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Sample records for account significant differences

  1. Ranking Accounting Authors and Departments in Accounting Education: Different Methodologies--Significantly Different Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardi, Richard A.; Zamojcin, Kimberly A.; Delande, Taylor L.

    2016-01-01

    This research tests whether Holderness Jr., D. K., Myers, N., Summers, S. L., & Wood, D. A. [(2014). "Accounting education research: Ranking institutions and individual scholars." "Issues in Accounting Education," 29(1), 87-115] accounting-education rankings are sensitive to a change in the set of journals used. It provides…

  2. Solving Accounting Problems: Differences between Accounting Experts and Novices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, P. Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Performance of 90 accounting experts (faculty and practitioners) and 60 novices (senior accounting majors) was compared. Experts applied more accounting principles to solving problems. There were no differences in types of principles applied and no correlation between (1) principles applied and number of breadth comments or (2) importance placed…

  3. The Nature and Significance of Listening Skills in Accounting Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Gerard; Lightbody, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    While surveys of the employers of accountancy graduates highlight the significance of listening skills, relatively little is known about how such skills are utilised in accounting practice. The present study attempts to address the above lacuna by utilising the findings of in-depth interviews with Australian public accountants about the nature of…

  4. The Informational Significance of A-F School Accountability Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.; Ware, Jordan; Mwavita, Mwarumba

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Despite problems with accountability systems under No Child Left Behind, the policy has been widely commended for exposing the depth and breadth of educational inequality in the United States. As states implement new accountability systems, there is growing concern that attention to achievement gaps and the performance of…

  5. The Effects of Different Teaching Approaches in Introductory Financial Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Bea; Nouri, Hossein; Samanta, Subarna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of the two different teaching approaches in the first accounting course on student performance in a subsequent finance course. The study compares 128 accounting and finance students who took introductory financial accounting by either a user approach or a traditional preparer approach to examine…

  6. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  7. A Comparison of the Work Needs, Attitudes, and Preferences of Professional Accountants at Different Career Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Seymour; Aranya, Nissim

    1984-01-01

    Compared male professional accountants (N=764) at different career stages with respect to their work needs, work attitudes, and vocational preferences. Results indicated that accountants at different stages differed significantly in their needs, work attitudes, and the extent to which they fit the "conventional" type in Holland's model. (LLL)

  8. Using the Significant Learning Taxonomy and Active Learning to Improve Accounting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Larita J.; Brandon, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    Like other members of the academy, accounting professors are challenged to improve student learning. We must help students move beyond the "bean counter" role and develop higher-level skills such as analysis, synthesis, and problem-solving. The Significant Learning Taxonomy was used as a template to improve learning in an introductory accounting…

  9. Causes of Gender Differences in Accounting Performance: Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wally-Dima, Lillian; Mbekomize, Christian J.

    2013-01-01

    This study employs the survey method to investigate the factors that cause academic differences between female and male students at the largest university in Botswana. The population of this research was the students of the last three years of the 4 year Bachelor of Accountancy degree programme at the University of Botswana. Anchored on the prior…

  10. Performance Differences in Year 1 of Pioneer Accountable Care Organizations

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, J. Michael; Chernew, Michael E.; Landon, Bruce E.; Schwartz, Aaron L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2012, a total of 32 organizations entered the Pioneer accountable care organization (ACO) program, in which providers can share savings with Medicare if spending falls below a financial benchmark. Performance differences associated with characteristics of Pioneer ACOs have not been well described. METHODS In a difference-in-differences analysis of Medicare fee-for-service claims, we compared Medicare spending for beneficiaries attributed to Pioneer ACOs (ACO group) with other beneficiaries (control group) before (2009 through 2011) and after (2012) the start of Pioneer ACO contracts, with adjustment for geographic area and beneficiaries’ sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. We estimated differential changes in spending for several subgroups of ACOs: those with and those without clear financial integration between hospitals and physician groups, those with higher and those with lower baseline spending, and the 13 ACOs that withdrew from the Pioneer program after 2012 and the 19 that did not. RESULTS Adjusted Medicare spending and spending trends were similar in the ACO group and the control group during the precontract period. In 2012, the total adjusted per-beneficiary spending differentially changed in the ACO group as compared with the control group (−$29.2 per quarter, P = 0.007), consistent with a 1.2% savings. Savings were significantly greater for ACOs with baseline spending above the local average, as compared with those with baseline spending below the local average (P = 0.05 for interaction), and for those serving high-spending areas, as compared with those serving low-spending areas (P = 0.04). Savings were similar in ACOs with financial integration between hospitals and physician groups and those without, as well as in ACOs that withdrew from the program and those that did not. CONCLUSIONS Year 1 of the Pioneer ACO program was associated with modest reductions in Medicare spending. Savings were greater for ACOs with higher

  11. Bohr effect of hemoglobins: Accounting for differences in magnitude.

    PubMed

    Okonjo, Kehinde O

    2015-09-07

    The basis of the difference in the Bohr effect of various hemoglobins has remained enigmatic for decades. Fourteen amino acid residues, identical in pairs and located at specific 'Bohr group positions' in human hemoglobin, are implicated in the Bohr effect. All 14 are present in mouse, 11 in dog, eight in pigeon and 13 in guinea pig hemoglobin. The Bohr data for human and mouse hemoglobin are identical: the 14 Bohr groups appear at identical positions in both molecules. The dog data are different from the human because three Bohr group positions are occupied by non-ionizable groups in dog hemoglobin; the pigeon data are vastly different from the human because six Bohr group positions are occupied by non-ionizable groups in pigeon hemoglobin. The guinea pig data are quite complex. Quantitative analyses showed that only the pigeon data could be fitted with the Wyman equation for the Bohr effect. We demonstrate that, apart from guinea pig hemoglobin, the difference between the Bohr effect of each of the other hemoglobins and of pigeon hemoglobin can be accounted for quantitatively on the basis of the occupation of some of their Bohr group positions by non-ionizable groups in pigeon hemoglobin. We attribute the anomalous guinea pig result to a new salt-bridge formed in its R2 quaternary structure between the terminal NH3(+) group of one β-chain and the COO(-) terminal group of the partner β-chain in the same molecule. The pKas of this NH3(+) group are 6.33 in the R2 and 4.59 in the T state.

  12. Testing the Difference of Correlated Agreement Coefficients for Statistical Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwet, Kilem L.

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the problem of testing the difference between two correlated agreement coefficients for statistical significance. A number of authors have proposed methods for testing the difference between two correlated kappa coefficients, which require either the use of resampling methods or the use of advanced statistical modeling…

  13. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  14. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  15. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  16. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  17. The Difference Differentiation Makes: Extending Eisner's Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanken-Webb, Jane

    2014-01-01

    In this analysis Jane Blanken-Webb extends Elliot Eisner's account of how learning in the arts contributes to the creation of mind. Drawing on the psychoanalytic theory of D. W. Winnicott, Blanken-Webb argues that the acts of meaning making to which Eisner attends rely on a prior developmental achievement--namely, the establishment of…

  18. Decision-making and accountability: differences of distribution.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    The cognitive and individual framing of clinical decision-making has been undermined in the social sciences by attempts to reframe decision-making as being distributed. In various ways, shifts in understanding in social science research and theorising have wrested clinical decision-making away from the exclusive domain of medical practice and shared it throughout the healthcare disciplines. The temporality of decision-making has been stretched from discrete moments of cognition to being incrementally built over many instances of time and place, and the contributors towards decision-making have been expanded to include non-humans such as policies, guidelines and technologies. However, frameworks of accountability fail to recognise this distributedness and instead emphasise independence of thought and autonomy of action. In this article I illustrate this disparity by contrasting my ethnographic accounts of clinical practice with the professional codes of practice produced by the General Medical Council and the Nursing and Midwifery Council. I argue that a 'thicker' concept of accountability is needed; one that can accommodate the diffuseness of decision-making and the dependencies incurred in collaborative work.

  19. Grades and Test Scores: Accounting for Observed Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willingham, Warren W.; Pollack, Judith M.; Lewis, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Proposed a framework of possible differences between grades and test scores and tested the framework with data on 8,454 high school seniors from the National Education Longitudinal Study. Identified differences and correlations among achievement factors. Differences between grades and tests give these measures complementary strengths in…

  20. Accounting for School-Sector Differences in University Entrance Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary

    2009-01-01

    School-sector differences in student performance are often viewed as largely reflecting the intake characteristics of students and having little to do with differences in the provision of teaching and learning between school sectors. The contrary view is that school-sector differences show that non-government schools "add value" to…

  1. Coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2014-06-01

    Activated coagulation and fibrinolytic system in cancer patients is associated with tumor stroma formation and metastasis in different cancer types. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation of blood coagulation assays for various clinicopathologic factors in breast cancer patients. A total of 123 female breast cancer patients were enrolled into the study. All the patients were treatment naïve. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, APTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels, and platelet counts were evaluated. Median age of diagnosis was 51 years old (range 26-82). Twenty-two percent of the group consisted of metastatic breast cancer patients. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group except for PT (p<0.001 for all variables except for PT; p=0.08). Elderly age (>50 years) was associated with higher D-dimer levels (p=0.003). Metastatic patients exhibited significantly higher D-dimer values when compared with early breast cancer patients (p=0.049). Advanced tumor stage (T3 and T4) was associated with higher INR (p=0.05) and lower PTA (p=0.025). In conclusion, coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

  2. 77 FR 75259 - Joint Report: Differences in Accounting and Capital Standards Among the Federal Banking Agencies...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... Joint Report: Differences in Accounting and Capital Standards Among the Federal Banking Agencies; Report... of the U.S. Senate describing differences between the capital and accounting standards used by the... Regarding Differences in Accounting and Capital Standards Among the Federal Banking Agencies...

  3. Challenges of "Thinking Differently" with Rhizoanalytic Approaches: A Reflexive Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Growing numbers of educational researchers are using rhizoanalytic approaches based on the work of Deleuze and Guattari to think differently in their research practices. However, as those engaging in debates about post-qualitative research suggest, thinking differently is not without its challenges. This paper uses three complex challenges…

  4. Accounting for taste: individual differences in preference for harmony.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Stephen E; Griscom, William S

    2013-06-01

    Although empirical research on aesthetics has had some success in explaining the average preferences of groups of observers, relatively little is known about individual differences in preference, and especially about how such differences might covary across different domains. In this study, we identified a new factor underlying aesthetic response-preference for harmonious stimuli-and examined how it varies over four domains (color, shape, spatial location, and music) across individuals with different levels of training in art and music. We found that individual preferences for harmony are strongly correlated across all four dimensions tested and decrease consistently with training in the relevant aesthetic domains. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that cross-domain preference for harmony is well-represented as a single, unified factor, with effects separate from those of training and of common personality measures.

  5. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  6. 75 FR 47900 - Joint Report: Differences in Accounting and Capital Standards Among the Federal Banking Agencies...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Joint Report: Differences in Accounting and Capital... States Senate describing differences between the capital and accounting standards used by the agencies... Accounting and Capital Standards Among the Federal Banking Agencies Introduction The Office of...

  7. Explanation of significant differences for the TNX groundwater operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.R.

    1997-09-22

    This Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) is being issued by the Department of Energy (DOE), the lead agency for the Savannah River Site (SRS), with concurrence by the Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV (EPA) and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to announce changes in the interim remediation strategy selected for the TNX Groundwater Operable Unit. The TNX Area is located adjacent to the Savannah River in the southwestern portion of SRS. The remedy selected in the Interim Record of Decision (IROD) to achieve the interim action goals was the Hybrid Groundwater Corrective Action (HGCA). The HGCA consisted of a recirculation well system and an air stripper with a series of groundwater extraction wells. The original remediation strategy needs to be modified because the recirculation well system was determined to be ineffective in this area due to geological factors and the nature of the contamination.

  8. Does psychology make a significant difference in our lives?

    PubMed

    Zimbardo, Philip G

    2004-01-01

    The intellectual tension between the virtues of basic versus applied research that characterized an earlier era of psychology is being replaced by an appreciation of creative applications of all research essential to improving the quality of human life. Psychologists are positioned to "give psychology away" to all those who can benefit from our wisdom. Psychologists were not there 35 years ago when American Psychological Association (APA) President George Miller first encouraged us to share our knowledge with the public. The author argues that psychology is indeed making a significant difference in people's lives; this article provides a sampling of evidence demonstrating how and why psychology matters, both in pervasive ways and specific applications. Readers are referred to a newly developed APA Web site that documents current operational uses of psychological research, theory, and methodology (its creation has been the author's primary presidential initiative): www.psychologymatters.org.

  9. Os acromiale: population differences and their etiological significance.

    PubMed

    Case, D T; Burnett, S E; Nielsen, T

    2006-01-01

    The os acromiale is an accessory bone resulting from failure of the acromial apophysis to fuse to the scapula. It is a relatively frequent defect affecting 4-18% of most large skeletal series. The etiology of os acromiale is poorly understood, and two competing hypotheses have been proposed: (1) that the accessory bone represents a genetic defect, and (2) that it results from mechanical stress on the developing acromion. In order to assess the evidence for these two hypotheses, os acromiale frequencies from a South African cadaver sample (n = 494) were compared to frequencies from a medieval Danish archaeological sample (n = 532). The South African frequency (18.2%) was significantly higher than the medieval Danish frequency (7.7%, p < 0.0001). These results mirror those of another study comparing African- and Euro-Americans, and tend to support the genetic hypothesis. However, a left side bias (72%) was also found among the South Africans (p = 0.013), lending some support to the mechanical stress hypothesis. Sex and age biases were also examined but were not found. In order to further test the mechanical hypothesis, the medieval Danes were divided into groups of higher and lower socioeconomic status based upon cemetery type. Lower status individuals were presumed to have engaged in strenuous labor activities more often and at a younger age than higher status individuals. However, comparison of these two groups failed to demonstrate a significant frequency difference (p = 0.105). Based on the results of this study, it is suggested that a third etiology combining a genetic predisposition for os acromiale with mechanical stress as the proximate cause should also be considered.

  10. Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.

    PubMed

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned.

  11. Pediatricians' and psychologists' implicit personality theory: significance of sibling differences.

    PubMed

    Schachter, F F; Stone, R K

    1985-10-01

    Pediatricians' and psychologists' implicit theories of how personality develops are compared to recent behavioral-genetic analyses based on twin and adoption studies. Results show that both practitioner groups--less so the psychologists--underestimate differences between children in the same family, over-estimate the influence of their shared environmental experiences, and underestimate those not shared. Findings mirror the bias of traditional personality research, pointing out the need to investigate environmental variables with differential impacts on children in the same family, e.g., sibling deidentification; one child extrovert, one introvert; one saint, one sinner.

  12. Comparison and Significance of Two Different Organic Paleotemperature Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.; Zhang, H.; He, J.; Ruan, Y.; Dong, L.; Wang, H.; Li, L.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature is a basic parameter in the study of paleoclimatology and paleoceanography. In the present study, two organic geochemical proxies, UK'37 and TEX86 were used for the sea surface temperature reconstruction in the site MD123434 (18°49.84'N,116°18.89'E, water depth 2995m) in northern South China Sea. On the whole, the two reconstructed temperature correlated well with each other, reflecting low temperature in the last glacial and high in the Holocene. Nevertheless, detailed comparison illustrated relatively higher reconstructed temperature by the UK'37 method than that in TEX86 proxy, with a range of 23.0℃ to 27.8℃ and 18.9℃to 29.5℃ for UK'37 and TEX86 proxy respectively. The average temperature discrepancy (ΔT) between the two temperature proxies is ~3℃ during the last glacial and ~0℃ during the Holocene, which cannot be fully attributed to calculation errors. The offset between these two proxies may be caused by the different living water depths of the source organisms: haptophyte and Thaumarchaeota for the UK'37 and TEX86 respectively. The terrestrial GDGTs input and the different calibration equations on the TEX86 may possibly also contribute to the discrepancy. Meanwhile, growth seasonalities between the two source organisms cannot be ignored either.

  13. A Selective Account of Effective Paradigms and Significant Outcomes in the Discovery of Inspirational Marine Natural Products⊥†

    PubMed Central

    Sashidhara, Koneni V.; White, Kimberly N.; Crews, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Marine natural products continue to be a source of significant molecular structures that serve as a stimulus to seed further significant research. This account reviews some of the major advances in the study of marine biomolecules made at UC Santa Cruz over more than three decades. The continuing challenge of discovery and characterization of what we term “inspirational molecular structures”, will be presented in a comprehensive fashion. Examples of privileged molecular structures and their impact on biomedicinal research will be an important theme. The three major groups of organisms explored include: seaweeds, sponges, and marine derived fungi, and the study of their active principles has greatly benefited from synergistic collaborations with both academic and biopharmaceutical groups. The concluding sections of this chronicle will touch on prospects for future outcomes involving new sources and strategies. PMID:19209899

  14. Accounting for sex differences in PTSD: A multi-variable mediation model

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Hansen, Maj

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately twice as many females as males are diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, little is known about why females report more PTSD symptoms than males. Prior studies have generally focused on few potential mediators at a time and have often used methods that were not ideally suited to test for mediation effects. Prior research has identified a number of individual risk factors that may contribute to sex differences in PTSD severity, although these cannot fully account for the increased symptom levels in females when examined individually. Objective The present study is the first to systematically test the hypothesis that a combination of pre-, peri-, and posttraumatic risk factors more prevalent in females can account for sex differences in PTSD severity. Method The study was a quasi-prospective questionnaire survey assessing PTSD and related variables in 73.3% of all Danish bank employees exposed to bank robbery during the period from April 2010 to April 2011. Participants filled out questionnaires 1 week (T1, N=450) and 6 months after the robbery (T2, N=368; 61.1% females). Mediation was examined using an analysis designed specifically to test a multiple mediator model. Results Females reported more PTSD symptoms than males and higher levels of neuroticism, depression, physical anxiety sensitivity, peritraumatic fear, horror, and helplessness (the A2 criterion), tonic immobility, panic, dissociation, negative posttraumatic cognitions about self and the world, and feeling let down. These variables were included in the model as potential mediators. The combination of risk factors significantly mediated the association between sex and PTSD severity, accounting for 83% of the association. Conclusions The findings suggest that females report more PTSD symptoms because they experience higher levels of associated risk factors. The results are relevant to other trauma populations and to other trauma-related psychiatric disorders

  15. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and maintain a measurement system which assures that all quantities in the material accounting records...) In each inventory period, control total material control and accounting measurement uncertainty so... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for...

  16. Patient-Specific Simulations Reveal Significant Differences in Mechanical Stimuli in Venous and Arterial Coronary Grafts.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Abhay B; Kahn, Andrew M; Marsden, Alison L

    2016-08-01

    Mechanical stimuli are key to understanding disease progression and clinically observed differences in failure rates between arterial and venous grafts following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. We quantify biologically relevant mechanical stimuli, not available from standard imaging, in patient-specific simulations incorporating non-invasive clinical data. We couple CFD with closed-loop circulatory physiology models to quantify biologically relevant indices, including wall shear, oscillatory shear, and wall strain. We account for vessel-specific material properties in simulating vessel wall deformation. Wall shear was significantly lower (p = 0.014*) and atheroprone area significantly higher (p = 0.040*) in venous compared to arterial grafts. Wall strain in venous grafts was significantly lower (p = 0.003*) than in arterial grafts while no significant difference was observed in oscillatory shear index. Simulations demonstrate significant differences in mechanical stimuli acting on venous vs. arterial grafts, in line with clinically observed graft failure rates, offering a promising avenue for stratifying patients at risk for graft failure.

  17. Gender Differences in Reading Motivation: Does Sex or Gender Identity Provide a Better Account?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah; Goodwin, Hannah; Henderson, Nikola; Wright, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sex differences in reading skill and reading motivation, investigating whether these differences could be better accounted for by sex, or by gender identity. One hundred and eighty-two primary school children (98 males) aged 8-11 completed a reading comprehension assessment, reading motivation questionnaire and a gender role…

  18. Peripheral arterial volume distensibility changes with applied external pressure: significant difference between arteries with different compliance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mengyan; Chen, Aiqing; Si, Xiaoshui; Ji, Mingxia; Zheng, Dingchang

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify the different effect of external cuff pressure on arterial volume distensibility between peripheral arteries with different compliance. 30 healthy subjects were studied with the arm at two positions (0° and 45° from the horizontal level) to introduce different compliance of arteries. The electrocardiogram and finger and ear photoplethysmograms were recorded simultaneously under five external cuff pressures (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg) on the whole arm to obtain arterial volume distensibility. With the applied external cuff pressures of 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg, the overall changes in arterial volume distensibility referred to those without external pressure were 0.010, 0.029, 0.054 and 0.108% per mmHg for the arm at the horizontal level, and 0.026, 0.071, 0.170 and 0.389% per mmHg for the arm at 45° from the horizontal level, confirming the non-linearity between arterial volume distensibility and external pressure. More interestingly, the significant differences in arterial volume distensibility changes were observed between the two arm positions, which were 0.016, 0.043, 0.116 and 0.281% per mmHg (all P < 0.01). Our findings demonstrated that arterial volume distensibility of peripheral arm arteries increased with external pressure, with a greater effect for more compliant arteries. PMID:28094277

  19. African-American/white differences in the age of menarche: accounting for the difference.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Patricia B; Salsberry, Pamela J; Fang, Muriel Z; Gardner, William P; Pajer, Kathleen

    2012-10-01

    Lifetime health disparity between African-American and white females begins with lower birthweight and higher rates of childhood overweight. In adolescence, African-American girls experience earlier menarche. Understanding the origins of these health disparities is a national priority. There is growing literature suggesting that the life course health development model is a useful framework for studying disparities. The purpose of this study was to quantify the influence of explanatory factors from key developmental stages on the age of menarche and to determine how much of the overall race difference in age of menarche they could explain. The factors were maternal age of menarche, birthweight, poverty during early childhood (age 0 through 5 years), and child BMI z-scores at 6 years. The sample, drawn from the US National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Child-Mother file, consisted of 2337 girls born between 1978 and 1998. Mean age of menarche in months was 144 for African-American girls and 150 for whites. An instrumental variable approach was used to estimate a causal effect of child BMI z-score on age of menarche. The instrumental variables were pre-pregnancy BMI, high gestational weight gain and smoking during pregnancy. We found strong effects of maternal age of menarche, birthweight, and child BMI z-score (-5.23, 95% CI [-7.35,-3.12]) for both African-Americans and whites. Age of menarche declined with increases in exposure to poverty during early childhood for whites. There was no effect of poverty for African-Americans. We used Oaxaca decomposition techniques to determine how much of the overall race difference in age of menarche was attributable to race differences in observable factors and how much was due to race dependent responses. The African-American/white difference in childhood BMI explained about 18% of the overall difference in age of menarche and birthweight differences explained another 11%.

  20. 17 CFR 300.201 - Accounts introduced by same or different broker or dealer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accounts introduced by same or different broker or dealer. 300.201 Section 300.201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR...

  1. 17 CFR 300.201 - Accounts introduced by same or different broker or dealer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accounts introduced by same or different broker or dealer. 300.201 Section 300.201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR...

  2. 17 CFR 300.201 - Accounts introduced by same or different broker or dealer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accounts introduced by same or different broker or dealer. 300.201 Section 300.201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR...

  3. 17 CFR 300.201 - Accounts introduced by same or different broker or dealer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounts introduced by same or different broker or dealer. 300.201 Section 300.201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR...

  4. 17 CFR 300.201 - Accounts introduced by same or different broker or dealer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accounts introduced by same or different broker or dealer. 300.201 Section 300.201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR...

  5. Sex Differences in Motivational Traits and Ethical Decision Making among Graduating Accounting Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Ed; Tomkiewicz, Joe; Bass, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    This study is an empirical examination of possible differences between female and male accounting majors' managerial motivational traits, perceptions of ethical issues, ethical judgments, and ethical behavioral intentions regarding ethically equivocal business situations. Subjects were presented with two scales to measure their motivational…

  6. Special not different: general practitioners' accounts of their care of dying people.

    PubMed

    Field, D

    1998-05-01

    In modern Britain the majority of terminal care occurs in people's own homes and many dying people and their carers would prefer the death itself to occur in the home. The quality of terminal care in the home and the possibility of a home death depend to a great extent upon the care provided by GPs and community nurses. This paper reports on GPs' experiences of caring for dying people and their attitudes towards such work. It is based on unstructured interviews with 25 GPs who graduated from the 1979 entry cohort to the University of Leicester medical school. The respondents were recruited via a questionnaire following up previous research with this cohort on 'fear of death'. Although self-selecting, interviewees were not significantly different from those who did not volunteer for interview in any of the statistical analyses of the questionnaire data. There were a number of similarities in their accounts of their care of dying people. Common themes were that the care of dying people was important, rewarding and satisfying; that the GPs saw themselves as part of a team of carers, frequently as team co-ordinators; good working relationships with district nurses but less satisfactory relationships with hospitals and social workers; that patient and family were both recipients of care; and honesty in communication with dying people, albeit tempered. Three issues of contemporary relevance were: tensions over the role of hospice and specialist terminal care services; care of people with chronic terminal illnesses other than cancer; and the role of GPs in the social construction of bereavement.

  7. Double-Difference Tomography for Sequestration MVA [monitoring, verification, and accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Westman, Erik

    2012-12-31

    Analysis of synthetic data was performed to determine the most cost-effective tomographic monitoring system for a geologic carbon sequestration injection site. Double-difference tomographic inversion was performed on 125 synthetic data sets: five stages of CO2 plume growth, five seismic event regions, and five geophone arrays. Each resulting velocity model was compared quantitatively to its respective synthetic velocity model to determine an accuracy value. The results were examined to determine a relationship between cost and accuracy in monitoring, verification, and accounting applications using double-difference tomography. The geophone arrays with widely-varying geophone locations, both laterally and vertically, performed best. Additionally, double difference seismic tomography was performed using travel time data from a carbon sequestration site at the Aneth oil field in southeast Utah as part of a Department of Energy initiative on monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of sequestered CO2. A total of 1,211 seismic events were recorded from a borehole array consisting of 22 geophones. Artificial velocity models were created to determine the ease with which different CO2 plume locations and sizes can be detected. Most likely because of the poor geophone arrangement, a low velocity zone in the Desert Creek reservoir can only be detected when regions of test site containing the highest ray path coverage are considered. MVA accuracy and precision may be improved through the use of a receiver array that provides more comprehensive ray path coverage.

