boundaries and size effects in thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline materials.

    PubMed

    Dong, Huicong; Wen, Bin; Melnik, Roderick

    2014-11-13

    A theoretical model for describing effective thermal conductivity (ETC) of nanocrystalline materials has been proposed, so that the ETC can be easily obtained from its grain size, single crystal thermal conductivity, single crystal phonon mean free path (PMFP), and the Kaptiza thermal resistance. In addition, the relative importance between grain boundaries (GBs) and size effects on the ETC of nanocrystalline diamond at 300 K has been studied. It has been demonstrated that with increasing grain size, both GBs and size effects become weaker, while size effects become stronger on thermal conductivity than GBs effects.

  9. Risk-based maintenance modeling. Prioritization of maintenance importances and quantification of maintenance effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Vesely, W.E.; Rezos, J.T.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes methods for prioritizing the risk importances of maintenances using a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). Approaches then are described for quantifying their reliability and risk effects. Two different PRA importance measures, minimal cutset importances and risk reduction importances, were used to prioritize maintenances; the findings show that both give similar results if appropriate criteria are used. The justifications for the particular importance measures also are developed. The methods developed to quantify the reliability and risk effects of maintenance actions are extensions of the usual reliability models now used in PRAs. These extended models consider degraded states of the component, and quantify the benefits of maintenance in correcting degradations and preventing failures. The negative effects of maintenance, including downtimes, also are included. These models are specific types of Markov models. The data for these models can be obtained from plant maintenance logs and from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS). To explore the potential usefulness of these models, the authors analyzed a range of postulated values of input data. These models were used to examine maintenance effects on a components reliability and performance for various maintenance programs and component data. Maintenance schedules were analyzed to optimize the component`s availability. In specific cases, the effects of maintenance were found to be large.

  10. Effective Boolean dynamics analysis to identify functionally important genes in large-scale signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Hung-Cuong; Kwon, Yung-Keun

    2015-11-01

    Efficiently identifying functionally important genes in order to understand the minimal requirements of normal cellular development is challenging. To this end, a variety of structural measures have been proposed and their effectiveness has been investigated in recent literature; however, few studies have shown the effectiveness of dynamics-based measures. This led us to investigate a dynamic measure to identify functionally important genes, and the effectiveness of which was verified through application on two large-scale human signaling networks. We specifically consider Boolean sensitivity-based dynamics against an update-rule perturbation (BSU) as a dynamic measure. Through investigations on two large-scale human signaling networks, we found that genes with relatively high BSU values show slower evolutionary rate and higher proportions of essential genes and drug targets than other genes. Gene-ontology analysis showed clear differences between the former and latter groups of genes. Furthermore, we compare the identification accuracies of essential genes and drug targets via BSU and five well-known structural measures. Although BSU did not always show the best performance, it effectively identified the putative set of genes, which is significantly different from the results obtained via the structural measures. Most interestingly, BSU showed the highest synergy effect in identifying the functionally important genes in conjunction with other measures. Our results imply that Boolean-sensitive dynamics can be used as a measure to effectively identify functionally important genes in signaling networks.

  11. A Consideration of Factors Accounting for Goal Effectiveness: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James H.

    This research paper presents a model of organizational effectiveness based on the open system perspective and tests four hypotheses concerning organizational effectiveness factors. Organizational effectiveness can be defined as the extent to which a social system makes progress toward objectives based on the four phases of organizational…

  12. A full Bayes before-after study accounting for temporal and spatial effects: Evaluating the safety impact of new signal installations.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Emanuele; Sayed, Tarek; El-Basyouny, Karim

    2016-09-01

    Recently, important advances in road safety statistics have been brought about by methods able to address issues other than the choice of the best error structure for modeling crash data. In particular, accounting for spatial and temporal interdependence, i.e., the notion that the collision occurrence of a site or unit times depend on those of others, has become an important issue that needs further research. Overall, autoregressive models can be used for this purpose as they can specify that the output variable depends on its own previous values and on a stochastic term. Spatial effects have been investigated and applied mostly in the context of developing safety performance functions (SPFs) to relate crash occurrence to highway characteristics. Hence, there is a need for studies that attempt to estimate the effectiveness of safety countermeasures by including the spatial interdependence of road sites within the context of an observational before-after (BA) study. Moreover, the combination of temporal dynamics and spatial effects on crash frequency has not been explored in depth for SPF development. Therefore, the main goal of this research was to carry out a BA study accounting for spatial effects and temporal dynamics in evaluating the effectiveness of a road safety treatment. The countermeasure analyzed was the installation of traffic signals at unsignalized urban/suburban intersections in British Columbia (Canada). The full Bayes approach was selected as the statistical framework to develop the models. The results demonstrated that zone variation was a major component of total crash variability and that spatial effects were alleviated by clustering intersections together. Finally, the methodology used also allowed estimation of the treatment's effectiveness in the form of crash modification factors and functions with time trends.

  13. A full Bayes before-after study accounting for temporal and spatial effects: Evaluating the safety impact of new signal installations.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Emanuele; Sayed, Tarek; El-Basyouny, Karim

    2016-09-01

    Recently, important advances in road safety statistics have been brought about by methods able to address issues other than the choice of the best error structure for modeling crash data. In particular, accounting for spatial and temporal interdependence, i.e., the notion that the collision occurrence of a site or unit times depend on those of others, has become an important issue that needs further research. Overall, autoregressive models can be used for this purpose as they can specify that the output variable depends on its own previous values and on a stochastic term. Spatial effects have been investigated and applied mostly in the context of developing safety performance functions (SPFs) to relate crash occurrence to highway characteristics. Hence, there is a need for studies that attempt to estimate the effectiveness of safety countermeasures by including the spatial interdependence of road sites within the context of an observational before-after (BA) study. Moreover, the combination of temporal dynamics and spatial effects on crash frequency has not been explored in depth for SPF development. Therefore, the main goal of this research was to carry out a BA study accounting for spatial effects and temporal dynamics in evaluating the effectiveness of a road safety treatment. The countermeasure analyzed was the installation of traffic signals at unsignalized urban/suburban intersections in British Columbia (Canada). The full Bayes approach was selected as the statistical framework to develop the models. The results demonstrated that zone variation was a major component of total crash variability and that spatial effects were alleviated by clustering intersections together. Finally, the methodology used also allowed estimation of the treatment's effectiveness in the form of crash modification factors and functions with time trends. PMID:27249403

  14. Bad-good constraints on a polarity correspondence account for the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) and markedness association of response codes (MARC) effects.

    PubMed

    Leth-Steensen, Craig; Citta, Richie

    2016-01-01

    Performance in numerical classification tasks involving either parity or magnitude judgements is quicker when small numbers are mapped onto a left-sided response and large numbers onto a right-sided response than for the opposite mapping (i.e., the spatial-numerical association of response codes or SNARC effect). Recent research by Gevers et al. [Gevers, W., Santens, S., Dhooge, E., Chen, Q., Van den Bossche, L., Fias, W., & Verguts, T. (2010). Verbal-spatial and visuospatial coding of number-space interactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 139, 180-190] suggests that this effect also arises for vocal "left" and "right" responding, indicating that verbal-spatial coding has a role to play in determining it. Another presumably verbal-based, spatial-numerical mapping phenomenon is the linguistic markedness association of response codes (MARC) effect whereby responding in parity tasks is quicker when odd numbers are mapped onto left-sided responses and even numbers onto right-sided responses. A recent account of both the SNARC and MARC effects is based on the polarity correspondence principle [Proctor, R. W., & Cho, Y. S. (2006). Polarity correspondence: A general principle for performance of speeded binary classification tasks. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 416-442]. This account assumes that stimulus and response alternatives are coded along any number of dimensions in terms of - and + polarities with quicker responding when the polarity codes for the stimulus and the response correspond. In the present study, even-odd parity judgements were made using either "left" and "right" or "bad" and "good" vocal responses. Results indicated that a SNARC effect was indeed present for the former type of vocal responding, providing further evidence for the sufficiency of the verbal-spatial coding account for this effect. However, the decided lack of an analogous SNARC-like effect in the results for the latter type of vocal responding provides an important

  15. Advanced Numerical Imaging Procedure Accounting for Non-Ideal Effects in GPR Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comite, Davide; Galli, Alessandro; Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The capability to provide fast and reliable imaging of targets and interfaces in non-accessible probed scenarios is a topic of great scientific interest, and many investigations have shown that Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) can provide an efficient technique to conduct this kind of analysis in various applications of geophysical nature and civil engineering. In these cases, the development of an efficient and accurate imaging procedure is strongly dependent on the capability of accounting for the incident field that activates the scattering phenomenon. In this frame, based on a suitable implementation of an electromagnetic (EM) CAD tool (CST Microwave Studio), it has been possible to accurately and efficiently model the radiation pattern of real antennas in environments typically considered in GPR surveys [1]. A typical scenario of our interest is constituted by targets hidden in a ground medium, described by certain EM parameters and probed by a movable GPR using interfacial antennas [2]. The transmitting and receiving antennas considered here are Vivaldi ones, but a wide variety of other antennas can be modeled and designed, similar to those ones available in commercial GPR systems. Hence, an advanced version of a well-known microwave tomography approach (MTA) [3] has been implemented, both in the canonical 2D scalar case and in the more realistic 3D vectorial one. Such an approach is able to account for the real distribution of the radiated and scattered EM fields. Comparisons of results obtained by means of a 'conventional' implementation of the MTA, where the antennas are modeled as ideal line sources, and by means of our 'advanced' approach, which instead takes into account the radiation features of the chosen antenna type, have been carried out and discussed. Since the antenna radiation patterns are modified by the probed environment, whose EM features and the possible stratified structure usually are not exactly known, the imaging capabilities of the MTA

  16. Teacher Work Sample Methodology: Displaying Accountability of U.S. Teacher Education Program Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooner, Donna; Stevenson, Cerissa; Frederiksen, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Productive strategies for evaluating outcomes in teacher licensure programs are becoming increasingly important in the education field. Research data from 492 teacher licensure program completers from 2006-2009 in the School of Education, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado (USA) was compiled after accreditation by the Colorado…

  17. A Monte Carlo-based model of gold nanoparticle radiosensitization accounting for increased radiobiological effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Lechtman, E; Mashouf, S; Chattopadhyay, N; Keller, B M; Lai, P; Cai, Z; Reilly, R M; Pignol, J-P

    2013-05-21

    Radiosensitization using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been shown to vary widely with cell line, irradiation energy, AuNP size, concentration and intracellular localization. We developed a Monte Carlo-based AuNP radiosensitization predictive model (ARP), which takes into account the detailed energy deposition at the nano-scale. This model was compared to experimental cell survival and macroscopic dose enhancement predictions. PC-3 prostate cancer cell survival was characterized after irradiation using a 300 kVp photon source with and without AuNPs present in the cell culture media. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations were conducted, producing individual tracks of photoelectric products escaping AuNPs and energy deposition was scored in nano-scale voxels in a model cell nucleus. Cell survival in our predictive model was calculated by integrating the radiation induced lethal event density over the nucleus volume. Experimental AuNP radiosensitization was observed with a sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) of 1.21 ± 0.13. SERs estimated using the ARP model and the macroscopic enhancement model were 1.20 ± 0.12 and 1.07 ± 0.10 respectively. In the hypothetical case of AuNPs localized within the nucleus, the ARP model predicted a SER of 1.29 ± 0.13, demonstrating the influence of AuNP intracellular localization on radiosensitization.

  18. Auditioning the distinctiveness account: Expanding the production effect to the auditory modality reveals the superiority of writing over vocalising.

    PubMed

    Mama, Yaniv; Icht, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The production effect (PE) documents the advantage in memory performance for words that are read aloud during study, rather than words that are read silently. Until now, the PE was examined in the visual modality, as the participants read the study words. In the present study, we extended the PE phenomenon and used the auditory modality at study. This novel methodology provides a critical test of the distinctiveness account. Accordingly, the participants heard the study words and learned them by vocal production (saying aloud) or by writing, followed by a free recall test. The use of the auditory modality yielded a memory advantage for words that were written during study over words that were vocally produced. We explain this result in light of the encoding distinctiveness account, suggesting that the PE is determined by the number of different encoding processes involved in learning, emphasising the essential role of active production.

  19. A Comparison of Four Approaches to Account for Method Effects in Latent State-Trait Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Christian; Lockhart, Ginger

    2012-01-01

    Latent state-trait (LST) analysis is frequently applied in psychological research to determine the degree to which observed scores reflect stable person-specific effects, effects of situations and/or person-situation interactions, and random measurement error. Most LST applications use multiple repeatedly measured observed variables as indicators…

  20. Testing Probability Matching and Episodic Retrieval Accounts of Response Repetition Effects in Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Erik M.

    2011-01-01

    This study takes inventory of available evidence on response repetition (RR) effects in task switching, in particular the evidence for RR cost when the task switches. The review reveals that relatively few task-switching studies in which RR effects were addressed have shown statistical support for RR cost, and that almost all are affected by 1 of…

  1. `Effective' collisions in weakly magnetized collisionless plasma: importance of Pitaevski's effect for magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev M.; Artemyev, Anton V.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we revisit the paradigm of space science turbulent dissipation traditionally considered as myth (Coroniti, Space Sci. Rev., vol. 42, 1985, pp. 399-410). We demonstrate that due to approach introduced by Pitaevskii (Sov. J. Expl Theor. Phys., vol. 44, 1963, pp. 969-979 (in Russian)) (the effect of a finite Larmor radius on a classical collision integral) dissipation induced by effective interaction with microturbulence produces a significant effect on plasma dynamics, especially in the vicinity of the reconnection region. We estimate the multiplication factor of collision frequency in the collision integral for short wavelength perturbations. For waves propagating transverse to the background magnetic field, this factor is approximately ρekx)2 an electron gyroradius and where kx a transverse wavenumber. We consider recent spacecraft observations in the Earth's magnetotail reconnection region to the estimate possible impact of this multiplication factor. For small-scale reconnection regions this factor can significantly increase the effective collision frequency produced both by lower-hybrid drift turbulence and by kinetic Alfvén waves. We discuss the possibility that the Pitaevskii's effect may be responsible for the excitation of a resistive electron tearing mode in thin current sheets formed in the outflow region of the primary X-line.

  2. The Situated Inference Model: An Integrative Account of the Effects of Primes on Perception, Behavior, and Motivation.

    PubMed

    Loersch, Chris; Payne, B Keith

    2011-05-01

    The downstream consequences of a priming induction range from changes in the perception of objects in the environment to the initiation of prime-related behavior and goal striving. Although each of these outcomes has been accounted for by separate mechanisms, we argue that a single process could produce all three priming effects. In this article, we introduce the situated inference model of priming, discuss its potential to account for these divergent outcomes with one mechanism, and demonstrate its ability to organize the priming literatures surrounding these effects. According to the model, primes often do not cause direct effects, instead altering only the accessibility of prime-related mental content. This information produces downstream effects on judgment, behavior, or motivation when it is mistakenly viewed as originating from one's own internal thought processes. When this misattribution occurs, the prime-related mental content becomes a possible source of information for solving whatever problems are afforded by the current situation. Because different situations afford very different questions and concerns, the inferred meaning of this prime-related content can vary greatly. The use of this information to answer qualitatively different questions can lead a single prime to produce varied effects on judgment, behavior, and motivation.

  3. The Importance of Educational Leadership and Policy: In Support of Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Donna

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of effective instruction on the reading ability of children in the early grades. The paper synthesizes major research on reading instruction and the readiness gap that exists between children entering school for the first time. The research points to the critical importance of equipping teachers with effective…

  4. Child Health in Peru: Importance of Regional Variation and Community Effects on Children's Height and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Heeju

    2007-01-01

    In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the…

  5. Importance of resonance interference effects in multigroup self-shielding calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Stachowski, R.E.; Protsik, R.

    1995-12-31

    The impact of the resonance interference method (RIF) on multigroup neutron cross sections is significant for major isotopes in the fuel, indicating the importance of resonance interference in the computation of gadolinia burnout and plutonium buildup. The self-shielding factor method with the RIF method effectively eliminates shortcomings in multigroup resonance calculations.

  6. The Effects of Media Reports on Disease Spread and Important Public Health Measurements.

    PubMed

    Collinson, Shannon; Khan, Kamran; Heffernan, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the spread of influenza to reduce the effects of infection on a population is an important mandate of public health. Mass media reports on an epidemic or pandemic can provide important information to the public, and in turn, can induce positive healthy behaviour practices (i.e., handwashing, social distancing) in the individuals, that will reduce the probability of contracting the disease. Mass media fatigue, however, can dampen these effects. Mathematical models can be used to study the effects of mass media reports on epidemic/pandemic outcomes. In this study we employ a stochastic agent based model to provide a quantification of mass media reports on the variability in important public health measurements. We also include mass media report data compiled by the Global Public Health Intelligence Network, to study the effects of mass media reports in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We find that the report rate and the rate at which individuals relax their healthy behaviours (media fatigue) greatly affect the variability in important public health measurements. When the mass media reporting data is included in the model, two peaks of infection result.

  7. The Effects of Media Reports on Disease Spread and Important Public Health Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Collinson, Shannon; Khan, Kamran; Heffernan, Jane M.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the spread of influenza to reduce the effects of infection on a population is an important mandate of public health. Mass media reports on an epidemic or pandemic can provide important information to the public, and in turn, can induce positive healthy behaviour practices (i.e., handwashing, social distancing) in the individuals, that will reduce the probability of contracting the disease. Mass media fatigue, however, can dampen these effects. Mathematical models can be used to study the effects of mass media reports on epidemic/pandemic outcomes. In this study we employ a stochastic agent based model to provide a quantification of mass media reports on the variability in important public health measurements. We also include mass media report data compiled by the Global Public Health Intelligence Network, to study the effects of mass media reports in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We find that the report rate and the rate at which individuals relax their healthy behaviours (media fatigue) greatly affect the variability in important public health measurements. When the mass media reporting data is included in the model, two peaks of infection result. PMID:26528909

  8. The effect of glyphosate on import into a sink leaf of sugar beet

    SciTech Connect

    Shieh, Wenjang; Geiger, D.R. )

    1990-05-01

    The basis for glyphosate inducted limitation of carbon import into developing leaves was studied in sugar beet. To separate the effects of the herbicide on export from those on import, glyphosate was supplied to a developing leaf from two exporting source leaves which fed the sink leaf. Carbon import into the sink leaf was determined by supplying {sup 14}CO{sub 2} to a third source leaf which also supplies carbon to the monitored sink leaf. Import into the sink leaf decreased within 2 to 3 h after glyphosate application, even though photosynthesis and export in the source leaf supplying {sup 14}C were unaffected. Reduced import into the sink leaf was accompanied by increased import by the tap root. Elongation of the sink leaf was only slightly decreased following arrival of glyphosate. Photosynthesis by the sink leaf was not inhibited. The results to data support the view that import is slowed by the inhibition of synthesis of structural or storage compounds in the developing leaves.

  9. Life-Cycle Costing of Food Waste Management in Denmark: Importance of Indirect Effects.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Tonini, Davide; Møller, Flemming; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-04-19

    Prevention has been suggested as the preferred food waste management solution compared to alternatives such as conversion to animal fodder or to energy. In this study we used societal life-cycle costing, as a welfare economic assessment, and environmental life-cycle costing, as a financial assessment combined with life-cycle assessment, to evaluate food waste management. Both life-cycle costing assessments included direct and indirect effects. The latter are related to income effects, accounting for the marginal consumption induced when alternative scenarios lead to different household expenses, and the land-use-changes effect, associated with food production. The results highlighted that prevention, while providing the highest welfare gains as more services/goods could be consumed with the same income, could also incur the highest environmental impacts if the monetary savings from unpurchased food commodities were spent on goods/services with a more environmentally damaging production than that of the (prevented) food. This was not the case when savings were used, e.g., for health care, education, and insurances. This study demonstrates that income effects, although uncertain, should be included whenever alternative scenarios incur different financial costs. Furthermore, it highlights that food prevention measures should not only demote the purchase of unconsumed food but also promote a low-impact use of the savings generated. PMID:26978648

  10. Life-Cycle Costing of Food Waste Management in Denmark: Importance of Indirect Effects.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Tonini, Davide; Møller, Flemming; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-04-19

    Prevention has been suggested as the preferred food waste management solution compared to alternatives such as conversion to animal fodder or to energy. In this study we used societal life-cycle costing, as a welfare economic assessment, and environmental life-cycle costing, as a financial assessment combined with life-cycle assessment, to evaluate food waste management. Both life-cycle costing assessments included direct and indirect effects. The latter are related to income effects, accounting for the marginal consumption induced when alternative scenarios lead to different household expenses, and the land-use-changes effect, associated with food production. The results highlighted that prevention, while providing the highest welfare gains as more services/goods could be consumed with the same income, could also incur the highest environmental impacts if the monetary savings from unpurchased food commodities were spent on goods/services with a more environmentally damaging production than that of the (prevented) food. This was not the case when savings were used, e.g., for health care, education, and insurances. This study demonstrates that income effects, although uncertain, should be included whenever alternative scenarios incur different financial costs. Furthermore, it highlights that food prevention measures should not only demote the purchase of unconsumed food but also promote a low-impact use of the savings generated.

  11. Accounting for the drug life cycle and future drug prices in cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Economic evaluations of health technologies typically assume constant real drug prices and model only the cohort of patients currently eligible for treatment. It has recently been suggested that, in the UK, we should assume that real drug prices decrease at 4% per annum and, in New Zealand, that real drug prices decrease at 2% per annum and at patent expiry the drug price falls. It has also recently been suggested that we should model multiple future incident cohorts. In this article, the cost effectiveness of drugs is modelled based on these ideas. Algebraic expressions are developed to capture all costs and benefits over the entire life cycle of a new drug. The lifetime of a new drug in the UK, a key model parameter, is estimated as 33 years, based on the historical lifetime of drugs in England over the last 27 years. Under the proposed methodology, cost effectiveness is calculated for seven new drugs recently appraised in the UK. Cost effectiveness as assessed in the future is also estimated. Whilst the article is framed in mathematics, the findings and recommendations are also explained in non-mathematical language. The 'life-cycle correction factor' is introduced, which is used to convert estimates of cost effectiveness as traditionally calculated into estimates under the proposed methodology. Under the proposed methodology, all seven drugs appear far more cost effective in the UK than published. For example, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio decreases by 46%, from £61, 900 to £33, 500 per QALY, for cinacalcet versus best supportive care for end-stage renal disease, and by 45%, from £31,100 to £17,000 per QALY, for imatinib versus interferon-α for chronic myeloid leukaemia. Assuming real drug prices decrease over time, the chance that a drug is publicly funded increases over time, and is greater when modelling multiple cohorts than with a single cohort. Using the methodology (compared with traditional methodology) all drugs in the UK and New

  12. Similar response patterns do not imply identical origins: an energetic masking account of nonspeech effects in compensation for coarticulation.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Navin; Magnuson, James S; Fowler, Carol A

    2013-08-01

    Nonspeech materials are widely used to identify basic mechanisms underlying speech perception. For instance, they have been used to examine the origin of compensation for coarticulation, the observation that listeners' categorization of phonetic segments depends on neighboring segments (Mann, 1980). Specifically, nonspeech precursors matched to critical formant frequencies of speech precursors have been shown to produce similar categorization shifts as speech contexts. This observation has been interpreted to mean that spectrally contrastive frequency relations between neighboring segments underlie the categorization shifts observed after speech, as well as nonspeech precursors (Lotto & Kluender, 1998). From the gestural perspective, however, categorization shifts in speech contexts occur because of listeners' sensitivity to acoustic information for coarticulatory gestural overlap in production; in nonspeech contexts, this occurs because of energetic masking of acoustic information for gestures. In 2 experiments, we distinguish the energetic masking and spectral contrast accounts. In Experiment 1, we investigated the effects of varying precursor tone frequency on speech categorization. Consistent only with the masking account, tonal effects were greater for frequencies close enough to those in the target syllables for masking to occur. In Experiment 2, we filtered the target stimuli to simulate effects of masking and obtained behavioral outcomes that closely resemble those with nonspeech tones. We conclude that masking provides the more plausible account of nonspeech context effects. More generally, we suggest that similar results from the use of speech and nonspeech materials do not automatically imply identical origins and that the use of nonspeech in speech studies entails careful examination of the nature of information in the nonspeech materials. PMID:23148469

  13. Magnetic models of crystalline terrane: accounting for the effect of topography.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakely, R.J.; Grauch, V.J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Facilitates geologic interpretation of an aeromagnetic survey of the Oregon Cascade Range by calculating the magnetic field caused by a 3-D topographic model. Maps of the calculated field are compared with observed aeromagnetic data both visually and with a numerical technique that produces a contour map of correlation coefficients for the model. These comparisons allow quick recognition of anomalies caused by normally or reversely magnetized topographic features and, more importantly, identification of anomalies caused by geologic features not obviously caused by the topography. -from Authors

  14. Landscape of fear influences the relative importance of consumptive and nonconsumptive predator effects.

    PubMed

    Matassa, Catherine M; Trussell, Geoffrey C

    2011-12-01

    Predators can initiate trophic cascades by consuming and/or scaring their prey. Although both forms of predator effect can increase the overall abundance of prey's resources, nonconsumptive effects may be more important to the spatial and temporal distribution of resources because predation risk often determines where and when prey choose to forage. Our experiment characterized temporal and spatial variation in the strength of consumptive and nonconsumptive predator effects in a rocky intertidal food chain consisting of the predatory green crab (Carcinus maenas), an intermediate consumer (the dogwhelk, Nucella lapillus), and barnacles (Semibalanus balanoides) as a resource. We tracked the survival of individual barnacles through time to map the strength of predator effects in experimental communities. These maps revealed striking spatiotemporal patterns in Nucella foraging behavior in response to each predator effect. However, only the nonconsumptive effect of green crabs produced strong spatial patterns in barnacle survivorship. Predation risk may play a pivotal role in determining the small-scale distribution patterns of this important rocky intertidal foundation species. We suggest that the effects of predation risk on individual foraging behavior may scale up to shape community structure and dynamics at a landscape level. PMID:22352165

  15. Landscape of fear influences the relative importance of consumptive and nonconsumptive predator effects.

    PubMed

    Matassa, Catherine M; Trussell, Geoffrey C

    2011-12-01

    Predators can initiate trophic cascades by consuming and/or scaring their prey. Although both forms of predator effect can increase the overall abundance of prey's resources, nonconsumptive effects may be more important to the spatial and temporal distribution of resources because predation risk often determines where and when prey choose to forage. Our experiment characterized temporal and spatial variation in the strength of consumptive and nonconsumptive predator effects in a rocky intertidal food chain consisting of the predatory green crab (Carcinus maenas), an intermediate consumer (the dogwhelk, Nucella lapillus), and barnacles (Semibalanus balanoides) as a resource. We tracked the survival of individual barnacles through time to map the strength of predator effects in experimental communities. These maps revealed striking spatiotemporal patterns in Nucella foraging behavior in response to each predator effect. However, only the nonconsumptive effect of green crabs produced strong spatial patterns in barnacle survivorship. Predation risk may play a pivotal role in determining the small-scale distribution patterns of this important rocky intertidal foundation species. We suggest that the effects of predation risk on individual foraging behavior may scale up to shape community structure and dynamics at a landscape level.

  16. Calculation of NMR chemical shifts in organic solids: accounting for motional effects.

    PubMed

    Dumez, Jean-Nicolas; Pickard, Chris J

    2009-03-14

    NMR chemical shifts were calculated from first principles for well defined crystalline organic solids. These density functional theory calculations were carried out within the plane-wave pseudopotential framework, in which truly extended systems are implicitly considered. The influence of motional effects was assessed by averaging over vibrational modes or over snapshots taken from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. It is observed that the zero-point correction to chemical shifts can be significant, and that thermal effects are particularly noticeable for shielding anisotropies and for a temperature-dependent chemical shift. This study provides insight into the development of highly accurate first principles calculations of chemical shifts in solids, highlighting the role of motional effects on well defined systems.

  17. Accounting for sequential trial effects in the flanker task: conflict adaptation or associative priming?

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Stins, John F; Posthuma, Danielle; Polderman, Tinca J C; Boomsma, Dorret I; de Geus, Eco J

    2006-09-01

    The conflict-control loop theory proposes that the detection of conflict in information processing triggers an increase in cognitive control, resulting in improved performance on the subsequent trial. This theory seems consistent with the robust finding that conflict susceptibility is reduced following correct trials associated with high conflict: the conflict adaptation effect. However, despite providing favorable conditions for eliciting and detecting conflict-triggered performance adjustments, none of the five experiments reported here provide unequivocal evidence of such adjustments. Instead, the results corroborate and extend earlier findings by demonstrating that the conflict adaptation effect, at least in the flanker task, is only present for a specific subset of trial sequences that is characterized by a response repetition. This pattern of results provides strong evidence that the conflict adaptation effect reflects associative stimulus-response priming instead of conflict-driven adaptations in cognitive control. PMID:17225507

  18. The Effects of Closed-Loop Medical Devices on the Autonomy and Accountability of Persons and Systems.

    PubMed

    Kellmeyer, Philipp; Cochrane, Thomas; Müller, Oliver; Mitchell, Christine; Ball, Tonio; Fins, Joseph J; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2016-10-01

    Closed-loop medical devices such as brain-computer interfaces are an emerging and rapidly advancing neurotechnology. The target patients for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are often severely paralyzed, and thus particularly vulnerable in terms of personal autonomy, decisionmaking capacity, and agency. Here we analyze the effects of closed-loop medical devices on the autonomy and accountability of both persons (as patients or research participants) and neurotechnological closed-loop medical systems. We show that although BCIs can strengthen patient autonomy by preserving or restoring communicative abilities and/or motor control, closed-loop devices may also create challenges for moral and legal accountability. We advocate the development of a comprehensive ethical and legal framework to address the challenges of emerging closed-loop neurotechnologies like BCIs and stress the centrality of informed consent and refusal as a means to foster accountability. We propose the creation of an international neuroethics task force with members from medical neuroscience, neuroengineering, computer science, medical law, and medical ethics, as well as representatives of patient advocacy groups and the public. PMID:27634714

  19. The Effects of Closed-Loop Medical Devices on the Autonomy and Accountability of Persons and Systems.

    PubMed

    Kellmeyer, Philipp; Cochrane, Thomas; Müller, Oliver; Mitchell, Christine; Ball, Tonio; Fins, Joseph J; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2016-10-01

    Closed-loop medical devices such as brain-computer interfaces are an emerging and rapidly advancing neurotechnology. The target patients for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are often severely paralyzed, and thus particularly vulnerable in terms of personal autonomy, decisionmaking capacity, and agency. Here we analyze the effects of closed-loop medical devices on the autonomy and accountability of both persons (as patients or research participants) and neurotechnological closed-loop medical systems. We show that although BCIs can strengthen patient autonomy by preserving or restoring communicative abilities and/or motor control, closed-loop devices may also create challenges for moral and legal accountability. We advocate the development of a comprehensive ethical and legal framework to address the challenges of emerging closed-loop neurotechnologies like BCIs and stress the centrality of informed consent and refusal as a means to foster accountability. We propose the creation of an international neuroethics task force with members from medical neuroscience, neuroengineering, computer science, medical law, and medical ethics, as well as representatives of patient advocacy groups and the public.