  8. Racial Disparities in Poverty Account for Mortality Differences in US Medicare Beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, Paul L; Fwu, Chyng-Wen; Abbott, Kevin C; Ratner, Jonathan; Eggers, Paul W

    2016-12-01

    Higher mortality in Blacks than Whites has been consistently reported in the US, but previous investigations have not accounted for poverty at the individual level. The health of its population is an important part of the capital of a nation. We examined the association between individual level poverty and disability and racial mortality differences in a 5% Medicare beneficiary random sample from 2004 to 2010. Cox regression models examined associations of race with all-cause mortality, adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, disability, neighborhood income, and Medicare "Buy-in" status (a proxy for individual level poverty) in 1,190,510 Black and White beneficiaries between 65 and 99 years old as of January 1, 2014, who had full and primary Medicare Part A and B coverage in 2004, and lived in one of the 50 states or Washington DC. Overall, black beneficiaries had higher sex-and-age adjusted mortality than Whites (hazard ratio [HR] 1.18). Controlling for health-related measures and disability reduced the HR for Black beneficiaries to 1.03. Adding "Buy-in" as an individual level covariate lowered the HR for Black beneficiaries to 0.92. Neither of the residential measures added to the predictive model. We conclude that poorer health status, excess disability, and most importantly, greater poverty among Black beneficiaries accounts for racial mortality differences in the aged US Medicare population. Poverty fosters social and health inequalities, including mortality disparities, notwithstanding national health insurance for the US elderly. Controlling for individual level poverty, in contrast to the common use of area level poverty in previous analyses, accounts for the White survival advantage in Medicare beneficiaries, and should be a covariate in analyses of administrative databases.

  9. Pathological gamblers and a non-psychiatric control group taking gender differences into account.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; González-Ortega, Itxaso; de Corral, Paz; Polo-López, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify personality traits, emotional states and adjustment variables in a sample of pathological gamblers as compared to a non-gambling control group taking gender differences into account. The sample for this study consisted of 206 subjects (103 pathological gamblers and 103 non-psychiatric subjects from the general population matched for age and gender). Pathological gamblers had a lower educational level and a family history of alcohol abuse higher than non-gamblers. In turn, female gamblers were affected by unemployment and a lower socioeconomic status more often than female non-gamblers. Pathological gamblers were more anxious and impulsive and suffered from a poorer self-esteem than non-gamblers. Likewise, pathological gamblers had a greater history of other Axis I psychiatric disorders and were more often affected by anxiety and depression symptoms and showed a more problematic adjustment to everyday life than non-gamblers. Alcohol abuse was not higher in pathological gamblers than in non-gamblers, but, when gender was taken into account, male gamblers were more affected by alcohol abuse than male non-gamblers. Importantly 68.6% of female gamblers versus 9.8% of control group women reported being victims of intimate partner violence. These findings can be used to specifically inform prevention and intervention efforts.

  10. Does Parental Mind-Mindedness Account for Cross-Cultural Differences in Preschoolers' Theory of Mind?

    PubMed

    Hughes, Claire; Devine, Rory T; Wang, Zhenlin

    2017-02-03

    This study of 241 parent-child dyads from the United Kingdom (N = 120, Mage  = 3.92, SD = 0.53) and Hong Kong (N = 121, Mage  = 3.99, SD = 0.50) breaks new ground by adopting a cross-cultural approach to investigate children's theory of mind and parental mind-mindedness. Relative to the Hong Kong sample, U.K. children showed superior theory-of-mind performance and U.K. parents showed greater levels of mind-mindedness. Within both cultures parental mind-mindedness was correlated with theory of mind. Mind-mindedness also accounted for cultural differences in preschoolers' theory of mind. We argue that children's family environments might shed light on how culture shapes children's theory of mind.

  11. Elderly Asian and Hispanic Foreign- and Native-Born Living Arrangements: Accounting for Differences

    PubMed Central

    Gurak, Douglas T.; Kritz, Mary M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relative importance of demographic, resource, and assimilation statuses in explaining the living arrangements of foreign- and native-born Asian and Hispanic elders from 11 origins in 2000 and accounting for why these groups have higher levels of extended living than native-born Whites. Drawing on the 2000 Public Use Microdata 5% Sample (PUMS) files and using logistic regression, the findings show that demographic characteristics are the major determinants of elderly extended living, followed by resource availability, assimilation, and group origin. Assimilation, on the other hand, is the major determinant of group differences between native White and Asian and Hispanic elders. While findings provide support for assimilation theory, the persistence of differentials across Asian and Hispanic groups after controlling for model covariates, and modest increases in extended living for most native-born Asian and Hispanic groups as well as native Whites in the 1990s underscores the enduring nature of ethnic diversity in living arrangements. PMID:22984319

  12. Rain-Induced Bursts Of Nitrous Oxide May Account For Differences In Dissolved Nitrogen Export From Forested Catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creed, I. F.; Casson, N. J.; Enanga, E.

    2009-05-01

    Despite nearly 30 years of research, we are unable to account for differences in dissolved nitrogen (N) export among catchments in the sugar maple forest of the Turkey Lakes Watershed. Neighboring catchments with similar N inputs show major discrepancies in dissolved N (nitrate + ammonium + dissolved organic nitrogen) export. In this study, we hypothesized that gaseous N export from wetland soils accounts for this discrepancy. To test this hypothesis, soil nitrous oxide (N2O) efflux was measured during the snow free season (May 1 to October 30) in 2006, 2007, and 2008. Minimal N2O efflux (<1 g N/ha/day) was observed on days without rain. However, on days with rain, soil N2O efflux was significant from wetland area soils, with a linear increase of 0.016 g N/ha/day per millimeter of rain (r2 = 0.60, p<0.001); N2O efflux from upland soils was not significant. Process based monitoring of the wetland soil profile suggests that rain delivers water to the surface layers of the wetlands creating an oxygen poor environment where accumulated nitrate is first transformed to N2O and then to dinitrogen (N2). We could not measure N2. However, if we assumed a N2:N2O ratio of 10:1 from the literature, the discrepancy in dissolved N export among the catchments could be explained. Our findings suggest that rain can produce substantial bursts of N2O and N2 from forest soils and that failure to account for gaseous N export may lead to an underestimation of N loss from forested catchments.

  13. The Tukey Honestly Significant Difference Procedure and Its Control of the Type I Error-Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnette, J. Jackson; McLean, James E.

    Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) procedure (J. Tukey, 1953) is probably the most recommended and used procedure for controlling Type I error rate when making multiple pairwise comparisons as follow-ups to a significant omnibus F test. This study compared observed Type I errors with nominal alphas of 0.01, 0.05, and 0.10 compared for…

  14. Improving the Accuracy of Satellite Sea Surface Temperature Measurements by Explicitly Accounting for the Bulk-Skin Temperature Difference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, Sandra L.; Emery, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this research was to determine whether the accuracy of satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST) could be improved by explicitly accounting for the complex temperature gradients at the surface of the ocean associated with the cool skin and diurnal warm layers. To achieve this goal, work centered on the development and deployment of low-cost infrared radiometers to enable the direct validation of satellite measurements of skin temperature. During this one year grant, design and construction of an improved infrared radiometer was completed and testing was initiated. In addition, development of an improved parametric model for the bulk-skin temperature difference was completed using data from the previous version of the radiometer. This model will comprise a key component of an improved procedure for estimating the bulk SST from satellites. The results comprised a significant portion of the Ph.D. thesis completed by one graduate student and they are currently being converted into a journal publication.

  15. Same difference: A pilot study of cyclin D1, bcl-2, AMACR, and ALDH-1 identifies significant differences in expression between primary colon adenocarcinoma and its metastases.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Gerard J; Denning, Krista L; Graffeo, Vincent; Griswold, Doreen C; Davis, Adam R; Brown, Linda G

    2016-11-01

    Tumor heterogeneity implies the possibility of significantly different expression of key pathways between primary and metastatic clones. Colon adenocarcinoma is one of the few tumors where current practice includes resection of primary and isolated organ metastases simultaneously without neoadjuvant therapy. We performed a pilot study on 28 cases of colon adenocarcinoma resected simultaneously with metastases in patients with no history of neoadjuvant therapy. We assayed matched primary and metastatic tumors from each patient with common diagnostic antibodies to Bcl-2, Cyclin D1, AMACR, and ALDH-1 by immunohistochemistry with semi-quantitative interpretation on archived formalin fixed, paraffin embedded samples. We were powered for large, consistent differences between primary and metastatic expression, and found 21 of 28 had a significant difference in expression of at least one of the four proteins, accounting for multiplicity of testing. Cyclin D1 had significantly more cases with differential metastatic:primary expression than would be expected by chance alone (p-value 0.0043), favoring higher expression in the metastatic sample. Bcl-2 and ALDH-1 had trends in this direction (p-value 0.078 each). Proportionately more cases with significant differences were identified when a liver metastasis was tested. We conclude differences in expression between metastatic and primary colon adenocarcinoma within the same patient exist, and may have therapeutic and biomarker testing consequences.

  16. Designing fecal microbiota transplant trials that account for differences in donor stool efficacy.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Scott W; Gurry, Thomas; Alm, Eric J

    2017-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation is a highly effective intervention for patients suffering from recurrent Clostridium difficile, a common hospital-acquired infection. Fecal microbiota transplantation's success as a therapy for C. difficile has inspired interest in performing clinical trials that experiment with fecal microbiota transplantation as a therapy for other conditions like inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease. Results from clinical trials that use fecal microbiota transplantation to treat inflammatory bowel disease suggest that, for at least one condition beyond C. difficile, most fecal microbiota transplantation donors produce stool that is not efficacious. The optimal strategies for identifying and using efficacious donors have not been investigated. We therefore examined the optimal Bayesian response-adaptive strategy for allocating patients to donors and formulated a computationally tractable myopic heuristic. This heuristic computes the probability that a donor is efficacious by updating prior expectations about the efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation, the placebo rate, and the fraction of donors that produce efficacious stool. In simulations designed to mimic a recent fecal microbiota transplantation clinical trial, for which traditional power calculations predict [Formula: see text] statistical power, we found that accounting for differences in donor stool efficacy reduced the predicted statistical power to [Formula: see text]. For these simulations, using the heuristic Bayesian allocation strategy more than quadrupled the statistical power to [Formula: see text]. We use the results of similar simulations to make recommendations about the number of patients, the number of donors, and the choice of clinical endpoint that clinical trials should use to optimize their ability to detect if fecal microbiota transplantation is effective for treating a condition.

  17. A structural account of substrate and inhibitor specificity differences between two Naphthol reductases

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, D.-I.; Thompson, J.E.; Fahnestock, S.; Valent, B.; Jordan, D.B.

    2010-03-08

    Two short chain dehydrogenase/reductases mediate naphthol reduction reactions in fungal melanin biosynthesis. An X-ray structure of 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene reductase (4HNR) complexed with NADPH and pyroquilon was determined for examining substrate and inhibitor specificities that differ from those of 1,3,8-trihydroxynaphthalene reductase (3HNR). The 1.5 {angstrom} resolution structure allows for comparisons with the 1.7 {angstrom} resolution structure of 3HNR complexed with the same ligands. The sequences of the two proteins are 46% identical, and they have the same fold. The 30-fold lower affinity of the 4HNR-NADPH complex for pyroquilon (a commercial fungicide that targets 3HNR) in comparison to that of the 3HNR-NADPH complex can be explained by unfavorable interactions between the anionic carboxyl group of the C-terminal Ile282 of 4HNR and CH and CH{sub 2} groups of the inhibitor that are countered by favorable inhibitor interactions with 3HNR. 1,3,8-Trihydroxynaphthalene (3HN) and 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene (4HN) were modeled onto the cyclic structure of pyroquilon in the 4HNR-NADPH-pyroquilon complex to examine the 300-fold preference of the enzyme for 4HN over 3HN. The models suggest that the C-terminal carboxyl group of Ile282 has a favorable hydrogen bonding interaction with the C6 hydroxyl group of 4HN and an unfavorable interaction with the C6 CH group of 3HN. Models of 3HN and 4HN in the 3HNR active site suggest a favorable interaction of the sulfur atom of the C-terminal Met283 with the C6 CH group of 3HN and an unfavorable one with the C6 hydroxyl group of 4HN, accounting for the 4-fold difference in substrate specificities. Thus, the C-terminal residues of the two naphthol reductase are determinants of inhibitor and substrate specificities.

  18. Biographical Narratives of Encounter: The Significance of Mobility and Emplacement in Shaping Attitudes towards Difference

    PubMed Central

    Sadgrove, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This paper is located within work in urban studies about the significance of contact with difference as a means for reducing prejudice and achieving social change. Recent approaches, influenced by theories of affect, have emphasised non-conscious everyday negotiations of difference in the city. In this paper it is argued that such approaches lose sight of the significance of the subject: of the reflective judgements of ‘others’ made by individuals; of our ability to make decisions around the control of our feelings and identifications; and of the significance of personal pasts and collective histories in shaping the ways we perceive and react to encounters. Rather, this paper uses a biographical approach focusing on interviewees’ narratives of encounter. Through its attention to processes of mobility and emplacement, it contributes to debates about when contact with difference matters by highlighting the importance of everyday social normativities in the production of moral dispositions. PMID:26300566

  19. No significant difference in antigenicity or tissue transglutaminase substrate specificity of Irish and US wheat gliadins.

    PubMed

    Keaveny, A P; Offner, G D; Bootle, E; Nunes, D P

    2000-04-01

    The prevalence of clinical celiac disease has been shown to vary both across time and between genetically similar populations. Differences in wheat antigenicity and transglutaminase substrate properties are a possible explanation for these differences. This study assessed the antigenicity and transglutaminase substrate specificities of gliadins from regions of high and low celiac disease prevalence. Gliadin was extracted from three commercial US wheat sources and two Irish sources. SDS-PAGE and western blotting revealed minor, but significant variations in the gliadin extracts. However, ELISA showed no difference in the antigenicity of these gliadins. Transglutaminase pretreatment of gliadin resulted in no significant change in gliadin antigenicity and kinetic studies showed that the Kms of the various gliadins were very similar. Purified IgA and IgG had no effect on transglutaminase activity. In summary, minor variations in wheat gliadins are unlikely to explain the observed differences in disease expression across genetically similar populations.

  20. Strengthening Methods for Assessing Students' Metahistorical Conceptions: Initial Development of the Historical Account Differences Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, D. Kevin; Guloy, Sheryl; Sensoy, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    To prepare students for participation in a pluralistic, democratic society, history curriculum should help them develop mature ideas about why multiple accounts of the same events exist. But how can we know if we are successful? In this article, we describe work on the design, validation, and piloting of a paper-and-pencil instrument called the…

  1. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Computers and Performance in the Accounting Information Systems Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenard, Mary Jane; Wessels, Susan; Khanlarian, Cindi

    2010-01-01

    Using a model developed by Young (2000), this paper explores the relationship between performance in the Accounting Information Systems course, self-assessed computer skills, and attitudes toward computers. Results show that after taking the AIS course, students experience a change in perception about their use of computers. Females'…

  2. Partisan Differences on Higher Education Accountability Policy: A Multi-State Study of Elected State Legislators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Andrew Q.

    2014-01-01

    Public institutions in the United States face a policy challenge to adapt to accountability expectations among a variety of stakeholders (Bogue & Hall, 2012; Thelin, 2004; Richardson & Martinez, 2009). Among the major stakeholders are state legislators who hold fiscal and policy influence over public institutions, but these leaders have…

  3. Different degrees of plant invasion significantly affect the richness of the soil fungal community.

    PubMed

    Si, Chuncan; Liu, Xueyan; Wang, Congyan; Wang, Lei; Dai, Zhicong; Qi, Shanshan; Du, Daolin

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that soil microorganisms play a key role in the success of plant invasion. Thus, ecologists have become increasingly interested in understanding the ecological effects of biological invasion on soil microbial communities given continuing increase in the effects of invasive plants on native ecosystems. This paper aims to provide a relatively complete depiction of the characteristics of soil microbial communities under different degrees of plant invasion. Rhizospheric soils of the notorious invasive plant Wedelia trilobata with different degrees of invasion (uninvaded, low-degree, and high-degree using its coverage in the invaded ecosystems) were collected from five discrete areas in Hainan Province, P. R. China. Soil physicochemical properties and community structure of soil microorganisms were assessed. Low degrees of W. trilobata invasion significantly increased soil pH values whereas high degrees of invasion did not significantly affected soil pH values. Moreover, the degree of W. trilobata invasion exerted significant effects on soil Ca concentration but did not significantly change other indices of soil physicochemical properties. Low and high degrees of W. trilobata invasion increased the richness of the soil fungal community but did not pose obvious effects on the soil bacterial community. W. trilobata invasion also exerted obvious effects on the community structure of soil microorganisms that take part in soil nitrogen cycling. These changes in soil physicochemical properties and community structure of soil microbial communities mediated by different degrees of W. trilobata invasion may present significant functions in further facilitating the invasion process.

  4. Different Degrees of Plant Invasion Significantly Affect the Richness of the Soil Fungal Community

    PubMed Central

    Si, Chuncan; Liu, Xueyan; Wang, Congyan; Wang, Lei; Dai, Zhicong; Qi, Shanshan; Du, Daolin

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that soil microorganisms play a key role in the success of plant invasion. Thus, ecologists have become increasingly interested in understanding the ecological effects of biological invasion on soil microbial communities given continuing increase in the effects of invasive plants on native ecosystems. This paper aims to provide a relatively complete depiction of the characteristics of soil microbial communities under different degrees of plant invasion. Rhizospheric soils of the notorious invasive plant Wedelia trilobata with different degrees of invasion (uninvaded, low-degree, and high-degree using its coverage in the invaded ecosystems) were collected from five discrete areas in Hainan Province, P. R. China. Soil physicochemical properties and community structure of soil microorganisms were assessed. Low degrees of W. trilobata invasion significantly increased soil pH values whereas high degrees of invasion did not significantly affected soil pH values. Moreover, the degree of W. trilobata invasion exerted significant effects on soil Ca concentration but did not significantly change other indices of soil physicochemical properties. Low and high degrees of W. trilobata invasion increased the richness of the soil fungal community but did not pose obvious effects on the soil bacterial community. W. trilobata invasion also exerted obvious effects on the community structure of soil microorganisms that take part in soil nitrogen cycling. These changes in soil physicochemical properties and community structure of soil microbial communities mediated by different degrees of W. trilobata invasion may present significant functions in further facilitating the invasion process. PMID:24392015

  5. Standards-Based Accountability as a Tool for Making a Difference in Student Learning. A State and an Institutional Perspective on Standards-Based Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Judy R.

    This paper examines Florida's standards-driven performance assessment, emphasizing teacher preparation, and touching on K-12 accountability. Florida's educational reform and accountability efforts are driven by the Florida System of School Improvement and Accountability document. The system is derived from state goals similar to the national Goals…

  6. Differing coagulation profiles of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Maeve P; Crowely, Maeve P; Quinn, Shane; Coleman, Eoin; Eustace, Joseph A; Gilligan, Oonagh M; O'Shea, Susan I; Shea, Susan I O

    2015-02-01

    The link between myeloma and thrombosis is well established. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) has also been associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. It was recently demonstrated that patients with myeloma display changes in thromboelastometry that may indicate a prothrombotic state. There is little data with regard to changes in thromboelastography in patients with myeloma or MGUS. The aim of this study was to investigate the differing coagulation profiles of patients of patients with myeloma and MGUS by means of conventional coagulation tests and thromboelastography. Blood was taken by direct venepuncture from patients with myeloma, MGUS and normal controls. Routine coagulation tests were performed in an accredited hospital laboratory. Thromboelastography (TEG(®)) was performed as per the manufacturer's protocol. Eight patients were recruited in each group. Patients with myeloma had a significantly lower mean haemoglobin level than patients with MGUS or normal controls (p < 0.001). Patients with myeloma had a significantly more prolonged mean prothrombin time than normal controls (p = 0.018) but not patients with MGUS. Patients with myeloma had significantly higher median D-dimer levels than normal controls (p = 0.025), as did patients with MGUS (p = 0.017). Patients with myeloma had a significantly higher mean factor VIII level than normal controls (p = 0.009) and there was a non-significant trend towards patients with MGUS having higher factor VIII levels than normal controls (p = 0.059). There was no significant difference in thromboelastographic parameters between the three groups. Patients with MGUS appear to have a distinct coagulation profile which is intermediate between patients with myeloma and normal controls.

  7. Detection of significant demographic differences between subpopulations of prehispanic Maya from Copan, Honduras, by survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Whittington, S L

    1991-06-01

    Heterogeneity and small sample size are problems that affect many paleodemographic studies. The former can cause the overall distribution of age at death to be an amalgam that does not accurately reflect the distributions of any of the groups composing the heterogeneous population. The latter can make it difficult to separate significant from nonsignificant demographic differences between groups. Survival analysis, a methodology that involves the survival distribution function and various regression models, can be applied to distributions of age at death in order to reveal statistically significant demographic differences and to control for heterogeneity. Survival analysis was used on demographic data from a heterogeneous sample of skeletons of low status Maya who lived in and around Copan, Honduras, between A.D. 400 and 1200. Results contribute to understanding the collapse of Classic Maya civilization.

  8. Significant Differences in Physicochemical Properties of Human Immunoglobulin Kappa and Lambda CDR3 Regions.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Catherine L; Laffy, Julie M J; Wu, Yu-Chang Bryan; Silva O'Hare, Joselli; Martin, Victoria; Kipling, David; Fraternali, Franca; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K

    2016-01-01

    Antibody variable regions are composed of a heavy and a light chain, and in humans, there are two light chain isotypes: kappa and lambda. Despite their importance in receptor editing, the light chain is often overlooked in the antibody literature, with the focus being on the heavy chain complementarity-determining region (CDR)-H3 region. In this paper, we set out to investigate the physicochemical and structural differences between human kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. We constructed a dataset containing over 29,000 light chain variable region sequences from IgM-transcribing, newly formed B cells isolated from human bone marrow and peripheral blood. We also used a published human naïve dataset to investigate the CDR-H3 properties of heavy chains paired with kappa and lambda light chains and probed the Protein Data Bank to investigate the structural differences between kappa and lambda antibody CDR regions. We found that kappa and lambda light chains have very different CDR physicochemical and structural properties, whereas the heavy chains with which they are paired do not differ significantly. We also observed that the mean CDR3 N nucleotide addition in the kappa, lambda, and heavy chain gene rearrangements are correlated within donors but can differ between donors. This indicates that terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase may work with differing efficiencies between different people but the same efficiency in the different classes of immunoglobulin chain within one person. We have observed large differences in the physicochemical and structural properties of kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. This may reflect different roles in the humoral immune response.

  9. Significant Differences in Physicochemical Properties of Human Immunoglobulin Kappa and Lambda CDR3 Regions

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Catherine L.; Laffy, Julie M. J.; Wu, Yu-Chang Bryan; Silva O’Hare, Joselli; Martin, Victoria; Kipling, David; Fraternali, Franca; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K.

    2016-01-01

    Antibody variable regions are composed of a heavy and a light chain, and in humans, there are two light chain isotypes: kappa and lambda. Despite their importance in receptor editing, the light chain is often overlooked in the antibody literature, with the focus being on the heavy chain complementarity-determining region (CDR)-H3 region. In this paper, we set out to investigate the physicochemical and structural differences between human kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. We constructed a dataset containing over 29,000 light chain variable region sequences from IgM-transcribing, newly formed B cells isolated from human bone marrow and peripheral blood. We also used a published human naïve dataset to investigate the CDR-H3 properties of heavy chains paired with kappa and lambda light chains and probed the Protein Data Bank to investigate the structural differences between kappa and lambda antibody CDR regions. We found that kappa and lambda light chains have very different CDR physicochemical and structural properties, whereas the heavy chains with which they are paired do not differ significantly. We also observed that the mean CDR3 N nucleotide addition in the kappa, lambda, and heavy chain gene rearrangements are correlated within donors but can differ between donors. This indicates that terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase may work with differing efficiencies between different people but the same efficiency in the different classes of immunoglobulin chain within one person. We have observed large differences in the physicochemical and structural properties of kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. This may reflect different roles in the humoral immune response. PMID:27729912

  10. Time until first significant difference in in vivo tumor growth experiments.

    PubMed

    Heitjan, D F; Kunselman, S

    1995-01-01

    In in vivo tumor growth experiments it is common to report the tumor measurement time at which the volume distributions of the treatment groups become significantly different. This method of analysis, as commonly practiced, is deficient in that its type I error rate exceeds the usual nominal rate of 5%, unless one specifically corrects for multiple comparisons. A second problem is that many investigators evidently interpret the time of first significance as a statistical parameter--i.e., a fixed but unknown property of the model that one can estimate by experimentation. In fact the time until first significance, like the power of the test, depends both on true model parameters (such as mean growth curves and experimental variability) and on features of the experimental design, such as the sample size and the spacing of the measurement times. We argue that investigators would do better to compare treatment groups by modeling tumor growth curves or estimating volume doubling times.

  11. Evaluation of different criteria for significant threshold shift in occupational hearing conservation programs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Royster, J.D.

    1992-12-09

    A comparison was undertaken of six different criteria for determinig significant hearing threshold shift. Each criterion was applied to the first eight audiograms for males participating in 15 different industrial hearing conservation programs. Of the different criteria used, the OSHA STS criterion produced the lowest overall percentage of employees tagged as having suffered a threshold shift. The 15-dB SHIFT and NIOSH SHIFT criteria produced the highest percentages. The mean percentages of employees tagged on an annual basis generally were small, less than 10 percent in referent data bases and 20 percent or less in the noncontrol data bases. The 15-dB SHIFT and NIOSH SHIFT criteria tagged 37 percent and 51 percent of employees in noncontrol data bases on the first test comparison and averaged 14 percent and 24 percent of employees even in referent data bases. The purpose of the significant threshold shift criterion was to tag employees with temporary threshold shifts (TTS) before they develop hearing loss. Therefore, the purpose of the threshold shift criterion selected was not to act as a recordable occupational illness but rather to reflect a significant amount of persistent hearing change.

  12. Different Volumetric Measurement Methods for Pituitary Adenomas and Their Crucial Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Chi-Cheng; Lin, Shinn-Yn; Pai, Ping-Ching; Yan, Jiun-Lin; Toh, Cheng-Hong; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Liu, Zhuo-Hao; Chen, Chung-Ming; Wang, Yu-Chi; Lee, Cheng-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Confirming the status of residual tumors is crucial. In stationary or spontaneous regression cases, early treatments are inappropriate. The long-used geometric calculation formula is 1/2 (length × width × height). However, it yields only rough estimates and is particularly unreliable for irregularly shaped masses. In our study, we attempted to propose a more accurate method. Between 2004 and 2014, 94 patients with pituitary tumors were enrolled in this retrospective study. All patients underwent transsphenoidal surgery and received magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The pre- and postoperative volumes calculated using the traditional formula were termed A1 and A2, and those calculated using the proposed method were termed O1 and O2, respectively. Wilcoxon signed rank test revealed no significant difference between the A1 and O1 groups (P = 0.1810) but a significant difference between the A2 and O2 groups (P < 0.0001). Significant differences were present in the extent of resection (P < 0.0001), high-grade cavernous sinus invasion (P = 0.0312), and irregular shape (P = 0.0116). Volume is crucial in evaluating tumor status and determining treatment. Therefore, a more scientific method is especially useful when lesions are irregularly shaped or when treatment is determined exclusively based on the tumor volume. PMID:28098212

  13. Significance of different microalgal species for growth of moon jellyfish ephyrae, Aurelia sp.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shan; Sun, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yantao; Sun, Song

    2015-10-01

    The scyphozoan Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus) sp. l., is a cosmopolitan species-complex which blooms seasonally in a variety of coastal and shelf sea environments around the world. The effects of different microalgal species on the growth of newly-released Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae were studied under laboratory conditions. We fed ephyrae with four different microalgal species (diatom, autotrophic dinoflagellate, heterotrophic dinoflagellate, and chlorophyta) plus Artemia nauplii for 12-24 d at 18°C. Results showed that the growth rate diverged significantly for Artemia nauplii compared to other food types. In addition, there was no significant variation between the growth rates for Skeletonema costatum and Prorocentrum donghaiense, and no significant variation was found in the growth rates for N. scintillans and P. subcordiformis. Artemia nauplii could support the energy requirement for the newly-released ephyrae to develop to meduase, and the ephyrae with Artemia nauplii showed a significant average growth rate of 25.85% d-1. Newly-released ephyrae could grow slightly with some species of microalgae in the earliest development stage. Chain diatom Skeletonema costatum and autotrophic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense, could not support the growth of the ephyrae, while heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans and chlorophyta Platymonas subcordiformis could support the growth of the ephyrae. However, none of the ephyrae fed with the tested phytoplankton could mature to medusae.

  14. Multiple, correlated covariates associated with differential item functioning (DIF): Accounting for language DIF when education levels differ across languages.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Laura E; Crane, Paul K; Mehta, Kala M; Pedraza, Otto; Tang, Yuxiao; Manly, Jennifer J; Narasimhalu, Kaavya; Teresi, Jeanne; Jones, Richard N; Mungas, Dan

    2011-04-28

    Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when a test item has different statistical properties in subgroups, controlling for the underlying ability measured by the test. DIF assessment is necessary when evaluating measurement bias in tests used across different language groups. However, other factors such as educational attainment can differ across language groups, and DIF due to these other factors may also exist. How to conduct DIF analyses in the presence of multiple, correlated factors remains largely unexplored. This study assessed DIF related to Spanish versus English language in a 44-item object naming test. Data come from a community-based sample of 1,755 Spanish- and English-speaking older adults. We compared simultaneous accounting, a new strategy for handling differences in educational attainment across language groups, with existing methods. Compared to other methods, simultaneously accounting for language- and education-related DIF yielded salient differences in some object naming scores, particularly for Spanish speakers with at least 9 years of education. Accounting for factors that vary across language groups can be important when assessing language DIF. The use of simultaneous accounting will be relevant to other cross-cultural studies in cognition and in other fields, including health-related quality of life.

  15. Nonlinear analysis of a new car-following model accounting for the global average optimal velocity difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Guanghan; Lu, Weizhen; He, Hongdi

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a new car-following model is proposed by considering the global average optimal velocity difference effect on the basis of the full velocity difference (FVD) model. We investigate the influence of the global average optimal velocity difference on the stability of traffic flow by making use of linear stability analysis. It indicates that the stable region will be enlarged by taking the global average optimal velocity difference effect into account. Subsequently, the mKdV equation near the critical point and its kink-antikink soliton solution, which can describe the traffic jam transition, is derived from nonlinear analysis. Furthermore, numerical simulations confirm that the effect of the global average optimal velocity difference can efficiently improve the stability of traffic flow, which show that our new consideration should be taken into account to suppress the traffic congestion for car-following theory.

  16. Reexamining the language account of cross-national differences in base-10 number representations.

    PubMed

    Vasilyeva, Marina; Laski, Elida V; Ermakova, Anna; Lai, Weng-Feng; Jeong, Yoonkyung; Hachigian, Amy

    2015-01-01

    East Asian students consistently outperform students from other nations in mathematics. One explanation for this advantage is a language account; East Asian languages, unlike most Western languages, provide cues about the base-10 structure of multi-digit numbers, facilitating the development of base-10 number representations. To test this view, the current study examined how kindergartners represented two-digit numbers using single unit-blocks and ten-blocks. The participants (N=272) were from four language groups (Korean, Mandarin, English, and Russian) that vary in the extent of "transparency" of the base-10 structure. In contrast to previous findings with older children, kindergartners showed no cross-language variability in the frequency of producing base-10 representations. Furthermore, they showed a pattern of within-language variability that was not consistent with the language account and was likely attributable to experiential factors. These findings suggest that language might not play as critical a role in the development of base-10 representations as suggested in earlier research.

  17. Improving the Accuracy of Satellite Sea Surface Temperature Measurements by Explicitly Accounting for the Bulk-Skin Temperature Difference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wick, Gary A.; Emery, William J.; Castro, Sandra L.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this research was to determine whether the accuracy of satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST) could be improved by explicitly accounting for the complex temperature gradients at the surface of the ocean associated with the cool skin and diurnal warm layers. To achieve this goal, work was performed in two different major areas. The first centered on the development and deployment of low-cost infrared radiometers to enable the direct validation of satellite measurements of skin temperature. The second involved a modeling and data analysis effort whereby modeled near-surface temperature profiles were integrated into the retrieval of bulk SST estimates from existing satellite data. Under the first work area, two different seagoing infrared radiometers were designed and fabricated and the first of these was deployed on research ships during two major experiments. Analyses of these data contributed significantly to the Ph.D. thesis of one graduate student and these results are currently being converted into a journal publication. The results of the second portion of work demonstrated that, with presently available models and heat flux estimates, accuracy improvements in SST retrievals associated with better physical treatment of the near-surface layer were partially balanced by uncertainties in the models and extra required input data. While no significant accuracy improvement was observed in this experiment, the results are very encouraging for future applications where improved models and coincident environmental data will be available. These results are included in a manuscript undergoing final review with the Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology.

  18. Queer(y)ing New Schooling Accountabilities through "My School": Using Butlerian Tools to Think Differently about Policy Performativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowlett, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This article takes the role of provocateur to "queer(y)" the rules of intelligibility surrounding new schooling accountabilities. Butler's work is seldom used outside the arena of gender and sexualities research. A "queer(y)ing" methodology is subsequently applied in a context very different to where it is frequently…

  19. Comparing Different Accounts of Inversion Errors in Children's Non-Subject Wh-Questions: "What Experimental Data Can Tell Us?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambridge, Ben; Rowland, Caroline F.; Theakston, Anna L.; Tomasello, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated different accounts of children's acquisition of non-subject wh-questions. Questions using each of 4 wh-words ("what," "who," "how" and "why"), and 3 auxiliaries (BE, DO and CAN) in 3sg and 3pl form were elicited from 28 children aged 3;6-4;6. Rates of non-inversion error ("Who…

  20. The biological significance of methylome differences in human papilloma virus associated head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Worsham, Maria J.; Chen, Kang Mei; Datta, Indrani; Stephen, Josena K.; Chitale, Dhananjay; Gothard, Alexandra; Divine, George

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, studies have suggested that promoter methylation in human papilloma virus (HPV) positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has a mechanistic role and has the potential to improve patient survival. The present study aimed to replicate key molecular findings from previous analyses of the methylomes of HPV positive and HPV negative HNSCC in an independent cohort, to assess the reliability of differentially methylated markers in HPV-associated tumors. HPV was measured using real-time quantitative PCR and the biological significance of methylation differences was assessed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Using an identical experimental design of a 450K methylation platform, 7 of the 11 genes were detected to be significantly differentially methylated and all 11 genes were either hypo- or hypermethylated, which was in agreement with the results of a previous study. IPA's enriched networks analysis identified one network with msh homeobox 2 (MSX2) as a central node. Locally dense interactions between genes in networks tend to reflect significant biology; therefore MSX2 was selected as an important gene. Sequestration in the top four canonical pathways was noted for 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1E (serotonin signaling), collapsin response mediator protein 1 (semaphorin signaling) and paired like homeodomain 2 (bone morphogenic protein and transforming growth factor-β signaling). Placement of 9 of the 11 genes in highly ranked pathways and bionetworks identified key biological processes to further emphasize differences between HNSCC HPV positive and negative pathogenesis. PMID:28101231

  1. Are the differences between Stw 431 (Australopithecus africanus) and A.L. 288-1 (A. afarensis) significant?

    PubMed

    Dobson, Seth D

    2005-07-01

    Recent studies of early hominin body proportions paint a complex evolutionary picture, with multiple instances of reversal in body shape. These interpretations rest heavily upon the inferred limb joint proportions of Australopithecus africanus. For example, the partial skeleton Stw 431 has been suggested to show ape-like joint proportions compared to the A. afarensis specimen A.L. 288-1. This suggests an evolutionary reversal in the more recent A. africanus. However, no study has examined the probability of sampling the differences between Stw 431 and A.L. 288-1 from a single extant hominoid species. The present study compares elbow/hip and elbow/lumbosacral joint size ratios between Stw 431 and A.L. 288-1 using exact randomization, based on chimpanzee and human models of variation. Results indicate that differences in elbow/hip proportions between Stw 431 and A.L. 288-1 can be sampled from a single species. In contrast, differences in elbow/lumbosacral proportions between Stw 431 and A.L. 288-1 show a significantly low probability of being sampled from a single species. Thus, Stw 431 and A.L. 288-1 are not significantly different from each with regard to limb joint proportions, but Stw 431 has a significantly smaller lumbosacral joint. This pattern does not conform to previous interpretations of limb proportions in A. africanus. Low statistical power in the present study may account for the discrepancy. Further research is needed to illuminate the functional implications of variation in relative lumbosacral joint size in early hominins.

  2. Cultural Adaptations to Environmental Variability: An Evolutionary Account of East-West Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Lei; Mak, Miranda C. K.; Li, Tong; Wu, Bao Pei; Chen, Bin Bin; Lu, Hui Jing

    2011-01-01

    Much research has been conducted to document and sometimes to provide proximate explanations (e.g., Confucianism vs. Western philosophy) for East-West cultural differences. The ultimate evolutionary mechanisms underlying these cross-cultural differences have not been addressed. We propose in this review that East-West cultural differences (e.g.,…

  3. Accounting for Individual Differences in Bradley-Terry Models by Means of Recursive Partitioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strobl, Carolin; Wickelmaier, Florian; Zeileis, Achim

    2011-01-01

    The preference scaling of a group of subjects may not be homogeneous, but different groups of subjects with certain characteristics may show different preference scalings, each of which can be derived from paired comparisons by means of the Bradley-Terry model. Usually, either different models are fit in predefined subsets of the sample or the…

  4. Using the Bootstrap Method for a Statistical Significance Test of Differences between Summary Histograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2006-01-01

    A new method is proposed to compare statistical differences between summary histograms, which are the histograms summed over a large ensemble of individual histograms. It consists of choosing a distance statistic for measuring the difference between summary histograms and using a bootstrap procedure to calculate the statistical significance level. Bootstrapping is an approach to statistical inference that makes few assumptions about the underlying probability distribution that describes the data. Three distance statistics are compared in this study. They are the Euclidean distance, the Jeffries-Matusita distance and the Kuiper distance. The data used in testing the bootstrap method are satellite measurements of cloud systems called cloud objects. Each cloud object is defined as a contiguous region/patch composed of individual footprints or fields of view. A histogram of measured values over footprints is generated for each parameter of each cloud object and then summary histograms are accumulated over all individual histograms in a given cloud-object size category. The results of statistical hypothesis tests using all three distances as test statistics are generally similar, indicating the validity of the proposed method. The Euclidean distance is determined to be most suitable after comparing the statistical tests of several parameters with distinct probability distributions among three cloud-object size categories. Impacts on the statistical significance levels resulting from differences in the total lengths of satellite footprint data between two size categories are also discussed.

  5. Two distinct groups within the Bacillus subtilis group display significantly different spore heat resistance properties.

    PubMed

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Kuipers, Oscar P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2015-02-01

    The survival of bacterial spores after heat treatment and the subsequent germination and outgrowth in a food product can lead to spoilage of the food product and economical losses. Prediction of time-temperature conditions that lead to sufficient inactivation requires access to detailed spore thermal inactivation kinetics of relevant model strains. In this study, the thermal inactivation kinetics of spores of fourteen strains belonging to the Bacillus subtilis group were determined in detail, using both batch heating in capillary tubes and continuous flow heating in a micro heater. The inactivation data were fitted using a log linear model. Based on the spore heat resistance data, two distinct groups (p < 0.001) within the B. subtilis group could be identified. One group of strains had spores with an average D120 °C of 0.33 s, while the spores of the other group displayed significantly higher heat resistances, with an average D120 °C of 45.7 s. When comparing spore inactivation data obtained using batch- and continuous flow heating, the z-values were significantly different, hence extrapolation from one system to the other was not justified. This study clearly shows that heat resistances of spores from different strains in the B. subtilis group can vary greatly. Strains can be separated into two groups, to which different spore heat inactivation kinetics apply.

  6. Factors correlating with significant differences between X-ray structures of myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Rashin, Alexander A; Domagalski, Marcin J; Zimmermann, Michael T; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Jernigan, Robert L

    2014-02-01

    Validation of general ideas about the origins of conformational differences in proteins is critical in order to arrive at meaningful functional insights. Here, principal component analysis (PCA) and distance difference matrices are used to validate some such ideas about the conformational differences between 291 myoglobin structures from sperm whale, horse and pig. Almost all of the horse and pig structures form compact PCA clusters with only minor coordinate differences and outliers that are easily explained. The 222 whale structures form a few dense clusters with multiple outliers. A few whale outliers with a prominent distortion of the GH loop are very similar to the cluster of horse structures, which all have a similar GH-loop distortion apparently owing to intermolecular crystal lattice hydrogen bonds to the GH loop from residues near the distal histidine His64. The variations of the GH-loop coordinates in the whale structures are likely to be owing to the observed alternative intermolecular crystal lattice bond, with the change to the GH loop distorting bonds correlated with the binding of specific `unusual' ligands. Such an alternative intermolecular bond is not observed in horse myoglobins, obliterating any correlation with the ligands. Intermolecular bonds do not usually cause significant coordinate differences and cannot be validated as their universal cause. Most of the native-like whale myoglobin structure outliers can be correlated with a few specific factors. However, these factors do not always lead to coordinate differences beyond the previously determined uncertainty thresholds. The binding of unusual ligands by myoglobin, leading to crystal-induced distortions, suggests that some of the conformational differences between the apo and holo structures might not be `functionally important' but rather artifacts caused by the binding of `unusual' substrate analogs. The causes of P6 symmetry in myoglobin crystals and the relationship between crystal and

  7. One State, Two State, Red State, Blue State: Education Funding Accounts for Outcome Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meece, Darrell

    2008-01-01

    Using publically available data, states coded as "blue" based upon results from the 2004 presidential election were significantly higher in education funding than were states coded as "red." Students in blue states scored significantly higher on outcome measures of math and reading in grades four and eight in 2004 and 2007 than did students in red…

  8. Sex Differences in Mental Rotation and Spatial Visualization Ability: Can They Be Accounted for by Differences in Working Memory Capacity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Scott Barry

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are well documented, but poorly understood. In order to see whether working memory is an important factor in these differences, 50 males and 50 females performed tests of three-dimensional mental rotation and spatial visualization, along with tests of spatial and verbal working memory. Substantial differences…

  9. Factors correlating with significant differences between X-ray structures of myoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Rashin, Alexander A.; Domagalski, Marcin J.; Zimmermann, Michael T.; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Jernigan, Robert L.

    2014-02-01

    Conformational differences between myoglobin structures are studied. Most structural differences in whale myoglobin beyond the uncertainty threshold can be correlated with a few specific structural factors. There are always exceptions and a search for additional factors is needed. The results might have serious implications for biological insights from conformational differences. Validation of general ideas about the origins of conformational differences in proteins is critical in order to arrive at meaningful functional insights. Here, principal component analysis (PCA) and distance difference matrices are used to validate some such ideas about the conformational differences between 291 myoglobin structures from sperm whale, horse and pig. Almost all of the horse and pig structures form compact PCA clusters with only minor coordinate differences and outliers that are easily explained. The 222 whale structures form a few dense clusters with multiple outliers. A few whale outliers with a prominent distortion of the GH loop are very similar to the cluster of horse structures, which all have a similar GH-loop distortion apparently owing to intermolecular crystal lattice hydrogen bonds to the GH loop from residues near the distal histidine His64. The variations of the GH-loop coordinates in the whale structures are likely to be owing to the observed alternative intermolecular crystal lattice bond, with the change to the GH loop distorting bonds correlated with the binding of specific ‘unusual’ ligands. Such an alternative intermolecular bond is not observed in horse myoglobins, obliterating any correlation with the ligands. Intermolecular bonds do not usually cause significant coordinate differences and cannot be validated as their universal cause. Most of the native-like whale myoglobin structure outliers can be correlated with a few specific factors. However, these factors do not always lead to coordinate differences beyond the previously determined uncertainty

  10. Scientific and social significance of assessing individual differences: "sinking shafts at a few critical points".

    PubMed

    Lubinski, D

    2000-01-01

    This chapter reviews empirical findings on the importance of assessing individual differences in human behavior. Traditional dimensions of human abilities, personality, and vocational interests play critical roles in structuring a variety of important behaviors and outcomes (e.g. achieved socioeconomic status, educational choices, work performance, delinquency, health risk behaviors, and income). In the review of their importance, the construct of general intelligence is featured, but attributes that routinely add incremental validity to cognitive assessments are also discussed. Recent experimental and methodological advances for better understanding how these dimensions may contribute to other psychological frameworks are reviewed, as are ways for determining their scientific significance within domains where they are not routinely assessed. Finally, some noteworthy models are outlined that highlight the importance of assessing relatively distinct classes of individual-differences attributes simultaneously. For understanding fully complex human phenomena such as crime, eminence, and educational-vocational development, such a multifaceted approach is likely to be the most productive.

  11. The different functions and clinical significances of caveolin-1 in human adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Pin; Chen, Fuchun; Pan, Qi; Zhao, Xianda; Zhao, Chen; Cho, William Chi-Shing; Chen, Honglei

    2017-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a major structural protein of caveolae, is an integral membrane protein which plays an important role in the progression of carcinoma. However, whether Cav-1 acts as a tumor promoter or a tumor suppressor still remains controversial. For example, the tumor-promoting function of Cav-1 has been found in renal cancer, prostate cancer, tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), lung SCC and bladder SCC. In contrast, Cav-1 also plays an inhibitory role in esophagus adenocarcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma and cutaneous SCC. The role of Cav-1 is still controversial in thyroid cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, breast cancer, pancreas cancer, oral SCC, laryngeal SCC, head and neck SCC, esophageal SCC and cervical SCC. Besides, it has been reported that the loss of stromal Cav-1 might predict poor prognosis in breast cancer, gastric cancer, pancreas cancer, prostate cancer, oral SCC and esophageal SCC. However, the accumulation of stromal Cav-1 has been found to be promoted by the progression of tongue SCC. Taken together, Cav-1 seems playing a different role in different cancer subtypes even of the same organ, as well as acting differently in the same cancer subtype of different organs. Thus, we hereby explore the functions of Cav-1 in human adenocarcinoma and SCC from the perspective of clinical significances and pathogenesis. We envision that novel targets may come with the further investigation of Cav-1 in carcinogenesis. PMID:28243118

  12. Not All Same-Different Discriminations Are Created Equal: Evidence Contrary to a Unidimensional Account of Same-Different Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Brett M.; Wasserman, Edward A.; Cook, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    In Experiment 1, we trained four pigeons to concurrently discriminate displays of 16 same icons (16S) from displays of 16 different icons (16D) as well as between displays of same icons (16S) from displays that contained 15 same icons and one different icon (15S:1D). The birds rapidly learned to discriminate 16S vs. 16D displays, but they failed…

  13. Explicitness in Science Discourse: A Gricean Account of Income-Related Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avenia-Tapper, Brianna; Isacoff, Nora M.

    2016-01-01

    Highly explicit language use is prized in scientific discourse, and greater explicitness is hypothesized to facilitate academic achievement. Studies in the mid-twentieth century reported controversial findings that the explicitness of text differs by the income and education levels of authors' families. If income-related differences in…

  14. Mental Rotation Does Not Account for Sex Differences in Left-Right Confusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Hirnstein, Marco; Ohmann, Hanno Andreas; Hausmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that women believe they are more prone to left-right confusion (LRC) than men. However, while some studies report that there is also a sex difference in LRC tasks favouring men, others report that men and women perform equally well. Recently, it was suggested that sex differences only emerge in LRC tasks when they…

  15. On interpreting stereotype threat as accounting for African American-White differences on cognitive tests.

    PubMed

    Sackett, Paul R; Hardison, Chaitra M; Cullen, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    C. M. Steele and J. Aronson (1995) showed that making race salient when taking a difficult test affected the performance of high-ability African American students, a phenomenon they termed stereotype threat. The authors document that this research is widely misinterpreted in both popular and scholarly publications as showing that eliminating stereotype threat eliminates the African American-White difference in test performance. In fact, scores were statistically adjusted for differences in students' prior SAT performance, and thus, Steele and Aronson's findings actually showed that absent stereotype threat, the two groups differ to the degree that would be expected based on differences in prior SAT scores. The authors caution against interpreting the Steele and Aronson experiment as evidence that stereotype threat is the primary cause of African American-White differences in test performance.

  16. Accounting for baseline differences and measurement error in the analysis of change over time.

    PubMed

    Braun, Julia; Held, Leonhard; Ledergerber, Bruno

    2014-01-15

    If change over time is compared in several groups, it is important to take into account baseline values so that the comparison is carried out under the same preconditions. As the observed baseline measurements are distorted by measurement error, it may not be sufficient to include them as covariate. By fitting a longitudinal mixed-effects model to all data including the baseline observations and subsequently calculating the expected change conditional on the underlying baseline value, a solution to this problem has been provided recently so that groups with the same baseline characteristics can be compared. In this article, we present an extended approach where a broader set of models can be used. Specifically, it is possible to include any desired set of interactions between the time variable and the other covariates, and also, time-dependent covariates can be included. Additionally, we extend the method to adjust for baseline measurement error of other time-varying covariates. We apply the methodology to data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study to address the question if a joint infection with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus leads to a slower increase of CD4 lymphocyte counts over time after the start of antiretroviral therapy.

  17. Significantly different coagulation factor activities underlying the variability of 'normal' activated partial thromboplastin time.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoung-Jin; Kwon, Eui-Hoon; Ma, Youngeun; Park, In-Ae; Kim, Seon-Woo; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2012-01-01

    The activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is a widely used coagulation screening test in routine laboratories. The aPTT level in the control population varies and is reflected by the reference interval. However, there have been no studies to investigate the coagulation status determining the variability of the aPTT. The aim of this study was to investigate the coagulation factor activities underlying the variability of aPTT in the population. The study participants were reference individuals with prothrombin time and aPTT within reference intervals. The aPTT was determined using STA-PTT Automate (Diagnostica Stago, Asnieres, France; local reference interval, 29.1-41.9 s). Those with aPTT within the marginal ranges of reference interval were selected for factor assays. We defined the lower marginal group as the lowest 10 percentile of reference interval (29.1-30.9 s) and the upper marginal group as the highest 10 percentile (38.0-41.9 s). Activities of factor II, V, VIII, IX, X, XI, and XII were determined in both groups. The lower marginal and upper marginal groups consisted of 220 and 209 individuals, respectively. All coagulation factors were significantly higher in the lower marginal than in the upper marginal group (P = 0.0127 for factor II and P < 0.0001 for the others). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed factor XII and VIII were two strongest contributors determining the aPTT level, whereas factor XI was not significantly different between the groups (P = 0.095). This study firstly demonstrated significantly different coagulation factor activities underlying the variability of aPTT in reference individuals. The results suggested the possibility of disease association or phenotypic contribution of variable coagulation activities in the population.

  18. Exposure To Harmful Workplace Practices Could Account For Inequality In Life Spans Across Different Demographic Groups.

    PubMed

    Goh, Joel; Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Zenios, Stefanos

    2015-10-01

    The existence of important socioeconomic disparities in health and mortality is a well-established fact. Many pathways have been adduced to explain inequality in life spans. In this article we examine one factor that has been somewhat neglected: People with different levels of education get sorted into jobs with different degrees of exposure to workplace attributes that contribute to poor health. We used General Social Survey data to estimate differential exposures to workplace conditions, results from a meta-analysis that estimated the effect of workplace conditions on mortality, and a model that permitted us to estimate the overall effects of workplace practices on health. We conclude that 10-38 percent of the difference in life expectancy across demographic groups can be explained by the different job conditions their members experience.

  19. Accounting for strain-specific differences during RTG target gene regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Dilova, Ivanka; Powers, Ted

    2006-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction results in the expression, via the retrograde response pathway, of a concise set of genes (RTG target genes) that encode enzymes involved in the anapleurotic production of alpha-ketoglutarate. Inhibiting the rapamycin-sensitive TOR kinases, important regulators of cell growth, similarly results in RTG target gene expression under rich nutrient conditions. Retrograde and TOR-dependent regulation of RTG target genes requires a number of shared components, including the heterodimeric bZip/HLH transcription factors Rtg1p and Rtg3p, as well as their upstream regulator Mks1p. Two unresolved discrepancies exist with regard to the mechanism of RTG target gene control: (1) deletion of MKS1 results in constitutive expression of RTG target genes in most but not all strain backgrounds; and (2) RTG target gene expression has been correlated with both decreased as well as increased Rtg3p phosphorylation. Here we have addressed both of these issues. First, we demonstrate that the mks1 deletion strain used in a previous study by Shamji and coworkers contains a nonsense mutation within codon Ser 231 in RTG3 that likely accounts for the inactivity of the RTG system in this strain. Second, we confirm results by Butow and coworkers that Rtg3p is dephosphorylated as a primary response to induction of the pathway. Hyper-phosphorylation of this protein appears to be a secondary consequence of rapamycin treatment and is influenced both by strain background as well as by specific supplied nutrients. That hyper-phosphorylation of Rtg3p is also caused by heat shock suggests that it may reflect a more generalized response to cell stress. Together these results contribute toward a uniform view of RTG target gene regulation.