  20. Accounting for baryonic effects in cosmic shear tomography: Determining a minimal set of nuisance parameters using PCA

    SciTech Connect

    Eifler, Tim; Krause, Elisabeth; Dodelson, Scott; Zentner, Andrew; Hearin, Andrew; Gnedin, Nickolay

    2014-05-28

    Systematic uncertainties that have been subdominant in past large-scale structure (LSS) surveys are likely to exceed statistical uncertainties of current and future LSS data sets, potentially limiting the extraction of cosmological information. Here we present a general framework (PCA marginalization) to consistently incorporate systematic effects into a likelihood analysis. This technique naturally accounts for degeneracies between nuisance parameters and can substantially reduce the dimension of the parameter space that needs to be sampled. As a practical application, we apply PCA marginalization to account for baryonic physics as an uncertainty in cosmic shear tomography. Specifically, we use CosmoLike to run simulated likelihood analyses on three independent sets of numerical simulations, each covering a wide range of baryonic scenarios differing in cooling, star formation, and feedback mechanisms. We simulate a Stage III (Dark Energy Survey) and Stage IV (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope/Euclid) survey and find a substantial bias in cosmological constraints if baryonic physics is not accounted for. We then show that PCA marginalization (employing at most 3 to 4 nuisance parameters) removes this bias. Our study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain robust, precise constraints on the dark energy equation of state even in the presence of large levels of systematic uncertainty in astrophysical processes. We conclude that the PCA marginalization technique is a powerful, general tool for addressing many of the challenges facing the precision cosmology program.

  1. Accountability Overboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chieppo, Charles D.; Gass, James T.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that special interest groups opposed to charter schools and high-stakes testing have hijacked Massachusetts's once-independent board of education and stand poised to water down the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) tests and the accountability system they support. President Barack Obama and Massachusetts…

  2. Painless Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. W.; And Others

    The computerized Painless Accountability System is a performance objective system from which instructional programs are developed. Three main simplified behavioral response levels characterize this system: (1) cognitive, (2) psychomotor, and (3) affective domains. Each of these objectives are classified by one of 16 descriptors. The second major…

  3. Accounting Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication identifies 20 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of accounting specialist, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 20 units are as follows:…

  4. Accounting for spatial effects in land use regression for urban air pollution modeling.

    PubMed

    Bertazzon, Stefania; Johnson, Markey; Eccles, Kristin; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2015-01-01

    In order to accurately assess air pollution risks, health studies require spatially resolved pollution concentrations. Land-use regression (LUR) models estimate ambient concentrations at a fine spatial scale. However, spatial effects such as spatial non-stationarity and spatial autocorrelation can reduce the accuracy of LUR estimates by increasing regression errors and uncertainty; and statistical methods for resolving these effects--e.g., spatially autoregressive (SAR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models--may be difficult to apply simultaneously. We used an alternate approach to address spatial non-stationarity and spatial autocorrelation in LUR models for nitrogen dioxide. Traditional models were re-specified to include a variable capturing wind speed and direction, and re-fit as GWR models. Mean R(2) values for the resulting GWR-wind models (summer: 0.86, winter: 0.73) showed a 10-20% improvement over traditional LUR models. GWR-wind models effectively addressed both spatial effects and produced meaningful predictive models. These results suggest a useful method for improving spatially explicit models.

  5. From Sunshine to Double Arrows: An Evaluation Window Account of Negative Compatibility Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Dittrich, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    In category priming, target stimuli are to be sorted into 2 categories. Prime stimuli preceding targets typically facilitate processing of targets when primes and targets are members of the same category, relative to the case in which both stem from different categories, a positive compatibility effect (PCE). But negative compatibility effects…

  6. Investigating the Effectiveness of SW-PBIS on School's Accountability at Both Elementary and Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryoo, Ji Hoon; Hong, Saahoon

    2011-01-01

    Due to the lack of effectiveness of the punitive school approach toward challenging behaviors (Luiselli, Putnam, Handler, & Feinberg, 2005; Reynolds, Skiba, Graham, Sheras, Conoley, & Garcia-Vazquez, 2006), public schools have searched for an innovative approach to better serve students who are at risk for academic failure and dropout/expulsion. A…

  7. The Effect of School Inputs on Labor Market Returns that Account for Selective Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHenry, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I estimate the effect of state school inputs on labor market returns to schooling. The method follows Card and Krueger (1992) and Heckman et al. (1996), but I extend their analysis in two ways. First, I correct state-level returns to schooling for selective migration, adapting a method from Dahl (2002). Second, I use more recent…

  8. Effects of Discussion Postings on Retention and Success Rates in Community College Introductory Accounting Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Nammy K.

    2012-01-01

    Higher incidence of student under achievements and attrition rate continue to pose significant challenges for the organizational effectiveness of community colleges. Restructuring the classroom at each academic departmental level to better accommodate the needs of the students should be considered by community colleges as part of an institutional…

  9. The Relationship between Student Transfers and District Academic Performance: Accounting for Feedback Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsch, David M.; Zimmer, David M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws attention to a subtle, but concerning, empirical challenge common in panel data models that seek to estimate the relationship between student transfers and district academic performance. Specifically, if such models have a dynamic element, and if the estimator controls for unobserved traits by including district-level effects,…

  10. Accounting for spatial effects in land use regression for urban air pollution modeling.

    PubMed

    Bertazzon, Stefania; Johnson, Markey; Eccles, Kristin; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2015-01-01

    In order to accurately assess air pollution risks, health studies require spatially resolved pollution concentrations. Land-use regression (LUR) models estimate ambient concentrations at a fine spatial scale. However, spatial effects such as spatial non-stationarity and spatial autocorrelation can reduce the accuracy of LUR estimates by increasing regression errors and uncertainty; and statistical methods for resolving these effects--e.g., spatially autoregressive (SAR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models--may be difficult to apply simultaneously. We used an alternate approach to address spatial non-stationarity and spatial autocorrelation in LUR models for nitrogen dioxide. Traditional models were re-specified to include a variable capturing wind speed and direction, and re-fit as GWR models. Mean R(2) values for the resulting GWR-wind models (summer: 0.86, winter: 0.73) showed a 10-20% improvement over traditional LUR models. GWR-wind models effectively addressed both spatial effects and produced meaningful predictive models. These results suggest a useful method for improving spatially explicit models. PMID:26530819

  11. Consistent accounting of steric effects for prediction of streaming potential in narrow confinements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Jeevanjyoti; Dey, Ranabir; Chakraborty, Suman

    2012-12-01

    The traditional modeling framework for determining streaming potential, when taking into consideration finite size effects, suffers from an oversight in that while the model incorporates the size effects in the ion distribution profiles, it neglects these very same effects in the flux contributions, even though diffusivities are intrinsically linked with ionic friction, which again depends on the size of the ions. This oversight may lead to inconsistent quantitative estimates through ad hoc consideration of diffusivity values, apparently independent of the specific size of the ions, which nevertheless determines the ionic profiles. We remedy this theoretical inconsistency by expressing the diffusivity in terms of the ionic radius and investigate the consequences of such a description of the diffusivity-dependent flux, consistent with the ionic distribution profiles, on streaming potential mediated flow predictions. Additionally, we consider the effects of “charge induced thickening” so that both viscosity and diffusivity are expressed as spatially varying functions. As an unintuitive implication, we also show that calculation of nonzero values of streaming potential under the purview of classical Boltzmann distributions, which consider ions to be pointlike charges, is itself a theoretical inconsistency. We believe that the simple framework presented in this paper will pave the way for more sophisticated modeling efforts in the future.

  12. Accounting for Beneficial Effects of Worked Examples in Tutored Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salden, Ron J. C. M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Renkl, Alexander; Aleven, Vincent; McLaren, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have tested the addition of worked examples to tutored problem solving, a more effective instructional approach than the untutored problem solving used in prior worked example research. These studies involved Cognitive Tutors, software designed to support problem solving while minimizing extraneous cognitive load by providing…

  13. On the Control of Automatic Processes: A Parallel Distributed Processing Account of the Stroop Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jonathan D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed that attributes of automatization depend on the strength of a processing pathway, and that strength increases with training. With the Stroop effect as an example, automatic processes are shown through simulation to be continuous and to emerge gradually with practice. (SLD)

  14. A Closer Look at Public Higher Education in South Carolina: Institutional Effectiveness, Accountability, and Performance, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Garrison

    2009-01-01

    This report provides an annual overview of data reported by South Carolina's public institutions of higher education as part of institutional effectiveness reporting and as part of the process of performance funding. Prior to the January 2000 edition, this document was entitled "Minding Our P's and Q's: Indications of Productivity and Quality in…

  15. Enacting multiple methamphetamines: the ontological politics of public discourse and consumer accounts of a drug and its effects.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Robyn; Moore, David

    2013-05-01

    Over the last decade in Australia, methamphetamine has come to be seen as a significant issue for drug research, policy and practice. Concerns have been expressed over its potency, the increasing prevalence of its use and its potential for producing greater levels, and more severe forms, of harm compared to amphetamine or other drugs. In this article, we critically examine some of the ways in which methamphetamine and its effects are produced and reproduced within and through Australian public discourse, focusing in particular on the associations made between methamphetamine and psychosis. We show how public discourse enacts methamphetamine as an anterior, stable, singular and definite object routinely linked to the severe psychological 'harm' of psychosis. We contrast the enactment of methamphetamine within public discourse with how methamphetamine is enacted by consumers of the drug. In their accounts, consumers perform different methamphetamine objects and offer different interpretations of the relationships of these objects to psychological problems and of the ontological nature (i.e. relating to what is real, what is, what exists) of these problems. In examining public discourse and consumer accounts, we challenge conventional ontological understandings of methamphetamine as anterior, singular, stable and definite, and of its psychological effects as indicative of pathology. In line with recent critical social research on drugs, we draw on social studies of science and technology that focus on the performativity of scientific knowledge and material practices. We suggest that recognising the ontological contingency, and therefore the multiplicity, of methamphetamine offers a critical counterpoint to conventional research, policy and practice accounts of methamphetamine and its psychological effects.

  16. Crash Simulation of Roll Formed Parts by Damage Modelling Taking Into Account Preforming Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Till, Edwin T.; Hackl, Benjamin; Schauer, Hermann

    2011-08-01

    Complex phase steels of strength levels up to 1200 MPa are suitable to roll forming. These may be applied in automotive structures for enhancing the crashworthiness, e. g. as stiffeners in doors. Even though the strain hardening of the material is low there is considerable bending formability. However ductility decreases with the strength level. Higher strength requires more focus to the structural integrity of the part during the process planning stage and with respect to the crash behavior. Nowadays numerical simulation is used as a process design tool for roll-forming in a production environment. The assessment of the stability of a roll forming process is quite challenging for AHSS grades. There are two objectives of the present work. First to provide a reliable assessment tool to the roll forming analyst for failure prediction. Second to establish simulation procedures in order to predict the part's behavior in crash applications taking into account damage and failure. Today adequate ductile fracture models are available which can be used in forming and crash applications. These continuum models are based on failure strain curves or surfaces which depend on the stress triaxiality (e. g. Crach or GISSMO) and may additionally include the Lode angle (extended Mohr Coulomb or extended GISSMO model). A challenging task is to obtain the respective failure strain curves. In the paper the procedure is described in detail how these failure strain curves are obtained using small scale tests within voestalpine Stahl, notch tensile-, bulge and shear tests. It is shown that capturing the surface strains is not sufficient for obtaining reliable material failure parameters. The simulation tool for roll-forming at the site of voestalpine Krems is Copra® FEA RF, which is a 3D continuum finite element solver based on MSC.Marc. The simulation environment for crash applications is LS-DYNA. Shell elements are used for this type of analyses. A major task is to provide results of

  17. Effects of past and recent blood pressure and cholesterol level on coronary heart disease and stroke mortality, accounting for measurement error.

    PubMed

    Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Lanti, Mariapaola; Menotti, Alessandro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Tolonen, Hanna; Nissinen, Aulikki; Nedeljkovic, Srecko; Kafatos, Anthony; Kromhout, Daan

    2007-02-15

    The authors aimed to quantify the effects of current systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum total cholesterol on the risk of mortality in comparison with SBP or serum cholesterol 25 years previously, taking measurement error into account. The authors reanalyzed 35-year follow-up data on mortality due to coronary heart disease and stroke among subjects aged 65 years or more from nine cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. The two-step method of Tsiatis et al. (J Am Stat Assoc 1995;90:27-37) was used to adjust for regression dilution bias, and results were compared with those obtained using more commonly applied methods of adjustment for regression dilution bias. It was found that the commonly used univariate adjustment for regression dilution bias overestimates the effects of both SBP and cholesterol compared with multivariate methods. Also, the two-step method makes better use of the information available, resulting in smaller confidence intervals. Results comparing recent and past exposure indicated that past SBP is more important than recent SBP in terms of its effect on coronary heart disease mortality, while both recent and past values seem to be important for effects of cholesterol on coronary heart disease mortality and effects of SBP on stroke mortality. Associations between serum cholesterol concentration and risk of stroke mortality are weak. PMID:17116650

  18. The effects of drugs on human models of emotional processing: an account of antidepressant drug treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pringle, Abbie; Harmer, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Human models of emotional processing suggest that the direct effect of successful antidepressant drug treatment may be to modify biases in the processing of emotional information. Negative biases in emotional processing are documented in depression, and single or short-term dosing with conventional antidepressant drugs reverses these biases in depressed patients prior to any subjective change in mood. Antidepressant drug treatments also modulate emotional processing in healthy volunteers, which allows the consideration of the psychological effects of these drugs without the confound of changes in mood. As such, human models of emotional processing may prove to be useful for testing the efficacy of novel treatments and for matching treatments to individual patients or subgroups of patients. PMID:26869848

  19. Effective Transport Properties Accounting for Electrochemical Reactions of Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Catalyst Layers

    SciTech Connect

    Pharoah, Jon; Choi, Hae-Won; Chueh, Chih-Che; Harvey, David

    2011-07-01

    There has been a rapidly growing interest in three-dimensional micro-structural reconstruction of fuel cell electrodes so as to derive more accurate descriptors of the pertinent geometric and effective transport properties. Due to the limited accessibility of experiments based reconstruction techniques, such as dual-beam focused ion beam-scanning electro microscopy or micro X-Ray computed tomography, within sample micro-structures of the catalyst layers in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), a particle based numerical model is used in this study to reconstruct sample microstructure of the catalyst layers in PEMFCs. Then the reconstructed sample structure is converted into the computational grid using body-fitted/cut-cell based unstructured meshing technique. Finally, finite volume methods (FVM) are applied to calculate effective properties on computational sample domains.

  20. Re-Examining Gravitational Tunneling Radiation when taking into account Quantum Gravity Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, John; Prescott, Trevor; Blado, Gardo

    2015-03-01

    Although shown to theoretically exist, Hawking Radiation has yet to be detected. The paper entitled ``Gravitational Tunneling Radiation'' by Mario Rabinowitz proposed a possible explanation by considering the gravitational tunneling effects in the presence of other bodies in the vicinity of the black hole. Rabinowitz showed that the power radiated (through gravitational radiation) by a black hole,PR, is related to the power generated by Hawking Radiation, PSH by PR/T ~PSH where T is the gravitational tunneling probability. The presence of other bodies lowers the gravitational barrier which in turn increases the gravitational tunneling probability thereby decreasing the Hawking radiation, PSH. In this paper, we examine the modification of T in the presence of quantum gravity effects by incorporating the Generalized Uncertainty Principle.

  1. Automaticity of basic-level categorization accounts for labeling effects in visual recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Richler, Jennifer J; Gauthier, Isabel; Palmeri, Thomas J

    2011-11-01

    Are there consequences of calling objects by their names? Lupyan (2008) suggested that overtly labeling objects impairs subsequent recognition memory because labeling shifts stored memory representations of objects toward the category prototype (representational shift hypothesis). In Experiment 1, we show that processing objects at the basic category level versus exemplar level in the absence of any overt labeling produces the same qualitative pattern of results. Experiment 2 demonstrates that labeling does not always disrupt memory as predicted by the representational shift hypothesis: Differences in memory following labeling versus preference are more likely an effect of judging preference, not an effect of overt labeling. Labeling does not influence memory by shifting memory representations toward the category prototype. Rather, labeling objects at the basic level produces memory representations that are simply less robust than those produced by other kinds of study tasks.

  2. The effects of drugs on human models of emotional processing: an account of antidepressant drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Abbie; Harmer, Catherine J

    2015-12-01

    Human models of emotional processing suggest that the direct effect of successful antidepressant drug treatment may be to modify biases in the processing of emotional information. Negative biases in emotional processing are documented in depression, and single or short-term dosing with conventional antidepressant drugs reverses these biases in depressed patients prior to any subjective change in mood. Antidepressant drug treatments also modulate emotional processing in healthy volunteers, which allows the consideration of the psychological effects of these drugs without the confound of changes in mood. As such, human models of emotional processing may prove to be useful for testing the efficacy of novel treatments and for matching treatments to individual patients or subgroups of patients.

  3. Its preferential interactions with biopolymers account for diverse observed effects of trehalose.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jiang; Gierasch, Lila M; Liu, Zhicheng

    2015-07-01

    Biopolymer homeostasis underlies the health of organisms, and protective osmolytes have emerged as one strategy used by Nature to preserve biopolymer homeostasis. However, a great deal remains unknown about the mechanism of action of osmolytes. Trehalose, as a prominent example, stabilizes proteins against denaturation by extreme temperature and denaturants, preserves membrane integrity upon freezing or in dry conditions, inhibits polyQ-mediated protein aggregation, and suppresses the aggregation of denatured proteins. The underlying thermodynamic mechanisms of such diverse effects of trehalose remain unclear or controversial. In this study, we applied the surface-additive method developed in the Record laboratory to attack this issue. We characterized the key features of trehalose-biopolymer preferential interactions and found that trehalose has strong unfavorable interactions with aliphatic carbon and significant favorable interactions with amide/anionic oxygen. This dissection has allowed us to elucidate the diverse effects of trehalose and to identify the crucial functional group(s) responsible for its effects. With (semi)quantitative thermodynamic analysis, we discovered that 1) the unfavorable interaction of trehalose with hydrophobic surfaces is the dominant factor in its effect on protein stability, 2) the favorable interaction of trehalose with polar amides enables it to inhibit polyQ-mediated protein aggregation and the aggregation of denatured protein in general, and 3) the favorable interaction of trehalose with phosphate oxygens, together with its unfavorable interaction with aliphatic carbons, enables trehalose to preserve membrane integrity in aqueous solution. These results provide a basis for a full understanding of the role of trehalose in biopolymer homeostasis and the reason behind its evolutionary selection as an osmolyte, as well as for a better application of trehalose as a chemical chaperone.

  4. Its Preferential Interactions with Biopolymers Account for Diverse Observed Effects of Trehalose

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jiang; Gierasch, Lila M.; Liu, Zhicheng

    2015-01-01

    Biopolymer homeostasis underlies the health of organisms, and protective osmolytes have emerged as one strategy used by Nature to preserve biopolymer homeostasis. However, a great deal remains unknown about the mechanism of action of osmolytes. Trehalose, as a prominent example, stabilizes proteins against denaturation by extreme temperature and denaturants, preserves membrane integrity upon freezing or in dry conditions, inhibits polyQ-mediated protein aggregation, and suppresses the aggregation of denatured proteins. The underlying thermodynamic mechanisms of such diverse effects of trehalose remain unclear or controversial. In this study, we applied the surface-additive method developed in the Record laboratory to attack this issue. We characterized the key features of trehalose-biopolymer preferential interactions and found that trehalose has strong unfavorable interactions with aliphatic carbon and significant favorable interactions with amide/anionic oxygen. This dissection has allowed us to elucidate the diverse effects of trehalose and to identify the crucial functional group(s) responsible for its effects. With (semi)quantitative thermodynamic analysis, we discovered that 1) the unfavorable interaction of trehalose with hydrophobic surfaces is the dominant factor in its effect on protein stability, 2) the favorable interaction of trehalose with polar amides enables it to inhibit polyQ-mediated protein aggregation and the aggregation of denatured protein in general, and 3) the favorable interaction of trehalose with phosphate oxygens, together with its unfavorable interaction with aliphatic carbons, enables trehalose to preserve membrane integrity in aqueous solution. These results provide a basis for a full understanding of the role of trehalose in biopolymer homeostasis and the reason behind its evolutionary selection as an osmolyte, as well as for a better application of trehalose as a chemical chaperone. PMID:26153711

  5. The Use of Correlated k-Distributions to Account for the Radiative Effect of Molecular Absorption Upon Satellite Measured Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kratz, David P.

    1998-01-01

    Establishing the radiative effect of molecular absorption (emission) in the atmosphere is critical to the proper interpretation of satellite retrieved radiances. Without an accurate accounting for molecular absorption, the assignment of radiative transfer processes to observed radiative effects could be fraught errors. Moreover, since the spectral characteristics of molecular absorption can change quickly with wavenumber, the adaptation of climate model parameterizations has the potential to lead to dubious results unless the chosen spectral range corresponds closely to the response function of the satellite instrument. Thus, an initiative has been undertaken to construct parameterizations that will account for the molecular absorption found in the spectral ranges of several satellite radiometers. Because of its efficiency and accuracy in calculating the molecular absorption for nonhomogeneous paths, the correlated k-distribution procedure has proven to be the most effective parameterization (Fu and Liou, 1992, and Kratz, 1995). A further advantage of the correlated k- distribution procedure is its ability to be incorporated directly into multiple scattering routines that consider scattering, as well as absorption, by clouds and aerosol particles.

  6. Response function theories that account for size distribution effects - A review. [mathematical models concerning composite propellant heterogeneity effects on combustion instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents theoretical models developed to account for the heterogeneity of composite propellants in expressing the pressure-coupled combustion response function. It is noted that the model of Lengelle and Williams (1968) furnishes a viable basis to explain the effects of heterogeneity.

  7. Behavioral momentum theory fails to account for the effects of reinforcement rate on resurgence.

    PubMed

    Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A

    2016-05-01

    The behavioral-momentum model of resurgence predicts reinforcer rates within a resurgence preparation should have three effects on target behavior. First, higher reinforcer rates in baseline (Phase 1) produce more persistent target behavior during extinction plus alternative reinforcement. Second, higher rate alternative reinforcement during Phase 2 generates greater disruption of target responding during extinction. Finally, higher rates of either reinforcement source should produce greater responding when alternative reinforcement is suspended in Phase 3. Recent empirical reports have produced mixed results in terms of these predictions. Thus, the present experiment further examined reinforcer-rate effects on persistence and resurgence. Rats pressed target levers for high-rate or low-rate variable-interval food during Phase 1. In Phase 2, target-lever pressing was extinguished, an alternative nose-poke became available, and nose-poking produced either high-rate variable-interval, low-rate variable-interval, or no (an extinction control) alternative reinforcement. Alternative reinforcement was suspended in Phase 3. For groups that received no alternative reinforcement, target-lever pressing was less persistent following high-rate than low-rate Phase-1 reinforcement. Target behavior was more persistent with low-rate alternative reinforcement than with high-rate alternative reinforcement or extinction alone. Finally, no differences in Phase-3 responding were observed for groups that received either high-rate or low-rate alternative reinforcement, and resurgence occurred only following high-rate alternative reinforcement. These findings are inconsistent with the momentum-based model of resurgence. We conclude this model mischaracterizes the effects of reinforcer rates on persistence and resurgence of operant behavior. PMID:27193242

  8. Behavioral momentum theory fails to account for the effects of reinforcement rate on resurgence.

    PubMed

    Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A

    2016-05-01

    The behavioral-momentum model of resurgence predicts reinforcer rates within a resurgence preparation should have three effects on target behavior. First, higher reinforcer rates in baseline (Phase 1) produce more persistent target behavior during extinction plus alternative reinforcement. Second, higher rate alternative reinforcement during Phase 2 generates greater disruption of target responding during extinction. Finally, higher rates of either reinforcement source should produce greater responding when alternative reinforcement is suspended in Phase 3. Recent empirical reports have produced mixed results in terms of these predictions. Thus, the present experiment further examined reinforcer-rate effects on persistence and resurgence. Rats pressed target levers for high-rate or low-rate variable-interval food during Phase 1. In Phase 2, target-lever pressing was extinguished, an alternative nose-poke became available, and nose-poking produced either high-rate variable-interval, low-rate variable-interval, or no (an extinction control) alternative reinforcement. Alternative reinforcement was suspended in Phase 3. For groups that received no alternative reinforcement, target-lever pressing was less persistent following high-rate than low-rate Phase-1 reinforcement. Target behavior was more persistent with low-rate alternative reinforcement than with high-rate alternative reinforcement or extinction alone. Finally, no differences in Phase-3 responding were observed for groups that received either high-rate or low-rate alternative reinforcement, and resurgence occurred only following high-rate alternative reinforcement. These findings are inconsistent with the momentum-based model of resurgence. We conclude this model mischaracterizes the effects of reinforcer rates on persistence and resurgence of operant behavior.

  9. Child health in Peru: importance of regional variation and community effects on children's height and weight.

    PubMed

    Shin, Heeju

    2007-12-01

    In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the most prosperous urban region, maternal education is less important for child health than in poor rural areas, and a higher level of education has a greater effect in rural areas. Multilevel analysis shows that a significant part of the observed correlation between maternal education and child health is moderated by regional differences and community characteristics. The finding suggests that Peruvian public policy should emphasize resource redistribution as well as women's education, and that investment in maternal education should be considered within regional contexts to enhance child health in rural areas. PMID:18198688

  10. The Effect of Suffering on Generativity: Accounts of Elderly African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Background This article focuses on attitudes to and behaviors of generativity in 6 older African American (AA) men. Methods Data on generativity emerged from in-depth qualitative research that explored experiences of suffering in community-dwelling persons aged 80 years and over. Results For these AA men, experiences of racism were salient in stories of suffering, and suffering was intricately related to attitudes and behaviors of generativity. We placed men's narratives, showing the link between suffering and generativity, in 3 categories: Generativity is rooted in (a) suffering and in empathy for suffering others, (b) experiences of redemption from suffering, and (c) religious belief that assuages suffering. Conclusions These AA men's generative behaviors were shaped by unique life experiences, including experiences of suffering. Bequeathing a legacy to succeeding generations was tied to suffering experiences, to the personal and communal identities that emerged from suffering, to the importance of inter- and intragenerational community, and to what men believed others needed from them. PMID:19182225

  11. Theoretical investigation of polarization effects in solution: Importance of solvent collective motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Tateki

    2015-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies on interesting topics related to polarization effects in solutions are presented. As one of interesting topics, ionic liquids (ILs) solvents are focused on. The collective dynamics of electronic polarizability through interionic dynamics and the effect of polarization in ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF6]), are studied with molecular dynamics simulation. Also, the time-dependent polarization effect on the probe betaine dye molecule, pyridinium N-phenoxide, in water is investigated by a time-dependent reference interaction site model self-consistent field (time-dependent RISM-SCF) approach. The importance of considering polarization effects on solution systems related to solvent collective motions is shown.

  12. Theoretical investigation of polarization effects in solution: Importance of solvent collective motions

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Tateki

    2015-01-22

    Recent theoretical studies on interesting topics related to polarization effects in solutions are presented. As one of interesting topics, ionic liquids (ILs) solvents are focused on. The collective dynamics of electronic polarizability through interionic dynamics and the effect of polarization in ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF{sub 6}]), are studied with molecular dynamics simulation. Also, the time-dependent polarization effect on the probe betaine dye molecule, pyridinium N-phenoxide, in water is investigated by a time-dependent reference interaction site model self-consistent field (time-dependent RISM-SCF) approach. The importance of considering polarization effects on solution systems related to solvent collective motions is shown.

  13. Effects of state-level firearm seller accountability policies on firearm trafficking.

    PubMed

    Webster, Daniel W; Vernick, Jon S; Bulzacchelli, Maria T

    2009-07-01

    Criminals illegally obtaining firearms represent a great risk to many urban residents. This cross-sectional study of 54 US cities uses data on state laws governing gun sales, a survey of law enforcement agencies' practices to promote compliance with gun sales laws, and crime gun trace data to examine associations between these policies and practices with gun trafficking indicators. Higher levels of local gun ownership were linked with greater intrastate gun trafficking. Regression models estimate that comprehensive regulation and oversight of gun dealers and state regulation of private sales of handguns were each associated with significantly lower levels of intrastate gun trafficking. Discretionary permit-to-purchase licensing laws' negative association with intrastate trafficking disappeared when local gun ownership is controlled. The effects of these relatively restrictive gun purchase laws on trafficking may be mediated by the laws' lowering of gun ownership. Relatively low prevalence of gun ownership may also be a prerequisite for passage of discretionary purchase. We observed no effect on intrastate trafficking of laws limiting handgun sales to a maximum of one per person per month. PMID:19479382

  14. Control of automatic processes: A parallel distributed-processing account of the Stroop effect. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.D.; Dunbar, K.; McClelland, J.L.