  20. Measuring Cohesion: An Approach that Accounts for Differences in the Degree of Integration Challenge Presented by Different Types of Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Many proposed cohesion metrics focus on the number and types of explicit cohesive ties detected within a text without also considering differences in the ease or difficulty of required referential and connective inferences. A new cohesion measure structured to address this limitation is proposed. Empirical analyses confirm that this new measure…

  1. Neuropathologically defined subtypes of Alzheimer's disease differ significantly from neurofibrillary tangle-predominant dementia.

    PubMed

    Janocko, Nicholas J; Brodersen, Kevin A; Soto-Ortolaza, Alexandra I; Ross, Owen A; Liesinger, Amanda M; Duara, Ranjan; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Dickson, Dennis W; Murray, Melissa E

    2012-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be classified based on the relative density of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the hippocampus and association cortices into three subtypes: typical AD, hippocampal-sparing AD (HpSp AD), and limbic-predominant AD (LP AD). AD subtypes not only have pathologic, but also demographic, clinical, and genetic differences. Neurofibrillary tangle-predominant dementia (NFTD), a disorder with NFTs relatively restricted to limbic structures, shares this feature with LP AD raising the possibility that NFTD is a variant of AD. The objective criteria for pathologic diagnosis of NFTD are not available. A goal of this study was to design a mathematical algorithm that could diagnose NFTD from NFT and senile plaque (SP) counts in hippocampus and association cortices, analogous to that used to subtype AD. Moreover, we aimed to compare pathologic, demographic, clinical, and genetic features of NFTD (n = 18) with LP AD (n = 19), as well as the other AD subtypes, typical AD (n = 52) and HpSp AD (n = 17). Using digital microscopy, we confirmed that burden of phospho-tau (CP13) and of an NFT conformational epitope (Ab39) correlated with NFT densities and showed expected patterns across AD subtypes. HpSp AD had the highest and LP AD had the lowest burden of cortical CP13 and Ab39 immunoreactivity. On the other hand, cortical β-amyloid burden did not significantly differ between AD subtypes. Semi-quantitative assessment of SPs in the basal ganglia did show HpSp AD to have significantly more frequent presence of SPs compared to typical AD, which was more frequent than LP AD. Compared to LP AD, NFTD had an older age at disease onset and shorter disease duration, as well as lower Braak NFT stage. NFTs and SPs on thioflavin-S fluorescent microscopy, as well as CP13, Ab39, and Aβ immunoreactivities were very low in the frontal cortex of NFTD, differentiating NFTD from AD subtypes, including LP AD. MAPT H1H1 genotype frequency was high (~70 %) in NFTD and LP AD

  2. Flexural testing on carbon fibre laminates taking into account their different behaviour under tension and compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serna Moreno, M. C.; Romero Gutierrez, A.; Martínez Vicente, J. L.

    2016-07-01

    An analytical model has been derived for describing the results of three-point-bending tests in materials with different behaviour under tension and compression. The shift of the neutral plane and the damage initiation mode and its location have been defined. The validity of the equations has been reviewed by testing carbon fibre-reinforced polymers (CFRP), typically employed in different weight-critical applications. Both unidirectional and cross-ply laminates have been studied. The initial failure mode produced depends directly on the beam span- thickness relation. Therefore, specimens with different thicknesses have been analysed for examining the damage initiation due to either the bending moment or the out-of-plane shear load. The experimental description of the damage initiation and evolution has been shown by means of optical microscopy. The good agreement between the analytical estimations and the experimental results shows the validity of the analytical model exposed.

  3. Spore populations among bulk tank raw milk and dairy powders are significantly different.

    PubMed

    Miller, Rachel A; Kent, David J; Watterson, Matthew J; Boor, Kathryn J; Martin, Nicole H; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-12-01

    To accommodate stringent spore limits mandated for the export of dairy powders, a more thorough understanding of the spore species present will be necessary to develop prospective strategies to identify and reduce sources (i.e., raw materials or in-plant) of contamination. We characterized 1,523 spore isolates obtained from bulk tank raw milk (n=33 farms) and samples collected from 4 different dairy powder-processing plants producing acid whey, nonfat dry milk, sweet whey, or whey protein concentrate 80. The spores isolated comprised 12 genera, at least 44 species, and 216 rpoB allelic types. Bacillus and Geobacillus represented the most commonly isolated spore genera (approximately 68.9 and 12.1%, respectively, of all spore isolates). Whereas Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from samples collected from all plants and farms, Geobacillus spp. were isolated from samples from 3 out of 4 plants and just 1 out of 33 farms. We found significant differences between the spore population isolated from bulk tank raw milk and those isolated from dairy powder plant samples, except samples from the plant producing acid whey. A comparison of spore species isolated from raw materials and finished powders showed that although certain species, such as B. licheniformis, were found in both raw and finished product samples, other species, such as Geobacillus spp. and Anoxybacillus spp., were more frequently isolated from finished powders. Importantly, we found that 8 out of 12 genera were isolated from at least 2 different spore count methods, suggesting that some spore count methods may provide redundant information if used in parallel. Together, our results suggest that (1) Bacillus and Geobacillus are the predominant spore contaminants in a variety of dairy powders, implying that future research efforts targeted at elucidating approaches to reduce levels of spores in dairy powders should focus on controlling levels of spore isolates from these genera; and (2) the spore

  4. Does the Shallow Structures Proposal Account for Qualitative Differences in First and Second Language Processing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Laura

    2006-01-01

    In their Keynote Article, Clahsen and Felser (CF) provide a detailed summary and comparison of grammatical processing in adult first language (L1) speakers, child L1 speakers, and second language (L2) speakers. CF conclude that child and adult L1 processing makes use of a continuous parsing mechanism, and that any differences found in processing…

  5. A Cognitive Processing Account of Individual Differences in Novice Logo Programmers' Conceptualisation and Use of Recursion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Pamela

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated individual differences in the construction of mental models of recursion in LOGO programming. The learning process was investigated from the perspective of Norman's mental models theory and employed diSessa's ontology regarding distributed, functional, and surrogate mental models, and the Luria model of brain…

  6. Functional significance of genetically different symbiotic algae Symbiodinium in a coral reef symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Loram, J E; Trapido-Rosenthal, H G; Douglas, A E

    2007-11-01

    The giant sea anemone Condylactis gigantea associates with members of two clades of the dinoflagellate alga Symbiodinium, either singly or in mixed infection, as revealed by clade-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction of large subunit ribosomal DNA. To explore the functional significance of this molecular variation, the fate of photosynthetically fixed carbon was investigated by (14)C radiotracer experiments. Symbioses with algae of clades A and B released ca. 30-40% of fixed carbon to the animal tissues. Incorporation into the lipid fraction and the low molecular weight fraction dominated by amino acids was significantly higher in symbioses with algae of clade A than of clade B, suggesting that the genetically different algae in C. gigantea are not functionally equivalent. Symbioses with mixed infections yielded intermediate values, such that this functional trait of the symbiosis can be predicted from the traits of the contributing algae. Coral and sea anemone symbioses with Symbiodinium break down at elevated temperature, a process known as 'coral bleaching'. The functional response of the C. gigantea symbiosis to heat stress varied between the algae of clades A and B, with particularly depressed incorporation of photosynthetic carbon into lipid of the clade B algae, which are more susceptible to high temperature than the algae of clade A. This study provides a first exploration of how the core symbiotic function of photosynthate transfer to the host varies with the genotype of Symbiodinium, an algal symbiont which underpins corals and, hence, coral reef ecosystems.

  7. [Significant impact of different induction conditions on metabolic diversity of callus cell lines of Glycyrrhiza sp].

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng-Cai; Lv, Jian-Ming; Wu, Xiu-Zhen; Zhang, Wei

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of callus induction and culture conditions on secondary metabolic diversity of the callus cell lines of traditional Chinese medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza sp. (Glycyrrhiza) by combined chemical analysis and HPLC fingerprint. These callus induction conditions included two Glycyrrhiza species, two types of explants, light and dark conditions, and two combinations of hormones. The evaluation was firstly based on the contents of total flavonoids in the callus by chemical analysis and one way ANOVA. The content of total flavonoids in callus was significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by Glycyrrhiza species, light condition, and the combination of hormones. The callus was further evaluated using diversity factor based on the comparison of HPLC fingerprints of these callus cell lines. Diversity factor varies significantly for calli induced under different conditions, with the highest being at 0.45 under light condition and combination of hormones. These results provide important knowledge for the selection of suitable callus cell lines for the production of pharmacologically important secondary metabolites or bioactive fractions by in vitro culture of Glycyrrhiza sp.

  8. Detection of significant differences between absorption spectra of neutral helium and low temperature photoionized helium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Fok, T.; Jarocki, R.; Szczurek, M.

    2013-11-15

    In this work, spectral investigations of photoionized He plasmas were performed. The photoionized plasmas were created by irradiation of helium stream, with intense pulses from laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The EUV source was based on a double-stream Xe/Ne gas-puff target irradiated with 10 ns/10 J Nd:YAG laser pulses. The most intense emission from the source spanned a relatively narrow spectral region below 20 nm, however, spectrally integrated intensity at longer wavelengths was also significant. The EUV radiation was focused onto a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulse. The long-wavelength part of the EUV radiation was used for backlighting of the photoionized plasmas to obtain absorption spectra. Both emission and absorption spectra in the EUV range were investigated. Significant differences between absorption spectra acquired for neutral helium and low temperature photoionized plasmas were demonstrated for the first time. Strong increase of intensities and spectral widths of absorption lines, together with a red shift of the K-edge, was shown.

  9. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Rao, Jun; Shi, Jianxin; Hu, Chaoyang; Cheng, Fang; Wilson, Zoe A; Zhang, Dabing; Quan, Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world's major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While "omics" studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especially in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetically related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield.

  10. No difference found in time to publication by statistical significance of trial results: a methodological review

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, L; Cooper, E; Hewitt, C; Torgerson, T; Cook, L; Tharmanathan, P; Cockayne, S; Torgerson, D

    2016-01-01

    Objective Time-lag from study completion to publication is a potential source of publication bias in randomised controlled trials. This study sought to update the evidence base by identifying the effect of the statistical significance of research findings on time to publication of trial results. Design Literature searches were carried out in four general medical journals from June 2013 to June 2014 inclusive (BMJ, JAMA, the Lancet and the New England Journal of Medicine). Setting Methodological review of four general medical journals. Participants Original research articles presenting the primary analyses from phase 2, 3 and 4 parallel-group randomised controlled trials were included. Main outcome measures Time from trial completion to publication. Results The median time from trial completion to publication was 431 days (n = 208, interquartile range 278–618). A multivariable adjusted Cox model found no statistically significant difference in time to publication for trials reporting positive or negative results (hazard ratio: 0.86, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.16, p = 0.32). Conclusion In contrast to previous studies, this review did not demonstrate the presence of time-lag bias in time to publication. This may be a result of these articles being published in four high-impact general medical journals that may be more inclined to publish rapidly, whatever the findings. Further research is needed to explore the presence of time-lag bias in lower quality studies and lower impact journals. PMID:27757242

  11. Different Ecological Niches for Ticks of Public Health Significance in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Arsenault, Julie; Badcock, Jacqueline; Cheng, Angela; Edsall, Jim; Goltz, Jim; Kennedy, Joe; Lindsay, L. Robbin; Pelcat, Yann; Ogden, Nicholas H.

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases are a growing public health concern as their incidence and range have increased in recent decades. Lyme disease is an emerging infectious disease in Canada due to northward expansion of the geographic range of Ixodes scapularis, the principal tick vector for the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi, into central and eastern Canada. In this study the geographical distributions of Ixodid ticks, including I. scapularis, and environmental factors associated with their occurrence were investigated in New Brunswick, Canada, where few I. scapularis populations have been found to date. Density of host-seeking ticks was evaluated by drag sampling of woodland habitats in a total of 159 sites. Ixodes scapularis ticks (n = 5) were found on four sites, Ixodes muris (n = 1) on one site and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (n = 243) on 41 sites. One of four adult I. scapularis ticks collected was PCR-positive for B. burgdorferi. No environmental variables were significantly associated with the presence of I. scapularis although comparisons with surveillance data in neighbouring provinces (Québec and Nova Scotia) suggested that temperature conditions may be too cold for I. scapularis (< 2800 annual degree days above 0°C [DD > 0°C]) across much of New Brunswick. In contrast, the presence of H. leporispalustris, which is a competent vector of tularaemia, was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with specific ranges of mean DD > 0°C, mean annual precipitation, percentage of clay in site soil, elevation and season in a multivariable logistic regression model. With the exception of some localized areas, temperature conditions and deer density may be too low for the establishment of I. scapularis and Lyme disease risk areas in New Brunswick, while environmental conditions were suitable for H. leporispalustris at many sites. These findings indicate differing ecological niches for two tick species of public health significance. PMID:26131550

  12. Antecedents of Teachers Fostering Effort within Two Different Management Regimes: An Assessment-Based Accountability Regime and Regime without External Pressure on Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophersen, Knut-Andreas; Elstad, Eyvind; Turmo, Are

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the comparison of organizational antecedents of teachers' fostering of students' effort in two quite different accountability regimes: one management regime with an external-accountability system and one with no external accountability devices. The methodology involves cross-sectional surveys from two different management…

  13. Calcareous concretions and psammoma bodies in sputum smears: do these similar structures have different clinical significance?

    PubMed

    Martínez-Girón, Rafael; Martínez-Torre, Santiago; Tamargo-Peláez, María Luisa; López-Cabanilles, María Dolores; Torre-Bayón, Concepción

    2014-09-01

    Different noncellular elements, such as round concentric calcified laminated structures, may be found in sputum smears. If these structures appear isolated on the background of the smear, the term usually used to describe them is "calcareous concretions" (CC). On the contrary, when the structures are part of epithelial cell groups or small tissue fragments, the term used to describe them is "Psammoma bodies" (PB). The aim of this work is to establish the relationship between these structures and pulmonary disease, especially lung carcinoma, by searching for the presence of CC and/or PB in sputum smears. Our study has taken as a basis 16.716 sputum smears from 696 patients obtained during a 7-year period (2003-2009). After reviewing them, it was found that from the total, 66 cases (0.39%) contained round calcified structures, 57 of them (0.34%) corresponding to CC, and the remaining 9 ones (0.05%) corresponding to PB. From these 57 CC cases, 56 corresponded to benign entities, and only one was found with lung carcinoma. On the other hand, from the 9 PB cases all of them (100%) were related to lung adenocarcinoma. We conclude that, even having a similar morphological structure, these aforementioned calcified structures we have observed in sputum smears have different and relevant clinical significance.

  14. Significant Difference in Hydrogen Isotope Composition Between Xylem and Tissue Water in Populus Euphratica.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liangju; Wang, Lixin; Cernusak, Lucas A; Liu, Xiaohong; Xiao, Honglang; Zhou, Maoxian; Zhang, Shiqiang

    2016-08-01

    Deuterium depletions between stem water and source water have been observed in coastal halophyte plants and in multiple species under greenhouse conditions. However, the location(s) of the isotope fractionation is not clear yet and it is uncertain whether deuterium fractionation appears in other natural environments. In this study, through two extensive field campaigns utilizing a common dryland riparian tree species Populus euphratica Oliv., we showed that no significant δ(18) O differences were found between water source and various plant components, in accord with previous studies. We also found that no deuterium fractionation occurred during P. euphratica water uptake by comparing the deuterium composition (δD) of groundwater and xylem sap. However, remarkable δD differences (up to 26.4‰) between xylem sap and twig water, root water and core water provided direct evidence that deuterium fractionation occurred between xylem sap and root or stem tissue water. This study indicates that deuterium fractionation could be a common phenomenon in drylands, which has important implications in plant water source identification, palaeoclimate reconstruction based on wood cellulose and evapotranspiration partitioning using δD of stem water.

  15. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  16. Microbiology of wildfire victims differs significantly from routine burns patients: data from an Australian wildfire disaster.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Norelle L; Padiglione, Alexander A; Spelman, Denis W; Cleland, Heather

    2013-03-01

    The catastrophic wildfires of February 2009 in Victoria, Australia killed 173 people and hospitalised 18 adults with burns. We conducted a case-control study of wildfire victims (WFVs) compared to routine burns patients to assess early differences in bacteriology. Demographic, outcome and bacteriology data (for the first 72 h) were prospectively collected on all 18 WFVs, and compared to those of 36 RBPs matched 2:1 for age, gender, burns severity (total body surface area ≥20%) and ICU admission. We found that WFVs had more positive cultures overall (10/18 [56%] vs 7/36 [19%], p=0.04), and we cultured more Gram negative bacteria from wounds (11/13 [85%] vs 3/12 [25%], p=0.005). Although WFVs were more likely to culture Enterobacteriaceae (5/18 vs 2/36) and Aeromonas spp. (3/18 vs 1/36), and less likely to culture Staphylococcus aureus (2/18 vs 6/36), these differences were not statistically significant. Given the predominance of Gram negative organisms cultured from WFVs, our routine burn wound prophylaxis (intravenous cephazolin) would have been inadequate in the WFV group. We suggest that an alternative regimen of oxacillin/nafcillin/flucloxacillin plus gentamicin (or a fluoroquinolone if renal impairment present) may be more appropriate for burn wound prophylaxis in this complex group of patients.

  17. Significant difference in the dynamics between strong and fragile glass formers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Akira; Tanaka, Hajime

    2016-11-01

    Glass-forming liquids are often classified into strong glass formers with nearly Arrhenius behavior and fragile ones with super-Arrhenius behavior. We reveal a significant difference in the dynamics between these two types of glass formers through molecular dynamics simulations: In strong glass formers, the relaxation dynamics of density fluctuations is nondiffusive, whereas in fragile glass formers it exhibits diffusive behavior. We demonstrate that this distinction is a direct consequence of the fundamental difference in the underlying elementary relaxation process between these two dynamical classes of glass formers. For fragile glass formers, a density-exchange process proceeds the density relaxation, which takes place locally at the particle level in normal states but is increasingly cooperative and nonlocal as the temperature is lowered in supercooled states. On the other hand, in strong glass formers, such an exchange process is not necessary for density relaxation due to the presence of other local relaxation channels. Our finding provides a novel insight into Angell's classification scheme from a hydrodynamic perspective.

  18. Gender differences in capitate kinematics are eliminated after accounting for variation in carpal size.

    PubMed

    Rainbow, Michael J; Crisco, Joseph J; Moore, Douglas C; Wolfe, Scott W

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies have found gender differences in carpal kinematics, and there are discrepancies in the literature on the location of the flexionextension and radio-ulnar deviation rotation axes of the wrist. It has been postulated that these differences are due to carpal bone size differences rather than gender and that they may be resolved by normalizing the kinematics by carpal size. The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in radio-capitate kinematics are a function of size or gender. We also sought to determine if a best-fit pivot point (PvP) describes the radio-capitate joint as a ball-and-socket articulation. By using an in vivo markerless bone registration technique applied to computed tomography scans of 26 male and 28 female wrists, we applied scaling derived from capitate length to radio-capitate kinematics, characterized by a best-fit PvP. We determined if radio-capitate kinematics behave as a ball-and-socket articulation by examining the error in the best-fit PvP. Scaling PvP location completely removed gender differences (P=0.3). This verifies that differences in radio-capitate kinematics are due to size and not gender. The radio-capitate joint did not behave as a perfect ball and socket because helical axes representing anatomical motions such as flexion-extension, radio-ulnar deviation, dart throwers, and antidart throwers, were located at distances up to 4.5 mm from the PvP. Although the best-fit PvP did not yield a single center of rotation, it was still consistently found within the proximal pole of the capitate, and rms errors of the best-fit PvP calculation were on the order of 2 mm. Therefore, the ball-and-socket model of the wrist joint center using the best-fit PvP is appropriate when considering gross motion of the hand with respect to the forearm such as in optical motion capture models. However, the ball-and-socket model of the wrist is an insufficient description of the complex motion of the capitate with respect to the

  19. Different promoter affinities account for specificity in MYC-dependent gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzin, Francesca; Benary, Uwe; Baluapuri, Apoorva; Walz, Susanne; Jung, Lisa Anna; von Eyss, Björn; Kisker, Caroline; Wolf, Jana; Eilers, Martin; Wolf, Elmar

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced expression of the MYC transcription factor is observed in the majority of tumors. Two seemingly conflicting models have been proposed for its function: one proposes that MYC enhances expression of all genes, while the other model suggests gene-specific regulation. Here, we have explored the hypothesis that specific gene expression profiles arise since promoters differ in affinity for MYC and high-affinity promoters are fully occupied by physiological levels of MYC. We determined cellular MYC levels and used RNA- and ChIP-sequencing to correlate promoter occupancy with gene expression at different concentrations of MYC. Mathematical modeling showed that binding affinities for interactions of MYC with DNA and with core promoter-bound factors, such as WDR5, are sufficient to explain promoter occupancies observed in vivo. Importantly, promoter affinity stratifies different biological processes that are regulated by MYC, explaining why tumor-specific MYC levels induce specific gene expression programs and alter defined biological properties of cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15161.001 PMID:27460974

  20. Midlife memory ability accounts for brain activity differences in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Pudas, Sara; Persson, Jonas; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-11-01

    Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies suggest that hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions underlie individual differences in memory ability in older individuals, but it is unclear how individual differences in cognitive ability in youth contribute to cognitive and neuroimaging measures in older age. Here, we investigated the relative influences of midlife memory ability and age-related memory change on memory-related BOLD-signal variability at one time point, using a sample from a longitudinal population-based aging study (N = 203, aged 55-80 years). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that midlife memory ability, assessed 15-20 years earlier, explained at least as much variance as memory change in clusters in the left inferior prefrontal cortex and the bilateral hippocampus, during memory encoding. Furthermore, memory change estimates demonstrated higher sensitivity than current memory levels in identifying distinct frontal regions where activity was selectively related to age-related memory change, as opposed to midlife memory. These findings highlight challenges in interpreting individual differences in neurocognitive measures as age-related changes in the absence of longitudinal data and also demonstrate the improved sensitivity of longitudinal measures.

  1. Perspectives on differing health outcomes by city: accounting for Glasgow’s excess mortality

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Simon DS; George, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Several health outcomes (including mortality) and health-related behaviors are known to be worse in Scotland than in comparable areas of Europe and the United Kingdom. Within Scotland, Greater Glasgow (in West Central Scotland) experiences disproportionately poorer outcomes independent of measurable variation in socioeconomic status and other important determinants. Many reasons for this have been proposed, particularly related to deprivation, inequalities, and variation in health behaviors. The use of models (such as the application of Bradford Hill’s viewpoints on causality to the different hypotheses) has provided useful insights on potentially causal mechanisms, with health behaviors and inequalities likely to represent the strongest individual candidates. This review describes the evolution of our understanding of Glasgow’s excess mortality, summarizes some of the key work in this area, and provides some suggestions for future areas of exploration. In the context of demographic change, the experience in Glasgow is an important example of the complexity that frequently lies behind observed variations in health outcomes within and between populations. A comprehensive explanation of Glasgow’s excess mortality may continue to remain elusive, but is likely to lie in a complex and difficult-to-measure interplay of health determinants acting at different levels in society throughout the life course. Lessons learned from the detailed examination of different potentially causative determinants in Scotland may provide useful methodological insights that may be applied in other settings. Ongoing efforts to unravel the causal mechanisms are needed to inform public health efforts to reduce health inequalities and improve outcomes in Scotland. PMID:26124684

  2. Can arterial wave augmentation in young adults help account for variability of cardiovascular risk in different British ethnic groups?

    PubMed Central

    Faconti, Luca; Silva, Maria J.; Molaodi, Oarabile R.; Enayat, Zinat E.; Cassidy, Aidan; Karamanos, Alexis; Nanino, Elisa; Read, Ursula M.; Dall, Philippa; Stansfield, Ben; Harding, Seeromanie; Cruickshank, Kennedy J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not fully account for ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease. We tested if arterial function indices, particularly augmentation index (AIx), and their determinants from childhood could underlie such ethnic variability among young British adults in the ‘DASH’ longitudinal study. Methods: DASH, at http://dash.sphsu.mrc.ac.uk/, includes representative samples of six main British ethnic groups. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and AIx were recorded using the Arteriograph device at ages 21–23 years in a subsample (n = 666); psychosocial, anthropometric, and blood pressure (BP) measures were collected then and in two previous surveys at ages 11–13 years and 14–16 years. For n = 334, physical activity was measured over 5 days (ActivPal). Results: Unadjusted values and regression models for PWVs were similar or lower in ethnic minority than in White UK young adults, whereas AIx was higher – Caribbean (14.9, 95% confidence interval 12.3–17.0%), West African (15.3, 12.9–17.7%), Indian (15.1, 13.0–17.2%), and Pakistani/Bangladeshi (15.7, 13.7–17.7%), compared with White UK (11.9, 10.2–13.6%). In multivariate models, adjusted for sex, central SBP, height, and heart rate, Indian and Pakistani/Bangladeshi young adults had higher AIx (β = 3.35, 4.20, respectively, P < 0.01) than White UK with a similar trend for West Africans and Caribbeans but not statistically significant. Unlike PWV, physical activity, psychosocial or deprivation measures were not associated with AIx, with borderline associations from brachial BP but no other childhood variables. Conclusion: Early adult AIx, but not arterial stiffness, may be a useful tool for testing components of excess cardiovascular risk in some ethnic minority groups. PMID:27490950

  3. Clinically significant differences in acute pain measured on self-report pain scales in children

    PubMed Central

    Tsze, Daniel S.; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; von Baeyer, Carl L.; Bulloch, Blake; Dayan, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective was to determine the minimum and ideal clinically significant differences (MCSD, ICSD) of the Faces Pain Scale–Revised (FPS-R) and the Color Analog Scale (CAS) in children and to identify any differences in these estimates based on patient characteristics. Methods This was a prospective study of children aged 4 to 17 years with acute pain presenting to two urban pediatric emergency departments. Participants self-reported their pain severity using the FPS-R and CAS and qualitatively described their changes in pain. Changes in pain score reported using the FPS-R and CAS that were associated with “a little less” and “much less” pain (MCSD and ICSD, respectively) were identified using a receiver operating characteristic–based method and expressed as raw change score and percent reductions. Estimates of MCSD and ICSD were determined for each category of initial pain severity (mild, moderate, and severe) and patient characteristics (age, sex, and ethnicity). Post hoc exploratory analyses evaluated categories of race, primary language, and etiology of pain. Results A total of 314 children with acute pain were enrolled; mean (±SD) age was 9.8 (±3.8) years. The FPS-R raw change score and percent reduction MCSD estimates were 2/10 and 25%, with ICSD estimates of 3/10 and 60%. For the CAS, raw change score and percent reduction MCSD estimates were 1/10 and 15%, with ICSD estimates of 2.75/10 and 52%. For both scales, raw change score and percent reduction estimates of the MCSD remained unchanged in children with either moderate or severe pain. For both scales, estimates of ICSD were not stable across categories of initial pain severity. There was no difference in MCSD or ICSD based on age, sex, ethnicity, race, primary language, or etiology of pain. Conclusions The MCSD estimates can be expressed as raw change score and percent reductions for the FPS-R and CAS. These estimates appear stable for children with moderate to severe pain

  4. pH-Regulated Mechanisms Account for Pigment-Type Differences in Epidermal Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Gunathilake, Roshan; Schurer, Nanna Y.; Shoo, Brenda A.; Celli, Anna; Hachem, Jean-Pierre; Crumrine, Debra; Sirimanna, Ganga; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Mauro, Theodora M.; Elias, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether pigment type determines differences in epidermal function, we studied stratum corneum (SC) pH, permeability barrier homeostasis, and SC integrity in three geographically disparate populations with pigment type I–II versus IV–V skin (Fitzpatrick I–VI scale). Type IV–V subjects showed: (i) lower surface pH (≈0.5 U); (ii) enhanced SC integrity (transepidermal water loss change with sequential tape strippings); and (iii) more rapid barrier recovery than type I–II subjects. Enhanced barrier function could be ascribed to increased epidermal lipid content, increased lamellar body production, and reduced acidity, leading to enhanced lipid processing. Compromised SC integrity in type I–II subjects could be ascribed to increased serine protease activity, resulting in accelerated desmoglein-1 (DSG-1)/corneodesmosome degradation. In contrast, DSG-1-positive CDs persisted in type IV–V subjects, but due to enhanced cathepsin-D activity, SC thickness did not increase. Adjustment of pH of type I–II SC to type IV–V levels improved epidermal function. Finally, dendrites from type IV–V melanocytes were more acidic than those from type I–II subjects, and they transfer more melanosomes to the SC, suggesting that melanosome secretion could contribute to the more acidic pH of type IV–V skin. These studies show marked pigment-type differences in epidermal structure and function that are pH driven. PMID:19177137

  5. Salivary Concentration of Progesterone and Cortisol Significantly Differs Across Individuals After Correcting for Blood Hormone Values

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Shoko; Brindle, Eleanor; Guyton, Amanda; O’Connor, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Between-individual variation of salivary progesterone (P4) and cortisol levels does not always closely reflect blood hormone concentrations. This may be partly a function of individual differences in salivary hormone excretion. We tested whether time of day at sampling and ethnicity contributed to individual variation in salivary hormones after adjusting for blood hormone levels. Forty-three Caucasian and 15 Japanese women (18–34 years) collected four sets of matched dried blood spot (DBS) and saliva specimens across a menstrual cycle (N = 232 specimen sets). Linear fixed-effects (LFE) models were used to estimate the effects of diurnal variation and ethnicity on salivary P4 and cortisol while adjusting for DBS levels. For each hormone, women with exclusively positive or negative residuals (unexplained variance) from the LFE models were categorized as high- or low-saliva-to-DBS hormone ratio (SDR; high or low salivary secretors), respectively. We found that salivary P4 (P < 0.05) was significantly higher in early morning compared to the afternoon, after controlling for DBS levels, ethnicity, and BMI. After further adjusting for this diurnal effect, significant individual variation in salivary P4 and cortisol remained: sixteen and nine women, respectively were categorized as low or high salivary secretors for both hormones (P < 0.001), suggesting systematic individual-specific variation of salivary hormonal concentration. We conclude that when saliva is used to quantify P4 or cortisol levels, time of day at sampling should be controlled. Even with this adjustment, salivary P4 and cortisol do not closely mirror between-individual variation of serum P4 and cortisol in a substantial proportion of individuals. PMID:22826025

  6. Denaturation studies reveal significant differences between GFP and blue fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Ibtesam A; Ashraf, S Salman

    2009-10-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is an unusually stable fluorescent protein that belongs to a family of related auto-fluorescent proteins (AFPs). These AFPs have been generated from jellyfish GFP by mutating the amino acids in the chromophore or its vicinity. Variants that emit light in the blue region (Blue Fluorescent Protein, BFP), red region, or yellow region are readily available and are widely used in diverse applications. Previously, we had used fluorescence spectroscopy to study the effect of pH on the denaturation of GFP with SDS, urea, and heat. Surprisingly, we found that SDS, urea or heat, did not have any significant effect on the fluorescence of GFP at pH 7.5 or 8.5, however, at pH 6.5, the protein lost all fluorescence within a very short period of time. These results suggested that GFP undergoes a structural/stability shift between pH 6.5 and 7.5, with the GFP structure at pH 6.5 being very sensitive to denaturation by SDS, urea, and heat. In the present study, we wanted to explore whether the stability or structure of the closely related BFP is also pH dependent. As expected, we found heat-induced denaturation and renaturation of BFP to be pH dependent, very much like GFP. However, when exposed to other denaturants like urea/heat or SDS we found BFP to behave very differently than GFP. Unlike GFP, which at pH 8.5 and 7.5 is very resistant to SDS-induced denaturation, BFP readily lost about 20% of its fluorescence at pH 8.5 and about 60% fluorescence at pH 7.5. Also, our denaturation and renaturation studies show that under certain conditions, BFP is more stable than GFP, such that under conditions where GFP is completely denatured, BFP still retained significant fluorescence. Taken together, our preliminary results show that despite being very similar in both amino acid sequences and overall structures, there may be subtle and important structural/conformational differences between BFP and GFP.

  7. Spatial separation of two different pathways accounting for the generation of calcium signals in astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Oschmann, Franziska; Mergenthaler, Konstantin; Obermayer, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Astrocytes integrate and process synaptic information and exhibit calcium (Ca2+) signals in response to incoming information from neighboring synapses. The generation of Ca2+ signals is mostly attributed to Ca2+ release from internal Ca2+ stores evoked by an elevated metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activity. Different experimental results associated the generation of Ca2+ signals to the activity of the glutamate transporter (GluT). The GluT itself does not influence the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, but it indirectly activates Ca2+ entry over the membrane. A closer look into Ca2+ signaling in different astrocytic compartments revealed a spatial separation of those two pathways. Ca2+ signals in the soma are mainly generated by Ca2+ release from internal Ca2+ stores (mGluR-dependent pathway). In astrocytic compartments close to the synapse most Ca2+ signals are evoked by Ca2+ entry over the plasma membrane (GluT-dependent pathway). This assumption is supported by the finding, that the volume ratio between the internal Ca2+ store and the intracellular space decreases from the soma towards the synapse. We extended a model for mGluR-dependent Ca2+ signals in astrocytes with the GluT-dependent pathway. Additionally, we included the volume ratio between the internal Ca2+ store and the intracellular compartment into the model in order to analyze Ca2+ signals either in the soma or close to the synapse. Our model results confirm the spatial separation of the mGluR- and GluT-dependent pathways along the astrocytic process. The model allows to study the binary Ca2+ response during a block of either of both pathways. Moreover, the model contributes to a better understanding of the impact of channel densities on the interaction of both pathways and on the Ca2+ signal. PMID:28192424

  8. Isolation and characterization of different strains of Bacillus licheniformis for the production of commercially significant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Maria; Ansari, Asma; Aman, Afsheen; Zohra, Rashida Rahmat; Siddiqui, Nadir Naveed; Qader, Shah Ali Ul

    2013-07-01

    Utilization of highly specific enzymes for various industrial processes and applications has gained huge momentum in the field of white biotechnology. Selection of a strain by efficient plate-screening method for a specific purpose has also favored and boosted the isolation of several industrially feasible microorganisms and screening of a large number of microorganisms is an important step in selecting a potent culture for multipurpose usage. Five new bacterial isolates of Bacillus licheniformis were discovered from indigenous sources and characterized on the basis of phylogeny using 16S rDNA gene analysis. Studies on morphological and physiological characteristics showed that these isolates can easily be cultivated at different temperatures ranging from 30°C to 55°C with a wide pH values from 3.0 to 11.0 All these 05 isolates are salt tolerant and can grow even in the presences of high salt concentration ranging from 7.0 to 12.0%. All these predominant isolates of B. licheniformis strains showed significant capability of producing some of the major industrially important extracellular hydrolytic enzymes including α-amylase, glucoamylase, protease, pectinase and cellulase in varying titers. All these isolates hold great potential as commercial strains when provided with optimum fermentation conditions.

  9. Significant pharmacokinetic differences of berberine are attributable to variations in gut microbiota between Africans and Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Alolga, Raphael N.; Fan, Yong; Chen, Zhuo; Liu, Li-Wei; Zhao, Yi-Jing; Li, Jin; Chen, Yan; Lai, Mao-De; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the influence of gut microbiotal metabolism on the pharmacokinetics of berberine in healthy male Africans and Chinese. The Cmax and AUC in the Africans were 2.67-fold and 2.0-fold higher than the Chinese, respectively. Microbiotal compositions by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing showed higher abundance of the genera Prevotella, Bacteroides, and Megamonas (34.22, 13.88, and 10.68%, respectively) in the Chinese than the Africans (30.08, 9.43, and 0.48%, respectively). Scatter plot showed a strong negative correlation between the microbiotal abundance and the berberine AUC, especially for the genus Prevotella (r = −0.813) and its species. A more extensive metabolism was observed in Chinese with 1.83-fold higher metabolites, possibly contributing to the lower AUC than the Africans. In conclusion, significant PK differences of berberine were observed between Africans and Chinese, which is partly attributable to variations in gut microbiota and its corresponding metabolic capacity. PMID:27283523

  10. Modeling co-occurrence of northern spotted and barred owls: accounting for detection probability differences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Larissa L.; Reid, Janice A.; Forsman, Eric D.; Nichols, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Barred owls (Strix varia) have recently expanded their range and now encompass the entire range of the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). This expansion has led to two important issues of concern for management of northern spotted owls: (1) possible competitive interactions between the two species that could contribute to population declines of northern spotted owls, and (2) possible changes in vocalization behavior and detection probabilities of northern spotted owls induced by presence of barred owls. We used a two-species occupancy model to investigate whether there was evidence of competitive exclusion between the two species at study locations in Oregon, USA. We simultaneously estimated detection probabilities for both species and determined if the presence of one species influenced the detection of the other species. Model selection results and associated parameter estimates provided no evidence that barred owls excluded spotted owls from territories. We found strong evidence that detection probabilities differed for the two species, with higher probabilities for northern spotted owls that are the object of current surveys. Non-detection of barred owls is very common in surveys for northern spotted owls, and detection of both owl species was negatively influenced by the presence of the congeneric species. Our results suggest that analyses directed at hypotheses of barred owl effects on demographic or occupancy vital rates of northern spotted owls need to deal adequately with imperfect and variable detection probabilities for both species.

  11. Temporal Regulation of Lipin Activity Diverged to Account for Differences in Mitotic Programs

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Maria; Gu, Ying; Chen, Jun-Song; Beckley, Janel Renée; Gould, Kathleen Louise; Oliferenko, Snezhana

    2016-01-01

    Summary Eukaryotes remodel the nucleus during mitosis using a variety of mechanisms that differ in the timing and the extent of nuclear envelope (NE) breakdown. Here, we probe the principles enabling this functional diversity by exploiting the natural divergence in NE management strategies between the related fission yeasts Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Schizosaccharomyces japonicus [1, 2, 3]. We show that inactivation of Ned1, the phosphatidic acid phosphatase of the lipin family, by CDK phosphorylation is both necessary and sufficient to promote NE expansion required for “closed” mitosis in S. pombe. In contrast, Ned1 is not regulated during division in S. japonicus, thus limiting membrane availability and necessitating NE breakage. Interspecies gene swaps result in phenotypically normal divisions with the S. japonicus lipin acquiring an S. pombe-like mitotic phosphorylation pattern. Our results provide experimental evidence for the mitotic regulation of phosphatidic acid flux and suggest that the regulatory networks governing lipin activity diverged in evolution to give rise to strikingly dissimilar mitotic programs. PMID:26774782

  12. Why do humans have such a prominent nose? The final result of phylogenesis: a significant reduction of the splanchocranium on account of the neurocranium.

    PubMed

    Mladina, Ranko; Skitarelić, Neven; Vuković, Katarina

    2009-09-01

    During the last few decades several authors tried to clarify the anthropological aspects of the shape of the human nose and why it has so emphasized projection. Our hypothesis suggests the essentiality of the role of morphologic changes of the human skull which occurred during the phylogenesis. It seems that erectile posture of the man caused remarkable morphological changes of the skull base shape thus being a part of morphologic evolution. The changes in the shape of the human spine from birth to adulthood show a philogenesis in short: a newborn has an almost flat spine like quadrupeds (except in the sacro-coccigeal region), but the spine gets increasingly bent as the person grows (lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, cervical lordosis). It is well known that the sphenoidal angle was less emphasized in prehistoric man than in modern man. In addition, the cervical spine position in the gorilla, Neanderthal man and modern man is quite different in terms of anterior inclination. Accordingly, there is a great degree of maxillary and mandible reduction in humans. The same differences can be seen when comparing the skull shapes of gorilla, gibbons, Neanderthals and modern man. A major reason for the maxillary and mandible reduction in humans is that their way of feeding has changed remarkably with time. In lower primates and other animals, nasal function, particularly olfaction, may be essential for day-to day survival. In humans, however, this is less important although both impaired nasal breathing and olfaction may affect the function in the other body organs and, of course, influence the quality of life. Nasal configuration in recent humans seems to be associated with the internal nasal cavity wideness and nasal bridge elevation which just happened because of newly developed physiological needs. The skull base angulation leads directly to obvious changes in splanchocranium on the account of neurocranium, since previous is getting "squeezed", by angulation of the

  13. Why size matters: differences in brain volume account for apparent sex differences in callosal anatomy: the sexual dimorphism of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Luders, Eileen; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated a sexual dimorphism of the human corpus callosum. However, the question remains if sex differences in brain size, which typically is larger in men than in women, or biological sex per se account for the apparent sex differences in callosal morphology. Comparing callosal dimensions between men and women matched for overall brain size may clarify the true contribution of biological sex, as any observed group difference should indicate pure sex effects. We thus examined callosal morphology in 24 male and 24 female brains carefully matched for overall size. In addition, we selected 24 extremely large male brains and 24 extremely small female brains to explore if observed sex effects might vary depending on the degree to which male and female groups differed in brain size. Using the individual T1-weighted brain images (n=96), we delineated the corpus callosum at midline and applied a well-validated surface-based mesh-modeling approach to compare callosal thickness at 100 equidistant points between groups determined by brain size and sex. The corpus callosum was always thicker in men than in women. However, this callosal sex difference was strongly determined by the cerebral sex difference overall. That is, the larger the discrepancy in brain size between men and women, the more pronounced the sex difference in callosal thickness, with hardly any callosal differences remaining between brain-size matched men and women. Altogether, these findings suggest that individual differences in brain size account for apparent sex differences in the anatomy of the corpus callosum.

  14. Residential Differences in Family Formation: The Significance of Co-Habitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Anastasia R.; Brown, Susan L.; Condo, Erin P.

    2004-01-01

    We update and extend prior research on residential differences in women's family formation experiences using data from the 1995 cycle of the National Survey of Family Growth. Residential differences in the timing of family formation behaviors are examined, including first birth, first cohabitation, and first marriage. Our study emphasizes the…

  15. Multiple Comparisons of Observation Means--Are the Means Significantly Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahidy, T. Z.

    2009-01-01

    Several currently popular methods of ascertaining which treatment (population) means are different, via random samples obtained under each treatment, are briefly described and illustrated by evaluating catalyst performance in a chemical reactor.

  16. Human rights accountability for maternal death and failure to provide safe, legal abortion: the significance of two ground-breaking CEDAW decisions.

    PubMed

    Kismödi, Eszter; de Mesquita, Judith Bueno; Ibañez, Ximena Andión; Khosla, Rajat; Sepúlveda, Lilian

    2012-06-01

    In 2011, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) issued two landmark decisions. In Alyne da Silva Pimentel v. Brazil, the first maternal death case decided by an international human rights body, it confirms that States have a human rights obligation to guarantee that all women, irrespective of their income or racial background, have access to timely, non-discriminatory, and appropriate maternal health services. In L.C. v. Peru, concerning a 13-year-old rape victim who was denied a therapeutic abortion and had an operation on her spine delayed that left her seriously disabled as a result, it established that the State should guarantee access to abortion when a woman's physical or mental health is in danger, decriminalise abortion when pregnancy results from rape or sexual abuse, review its restrictive interpretation of therapeutic abortion and establish a mechanism to ensure that reproductive rights are understood and observed in all health care facilities. Both cases affirm that accessible and good quality health services are vital to women's human rights and expand States' obligations in relation to these. They also affirm that States must ensure national accountability for sexual and reproductive health rights, and provide remedies and redress in the event of violations. And they reaffirm the importance of international human rights bodies as sources of accountability for sexual and reproductive rights violations, especially where national accountability is absent or ineffective.

  17. Quality, and not just quantity, of education accounts for differences in psychometric performance between african americans and white non-hispanics with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Chin, Alexander L; Negash, Selam; Xie, Sharon; Arnold, Steven E; Hamilton, Roy

    2012-03-01

    The effect of race on cognitive test performance in the evaluation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains controversial. One factor that may contribute substantially to differences in cognitive test performance in diverse populations is education. The current study examined the extent to which quality of education, even after controlling for formal years of education, accounts for differences in cognitive performance between African Americans and White Non-Hispanics (WNHs). The retrospective cohort included 244 patients diagnosed with AD who self-identified as African Americans (n = 51) or WNHs (n = 193). The Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR) was used as an estimate of quality of education. In an analysis that controlled for traditional demographics, including age, sex, and years of formal education, African Americans scored significantly lower than WNHs on the Mini-Mental State Examination, as well as on neuropsychological tests of memory, attention, and language. However, after also adjusting for reading level, all previously observed differences were significantly attenuated. The attenuating effect remained even after controlling for disease severity, indicating that reading scores are not confounded by severity of dementia. These findings suggest that quality, and not just quantity, of education needs to be taken into account when assessing cognitive performance in African Americans with AD.

  18. Quality, and not just quantity, of education accounts for differences in psychometric performance between African Americans and White Non-Hispanics with Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Alexander L.; Negash, Selam; Xie, Sharon; Arnold, Steven E.; Hamilton, Roy

    2013-01-01

    The effect of race on cognitive test performance in the evaluation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) remains controversial. One factor that may contribute substantially to differences in cognitive test performance in diverse populations is education. The current study examined the extent to which quality of education, even after controlling for formal years of education, accounts for differences in cognitive performance between African Americans and White Non-Hispanics (WNHs). The retrospective cohort included 244 patients diagnosed with AD who self-identified as African Americans (n=51) or WNHs (n=193). The Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR) was used as an estimate of quality of education. In an analysis that controlled for traditional demographics, including age, sex, and years of formal education, African Americans scored significantly lower than WNHs on the Mini-Mental State Examination, as well as on neuropsychological tests of memory, attention, and language. However, after also adjusting for reading level, all previously observed differences were significantly attenuated. The attenuating effect remained even after controlling for disease severity, indicating that reading scores are not confounded by severity of dementia. These findings suggest that quality, and not just quantity, of education needs to be taken into account when assessing cognitive performance in African Americans with AD. PMID:22300593

  19. Weighing the costs of different errors when determining statistical significant during monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selecting appropriate significance levels when constructing confidence intervals and performing statistical analyses with rangeland monitoring data is not a straightforward process. This process is burdened by the conventional selection of “95% confidence” (i.e., Type I error rate, a =0.05) as the d...

  20. Significant Differences in Pediatric Psychotropic Side Effects: Implications for School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiszyn, Thomas; Mire, Sarah; Dutt, Sonia; Papathopoulos, Katina; Burridge, Andrea Backsheider

    2012-01-01

    Some side effects (SEs) of increasingly prescribed psychotropic medications can impact student performance in school. SE risk varies, even among drugs from the same class (e.g., antidepressants). Knowing which SEs occur significantly more often than others may enable school psychologists to enhance collaborative risk-benefit analysis, medication…

  1. Methylamphetamine synthesized from cold medication as precursor source via two different routes show significantly different stable isotope signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaram, S.; Daeid, N. Nic; Kerr, W. J.; Kemp, H. F.; Meier-Augenstein, W.

    2012-04-01

    This work exposes the variation in light element stable isotopic abundance values of 13C, 2H and 15N) derived from the analysis of methylamphetamine synthesized via 2 different synthetic routes popular with clandestine laboraties, the Hypophosphorous and the Moscow route. We repeatedly prepared the final product using known clandestine synthetic methods where the precursors, catalysts and reducing agents have themselves been derived from house hold products and commonly available cold medications. Methylamphetamine was prepared from both lab grade pseudoephedrine and pseudoephedrine extracted (using three different solvent systems) from Sudafed®, an over-the-counter cold medication widely available in the United Kingdom. Six repetitive batches of the final product were produced in each case to provide within and between batch variations thus yielding a total of 48 samples (24 for each route). We have demonstrated that stable isotope analysis by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is potentially useful in the comparison and discrimination of batches of methylamphetamine produced for each route and for each precursor depending on the solvent used for extracting the pseudoephedrine starting material. To our knowledge this is the first time multivariate stable isotope analysis has been applied to methylamphetamine samples synthesized from pseudoephedrine extracted from over-the-counter cold medications.

  2. Significance of the Hygiene Charter towards different sectors in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lee, A; Cheng, F F K; Yuen, H S K; Ho, M; Ngan, W P; Suen, Y P; Au, S M Y; Li, S N; Tso, C Y; Ng, P P Y; Wong, Y P; Keung, M W; Lo, A S C; Wong, W S; Siu, D C H; Yuen, W K; Mok, K K; Fung, W Y; Wong, K K

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of SARS in March 2003 has resulted in an increased interest, worldwide in emerging infectious diseases. The SARS experience provided us a lesson on the importance of promoting hygienic practices among individuals and different working sectors. In Hong Kong, a voluntary organization called the UNITE proposed a Hygiene Charter which aimed at taking hygiene to new levels. This action has been supported by individuals and different sectors including the Personal and Family, Management, Buildings, Catering, Education, Finance and Commercial, Industrial, Medical and Health, Public Transportation, Social Welfare, Sports and Culture and Tourism. As promotion and maintenance of environmental health requires input from different sectors, the signing of the Hygiene Charter provides an opportunity for individuals and the public to show their pledge and commitment to good hygiene practices. As a result, with environment improvement and good infectious disease control measures, prevention of epidemics of infectious diseases is deemed to be possible.

  3. Accounting Students' Performance and Personality Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nourayi, Mahmoud M.; Cherry, Alan A.

    1993-01-01

    Completion of the Myers Briggs Type Inventory by 103 accounting majors revealed no significant differences among personality types in achievement, except that sensing types perform better in accounting in general. Results seem to belie the suggestion that accounting attracts introverts and that the intuitive type is best suited to accounting in…

  4. Do Age and Sex of School Students Make Significant Difference in Their Multiple Intelligences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravi, R.; Vedapriya, S. Gethsi

    2009-01-01

    Multiple Intelligences are a new educational theory proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983. Multiple intelligences describe an array of different kinds of intelligences exhibited by human beings. This theory consists of verbal-linguistic, logical and mathematics, visual and spatial, bodily kinesthetic, musical-rhythmic, intrapersonal, interpersonal,…

  5. Brief Report: Significant Differences in Perceived Odor Pleasantness Found in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrdlicka, Michal; Vodicka, Jan; Havlovicova, Marketa; Urbanek, Tomas; Blatny, Marek; Dudova, Iva

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore possible differences in estimation of odor pleasantness in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared to controls. Thirty-five patients with Asperger's syndrome and high functioning autism (mean age 10.8 [plus or minus] 3.6 years; 31 boys) were compared with 35 healthy control subjects (mean age 10.4…

  6. The Significance of Different Diacylgycerol Synthesis Pathways on Plant Oil Composition and Bioengineering

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Philip D.; Browse, John

    2012-01-01

    The unique properties of vegetable oils from different plants utilized for food, industrial feedstocks, and fuel is dependent on the fatty acid (FA) composition of triacylglycerol (TAG). Plants can use two main pathways to produce diacylglycerol (DAG), the immediate precursor molecule to TAG synthesis: (1) De novo DAG synthesis, and (2) conversion of the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) to DAG. The FA esterified to PC are also the substrate for FA modification (e.g., desaturation, hydroxylation, etc.), such that the FA composition of PC-derived DAG can be substantially different than that of de novo DAG. Since DAG provides two of the three FA in TAG, the relative flux of TAG synthesis from de novo DAG or PC-derived DAG can greatly affect the final oil FA composition. Here we review how the fluxes through these two alternate pathways of DAG/TAG synthesis are determined and present evidence that suggests which pathway is utilized in different plants. Additionally, we present examples of how the endogenous DAG synthesis pathway in a transgenic host plant can produce bottlenecks for engineering of plant oil FA composition, and discuss alternative strategies to overcome these bottlenecks to produce crop plants with designer vegetable oil compositions. PMID:22783267

  7. Combustion and gasification characteristics of chars from four commercially significant coals of different rank. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala, N.Y.; Patel, R.L.; Lao, T.C.

    1982-09-01

    The combustion and gasification kinetics of four size graded coal chars were investigated experimentally in Combustion Engineering's Drop Tube Furnace System (DTFS). The chars were prepared in the DTFS from commercially significant coals representing a wide range of rank; these included a Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam hvAb coal, an Illinois No. 6 Seam hvCb coal, a Wyoming Sub C, and a Texas Lignite A. Additionally, a number of standard ASTM and special bench scale tests were performed on the coals and chars to characterize their physicochemical properties. Results showed that the lower rank coal chars were more reactive than the higher rank coal chars and that combustion reactions of chars were much faster than the corresponding gasification reactions. Fuel properties, temperature, and reactant gas partial pressure had a significant influence on both combustion and gasification, and particle size had a mild but discernible influence on gasification. Fuel reactivities were closely related to pore structure. Computer simulation of the combustion and gasification performances of the subject samples in the DTFS supported the experimental findings.