    1989-11-22

    A growing body of evidence suggests that traditional views of automaticity are in need of revision. For example, automaticity has often been treated as an all-or-none phenomenon, and traditional theories have held that automatic processes are independent of attention. Yet recent empirical data suggest that automatic processes are continuous, and furthermore are subject to attentional control. In this paper we present a model of attention which addresses these issues. Using a parallel distributed processing framework we propose that the attributes of automaticity depend upon the strength of a processing pathway and that strength increases with training. Using the Stroop effect as an example, we show how automatic processes are continuous and emerge gradually with practice. Specifically, we present a computational model of the Stroop task which simulates the time course of processing as well as the effects of learning. This was accomplished by combining the cascade mechanism described by McClelland (1979) with the back propagation learning algorithm (Rumelhart, Hinton, Williams, 1986). The model is able to simulate performance in the standard Stroop task, as well as aspects of performance in variants of this task which manipulate SOA, response set, and degree of practice. In the discussion we contrast our model with other models, and indicate how it relates to many of the central issues in the literature on attention, automaticity, and interference.

  15. Importance of the microscopic effects on the linewidth enhancement factor of quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Lee, Kenneth E; Wang, Qi Jie

    2013-11-18

    Microscopic density matrix analysis on the linewidth enhancement factor (LEF) of both mid-infrared (mid-IR) and Terahertz (THz) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) is reported, taking into account of the many body Coulomb interactions, coherence of resonant-tunneling transport and non-parabolicity. A non-zero LEF at the gain peak is obtained due to these combined microscopic effects. The results show that, for mid-IR QCLs, the many body Coulomb interaction and non-parabolicity contribute greatly to the non-zero LEF. In contrast, for THz QCLs, the many body Coulomb interactions and the resonant-tunneling effects greatly influence the LEF resulting in a non-zero value at the gain peak. This microscopic model not only partially explains the non-zero LEF of QCLs at the gain peak, which observed in the experiments for a while but cannot be explicitly explained, but also can be employed to improve the active region designs so as to reduce the LEF by optimizing the corresponding parameters.

  16. Optimal geometry of nonlinear silicon slot waveguides accounting for the effect of waveguide losses.

    PubMed

    Ong, Jun Rong; Chen, Valerian H

    2015-12-28

    The optimal geometry of silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides is investigated in the context of the efficiency of four-wave mixing (FWM), a χ(3) nonlinear optical process. We study the effect of slot and waveguide widths, as well as waveguide asymmetry on the two-photon absorption (TPA) figure of merit and the roughness scattering loss. The optimal waveguide core width is shown to be 220nm (symmetric) with a slot width of 120nm, at a fixed waveguide height of 220nm. We also show that state-of-the-art slot waveguides can outperform rib waveguides, especially at high powers, due to the high TPA figure-of-merit.

  17. Economizer system cost effectiveness: Accounting for the influence of ventilation rate on sick leave

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Seppanen, Olli; Faulkner, David; Huang, Joe

    2003-06-01

    This study estimated the health, energy, and economic benefits of an economizer ventilation control system that increases outside air supply during mild weather to save energy. A model of the influence of ventilation rate on airborne transmission of respiratory illnesses was used to extend the limited data relating ventilation rate with illness and sick leave. An energy simulation model calculated ventilation rates and energy use versus time for an office building in Washington, DC with fixed minimum outdoor air supply rates, with and without an economizer. Sick leave rates were estimated with the disease transmission model. In the modeled 72-person office building, our analyses indicate that the economizer reduces energy costs by approximately $2000 and, in addition, reduces sick leave. The financial benefit of the decrease in sick leave is estimated to be between $6,000 and $16,000. This modelling suggests that economizers are much more cost effective than currently recognized.

  18. Organizational effectiveness: the key to accountability for collegiate schools of nursing.

    PubMed

    Travis, L L; Higgins, P A; Mathews, M B

    1994-01-01

    This study describes the organizational effectiveness of collegiate nursing programs in terms of their ability to interact with their external environment. Nursing education administrators from 401 institutions were surveyed concerning their ability to secure resources and the degree of their system's openness and community interaction. Overall, with a response rate of 76.8 per cent, the administrators considered the availability of resources to be adequate and perceived their programs to be moderately successful in procuring resources. A categorical comparison of responses indicated that administrators in specialized/professional institutions identified a greater degree of richness in the availability of resources and perceived their programs to be more successful in procuring resources. However, a second categorical comparison found no statistically significant differences among administrators in their perception of system openness and community interaction. All administrators considered their environments cooperative, accepting, predictable, and stable.

  19. Accounting for the effect of TDS and NCG on Salton Sea reservoir response

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Steven J.

    1992-01-01

    The Salton Sea reservoir, located in Imperial County, Ca., is unique in several ways from most liquid-dominated geothermal reservoirs that have been developed to date. One of these differences is the presence of hyper-saline brines containing up to 28% TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) and up to 0.2% NCG (Non-Condensible Gas). A simple material and energy balance model has been developed to study the effect of TDS and NCG on Salton Sea reservoir response. This study demonstrated that during the development of a two-phase system the partitioning of the NCG into the vapor phase and the consequential concentration of the TDS in the brine drastically alters the reservoir fluid properties. In modeling pressure depletion of hyper-saline reservoirs, such as the Salton Sea, these changes in reservoir fluid composition were shown to seriously affect the simulation results. As a result of these findings, a compositional fluid property package was developed using published data on H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}-NaCl mixtures. This fluid property package was then incorporated into the simulation program used by Unocal. Validation of the fluid property package in this simulation program was made using measured reservoir temperature, surface enthalpy, and surface flash data. The development of a compositional simulation program for geothermal applications has advanced our ability to study depletion mechanisms that are sensitive to compositional changes. This program is currently being used to study the effect of injection and steam cap development on long term operations and to develop a field model of the Salton Sea reservoir.

  20. Accountability and Primary Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Mukhi, Shaheena; Barnsley, Jan; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the accountability structures within primary healthcare (PHC) in Ontario; in particular, who is accountable for what and to whom, and the policy tools being used. Ontario has implemented a series of incremental reforms, using expenditure policy instruments, enforced through contractual agreements to provide a defined set of publicly financed services that are privately delivered, most often by family physicians. The findings indicate that reporting, funding, evaluation and governance accountability requirements vary across service provider models. Accountability to the funder and patients is most common. Agreements, incentives and compensation tools have been used but may be insufficient to ensure parties are being held responsible for their activities related to stated goals. Clear definitions of various governance structures, a cohesive approach to monitoring critical performance indicators and associated improvement strategies are important elements in operationalizing accountability and determining whether goals are being met. PMID:25305392

  1. Accountability and primary healthcare.

    PubMed

    Mukhi, Shaheena; Barnsley, Jan; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    This paper examines the accountability structures within primary healthcare (PHC) in Ontario; in particular, who is accountable for what and to whom, and the policy tools being used. Ontario has implemented a series of incremental reforms, using expenditure policy instruments, enforced through contractual agreements to provide a defined set of publicly financed services that are privately delivered, most often by family physicians. The findings indicate that reporting, funding, evaluation and governance accountability requirements vary across service provider models. Accountability to the funder and patients is most common. Agreements, incentives and compensation tools have been used but may be insufficient to ensure parties are being held responsible for their activities related to stated goals. Clear definitions of various governance structures, a cohesive approach to monitoring critical performance indicators and associated improvement strategies are important elements in operationalizing accountability and determining whether goals are being met. PMID:25305392

  2. A Selective Account of Effective Paradigms and Significant Outcomes in the Discovery of Inspirational Marine Natural Products⊥†

    PubMed Central

    Sashidhara, Koneni V.; White, Kimberly N.; Crews, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Marine natural products continue to be a source of significant molecular structures that serve as a stimulus to seed further significant research. This account reviews some of the major advances in the study of marine biomolecules made at UC Santa Cruz over more than three decades. The continuing challenge of discovery and characterization of what we term “inspirational molecular structures”, will be presented in a comprehensive fashion. Examples of privileged molecular structures and their impact on biomedicinal research will be an important theme. The three major groups of organisms explored include: seaweeds, sponges, and marine derived fungi, and the study of their active principles has greatly benefited from synergistic collaborations with both academic and biopharmaceutical groups. The concluding sections of this chronicle will touch on prospects for future outcomes involving new sources and strategies. PMID:19209899

  3. The relative importance of relative nonlinearity and the storage effect in the lottery model.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chi; Chesson, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Although it is likely that many coexistence mechanisms contribute to maintenance of species diversity, most approaches to understanding species coexistence proceed as if only one mechanism would be present. In studies of species coexistence in a temporally fluctuating environment, the storage effect, believed to be the most important coexistence mechanism, has been the focus. Although a different coexistence mechanism--relative nonlinearity--is also predicted to arise frequently with environmental variation, its effect has been overshadowed by the storage effect. The relatively nonlinear growth rates on which the mechanism depends arise simply from differences in life history traits. Many kinds of temporal variation can then interact with these nonlinearity differences to create the relative nonlinearity coexistence mechanism. Much is unknown about when this mechanism is important and its total neglect is not justified. Here, we use the lottery model to provide a much needed quantitative assessment of the relative and combined effects of relative nonlinearity and the storage effect. Our analysis takes advantage of recently developed techniques for quantifying coexistence mechanisms when multiple mechanisms operate in concert. We find that relative nonlinearity is able to contribute substantially to species coexistence in the lottery model when two conditions are satisfied: (1) species must differ greatly in their adult death rates, (2) sensitivity of recruitment to environmental variation must be greater for species with larger adult death rates. In addition, relative nonlinearity has a critical role in compensating for a weakened storage effect when there is high correlation between species in their responses to the varying environment. In some circumstances relative nonlinearity is stronger than the storage effect or is even the sole mechanism of coexistence. PMID:26307205

  4. Accounting for a mirror-image conformation as a subtle effect in protein folding

    PubMed Central

    Kachlishvili, Khatuna; Maisuradze, Gia G.; Martin, Osvaldo A.; Liwo, Adam; Vila, Jorge A.; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2014-01-01

    By using local (free-energy profiles along the amino acid sequence and 13Cα chemical shifts) and global (principal component) analyses to examine the molecular dynamics of protein-folding trajectories, generated with the coarse-grained united-residue force field, for the B domain of staphylococcal protein A, we are able to (i) provide the main reason for formation of the mirror-image conformation of this protein, namely, a slow formation of the second loop and part of the third helix (Asp29–Asn35), caused by the presence of multiple local conformational states in this portion of the protein; (ii) show that formation of the mirror-image topology is a subtle effect resulting from local interactions; (iii) provide a mechanism for how protein A overcomes the barrier between the metastable mirror-image state and the native state; and (iv) offer a plausible reason to explain why protein A does not remain in the metastable mirror-image state even though the mirror-image and native conformations are at least energetically compatible. PMID:24912167

  5. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  6. Life-span development of self-esteem and its effects on important life outcomes.

    PubMed

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Widaman, Keith F

    2012-06-01

    We examined the life-span development of self-esteem and tested whether self-esteem influences the development of important life outcomes, including relationship satisfaction, job satisfaction, occupational status, salary, positive and negative affect, depression, and physical health. Data came from the Longitudinal Study of Generations. Analyses were based on 5 assessments across a 12-year period of a sample of 1,824 individuals ages 16 to 97 years. First, growth curve analyses indicated that self-esteem increases from adolescence to middle adulthood, reaches a peak at about age 50 years, and then decreases in old age. Second, cross-lagged regression analyses indicated that self-esteem is best modeled as a cause rather than a consequence of life outcomes. Third, growth curve analyses, with self-esteem as a time-varying covariate, suggested that self-esteem has medium-sized effects on life-span trajectories of affect and depression, small to medium-sized effects on trajectories of relationship and job satisfaction, a very small effect on the trajectory of health, and no effect on the trajectory of occupational status. These findings replicated across 4 generations of participants--children, parents, grandparents, and their great-grandparents. Together, the results suggest that self-esteem has a significant prospective impact on real-world life experiences and that high and low self-esteem are not mere epiphenomena of success and failure in important life domains.

  7. Accountability in delivering care.

    PubMed

    Castledine, G

    In the penultimate part of this series on issues in ward management facing charge nurses. George Castledine concentrates on the issue of accountability. The immensely powerful position of the charge nurse as arbitrator and co-ordinator of all health care given to the patient demands that helshe exercises this power responsibly and positively; hence, the crucial importance of accountability. The author explores this concept and also those of advocacy and conscientious objection. He concludes by suggesting that the ultimate area of accountability in nursing is the individual conscience of the practitioner and that in this may lie the key to the setting and maintenance of high standards of care.

  8. The Effects of the 150-Credit-Hour Requirement for the Certified Public Accountant (CPA) Exam On the Career Intentions of Women and Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierstaker, James Lloyd; Howe, Martha A.; Seol, Inshik

    2005-01-01

    In most states, students who sit for the certified public accountant (CPA) examination are now required to have 150 credit hours of college education. In this article, the authors examined the effects of this requirement on the career intentions of women and minorities. The authors collected data from 600 accounting students and the results…

  9. The importance of aerosol water for air pollution effects on weather and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, S.; Lelieveld, J.

    2007-12-01

    We apply a new concept to study air pollution effects on weather and climate, which is based on thermodynamic principles that explain hydration and osmosis - including the required transformation of laboratory based concepts to atmospheric conditions. Under ambient conditions the equilibrium relative humidity (ERH) determines the saturation molality, solute and solvent activities (and activity coefficients), and the aerosol associated water mass, sine the water content is fixed by ERH for a given aerosol concentration and type. As a consequence, aerosol water drives the gas/liquid/solid aerosol partitioning, ambient aerosol size-distributions and directly links aerosol hygroscopic growth into fog, haze and clouds. Various modeling results indicate that a) our new concept is not limited to dilute binary solutions, b) sensitive aerosol properties such as the pH of binary and mixed inorganic/organic salt solutions up to saturation can be computed accurately, and c) that anthropogenic emissions can be directly linked to visibility reduction, cloud formation and climate forcing, if we explicitly account for the aerosol water mass. Our new concept is more explicit than the traditional CCN concept as it abandons the use of ambiguous terms such as "marine" and "continental" aerosols, and refines lumped categories such as mineral dust, biomass burning, sea salt, organic or sulfate aerosols currently used in atmospheric modeling. Despite, our concept is computationally very efficient as it allows solving the whole gas/liquid/solid aerosol partitioning analytically without numerical iterations. It is therefore especially suited for regional high resolution, or global climate applications.

  10. Physiological Roles and Adverse Effects of the Two Cystine Importers of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Chonoles Imlay, Karin R.; Korshunov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT When cystine is added to Escherichia coli, the bacterium becomes remarkably sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. This effect is due to enlarged intracellular pools of cysteine, which can drive Fenton chemistry. Genetic analysis linked the sensitivity to YdjN, a secondary transporter that along with the FliY-YecSC ABC system is responsible for cystine uptake. FliY-YecSC has a nanomolar Km and is essential for import of trace cystine, whereas YdjN has a micromolar Km and is the predominant importer when cystine is more abundant. Oddly, both systems are strongly induced by the CysB response to sulfur scarcity. The FliY-YecSC system can import a variety of biomolecules, including diaminopimelate; it is therefore vulnerable to competitive inhibition, presumably warranting YdjN induction under low-sulfur conditions. But the consequence is that if micromolar cystine then becomes available, the abundant YdjN massively overimports it, at >30 times the total sulfur demand of the cell. The imported cystine is rapidly reduced to cysteine in a glutathione-dependent process. This action avoids the hazard of disulfide stress, but it precludes feedback inhibition of YdjN by cystine. We conjecture that YdjN possesses no cysteine allosteric site because the isostructural amino acid serine might inappropriately bind in its place. Instead, the cell partially resolves the overaccumulation of cysteine by immediately excreting it, completing a futile import/reduction/export cycle that consumes a large amount of cellular energy. These unique, wasteful, and dangerous features of cystine metabolism are reproduced by other bacteria. We propose to rename ydjN as tcyP and fliY-yecSC as tcyJLN. IMPORTANCE In general, intracellular metabolite pools are kept at steady, nontoxic levels by a sophisticated combination of transcriptional and allosteric controls. Surprisingly, in E. coli allosteric control is utterly absent from the primary importer of cystine. This flaw allows massive overimport

  11. Influence of future choice importance and arousal upon the halo effect.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Edgar

    2005-01-01

    Two determinants of the magnitude of the influence of anticipated choice on the halo effect are investigated: importance of future choice and arousal. Male subjects ranked photographs on positive personality traits. Half of the photographs were of persons about which they anticipated making a choice. In confirmation of the hypotheses, (a) the intercorrelation of the rankings was greater for the choice photographs than for the nonchoice photographs when the subjects anticipated an important choice, but not when they anticipated an unimportant choice; and (b) the intercorrelation was greater for the choice photographs than for the nonchoice photographs when the subjects were aroused by caffeine and uninformed as to the source of their arousal, but not when they were informed as to the source of their arousal or not aroused. PMID:17477207

  12. Respiration of medically important Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in relation to glucose effect.

    PubMed

    Niimi, M; Kamiyama, A; Tokunaga, M

    1988-06-01

    Strains of medically important Candida species (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. [Torulopsis] glabrata) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were examined for a glucose effect on respiratory activity. Reduced O2-consuming ability and a relative decrease in cytochrome type c, as determined by polarography and spectrophotometry, respectively, were observed in glucose-grown S. cerevisiae cells in contrast with acetate- or ethanol-grown cells. In glucose-grown cells of C. glabrata, O2 consumption was also reduced without any change in the cytochrome pattern compared to acetate-grown cells, while no such decrease was detected in any of the other strains of Candida species tested. These results suggest that the medically important Candida species, except for C. glabrata, can be categorized as members of the glucose-insensitive yeast type with respect to respiration.

  13. The Moderating Effect of Success Importance on the Relationship Between Listening Demand and Listening Effort.

    PubMed

    Richter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A common element of the psychophysiological research on listening effort is the focus on listening demand as determinant of effort. The article discusses preceding studies and theorizing on effort to show that the link between listening demand and listening effort is moderated by various variables. Moreover, I will present a recent study that examined the joint effect of listening demand and success importance on effort-related cardiovascular reactivity in an auditory discrimination task. Results for pre-ejection period reactivity-an indicator of sympathetic activity-supported the hypothesis that the relationship between listening demand and listening effort is moderated by other variables: Pre-ejection period reactivity was higher in the high-demand-high-success-importance condition than in the other three conditions. This new finding as well as the findings of previous research on effort suggest that a broader perspective on the determinants of listening effort is warranted.

  14. Cryptic biodiversity effects: importance of functional redundancy revealed through addition of food web complexity.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Stacy M; Pardee, Gabriella L; Gonthier, David J

    2012-05-01

    Interactions between predators and the degree of functional redundancy among multiple predator species may determine whether herbivores experience increased or decreased predation risk. Specialist parasites can modify predator behavior, yet rarely have cascading effects on multiple predator species and prey been evaluated. We examined influences of specialist phorid parasites (Pseudacteon spp.) on three predatory ant species and herbivores in a coffee agroecosystem. Specifically, we examined whether changes in ant richness affected fruit damage by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and whether phorids altered multi-predator effects. Each ant species reduced borer damage, and without phorids, increasing predator richness did not further decrease borer damage. However, with phorids, activity of one ant species was reduced, indicating that the presence of multiple ant species was necessary to limit borer damage. In addition, phorid presence revealed synergistic effects of multiple ant species, not observed without the presence of this parasite. Thus, a trait-mediated cascade resulting from a parasite-induced predator behavioral change revealed the importance of functional redundancy, predator diversity, and food web complexity for control of this important pest.

  15. Shared spatial effects on quantitative genetic parameters: accounting for spatial autocorrelation and home range overlap reduces estimates of heritability in wild red deer.

    PubMed

    Stopher, Katie V; Walling, Craig A; Morris, Alison; Guinness, Fiona E; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Pemberton, Josephine M; Nussey, Daniel H

    2012-08-01

    Social structure, limited dispersal, and spatial heterogeneity in resources are ubiquitous in wild vertebrate populations. As a result, relatives share environments as well as genes, and environmental and genetic sources of similarity between individuals are potentially confounded. Quantitative genetic studies in the wild therefore typically account for easily captured shared environmental effects (e.g., parent, nest, or region). Fine-scale spatial effects are likely to be just as important in wild vertebrates, but have been largely ignored. We used data from wild red deer to build "animal models" to estimate additive genetic variance and heritability in four female traits (spring and rut home range size, offspring birth weight, and lifetime breeding success). We then, separately, incorporated spatial autocorrelation and a matrix of home range overlap into these models to estimate the effect of location or shared habitat on phenotypic variation. These terms explained a substantial amount of variation in all traits and their inclusion resulted in reductions in heritability estimates, up to an order of magnitude up for home range size. Our results highlight the potential of multiple covariance matrices to dissect environmental, social, and genetic contributions to phenotypic variation, and the importance of considering fine-scale spatial processes in quantitative genetic studies.

  16. Adjustment to the Curve Number Nrcs-Cn to Account for the Vegetation Effect on the Hydrological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, A.; Temimi, M.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an approach that makes use of remotely sensed Greenness Fraction (GF) as a proxy for the vegetation density to automatically adjust the Curve Number model (NRCS-CN) to account for the effect of the changes in vegetation growth on hydrological processes. Daily gauged precipitation-runoff pairs (1948 to 2003) from the MOdel Parameter Estimation EXperiment dataset (MOPEX) over 26 watersheds across the U.S. were used to estimate monthly averaged CNs (CNsim) and then compared to the monthly GF. An adjustment factor was then proposed for the typical static CN inputs which do not account for the vegetation growth over time; the result was a vegetation-adjusted CN (CNveg adj). The improvement in the performance of the NRCS-CN methodology was assessed. The results evidence how the CNveg adj compensates the underestimation of the standard CN (CNstd). The ratio of the estimated runoff using the CNstd (Qstd) to the observed runoff (Qobs) was 0.36; while with the CNveg adj (Qveg adj) was 0.98. The correlation coefficient of simulated and observed runoff when using CNstd and CNveg adj, was 0.42 and 0.92, respectively. Likewise, the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of Qstd was -0.92 and 0.85 for Qveg adj. This implies that the adjustment to the CN is crucial for improved hydrological modeling and, therefore, for flood and flash flood monitoring and forecasting.

  17. Solving Accounting Problems: Differences between Accounting Experts and Novices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, P. Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Performance of 90 accounting experts (faculty and practitioners) and 60 novices (senior accounting majors) was compared. Experts applied more accounting principles to solving problems. There were no differences in types of principles applied and no correlation between (1) principles applied and number of breadth comments or (2) importance placed…

  18. Habitat effects on the relative importance of trait- and density-mediated indirect interactions.

    PubMed

    Trussell, Geoffrey C; Ewanchuk, Patrick J; Matassa, Catherine M

    2006-11-01

    Classical views of trophic cascades emphasize the primacy of consumptive predator effects on prey populations to the transmission of indirect effects [density-mediated indirect interactions (DMIIs)]. However, trophic cascades can also emerge without changes in the density of interacting species because of non-consumptive predator effects on prey traits such as foraging behaviour [trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMIIs)]. Although ecologists appreciate this point, measurements of the relative importance of each indirect predator effect are rare. Experiments with a three-level, rocky shore food chain containing an invasive predatory crab (Carcinus maenas), an intermediate consumer (the snail, Nucella lapillus) and a basal resource (the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides) revealed that the strength of TMIIs is comparable with, or exceeds, that of DMIIs. Moreover, the sign and strength of each indirect predator effect depends on whether it is measured in risky or refuge habitats. Because habitat shifts are often responsible for the emergence of TMIIs, attention to the sign and strength of these interactions in both habitats will improve our understanding of the link between individual behaviour and community dynamics.

  19. Habitat effects on the relative importance of trait- and density-mediated indirect interactions.

    PubMed

    Trussell, Geoffrey C; Ewanchuk, Patrick J; Matassa, Catherine M

    2006-11-01

    Classical views of trophic cascades emphasize the primacy of consumptive predator effects on prey populations to the transmission of indirect effects [density-mediated indirect interactions (DMIIs)]. However, trophic cascades can also emerge without changes in the density of interacting species because of non-consumptive predator effects on prey traits such as foraging behaviour [trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMIIs)]. Although ecologists appreciate this point, measurements of the relative importance of each indirect predator effect are rare. Experiments with a three-level, rocky shore food chain containing an invasive predatory crab (Carcinus maenas), an intermediate consumer (the snail, Nucella lapillus) and a basal resource (the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides) revealed that the strength of TMIIs is comparable with, or exceeds, that of DMIIs. Moreover, the sign and strength of each indirect predator effect depends on whether it is measured in risky or refuge habitats. Because habitat shifts are often responsible for the emergence of TMIIs, attention to the sign and strength of these interactions in both habitats will improve our understanding of the link between individual behaviour and community dynamics. PMID:17040327

  20. Tailoring biocontrol to maximize top-down effects: on the importance of underlying site fertility.

    PubMed

    Hovick, Stephen M; Carson, Walter P

    2015-01-01

    The degree to which biocontrol agents impact invasive plants varies widely across landscapes, often for unknown reasons. Understanding this variability can help optimize invasive species management while also informing our understanding of trophic linkages. To address these issues, we tested three hypotheses with contrasting predictions regarding the likelihood of biocontrol success. (1) The biocontrol effort hypothesis: invasive populations are regulated primarily by top-down effects, predicting that increased biocontrol efforts alone (e.g., more individuals of a given biocontrol agent or more time since agent release) will enhance biocontrol success. (2) The relative fertility hypothesis: invasive populations are regulated primarily by bottom-up effects, predicting that nutrient enrichment will increase dominance by invasives and thus reduce biocontrol success, regardless of biocontrol efforts. (3) The fertility-dependent biocontrol effort hypothesis: top-down effects will only regulate invasive populations if bottom-up effects are weak. It predicts that greater biocontrol efforts will increase biocontrol success, but only in low-nutrient sites. To test these hypotheses, we surveyed 46 sites across three states with prior releases of Galerucella beetles, the most common biocontrol agents used against invasive purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). We found strong support for the fertility-dependent biocontrol effort hypothesis, as biocontrol success occurred most often with greater biocontrol efforts, but only in low-fertility sites. This result held for early stage metrics of biocontrol success (higher Galerucella abundance) and ultimate biocontrol outcomes (decreased loosestrife plant size and abundance). Presence of the invasive grass Phalaris arundinacea was also inversely related to loosestrife abundance, suggesting that biocontrol-based reductions in loosestrife made secondary invasion by P. arundinacea more likely. Our data suggest that low-nutrient sites

  1. Consonants are More Important than Vowels in the Bouba-kiki Effect.

    PubMed

    Fort, Mathilde; Martin, Alexander; Peperkamp, Sharon

    2015-06-01

    Adult listeners systematically associate certain speech sounds with round or spiky shapes, a sound-symbolic phenomenon known as the "bouba-kiki effect." In this study, we investigate the respective influences of consonants and vowels in this phenomenon. French participants were asked to match auditorily presented pseudowords with one of two visually presented shapes, one round and one spiky. The pseudowords were created by crossing either two consonant pairs with a wide range of vowels (experiment 1 and 2) or two vowel pairs with a wide range of consonants (experiment 3). Analyses showed that consonants have a greater influence than vowels in the bouba-kiki effect. Importantly, this asymmetry cannot be due to an onset bias, as a strong consonantal influence is found both with CVCV (experiment 1) and VCV (experiment 2) stimuli. We discuss these results in terms of the differential role of consonants and vowels in speech perception. PMID:26677645

  2. Clustering of Vector Control Interventions Has Important Consequences for Their Effectiveness: A Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Lutambi, Angelina Mageni; Chitnis, Nakul; Briët, Olivier J. T.; Smith, Thomas A.; Penny, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Vector control interventions have resulted in considerable reductions in malaria morbidity and mortality. When universal coverage cannot be achieved for financial or logistical reasons, the spatial arrangement of vector control is potentially important for optimizing benefits. This study investigated the effect of spatial clustering of vector control interventions on reducing the population of biting mosquitoes. A discrete-space continuous-time mathematical model of mosquito population dynamics and dispersal was extended to incorporate vector control interventions of insecticide treated bednets (ITNs), Indoor residual Spraying (IRS), and larviciding. Simulations were run at varying levels of coverage and degree of spatial clustering. At medium to high coverage levels of each of the interventions or in combination was more effective to spatially spread these interventions than to cluster them. Suggesting that when financial resources are limited, unclustered distribution of these interventions is more effective. Although it is often stated that locally high coverage is needed to achieve a community effect of ITNs or IRS, our results suggest that if the coverage of ITNs or IRS are insufficient to achieve universal coverage, and there is no targeting of high risk areas, the overall effects on mosquito densities are much greater if they are distributed in an unclustered way, rather than clustered in specific localities. Also, given that interventions are often delivered preferentially to accessible areas, and are therefore clustered, our model results show this may be inefficient. This study provides evidence that the effectiveness of an intervention can be highly dependent on its spatial distribution. Vector control plans should consider the spatial arrangement of any intervention package to ensure effectiveness is maximized. PMID:24823656

  3. Unknown age in health disorders: A method to account for its cumulative effect and an application to feline viruses interactions.