  8. Postexercise Glycogen Recovery and Exercise Performance is Not Significantly Different Between Fast Food and Sport Supplements.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Michael J; Dumke, Charles L; Hailes, Walter S; Cuddy, John S; Ruby, Brent C

    2015-10-01

    A variety of dietary choices are marketed to enhance glycogen recovery after physical activity. Past research informs recommendations regarding the timing, dose, and nutrient compositions to facilitate glycogen recovery. This study examined the effects of isoenergetic sport supplements (SS) vs. fast food (FF) on glycogen recovery and exercise performance. Eleven males completed two experimental trials in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Each trial included a 90-min glycogen depletion ride followed by a 4-hr recovery period. Absolute amounts of macronutrients (1.54 ± 0.27 g·kg-1 carbohydrate, 0.24 ± 0.04 g·kg fat-1, and 0.18 ±0.03g·kg protein-1) as either SS or FF were provided at 0 and 2 hr. Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis at 0 and 4 hr post exercise. Blood samples were analyzed at 0, 30, 60, 120, 150, 180, and 240 min post exercise for insulin and glucose, with blood lipids analyzed at 0 and 240 min. A 20k time-trial (TT) was completed following the final muscle biopsy. There were no differences in the blood glucose and insulin responses. Similarly, rates of glycogen recovery were not different across the diets (6.9 ± 1.7 and 7.9 ± 2.4 mmol·kg wet weight- 1·hr-1 for SS and FF, respectively). There was also no difference across the diets for TT performance (34.1 ± 1.8 and 34.3 ± 1.7 min for SS and FF, respectively. These data indicate that short-term food options to initiate glycogen resynthesis can include dietary options not typically marketed as sports nutrition products such as fast food menu items.

  9. The formation of the polyploid hybrids from different subfamily fish crossings and its evolutionary significance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaojun; Qin, Qinbo; Xiao, Jun; Lu, Wenting; Shen, Jiamin; Li, Wei; Liu, Jifang; Duan, Wei; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Zhao, Rurong; Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Yun

    2007-06-01

    This study provides genetic evidences at the chromosome, DNA content, DNA fragment and sequence, and morphological levels to support the successful establishment of the polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp x blunt snout bream, which belonged to a different subfamily of fish (Cyprininae subfamily and Cultrinae subfamily) in the catalog. We successfully obtained the sterile triploid hybrids and bisexual fertile tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (RCC) (female symbol) x blunt snout bream (BSB) (male symbol) as well as their pentaploid hybrids. The triploid hybrids possessed 124 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and one set from BSB; the tetraploid hybrids had 148 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and two sets from BSB. The females of tetraploid hybrids produced unreduced tetraploid eggs that were fertilized with the haploid sperm of BSB to generate pentaploid hybrids with 172 chromosomes with three sets from BSB and two sets from RCC. The ploidy levels of triploid, tetraploid, and pentaploid hybrids were confirmed by counting chromosomal number, forming chromosomal karyotype, and measuring DNA content and erythrocyte nuclear volume. The similar and different DNA fragments were PCR amplified and sequenced in triploid, tetraploid hybrids, and their parents, indicating their molecular genetic relationship and genetic markers. In addition, this study also presents results about the phenotypes and feeding habits of polyploid hybrids and discusses the formation mechanism of the polyploid hybrids. It is the first report on the formation of the triploid, tetraploid, and pentaploid hybrids by crossing parents with a different chromosome number in vertebrates. The formation of the polyploid hybrids is potentially interesting in both evolution and fish genetic breeding.

  10. Harvesting yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at different physiological phases significantly affects its functionality in bread dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Dornez, Emmie; Jacobs, Pieter; Parsi, Anali; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-05-01

    Fermentation of sugars into CO2, ethanol and secondary metabolites by baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during bread making leads to leavening of dough and changes in dough rheology. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the impact of yeast on dough related aspects by investigating the effect of harvesting yeast at seven different points of the growth profile on its fermentation performance, metabolite production, and the effect on critical dough fermentation parameters, such as gas retention potential. The yeast cells harvested during the diauxic shift and post-diauxic growth phase showed a higher fermentation rate and, consequently, higher maximum dough height than yeast cells harvested in the exponential or stationary growth phase. The results further demonstrate that the onset of CO2 loss from fermenting dough is correlated with the fermentation rate of yeast, but not with the amount of CO2 that accumulated up to the onset point. Analysis of the yeast metabolites produced in dough yielded a possible explanation for this observation, as they are produced in different levels depending on physiological phase and in concentrations that can influence dough matrix properties. Together, our results demonstrate a strong effect of yeast physiology at the time of harvest on subsequent dough fermentation performance, and hint at an important role of yeast metabolites on the subsequent gas holding capacity.

  11. [Significance of adreno- and cholino-inhibitors in cardiac rhythm autonomic regulation during different weather types].

    PubMed

    Denefil', O V

    2011-01-01

    In the experiments of 4.5-5 months old rats, we studied the influences of adrenal and cholinoblockators on the autonomic balance of cardiac rhythm during the I, II and III types of weather. Blockade of beta-adrenoreceptors and M-cholinoreceptors was evoked by anapriline (1.5 mg/kg) and atropine sulfate (1.0 mg/kg), respectively. Electrocardiograms for further analysis were registered in control and 30 minutes after injections of the blockers. It was shown that male rats have the highest activity of sympathetic nervous system under weather type I. High reactivity of beta-adrenoreceptors was determined under all weather types in males and females. In males, atropine blocks the autonomic M-cholinoreceptors under weather types II and III, while in females this effect is detected under all weather types. Furthermore, in males we detected a compensatory increase of sympathetic nervous system during all weather types, while in females such an increase was detected during weather types I and II. Collectively, we determined sex differences in adaptation to weather type changes which are connected to different reactivity of adreno- and cholinoreceptors.

  12. Personality and individual differences in the horse, their significance, use and measurement.

    PubMed

    Mills, D S

    1998-11-01

    The biological diversity of a species gives rise to individual differences in behavioural tendency. Traditionally, this variation has been considered to be of little scientific importance or value, but the description and quantification of the fundamental basis of this variability is relevant to many aspects of equine science. The reliable identification of these features may allow the development of more accurate diagnostic and prognostic indicators for a range of clinical diseases. Biologically based traits also provide a more rational basis for selective management and breeding programmes in which specific behavioural tendencies are sought. Individual differences in behaviour also reflect the range of subjective feelings experienced by animals and therefore need to be understood by those concerned with animal welfare. Psychometric techniques concerned with the assessment of personality may provide a suitable basis for scientific study in this field. Potentially methodologies include: behavioural tests, objective behaviour measures or the quantification of reports from those familiar with the subjects. The assessment of the validity and reliability of the variables measured in these tests is an integral part of their development. Interobserver correlation in an experiment based on the subjective rating of 20 horses with respect to 14 familiar terms used to describe horse personality was generally low. This suggests that, with the exception of the terms 'flighty' and 'sharp', the empirical terminology commonly used to describe horse personality is unreliable.

  13. Patterns of monoclonal immunoglobulins and serum free light chains are significantly different in black compared to white monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) patients.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Brendan M; Minter, Alex; Abadie, Jude; Howard, Robin; Ascencao, Joao; Schechter, Geraldine P; Kuehl, Michael; Landgren, Ola

    2011-06-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), the precursor to multiple myeloma, is more common in blacks than whites. The serum free light chain (sFLC) assay is an important prognostic test in MGUS, but no study has evaluated sFLC levels and ratios in black MGUS patients. One-hundred and twenty-five black MGUS patients at two urban centers were compared to the white population of the Mayo Clinic. The median age for blacks was 73 years [41-94] and 75% were male. The M-protein isotype in blacks was 81% IgG, 13% IgA, 2% IgM, and 4% biclonal compared to 70%, 12%, 16%, and 2%, respectively, in whites, (P < 0.0005). The median M-protein concentration for blacks was 0.44 gm/dL (trace-2.33) compared to 1.2 gm/dl in whites. An abnormal sFLC ratio was present in 45% of black compared to 33% of white (P = 0.01) patients. Using the Mayo Clinic risk model, black patients had a significantly lower proportion of higher risk MGUS compared to whites: low 43%, low-intermediate 45%, high-intermediate 10%, and high 2% (P = 0.014). Black patients with MGUS have significantly different laboratory findings compared to whites. The biologic basis for these disparities and their effect on prognostic assessment is unknown. Prognostic models based on these biomarkers should be used cautiously in nonwhite populations.

  14. Have the changes in treatment of rectal cancer made a significant difference to our patients?

    PubMed

    Benson, Al B; Guillem, José G; Minsky, Bruce D

    2011-12-01

    The treatment for patients with locally advanced, resectable rectal cancer has evolved over the years. Various combinations and sequences of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and total mesorectal excision (TME)-based surgery are the mainstay of current therapy. Preoperative combined chemoradiation, followed by surgery, is now the preferred treatment strategy, with the majority of patients receiving either infusion fluorouracil (5-FU) or capecitabine (Xeloda) with radiation. Clinical trials with oxaliplatin (Eloxatin)-based neoadjuvant chemoradiation have not shown improvement in the pathologic complete response rate (pCR) compared with 5-FU; however, final data addressing local recurrence rates and disease-free survival are pending.The use of adjuvant chemotherapy following preoperative chemoradiation and surgery has not been optimally defined. Some studies have shown that patients who obtained significant pathologic downstaging after chemoradiation and surgery have improved survival with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy. Since FOLFOX (folinic acid, 5-FU, and oxaliplatin) is the preferred adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for stage III colon cancer based on randomized clinical trial results, FOLFOX is also recommended for rectal cancer patients as an adjuvant therapy approach.

  15. Incorporating the human gene annotations in different databases significantly improved transcriptomic and genetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Geng; Wang, Charles; Shi, Leming; Qu, Xiongfei; Chen, Jiwei; Yang, Jianmin; Shi, Caiping; Chen, Long; Zhou, Peiying; Ning, Baitang; Tong, Weida; Shi, Tieliu

    2013-04-01

    Human gene annotation is crucial for conducting transcriptomic and genetic studies; however, the impacts of human gene annotations in diverse databases on related studies have been less evaluated. To enable full use of various human annotation resources and better understand the human transcriptome, here we systematically compare the human annotations present in RefSeq, Ensembl (GENCODE), and AceView on diverse transcriptomic and genetic analyses. We found that the human gene annotations in the three databases are far from complete. Although Ensembl and AceView annotated more genes than RefSeq, more than 15,800 genes from Ensembl (or AceView) are within the intergenic and intronic regions of AceView (or Ensembl) annotation. The human transcriptome annotations in RefSeq, Ensembl, and AceView had distinct effects on short-read mapping, gene and isoform expression profiling, and differential expression calling. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the integrated annotation of these databases can obtain a more complete gene set and significantly enhance those transcriptomic analyses. We also observed that many more known SNPs were located within genes annotated in Ensembl and AceView than in RefSeq. In particular, 1033 of 3041 trait/disease-associated SNPs involved in about 200 human traits/diseases that were previously reported to be in RefSeq intergenic regions could be relocated within Ensembl and AceView genes. Our findings illustrate that a more complete transcriptome generated by incorporating human gene annotations in diverse databases can strikingly improve the overall results of transcriptomic and genetic studies.

  16. Significance of frailty for predicting adverse clinical outcomes in different patient groups with specific medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Ritt, Martin; Gaßmann, Karl-Günter; Sieber, Cornel Christian

    2016-10-01

    Frailty is a major health burden in an aging society. It constitutes a clinical state of reduced physiological reserves that is associated with a diminished ability to withstand internal and external stressors. Frail patients have an increased risk for adverse clinical outcomes, such as mortality, readmission to hospital, institutionalization and falls. Of further clinical interest, frailty might be at least in part reversible in some patients and subject to preventive strategies. In daily clinical practice older patients with a complex health status, who are mostly frail or at least at risk of developing frailty, are frequently cared for by geriatricians. Recently, clinicians and scientists from other medical disciplines, such as cardiology, pulmonology, gastroenterology, nephrology, endocrinology, rheumatology, surgery and critical care medicine also discovered frailty to be an interesting instrument for risk stratification of patients, including younger patients. In this review we highlight the results of recent studies that demonstrated the significance of frailty to predict adverse clinical outcomes in patients with specific medical conditions, such as cardiac, lung, liver and kidney diseases as well as diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, trauma patients, patients undergoing surgery and critically ill patients. Multiple studies in patients with the aforementioned specific medical conditions could be identified demonstrating a predictive role of frailty for several adverse clinical outcomes. The association between frailty and adverse clinical outcomes reported in these studies was in part independent of several major potential confounder factors, such as age, sex, race, comorbidities and disabilities and were also detected in younger patients.

  17. Percutaneous Valve Replacement: Significance of Different Delivery Systems In Vitro and In Vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Attmann, Tim; Lutter, Georg Quaden, Rene; Jahnke, Thomas; Rumberg, Kristin; Cremer, Jochen; Muller-Hulsbeck, Stefan

    2006-06-15

    Background and purpose. Percutaneous heart valve replacement is an exciting growing field in cardiovascular medicine yet still with some major problems. Only sophisticated improvement of the instruments could make it a real alternative to conventional surgery. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate different delivery devices for percutaneous heart valve replacement in vitro and in vivo. Methods. A catheter prototype designed by our group, and two commercially available devices for the delivery of esophageal stents and aortic endoprostheses, were tested. After in vitro experiments, an ovine animal model of transfemoral pulmonary valve implantation was established using biological valved self-expanding stents. Only the delivery device for aortic endografts (Medtronic, Talent, Santa Rosa, CA, USA) allowed fast in vitro procedures without material fatigue. This device was chosen for the in vivo tests. Results. Technical success was achieved in 9 of 10 animals (90%). One animal died after perforation of the ventricular wall. Orthotopic pulmonary placement was performed in 6 animals and intentional supravalvular valved stent placement in 3 animals. Conclusions. An adequate in vitro model for this evolving field of interventional heart valve replacement is presented. Furthermore, the present study pinpoints the key characteristics that are mandatory for a delivery system in percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation. With regard to the delivery device's ductility observed during this 'venous' study, an approach to transfemoral aortic valve implantation seems feasible.

  18. Can significant differences in regulating medical and non-medical research be justified?

    PubMed

    Hunter, David

    2014-01-01

    It is now typical for human subjects research to be regulated by review by an independent research ethics committee in most jurisdictions. However it is common for countries to opt to only compulsorily regulate medical research while leaving some or all non-medical research either unregulated or only regulated on a voluntary basis. In this paper I will argue, using regulation in the UK as an example, that it is difficult to justify this sharp distinction in practices. While I won't come to any definitive conclusions in this paper as to whether research ought to be regulated compulsorily I will suggest that we would be better to regulate all research, albeit perhaps with a lighter touch than the present UK system if we want to prevent some highly risky research avoiding appropriate regulation. I will examine several arguments to defend making such a distinction; that medical professionals have special moral duties, that medical research has a higher magnitude/frequency of risks and that regulating non-medical research constitutes the inappropriate imposition of the medical model onto non-medical research. Having critiqued these objections I will then discuss the advantages of harmonizing the regulation of research and conclude that there is not a good reason to treat medical and non-medical research as fundamentally different in kind.

  19. Keeping Accountability Systems Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Martha

    2007-01-01

    The standards and accountability movement in education has undeniably transformed schooling throughout the United States. Even before President Bush signed the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act into law in January 2002, mandating annual public school testing in English and math for grades 3-8 and once in high school, most states had already…

  20. Differences in Looking at Own- and Other-Race Faces Are Subtle and Analysis-Dependent: An Account of Discrepant Reports

    PubMed Central

    Arizpe, Joseph; Kravitz, Dwight J.; Walsh, Vincent; Yovel, Galit; Baker, Chris I.

    2016-01-01

    The Other-Race Effect (ORE) is the robust and well-established finding that people are generally poorer at facial recognition of individuals of another race than of their own race. Over the past four decades, much research has focused on the ORE because understanding this phenomenon is expected to elucidate fundamental face processing mechanisms and the influence of experience on such mechanisms. Several recent studies of the ORE in which the eye-movements of participants viewing own- and other-race faces were tracked have, however, reported highly conflicting results regarding the presence or absence of differential patterns of eye-movements to own- versus other-race faces. This discrepancy, of course, leads to conflicting theoretical interpretations of the perceptual basis for the ORE. Here we investigate fixation patterns to own- versus other-race (African and Chinese) faces for Caucasian participants using different analysis methods. While we detect statistically significant, though subtle, differences in fixation pattern using an Area of Interest (AOI) approach, we fail to detect significant differences when applying a spatial density map approach. Though there were no significant differences in the spatial density maps, the qualitative patterns matched the results from the AOI analyses reflecting how, in certain contexts, Area of Interest (AOI) analyses can be more sensitive in detecting the differential fixation patterns than spatial density analyses, due to spatial pooling of data with AOIs. AOI analyses, however, also come with the limitation of requiring a priori specification. These findings provide evidence that the conflicting reports in the prior literature may be at least partially accounted for by the differences in the statistical sensitivity associated with the different analysis methods employed across studies. Overall, our results suggest that detection of differences in eye-movement patterns can be analysis-dependent and rests on the

  1. Numerical study of the butterfly effect on the solutions of the logistic difference equation using arbitrary significant digits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Nunez, Jesus; Castillo, Jesus; Molinar-Tabares, Martin

    The solutions of the logistic difference equation when they are under the influence of the chaotic regime are very sensitive to initial conditions due to the butterfly effect. In this study we used arbitrary significant digits to generate solutions of the logistic difference equation under the influence of chaos, and a follow of its effects along each digit of the solutions was made. A large amount of significant digits to generate the solutions is necessary since it is the only way of naturally appreciating the implications of chaos on these solutions. We compared digit by digit the numerical solutions that were generated by several different initial conditions that contain modifications in a very far significant digit, with respect to the solution of another initial condition that was selected for a control solution. The results shown that it is possible to track the butterfly effect and easily predict the moment on which its effects will be noticeable.

  2. Accounting Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prickett, Charlotte

    This curriculum guide describes the accounting curriculum in the following three areas: accounting clerk, bookkeeper, and nondegreed accountant. The competencies and tasks complement the Arizona validated listing in these areas. The guide lists 24 competencies for nondegreed accountants, 10 competencies for accounting clerks, and 11 competencies…

  3. Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Eaton

    2007-01-18

    This Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) applies to the remedial actions performed under the Final Record of Decision for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-1 0, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (DOE-ID 1999) as amended by the Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10 (DOE-ID 2003), the Record of Decision Amendment for the V-Tanks (TSF-09 and TSF-18) and Explanation of Significant Differences for the PM-2A Tanks (TSF-26) and TSF-06, Area IO, at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-1 0 (DOE-ID 2004a), and the Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10 (DOE-ID 2005). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operations Office; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10; and the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare-now identified as the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ)-signed the Record of Decision (ROD) in December 1999, the 2003 ESD in April 2003, the ROD Amendment/ESD in February 2004, and the 2005 ESD in January 2005. The EPA and DEQ support the need for this ESD.

  4. No Significant Acute and Subacute Differences between Blast and Blunt Concussions across Multiple Neurocognitive Measures and Symptoms in Deployed Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Dretsch, Michael N; Kelly, Mark P; Coldren, Rodney L; Parish, Robert V; Russell, Michael L

    2015-08-15

    Seventy-one deployed U.S. Army soldiers who presented for concussion care due to either blast or blunt mechanisms within 72 h of injury were assessed using the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation, the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM), traditional neuropsychological tests, and health status questionnaires. Follow-up ANAM testing was performed 10 d after initial testing (±5 d). Twenty-one soldiers were excluded: two for poor effort and 19 who had combined blast/blunt injuries. Of the remaining 50 male participants, 34 had blast injuries and 16 had blunt injuries. There were no statistically significant differences between blast injury and blunt injury participants in demographic, physical, or psychological health factors, concussive symptoms, or automated and traditional neurocognitive testing scores within 72 h post-injury. In addition, follow-up ANAM scores up to 15 d post-injury were not significantly different (available on 21 blast-injured and 13 blunt-injured subjects). Pre-injury baseline ANAM scores were compared where available, and revealed no statistically significant differences between 22 blast injury and eight blunt injury participants. These findings suggest there are no significant differences between mechanisms of injury during both the acute and subacute periods in neurobehavioral concussion sequelae while deployed in a combat environment. The current study supports the use of sports/mechanical concussion models for early concussion management in the deployed setting and exploration of variability in potential long-term outcomes.

  5. Gender differences and regionalization of the cultural significance of wild mushrooms around La Malinche volcano, Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montoya, A; Torres-García, E A; Kong, A; Estrada-Torres, A; Caballero, J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cultural significance of wild mushrooms in 10 communities on the slopes of La Malinche volcano, Tlaxcala. The frequency and order of mention of each mushroom species in interviews of 200 individuals were used as indicators of the relative cultural significance of each species. A X(2) analysis was used to compare the frequency of mention of each species between males and females, and a Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the difference in the total number of fungi mentioned by either gender. Traditional names for mushroom species were documented and frequency of mention assessed through multivariate statistics. The fungi with highest frequency of mention were Amanita basii, Lyophyllum decastes, Boletus pinophilus, Gomphus floccosus and Cantharellus cibarius complex. We found significant differences in the frequency of mention of different fungi by males and females but no significant difference was found for the total number of fungi mentioned by either gender. Principal component analysis suggested a cultural regionalization of La Malinche volcano communities based on preferences for consumption and use of traditional names. We observed two groups: one formed by communities on the eastern part of the volcano (with mixed cultures) and the other including communities on the western slope (ethnic Nahua towns). San Isidro Buensuceso is the most distinct community, according to the criteria in this study.

  6. Ohio's Accountability System for Career Development: How Do We Know We Make a Difference? AACE Bonus Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gahris, Cynthia

    In response to trends toward greater accountability expectations for educational programs, a study evaluated the success of the implementation of Ohio's Individual Career Plan (ICP). The ICP is a document initiated by students no later than grade 8 that helps to outline initial career goals and educational plans to reach those goals. A core…

  7. Expression and significance of S100P, CD147, and OCT4 in different prostate cancer tissue TNM stages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Zhang, J G; Wang, W

    2015-06-18

    The aim of this project was to investigate the expression and significance of S100P, CD147, and OCT4 in prostate cancer tissue at different TNM stages. We enrolled 54 patients with prostate cancer, 40 with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 20 subjects with normal prostates. S100P, CD147, and OCT4 were detected by immunohistochemistry. The positive rate of S100P detection was 18.52% in prostate cancer tissues, significantly lower than in normal and benign prostate hyperplasia tissues (P ˂ 0.05). The positive expression rate of CD147 and OCT4 were 100 and 77.38% in prostate cancer tissue, respectively, both markedly higher than in normal and benign prostate hyperplasia tissue (P ˂ 0.05). The positive rate of S100P in stage V was 0, which was significantly lower than in stages I (37.50%) and II (35.71%) (P ˂ 0.05). OCT4 expression in stages III (86.67%) and V (94.12%) was higher than in stage I (37.50%). The positive rate of S100P in patients with distant metastasis was 4%, which was significantly lower than that in patients without metastases (P ˂ 0.05). In contrast, the positive rate of OCT4 in patients with distant metastasis was 92%. S100P, CD147, and OCT4 expression in prostate cancer patients with different degrees of differentiation had no significant difference (P > 0.05). Overall, our results demonstrated that S100P expression in prostate cancer tissue was significantly decreased, whereas CD147 and OCT4 expression was increased. Their expression levels were closely associated with TNM stage and distant metastasis, but were not related to the degree of differentiation.

  8. Discovery of a significant optical chromatographic difference between spores of Bacillus anthracis and its close relative, Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Hart, Sean J; Terray, Alex; Leski, Tomasz A; Arnold, Jonathan; Stroud, Rhonda

    2006-05-01

    A significant difference between two closely related Bacillus spores has been discovered using optical chromatography. This difference can be harnessed for the separation of microscopic particles using opposing laser and fluid flow forces. Particles of different size, composition, and shape experience different optical and fluid forces and come to rest at unique equilibrium positions where the two forces balance. Separations in excess of 600 mum have been observed between Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain and its genetic relative, Bacillus thuringiensis. These findings open new possibilities for detection and characterization of the biological warfare agent, B. anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, the deadly mammalian disease. The large optical separation between these species is surprising given their close genetic relationship but may be explained by differences in their shape and exosporium morphology, which may result in differences in fluid drag force. The observation of large differences due to less common variables indicates the complex nature of the force balance in optical chromatography, which may in the future be used to separate and characterize microbiological samples. In general, the discovery of such large differences between such closely related biological species suggests new possibilities for the separation and characterization of microorganisms using the full range of emerging techniques that employ radiation pressure (optical filtering, laser tweezers, optical chromatography, etc.).

  9. Gram-negative bacteria account for main differences between faecal microbiota from patients with ulcerative colitis and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Vigsnæs, L K; Brynskov, J; Steenholdt, C; Wilcks, A; Licht, T R

    2012-12-01

    Detailed knowledge about the composition of the intestinal microbiota may be critical to unravel the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC), a human chronic inflammatory bowel disease, since the intestinal microbes are expected to influence some of the key mechanisms involved in the inflammatory process of the gut mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the faecal microbiota in patients either with UC in remission (n=6) or with active disease (n=6), and in healthy controls (n=6). The composition of Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria was examined. Antigenic structures of Gram-negative bacteria such as lipopolysaccharides have been related to the inflammatory responses and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Dice cluster analysis and principal component analysis of faecal microbiota profiles obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative PCR, respectively, revealed that the composition of faecal bacteria from UC patients with active disease differed from the healthy controls and that this difference should be ascribed to Gram-negative bacteria. The analysis did not show any clear grouping of UC patients in remission. Even with the relatively low number of subjects in each group, we were able to detect a statistically significant underrepresentation of Lactobacillus spp. and Akkermansia muciniphila in UC patients with clinically active disease compared to the healthy controls. In line with previous communications, we have shown that the microbiota in UC patients with active disease differ from that in healthy controls. Our findings indicate that alterations in the composition of the Gram-negative bacterial population, as well as reduced numbers of lactobacilli and A. muciniphila may play a role in UC.

  10. Illness perceptions in the context of differing work participation outcomes: exploring the influence of significant others in persistent back pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research has demonstrated that the significant others of individuals with persistent back pain may have important influences on work participation outcomes. The aim of this study was to extend previous research by including individuals who have remained in work despite persistent back pain in addition to those who had become incapacitated for work, along with their significant others. The purpose of this research was to explore whether the illness beliefs of significant others differed depending on their relative’s working status, and to make some preliminary identification of how significant others may facilitate or hinder work participation for those with persistent back pain. Methods Interviews structured around the Illness Perception Questionnaire (chronic pain version) were conducted with back pain patients recruited from a hospital pain management clinic along with their significant others. Some patients had remained in work despite their back pain; others had ceased employment. Data were analysed using template analysis. Results There were clear differences between beliefs about, and reported responses to, back pain symptoms amongst the significant others of individuals who had remained in employment compared with the significant others of those who had ceased work. Three overarching themes emerged: perceived consequences of back pain, specific nature of employment and the impact of back pain on patient identity. Conclusions Significant others of employed individuals with back pain focused on the extent to which activity could still be undertaken despite back pain symptoms. Individuals out of work due to persistent back pain apparently self-limited their activity and were supported in their beliefs and behaviours by their significant others. To justify incapacity due to back pain, this group had seemingly become entrenched in a position whereby it was crucial that the individual with back pain was perceived as completely disabled. We

  11. The Case for Use of Simple Difference Scores to Test the Significance of Differences in Mean Rates of Change in Controlled Repeated Measurements Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overall, John E.; Tonidandel, Scott

    2010-01-01

    A previous Monte Carlo study examined the relative powers of several simple and more complex procedures for testing the significance of difference in mean rates of change in a controlled, longitudinal, treatment evaluation study. Results revealed that the relative powers depended on the correlation structure of the simulated repeated measurements.…

  12. Modeling single-vehicle run-off-road crash severity in rural areas: Accounting for unobserved heterogeneity and age difference.

    PubMed

    Gong, Linfeng; Fan, Wei David

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates factors that significantly contribute to the severity of driver injuries resulting from single-vehicle run-off-road (SV ROR) crashes. A mixed logit model approach is employed to explore the potential unobserved heterogeneous effects associated with each age group: young (ages 16-24), middle-aged (ages 25-65), and older drivers (ages over 65). Likelihood ratio tests indicated that the development of separate injury severity models for each age group is statistically superior to estimating a single model using all data. Based on the crash data collected from 2009 to 2013 in North Carolina, a series of driver, vehicle, roadway, and environmental characteristics are examined. Both parameter estimates and their elasticities are developed and used to interpret the models. The estimation results show that contributing factors which significantly affect the injury severity of an SV ROR crash differ across three age groups. Use of restraint device and horizontal curves are found to affect crash injuries and fatalities in all age groups. Reckless driving, speeding, distraction, inexperience, drug or alcohol involvement, presence of passengers, and driving an SUV or a van are found to have a more pronounced influence in young and middle-aged drivers than older drivers. Compared to the passenger cars, older drivers are less likely to experience possible injuries in a large-size vehicle (e.g., truck or bus). The average annual daily traffic volume and lighting conditions are also found to influence the resulting injury severity of an SV ROR crash specific to young drivers.

  13. Significant difference in active metabolite levels of ginseng in humans consuming Asian or Western diet: The link with enteric microbiota.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jin-Yi; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhang, Qi-Hui; Liu, Zhi; Musch, Mark W; Bissonnette, Marc; Chang, Eugene B; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2017-04-01

    After ingestion of ginseng, the bioavailability of its parent compounds is low and enteric microbiota plays an important role in parent compound biotransformation to their metabolites. Diet type can influence the enteric microbiota profile. When human subjects on different diets ingest ginseng, their different gut microbiota profiles may influence the metabolism of ginseng parent compounds. In this study, the effects of different diet type on gut microbiota metabolism of American ginseng saponins were investigated. We recruited six healthy adults who regularly consumed different diet types. These subjects received 7 days' oral American ginseng, and their biological samples were collected for LC-Q-TOF-MS analysis. We observed significant ginsenoside Rb1 (a major parent compound) and compound K (a major active metabolite) level differences in the samples from the subjects consuming different diets. Subjects on an Asian diet had much higher Rb1 levels but much lower compound K levels compared with those on a Western diet. Since compound K possesses much better cancer chemoprevention potential, our data suggested that consumers on a Western diet should obtain better cancer prevention effects with American ginseng intake compared with those on an Asian diet. Ginseng compound levels could be enhanced or reduced via gut microbiota manipulation for clinical utility.

  14. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy shows significant differences between spectra of undifferentiated and polynucleated FLG 29.1 dried cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Salvatore; Benvenuti, Susanna; Conti, Antonio; Benedetti, Enzo; Bramanti, Emilia; Rossi, Ilaria; Benedetti, Edoardo

    1994-02-01

    In a recent study made on cultures of human leukaemic cells (FLG 29.1 cell line) we were able to detect, by IR microspectroscopy, some significant IR spectroscopic variations following differentiation of cells towards osteoclastic-like behavior. The present study was undertaken on the same cell line in order to monitor biochemical structure variations following fusion induced by polyetilenglycole (PEG), using FTIR microspectroscopy. The finger-print region of all the spectra was retained and normalized according to a new regression procedure. Eleven bands were selected and total band power and mean power per unit frequency were compared with the corresponding reference session bands by a Dunnett's T test. Significant differences were found in both the tested variables only between treated and untreated cells, in 6 bands.

  15. P53 and Murine Double Mimute 2 (MDM2) Expression Changes and Significance in Different Types of Endometrial Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhongyong; Xu, Wanqing; Dan, Gang; Liu, Yuan; Xiong, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background Endometrial lesions are common in obstetrics and gynecology, including endometrial polyps, uterine adenomyosis, and malignant endometrial adenocarcinoma. Endometrial lesions seriously affect women’s health, fertility, quality of life, and life safety. As a pro-apoptosis gene, p53 is considered to be closely related with human tumors. Murine double mimute 2 (MDM2) is an oncogene that can promote tumor occurrence and development. P53 and MDM2 expression and significance in different types of endometrial lesions have not been fully elucidated. Material/Methods Normal endometrium, endometrial polyps, uterine adenomyosis, and endometrial adenocarcinoma tissue samples were collected. Real-time PCR was used to detect p53 and MDM2 mRNA expression. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis were applied to test p53 and MDM2 protein expression. Their correlation with clinical staging of endometrial adenocarcinoma was analyzed. Results P53 and MDM2 mRNA and protein expression were significantly elevated in the endometrial polyps group and the endometrial adenocarcinoma group compared with the normal control group (P<0.05). Their levels increased more obviously in endometrial adenocarcinoma compared with endometrial polyps (P<0.05). P53 and MDM2 mRNA and protein expression were slightly enhanced in uterine adenomyosis compared with normal controls, but this difference lacked statistical significance (P>0.05). P53 and MDM2 mRNA and protein level showed a positive correlation. Significantly higher expression of p53 or MDM2 was observed in patients with stage III compared to those in patients with stage II. Higher expression was also observed in patients with stage II than in patients with stage I. Conclusions P53 and MDM2 mRNA and protein were elevated in endometrial polyps and endometrial adenocarcinoma and their expressions were correlated with clinical staging of endometrial adenocarcinoma. They can promote cancer occurrence and development, and can

  16. Cognitive Processes that Account for Mental Addition Fluency Differences between Children Typically Achieving in Arithmetic and Children At-Risk for Failure in Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Derek H.; Hutchinson, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether processing speed, short-term memory, and working memory accounted for the differential mental addition fluency between children typically achieving in arithmetic (TA) and children at-risk for failure in arithmetic (AR). Further, we drew attention to fluency differences in simple (e.g., 5 + 3) and complex (e.g., 16 +…

  17. Lack of significant differences in immunity against diphtheria between populations of Eastern and Western regions of Poland.

    PubMed

    Chudnicka, Alina; Walory, Jarosław

    2003-01-01

    Incidents of diphtheria in countries which were formerly part of the Soviet Union (Ukraine, Russia and Belorus) resulted in the need to evaluate thoroughly the effectiveness of preventive vaccination in Poland, especially in the border regions of the country where the biggest migration of population can be observed. The aim of this work was a comparison of the immunity to diphtheria in two geographically different regions of Poland--eastern (Lublin) and western (Zielona Gora) ones. It showed immunoprophylaxis to diphtheria that was implemented on these areas. Diphtheria antitoxin level (IgG) was determined with application of the ELISA method in 1236 (529/707) people. No significant differences were found in the level of antibodies in the groups < 2 years of age and > 19 years of age in people below the protective titre (0.1 IU/ml). The difference occurring in the interval between 2nd and 18th year of life (in western Poland 7.6% and in eastern Poland 16%) may result from different implementation of the vaccination program in these regions (booster doses). Recommendations for vaccination to diphtheria in people over 25 years of age should be implemented especially in the frontier regions of Poland adjoining countries threatened with diphtheria occurrence.

  18. Soil classification predicts differences in prokaryotic communities across a range of geographically distant soils once pH is accounted for

    PubMed Central

    Kaminsky, Rachel; Trouche, Blandine; Morales, Sergio E.

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural land is typically managed based on visible plant life at the expense of the belowground majority. However, microorganisms mediate processes sustaining plant life and the soil environment. To understand the role of microbes we first must understand what controls soil microbial community assembly. We assessed the distribution and composition of prokaryotic communities from soils representing four geographic regions on the South Island of New Zealand. These soils are under three different uses (dairy, sheep and beef, and high country farming) and are representative of major soil classification groups (brown, pallic, gley and recent). We hypothesized that pH would account for major community patterns based on 16S profiles, but that land use and location would be secondary modifiers. Community diversity and structure was linked to pH, coinciding with land use. Soil classification correlated with microbial community structure and evenness, but not richness in high country and sheep and beef communities. The impact of land use and pH remained significant at the regional scale, but soil classification provided support for community variability not explained by either of those factors. These results suggest that several edaphic properties must be examined at multiple spatial scales to robustly examine soil prokaryotic communities. PMID:28349950

  19. The connectomes of males and females with autism spectrum disorder have significantly different white matter connectivity densities.

    PubMed

    Irimia, Andrei; Torgerson, Carinna M; Jacokes, Zachary J; Van Horn, John D

    2017-04-11

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encompasses a set of neurodevelopmental conditions whose striking sex-related disparity (with an estimated male-to-female ratio of 4:1) remains unknown. Here we use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) to identify the brain structure correlates of the sex-by-ASD diagnosis interaction in a carefully selected cohort of 110 ASD patients (55 females) and 83 typically-developing (TD) subjects (40 females). The interaction was found to be predicated primarily upon white matter connectivity density innervating, bilaterally, the lateral aspect of the temporal lobe, the temporo-parieto-occipital junction and the medial parietal lobe. By contrast, regional gray matter (GM) thickness and volume are not found to modulate this interaction significantly. When interpreted in the context of previous studies, our findings add considerable weight to three long-standing hypotheses according to which the sex disparity of ASD incidence is (A) due to WM connectivity rather than to GM differences, (B) modulated to a large extent by temporoparietal connectivity, and (C) accompanied by brain function differences driven by these effects. Our results contribute substantially to the task of unraveling the biological mechanisms giving rise to the sex disparity in ASD incidence, whose clinical implications are significant.

  20. The connectomes of males and females with autism spectrum disorder have significantly different white matter connectivity densities

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Andrei; Torgerson, Carinna M.; Jacokes, Zachary J.; Van Horn, John D.

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encompasses a set of neurodevelopmental conditions whose striking sex-related disparity (with an estimated male-to-female ratio of 4:1) remains unknown. Here we use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) to identify the brain structure correlates of the sex-by-ASD diagnosis interaction in a carefully selected cohort of 110 ASD patients (55 females) and 83 typically-developing (TD) subjects (40 females). The interaction was found to be predicated primarily upon white matter connectivity density innervating, bilaterally, the lateral aspect of the temporal lobe, the temporo-parieto-occipital junction and the medial parietal lobe. By contrast, regional gray matter (GM) thickness and volume are not found to modulate this interaction significantly. When interpreted in the context of previous studies, our findings add considerable weight to three long-standing hypotheses according to which the sex disparity of ASD incidence is (A) due to WM connectivity rather than to GM differences, (B) modulated to a large extent by temporoparietal connectivity, and (C) accompanied by brain function differences driven by these effects. Our results contribute substantially to the task of unraveling the biological mechanisms giving rise to the sex disparity in ASD incidence, whose clinical implications are significant.

  1. Significant different conductivities of the two grades of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate), Clevios P and Clevios PH1000, arising from different molecular weights.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yijie; Ouyang, Jianyong

    2012-08-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is promising to be the next-generation transparent electrode of optoelectronic devices. This paper reports the differences between two commercially available grades of PEDOT:PSS: Clevios P and Clevios PH1000. The as-prepared PEDOT:PSS films from Clevios P and Clevios PH1000 solutions have close conductivities of 0.2-0.35 S cm(-1). Their conductivities can be enhanced to 171 and 1164 S cm(-1), respectively, through a treatment with hydrofluoroacetone trihydrate (HFA). The differences between Clevios P and Clevios PH1000 were studied by various characterizations on PEDOT:PSS aqueous solutions and PEDOT:PSS films. The gel particles are larger in Clevios PH1000 solution than in Clevios P solution as revealed by dynamic light scattering and fluorescence spectroscopy of pyrene in these solutions. These results suggest that PEDOT of Clevios PH1000 has a higher average molecular weight than that of Clevios P. The difference in the molecular weight of PEDOT for the two grades of PEDOT:PSS is confirmed by the characterizations on their polymer films, including atomic force microscopy and temperature dependences of the resistances of as-prepared and HFA-treated PEDOT:PSS films. The different molecular weights of PEDOT also gives rise to significant differences in the electrochemical behaviors of the two grades of PEDOT:PSS, as revealed by the cyclic voltammetry, in situ UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy and potentiostatic transient measurements.

  2. Analyzing Relationship Between Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) with Different Types of Neuropathy: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Shahzaib; Kahlon, Pushpinderdeep; Bozorgnia, Farshid; Arshad, Adeel; Saleem, Akmam; Kuriakose, Philip

    2016-06-01

    To analyze multiple variables, including immunoglobulin subtypes in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and different types of neuropathy. This was a retrospective, single center study done in a tertiary care hospital in the United States. The data was collected for years 2001-2011. Inclusion criteria were the presence of MGUS and neuropathy. Exclusion criteria were the presence of other factors such as diabetes, vitamin B12 deficiency, alcoholism etc. which can cause neuropathy. Patients with IgM MGUS were compared with patients having Non-IgM MGUS. A total of 281 patients were analyzed in this study. The average age at the time of diagnosis of MGUS and neuropathy was 68 years. The most common type of neuropathy was sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy (46 %). The most common location of neuropathy was the lower extremities (68 %). Among our patients, 52 % had their neuropathy symptoms for 1-5 years before presenting to the clinic. When IgM MGUS was compared with Non-IgM MGUS, a statistically significant difference was found in terms of race (White vs. Others, OR 4.43, 95 % CI 2.13, 9.19, p < 0.001) and survival status (OR 1.98, 95 % CI 1.01, 3.90, p = 0.046). Patients with MGUS are prone to develop different types of neuropathies. Caucasians are more likely to have IgM MGUS as compared to other races. IgM MGUS is generally related to worse outcomes as compared to Non-IgM MGUS. Medical therapies, including gabapentin and pregabalin are effective treatments and the response rate can be as high as 80-90 % with these medications.

  3. Randomly Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.; Geppert, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    The accountability debate tends to devolve into a battle between the pro-testing and anti-testing crowds. When it comes to the design of a school accountability system, the devil is truly in the details. A well-designed accountability plan may go a long way toward giving school personnel the kinds of signals they need to improve performance.…

  4. Projection of Young-Old and Old-Old with Functional Disability: Does Accounting for the Changing Educational Composition of the Elderly Population Make a Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Ansah, John P.; Malhotra, Rahul; Lew, Nicola; Chiu, Chi-Tsun; Chan, Angelique; Bayer, Steffen; Matchar, David B.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares projections, up to year 2040, of young-old (aged 60-79) and old-old (aged 80+) with functional disability in Singapore with and without accounting for the changing educational composition of the Singaporean elderly. Two multi-state population models, with and without accounting for educational composition respectively, were developed, parameterized with age-gender-(education)-specific transition probabilities (between active, functional disability and death states) estimated from two waves (2009 and 2011) of a nationally representative survey of community-dwelling Singaporeans aged ≥60 years (N=4,990). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis with the bootstrap method was used to obtain the 95% confidence interval of the transition probabilities. Not accounting for educational composition overestimated the young-old with functional disability by 65 percent and underestimated the old-old by 20 percent in 2040. Accounting for educational composition, the proportion of old-old with functional disability increased from 40.8 percent in 2000 to 64.4 percent by 2040; not accounting for educational composition, the proportion in 2040 was 49.4 percent. Since the health profiles, and hence care needs, of the old-old differ from those of the young-old, health care service utilization and expenditure and the demand for formal and informal caregiving will be affected, impacting health and long-term care policy. PMID:25974069

  5. Projection of young-old and old-old with functional disability: does accounting for the changing educational composition of the elderly population make a difference?

    PubMed

    Ansah, John P; Malhotra, Rahul; Lew, Nicola; Chiu, Chi-Tsun; Chan, Angelique; Bayer, Steffen; Matchar, David B

    2015-01-01

    This study compares projections, up to year 2040, of young-old (aged 60-79) and old-old (aged 80+) with functional disability in Singapore with and without accounting for the changing educational composition of the Singaporean elderly. Two multi-state population models, with and without accounting for educational composition respectively, were developed, parameterized with age-gender-(education)-specific transition probabilities (between active, functional disability and death states) estimated from two waves (2009 and 2011) of a nationally representative survey of community-dwelling Singaporeans aged ≥ 60 years (N=4,990). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis with the bootstrap method was used to obtain the 95% confidence interval of the transition probabilities. Not accounting for educational composition overestimated the young-old with functional disability by 65 percent and underestimated the old-old by 20 percent in 2040. Accounting for educational composition, the proportion of old-old with functional disability increased from 40.8 percent in 2000 to 64.4 percent by 2040; not accounting for educational composition, the proportion in 2040 was 49.4 percent. Since the health profiles, and hence care needs, of the old-old differ from those of the young-old, health care service utilization and expenditure and the demand for formal and informal caregiving will be affected, impacting health and long-term care policy.

  6. Significant geomagnetic differences in both phase and amplitude observed at "conjugate" polar latitudes near the December 1903 Solstice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, Alv; Deehr, Charles

    2014-05-01

    During Roald Amundsen's exploration of the Northwest Passage (1903-1906) he conducted systematic measurements of diurnal and seasonal variations of the north magnetic dip pole (NMDP) at Gjøahavn (~ 68 N, 95 E). The NMDP variations have been largely interpreted as indicating control by the polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF); the Svalgard-Mansurov (S-M) effect. In Sir Robert Scott's Discovery expedition, geomagnetic observations were made in 1903 from Cape Armitage, Antarctica (~78 S, 168 E). Unwittingly, the measurements of Amundsen and Scott were acquired near conjugate ends of the same magnetic field lines. While their separation in solar local time is ~ 5 hours, they differ in magnetic local time less than 1/2 hour. However, up to this time no direct comparison of the two sets of magnetic observations has ever been made. This presentation contains an analysis of magnetic perturbations observed at both locations for comparison with contemporary and present day monthly-averaged diurnal variations, even if the overlap in data among these expeditions is somewhat limited. The near magnetic conjugacy of Gjøahavn- Cape Armitage locations makes these measurements valuable. Our analysis shows: (1) While similar variations appeared at both ends of the joining magnetic field they manifest significant differences in both phase and amplitude, (2) present day NMDP variations appear consistent with the S-M effect analyses when compared with satellite measurements of solar wind/IMF measurements, (3) differences at the "conjugate" locations cannot be explained in terms of the S-M effect alone. The roles of lobe cell and ionospheric conductance at polar magnetically "conjugate" locations are used to explain the observed phase and amplitude differences.

  7. Differences in Water Vapor Radiative Transfer among 1D Models Can Significantly Affect the Inner Edge of the Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Leconte, Jérémy; Wolf, Eric T.; Goldblatt, Colin; Feldl, Nicole; Merlis, Timothy; Wang, Yuwei; Koll, Daniel D. B.; Ding, Feng; Forget, François; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2016-08-01

    An accurate estimate of the inner edge of the habitable zone is critical for determining which exoplanets are potentially habitable and for designing future telescopes to observe them. Here, we explore differences in estimating the inner edge among seven one-dimensional radiative transfer models: two line-by-line codes (SMART and LBLRTM) as well as five band codes (CAM3, CAM4_Wolf, LMDG, SBDART, and AM2) that are currently being used in global climate models. We compare radiative fluxes and spectra in clear-sky conditions around G and M stars, with fixed moist adiabatic profiles for surface temperatures from 250 to 360 K. We find that divergences among the models arise mainly from large uncertainties in water vapor absorption in the window region (10 μm) and in the region between 0.2 and 1.5 μm. Differences in outgoing longwave radiation increase with surface temperature and reach 10-20 W m-2 differences in shortwave reach up to 60 W m-2, especially at the surface and in the troposphere, and are larger for an M-dwarf spectrum than a solar spectrum. Differences between the two line-by-line models are significant, although smaller than among the band models. Our results imply that the uncertainty in estimating the insolation threshold of the inner edge (the runaway greenhouse limit) due only to clear-sky radiative transfer is ≈10% of modern Earth’s solar constant (i.e., ≈34 W m-2 in global mean) among band models and ≈3% between the two line-by-line models. These comparisons show that future work is needed that focuses on improving water vapor absorption coefficients in both shortwave and longwave, as well as on increasing the resolution of stellar spectra in broadband models.

  8. Applications and statistical properties of minimum significant difference-based criterion testing in a toxicity testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Denton, D.L.; Shukla, R.

    2000-01-01

    As a follow up to the recommendations of the September 1995 SETAC Pellston Workshop on Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) on test methods and appropriate endpoints, this paper will discuss the applications and statistical properties of using a statistical criterion of minimum significant difference (MSD). The authors examined the upper limits of acceptable MSDs as acceptance criterion in the case of normally distributed data. The implications of this approach are examined in terms of false negative rate as well as false positive rate. Results indicated that the proposed approach has reasonable statistical properties. Reproductive data from short-term chronic WET test with Ceriodaphnia dubia tests were used to demonstrate the applications of the proposed approach. The data were collected by the North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources (Raleigh, NC, USA) as part of their National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System program.

  9. Significant differences in drug lag in clinical development among various strategies used for regulatory submissions in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ueno, T; Asahina, Y; Tanaka, A; Yamada, H; Nakamura, M; Uyama, Y

    2014-05-01

    Although the number of global clinical trials (GCTs) conducted in multiple countries including Japan has increased recently, it is not clear how much these GCTs help in reducing the lag in drug development (LDD: difference between the submission dates for new drug applications (NDAs) in the United States and Japan). We examined the effects of various clinical development strategies on LDD because the development period depends on what types of clinical trials were conducted for the Japanese NDA. Although various drug development strategies are available, deciding early on an appropriate strategy is a key to minimizing the LDD in Japan. The inclusion of GCTs in the clinical development strategy is also important; simultaneously, the smaller sample size of the Japanese population should be taken into consideration. Furthermore, reinforcement of Japan's capability to lead drug development may also be important in providing innovative drugs to Japanese patients without any significant LDD.

  10. Quantitative superresolution microscopy reveals differences in nuclear DNA organization of multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.

    PubMed

    Sathitruangsak, Chirawadee; Righolt, Christiaan H; Klewes, Ludger; Tammur, Pille; Ilus, Tiiu; Tamm, Anu; Punab, Mari; Olujohungbe, Adebayo; Mai, Sabine

    2015-05-01

    The mammalian nucleus has a distinct substructure that cannot be visualized directly by conventional microscopy. In this study, the organization of the DNA within the nucleus of multiple myeloma (MM) cells, their precursor cells (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance; MGUS) and control lymphocytes of the representative patients is visualized and quantified by superresolution microscopy. Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) increases the spatial resolution beyond the limits of conventional widefield fluorescence microscopy. 3D-SIM reveals new insights into the nuclear architecture of cancer as we show for the first time that it resolves organizational differences in intranuclear DNA organization of myeloma cells in MGUS and in MM patients. In addition, we report a significant increase in nuclear submicron DNA structure and structure of the DNA-free space in myeloma nuclei compared to normal lymphocyte nuclei. Our study provides previously unknown details of the nanoscopic DNA architecture of interphase nuclei of the normal lymphocytes, MGUS and MM cells. This study opens new avenues to understanding the disease progression from MGUS to MM.

  11. Contrast and lustre: A model that accounts for eleven different forms of contrast discrimination in binocular vision.

    PubMed

    Georgeson, Mark A; Wallis, Stuart A; Meese, Tim S; Baker, Daniel H

    2016-12-01

    Our goal here is a more complete understanding of how information about luminance contrast is encoded and used by the binocular visual system. In two-interval forced-choice experiments we assessed observers' ability to discriminate changes in contrast that could be an increase or decrease of contrast in one or both eyes, or an increase in one eye coupled with a decrease in the other (termed IncDec). The base or pedestal contrasts were either in-phase or out-of-phase in the two eyes. The opposed changes in the IncDec condition did not cancel each other out, implying that along with binocular summation, information is also available from mechanisms that do not sum the two eyes' inputs. These might be monocular mechanisms. With a binocular pedestal, monocular increments of contrast were much easier to see than monocular decrements. These findings suggest that there are separate binocular (B) and monocular (L,R) channels, but only the largest of the three responses, max(L,B,R), is available to perception and decision. Results from contrast discrimination and contrast matching tasks were described very accurately by this model. Stimuli, data, and model responses can all be visualized in a common binocular contrast space, allowing a more direct comparison between models and data. Some results with out-of-phase pedestals were not accounted for by the max model of contrast coding, but were well explained by an extended model in which gratings of opposite polarity create the sensation of lustre. Observers can discriminate changes in lustre alongside changes in contrast.

  12. Nitrogen and metals in two regions in Central Europe: significant differences in accumulation in mosses due to land use?

    PubMed

    Schröder, Winfried; Hornsmann, Inga; Pesch, Roland; Schmidt, Gunther; Markert, Bernd; Fränzle, Stefan; Wünschmann, Simone; Heidenreich, Heike

    2007-10-01

    The study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the regional variability of nitrogen (N) and metal accumulations in terrestrial ecosystems are due to historical and recent ways of landuse. To this end, two regions of Central Europe were selected for investigation: the Weser-Ems Region (WER) and the Euro Region Nissa (ERN). They were assumed to have land use-specific accumulation profiles. Thus, the metal and N accumulations in both regions were examined by means of geostatistically based comparative moss analysis. The sampling and chemical analysis of mosses were conducted in accordance with the convenient guidelines and methods, respectively. The spatial representativity of the sampling sites was computed by means of a land classification which was calculated for Europe by means of classification trees and GIS-techniques. The differences of deposition loads were tested for statistical significance with regard to time and space. The measurement values corroborated the decline of metal accumulation observed since the beginning of the European Metals in Mosses Surveys in 1990. The metal loads of the mosses in the ERN exceeded those in the WER significantly. The opposite holds true for the N concentrations: those in the WER were significantly higher than those in the ERN. The reduction of emissions from power plants, factories and houses was strongly correlated with the decline of deposition and bioaccumulation of metals. As proved by the European Metals in Mosses Surveys, this tendency is due to successful environmental policies. But no such success could be verified by monitoring the accumulation of N in mosses.