    PubMed

    Hellard, Eléonore; Pontier, Dominique; Siberchicot, Aurélie; Sauvage, Frank; Fouchet, David

    2015-06-01

    Parasite interactions have been widely evidenced experimentally but field studies remain rare. Such studies are essential to detect interactions of interest and access (co)infection probabilities but face methodological obstacles. Confounding factors can create statistical associations, i.e. false parasite interactions. Among them, host age is a crucial covariate. It influences host exposition and susceptibility to many infections, and has a mechanical effect, older individuals being more at risk because of a longer exposure time. However, age is difficult to estimate in natural populations. Hence, one should be able to deal at least with its cumulative effect. Using a SI type dynamic model, we showed that the cumulative effect of age can generate false interactions theoretically (deterministic modeling) and with a real dataset of feline viruses (stochastic modeling). The risk to wrongly conclude to an association was maximal when parasites induced long-lasting antibodies and had similar forces of infection. We then proposed a method to correct for this effect (and for other potentially confounding shared risk factors) and made it available in a new R package, Interatrix. We also applied the correction to the feline viruses. It offers a way to account for an often neglected confounding factor and should help identifying parasite interactions in the field, a necessary step towards a better understanding of their mechanisms and consequences. PMID:25979281

  4. Strain effects and intermixing at the Si surface: Importance of long-range elastic corrections in first-principles calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Machado-Charry, Eduardo; Pochet, Pascal; Mousseau, Normand

    2014-10-06

    Here we investigate Ge mixing at the Si(001) surface and characterize the 2 N Si(001) reconstruction by means of hybrid quantum and molecular mechanics calculations (QM/MM). Avoiding fake elastic dampening, this scheme allows to correctly take into account long range deformation induced by reconstructed and defective surfaces. We focus in particular on the dimer vacancy line (DVL) and its interaction with Ge adatoms. We first show that calculated formation energies for these defects are highly dependent on the choice of chemical potential and that the latter must be chosen carefully. Characterizing the effect of the DVL on the deformation field,more » we also find that the DVL favors Ge segregation in the fourth layer close to the DVL. Using the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau) and QM/MM, we show that a complex diffusion path permits the substitution of the Ge atom in the fourth layer, with barriers compatible with mixing observed at intermediate temperature. We also show that the use of QM/MM results in much more signi cant corrections at the saddle points (up to 0.5 eV) that at minima, demonstrating its importance for describing kinetics correctly.« less

  5. Strain effects and intermixing at the Si surface: Importance of long-range elastic corrections in first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Machado-Charry, Eduardo; Pochet, Pascal; Mousseau, Normand

    2014-10-06

    Here we investigate Ge mixing at the Si(001) surface and characterize the 2 N Si(001) reconstruction by means of hybrid quantum and molecular mechanics calculations (QM/MM). Avoiding fake elastic dampening, this scheme allows to correctly take into account long range deformation induced by reconstructed and defective surfaces. We focus in particular on the dimer vacancy line (DVL) and its interaction with Ge adatoms. We first show that calculated formation energies for these defects are highly dependent on the choice of chemical potential and that the latter must be chosen carefully. Characterizing the effect of the DVL on the deformation field, we also find that the DVL favors Ge segregation in the fourth layer close to the DVL. Using the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau) and QM/MM, we show that a complex diffusion path permits the substitution of the Ge atom in the fourth layer, with barriers compatible with mixing observed at intermediate temperature. We also show that the use of QM/MM results in much more signi cant corrections at the saddle points (up to 0.5 eV) that at minima, demonstrating its importance for describing kinetics correctly.

  6. Strain effects and intermixing at the Si surface: Importance of long-range elastic corrections in first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Machado-Charry, Eduardo; Pochet, Pascal; Mousseau, Normand

    2014-10-01

    We investigate Ge mixing at the Si(001) surface and characterize the 2×N Si(001) reconstruction by means of hybrid quantum and molecular mechanics calculations (QM/MM). Avoiding fake elastic dampening, this scheme allows to correctly take into account long-range deformation induced by reconstructed and defective surfaces. We focus in particular on the dimer vacancy line (DVL) and its interaction with Ge adatoms. We first show that calculated formation energies for these defects are highly dependent on the choice of chemical potential and that the latter must be chosen carefully. Characterizing the effect of the DVL on the deformation field, we also find that the DVL favors Ge segregation in the fourth layer close to the DVL. Using the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau) and QM/MM, we show that a complex diffusion path permits the substitution of the Ge atom in the fourth layer, with barriers compatible with mixing observed at intermediate temperature. We also show that the use of QM/MM results in much more significant corrections at the saddle points (up to 0.5 eV) that at minima, demonstrating its importance for describing kinetics correctly.

  7. Fractionation in normal tissues: the (α/β)eff concept can account for dose heterogeneity and volume effects.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Aswin L; Nahum, Alan E

    2013-10-01

    The simple Linear-Quadratic (LQ)-based Withers iso-effect formula (WIF) is widely used in external-beam radiotherapy to derive a new tumour dose prescription such that there is normal-tissue (NT) iso-effect when changing the fraction size and/or number. However, as conventionally applied, the WIF is invalid unless the normal-tissue response is solely determined by the tumour dose. We propose a generalized WIF (gWIF) which retains the tumour prescription dose, but replaces the intrinsic fractionation sensitivity measure (α/β) by a new concept, the normal-tissue effective fractionation sensitivity, [Formula: see text], which takes into account both the dose heterogeneity in, and the volume effect of, the late-responding normal-tissue in question. Closed-form analytical expressions for [Formula: see text] ensuring exact normal-tissue iso-effect are derived for: (i) uniform dose, and (ii) arbitrary dose distributions with volume-effect parameter n = 1 from the normal-tissue dose-volume histogram. For arbitrary dose distributions and arbitrary n, a numerical solution for [Formula: see text] exhibits a weak dependence on the number of fractions. As n is increased, [Formula: see text] increases from its intrinsic value at n = 0 (100% serial normal-tissue) to values close to or even exceeding the tumour (α/β) at n = 1 (100% parallel normal-tissue), with the highest values of [Formula: see text] corresponding to the most conformal dose distributions. Applications of this new concept to inverse planning and to highly conformal modalities are discussed, as is the effect of possible deviations from LQ behaviour at large fraction sizes. PMID:24029492

  8. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION AS AN IMPORTANT SKILL FOR QUALITY CARE IN ELDERLY PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Dorit

    2014-10-01

    The increase in the number of older people in the world emphasizes the need to reevaluate and change health care policy and care services priorities. The provision of health care for this growing population has consequently become an important worldwide concern. The purpose of this article is to highlight the challenges stemming from the growing number of elderly people and their need for care. Collaborative and coordinated health care services for elderly people should be focused on the ethical issues deriving from the interpersonal relationships between the professional caregiver and the older person. Any discussion on ethics and aging should be focused on the roles of autonomy, informed consent, respect, advance directive, end of life decisions and privacy. In addition, such a discussion should stress the important role of effective communication and its effect on the older person's adherence with the recommended treatment. The desired consequence should be the empowerment of positive and successful experiences attained by the recipients of the health care services.

  9. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION AS AN IMPORTANT SKILL FOR QUALITY CARE IN ELDERLY PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Dorit

    2014-10-01

    The increase in the number of older people in the world emphasizes the need to reevaluate and change health care policy and care services priorities. The provision of health care for this growing population has consequently become an important worldwide concern. The purpose of this article is to highlight the challenges stemming from the growing number of elderly people and their need for care. Collaborative and coordinated health care services for elderly people should be focused on the ethical issues deriving from the interpersonal relationships between the professional caregiver and the older person. Any discussion on ethics and aging should be focused on the roles of autonomy, informed consent, respect, advance directive, end of life decisions and privacy. In addition, such a discussion should stress the important role of effective communication and its effect on the older person's adherence with the recommended treatment. The desired consequence should be the empowerment of positive and successful experiences attained by the recipients of the health care services. PMID:27359020

  10. STREAM II-V5: REVISION OF STREAM II-V4 TO ACCOUNT FOR THE EFFECTS OF RAINFALL EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.

    2010-02-01

    STREAM II-V4 is the aqueous transport module currently used by the Savannah River Site emergency response Weather Information Display (WIND) system. The transport model of the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) was used by STREAM II to perform contaminant transport calculations. WASP5 is a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) water quality analysis program that simulates contaminant transport and fate through surface water. STREAM II-V4 predicts peak concentration and peak concentration arrival time at downstream locations for releases from the SRS facilities to the Savannah River. The input flows for STREAM II-V4 are derived from the historical flow records measured by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The stream flow for STREAM II-V4 is fixed and the flow only varies with the month in which the releases are taking place. Therefore, the effects of flow surge due to a severe storm are not accounted for by STREAM II-V4. STREAM II-V4 has been revised to account for the effects of a storm event. The steps used in this method are: (1) generate rainfall hyetographs as a function of total rainfall in inches (or millimeters) and rainfall duration in hours; (2) generate watershed runoff flow based on the rainfall hyetographs from step 1; (3) calculate the variation of stream segment volume (cross section) as a function of flow from step 2; (4) implement the results from steps 2 and 3 into the STREAM II model. The revised model (STREAM II-V5) will find the proper stream inlet flow based on the total rainfall and rainfall duration as input by the user. STREAM II-V5 adjusts the stream segment volumes (cross sections) based on the stream inlet flow. The rainfall based stream flow and the adjusted stream segment volumes are then used for contaminant transport calculations.

  11. Daily temperature extremes play an important role in predicting thermal effects.

    PubMed

    Ma, Gang; Hoffmann, Ary A; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2015-07-01

    Organisms in natural environments experience diel temperature fluctuations, including sporadic extreme conditions, rather than constant temperatures. Studies based mainly on model organisms have tended to focus on responses to average temperatures or short-term heat stress, which overlooks the potential impact of daily fluctuations, including stressful daytime periods and milder night-time periods. Here, we focus on daily maximum temperatures, while holding night-time temperatures constant, to specifically investigate the effects of high temperature on demographic parameters and fitness in the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae. We then compared the observed effects of different daily maximum temperatures with predictions from constant temperature-performance expectations. Moderate daily maximum temperatures depressed aphid performance while extreme conditions had dramatic effects, even when mean temperatures were below the critical maximum. Predictions based on daily average temperature underestimated negative effects of temperature on performance by ignoring daily maximum temperature, while predictions based on daytime maximum temperatures overestimated detrimental impacts by ignoring recovery under mild night-time temperatures. Our findings suggest that daily maximum temperature will play an important role in regulating natural population dynamics and should be considered in predictions. These findings have implications for natural population dynamics, particularly when considering the expected increase in extreme temperature events under climate change. PMID:26026043

  12. 31 CFR 585.508 - Importation of household and personal effects from the FRY (S&M) authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation of household and personal... Policy § 585.508 Importation of household and personal effects from the FRY (S&M) authorized. The importation of household and personal effects originating in the FRY (S&M), including baggage and articles...

  13. Relative importance of perch and facilitative effects on nucleation in tropical woodland in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    Individual trees in open vegetation such as woodlands can act as "nuclei" for the colonization of forest tree species, which consequently lead to the formation of forest patches. This phenomenon is known as nucleation. The mechanism of nucleation is generally attributed to two factors: trees provide perches for frugivores that increase seed deposition (perch effect), and tree crowns ameliorate environmental conditions, which improves seedling establishment (facilitative effect). Few studies have attempted to distinguish the relative importance of these two factors. In this study, I separated these two effects in a woodland in northern Malawi. I chose Ficus natalensis as a potential nuclei tree because large individuals of this species are commonly located at the center of forest patches within open woodland at the study site. I monitored several environmental variables, seedling survival, seedling composition, and seed rain at three microsites: under F. natalensis, under Brachystegia floribunda (a dominant woodland species), and in open sites. Both tree species provided similar favorable conditions for the establishment of forest species compared to open sites. Thus, the survival of forest tree seedlings under F. natalensis and B. floribunda was similar, and substantially higher than seedling survival in open sites. However, communities of naturally occurring seedlings differed significantly between F. natalensis and B. floribunda. These results indicate that the facilitative effect alone cannot explain the nucleation pattern. I attribute this result to the perch effect of F. natalensis because the forest seedling species recorded under F. natalensis reportedly have small, brightly colored diaspores, which are indicative of dispersal by birds. Seed deposition of forest species under F. natalensis was significantly higher than that under B. floribunda or in open sites. My findings reinforce the idea that trees will lead to nucleation when they enhance seed

  14. Surface and Atmospheric Parameter Retrieval From AVIRIS Data: The Importance of Non-Linear Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green Robert O.; Moreno, Jose F.

    1996-01-01

    AVIRIS data represent a new and important approach for the retrieval of atmospheric and surface parameters from optical remote sensing data. Not only as a test for future space systems, but also as an operational airborne remote sensing system, the development of algorithms to retrieve information from AVIRIS data is an important step to these new approaches and capabilities. Many things have been learned since AVIRIS became operational, and the successive technical improvements in the hardware and the more sophisticated calibration techniques employed have increased the quality of the data to the point of almost meeting optimum user requirements. However, the potential capabilities of imaging spectrometry over the standard multispectral techniques have still not been fully demonstrated. Reasons for this are the technical difficulties in handling the data, the critical aspect of calibration for advanced retrieval methods, and the lack of proper models with which to invert the measured AVIRIS radiances in all the spectral channels. To achieve the potential of imaging spectrometry, these issues must be addressed. In this paper, an algorithm to retrieve information about both atmospheric and surface parameters from AVIRIS data, by using model inversion techniques, is described. Emphasis is put on the derivation of the model itself as well as proper inversion techniques, robust to noise in the data and an inadequate ability of the model to describe natural variability in the data. The problem of non-linear effects is addressed, as it has been demonstrated to be a major source of error in the numerical values retrieved by more simple, linear-based approaches. Non-linear effects are especially critical for the retrieval of surface parameters where both scattering and absorption effects are coupled, as well as in the cases of significant multiple-scattering contributions. However, sophisticated modeling approaches can handle such non-linear effects, which are especially

  15. Accounting for uncertainty in confounder and effect modifier selection when estimating average causal effects in generalized linear models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi; Dominici, Francesca; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Zigler, Corwin Matthew

    2015-09-01

    Confounder selection and adjustment are essential elements of assessing the causal effect of an exposure or treatment in observational studies. Building upon work by Wang et al. (2012, Biometrics 68, 661-671) and Lefebvre et al. (2014, Statistics in Medicine 33, 2797-2813), we propose and evaluate a Bayesian method to estimate average causal effects in studies with a large number of potential confounders, relatively few observations, likely interactions between confounders and the exposure of interest, and uncertainty on which confounders and interaction terms should be included. Our method is applicable across all exposures and outcomes that can be handled through generalized linear models. In this general setting, estimation of the average causal effect is different from estimation of the exposure coefficient in the outcome model due to noncollapsibility. We implement a Bayesian bootstrap procedure to integrate over the distribution of potential confounders and to estimate the causal effect. Our method permits estimation of both the overall population causal effect and effects in specified subpopulations, providing clear characterization of heterogeneous exposure effects that may vary considerably across different covariate profiles. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed method performs well in small sample size situations with 100-150 observations and 50 covariates. The method is applied to data on 15,060 US Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with a malignant brain tumor between 2000 and 2009 to evaluate whether surgery reduces hospital readmissions within 30 days of diagnosis.

  16. Accounting for Uncertainty in Confounder and Effect Modifier Selection when Estimating Average Causal Effects in Generalized Linear Models

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chi; Dominici, Francesca; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Zigler, Corwin Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Summary Confounder selection and adjustment are essential elements of assessing the causal effect of an exposure or treatment in observational studies. Building upon work by Wang et al. (2012) and Lefebvre et al. (2014), we propose and evaluate a Bayesian method to estimate average causal effects in studies with a large number of potential confounders, relatively few observations, likely interactions between confounders and the exposure of interest, and uncertainty on which confounders and interaction terms should be included. Our method is applicable across all exposures and outcomes that can be handled through generalized linear models. In this general setting, estimation of the average causal effect is different from estimation of the exposure coefficient in the outcome model due to non-collapsibility. We implement a Bayesian bootstrap procedure to integrate over the distribution of potential confounders and to estimate the causal effect. Our method permits estimation of both the overall population causal effect and effects in specified subpopulations, providing clear characterization of heterogeneous exposure effects that may vary considerably across different covariate profiles. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed method performs well in small sample size situations with 100 to 150 observations and 50 covariates. The method is applied to data on 15060 US Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with a malignant brain tumor between 2000 and 2009 to evaluate whether surgery reduces hospital readmissions within thirty days of diagnosis. PMID:25899155

  17. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase-3 by levosimendan is sufficient to account for its inotropic effect in failing human heart

    PubMed Central

    Ørstavik, Ø; Ata, S H; Riise, J; Dahl, C P; Andersen, G Ø; Levy, F O; Skomedal, T; Osnes, J-B; Qvigstad, E

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Levosimendan is known as a calcium sensitizer, although it is also known to inhibit PDE3. We aimed to isolate each component and estimate their contribution to the increased cardiac contractility induced by levosimendan. Experimental Approach Contractile force was measured in electrically stimulated ventricular strips from explanted failing human hearts and left ventricular strips from normal male Wistar rats. PDE activity was measured in a two-step PDE activity assay on failing human ventricle. Key Results Levosimendan exerted a positive inotropic effect (PIE) reaching maximum at 10−5 M in ventricular strips from failing human hearts. In the presence of the selective PDE3 inhibitor cilostamide, the PIE of levosimendan was abolished. During treatment with a PDE4 inhibitor and a supra-threshold concentration of isoprenaline, levosimendan generated an amplified inotropic response. This effect was reversed by β-adrenoceptor blockade and undetectable in strips pretreated with cilostamide. Levosimendan (10−6 M) increased the potency of β-adrenoceptor agonists by 0.5 log units in failing human myocardium, but not in the presence of cilostamide. Every inotropic response to levosimendan was associated with a lusitropic response. Levosimendan did not affect the concentration–response curve to calcium in rat ventricular strips, in contrast to the effects of a known calcium sensitizer, EMD57033 [5-(1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzoyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-6-yl)-6-methyl-3,6-dihydro-2H-1,3,4-thiadiazin-2-one]. PDE activity assays confirmed that levosimendan inhibited PDE3 as effectively as cilostamide. Conclusions and Implications Our results indicate that the PDE3-inhibitory property of levosimendan was enough to account for its inotropic effect, leaving a minor, if any, effect to a calcium-sensitizing component. PMID:24547784

  18. Is the rhizosphere priming effect an important mechanism for nitrogen mineralisation in soil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Conor; Baggs, Elizabeth; Morley, Nicholas; Wall, David; Paterson, Eric

    2015-04-01

    In soil, nitrogen is mobilised from soil organic matter (SOM) to pools more readily available to plants (mineralisation), mediated by the microbial biomass. Multiple mechanisms underpin this process, including the priming effect (PE) which is increasingly recognised as an important driver of N mineralisation. The PE is where microbes utilize labile carbon from roots (root exudates or senescing plant material) for energy and subsequently mineralise SOM for nutrients, inevitably mobilising nutrients from SOM to plant available pools. However, the mechanism and regulators underpinning PE's are virtually unknown. This work investigates the importance of priming for N mineralisation. We hypothesized that 1) addition of labile C would increase gross N mineralisation and plant N uptake, and that this is soil-specific; 2) the stoichiometry of primed and basal mineralisation fluxes would be different, indicative of these processes being functionally distinct; and 3) the presence of fertilizer nitrogen and grazing would reduce primed and basal mineralisation and reduce plant uptake of SOM derived N. To do this we coupled continuous steady-state 13C labelling and 15N isotope dilution to measure specific gross C and N fluxes from two contrasting soils. Addition of carbon increased gross C and N fluxes from SOM, but the effect was soil-specific. The C-to-N ratio of the flux from 'primed' SOM was much lower than that of the basal flux indicating that the release of labile carbon from plant roots functions as a nutrient acquisition response, increasing mineralisation of SOM. Addition of N fertiliser resulted in negative priming of SOM, but overall and in both soils, the plant accessed more SOM-derived N. Grazing and priming were closely coupled, with grazing increasing SOM priming. Our results demonstrate that priming effects are an integral component of N mineralisation and should be incorporated into nitrogen cycling models.

  19. Accounting for Outcome Misclassification in Estimates of the Effect of Occupational Asbestos Exposure on Lung Cancer Death

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jessie K.; Cole, Stephen R.; Chu, Haitao; Olshan, Andrew F.; Richardson, David B.

    2014-01-01

    In studies of the health effects of asbestos, lung cancer death is subject to misclassification. We used modified maximum likelihood to explore the effects of outcome misclassification on the rate ratio of lung cancer death per 100 fiber-years per milliliter of cumulative asbestos exposure in a cohort study of textile workers in Charleston, South Carolina, followed from 1940 to 2001. The standard covariate-adjusted estimate of the rate ratio was 1.94 (95% confidence interval: 1.55, 2.44), and modified maximum likelihood produced similar results when we assumed that the specificity of outcome classification was 0.98. With sensitivity assumed to be 0.80 and specificity assumed to be 0.95, estimated rate ratios were further from the null and less precise (rate ratio = 2.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.59, 2.98). In the present context, standard estimates for the effect of asbestos on lung cancer death were similar to estimates accounting for the limited misclassification. However, sensitivity analysis using modified maximum likelihood was needed to verify the robustness of standard estimates, and this approach will provide unbiased estimates in settings with more misclassification. PMID:24352593

  20. Broadband Noise of Fans - With Unsteady Coupling Theory to Account for Rotor and Stator Reflection/Transmission Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B.

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the effects on broadband noise generation of unsteady coupling between a rotor and stator in the fan stage of a turbofan engine. Whereas previous acoustic analyses treated the blade rows as isolated cascades, the present work accounts for reflection and transmission effects at both blade rows by tracking the mode and frequency scattering of pressure and vortical waves. The fan stage is modeled in rectilinear geometry to take advantage of a previously existing unsteady cascade theory for 3D perturbation waves and thereby use a realistic 3D turbulence spectrum. In the analysis, it was found that the set of participating modes divides itself naturally into "independent mode subsets" that couple only among themselves and not to the other such subsets. This principle is the basis for the analysis and considerably reduces computational effort. It also provides a simple, accurate scheme for modal averaging for further efficiency. Computed results for a coupled fan stage are compared with calculations for isolated blade rows. It is found that coupling increases downstream noise by 2 to 4 dB. Upstream noise is lower for isolated cascades and is further reduced by including coupling effects. In comparison with test data, the increase in the upstream/downstream differential indicates that broadband noise from turbulent inflow at the stator dominates downstream noise but is not a significant contributor to upstream noise.

  1. Accounting for outcome misclassification in estimates of the effect of occupational asbestos exposure on lung cancer death.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jessie K; Cole, Stephen R; Chu, Haitao; Olshan, Andrew F; Richardson, David B

    2014-03-01

    In studies of the health effects of asbestos, lung cancer death is subject to misclassification. We used modified maximum likelihood to explore the effects of outcome misclassification on the rate ratio of lung cancer death per 100 fiber-years per milliliter of cumulative asbestos exposure in a cohort study of textile workers in Charleston, South Carolina, followed from 1940 to 2001. The standard covariate-adjusted estimate of the rate ratio was 1.94 (95% confidence interval: 1.55, 2.44), and modified maximum likelihood produced similar results when we assumed that the specificity of outcome classification was 0.98. With sensitivity assumed to be 0.80 and specificity assumed to be 0.95, estimated rate ratios were further from the null and less precise (rate ratio = 2.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.59, 2.98). In the present context, standard estimates for the effect of asbestos on lung cancer death were similar to estimates accounting for the limited misclassification. However, sensitivity analysis using modified maximum likelihood was needed to verify the robustness of standard estimates, and this approach will provide unbiased estimates in settings with more misclassification.

  2. Belowground interactions shift the relative importance of direct and indirect genetic effects.

    PubMed

    Genung, Mark A; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A

    2013-06-01

    Intraspecific genetic variation can affect decomposition, nutrient cycling, and interactions between plants and their associated belowground communities. However, the effects of genetic variation on ecosystems can also be indirect, meaning that genes in a focal plant may affect ecosystems by altering the phenotype of interacting (i.e., neighboring) individuals. We manipulated genotype identity, species identity, and the possibility of belowground interactions between neighboring Solidago plants. We hypothesized that, because our plants were nitrogen (N) limited, the most important interactions between focal and neighbor plants would occur belowground. More specifically, we hypothesized that the genotypic identity of a plant's neighbor would have a larger effect on belowground biomass than on aboveground biomass, but only when neighboring plants were allowed to interact belowground. We detected species- and genotype-level variation for aboveground biomass and ramet production. We also found that belowground biomass and ramet production depended on the interaction of neighbor genotype identity and the presence or absence of belowground interactions. Additionally, we found that interspecific indirect genetic effects (IIGEs; changes in focal plant traits due to the genotype identity of a heterospecific neighbor) had a greater effect size on belowground biomass than did focal genotype; however, this effect only held in pots that allowed belowground interactions. These results expand the types of natural processes that can be attributed to genotypes by showing that, under certain conditions, a plant's phenotype can be strongly determined by the expression of genes in its neighbor. By showing that IIGEs are dependent upon plants being able to interact belowground, our results also provide a first step for thinking about how genotype-based, belowground interactions influence the evolutionary outcomes of plant-neighbor interactions. PMID:23789078

  3. Belowground interactions shift the relative importance of direct and indirect genetic effects

    PubMed Central

    Genung, Mark A; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    Intraspecific genetic variation can affect decomposition, nutrient cycling, and interactions between plants and their associated belowground communities. However, the effects of genetic variation on ecosystems can also be indirect, meaning that genes in a focal plant may affect ecosystems by altering the phenotype of interacting (i.e., neighboring) individuals. We manipulated genotype identity, species identity, and the possibility of belowground interactions between neighboring Solidago plants. We hypothesized that, because our plants were nitrogen (N) limited, the most important interactions between focal and neighbor plants would occur belowground. More specifically, we hypothesized that the genotypic identity of a plant's neighbor would have a larger effect on belowground biomass than on aboveground biomass, but only when neighboring plants were allowed to interact belowground. We detected species- and genotype-level variation for aboveground biomass and ramet production. We also found that belowground biomass and ramet production depended on the interaction of neighbor genotype identity and the presence or absence of belowground interactions. Additionally, we found that interspecific indirect genetic effects (IIGEs; changes in focal plant traits due to the genotype identity of a heterospecific neighbor) had a greater effect size on belowground biomass than did focal genotype; however, this effect only held in pots that allowed belowground interactions. These results expand the types of natural processes that can be attributed to genotypes by showing that, under certain conditions, a plant's phenotype can be strongly determined by the expression of genes in its neighbor. By showing that IIGEs are dependent upon plants being able to interact belowground, our results also provide a first step for thinking about how genotype-based, belowground interactions influence the evolutionary outcomes of plant-neighbor interactions. PMID:23789078

  4. Deuterium isotope effects on hydrophobic interactions: the importance of dispersion interactions in the hydrophobic phase.

    PubMed

    Turowski, Maciej; Yamakawa, Naoki; Meller, Jaroslaw; Kimata, Kazuhiro; Ikegami, Tohru; Hosoya, Ken; Tanaka, Nobuo; Thornton, Edward R

    2003-11-12

    Hydrogen/deuterium isotope effects on hydrophobic binding were examined by means of reversed-phase chromatographic separation of protiated and deuterated isotopologue pairs for a set of 10 nonpolar and low-polarity compounds with 10 stationary phases having alkyl and aryl groups bonded to the silica surface. It was found that protiated compounds bind to nonpolar moieties attached to silica more strongly than deuterated ones, demonstrating that the CH/CD bonds of the solutes are weakened or have less restricted motions when bound in the stationary phase compared with the aqueous solvent (mobile phase). The interactions responsible for binding have been further characterized by studies of the effects of changes in mobile phase composition, temperature dependence of binding, and QSRR (quantitative structure-chromatographic retention relationship) analysis, demonstrating the importance of enthalpic effects in binding and differentiation between the isotopologues. To explain our results showing the active role of the hydrophobic (stationary) phase we propose a plausible model that includes specific contributions from aromatic edge-to-face attractive interactions and attractive interactions of aliphatic groups with the pi clouds of aromatic groups present as the solute or in the stationary phase.

  5. Computerized material accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Claborn, J.; Erkkila, B.

    1995-07-01

    With the advent of fast, reliable database servers running on inexpensive networked personal computers, it is possible to create material accountability systems that are easy to learn, easy to use, and cost-effective to implement. Maintaining the material data in a relational database allows data to be viewed in ways that were previously very difficult. This paper describes a software and hardware platforms for the implementation of such an accountability system.

  6. Effect of match importance on salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A responses in elite young volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Alexandre; Freitas, Camila G; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Drago, Gustavo; Drago, Murilo; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the session ratings of perceived exertion (Session-RPE) responses and the salivary cortisol (sC) and immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels between a regular season match (RM) and the final championship match (FM) in elite male volleyball players against the same opponent team. Higher importance was assumed for FM because this match would define the championship team. Session-RPE was obtained after 30 minutes of each match using the CR-10 scale. Saliva samples were collected before and after each match and during a rest day (baseline) at the same period of the matches. The SIgA and sC concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Greater Session-RPE was observed for FM as compared with RM (p < 0.01). The analysis of variance showed greater sC concentrations to FM as compared with RM for both prevalues and postvalues and compared with baseline (p < 0.05). Significant lower SIgA prevalues were noted for FM. In conclusion, the results showed that match intensity, cortisol concentration, and SIgA prelevel were affected by the match importance. These results indicate that monitoring session-RPE, sC, and SIgA responses, in conjunction, during training and competition, would provide valuable informations regarding how athletes cope with sports induced stress. This study provided knowledge about the effect of match importance on salivary markers related to stress that may help coaches to avoid excessive training loads reducing the likelihood to decrements on mucosal immunity and its consequent risk to upper respiratory tract infections, which in turn might affect the performance.

  7. Seasonal effects on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of six economically important brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Aires, Alfredo; Fernandes, Conceição; Carvalho, Rosa; Bennett, Richard N; Saavedra, Maria J; Rosa, Eduardo A S

    2011-01-01

    Research on natural and bioactive compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health, but there are unexpectedly few studies evaluating the relationship between climate and natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was analyze the biological role of six different Brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L. and Brassica rapa L.) as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. The antioxidant activity may be assigned to high levels of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total flavonoids of each sample. The climate seasons affected directly the concentration of bioactive components and the antioxidant activity. Broccoli inflorescences and Portuguese kale showed high antioxidant activity in Spring-Summer whilst turnip leaves did so in Summer-Winter. The Brassica vegetables can provide considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and thus may constitute an important natural source of dietary antioxidants.

  8. An accurate simulation model for single-photon avalanche diodes including important statistical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiuyang, He; Yue, Xu; Feifei, Zhao

    2013-10-01

    An accurate and complete circuit simulation model for single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) is presented. The derived model is not only able to simulate the static DC and dynamic AC behaviors of an SPAD operating in Geiger-mode, but also can emulate the second breakdown and the forward bias behaviors. In particular, it considers important statistical effects, such as dark-counting and after-pulsing phenomena. The developed model is implemented using the Verilog-A description language and can be directly performed in commercial simulators such as Cadence Spectre. The Spectre simulation results give a very good agreement with the experimental results reported in the open literature. This model shows a high simulation accuracy and very fast simulation rate.

  9. The importance of reproductive barriers and the effect of allopolyploidization on crop breeding

    PubMed Central

    Tonosaki, Kaoru; Osabe, Kenji; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Fujimoto, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Inter-specific hybrids are a useful source for increasing genetic diversity. Some reproductive barriers before and/or after fertilization prevent production of hybrid plants by inter-specific crossing. Therefore, techniques to overcome the reproductive barrier have been developed, and have contributed to hybridization breeding. In recent studies, identification of molecules involved in plant reproduction has been studied to understand the mechanisms of reproductive barriers. Revealing the molecular mechanisms of reproductive barriers may allow us to overcome reproductive barriers in inter-specific crossing, and to efficiently produce inter-specific hybrids in cross-combinations that cannot be produced through artificial techniques. Inter-specific hybrid plants can potentially serve as an elite material for plant breeding, produced through the merging of genomes of parental species by allopolyploidization. Allopolyploidization provides some benefits, such as heterosis, increased genetic diversity and phenotypic variability, which are caused by dynamic changes of the genome and epigenome. Understanding of allopolyploidization mechanisms is important for practical utilization of inter-specific hybrids as a breeding material. This review discusses the importance of reproductive barriers and the effect of allopolyploidization in crop breeding programs. PMID:27436943

  10. Modelling importance of sediment effects on fate and transport of enterococci in the Severn Estuary, UK.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guanghai; Falconer, Roger A; Lin, Binliang

    2013-02-15

    The paper detailed a water quality modelling study of a hyper-tidal estuary, undertaken to assess the impact of various bacteria input loads on the receiving waters in a coastal basin in the UK, by using the model developed in previous study of the same authors enterococci, used as the indicators for bathing water quality under the new European Union (EU) Bathing Water Directive, were numerically modelled using a hydro-environmental model. In particular, the numerical model used in this study includes the effects of sediment on bacteria transport processes in surface water. Finally, the importance of sediment bacteria inputs on the bathing water quality was also investigated under different weather and tidal condition. During spring tide, the bacteria input from the bed sediments are dominant for both wet and dry weather conditions. During neap tides and during dry weather conditions the inputs of bacteria from the bed sediment were still dominant, but during wet weather conditions the inputs from river were dominant. Under different tidal flow conditions some parameters had a more significant role than others. During high flow conditions the sediment re-suspensions processes were dominant, therefore the bed bacteria concentrations played a dominant role on the overall bacteria concentration levels in the water column. In contrast, during low flow conditions sediment deposition prevails and bacteria are removed from the water column. The partition coefficient was found to be more important than the bed bacteria concentrations, during low flow conditions.

  11. Effects of Land Use on Lake Nutrients: The Importance of Scale, Hydrologic Connectivity, and Region

    PubMed Central

    Soranno, Patricia A.; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Wagner, Tyler; Webster, Katherine E.; Bremigan, Mary Tate

    2015-01-01

    Catchment land uses, particularly agriculture and urban uses, have long been recognized as major drivers of nutrient concentrations in surface waters. However, few simple models have been developed that relate the amount of catchment land use to downstream freshwater nutrients. Nor are existing models applicable to large numbers of freshwaters across broad spatial extents such as regions or continents. This research aims to increase model performance by exploring three factors that affect the relationship between land use and downstream nutrients in freshwater: the spatial extent for measuring land use, hydrologic connectivity, and the regional differences in both the amount of nutrients and effects of land use on them. We quantified the effects of these three factors that relate land use to lake total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) in 346 north temperate lakes in 7 regions in Michigan, USA. We used a linear mixed modeling framework to examine the importance of spatial extent, lake hydrologic class, and region on models with individual lake nutrients as the response variable, and individual land use types as the predictor variables. Our modeling approach was chosen to avoid problems of multi-collinearity among predictor variables and a lack of independence of lakes within regions, both of which are common problems in broad-scale analyses of freshwaters. We found that all three factors influence land use-lake nutrient relationships. The strongest evidence was for the effect of lake hydrologic connectivity, followed by region, and finally, the spatial extent of land use measurements. Incorporating these three factors into relatively simple models of land use effects on lake nutrients should help to improve predictions and understanding of land use-lake nutrient interactions at broad scales. PMID:26267813

  12. Effects of land use on lake nutrients: The importance of scale, hydrologic connectivity, and region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soranno, Patricia A.; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Wagner, Tyler; Webster, Katherine E.; Bremigan, Mary Tate

    2015-01-01

    Catchment land uses, particularly agriculture and urban uses, have long been recognized as major drivers of nutrient concentrations in surface waters. However, few simple models have been developed that relate the amount of catchment land use to downstream freshwater nutrients. Nor are existing models applicable to large numbers of freshwaters across broad spatial extents such as regions or continents. This research aims to increase model performance by exploring three factors that affect the relationship between land use and downstream nutrients in freshwater: the spatial extent for measuring land use, hydrologic connectivity, and the regional differences in both the amount of nutrients and effects of land use on them. We quantified the effects of these three factors that relate land use to lake total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) in 346 north temperate lakes in 7 regions in Michigan, USA. We used a linear mixed modeling framework to examine the importance of spatial extent, lake hydrologic class, and region on models with individual lake nutrients as the response variable, and individual land use types as the predictor variables. Our modeling approach was chosen to avoid problems of multi-collinearity among predictor variables and a lack of independence of lakes within regions, both of which are common problems in broad-scale analyses of freshwaters. We found that all three factors influence land use-lake nutrient relationships. The strongest evidence was for the effect of lake hydrologic connectivity, followed by region, and finally, the spatial extent of land use measurements. Incorporating these three factors into relatively simple models of land use effects on lake nutrients should help to improve predictions and understanding of land use-lake nutrient interactions at broad scales.

  13. A multi-level model accounting for the effects of JAK2-STAT5 signal modulation in erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xin; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Vera, Julio

    2009-08-01

    We develop a multi-level model, using ordinary differential equations, based on quantitative experimental data, accounting for murine erythropoiesis. At the sub-cellular level, the model includes a description of the regulation of red blood cell differentiation through Epo-stimulated JAK2-STAT5 signalling activation, while at the cell population level the model describes the dynamics of (STAT5-mediated) red blood cell differentiation from their progenitors. Furthermore, the model includes equations depicting the hypoxia-mediated regulation of hormone erythropoietin blood levels. Take all together, the model constitutes a multi-level, feedback loop-regulated biological system, involving processes in different organs and at different organisational levels. We use our model to investigate the effect of deregulation in the proteins involved in the JAK2-STAT5 signalling pathway in red blood cells. Our analysis results suggest that down-regulation in any of the three signalling system components affects the hematocrit level in an individual considerably. In addition, our analysis predicts that exogenous Epo injection (an already existing treatment for several blood diseases) may compensate the effects of single down-regulation of Epo hormone level, STAT5 or EpoR/JAK2 expression level, and that it may be insufficient to counterpart a combined down-regulation of all the elements in the JAK2-STAT5 signalling cascade. PMID:19660986

  14. Estimation of a star's radius from its effective temperature and surface gravity taking into account stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sichevskij, S. G.

    2016-09-01

    A method for determining the radius of a star based on its effective temperature and surface gravity together with computations of the star's structure and evolution is proposed. Rotating and nonrotating stellar models are considered, making it possible to take into account uncertainties associated with the lack of data on the rotational velocities of the stars considered. Each point of an evolutionary track is assigned a weight in accordance with the rate of the stellar evolution and the initial mass function. This enables a more correct estimation of the stellar radius. The method is used to calculate the radius corresponding to the effective temperature and surface gravity obtained from theoretical spectra derived from model stellar atmospheres. This makes it possible to calculate not only the color indices, but also the brightness of the star, enabling estimation of the distance to the star based on photometric observations. The method has been tested and its accuracy estimated using more than a hundred binaries and two dozen well-studied bright stars. The derived radius estimates for stars near the main sequence display systematic deviations that do not exceed 0.03%, and standard deviations for the relative errors below 3.87%. Data on well studied bright stars have enabled verification of the applicability of the method for the red giant branch, and hence proved the possibility of applying it in this densely populated area of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.

  15. Accounting for What Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joseph O.; Ferran, Joan E.; Martin, Katharine Y.

    2003-01-01

    No Child Left Behind legislation makes it clear that outside evaluators determine what gets taught in the classroom. It is important to ensure they measure what truly counts in school. This fact is poignantly and sadly true for the under funded, poorly resourced, "low performing" schools that may be hammered by administration accountants in the…

  16. Accounting 202, 302.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide consists of guidelines for conducting two secondary-level introductory accounting courses. Intended for vocational business education students, the courses are designed to introduce financial principles and practices important to personal and business life, to promote development of clerical and bookkeeping skills sufficient…

  17. Coherent-backscatter effect - A vector formulation accounting for polarization and absorption effects and small or large scatterers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Kenneth J.

    1992-01-01

    Previous theoretical work on the coherent-backscatter effect in the context of speckle time autocorrelation has gone beyond the diffusion approximation and the assumption of isotropic (point) scatterers. This paper extends the theory to include the effects of polarization and absorption, and to give the angular line shape. The results are expressions for angular variations valid for small and large scatterers and linear and circular polarizations, in lossless or lossy media. Calculations show that multiple anisotropic scattering results in the preservation of incident polarization. Application to a problem in radar astronomy is considered. It is shown that the unusual radar measurements (high reflectivity and polarization ratios) of Jupiter's icy Galilean satellites can be explained by coherent backscatter from anisotropic (forward) scatterers.

  18. Importance of temperature effect on the electrophoretic behavior of charge-regulated particles.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jyh-Ping; Tai, Yi-Hsuan; Yeh, Li-Hsien; Tseng, Shiojenn

    2012-01-10

    The Joule heating effect is inevitable in electrophoresis operations. To assess its influence on the performance of electrophoresis, we consider the case of a charge-regulated particle in a solution containing multiple ionic species at temperatures ranging from 298 to 308 K. Using an aqueous SiO(2) dispersion as an example, we show that an increase in the temperature leads to a decrease in both the dielectric constant and the viscosity of the liquid phase, and an increase in both the diffusivity of ions and the particle surface potential. For a particle having a constant surface potential, its electrophoretic mobility is most influenced by the variation in the liquid viscosity as the temperature varies, but for a charged-regulated particle both the liquid viscosity and the surface potential can play an important role. Depending upon the level of pH, the degree of increase in the mobility can be on the order of 40% for a 5 K increase in the temperature. The presence of double-layer polarization, which is significant when the surface potential is sufficiently high, has the effect of inhibiting that increase in the mobility. This implies that the influence of the temperature on the mobility of the particle is most significant when the pH is close to the point of zero charge. PMID:22126364

  19. Developing effective messages about potable recycled water: The importance of message structure and content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J.; Fielding, K. S.; Gardner, J.; Leviston, Z.; Green, M.

    2015-04-01

    Community opposition is a barrier to potable recycled water schemes. Effective communication strategies about such schemes are needed. Drawing on social psychological literature, two experimental studies are presented, which explore messages that improve public perceptions of potable recycled water. The Elaboration-Likelihood Model of information processing and attitude change is tested and supported. Study 1 (N = 415) premeasured support for recycled water, and trust in government information at Time 1. Messages varied in complexity and sidedness were presented at Time 2 (3 weeks later), and support and trust were remeasured. Support increased after receiving information, provided that participants received complex rather than simple information. Trust in government was also higher after receiving information. There was tentative evidence of this in response to two-sided messages rather than one-sided messages. Initial attitudes to recycled water moderated responses to information. Those initially neutral or ambivalent responded differently to simple and one-sided messages, compared to participants with positive or negative attitudes. Study 2 (N = 957) tested the effectiveness of information about the low relative risks, and/or benefits of potable recycled water, compared to control groups. Messages about the low risks resulted in higher support when the issue of recycled water was relevant. Messages about benefits resulted in higher perceived issue relevance, but did not translate into greater support. The results highlight the importance of understanding people's motivation to process information, and need to tailor communication to match attitudes and stage of recycled water schemes' development.

  20. HIV-Infected Adolescent, Young Adult and Pregnant Smokers: Important Targets for Effective Tobacco Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Escota, Gerome; Önen, Nur

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed. PMID:23778059

  1. Can Failure Succeed? Using Racial Subgroup Rules to Analyze the Effect of School Accountability Failure on Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Many school accountability programs are built on the premise that the sanctions attached to failure will produce higher future student achievement. Furthermore, such programs often include subgroup achievement rules that attempt to hold schools accountable for the performance of all demographic classes of students. This paper looks at two issues:…

  2. VALIDATION OF NUCLEAR MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTABILITY (MC&A) SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS TOOL (MSET) AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY (INL)

    SciTech Connect

    Meppen, Bruce; Haga, Roger; Moedl, Kelley; Bean, Tom; Sanders, Jeff; Thom, Mary Alice

    2008-07-01

    A Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) Functional Model has been developed to describe MC&A systems at facilities possessing Category I or II Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Emphasis is on achieving the objectives of 144 “Fundamental Elements” in key areas ranging from categorization of nuclear material to establishment of Material Balance Areas (MBAs), controlling access, performing quality measurements of inventories and transfers, timely reporting all activities, and detecting and investigating anomalies. An MC&A System Effectiveness Tool (MSET), including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) technology for evaluating MC&A effectiveness and relative risk, has been developed to accompany the Functional Model. The functional model and MSET were introduced at the 48th annual International Nuclear Material Management (INMM) annual meeting in July, 20071,2. A survey/questionnaire is used to accumulate comprehensive data regarding the MC&A elements at a facility. Data is converted from the questionnaire to numerical values using the DELPHI method and exercises are conducted to evaluate the overall effectiveness of an MC&A system. In 2007 a peer review was conducted and a questionnaire was completed for a hypothetical facility and exercises were conducted. In the first quarter of 2008, a questionnaire was completed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and MSET exercises were conducted. The experience gained from conducting the MSET exercises at INL helped evaluate the completeness and consistency of the MC&A Functional Model, descriptions of fundamental elements of the MC&A Functional Model, relationship between the MC&A Functional Model and the MC&A PRA tool and usefulness of the MSET questionnaire data collection process.

  3. Activity and biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Mulla, M S; Su, T

    1999-06-01

    Botanical insecticides are relatively safe and degradable, and are readily available sources of biopesticides. The most prominent phytochemical pesticides in recent years are those derived from neem trees, which have been studied extensively in the fields of entomology and phytochemistry, and have uses for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The neem products have been obtained from several species of neem trees in the family Meliaceae. Six species in this family have been the subject of botanical pesticide research. They are Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Azadirachta excelsa Jack, Azadirachta siamens Valeton, Melia azedarach L., Melia toosendan Sieb. and Zucc., and Melia volkensii Gürke. The Meliaceae, especially A. indica (Indian neem tree), contains at least 35 biologically active principles. Azadirachtin is the predominant insecticidal active ingredient in the seed, leaves, and other parts of the neem tree. Azadirachtin and other compounds in neem products exhibit various modes of action against insects such as antifeedancy, growth regulation, fecundity suppression and sterilization, oviposition repellency or attractancy, changes in biological fitness, and blocking development of vector-borne pathogens. Some of these bioactivity parameters of neem products have been investigated at least in some species of insects of medical and veterinary importance, such as mosquitoes, flies, triatomines, cockroaches, fleas, lice, and others. Here we review, synthesize, and analyze published information on the activity, modes of action, and other biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. The amount of information on the activity, use, and application of neem products for the control of disease vectors and human and animal pests is limited. Additional research is needed to determine the potential usefulness of neem products in vector control programs. PMID:10412110

  4. The comparator theory fails to account for the selective role of within-compound associations in cue-selection effects.

    PubMed

    Melchers, Klaus G; Lachnit, Harald; Shanks, David R

    2006-01-01

    In a human causal learning experiment, we investigated cue selection effects to test the comparator theory (Denniston, Savastano, & Miller, 2001; Miller & Matzel, 1988). The theory predicts that the occurrence of cue selection is independent of whether the relevant learning trials are presented in a standard forward manner or in a backward manner and that within-compound associations are of equal importance in both cases. We found that the strength of the cue-selection effect was positively correlated with knowledge of within-compound associations in the backward condition but not in the forward condition. Furthermore, cue-selection effects were less pronounced in the former than in the latter condition. These results are at variance with the comparator hypothesis but are in agreement with a modified associative theory and with the suggestion that retrospective revaluation might be due to rehearsal processes.

  5. The Written Communication Skills That Matter Most for Accountants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tracey J.; Simons, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of effective written communication skills to the discipline of accounting, faculty must emphasize these skills in their classroom in order to adequately prepare students for successful careers in the field. Since 2000, only two studies in the accounting literature have examined which written communication skills are needed by…

  6. Family-based association test using both common and rare variants and accounting for directions of effects for sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ren-Hua; Tsai, Wei-Yun; Martin, Eden R

    2014-01-01

    Current family-based association tests for sequencing data were mainly developed for identifying rare variants associated with a complex disease. As the disease can be influenced by the joint effects of common and rare variants, common variants with modest effects may not be identified by the methods focusing on rare variants. Moreover, variants can have risk, neutral, or protective effects. Association tests that can effectively select groups of common and rare variants that are likely to be causal and consider the directions of effects have become important. We developed the Ordered Subset - Variable Threshold - Pedigree Disequilibrium Test (OVPDT), a combination of three algorithms, for association analysis in family sequencing data. The ordered subset algorithm is used to select a subset of common variants based on their relative risks, calculated using only parental mating types. The variable threshold algorithm is used to search for an optimal allele frequency threshold such that rare variants below the threshold are more likely to be causal. The PDT statistics from both rare and common variants selected by the two algorithms are combined as the OVPDT statistic. A permutation procedure is used in OVPDT to calculate the p-value. We used simulations to demonstrate that OVPDT has the correct type I error rates under different scenarios and compared the power of OVPDT with two other family-based association tests. The results suggested that OVPDT can have more power than the other tests if both common and rare variants have effects on the disease in a region.

  7. Associated effects of copy number variants on economically important traits in Spanish Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Ben Sassi, Neila; González-Recio, Óscar; de Paz-Del Río, Raquel; Rodríguez-Ramilo, Silvia T; Fernández, Ana I

    2016-08-01

    Copy number variants (CNV) are structural variants consisting of duplications or deletions of genomic fragments longer than 1 kb that present variability in the population and are heritable. The objective of this study was to identify CNV regions (CNVR) associated with 7 economically important traits (production, functional, and type traits) in Holstein cattle: fat yield, protein yield, somatic cell count, days open, stature, foot angle, and udder depth. Copy number variants were detected by using deep-sequencing data from 10 sequenced bulls and the Bovine SNP chip array hybridization signals. To reduce the number of false-positive calls, only CNV identified by both sequencing and Bovine SNP chip assays were kept in the final data set. This resulted in 823 CNVR. After filtering by minor allele frequency >0.01, a total of 90 CNVR appeared segregating in the bulls that had phenotypic data. Linear and quadratic CNVR effects were estimated using Bayesian approaches. A total of 15 CNVR were associated with the traits included in the analysis. One CNVR was associated with fat and protein yield, another 1 with fat yield, 3 with stature, 1 with foot angle, 7 with udder depth, and only 1 with days open. Among the genes located within these regions, highlighted were the MTHFSD gene that belongs to the folate metabolism genes, which play critical roles in regulating milk protein synthesis; the SNRPE gene that is related to several morphological pathologies; and the NF1 gene, which is associated with potential effects on fertility traits. The results obtained in the current study revealed that these CNVR segregate in the Holstein population, and therefore some potential exists to increase the frequencies of the favorable alleles in the population after independent validation of results in this study. However, genetic variance explained by the variants reported in this study was small. PMID:27209136

  8. Effects of social defeat on sleep and behaviour: importance of the confrontational behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kinn Rød, Anne Marie; Murison, Robert; Mrdalj, Jelena; Milde, Anne Marita; Jellestad, Finn Konow; Øvernes, Leif Arvid; Grønli, Janne

    2014-03-29

    We studied the short- and long-term effects of a double social defeat (SD) on sleep parameters, EEG power, behaviour in the open field emergence test, corticosterone responsiveness, and acoustic startle responses. Pre-stress levels of corticosterone were assessed before all rats were surgically implanted with telemetric transmitters for sleep recording, and allowed 3weeks of recovery. Rats in the SD group (n=10) were exposed to 1hour SD on two consecutive days, while control rats (n=10) were left undisturbed. Telemetric sleep recordings were performed before SD (day -1), day 1 post SD, and once weekly for 3weeks thereafter. The open field emergence test was performed on day 9 and weekly for 2weeks thereafter. Blood samples for measures of corticosterone responsiveness were drawn after the last emergence test (day 23). Acoustic startle responses were tested on day 24 post SD. Overall, SD rats as a group were not affected by the social conflict. Effects of SD seemed, however, to vary according to the behaviours that the intruder displayed during the social confrontation with the resident. Compared to those SD rats showing quick submission (SDS, n=5), SD rats fighting the resident during one or both SD confrontations before defeat (SDF, n=5) showed more fragmented slow wave sleep, both in SWS1 and SWS2. They also showed longer latency to leave the start box and spent less time in the open field arena compared to SDS rats. In the startle test, SDF rats failed to show response decrement at the lowest sound level. Our results indicate that how animals behave during a social confrontation is more important than exposure to the SD procedure itself, and that rapid submission during a social confrontation might be more adaptive than fighting back.

  9. Inhibitory effect of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts on clinically important drug resistant pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Herbs and spices are very important and useful as therapeutic agent against many pathological infections. Increasing multidrug resistance of pathogens forces to find alternative compounds for treatment of infectious diseases. Methods In the present study the antimicrobial potency of garlic and ginger has been investigated against eight local clinical bacterial isolates. Three types of extracts of each garlic and ginger including aqueous extract, methanol extract and ethanol extract had been assayed separately against drug resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcusepidermidis and Salmonella typhi. The antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion method. Results All tested bacterial strains were most susceptible to the garlic aqueous extract and showed poor susceptibility to the ginger aqueous extract. The (minimum inhibitory concentration) MIC of different bacterial species varied from 0.05 mg/ml to 1.0 mg/ml. Conclusion In the light of several socioeconomic factors of Pakistan mainly poverty and poor hygienic condition, present study encourages the use of spices as alternative or supplementary medicine to reduce the burden of high cost, side effects and progressively increasing drug resistance of pathogens. PMID:22540232

  10. A rare but important adverse effect of tacrolimus in a heart transplant recipient: diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Zeynelabidin; Gönç, E Nazlı; Akcan, Leman; Kesici, Selman; Ertuğrul, İlker; Bayrakçı, Benan

    2015-01-01

    Heart transplantation indications in pediatric population include congenital heart diseases, cardiomyopathies and retransplants. Cardiomyopathy is the primary indication for 11 to 17 years of age. The surveillance after transplantation is a very important issue because of both the rejection risk and the adverse effects due to medications after transplantation. Immunosuppressive agents that are commonly used after heart transplantations have several toxicities. Here we present an adolescent patient diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy, performed heart transplantation, treated with tacrolimus and suffered from diabetic ketoacidosis due to tacrolimus. After the diagnosis was made the appropriate fluid and insulin therapy was started immediately and ketoacidosis resolved in the first 24 hours of the therapy. The diagnosis revised as new onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation and the tacrolimus dosage titrated to therapeutic level. After glycemic control the patient discharged with rapid acting insulin, three times daily, before meals; and long acting insulin once daily at night. In ten month follow up time the insulin dosages were progressively reduced. PMID:27411426

  11. The importance of effective communication in interprofessional practice: perspectives of maternity clinicians.

    PubMed

    Watson, Bernadette M; Heatley, Michelle L; Gallois, Cindy; Kruske, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Midwives and doctors require effective information-sharing strategies to provide safe and evidence-based care for women and infants, but this can be difficult to achieve. This article describes maternity care professionals' perceptions of communication in their current workplace in Australia. We invoke social identity theory (SIT) to explore how these perceptions affect interprofessional practice. A survey was conducted with 337 participants (281 midwives and 56 doctors). Using exploratory factor analysis we developed three scales that measured interprofessional workplace practice collaboration. Results indicated an intergroup environment in maternity care in which the professionals found exchange of ideas difficult, and where differences with respect to decision making and professional skills were apparent. Although scores on some measures of collaboration were high, the two professions differed on their ratings of the importance of team behaviors, information sharing, and interprofessional socialization as indicators of collaborative practice. These results highlight the complexities among maternity care providers with different professional identities, and demonstrate the impact of professional identity on interprofessional communication. PMID:26362334

  12. Effects of Consumptive Water Use on Biodiversity in Wetlands of International Importance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Wetlands are complex ecosystems that harbor a large diversity of species. Wetlands are among the most threatened ecosystems on our planet, due to human influences such as conversion and drainage. We assessed impacts from water consumption on the species richness of waterbirds, nonresidential birds, water-dependent mammals, reptiles and amphibians in wetlands, considering a larger number of taxa than previous life cycle impact assessment methods. Effect factors (EF) were derived for 1184 wetlands of international importance. EFs quantify the number of global species-equivalents lost per m2 of wetland area loss. Vulnerability and range size of species were included to reflect conservation values. Further, we derived spatially explicit characterization factors (CFs) that distinguish between surface water and groundwater consumption. All relevant watershed areas that are contributing to feeding the respective wetlands were determined for CF applications. In an example of rose production, we compared damages of water consumption in Kenya and The Netherlands. In both cases, the impact was largest for waterbirds. The total impact from water consumption in Kenya was 67 times larger than in The Netherlands, due to larger species richness and species’ vulnerability in Kenya, as well as more arid conditions and larger amounts of water consumed. PMID:24087849

  13. Effects of consumptive water use on biodiversity in wetlands of international importance.

    PubMed

    Verones, Francesca; Saner, Dominik; Pfister, Stephan; Baisero, Daniele; Rondinini, Carlo; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Wetlands are complex ecosystems that harbor a large diversity of species. Wetlands are among the most threatened ecosystems on our planet, due to human influences such as conversion and drainage. We assessed impacts from water consumption on the species richness of waterbirds, nonresidential birds, water-dependent mammals, reptiles and amphibians in wetlands, considering a larger number of taxa than previous life cycle impact assessment methods. Effect factors (EF) were derived for 1184 wetlands of international importance. EFs quantify the number of global species-equivalents lost per m(2) of wetland area loss. Vulnerability and range size of species were included to reflect conservation values. Further, we derived spatially explicit characterization factors (CFs) that distinguish between surface water and groundwater consumption. All relevant watershed areas that are contributing to feeding the respective wetlands were determined for CF applications. In an example of rose production, we compared damages of water consumption in Kenya and The Netherlands. In both cases, the impact was largest for waterbirds. The total impact from water consumption in Kenya was 67 times larger than in The Netherlands, due to larger species richness and species' vulnerability in Kenya, as well as more arid conditions and larger amounts of water consumed.

  14. The importance of effective communication in interprofessional practice: perspectives of maternity clinicians.

    PubMed

    Watson, Bernadette M; Heatley, Michelle L; Gallois, Cindy; Kruske, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Midwives and doctors require effective information-sharing strategies to provide safe and evidence-based care for women and infants, but this can be difficult to achieve. This article describes maternity care professionals' perceptions of communication in their current workplace in Australia. We invoke social identity theory (SIT) to explore how these perceptions affect interprofessional practice. A survey was conducted with 337 participants (281 midwives and 56 doctors). Using exploratory factor analysis we developed three scales that measured interprofessional workplace practice collaboration. Results indicated an intergroup environment in maternity care in which the professionals found exchange of ideas difficult, and where differences with respect to decision making and professional skills were apparent. Although scores on some measures of collaboration were high, the two professions differed on their ratings of the importance of team behaviors, information sharing, and interprofessional socialization as indicators of collaborative practice. These results highlight the complexities among maternity care providers with different professional identities, and demonstrate the impact of professional identity on interprofessional communication.

  15. Effects of consumptive water use on biodiversity in wetlands of international importance.

    PubMed

    Verones, Francesca; Saner, Dominik; Pfister, Stephan; Baisero, Daniele; Rondinini, Carlo; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Wetlands are complex ecosystems that harbor a large diversity of species. Wetlands are among the most threatened ecosystems on our planet, due to human influences such as conversion and drainage. We assessed impacts from water consumption on the species richness of waterbirds, nonresidential birds, water-dependent mammals, reptiles and amphibians in wetlands, considering a larger number of taxa than previous life cycle impact assessment methods. Effect factors (EF) were derived for 1184 wetlands of international importance. EFs quantify the number of global species-equivalents lost per m(2) of wetland area loss. Vulnerability and range size of species were included to reflect conservation values. Further, we derived spatially explicit characterization factors (CFs) that distinguish between surface water and groundwater consumption. All relevant watershed areas that are contributing to feeding the respective wetlands were determined for CF applications. In an example of rose production, we compared damages of water consumption in Kenya and The Netherlands. In both cases, the impact was largest for waterbirds. The total impact from water consumption in Kenya was 67 times larger than in The Netherlands, due to larger species richness and species' vulnerability in Kenya, as well as more arid conditions and larger amounts of water consumed. PMID:24087849

  16. Repellent Effect of Formic Acid Against the Red Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): A Field Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cai; Henderson, Gregg

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies showed that the formic acid secreted by tawny crazy ants not only has fumigation toxicity to the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Chen et al. 2013), but also can detoxify fire ant venom (LeBrun et al. 2014). These lead us to a field study to determine if low concentrations of formic acid might be useful in repelling S. invicta. Filter paper discs treated with 1.3% or 5% formic acid (v: v) or distilled water (control) were placed on each of the 46 S. invicta mounds and a disturbance was created. For a minute or less, there were significantly more defending ants on the control discs than that on the paper discs treated with formic acid. After food was added and for the next 40 min, there were significantly more foraging ants on the control discs compared to the treated discs. At 50 min into the test, the number of foraging ants on the control and 1.3% formic acid-treated discs was similar, but both were significantly higher than that on the 5% formic acid-treated discs. In addition, the active foraging (≥10 ants stayed on or around the food) and burying behavior (soil particles were deposited around the food) continued to be inhibited by 5% formic acid. The potential application and ecological significant of this repellent effect is discussed. PMID:26700488

  17. A modified ground-motion attenuation relationship for southern California that accounts for detailed site classification and a basin-depth effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    The attenuation relationship presented by Boore et al. (1997) has been evaluated and customized with respect to southern California strong-motion data (for peak ground acceleration (PGA) and 0.3-, 1.0-, and 3.0-sec period spectral acceleration). This study was motivated by the recent availability of a new site-classification map by Wills et al. (2000), which distinguishes seven different site categories for California based on the 1994 NEHRP classification. With few exceptions, each of the five site types represented in the southern California strong-motion database exhibit distinct amplification factors, supporting use of the Wills et al. (2000) map for microzonation purposes. Following other studies, a basin-depth term was also found to be significant and therefore added to the relationship. Sites near the center of the LA Basin exhibit shaking levels up to a factor of 2 greater, on average, than otherwise equivalent sites near the edge. Relative to Boore et al. (1997), the other primary difference here is that PGA exhibits less variation among the Wills et al. (2000) site types. In fact, the PGA amplification implied by the basin-depth effect is greater than that implied by site classification. The model does not explicitly account for nonlinear sediment effects, which, if important, will most likely influence rock-site PGA predictions the most. Evidence for a magnitude-dependent variability, or prediction uncertainty, is also found and included as an option.

  18. Acyl substrate preferences of an IAA-amido synthetase account for variations in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening caused by different auxinic compounds indicating the importance of auxin conjugation in plant development

    PubMed Central

    Böttcher, Christine; Boss, Paul K.; Davies, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Nine Gretchen Hagen (GH3) genes were identified in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and six of these were predicted on the basis of protein sequence similarity to act as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases. The activity of these enzymes is thought to be important in controlling free IAA levels and one auxin-inducible grapevine GH3 protein, GH3-1, has previously been implicated in the berry ripening process. Ex planta assays showed that the expression of only one other GH3 gene, GH3-2, increased following the treatment of grape berries with auxinic compounds. One of these was the naturally occurring IAA and the other two were synthetic, α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA). The determination of steady-state kinetic parameters for the recombinant GH3-1 and GH3-2 proteins revealed that both enzymes efficiently conjugated aspartic acid (Asp) to IAA and less well to NAA, while BTOA was a poor substrate. GH3-2 gene expression was induced by IAA treatment of pre-ripening berries with an associated increase in levels of IAA-Asp and a decrease in free IAA levels. This indicates that GH3-2 responded to excess auxin to maintain low levels of free IAA. Grape berry ripening was not affected by IAA application prior to veraison (ripening onset) but was considerably delayed by NAA and even more so by BTOA. The differential effects of the three auxinic compounds on berry ripening can therefore be explained by the induction and acyl substrate specificity of GH3-2. These results further indicate an important role for GH3 proteins in controlling auxin-related plant developmental processes. PMID:21543520

  19. Acyl substrate preferences of an IAA-amido synthetase account for variations in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening caused by different auxinic compounds indicating the importance of auxin conjugation in plant development.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Christine; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    Nine Gretchen Hagen (GH3) genes were identified in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and six of these were predicted on the basis of protein sequence similarity to act as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases. The activity of these enzymes is thought to be important in controlling free IAA levels and one auxin-inducible grapevine GH3 protein, GH3-1, has previously been implicated in the berry ripening process. Ex planta assays showed that the expression of only one other GH3 gene, GH3-2, increased following the treatment of grape berries with auxinic compounds. One of these was the naturally occurring IAA and the other two were synthetic, α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA). The determination of steady-state kinetic parameters for the recombinant GH3-1 and GH3-2 proteins revealed that both enzymes efficiently conjugated aspartic acid (Asp) to IAA and less well to NAA, while BTOA was a poor substrate. GH3-2 gene expression was induced by IAA treatment of pre-ripening berries with an associated increase in levels of IAA-Asp and a decrease in free IAA levels. This indicates that GH3-2 responded to excess auxin to maintain low levels of free IAA. Grape berry ripening was not affected by IAA application prior to veraison (ripening onset) but was considerably delayed by NAA and even more so by BTOA. The differential effects of the three auxinic compounds on berry ripening can therefore be explained by the induction and acyl substrate specificity of GH3-2. These results further indicate an important role for GH3 proteins in controlling auxin-related plant developmental processes.

  20. Clinically important respiratory effects of dust exposure and smoking in British coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Marine, W.M.; Gurr, D.; Jacobsen, M.

    1988-01-01

    A unique data set of 3380 British coal miners has been reanalyzed with major focus on nonpneumoconiotic respiratory conditions. The aim was to assess the independent contribution of smoking and exposure to respirable dust to clinically significant measures of respiratory dysfunction. Exposure to coal-mine dust was monitored over a 10-yr period. Medical surveys provided estimates of prior dust exposure and recorded respiratory symptoms. Each man's FEV1 was compared with the level predicted for his age and height by an internally derived prediction equation for FEV1. Four respiratory indices were considered at the end of the 10-yr period: FEV1 less than 80%, chronic bronchitis, chronic bronchitis with FEV1 less than 80%, and FEV1 less than 65%. Results were uniformly incorporated into logistic regression equations for each condition. The equations include coefficients for age, dust, and when indicated, an interaction term for age and dust. Dust-related increases in prevalence of each of the 4 conditions were statistically significant and were similar for smokers and nonsmokers at the mean age (47 yr). There was no evidence that smoking potentiates the effect of exposure to dust. Estimates of prevalences at the mean age of all 4 measures of respiratory dysfunction were greater in smokers. At intermediate and high dust exposure the prevalence of the 4 conditions in nonsmokers approached the prevalence in smokers at hypothetically zero dust exposure. Both smoking and dust exposure can cause clinically important respiratory dysfunction and their separate contributions to obstructive airway disease in coal miners appear to be additive.

  1. Salt effects on functional traits in model and in economically important Lotus species.

    PubMed

    Uchiya, P; Escaray, F J; Bilenca, D; Pieckenstain, F; Ruiz, O A; Menéndez, A B

    2016-07-01

    A common stress on plants is NaCl-derived soil salinity. Genus Lotus comprises model and economically important species, which have been studied regarding physiological responses to salinity. Leaf area ratio (LAR), root length ratio (RLR) and their components, specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass fraction (LMF) and specific root length (SRL) and root mass fraction (RMF) might be affected by high soil salinity. We characterised L. tenuis, L. corniculatus, L. filicaulis, L. creticus, L. burtii and L. japonicus grown under different salt concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 mm NaCl) on the basis of SLA, LMF, SRL and RMF using PCA. We also assessed effects of different salt concentrations on LAR and RLR in each species, and explored whether changes in these traits provide fitness benefit. Salinity (150 mm NaCl) increased LAR in L. burtii and L. corniculatus, but not in the remaining species. The highest salt concentration caused a decrease of RLR in L. japonicus Gifu, but not in the remaining species. Changes in LAR and RLR would not be adaptive, according to adaptiveness analysis, with the exception of SLA changes in L. corniculatus. PCA revealed that under favourable conditions plants optimise surfaces for light and nutrient acquisition (SLA and SRL), whereas at higher salt concentrations they favour carbon allocation to leaves and roots (LMF and RMF) in detriment to their surfaces. PCA also showed that L. creticus subjected to saline treatment was distinguished from the remaining Lotus species. We suggest that augmented carbon partitioning to leaves and roots could constitute a salt-alleviating mechanism through toxic ion dilution. PMID:27007305

  2. The Organizational Account of Function is an Etiological Account of Function.

    PubMed

    Artiga, Marc; Martínez, Manolo

    2016-06-01

    The debate on the notion of function has been historically dominated by dispositional and etiological accounts, but recently a third contender has gained prominence: the organizational account. This original theory of function is intended to offer an alternative account based on the notion of self-maintaining system. However, there is a set of cases where organizational accounts seem to generate counterintuitive results. These cases involve cross-generational traits, that is, traits that do not contribute in any relevant way to the self-maintenance of the organism carrying them, but instead have very important effects on organisms that belong to the next generation. We argue that any plausible solution to the problem of cross-generational traits shows that the organizational account just is a version of the etiological theory and, furthermore, that it does not provide any substantive advantage over standard etiological theories of function.

  3. A Novel Approach for Deriving Force Field Torsion Angle Parameters Accounting for Conformation-Dependent Solvation Effects.

    PubMed

    Zgarbová, Marie; Luque, F Javier; Šponer, Jiří; Otyepka, Michal; Jurečka, Petr

    2012-09-11

    A procedure for deriving force field torsion parameters including certain previously neglected solvation effects is suggested. In contrast to the conventional in vacuo approaches, the dihedral parameters are obtained from the difference between the quantum-mechanical self-consistent reaction field and Poisson-Boltzmann continuum solvation models. An analysis of the solvation contributions shows that two major effects neglected when torsion parameters are derived in vacuo are (i) conformation-dependent solute polarization and (ii) solvation of conformation-dependent charge distribution. Using the glycosidic torsion as an example, we demonstrate that the corresponding correction for the torsion potential is substantial and important. Our approach avoids double counting of solvation effects and provides parameters that may be used in combination with any of the widely used nonpolarizable discrete solvent models, such as TIPnP or SPC/E, or with continuum solvent models. Differences between our model and the previously suggested solvation models are discussed. Improvements were demonstrated for the latest AMBER RNA χOL3 parameters derived with inclusion of solvent effects in a previous publication (Zgarbova et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput.2011, 7, 2886). The described procedure may help to provide consistently better force field parameters than the currently used parametrization approaches.

  4. Tic Tac TOE: Effects of Predictability and Importance on Acoustic Prominence in Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Duane G.; Arnold, Jennifer E.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Importance and predictability each have been argued to contribute to acoustic prominence. To investigate whether these factors are independent or two aspects of the same phenomenon, naive participants played a verbal variant of Tic Tac Toe. Both importance and predictability contributed independently to the acoustic prominence of a word, but in…

  5. Accountability for Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Productivity gains in higher education won't be made just by improving cost effectiveness or even performance. They need to be documented, communicated, and integrated into a strategic agenda to increase attainment. This requires special attention to "accountability" for productivity, meaning public presentation and communication of evidence about…

  6. Professional Capital as Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael; Rincón-Gallardo, Santiago; Hargreaves, Andy

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to clarify and spells out the responsibilities of policy makers to create the conditions for an effective accountability system that produces substantial improvements in student learning, strengthens the teaching profession, and provides transparency of results to the public. The authors point out that U.S. policy makers will need…

  7. Curtail Accountability, Cultivate Attainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wraga, William G.

    2011-01-01

    The current test-driven accountability movement, codified in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 ([NCLB] 2002), was a misguided idea that will have the effect not of improving the education of children and youth, but of indicting the public school system of the United States. To improve education in the United States, politicians, policy makers,…

  8. Which Feedback Is More Effective for Pursuing Multiple Goals of Differing Importance? The Interaction Effects of Goal Importance and Performance Feedback Type on Self-Regulation and Task Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyunjoo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how performance feedback type (progress vs. distance) affects Korean college students' self-regulation and task achievement according to relative goal importance in the pursuit of multiple goals. For this study, 146 students participated in a computerised task. The results showed the interaction effects of goal importance and…

  9. Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; James, Kristina; Escobar, Gabriel; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Li, Sherian Xu; Carroll, Kecia N.; Walsh, Eileen; Mitchel, Edward; Das, Suman; Kumar, Rajesh; Yu, Chang; Dupont, William D.; Hartert, Tina V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma. Methods We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma) cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI) during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS), mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated. Results Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI) and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course) were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling) was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal

  10. Continuous multi-plot measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O and H2O in a managed boreal forest - The importance of accounting for all greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestin, P.; Mölder, M.; Sundqvist, E.; Båth, A.; Lehner, I.; Weslien, P.; Klemedtsson, L.; Lindroth, A.

    2015-12-01

    In order to assess the effects of different management practices on the exchange of greenhouse gases (GHG), it is desirable to perform repeated and parallel measurements on both experimental and control plots. Here we demonstrate how a system system combining eddy covariance and gradient techniques can be used to perform this assessment in a managed forest ecosystem.The net effects of clear-cutting and stump harvesting on GHG fluxes were studied at the ICOS site Norunda, Sweden. Micrometeorological measurements (i.e., flux-gradient measurements in 3 m tall towers) allowed for quantification of CO2, CH4 and H2O fluxes (from May 2010) as well as N2O and H2O fluxes (from June 2011) at two stump harvested plots and two control plots. There was one wetter and one drier plot of each treatment. Air was continuously sampled at two heights in the towers and gas concentrations were analyzed for CH4, CO2, H2O (LGR DLT-100, Los Gatos Research) and N2O, H2O (QCL Mini Monitor, Aerodyne Research). Friction velocities and sensible heat fluxes were measured by sonic anemometers (Gill Windmaster, Gill Instruments Ltd). Automatic chamber measurements (CO2, CH4, H2O) were carried out in the adjacent forest stand and at the clear-cut during 2010.Average CO2 emissions for the first year ranged between 14.4-20.2 ton CO2 ha-1 yr-1. The clear-cut became waterlogged after harvest and a comparison of flux-gradient data and chamber data (from the adjacent forest stand) indicated a switch from a weak CH4 sink to a significant source at all plots. The CH4 emissions ranged between 0.8-4.5 ton CO2-eq. ha-1 yr-1. N2O emissions ranged between 0.4-2.6 ton CO2-eq. ha-1 yr-1. Enhanced N2O emission on the drier stump harvested plot was the only clear treatment effect on GHG fluxes that was observed. Mean CH4 and N2O emissions for the first year of measurements amounted up to 29% and 20% of the mean annual CO2 emissions, respectively. This highlights the importance of including all GHGs

  11. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited availability of data and, moreover, the different scopes of the accounting lead to many ways of quantifying emissions and producing the accounts. The importance of transparency in GHG accounting is emphasised regarding waste type, waste composition, time period considered, GHGs included, global warming potential (GWP) assigned to the GHGs, counting of biogenic carbon dioxide, choice of system boundaries, interactions with the energy system, and generic emissions factors. In order to enhance transparency and consistency, a format called the upstream-operating-downstream framework (UOD) is proposed for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities.

  12. SeqSIMLA2: simulating correlated quantitative traits accounting for shared environmental effects in user-specified pedigree structure.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ren-Hua; Tsai, Wei-Yun; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Hung, Kuan-Yi; Hsiung, Chao A; Hauser, Elizabeth R

    2015-01-01

    Simulation tools that simulate sequence data in unrelated cases and controls or in families with quantitative traits or disease status are important for genetic studies. The simulation tools can be used to evaluate the statistical power for detecting the causal variants when planning a genetic epidemiology study, or to evaluate the statistical properties for new methods. We previously developed SeqSIMLA version 1 (SeqSIMLA1), which simulates family or case-control data with a disease or quantitative trait model. SeqSIMLA1, and several other tools that simulate quantitative traits, do not specifically model the shared environmental effects among relatives on a trait. However, shared environmental effects are commonly observed for some traits in families, such as body mass index. SeqSIMLA1 simulates a fixed three-generation family structure. However, it would be ideal to simulate prespecified pedigree structures for studies involving large pedigrees. Thus, we extended SeqSIMLA1 to create SeqSIMLA2, which can simulate correlated traits and considers the shared environmental effects. SeqSIMLA2 can also simulate prespecified large pedigree structures. There are no restrictions on the number of individuals that can be simulated in a pedigree. We used a blood pressure example to demonstrate that SeqSIMLA2 can simulate realistic correlation structures between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure among relatives. We also showed that SeqSIMLA2 can simulate large pedigrees with large chromosomal regions in a reasonable time frame.

  13. Effects of common groundwater ions on chromate removal by magnetite: Importance of chromate adsorption

    DOE PAGES

    Meena, Amanda H.; Arai, Yuji

    2016-04-29

    Reductive precipitation of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) with magnetite is a well-known Cr(VI) remediation method to improve water quality. The rapid (< a few hr) reduction of soluble Cr(VI) to insoluble Cr(III) species by Fe(II) in magnetite has been the primary focus of the Cr(VI) removal process in the past. However, the contribution of simultaneous Cr(VI) adsorption processes in aged magnetite has been largely ignored, leaving uncertainties in evaluating the application of in situ Cr remediation technologies for aqueous systems. In this study, effects of common groundwater ions (i.e., nitrate and sulfate) on Cr(VI) sorption to magnetite were investigated using batchmore » geochemical experiments in conjunction with X-ray absorption spectroscopy. As a result, in both nitrate and sulfate electrolytes, batch sorption experiments showed that Cr(VI) sorption decreases with increasing pH from 4 to 8. In this pH range, Cr(VI) sorption decreased with increasing ionic strength of sulfate from 0.01 to 0.1 M whereas nitrate concentrations did not alter the Cr(VI) sorption behavior. This indicates the background electrolyte specific Cr(VI) sorption process in magnetite. Under the same ionic strength, Cr(VI) removal in sulfate containing solutions was greater than that in nitrate solutions. This is because the oxidation of Fe(II) by nitrate is more thermodynamically favorable than by sulfate, leaving less reduction capacity of magnetite to reduce Cr(VI) in the nitrate media. X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis supports the macroscopic evidence that more than 75 % of total Cr on the magnetite surfaces was adsorbed Cr(VI) species after 48 h. In conclusion, this experimental geochemical study showed that the adsorption process of Cr(VI) anions was as important as the reductive precipitation of Cr(III) in describing the removal of Cr(VI) by magnetite, and these interfacial adsorption processes could be impacted by common groundwater ions like sulfate and nitrate. The

  14. Psychological Importance of the "Big Five": Impression Formation and Context Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Personality's basic dimensions are: extraversion, agreeableness, emotional stability; conscientiousness, and openness. Rated items of Adjective Check List for psychological importance, then rated hypothetical applicants described with different combinations of personality dimensions. Applicants described with extraversion and agreeableness…

  15. Importance of Many-Body Effects in the Kernel of Hemoglobin for Ligand Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Cédric; O'Regan, David D.; Hine, Nicholas D. M.; Littlewood, Peter B.; Kotliar, Gabriel; Payne, Mike C.

    2013-03-01

    We propose a mechanism for binding of diatomic ligands to heme based on a dynamical orbital selection process. This scenario may be described as bonding determined by local valence fluctuations. We support this model using linear-scaling first-principles calculations, in combination with dynamical mean-field theory, applied to heme, the kernel of the hemoglobin metalloprotein central to human respiration. We find that variations in Hund’s exchange coupling induce a reduction of the iron 3d density, with a concomitant increase of valence fluctuations. We discuss the comparison between our computed optical absorption spectra and experimental data, our picture accounting for the observation of optical transitions in the infrared regime, and how the Hund’s coupling reduces, by a factor of 5, the strong imbalance in the binding energies of heme with CO and O2 ligands.

  16. Charge state distributions of iron in impulsive solar flares: Importance of stripping effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostryakov, V. M.; Kartavykh, Y. Y.; Ruffolo, D.; Kovaltsov, G. A.; Kocharov, L.

    2000-12-01

    A model of stochastic acceleration of heavy ions by Alfvén wave turbulence has been developed. It takes into account spatial diffusion, Coulomb losses, and the possibility of charge changes for ions during stochastic acceleration. The main processes influencing the ionic charge states are the stripping by thermal electrons and protons as constituents of a surrounding medium and dielectronic and radiative recombination. We have calculated energy spectra and charge distributions of nonthermal Fe ions as a sample species. The dependence of the charge distributions and energy spectra of iron on the parameters of the plasma (temperature and number density) is studied. We compare our results with measurements to date of the mean charge of iron in impulsive solar flare events and conclude that they indicate source plasma ionization temperatures between 6□×106 and 107K.

  17. Effects of Ability, Race, and Socioeconomic Status on Perceived Importance of Capacities, Interests, and Values in Occupational Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Donald H.; Bledsoe, Joseph C.

    1980-01-01

    Responses of 480 Georgia students (ages 11 to 18 years) to the Dalton Vocational Importance Questionnaire developed to test Ginzberg's theory of occupational choice were analyzed to determine effects of ability, race, and socioeconomic status on perceived importance of capacities, interests, and values. (Author)

  18. General methodology to optimize damping functions to account for charge penetration effects in electrostatic calculations using multicentered multipolar expansions.

    PubMed

    Werneck, Araken S; Filho, Tarcísio M Rocha; Dardenne, Laurent E

    2008-01-17

    We developed a methodology to optimize exponential damping functions to account for charge penetration effects when computing molecular electrostatic properties using the multicentered multipolar expansion method (MME). This methodology is based in the optimization of a damping parameter set using a two-step fast local fitting procedure and the ab initio (Hartree-Fock/6-31G** and 6-31G**+) electrostatic potential calculated in a set of concentric grid of points as reference. The principal aspect of the methodology is a first local fitting step which generates a focused initial guess to improve the performance of a simplex method avoiding the use of multiple runs and the choice of initial guesses. Three different strategies for the determination of optimized damping parameters were tested in the following studies: (1) investigation of the error in the calculation of the electrostatic interaction energy for five hydrogen-bonded dimers at standard and nonstandard hydrogen-bonded geometries and at nonequilibrium geometries; (2) calculation of the electrostatic molecular properties (potential and electric field) for eight small molecular systems (methanol, ammonia, water, formamide, dichloromethane, acetone, dimethyl sulfoxide, and acetonitrile) and for the 20 amino acids. Our results show that the methodology performs well not only for small molecules but also for relatively larger molecular systems. The analysis of the distinct parameter sets associated with different optimization strategies show that (i) a specific parameter set is more suitable and more general for electrostatic interaction energy calculations, with an average absolute error of 0.46 kcal/mol at hydrogen-bond geometries; (ii) a second parameter set is more suitable for electrostatic potential and electric field calculations at and outside the van der Waals (vdW) envelope, with an average error decrease >72% at the vdW surface. A more general amino acid damping parameter set was constructed from the

  19. Learning Efficacy and Cost-Effectiveness of Print versus e-Book Instructional Material in an Introductory Financial Accounting Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annand, David

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the concurrent development of paper-based and e-book versions of a textbook and related instructional material used in an introductory-level financial accounting course. Break-even analysis is used to compare costs of the two media. A study conducted with 109 students is also used to evaluate the two media with respect to…

  20. Race to the Top Leaves Children and Future Citizens behind: The Devastating Effects of Centralization, Standardization, and High Stakes Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onosko, Joe

    2011-01-01

    President Barack Obama's Race to the Top (RTT) is a profoundly flawed educational reform plan that increases standardization, centralization, and test-based accountability in our nation's schools. Following a brief summary of the interest groups supporting the plan, who is currently participating in this race, why so many states voluntarily…

  1. Study of the Effect of Education and Academic Environment on Emotional Intelligence on Accounting Students in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Mahdi; Zadeh, Mohammadreza Abbas; Ghaderi, Alireza; Tabasi, Alaleh Zhian

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate the relation between education and academic environment on emotional intelligence of accounting students in state and non-state universities in Iran. In order to collecting data Bar-on emotional intelligence test and SCL 90 questionnaire administrated among 476 students in different subjects including…

  2. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Three Methods of Instruction in Introduction to Accounting on Achievement, Attitude and Problem Solving Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, Joseph E.

    This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of two methods of individualized instruction compared to the traditional textbook-lecture method in teaching introductory accounting courses. The two experimental class sections and the control class section involved in the study enrolled a total of 71 students. In the first individualized…

  3. 26 CFR 1.551-5 - Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of shareholders. 1.551-5 Section 1.551-5 Internal Revenue... holding company and basis of stock in hands of shareholders. (a) Sections 551(e) and 551(f) are...

  4. 26 CFR 1.551-5 - Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of shareholders. 1.551-5 Section 1.551-5 Internal Revenue... holding company and basis of stock in hands of shareholders. (a) Sections 551(e) and 551(f) are...

  5. 26 CFR 1.551-5 - Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of shareholders. 1.551-5 Section 1.551-5 Internal Revenue... holding company and basis of stock in hands of shareholders. (a) Sections 551(e) and 551(f) are...

  6. 26 CFR 1.551-5 - Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of shareholders. 1.551-5 Section 1.551-5 Internal Revenue... holding company and basis of stock in hands of shareholders. (a) Sections 551(e) and 551(f) are...

  7. 26 CFR 1.551-5 - Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of shareholders. 1.551-5 Section 1.551-5 Internal Revenue... holding company and basis of stock in hands of shareholders. (a) Sections 551(e) and 551(f) are...

  8. 15 CFR 705.4 - Criteria for determining effect of imports on the national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the strength of our national economy and the capacity of the United States to meet national security... imports on the national security. 705.4 Section 705.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  9. 15 CFR 705.4 - Criteria for determining effect of imports on the national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the strength of our national economy and the capacity of the United States to meet national security... imports on the national security. 705.4 Section 705.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  10. Modeling Accentuation Effects: Enrolling in a Diversity Course and the Importance of Social Action Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson Laird, Thomas F.; Engberg, Mark E.; Hurtado, Sylvia

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how particular courses that are inclusive of diversity in their content and methods of instruction, what educators will call "diversity courses," promote the importance students place on taking personal responsibility for social issues and problems. Two types of courses are compared in this study: diversity…

  11. Effects of simulated and natural rainfall on summer mound construction by imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Imported fire ant (Solenopsis richteri x invicta) mounds in northeastern Mississippi were subjected to four treatments from late July through early September, 2006: application of water (7.5 L) and placement of an inverted 19 L bucket on top; application of water only; application of an inverted buc...

  12. The Effects of Reader Perspective and Cognitive Style on Remembering Important Information from Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsome, George L., III

    1986-01-01

    Investigates the effects of reader perspective and cognitive style on encoding, storage, and retrieval processes. Finds that structural characteristics of the text itself may affect storage and retrieval processes but not encoding processes, and that reader perspective shows no effect on a delayed recognition test. (RS)

  13. Assessing the Import of Media-Related Effects: Some Contextualist Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, David K.

    Based upon the philosophical position of contextualism, the common-sense idea of powerful, uniform, and universal media effects is largely untenable. Instead, researchers can more profitably view such effects as resulting from synthesized stimuli, of which media content is only one component. Thus, these phenomena should be called media-related…

  14. ASSESSING THE IMPORTANCE OF THE BEHAVIORAL EFFECT OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO TOLUENE IN HUMANS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing interest in being able to evaluate potential benefit-cost relationships of controlling exposure to toxic substances. Behavioral effects of acute toluene exposure could be subjected to benefit-cost analysis if it's effects were quantitatively compared to tho...

  15. Modeling the effects of chemical exposure on avian seasonal productivity: Importance of differences in breeding strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agencies that regulate the use of chemicals are increasingly interested in understanding the magnitude of effects of those chemicals on wildlife populations. While laboratory toxicity tests provide insights into the types of effects caused by chemical exposure, they do not alway...

  16. Assessing the Perceived Importance of Skin Cancer: How Question-Order Effects Are Influenced by Issue Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimal, Rajiv N.; Real, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Question-order effects refer to systematic differences in responses that can be attributed to the manner in which questions assessing attitudes and cognitions are asked. This article hypothesized that question-order effects in assessing the perceived importance of skin cancer would be moderated by the extent to which people are involved with the…

  17. Accounting for the effects of moderately increased pressure on the energetics of melting and solubility in metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Mogalian, Erik; Sepassi, Kia; Myrdal, Paul Brian

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to account for thermodynamic variations due to changes in the physical environment of propellant-based systems, particularly metered dose inhalers (MDIs). Twenty organic compounds were measured via differential scanning calorimetry under ambient pressure, 60 psi, and 90 psi. The increase in pressure did not affect the melting point of any of the compounds. A modest increase (approximately 8%) in enthalpy of fusion was noted. This correlates to a modest increase in entropy of fusion, and thus ideal crystalline solubility, though the magnitude of this change depends primarily on the melting point of the given compound. Because the relationship between melting point and solubility is logarithmic, compounds with higher melting points are affected more by this increased energy of melting. Based on the findings, modest changes can be made to predictive models to estimate solubility in propellant systems to account for changes in the physical environment of MDIs.

  18. Effect of selected psychological characteristics upon choice-shift patterns found within hierarchical groups of public accountants.

    PubMed

    Kent, D Donald; Arnold, Donald F; Nydegger, Rudy V

    2002-08-01

    The goals of this study were to examine, first, the relationship between choice shift and three psychological variables (social desirability, locus of control, and moral reasoning) and, second, the influence of these and subjects' employment position on the choice-shift phenomenon within the context of a professional accounting setting. The sample of 60 subjects (four auditors per group, each holding different employment ranks within their firms, yielding 15 groups, each from a different small to medium size CPA firm), participated in three group decision-making tasks related to common accounting and auditing risk-assessment issues. The exercise consisted of three iterations of a standard choice-shift exercise followed by three standardized tests to mcasure the selected psychological characteristics. Analysis indicated that choice shifts were not significantly affected by subjects' psychological characteristics. Instead, subjects' position in an organization influenced choice shift, and the higher the position, the less absolute shift shown.

  19. Modeling preasymptotic transport in flows with significant inertial and trapping effects - The importance of velocity correlations and a spatial Markov model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolster, Diogo; Méheust, Yves; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Bouquain, Jérémy; Davy, Phillipe

    2014-08-01

    We study solute transport in a periodic channel with a sinusoidal wavy boundary when inertial flow effects are sufficiently large to be important, but do not give rise to turbulence. This configuration and setup are known to result in large recirculation zones that can act as traps for solutes; these traps can significantly affect dispersion of the solute as it moves through the domain. Previous studies have considered the effect of inertia on asymptotic dispersion in such geometries. Here we develop an effective spatial Markov model that aims to describe transport all the way from preasymptotic to asymptotic times. In particular we demonstrate that correlation effects must be included in such an effective model when Péclet numbers are larger than O(100) in order to reliably predict observed breakthrough curves and the temporal evolution of second centered moments. For smaller Péclet numbers correlation effects, while present, are weak and do not appear to play a significant role. For many systems of practical interest, if Reynolds numbers are large, it may be typical that Péclet numbers are large also given that Schmidt numbers for typical fluids and solutes can vary between 1 and 500. This suggests that when Reynolds numbers are large, any effective theories of transport should incorporate correlation as part of the upscaling procedure, which many conventional approaches currently do not do. We define a novel parameter to quantify the importance of this correlation. Next, using the theory of CTRWs we explain a to date unexplained phenomenon of why dispersion coefficients for a fixed Péclet number increase with increasing Reynolds number, but saturate above a certain value. Finally we also demonstrate that effective preasymptotic models that do not adequately account for velocity correlations will also not predict asymptotic dispersion coefficients correctly.

  20. The effects of general and homophobic victimization on adolescents' psychosocial and educational concerns: the importance of intersecting identities and parent support.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Mereish, Ethan H; Digiovanni, Craig D; Koenig, Brian W

    2011-10-01

    Many adolescents experience peer victimization, which often can be homophobic. Applying the minority stress model with attention to intersecting social identities, this study tested the effects of general and homophobic victimization on several educational outcomes through suicidality and school belonging among 15,923 adolescents in Grades 7 through 12 on account of their sexual orientation and race/ethnicity. Parent support also was tested as a moderator of these effects. Homophobic victimization had different effects on suicidality across groups, indicating the importance of considering individuals' multiple social identities. However, homophobic victimization had universal negative effects on school belonging for all groups. Nearly all indirect effects of general and homophobic victimization on reported grades, truancy, and importance of graduating were significant through suicidality and school belonging across groups. Parent support was most consistent in moderating the effects of general and homophobic victimization on suicidality for heterosexual White and racial/ethnic minority youth. In nearly all cases, it did not moderate the effects of general or homophobic victimization for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth. Furthermore, in most cases, parent support did not moderate the effects of general or homophobic victimization on school belonging. Findings underscore the need for counseling psychologists to work with parents of all youth on ways to provide support to those who experience homophobic victimization. Furthermore, they highlight the need for counseling psychologists to be involved as social justice advocates in the passage and implementation of school policies that address homophobic bullying and other forms of bias-based bullying and harassment. PMID:21859187

  1. Spatial-scale effects on relative importance of physical habitat predictors of stream health.

    PubMed

    Frimpong, Emmanuel A; Sutton, Trent M; Engel, Bernard A; Simon, Thomas P

    2005-12-01

    A common theme in recent landscape studies is the comparison of riparian and watershed land use as predictors of stream health. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of reach-scale habitat and remotely assessed watershed-scale habitat as predictors of stream health over varying spatial extents. Stream health was measured with scores on a fish index of biotic integrity (IBI) using data from 95 stream reaches in the Eastern Corn Belt Plain (ECBP) ecoregion of Indiana. Watersheds hierarchically nested within the ecoregion were used to regroup sampling locations to represent varying spatial extents. Reach habitat was represented by metrics of a qualitative habitat evaluation index, whereas watershed variables were represented by riparian forest, geomorphology, and hydrologic indices. The importance of reach- versus watershed-scale variables was measured by multiple regression model adjusted-R2 and best subset comparisons in the general linear statistical framework. Watershed models had adjusted-R2 ranging from 0.25 to 0.93 and reach models had adjusted-R2 ranging from 0.09 to 0.86. Better-fitting models were associated with smaller spatial extents. Watershed models explained about 15% more variation in IBI scores than reach models on average. Variety of surficial geology contributed to decline in model predictive power. Results should be interpreted bearing in mind that reach habitat was qualitatively measured and only fish assemblages were used to measure stream health. Riparian forest and length-slope (LS) factor were the most important watershed-scale variables and mostly positively correlated with IBI scores, whereas substrate and riffle-pool quality were the important reach-scale variables in the ECBP.

  2. Health effects of residential wood smoke particles: the importance of combustion conditions and physicochemical particle properties

    PubMed Central

    Kocbach Bølling, Anette; Pagels, Joakim; Yttri, Karl Espen; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Schwarze, Per E; Boman, Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    Background Residential wood combustion is now recognized as a major particle source in many developed countries, and the number of studies investigating the negative health effects associated with wood smoke exposure is currently increasing. The combustion appliances in use today provide highly variable combustion conditions resulting in large variations in the physicochemical characteristics of the emitted particles. These differences in physicochemical properties are likely to influence the biological effects induced by the wood smoke particles. Outline The focus of this review is to discuss the present knowledge on physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles from different combustion conditions in relation to wood smoke-induced health effects. In addition, the human wood smoke exposure in developed countries is explored in order to identify the particle characteristics that are relevant for experimental studies of wood smoke-induced health effects. Finally, recent experimental studies regarding wood smoke exposure are discussed with respect to the applied combustion conditions and particle properties. Conclusion Overall, the reviewed literature regarding the physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles provides a relatively clear picture of how these properties vary with the combustion conditions, whereas particle emissions from specific classes of combustion appliances are less well characterised. The major gaps in knowledge concern; (i) characterisation of the atmospheric transformations of wood smoke particles, (ii) characterisation of the physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles in ambient and indoor environments, and (iii) identification of the physicochemical properties that influence the biological effects of wood smoke particles. PMID:19891791

  3. Evolution in response to social selection: the importance of interactive effects of traits on fitness.

    PubMed

    Westneat, David F

    2012-03-01

    Social interactions have a powerful effect on the evolutionary process. Recent attempts to synthesize models of social selection with equations for indirect genetic effects (McGlothlin et al. 2010) provide a broad theoretical base from which to study selection and evolutionary response in the context of social interactions. However, this framework concludes that social selection will lead to evolution only if the traits carried by social partners are nonrandomly associated. I suggest this conclusion is incomplete, and that traits that do not covary between social partners can nevertheless lead to evolution via interactive effects on fitness. Such effects occur when there are functional interactions between traits, and as an example I use the interplay in water striders (Gerridae) between grasping appendages carried by males and spines by females. Functional interactive effects between traits can be incorporated into both the equations for social selection and the general model of social evolution proposed by McGlothlin et al. These expanded equations would accommodate adaptive coevolution in social interactions, integrate the quantitative genetic approach to social evolution with game theoretical approaches, and stimulate some new questions about the process of social evolution.

  4. Pathogenic marine microbes influence the effects of climate change on a commercially important tropical bivalve.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lucy M; Alsterberg, Christian; Turner, Andrew D; Girisha, S K; Rai, Ashwin; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Venugopal, M N; Karunasagar, Indrani; Godhe, Anna

    2016-08-31

    There is growing evidence that climate change will increase the prevalence of toxic algae and harmful bacteria, which can accumulate in marine bivalves. However, we know little about any possible interactions between exposure to these microorganisms and the effects of climate change on bivalve health, or about how this may affect the bivalve toxin-pathogen load. In mesocosm experiments, mussels, Perna viridis, were subjected to simulated climate change (warming and/or hyposalinity) and exposed to harmful bacteria and/or toxin-producing dinoflagellates. We found significant interactions between climate change and these microbes on metabolic and/or immunobiological function and toxin-pathogen load in mussels. Surprisingly, however, these effects were virtually eliminated when mussels were exposed to both harmful microorganisms simultaneously. This study is the first to examine the effects of climate change on determining mussel toxin-pathogen load in an ecologically relevant, multi-trophic context. The results may have considerable implications for seafood safety.

  5. Differential Effects of Parental Controls on Adolescent Substance Use: For Whom Is the Family Most Important?

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Van Horn, M. Lee; Hawkins, J. David; Jaki, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objective Social control theory assumes that the ability of social constraints to deter juvenile delinquency will be invariant across individuals. This paper tests this hypothesis and examines the degree to which there are differential effects of parental controls on adolescent substance use. Methods Analyses are based on self-reported data from 7,349 10th-grade students and rely on regression mixture models to identify latent classes of individuals who may vary in the effects of parental controls on drug use. Results All parental controls were significantly related to adolescent drug use, with higher levels of control associated with less drug use. The effects of instrumental parental controls (e.g., parental management strategies) on drug use were shown to vary across individuals, while expressive controls (e.g., parent/child attachment) had uniform effects in reducing drug use. Specifically, poor family management and more favorable parental attitudes regarding children’s drug use and delinquency had stronger effects on drug use for students who reported greater attachment to their neighborhoods, less acceptance of adolescent drug use by neighborhood residents, and fewer delinquent peers, compared to those with greater community and peer risk exposure. Parental influences were also stronger for Caucasian students versus those from other racial/ethnic groups, but no differences in effects were found based on students’ gender or commitment to school. Conclusions The findings demonstrate support for social control theory, and also help to refine and add precision to this perspective by identifying groups of individuals for whom parental controls are most influential. Further, they offer an innovative methodology that can be applied to any criminological theory to examine the complex forces that result in illegal behavior. PMID:25339794

  6. Importance of cost-effectiveness and value in cancer care and healthcare policy

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ravinder; Goodney, Philip P.; Wong, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    The cost of cancer care in the U.S. has increased by fivefold over the last three decades. Rising cancer prevalence, costly pharmaceuticals, physician and facility fees have all contributed to the expenditure. As our healthcare system shifts from volume to value, greater scrutiny of interventions with clinical equipoise is required. Traditionally, quality adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) have served as surrogate markers for value. However, these calculations fail to incorporate population or patient preferences. The diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer, breast cancer and thyroid cancer are used as a framework to discuss value and cost-effectiveness. PMID:27334052

  7. Global environmental change effects on ecosystems: the importance of land-use legacies.

    PubMed

    Perring, Michael P; De Frenne, Pieter; Baeten, Lander; Maes, Sybryn L; Depauw, Leen; Blondeel, Haben; Carón, María M; Verheyen, Kris

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in ecology is to predict how multiple global environmental changes will affect future ecosystem patterns (e.g. plant community composition) and processes (e.g. nutrient cycling). Here, we highlight arguments for the necessary inclusion of land-use legacies in this endeavour. Alterations in resources and conditions engendered by previous land use, together with influences on plant community processes such as dispersal, selection, drift and speciation, have steered communities and ecosystem functions onto trajectories of change. These trajectories may be modulated by contemporary environmental changes such as climate warming and nitrogen deposition. We performed a literature review which suggests that these potential interactions have rarely been investigated. This crucial oversight is potentially due to an assumption that knowledge of the contemporary state allows accurate projection into the future. Lessons from other complex dynamic systems, and the recent recognition of the importance of previous conditions in explaining contemporary and future ecosystem properties, demand the testing of this assumption. Vegetation resurvey databases across gradients of land use and environmental change, complemented by rigorous experiments, offer a means to test for interactions between land-use legacies and multiple environmental changes. Implementing these tests in the context of a trait-based framework will allow biologists to synthesize compositional and functional ecosystem responses. This will further our understanding of the importance of land-use legacies in determining future ecosystem properties, and soundly inform conservation and restoration management actions. PMID:26546049

  8. Global environmental change effects on ecosystems: the importance of land-use legacies.

    PubMed

    Perring, Michael P; De Frenne, Pieter; Baeten, Lander; Maes, Sybryn L; Depauw, Leen; Blondeel, Haben; Carón, María M; Verheyen, Kris

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in ecology is to predict how multiple global environmental changes will affect future ecosystem patterns (e.g. plant community composition) and processes (e.g. nutrient cycling). Here, we highlight arguments for the necessary inclusion of land-use legacies in this endeavour. Alterations in resources and conditions engendered by previous land use, together with influences on plant community processes such as dispersal, selection, drift and speciation, have steered communities and ecosystem functions onto trajectories of change. These trajectories may be modulated by contemporary environmental changes such as climate warming and nitrogen deposition. We performed a literature review which suggests that these potential interactions have rarely been investigated. This crucial oversight is potentially due to an assumption that knowledge of the contemporary state allows accurate projection into the future. Lessons from other complex dynamic systems, and the recent recognition of the importance of previous conditions in explaining contemporary and future ecosystem properties, demand the testing of this assumption. Vegetation resurvey databases across gradients of land use and environmental change, complemented by rigorous experiments, offer a means to test for interactions between land-use legacies and multiple environmental changes. Implementing these tests in the context of a trait-based framework will allow biologists to synthesize compositional and functional ecosystem responses. This will further our understanding of the importance of land-use legacies in determining future ecosystem properties, and soundly inform conservation and restoration management actions.

  9. Shift in power to hospital accountants.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, L G; Rayburn, J M

    1996-01-01

    With the introduction of the Prospective Payment System, hospital accountants' role changed from reimbursement maximizers to an important role in decision making. Faced with increased competition, many hospitals are installing financial controls. Many hospitals are engaging in promotion and health awareness campaigns and expanding their services to stabilize income and reduce the effects of a changing environment. Thus, hospitals operate in a more competitive environment with much uncertainty. When faced with uncertainty, organizations often believe that they must convince society that their existence is legitimate. Increasing specialization and organizational complexity in healthcare professions have made the expert important. Experts, such as the role assumed by hospital accountants, maintain power because the organization depends on them for their special skills and information. Scarce resources coupled with uncertainty move hospital accountants as experts into the power equation in the changing control of the U.S. healthcare system. Since accountants often serve as monitors of scarce resources, information about the resource allocation directly affects the distribution of power. This places hospital accountants in a critical role of assisting their institutions in adapting to a new environment.

  10. Making Subjective Judgments in Quantitative Studies: The Importance of Using Effect Sizes and Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Jamie L.; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    At least twenty-three journals in the social sciences purportedly require authors to report effect sizes and, to a much lesser extent, confidence intervals; yet these requirements are rarely clear in the information for contributors. This article reviews some of the literature criticizing the exclusive use of null hypothesis significance testing…

  11. The importance of being thiomethylated: formation, fate, and effects of methylated thioarsenicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    AbstractAlthough inorganic arsenic has long been recognized as a potent toxicant and carcinogen in humans, recent evidence shows that at least some of its effects are mediated by methylated metabolites. Elucidating the conversion of inorganic arsenic to mono-, di-, and tri-methyl...

  12. The Importance of Student Centered Democratic Education & the Effects on Placement of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudsen, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the theoretical framework upon which a democratic classroom is based, and the effects that a curriculum based on social justice has on English Language Learners (ELLs). Furthermore, it explores authentic means of assessing ELLs, in addition to other more traditional and standardized testing. In a social justice framework, all…

  13. The Importance of Indirect Teaching Behaviour and Its Educational Effects in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Hyunwoo; Choi, Euichang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical education teacher behaviour has been a subject of study in physical education including physical education teacher education for 30 years. However, the research on teacher behaviour has tended to focus on direct teaching behaviour (DTB) to demonstrate the benefits of effective teaching, centred on a technical understanding of…

  14. Hitting the Nail on the Head: The Importance of Specific Staff Development for Effective Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Tessa

    2012-01-01

    Developing effective teaching practices within the higher education sector is an area of growing concern. Universities within the UK are judged on their competence in this area by mechanisms such as the National Student Survey and universities are anxious to be perceived as offering good quality teaching and learning experiences. The use of…

  15. Asking effective questions: an important leadership role to support quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Coffey, R J; Jones, L; Kowalkowski, A; Browne, J

    1993-10-01

    Effective questions stimulate, guide, and empower employees to think critically about the improvement processes that they are involved in as team leaders or team members in their daily activities. Learn how questions must be carefully phrased in order to provide guidance and maintain the integrity of the team's ability to choose options and implement change.

  16. Wheat forecast economics effect study. [value of improved information on crop inventories, production, imports and exports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehra, R. K.; Rouhani, R.; Jones, S.; Schick, I.

    1980-01-01

    A model to assess the value of improved information regarding the inventories, productions, exports, and imports of crop on a worldwide basis is discussed. A previously proposed model is interpreted in a stochastic control setting and the underlying assumptions of the model are revealed. In solving the stochastic optimization problem, the Markov programming approach is much more powerful and exact as compared to the dynamic programming-simulation approach of the original model. The convergence of a dual variable Markov programming algorithm is shown to be fast and efficient. A computer program for the general model of multicountry-multiperiod is developed. As an example, the case of one country-two periods is treated and the results are presented in detail. A comparison with the original model results reveals certain interesting aspects of the algorithms and the dependence of the value of information on the incremental cost function.

  17. Importance and effects of altered workplace ergonomics in modern radiology suites.

    PubMed

    Harisinghani, Mukesh G; Blake, Michael A; Saksena, Mansi; Hahn, Peter F; Gervais, Debra; Zalis, Michael; da Silva Dias Fernandes, Leonor; Mueller, Peter R

    2004-01-01

    The transition from a film-based to a filmless soft-copy picture archiving and communication system (PACS)-based environment has resulted in improved work flow as well as increased productivity, diagnostic accuracy, and job satisfaction. Adapting to this filmless environment in an efficient manner requires seamless integration of various components such as PACS workstations, the Internet and hospital intranet, speech recognition software, paperless electronic hospital medical records, e-mail, office software, and telecommunications. However, the importance of optimizing workplace ergonomics has received little attention. Factors such as the position of the work chair, workstation table, keyboard, mouse, and monitors, along with monitor refresh rates and ambient room lighting, have become secondary considerations. Paying close attention to the basics of workplace ergonomics can go a long way in increasing productivity and reducing fatigue, thus allowing full realization of the potential benefits of a PACS. Optimization of workplace ergonomics should be considered in the basic design of any modern radiology suite.

  18. The Voluntary System of Accountability for Accountability and Institutional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Christine M.; Hammang, John M.

    2008-01-01

    The Voluntary System of Accountability (VSA) provides a framework for public universities to provide evidence of success and increase public confidence. The goals of the VSA are threefold: (1) Demonstrate greater accountability and stewardship to the public; (2) Enhance effective educational practices by measuring educational outcomes; and (3)…

  19. Importance of pulse reversal effect of CdSe thin films for optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saaminathan, V.; Murali, K. R.

    2005-06-01

    Systematic studies of cadmium selenide thin films were prepared by without and with pulse reversal plating technique. In the present work, preparation of CdSe thin films was reported with lower duty cycle and pulse reversal effect. Due to these effects electrical and opto-electronic property of the material were changed. The thin film of CdSe was deposited on cleaned conducting substrates like titanium, SnO 2, nickel and stainless steel, respectively. The pulse plated CdSe films without and with pulse reversal films were heat treated and characterized by XRD, optical studies, scanning electron microscopy and photo electrochemical properties. Semiconductor parameters were estimated for without and with pulse plating technique. The barrier height Φ was calculated for CdSe deposited on different conducting substrates.

  20. Wound-bed preparation: the importance of rapid and effective desloughing to promote healing.

    PubMed

    Milne, Jeanette

    2015-11-11

    This article describes effective ways of diagnosing and removing slough from a wound bed. It highlights how slough is a key contributor to wound chronicity, and gives practical clinical information on how to address this. The various methods of removing slough will be discussed including the mechanism of action of dressings and other mechanical methods. The ultimate objective of the article is to put the term desloughing on the clinical agenda and increase clinician familiarity with it. The practical focus of the article will help clinicians select a proven method to facilitate the rapid removal of slough, it is hoped that in doing so this will help to prevent chronicity, reduce the potential for bacterial proliferation and promote rapid and effective wound healing outcomes.

  1. Pathogenic marine microbes influence the effects of climate change on a commercially important tropical bivalve

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Lucy M.; Alsterberg, Christian; Turner, Andrew D.; Girisha, S. K.; Rai, Ashwin; Havenhand, Jonathan N.; Venugopal, M. N.; Karunasagar, Indrani; Godhe, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that climate change will increase the prevalence of toxic algae and harmful bacteria, which can accumulate in marine bivalves. However, we know little about any possible interactions between exposure to these microorganisms and the effects of climate change on bivalve health, or about how this may affect the bivalve toxin-pathogen load. In mesocosm experiments, mussels, Perna viridis, were subjected to simulated climate change (warming and/or hyposalinity) and exposed to harmful bacteria and/or toxin-producing dinoflagellates. We found significant interactions between climate change and these microbes on metabolic and/or immunobiological function and toxin-pathogen load in mussels. Surprisingly, however, these effects were virtually eliminated when mussels were exposed to both harmful microorganisms simultaneously. This study is the first to examine the effects of climate change on determining mussel toxin-pathogen load in an ecologically relevant, multi-trophic context. The results may have considerable implications for seafood safety. PMID:27576351

  2. The importance of context dependency for understanding the effects of low flow events on fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, Annika W.

    2014-01-01

    The natural hydrology of streams and rivers has been extensively altered by dam construction, water diversion, and climate change. An increased frequency of low-flow events will affect fish by changing habitat availability, resource availability, and reproductive cues. I reviewed the literature to characterize the approaches taken to assess low-flow events and fish, the main effects of low-flow events on fish, and the associated mechanistic drivers. Most studies are focused on temperate streams and are comparative in nature. Decreased stream flow is associated with decreased survival, growth, and abundance of fish populations and shifts in community composition, but effects are variable. This variability in effects is probably caused by context dependence. I propose 3 main sources of context dependence that drive the variation in fish responses to low-flow events: attributes of the low-flow event, attributes of the habitat, and attributes of the fish. Awareness of these sources of context dependence can help managers interpret and explain data, predict vulnerability of fish communities, and prioritize appropriate management actions.

  3. Pathogenic marine microbes influence the effects of climate change on a commercially important tropical bivalve.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lucy M; Alsterberg, Christian; Turner, Andrew D; Girisha, S K; Rai, Ashwin; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Venugopal, M N; Karunasagar, Indrani; Godhe, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that climate change will increase the prevalence of toxic algae and harmful bacteria, which can accumulate in marine bivalves. However, we know little about any possible interactions between exposure to these microorganisms and the effects of climate change on bivalve health, or about how this may affect the bivalve toxin-pathogen load. In mesocosm experiments, mussels, Perna viridis, were subjected to simulated climate change (warming and/or hyposalinity) and exposed to harmful bacteria and/or toxin-producing dinoflagellates. We found significant interactions between climate change and these microbes on metabolic and/or immunobiological function and toxin-pathogen load in mussels. Surprisingly, however, these effects were virtually eliminated when mussels were exposed to both harmful microorganisms simultaneously. This study is the first to examine the effects of climate change on determining mussel toxin-pathogen load in an ecologically relevant, multi-trophic context. The results may have considerable implications for seafood safety. PMID:27576351

  4. Evaluating the Effects of Climate Change on Water Supplies and Operations: How Important are Feedbacks between Groundwater and Surface Water Use and Management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, I. M.; Hanson, R. T.; Boyce, S. E.; Llewellyn, D.

    2015-12-01

    subsequent changes in baseflow and seepage, can significantly exacerbate the direct effects of climate change on surface water. These results, while limited to a simple test case, underscore the importance of accounting for the coupled response of surface-water and groundwater management in climate change analyses.

  5. Edge effects are important in supporting beetle biodiversity in a gravel-bed river floodplain.

    PubMed

    Langhans, Simone D; Tockner, Klement

    2014-01-01

    Understanding complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems is essential for developing sound management and conservation strategies. Gravel-bed river floodplains are composed of an interlinked mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial habitats hosting a diverse, specialized, and endangered fauna. Therefore, they serve as excellent models to investigate the biodiversity of multiple ecotones and related edge effects. In this study, we investigated the abundance, composition, richness, and conservation status of beetle assemblages at varying sediment depth (0, 0.1, 0.6 and 1.1 m), distance from the channel (1, 5, 20, and 60-100 m, and 5 m within the riparian forest), and time of the year (February-November) across a 200 m-wide gravel bar at the near-natural Tagliamento River (Italy), to detect edge effects in four floodplain ecotones: aquatic-terrestrial, forest-active floodplain, sediment-air, and sediment-groundwater. We used conventional pitfall traps and novel tube traps to sample beetles comparably on the sediment surface and within the unsaturated sediments. We found a total of 308 beetle species (including 87 of conservation concern) that showed multiple, significant positive edge effects across the floodplain ecotones, mainly driven by spatial heterogeneity: Total and red list beetle abundance and richness peaked on the sediment surface, at channel margins, and at the edge of the riparian forest. All ecotones possessed edge/habitat specialists. Most red list species occurred on the sediment surface, including five species previously considered extinct--yet two of these species occurred in higher densities in the unsaturated sediments. Conservation and management efforts along gravel-bed rivers must therefore promote a dynamic flow and sediment regime to create and maintain habitat heterogeneity and ecotone diversity, which support a unique and high biodiversity. PMID:25545280

  6. Edge Effects Are Important in Supporting Beetle Biodiversity in a Gravel-Bed River Floodplain

    PubMed Central

    Langhans, Simone D.; Tockner, Klement

    2014-01-01

    Understanding complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems is essential for developing sound management and conservation strategies. Gravel-bed river floodplains are composed of an interlinked mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial habitats hosting a diverse, specialized, and endangered fauna. Therefore, they serve as excellent models to investigate the biodiversity of multiple ecotones and related edge effects. In this study, we investigated the abundance, composition, richness, and conservation status of beetle assemblages at varying sediment depth (0, 0.1, 0.6 and 1.1 m), distance from the channel (1, 5, 20, and 60–100 m, and 5 m within the riparian forest), and time of the year (February–November) across a 200 m-wide gravel bar at the near-natural Tagliamento River (Italy), to detect edge effects in four floodplain ecotones: aquatic-terrestrial, forest-active floodplain, sediment-air, and sediment-groundwater. We used conventional pitfall traps and novel tube traps to sample beetles comparably on the sediment surface and within the unsaturated sediments. We found a total of 308 beetle species (including 87 of conservation concern) that showed multiple, significant positive edge effects across the floodplain ecotones, mainly driven by spatial heterogeneity: Total and red list beetle abundance and richness peaked on the sediment surface, at channel margins, and at the edge of the riparian forest. All ecotones possessed edge/habitat specialists. Most red list species occurred on the sediment surface, including five species previously considered extinct – yet two of these species occurred in higher densities in the unsaturated sediments. Conservation and management efforts along gravel-bed rivers must therefore promote a dynamic flow and sediment regime to create and maintain habitat heterogeneity and ecotone diversity, which support a unique and high biodiversity. PMID:25545280

  7. Agricultural effects on amphibian parasitism: importance of general habitat perturbations and parasite life cycles.

    PubMed

    Koprivnikar, Janet; Redfern, Julia C

    2012-10-01

    Agricultural activity can alter host-parasite interactions through associated contaminants and habitat perturbations. It is critical to determine whether agricultural effects are widespread or limited to specific types of agriculture. We examined influences of soybean agriculture on trematode parasitism of larval amphibians (grey tree frogs; Hyla versicolor) to assess the potential effects of a commonly applied pesticide (glyphosate) and landscape factors relative to previous field studies focusing on the herbicide atrazine. Overall, trematode parasite infection did not differ between soybean-adjacent and nonagricultural ponds (87.7% and 72.6% mean infection, respectively). However, host-generalist echinostome species were more common in tadpoles from soybean-associated ponds (86.3% mean infection versus 36.2% in nonagricultural ponds) as well as sites with large or short average distances to forest cover and roads, respectively. In contrast, the occurrence of a host-specialist (Alaria sp.) group was greater in nonagricultural ponds (50.3% mean infection versus 9.8% in soybean-associated ponds) and increased with shorter distances to the closest forest patch and smaller average forest distance. Because glyphosate was not detected at any site and landscape influences were parasite-specific, we suggest that agriculture may have broad effects on wildlife diseases through habitat alterations that affect pathogen transmission via host habitat suitability. Notably, nonagricultural ponds had a lower mean distance to the nearest forest patch and lower mean forest distance compared with soybean-adjacent ponds. As a result, we emphasize the need for wider investigations of habitat perturbations generally associated with agriculture for host-pathogen interactions, and consequently, wildlife conservation and management strategies.

  8. Edge effects are important in supporting beetle biodiversity in a gravel-bed river floodplain.

    PubMed

    Langhans, Simone D; Tockner, Klement

    2014-01-01

    Understanding complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems is essential for developing sound management and conservation strategies. Gravel-bed river floodplains are composed of an interlinked mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial habitats hosting a diverse, specialized, and endangered fauna. Therefore, they serve as excellent models to investigate the biodiversity of multiple ecotones and related edge effects. In this study, we investigated the abundance, composition, richness, and conservation status of beetle assemblages at varying sediment depth (0, 0.1, 0.6 and 1.1 m), distance from the channel (1, 5, 20, and 60-100 m, and 5 m within the riparian forest), and time of the year (February-November) across a 200 m-wide gravel bar at the near-natural Tagliamento River (Italy), to detect edge effects in four floodplain ecotones: aquatic-terrestrial, forest-active floodplain, sediment-air, and sediment-groundwater. We used conventional pitfall traps and novel tube traps to sample beetles comparably on the sediment surface and within the unsaturated sediments. We found a total of 308 beetle species (including 87 of conservation concern) that showed multiple, significant positive edge effects across the floodplain ecotones, mainly driven by spatial heterogeneity: Total and red list beetle abundance and richness peaked on the sediment surface, at channel margins, and at the edge of the riparian forest. All ecotones possessed edge/habitat specialists. Most red list species occurred on the sediment surface, including five species previously considered extinct--yet two of these species occurred in higher densities in the unsaturated sediments. Conservation and management efforts along gravel-bed rivers must therefore promote a dynamic flow and sediment regime to create and maintain habitat heterogeneity and ecotone diversity, which support a unique and high biodiversity.

  9. Effect of different pollutants on ecologically important polychaete worms. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reish, D.J.

    1980-06-01

    The procedures for culturing marine polychaetous annelids from egg to egg under laboratory conditions were described. A manual was prepared detailing the procedures used in culturing 12 species of polychaetes. The effects of heavy metals and the water soluble fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons were measured over 96 hours, 28 days, and with some of the toxicants, over a complete reproductive cycle for some of these species of polychaetes. Mercury and copper were the most toxic of the six metals tested and cadmium was the least toxic. The 28-day LC50 was less than the 96-hour value in most experiments.

  10. Gas adsorption and desorption effects on cylinders and their importance for long-term gas records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuenberger, M. C.; Schibig, M. F.; Nyfeler, P.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that gases adsorb on many surfaces, in particular metal surfaces. There are two main forms responsible for these effects (i) physisorption and (ii) chemisorption. Physisorption is associated with lower binding energies in the order of 1-10 kJ mol-1, compared to chemisorption which ranges from 100 to 1000 kJ mol-1. Furthermore, chemisorption only forms monolayers, contrasting physisorption that can form multilayer adsorption. The reverse process is called desorption and follows similar mathematical laws; however, it can be influenced by hysteresis effects. In the present experiment, we investigated the adsorption/desorption phenomena on three steel and three aluminium cylinders containing compressed air in our laboratory and under controlled conditions in a climate chamber, respectively. Our observations from completely decanting one steel and two aluminium cylinders are in agreement with the pressure dependence of physisorption for CO2, CH4, and H2O. The CO2 results for both cylinder types are in excellent agreement with the pressure dependence of a monolayer adsorption model. However, mole fraction changes due to adsorption on aluminium (< 0.05 and 0 ppm for CO2 and H2O) were significantly lower than on steel (< 0.41 ppm and about < 2.5 ppm, respectively). The CO2 amount adsorbed (5.8 × 1019 CO2 molecules) corresponds to about the fivefold monolayer adsorption, indicating that the effective surface exposed for adsorption is significantly larger than the geometric surface area. Adsorption/desorption effects were minimal for CH4 and for CO but require further attention since they were only studied on one aluminium cylinder with a very low mole fraction. In the climate chamber, the cylinders were exposed to temperatures between -10 and +50 °C to determine the corresponding temperature coefficients of adsorption. Again, we found distinctly different values for CO2, ranging from 0.0014 to 0.0184 ppm °C-1 for steel cylinders and -0.0002 to -0

  11. Integrative Toxicoproteomics Implicates Impaired Mitochondrial Glutathione Import as an Off-Target Effect of Troglitazone

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Troglitazone, a first-generation thiazolidinedione of antihyperglycaemic properties, was withdrawn from the market due to unacceptable idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. Despite intensive research, the underlying mechanism of troglitazone-induced liver toxicity remains unknown. Here we report the use of the Sod2+/– mouse model of silent mitochondrial oxidative-stress-based and quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics to track the mitochondrial proteome changes induced by physiologically relevant troglitazone doses. By quantitative untargeted proteomics, we first globally profiled the Sod2+/– hepatic mitochondria proteome and found perturbations including GSH metabolism that enhanced the toxicity of the normally nontoxic troglitazone. Short- and long-term troglitazone administration in Sod2+/– mouse led to a mitochondrial proteome shift from an early compensatory response to an eventual phase of intolerable oxidative stress, due to decreased mitochondrial glutathione (mGSH) import protein, decreased dicarboxylate ion carrier (DIC), and the specific activation of ASK1-JNK and FOXO3a with prolonged troglitazone exposure. Furthermore, mapping of the detected proteins onto mouse specific protein-centered networks revealed lipid-associated proteins as contributors to overt mitochondrial and liver injury when under prolonged exposure to the lipid-normalizing troglitazone. By integrative toxicoproteomics, we demonstrated a powerful systems approach in identifying the collapse of specific fragile nodes and activation of crucial proteome reconfiguration regulators when targeted by an exogenous toxicant. PMID:23659346

  12. Effects of Photoirradiation on Natural Organic Matter: Importance for Studies of Stream Hydrobiogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice, P. A.; Golden, S. M.; Pullin, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is a key component of lakes, streams, and wetlands, and it plays an important role in many biogeochemical processes. We investigated changes in molecular weight (by size exclusion chromatography, SEC), fluorescence, and UV/Vis absorbance of bulk filtered surface water NOM (SW) and XAD-8 and XAD-4 isolates upon irradiation in a solar simulator to 48 hours. Upon irradiation of SW and XAD-8 samples, the higher molecular weight NOM components were initially degraded to form more fluorescent intermediate molecular weight components, along with lower molecular weight components. After several hours of irradiation, the intermediate molecular weight fluorescent components degraded; little or no production of lower molecular weight components was detected by SEC. Hence, the overall sample fluorescence increased within the first few hours of irradiation and then decreased. The XAD-4 isolate did not contain high molecular weight components that could break down to form additional fluorescent components; therefore, irradiation resulted in a more simple and continuous decrease in molecular weight and fluorescence. Ongoing studies are focusing on the potential role of Fe in the observed changes to the NOM properties. These results demonstrate that photo-induced changes in NOM properties are a complex function of sample composition as well as amount of exposure to sunlight. This research further indicates that studies of NOM-related processes in surface waters need to consider the potential for a complex sequence of photo-induced changes to the NOM properties that are likely to affect reactivity.

  13. Importance and effects of altered workplace ergonomics in modern radiology suites.

    PubMed

    Harisinghani, Mukesh G; Blake, Michael A; Saksena, Mansi; Hahn, Peter F; Gervais, Debra; Zalis, Michael; da Silva Dias Fernandes, Leonor; Mueller, Peter R

    2004-01-01

    The transition from a film-based to a filmless soft-copy picture archiving and communication system (PACS)-based environment has resulted in improved work flow as well as increased productivity, diagnostic accuracy, and job satisfaction. Adapting to this filmless environment in an efficient manner requires seamless integration of various components such as PACS workstations, the Internet and hospital intranet, speech recognition software, paperless electronic hospital medical records, e-mail, office software, and telecommunications. However, the importance of optimizing workplace ergonomics has received little attention. Factors such as the position of the work chair, workstation table, keyboard, mouse, and monitors, along with monitor refresh rates and ambient room lighting, have become secondary considerations. Paying close attention to the basics of workplace ergonomics can go a long way in increasing productivity and reducing fatigue, thus allowing full realization of the potential benefits of a PACS. Optimization of workplace ergonomics should be considered in the basic design of any modern radiology suite. PMID:15026606

  14. Effective follow-up consultations: the importance of patient-centered communication and shared decision making.

    PubMed

    Brand, Paul L P; Stiggelbout, Anne M

    2013-12-01

    Paediatricians spend a considerable proportion of their time performing follow-up visits for children with chronic conditions, but they rarely receive specific training on how best to perform such consultations. The traditional method of running a follow-up consultation is based on the doctor's agenda, and is problem-oriented. Patients and parents, however, prefer a patient-centered, and solution-focused approach. Although many physicians now recognize the importance of addressing the patient's perspective in a follow-up consultation, a number of barriers hamper its implementation in practice, including time constraints, lack of appropriate training, and a strong tradition of the biomedical, doctor-centered approach. Addressing the patient's perspective successfully can be achieved through shared decision making, clinicians and patients making decisions together based on the best clinical evidence. Research shows that shared decision making not only increases patient, parent, and physician satisfaction with the consultation, but also may improve health outcomes. Shared decision making involves building a physician-patient-parent partnership, agreeing on the problem at hand, laying out the available options with their benefits and risks, eliciting the patient's views and preferences on these options, and agreeing on a course of action. Shared decision making requires specific communication skills, which can be learned, and should be mastered through deliberate practice.

  15. NHE8 plays an important role in mucosal protection via its effect on bacterial adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Xu, Hua; Zhang, Bo; Johansson, Malin E. V.; Li, Jing; Hansson, Gunnar C.

    2013-01-01

    The Na+/H+ exchanger NHE8 is expressed on the apical membrane of intestinal epithelial cells and is particularly abundant in the colon. Our previous study showed that Muc2 expression was significantly reduced in NHE8-knockout (NHE8−/−) mice, suggesting that NHE8 plays a role in mucosal protection in the colon. The current study confirms and extends our studies on the role of NHE8 in mucosal protection. The number of bacteria attached on the distal colon was significantly increased in NHE8−/− mice compared with their wild-type littermates. As expected, IL-4 expression was markedly increased in NHE8−/− mice compared with wild-type mice. Immunohistochemistry showed disorganization in the mucin layer of NHE8−/− mice, suggesting a possible direct bacteria-epithelia interaction. Furthermore, NHE8−/− mice were susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate-induced mucosal injury. In wild-type mice, dextran sodium sulfate treatment inhibited colonic NHE8 expression. In Caco-2 cells, the absence of NHE8 expression resulted in higher adhesion rates of Salmonella typhimurium but not Lactobacillus plantarum. Similarly, in vivo, S. typhimurium adhesion rate was increased in NHE8−/− mice compared with wild-type mice. Our study suggests that NHE8 plays important roles in protecting intestinal epithelia from infectious bacterial adherence. PMID:23657568

  16. p53 is important for the anti-proliferative effect of ibuprofen in colon carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, Astrid; Schiffmann, Susanne; Birod, Kerstin; Maier, Thorsten J.; Wobst, Ivonne; Geisslinger, Gerd

    2008-01-25

    S-ibuprofen which inhibits the cyclooxygenase-1/-2 and R-ibuprofen which shows no COX-inhibition at therapeutic concentrations have anti-carcinogenic effects in human colon cancer cells; however, the molecular mechanisms for these effects are still unknown. Using HCT-116 colon carcinoma cell lines, expressing either the wild-type form of p53 (HCT-116 p53{sup wt}) or being p(HCT-116 p53{sup -/-}), we demonstrated that both induction of a cell cycle block and apoptosis after S- and R-ibuprofen treatment is in part dependent on p53. Also in the in vivo nude mice model HCT-116 p53{sup -/-} xenografts were less sensitive for S- and R-ibuprofen treatment than HCT-116 p53{sup wt} cells. Furthermore, results indicate that induction of apoptosis in HCT-116 p53{sup wt} cells after ibuprofen treatment is in part dependent on a signalling pathway including the neutrophin receptor p75{sup NTR}, p53 and Bax.

  17. Thermal conductivity of highly asymmetric binary mixtures: how important are heat/mass coupling effects?

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jeff; Bresme, Fernando

    2014-06-28

    The coupling of mass and heat fluxes is responsible for the Soret effect in fluid mixtures containing particles of dissimilar mass and/or size. We investigate using equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations the relevance of these coupling effects in determining the thermal transport in fluids consisting of binary mixtures where the individual components feature significant mass, 1 : 8, or size, 1 : 3, asymmetries. We quantify the thermal transport by using both boundary driven molecular dynamics simulations (NEMD) and the equilibrium Green-Kubo (GK) approach and investigate the impact of different heat flux definitions, relevant in kinetic theory and experiments, in the quantification of the thermal conductivity. We find that the thermal conductivities obtained from the different definitions agree within numerical accuracy, suggesting that the Soret coefficient does not lead to significant changes in the thermal conduction, even for the large asymmetries considered here, which lead to significant Soret coefficients (∼10(-2) K(-1)). The asymmetry in size and mass introduces large differences in the specific enthalpy of the individual components that must be carefully considered to compute accurate thermal conductivities using the GK approach. Neglecting the enthalpic contributions, results in large overestimations of the thermal conductivity, typically between 20% and 50%. Further, we quantify the time dependent behavior of the internal energy and mass flux correlation functions and propose a microscopic mechanism for the heat transport in these asymmetric mixtures.

  18. The Community College Effect Revisited: The Importance of Attending to Heterogeneity and Complex Counterfactuals*

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Jennie E.; Pfeffer, Fabian T.; Goldrick-Rab, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges are controversial educational institutions, often said to simultaneously expand college opportunities and diminish baccalaureate attainment. We assess the seemingly contradictory functions of community colleges by attending to effect heterogeneity and to alternative counterfactual conditions. Using data on postsecondary outcomes of high school graduates of Chicago Public Schools, we find that enrolling at a community college penalizes more advantaged students who otherwise would have attended four-year colleges, particularly highly selective schools; however, these students represent a relatively small portion of the community college population, and these estimates are almost certainly biased. On the other hand, enrolling at a community college has a modest positive effect on bachelor's degree completion for disadvantaged students who otherwise would not have attended college; these students represent the majority of community college goers. We conclude that discussions among scholars, policymakers, and practitioners should move beyond considering the pros and cons of community college attendance for students in general to attending to the implications of community college attendance for targeted groups of students. PMID:25825705

  19. The effect of excess copper on growth and physiology of important food crops: a review.

    PubMed

    Adrees, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Abbas, Farhat; Farid, Mujahid; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Irshad, Muhammad Kashif; Bharwana, Saima Aslam

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, copper (Cu) pollution in agricultural soils, due to arbitrary use of pesticides, fungicides, industrial effluent and wastewater irrigation, present a major concern for sustainable agrifood production especially in developing countries. The world's major food requirement is fulfilled through agricultural food crops. The Cu-induced losses in growth and yield of food crops probably exceeds from all other causes of food safety and security threats. Here, we review the adverse effects of Cu excess on growth and yield of essential food crops. Numerous studies reported the Cu-induced growth inhibition, oxidative damage and antioxidant response in agricultural food crops such as wheat, rice, maize, sunflower and cucumber. This article also describes the toxic levels of Cu in crops that decreased plant growth and yield due to alterations in mineral nutrition, photosynthesis, enzyme activities and decrease in chlorophyll biosynthesis. The response of various crops to elevated Cu concentrations varies depending upon nature of crop and cultivars used. This review could be helpful to understand the Cu toxicity and the mechanism of its tolerance in food crops. We recommend that Cu-tolerant crops should be grown on Cu-contaminated soils in order to ameliorate the toxic effects for sustainable farming systems and to meet the food demands of the intensively increasing population.

  20. Selection Effects in Identifying Magnetic Clouds and the Importance of the Closest Approach Parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Wu, Chin-Chun

    2010-01-01

    This study is motivated by the unusually low number of magnetic clouds (MCs) that are strictly identified within interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), as observed at 1 AU; this is usually estimated to be around 30% or lower. But a looser definition of MCs may significantly increase this percentage. Another motivation is the unexpected shape of the occurrence distribution of the observers' "closest approach distances" (measured from a MC's axis, and called CA) which drops off somewhat rapidly as |CA| (in % of MC radius) approaches 100%, based on earlier studies. We suggest, for various geometrical and physical reasons, that the |CA|-distribution should be somewhere between a uniform one and the one actually observed, and therefore the 30% estimate should be higher. So we ask, When there is a failure to identify a MC within an ICME, is it occasionally due to a large |CA| passage, making MC identification more difficult, i.e., is it due to an event selection effect? In attempting to answer this question we examine WIND data to obtain an accurate distribution of the number of MCs vs. |CA| distance, whether the event is ICME-related or not, where initially a large number of cases (N=98) are considered. This gives a frequence distribution that is far from uniform, confirming earlier studies. This along with the fact that there are many ICME identification-parameters that do not depend on |CA| suggest that, indeed an MC event selection effect may explain at least part of the low ratio of (No. MCs)/(No. ICMEs). We also show that there is an acceptable geometrical and physical consistency in the relationships for both average "normalized" magnetic field intensity change and field direction change vs. |CA| within a MC, suggesting that our estimates of |CA|, B(sub 0) (magnetic field intensity on the axis), and choice of a proper "cloud coordinate" system (all needed in the analysis) are acceptably accurate. Therefore the MC fitting model (Lepping et al., 1990) is

  1. Selection effects in identifying magnetic clouds and the importance of the closest approach parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Wu, C.-C.

    2010-08-01

    This study is motivated by the unusually low number of magnetic clouds (MCs) that are strictly identified within interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), as observed at 1 AU; this is usually estimated to be around 30% or lower. But a looser definition of MCs may significantly increase this percentage. Another motivation is the unexpected shape of the occurrence distribution of the observers' "closest approach distances" (measured from a MC's axis, and called CA) which drops off somewhat rapidly as |CA| (in % of MC radius) approaches 100%, based on earlier studies. We suggest, for various geometrical and physical reasons, that the |CA|-distribution should be somewhere between a uniform one and the one actually observed, and therefore the 30% estimate should be higher. So we ask, When there is a failure to identify a MC within an ICME, is it occasionally due to a large |CA| passage, making MC identification more difficult, i.e., is it due to an event selection effect? In attempting to answer this question we examine WIND data to obtain an accurate distribution of the number of MCs vs. |CA| distance, whether the event is ICME-related or not, where initially a large number of cases (N=98) are considered. This gives a frequence distribution that is far from uniform, confirming earlier studies. This along with the fact that there are many ICME identification-parameters that do not depend on |CA| suggest that, indeed an MC event selection effect may explain at least part of the low ratio of (No. MCs)/(No. ICMEs). We also show that there is an acceptable geometrical and physical consistency in the relationships for both average "normalized" magnetic field intensity change and field direction change vs. |CA| within a MC, suggesting that our estimates of |CA|, BO (magnetic field intensity on the axis), and choice of a proper "cloud coordinate" system (all needed in the analysis) are acceptably accurate. Therefore, the MC fitting model (Lepping et al., 1990) is adequate

  2. Indirect effects of red imported fire ants on Attwater's prairie‐chicken brood survival

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Rebecca E.; Lehnen, Sarah E.; Drees, Bastiaan M.; Toepfer, John E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The invasive red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) has negatively affected a host of taxonomic groups throughout its acquired North American range. Many studies have hypothesized indirect trophic impacts, but few documented those impacts. We evaluated invertebrate abundance as a factor limiting juvenile survival of the endangered Attwater's prairie‐chicken (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri), and whether fire ants reduce invertebrate numbers and biomass. From 2009–2013, we monitored survival of Attwater's prairie‐chicken broods (n = 63) with radio telemetry during the first 2 weeks post‐hatch and collected daily invertebrate samples at brood sites. Broods located in areas with the highest median invertebrate count (338 invertebrates/25 sweeps) had a survival probability of 0.83 at 2 weeks post‐hatch compared to 0.07 for broods located in areas with the lowest median invertebrate count (18 invertebrates/25 sweeps). During 2011–2012, we evaluated the reduction of fire ants on invertebrate numbers and biomass by aerially treating areas with Extinguish Plus™ in an impact‐reference study design. Treated fields had 27% more individual invertebrates and 26% higher invertebrate biomass than reference fields. Our results clearly document that invertebrate abundance affects Attwater's prairie‐chicken brood survival and that fire ants may indirectly contribute to low brood survival by suppressing invertebrate abundance. We posit that within the fire ant's acquired North American range, fire ants are likely contributing to declines of other insectivorous species. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:26900176

  3. Efficacy and Accountability in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitzug, Ulrich C.

    This study examined the relationship among accountability, efficacy, and organizational effectiveness by integrating findings from 17 research and development reports on Management by Objectives (MBO), an intervention that incorporates elements and processes of both accountability (goal-setting, measuring and monitoring, feedback) and efficacy…

  4. Revised Accounting for Business Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Arlette C.; Key, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has recently issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 141 (Revised 2007) Business Combinations. The object of this Statement is to improve the relevance, representational faithfulness, and comparability of reported information about a business combination and its effects. This Statement…

  5. School Centered Evidence Based Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Achievement scores drive much of the effort in today's accountability system, however, there is much more that occurs in every school, every day. School Centered Evidence Based Accountability can be used from micro to macro giving School Boards and Administration a process for monitoring the results of the entire school operation effectively and…

  6. An Accounting International Experience Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Leigh Redd; Rudolph, Holly R.; Seay, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Accounting students need practical opportunities to personally experience other cultures and international business practices if they are to effectively compete in today's global marketplace. In order to address this need, the Department of Accounting at Murray State University offers an international experience course which includes a short-term…

  7. Effects of lipid environment on the conformational changes of an ABC importer.

    PubMed

    Rice, Austin J; Alvarez, Frances J D; Davidson, Amy L; Pinkett, Heather W

    2014-01-01

    In order to shuttle substrates across the lipid bilayer, membrane proteins undergo a series of conformation changes that are influenced by protein structure, ligands, and the lipid environment. To test the effect of lipid on conformation change of the ABC transporter MolBC, EPR studies were conducted in lipids and detergents of variable composition. In both a detergent and lipid environment, MolBC underwent the same general conformation changes as detected by site-directed EPR spectroscopy. However, differences in activity and the details of the EPR analysis indicate conformational rigidity that is dependent on the lipid environment. From these observations, we conclude that native-like lipid mixtures provide the transporter with greater activity and conformational flexibility as well as technical advantages such as reconstitution efficiency and protein stability.

  8. Electrohydrodynamic effects on two species of insects with economic importance to stored food products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayesteh, N.; Barthakur, N. N.

    1996-09-01

    An electrohydrodynamic (EHD) system which generated air ions within a strong electric field was used to study responses of stored-product insects Tribolium confusum (du Val) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). Larval mortality of both species generally increased with increased exposure time to ions of either polarity. The larvae and pupae of T. confusum suffered a higher mortality rate than the adults. The insects initially exhibited distinct avoiding motions away from regions of high towards low fluxes of air ions of both polarity. Insects moved vigorously, tumbled, flipped, curled up, and aggregated when the EHD system was turned on. The control insects not exposed to air ions survived and showed a total absence of such behaviour. For bipolar exposures, the insects occupied the neutral zone where the effects were minimal due to cancellation of the fields. Prolonged exposures of more than 20 min produced a quiescent state. EHD-enhanced mass transfer of the liquid component from physical objects established in fluid mechanics was invoked as a possible cause for insect mortality and avoiding behaviour to ions. Body fluid losses increased linearly with time of exposure ( R 2≥0.97) for all biological stages of insect growth. The larvae and pupae of T. confusum lost 12 and 15% of their body fluids, respectively, after 80 min of exposure to negative air ions. Fluid losses of such a magnitude are likely to have contributed to insect fatality.

  9. Safe and effective pharmacotherapy in infants and preschool children: importance of formulation aspects

    PubMed Central

    van Riet-Nales, Diana A; Schobben, Alfred F A M; Vromans, Herman; Egberts, Toine C G; Rademaker, Carin M A

    2016-01-01

    Safe and effective paediatric pharmacotherapy requires careful evaluation of the type of drug substance, the necessary dose and the age-appropriateness of the formulation. Generally, the younger the child, the more the attention that is required. For decades, there has been a general lack of (authorised) formulations that children are able to and willing to take. Moreover, little was known on the impact of pharmaceutical aspects on the age-appropriateness of a paediatric medicine. As a result of legislative incentives, such knowledge is increasingly becoming available. It has become evident that rapidly dissolving tablets with a diameter of 2 mm (mini-tablets) can be used in preterm neonates and non-rapidly dissolving 2 mm mini-tablets in infants from 6 months of age. In addition, uncoated 4 mm mini-tablets can be used in infants from the age of 1 year. Also, there is some evidence that children prefer mini-tablets over a powder, suspension or syrup. Other novel types of age-appropriate oral formulations such as orodispersible films may further add to the treatment possibilities. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on oral formulations for infants and preschool children, the advantages and disadvantages of the different types of dosage forms and the age groups by which these can likely be used. PMID:26979250

  10. Cloud Condensation Nuclei Prediction Error from Application of Kohler Theory: Importance for the Aerosol Indirect Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sotiropoulou, Rafaella-Eleni P.; Nenes, Athanasios; Adams, Peter J.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2007-01-01

    In situ observations of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and the GISS GCM Model II' with an online aerosol simulation and explicit aerosol-cloud interactions are used to quantify the uncertainty in radiative forcing and autoconversion rate from application of Kohler theory. Simulations suggest that application of Koehler theory introduces a 10-20% uncertainty in global average indirect forcing and 2-11% uncertainty in autoconversion. Regionally, the uncertainty in indirect forcing ranges between 10-20%, and 5-50% for autoconversion. These results are insensitive to the range of updraft velocity and water vapor uptake coefficient considered. This study suggests that Koehler theory (as implemented in climate models) is not a significant source of uncertainty for aerosol indirect forcing but can be substantial for assessments of aerosol effects on the hydrological cycle in climatically sensitive regions of the globe. This implies that improvements in the representation of GCM subgrid processes and aerosol size distribution will mostly benefit indirect forcing assessments. Predictions of autoconversion, by nature, will be subject to considerable uncertainty; its reduction may require explicit representation of size-resolved aerosol composition and mixing state.

  11. Deliberate learning in health care: the effect of importing best practices and creative problem solving on hospital performance improvement.

    PubMed

    Nembhard, Ingrid M; Cherian, Praseetha; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2014-10-01

    This article examines the effect on quality improvement of two common but distinct approaches to organizational learning: importing best practices (an externally oriented approach rooted in learning by imitating others' best practices) and internal creative problem solving (an internally oriented approach rooted in learning by experimenting with self-generated solutions). We propose that independent and interaction effects of these approaches depend on where organizations are in their improvement journey - initial push or later phase. We examine this contingency in hospitals focused on improving treatment time for patients with heart attacks. Our results show that importing best practices helps hospitals achieve initial phase but not later phase improvement. Once hospitals enter the later phase of their efforts, however, significant improvement requires creative problem solving as well. Together, our results suggest that importing best practices delivers greater short-term improvement, but continued improvement depends on creative problem solving.

  12. Deliberate Learning in Health Care: The Effect of Importing Best Practices and Creative Problem Solving on Hospital Performance Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Nembhard, Ingrid M.; Cherian, Praseetha; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the effect on quality improvement of two common but distinct approaches to organizational learning: importing best practices (an externally oriented approach rooted in learning by imitating others’ best practices) and internal creative problem solving (an internally oriented approach rooted in learning by experimenting with self-generated solutions). We propose that independent and interaction effects of these approaches depend on where organizations are in their improvement journey – initial push or later phase. We examine this contingency in hospitals focused on improving treatment time for patients with heart attacks. Our results show that importing best practices helps hospitals achieve initial phase but not later phase improvement. Once hospitals enter the later phase of their efforts, however, significant improvement requires creative problem solving as well. Together, our results suggest that importing best practices delivers greater short-term improvement, but continued improvement depends on creative problem solving. PMID:24876100

  13. A Cognitive Multimedia Environment and Its Importance: A Conceptual Model for Effective E-Learning and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy P.

    2011-01-01

    Multimedia learning is innovative and has revolutionised the way we learn online. It is important to create a multimedia learning environment that stimulates active participation and effective learning. The significance of multimedia learning extends to include the cultivation of professional and personal experiences that reflect the reality of a…

  14. Appropriate Importation and Effective Utilization of Top Quality Foreign Higher Education Resources for Sino-Foreign Cooperation in Running Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinhui, Lin; Zhiping, Liu

    2009-01-01

    The appropriate importation and effective utilization of superior-quality foreign higher education resources are crucial to enhance the level and quality of school administration cooperation with foreign partners because it can not only make up for the shortage in domestic education resources and push forward China's higher education reform but…

  15. Teacher Effectiveness in First Grade: The Importance of Background Qualifications, Attitudes, and Instructional Practices for Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palardy, Gregory J.; Rumberger, Russell W.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses Early Childhood Longitudinal Study data to investigate the importance of three general aspects of teacher effects--teacher background qualifications, attitudes, and instructional practices--to reading and math achievement gains in first grade. The results indicate that compared with instructional practices, background…

  16. Triangulating Principal Effectiveness: How Perspectives of Parents, Teachers, and Assistant Principals Identify the Central Importance of Managerial Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissom, Jason A.; Loeb, Susanna

    2011-01-01

    While the importance of effective principals is undisputed, few studies have identified specific skills that principals need to promote school success. This study draws on unique data combining survey responses from principals, assistant principals, teachers, and parents with rich administrative data to determine which principal skills correlate…

  17. 31 CFR 537.511 - Importation of accompanied baggage and household effects of U.S. diplomatic and consular officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation of accompanied baggage and household effects of U.S. diplomatic and consular officials. 537.511 Section 537.511 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE...

  18. Choosing Important Health Outcomes for Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Updated Review and User Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gorst, Sarah L.; Gargon, Elizabeth; Clarke, Mike; Blazeby, Jane M.; Altman, Douglas G.; Williamson, Paula R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A COS represents an agreed minimum set of outcomes that should be measured and reported in all trials of a specific condition. The COMET (Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials) initiative aims to collate and stimulate the development and application of COS, by including data on relevant studies within a publically available internet-based resource. In recent years, there has been an interest in increasing the development of COS. Therefore, this study aimed to provide an update of a previous review, and examine the quality of development of COS. A further aim was to understand the reasons why individuals are searching the COMET database. Methods A multi-faceted search strategy was followed, in order to identify studies that sought to determine which outcomes/domains to measure in clinical trials of a specific condition. Additionally, a pop up survey was added to the COMET website, to ascertain why people were searching the COMET database. Results Thirty-two reports relating to 29 studies were eligible for inclusion in the review. There has been an improvement in the description of the scope of a COS and an increase in the proportion of studies using literature/systematic reviews and the Delphi technique. Clinical experts continue to be the most common group involved in developing COS, however patient and public involvement has increased. The pop-up survey revealed the most common reasons for visiting the COMET website to be thinking about developing a COS and planning a clinical trial. Conclusions This update demonstrates that recent studies appear to have adopted a more structured approach towards COS development and public representation has increased. However, there remains a need for developers to adequately describe details about the scope of COS, and for greater public engagement. The COMET database appears to be a useful resource for both COS developers and users of COS. PMID:26785121

  19. Bacteriostatic effect of human milk and bovine colostrum on Escherichia coli: importance of bicarbonate.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, E; Humphreys, J

    1977-01-01

    At pH 7.4 and in the presence of NaHCO3, human milk and bovine colostrum inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli O111. Adding sufficient iron to saturate the iron-binding capacity of the lactoferrin present in the milk or colostrum prevented bacteriostasis. At pH 6.8 neither molk nor colostrum inhibited E. coli 0111. Adjusting the pH to 7.4 with NaHCO3 resulted in the development of bacteriostatic activity. Adjusting the pH to 7.4 with NaOH was ineffective. Dialyzed colostrum and milk inhibited bacterial growth at pH 6.8 in the absence of added NaHCO3; addition of citrate or iron abolished bacteriostasis. The chromatographic elution profile of tyrosyl-transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) from iron-replete E. coli differs significantly from that of tyrosyl-tRNA from iron-deficient organisms. Examination of the elution profile tyrosyl-tRNA from E. coli 0111 growing in colostrum without added NaHCO3 showed that such bacteria were fully replete in iron. The nature of the elution profile of tyrosyl-tRNA also showed that iron was freely available to the bacteria when citrate was added to dialyzed colostrum but not available in its absence, even at pH 6.8. Results support the idea that the bacteriostatic action of milk and colostrum, due to the combined action of antibody and lactoferrin, depends on the addition of bicarbonate to counteract the iron-mobilizing effect of the citrate normally present in these secretions. PMID:14890

  20. The effects of second-hand smoke on biological processes important in atherogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hongwei; Wong, Lina S; Bhattacharya, Monideepa; Ma, Chongze; Zafarani, Mohammed; Yao, Min; Schneider, Matthias; Pitas, Robert E; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2007-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in western societies and cigarette smoke is among the factors that strongly contribute to the development of this disease. The early events in atherogenesis are stimulated on the one hand by cytokines that chemoattract leukocytes and on the other hand by decrease in circulating molecules that protect endothelial cells (ECs) from injury. Here we focus our studies on the effects of "second-hand" smoke on atherogenesis. Methods To perform these studies, a smoking system that closely simulates exposure of humans to second-hand smoke was developed and a mouse model system transgenic for human apoB100 was used. These mice have moderate lipid levels that closely mimic human conditions that lead to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Results "Second-hand" cigarette smoke decreases plasma high density lipoprotein levels in the blood and also decreases the ratios between high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein and triglyceride, and high density lipoprotein and total cholesterol. This change in lipid profiles causes not only more lipid accumulation in the aorta but also lipid deposition in many of the smaller vessels of the heart and in hepatocytes. In addition, mice exposed to smoke have increased levels of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein–1 in circulation and in the heart/aorta tissue, have increased macrophages in the arterial walls, and have decreased levels of adiponectin, an EC-protective protein. Also, cytokine arrays revealed that mice exposed to smoke do not undergo the switch from the pro-inflammatory cytokine profile (that develops when the mice are initially exposed to second-hand smoke) to the adaptive response. Furthermore, triglyceride levels increase significantly in the liver of smoke-exposed mice. Conclusion Long-term exposure to "second-hand" smoke creates a state of permanent inflammation and an imbalance in the lipid profile that leads to lipid accumulation in