  13. The prion protein gene polymorphisms associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility differ significantly between cattle and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Du, Yanli; Chen, Shunmei; Qing, Lili; Wang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jingfei; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Yaping

    2015-12-01

    Prion protein, encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several polymorphisms within the PRNP are known to be associated with influencing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle, namely two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms (a 23-bp indel in the putative promoter and a 12-bp indel in intron 1), the number of octapeptide repeats (octarepeats) present in coding sequence (CDS) and amino acid polymorphisms. The domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, are a ruminant involved in various aspects of agriculture. It is of interest to ask whether the PRNP polymorphisms differ between cattle and buffalo. In this study, we analyzed the previously reported polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo breeds, and compared these polymorphisms in cattle with BSE, healthy cattle and buffalo by pooling data from the literature. Our analysis revealed three significant findings in buffalo: 1) extraordinarily low deletion allele frequencies of the 23- and 12-bp indel polymorphisms; 2) significantly low allelic frequencies of six octarepeats in CDS and 3) the presence of S4R, A16V, P54S, G108S, V123M, S154N and F257L substitutions in buffalo CDSs. Sequence alignments comparing the buffalo coding sequence to other species were analyzed using the McDonald-Kreitman test to reveal five groups (Bison bonasus, Bos indicus, Bos gaurus, Boselaphus tragocamelus, Syncerus caffer caffer) with significantly divergent non-synonymous substitutions from buffalo, suggesting potential divergence of buffalo PRNP and others. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of PRNP polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo. Our findings have provided evidence that buffaloes have a unique genetic background in the PRNP gene in comparison with cattle.

  14. Dearth by a Thousand Cuts? Accounting for Gender Differences in Top-Ranked Publication Rates in Social Psychology.

    PubMed

    Cikara, Mina; Rudman, Laurie; Fiske, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Publication in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, a flagship indicator of scientific prestige, shows dramatic gender disparities. A bibliometric analysis included yoked-control authors matched for Ph.D. prestige and cohort. Though women publish less, at slower annual rates, they are more cited in handbooks and textbooks per JPSP-article-published. No gender differences emerged on variables reflecting differential qualifications. Many factors explain gender discrepancy in productivity. Among top publishers, per-year rate and first authorship especially differ by gender; rate uniquely predicts top-male productivity, whereas career-length uniquely predicts top-female productivity. Among men, across top-publishers and controls, productivity correlates uniquely with editorial negotiating and being married. For women, no personal variables predict productivity. A separate inquiry shows tiny gender differences in acceptance rates per JPSP article submitted; discrimination would be a small-but-plausible contributor, absent independent indicators of manuscript quality. Recent productivity rates mirror earlier gender disparities, suggesting gender gaps will continue.

  15. Dearth by a Thousand Cuts? Accounting for Gender Differences in Top-Ranked Publication Rates in Social Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Cikara, Mina; Rudman, Laurie; Fiske, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Publication in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, a flagship indicator of scientific prestige, shows dramatic gender disparities. A bibliometric analysis included yoked-control authors matched for Ph.D. prestige and cohort. Though women publish less, at slower annual rates, they are more cited in handbooks and textbooks per JPSP-article-published. No gender differences emerged on variables reflecting differential qualifications. Many factors explain gender discrepancy in productivity. Among top publishers, per-year rate and first authorship especially differ by gender; rate uniquely predicts top-male productivity, whereas career-length uniquely predicts top-female productivity. Among men, across top-publishers and controls, productivity correlates uniquely with editorial negotiating and being married. For women, no personal variables predict productivity. A separate inquiry shows tiny gender differences in acceptance rates per JPSP article submitted; discrimination would be a small-but-plausible contributor, absent independent indicators of manuscript quality. Recent productivity rates mirror earlier gender disparities, suggesting gender gaps will continue. PMID:24748688

  16. Bacterial-resistance among outpatients of county hospitals in China: significant geographic distinctions and minor differences between central cities.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yonghong; Wei, Zeqing; Shen, Ping; Ji, Jinru; Sun, Ziyong; Yu, Hua; Zhang, Tiantuo; Ji, Ping; Ni, Yuxing; Hu, Zhidong; Chu, Yunzhuo; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey antibacterial resistance in outpatients of Chinese county hospitals. A total of 31 county hospitals were selected and samples continuously collected from August 2010 to August 2011. Drug sensitivity testing was conducted in a central laboratory. A total of 2946 unique isolates were collected, including 634 strains of Escherichia coli, 606 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 476 Staphylococcus aureus, 308 Streptococcus pneumoniae, and 160 Haemophilus influenzae. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases were detected in E. coli (42.3% strains), K. pneumoniae (31.7%), and Proteus mirabilis (39.0%). Ciprofloxacin-resistance was detected in 51.0% of E. coli strains. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were sensitive to most antibacterial agents. Less than 8.0% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were resistant to carbapenem. For S. aureus strains, 15.3% were resistant to methicillin, and some strains of S. pneumoniae showed resistance to penicillin (1.6%), ceftriaxone (13.0%), and erythromycin (96.4%). β-lactamase was produced by 96.5% of Moraxella catarrhalis strains, and 36.2% of H. influenzae isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Azithromycin-resistant H. influenzae, imipenem-resistant but meropenem-sensitive Proteus, and ceftriaxone- and carbapenem non-sensitive M. catarrhalis were recorded. In conclusion, cephalosporin- and quinolone-resistant strains of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia and macrolide-resistant Gram-positive cocci were relatively prominent in county hospitals. The antibacterial resistance profiles of isolates from different geographical locations varied significantly, with proportions in county hospitals lower than those in their tertiary counterparts in the central cities, although the difference is diminishing.

  17. Follistatin serum concentrations during full-term labour in women--significant differences between spontaneous and induced labour.

    PubMed

    Rae, K; Hollebone, K; Chetty, V; Clausen, D; McFarlane, J

    2007-11-01

    Follistatin has been isolated from human placenta and has been identified in human foetal membranes and fluids. Serum follistatin levels in women rise during pregnancy particularly near term. In this study, we examined the effect of induction and stage of labour on maternal plasma concentrations of follistatin. Women who gave birth after a normal pregnancy were retrospectively divided into three groups: those who went in labour spontaneously (n = 33), needed induction by amniotomy and IV oxytocin (n = 18) or underwent planned caesarean section (n = 10). Serum was collected at 38-40 weeks of gestation, periodically through labour with a vaginal examination and once within 36 h postpartum and assayed for oestradiol, progesterone, prolactin and C-reactive protein. Follistatin was measured using a rabbit antiserum (#204) raised against purified 35 kDa bovine follistatin. Human recombinant follistatin was used as both standard and tracer. Concentrations of follistatin at 38-40 weeks of gestation were significantly different between groups. Those who had a spontaneous labour had concentrations higher than those who were induced. Similarly, those who were induced had concentrations higher than those who underwent a caesarean. In the spontaneous group, follistatin rose during labour, peaking at 57.9 +/- 5.48 ng/ml at > 3 cm of cervical dilation, and after delivery follistatin decreased to 26.16 +/- 3.4 ng/ml at 24 h post-delivery. In induced patients follistatin continued increasing to peak following delivery at 26.9 +/- 3.0 ng/ml and decreased at > 3 h post-delivery. Follistatin concentrations in caesarean section patients at 24 h post-surgery (18.53 +/- 3.74 ng/ml) were not different from that before the surgery and were comparable with the other two groups. Follistatin is clearly implicated in the onset of labour; however, further studies with a larger cohort of women are necessary to determine the nature of its role.

  18. Nurture Versus Nature: Accounting for the Differences Between the Taiwan and Timor active arc-continent collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    The active Banda arc/continent collision of the Timor region provides many important contrasts to what is observed in Taiwan, which is mostly a function of differences in the nature of the subducting plate. One of the most important differences is the thermal state of the respective continental margins: 30 Ma China passive margin versus 160 Ma NW Australian continental margin. The subduction of the cold and strong NW Australian passive margin beneath the Banda trench provides many new constraints for resolving longstanding issues about the formative stages of collision and accretion of continental crust. Some of these issues include evidence for slab rollback and subduction erosion, deep continental subduction, emplacement or demise of forearc basement, relative amounts of uplift from crustal vs. lithospheric processes, influence of inherited structure, partitioning of strain away from the thrust front, extent of mélange development, metamorphic conditions and exhumation mechanisms, continental contamination and accretion of volcanic arcs, does the slab tear, and does subduction polarity reverse? Most of these issues link to the profound control of lower plate crustal heterogeneity, thermal state and inherited structure. The thermomechanical characteristics of subducting an old continental margin allow for extensive underthrusting of lower plate cover units beneath the forearc and emplacement and uplift of extensive nappes of forearc basement. It also promotes subduction of continental crust to deep enough levels to experience high pressure metamorphism (not found in Taiwan) and extensive contamination of the volcanic arc. Seismic tomography confirms subduction of continental lithosphere beneath the Banda Arc to at least 400 km with no evidence for slab tear. Slab rollback during this process results in massive subduction erosion and extension of the upper plate. Other differences in the nature of the subducting plates in Taiwan in Timor are differences in the

  19. Counseling between Recognition, Justice and Difference: The Significance of Power Asymmetries, Communicative Projects and Unintended Consequences in Career Counseling of Immigrants in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzberg, Fredrik; Sundelin, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    This article consists of two parts. First we present an ongoing Swedish research project, "Counseling between recognition, justice and difference". The aims of the project are presented, along with an outline of the political and professional questions that motivate it and the theories which inform it. In the second part, an account of…

  20. Different Lepidopteran Elicitors Account for Cross-Talk in Herbivory-Induced Phytohormone Signaling1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Diezel, Celia; von Dahl, Caroline C.; Gaquerel, Emmanuel; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2009-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET), and their interactions mediate plant responses to pathogen and herbivore attack. JA-SA and JA-ET cross-signaling are well studied, but little is known about SA-ET cross-signaling in plant-herbivore interactions. When the specialist herbivore tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) attacks Nicotiana attenuata, rapid and transient JA and ET bursts are elicited without significantly altering wound-induced SA levels. In contrast, attack from the generalist beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) results in comparatively lower JA and ET bursts, but amplified SA bursts. These phytohormone responses are mimicked when the species' larval oral secretions (OSSe and OSMs) are added to puncture wounds. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates elicit the JA and ET bursts, but not the SA burst. OSSe had enhanced glucose oxidase activity (but not β-glucosidase activity), which was sufficient to elicit the SA burst and attenuate the JA and ET levels. It is known that SA antagonizes JA; glucose oxidase activity and associated hydrogen peroxide also antagonizes the ET burst. We examined the OSMs-elicited SA burst in plants impaired in their ability to elicit JA (antisense [as]-lox3) and ET (inverted repeat [ir]-aco) bursts and perceive ET (35s-etr1b) after fatty acid-amino acid conjugate elicitation, which revealed that both ET and JA bursts antagonize the SA burst. Treating wild-type plants with ethephone and 1-methylcyclopropane confirmed these results and demonstrated the central role of the ET burst in suppressing the OSMs-elicited SA burst. By suppressing the SA burst, the ET burst likely facilitates unfettered JA-mediated defense activation in response to herbivores that otherwise would elicit SA. PMID:19458114

  1. Dynamical account of how /b, d, g/ differ from /p, t, k/ in Spanish: Evidence from labials

    PubMed Central

    PARRELL, BENJAMIN

    2013-01-01

    This study examines articulatory lenition of intervocalic stops in Spanish and tests the theories that 1) /b, d, g/ have an intended target for closure equal to that of /p, t, k/ and 2) spirantization of /b, d, g/ is caused by undershoot due to their short duration phrase medially. Consistent with past acoustic studies, subjects produce /b/ with incomplete closure phrase medially and complete closure phrase initially. Additionally, /b/ is shorter than /p/ phrase medially though not initially. For /b/, though not for /p/, there is a correlation between constriction degree and duration, consistent with the theory of dynamical undershoot. The results from the study are accurately modeled with a virtual target for /b/ slightly beyond the point of articulator contact. Such a target results in full closure at long durations (such as found phrase initially) and incomplete closure at shorter durations. Based on this evidence, it is proposed that /b, d, g/ differ from /p, t, k/ in three ways: they are shorter, lack a devoicing gesture, and have a target closer to – but still beyond – the point of articulator contact. PMID:23843928

  2. Transport activity and presence of ClC-7/Ostm1 complex account for different cellular functions.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Stefanie; Jabs, Sabrina; Hohensee, Svea; Chan, Wing Lee; Kornak, Uwe; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2014-07-01

    Loss of the lysosomal ClC-7/Ostm1 2Cl(-)/H(+) exchanger causes lysosomal storage disease and osteopetrosis in humans and additionally changes fur colour in mice. Its conversion into a Cl(-) conductance in Clcn7(unc/unc) mice entails similarly severe lysosomal storage, but less severe osteopetrosis and no change in fur colour. To elucidate the basis for these phenotypical differences, we generated Clcn7(td/td) mice expressing an ion transport-deficient mutant. Their osteopetrosis was as severe as in Clcn7(-/-) mice, suggesting that the electric shunt provided by ClC-7(unc) can partially rescue osteoclast function. The normal coat colour of Clcn7(td/td) mice and their less severe neurodegeneration suggested that the ClC-7 protein, even when lacking measurable ion transport activity, is sufficient for hair pigmentation and that the conductance of ClC-7(unc) is harmful for neurons. Our in vivo structure-function analysis of ClC-7 reveals that both protein-protein interactions and ion transport must be considered in the pathogenesis of ClC-7-related diseases.

  3. Evidence for the different physiological significance of the 6- and 2-minute walk tests in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Researchers have recently advocated for the 2-minute walk (2MW) as an alternative for the 6-minute walk (6MW) to assess long distance ambulation in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). This recommendation has not been based on physiological considerations such as the rate of oxygen consumption (V·O2) over the 6MW range. Objective This study examined the pattern of change in V·O2 over the range of the 6MW in a large sample of persons with MS who varied as a function of disability status. Method Ninety-five persons with clinically-definite MS underwent a neurological examination for generating an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, and then completion of the 6MW protocol while wearing a portable metabolic unit and an accelerometer. Results There was a time main effect on V·O2 during the 6MW (p = .0001) such that V·O2 increased significantly every 30 seconds over the first 3 minutes of the 6MW, and then remained stable over the second 3 minutes of the 6MW. This occurred despite no change in cadence across the 6MW (p = .84). Conclusions The pattern of change in V·O2 indicates that there are different metabolic systems providing energy for ambulation during the 6MW in MS subjects and steady state aerobic metabolism is reached during the last 3 minutes of the 6MW. By extension, the first 3 minutes would represent a test of mixed aerobic and anaerobic work, whereas the second 3 minutes would represent a test of aerobic work during walking. PMID:22380843

  4. Do African American Patients Treated with Radical Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer have Worse Overall Survival? Accounting for Pathologic Staging and Patient Demographics Beyond Race Makes a Difference

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Deborah R.; Canner, Joseph K.; Kates, Max; Schoenberg, Mark P.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.

    2016-01-01

    -specific mortality in the univariable analysis (all-cause: HR: 1.23; 95% CI 1.15–1.32, p <  0.001); bladder-cancer specific: HR 1.21; 95% CI 1.11–1.33; p <  0.001). However, after accounting for sex, age, year of diagnosis, marital status, region of treatment, and stage at cystectomy, all-cause mortality was significant (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.12–1.29; p <  0.0001), but not bladder-cancer specific mortality (HR 1.09; 95% CI 1.00–1.20; p <  0.053). Predictors of bladder cancer specific mortality were age, sex, stage of disease, and marital status. The matched analysis yielded a roughly 1 : 15 match, with 22,511 Caucasians being matched to 1,509 African American patients. In the matched analysis, African Americans had increased all-cause mortality (HR 1.17; 95% CI 1.09–1.26; p <  0.0001), but bladder-cancer specific mortality was no longer significant (HR 1.08; 95% CI 0.99–1.18; p <  0.102). Conclusions: African Americans who undergo a cystectomy are more likely to die, but not necessarily solely because of bladder cancer. Although African American patients have worse all-cause and cancer-specific mortality in univariable models, after controlling for sex, age, year of diagnosis, marital status, region of treatment, and stage at cystectomy, African American patients still have worse overall survival, but equivalent bladder-cancer specific survival. Differences in age, sex, and stage at diagnosis explain some, but not all of the differences in survival. PMID:27376141

  5. Different positioning of the ligand-binding domain helix 12 and the F domain of the estrogen receptor accounts for functional differences between agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, M; Rientjes, J M; Stewart, A F

    1998-01-01

    The estrogen receptor is capable of binding a diverse set of ligands that are broadly categorized as agonists or antagonists, depending on their abilities to induce or interfere with transcriptional responsiveness. We show, using a fusion protein assay for ligand-binding which does not rely on transcriptional responsiveness, that agonists and antagonists differently position the C-terminus of the ligand-binding domain (helix 12) and the F domain. Upon antagonist binding, the F domain interferes with the fusion protein activity. Mutational disruption of helix 12 alters the position of the F domain, imposing interference after agonist or antagonist binding. Genetically selected inversion mutations where only agonists, but not antagonists, induce interference are similarly reliant on helix 12 and F domain positioning. Our results demonstrate that agonists and antagonists differently position helix 12 and implicate the F domain in mechanisms of antagonist action. PMID:9451001

  6. Small difference in international normalized ratio may yield a significant impact on prioritizing patients listed for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sarvary, E; Seregely, Zs; Fazakas, J; Kovacs, F; Gaal, I; Beko, G; Varga, J; Kobori, L; Nemes, B; Gorog, D; Varga, M; Langer, R M; Monostory, K; Jaray, J; Gerlei, Zs

    2010-01-01

    Priority for liver transplantation is currently based on the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. The aim of our study was to assess in detail the contribution of international normalized ratio (INR) differences for MELD scores because of interlaboratory variability. The samples from 92 cirrhotic patients were measured on different systems combining three coagulometers and three thromboplastin products to determine variations in INR and MELD score. The INR differences among the first four systems varied between 0 and 0.2, resulting in MELD differences of 0 to 2. The MELD scores of 92 patients changed only among 10 possible integers so that normally 2 to 10 patients shared the same MELD value. In some cases, one MELD score difference resulted in a 10 superpositioning on the waiting list. Including one more system (mechanical vs optical) into our investigations achieved a five MELD difference. Supposing an extreme situation where one patient competes with his or her lowest, all the other with their highest possible score (and visa versa), the difference may be even 20 positions, overturning the complete waiting list. In conclusion substantial interlaboratory differences in MELD score have profound clinical consequences.

  7. Is an assessment factor of 10 appropriate to account for the variation in chemical toxicity to freshwater ectotherms under different thermal conditions?

    PubMed

    Lau, Edward Tak Chuen; Yung, Mana Man Na; Karraker, Nancy E; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee

    2014-01-01

    Ecotoxicity tests are often conducted following standard methods, and thus carried out at a fixed water temperature under controlled laboratory conditions. Yet, toxicity of a chemical contaminant may vary in a temperature-dependent manner, depending on the physiology of the test organism and physicochemical properties of the chemical. Although an assessment factor of 10 (AF10) is commonly adopted to account for variability in toxicity data related to temperature in the development of water quality guidelines and/or ecological risk assessment, no one has ever rigorously assessed the appropriateness of AF10 to account for potential variation in temperature-dependent chemical toxicity to aquatic organisms. This study, therefore, aims to address this issue through a meta-analysis by comparing median lethal concentration data for nine chemicals (cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, silver, zinc, arsenic, selenium and DDT) on a range of freshwater ectothermic animal species at different temperatures, and to assess whether AF10 is under- or over-protective for tropical and temperate freshwater ecosystems. Our results reveal varying extents of interaction between temperature and different chemicals on organisms and the complexity of these interactions. Applying AF10 sufficiently protects 90% of the animal species tested over a range of temperatures for cadmium, copper, nickel, silver, zinc and DDT in the tropics, but it is insufficient to adequately encompass a larger temperature variation for most studied chemicals in temperate regions. It is therefore important to set specific AFs for different climatic zones in order to achieve the desired level of ecosystem protection.

  8. Critical reflections on evolutionary psychology and sexual selection theory as explanatory account of emergence of sex differences in psychopathology: comment on Martel (2013).

    PubMed

    Hankin, Benjamin L

    2013-11-01

    Martel (2013) proposed a metatheory, based on sexual selection theory and broad evolutionary psychological (EP) principles, to account for well-known sex differences in the emergence of common behavioral and certain internalizing disorders across childhood and adolescence, respectively. In this comment, I first enumerate several strengths and then offer 2 primary critiques about Martel's proposal. Martel provides an exceptional, integrative review that organizes several disparate literatures that hold promise to enhance understanding of such sex differences. At the same time, I raise critical questions regarding EP generally, and sexual selection theory specifically, as the metatheoretical framework chosen to bind together these different influences and mechanisms as drivers of the sex difference in different psychopathologies. Indeed, it is not clear that EP is necessary--nor does it provide unique explanatory power-to explicate the emergence of sex differences in internalizing and externalizing disorders among youth. Moreover, Martel's EP-based proposal pertains to adolescent-onset depression and social phobia but does not provide an explanation for known sex differences in other common childhood-onset and early adult-onset anxiety disorders.

  9. [Different explanatory models for addictive behavior in Turkish and German youths in Germany: significance for prevention and treatment].

    PubMed

    Penka, S; Krieg, S; Hunner, Ch; Heinz, A

    2003-07-01

    Due to cultural and social barriers, immigrants seldom frequent centers for information, counseling, and treatment of addictive disorders. We examine cultural differences in the explanatory models of addictive behavior among Turkish and German youths in Germany with statistical devices that map the concepts associated with problems of addiction. Relevant differences were found between the disorder concepts of Turkish and German youth. German but not Turkish youths classified eating disorders among severe addictive disorders and associated them with embarrassment and shame. Concerning substance abuse, German but not Turkish youths clearly differentiated between illegal drug abuse and the abuse of alcohol and nicotine. Nearly half of all Turkish youths rejected central medical concepts such as "physical dependence" or "reduced control of substance intake" as completely inadequate to characterize problems of addictive behavior. Preventive information programs must consider these differences and use concepts that are accepted and clearly associated with addictive behavior by immigrant populations.

  10. Accounting Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication identifies 20 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of accounting specialist, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 20 units are as follows:…

  11. Painless Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. W.; And Others

    The computerized Painless Accountability System is a performance objective system from which instructional programs are developed. Three main simplified behavioral response levels characterize this system: (1) cognitive, (2) psychomotor, and (3) affective domains. Each of these objectives are classified by one of 16 descriptors. The second major…

  12. Accountability Overboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chieppo, Charles D.; Gass, James T.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that special interest groups opposed to charter schools and high-stakes testing have hijacked Massachusetts's once-independent board of education and stand poised to water down the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) tests and the accountability system they support. President Barack Obama and Massachusetts…

  13. The Expression of miR-192 and Its Significance in Diabetic Nephropathy Patients with Different Urine Albumin Creatinine Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoyu; Lu, Canlu; Lv, Chuan; Wu, Can; Wang, Qiuyue

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the expression of miR-192 and its significance in diabetic nephropathy (DN) patients. Methods. 464 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were divided into normal albuminuria group (NA, n = 157), microalbuminuria group (MA, n = 159), and large amount of albuminuria group (LA, n = 148). 127 healthy persons were selected as the control group (NC, n = 127). The serum miR-192 levels were detected by Real-Time PCR and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and fibronectin (FN) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relationships among these parameters were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. Results. The miR-192 in the LA group was significantly lower than other groups, which was lower in the MA group than in the NA group (P < 0.01). The TGF-β1 and FN in the LA group were significantly higher than other groups, which were higher in the MA group than in the NA group (P < 0.01). The expression of miR-192 was negatively correlated with TGF-β1, FN, and Ln (UACR) and miR-192, TGF-β1, and FN were independent relevant factors affecting Ln (UACR) in T2DM (P < 0.01). Conclusions. These findings indicate that the levels of miR-192 were lower accompanied by the decrease of urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) and the association between miR-192 and nephritic fibrosis in DN. PMID:26881255

  14. Significant contribution of stacking faults to the strain hardening behavior of Cu-15%Al alloy with different grain sizes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Y Z; Zhao, L J; Chen, S; Shibata, A; Zhang, Z F; Tsuji, N

    2015-11-19

    It is commonly accepted that twinning can induce an increase of strain-hardening rate during the tensile process of face-centered cubic (FCC) metals and alloys with low stacking fault energy (SFE). In this study, we explored the grain size effect on the strain-hardening behavior of a Cu-15 at.%Al alloy with low SFE. Instead of twinning, we detected a significant contribution of stacking faults (SFs) irrespective of the grain size even in the initial stage of tensile process. In contrast, twinning was more sensitive to the grain size, and the onset of deformation twins might be postponed to a higher strain with increasing the grain size. In the Cu-15 at.%Al alloy with a mean grain size of 47 μm, there was a stage where the strain-hardening rate increases with strain, and this was mainly induced by the SFs instead of twinning. Thus in parallel with the TWIP effect, we proposed that SFs also contribute significantly to the plasticity of FCC alloys with low SFE.

  15. The Asian clam Corbicula fluminea as a biomonitor of trace element contamination: Accounting for different sources of variation using an hierarchical linear model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoults-Wilson, W. A.; Peterson, J.T.; Unrine, J.M.; Rickard, J.; Black, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, specimens of the invasive clam, Corbicula fluminea, were collected above and below possible sources of potentially toxic trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn) in the Altamaha River system (Georgia, USA). Bioaccumulation of these elements was quantified, along with environmental (water and sediment) concentrations. Hierarchical linear models were used to account for variability in tissue concentrations related to environmental (site water chemistry and sediment characteristics) and individual (growth metrics) variables while identifying the strongest relations between these variables and trace element accumulation. The present study found significantly elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Hg downstream of the outfall of kaolin-processing facilities, Zn downstream of a tire cording facility, and Cr downstream of both a nuclear power plant and a paper pulp mill. Models of the present study indicated that variation in trace element accumulation was linked to distance upstream from the estuary, dissolved oxygen, percentage of silt and clay in the sediment, elemental concentrations in sediment, shell length, and bivalve condition index. By explicitly modeling environmental variability, the Hierarchical linear modeling procedure allowed the identification of sites showing increased accumulation of trace elements that may have been caused by human activity. Hierarchical linear modeling is a useful tool for accounting for environmental and individual sources of variation in bioaccumulation studies. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  16. Flow Cytometry Method Analysis of Apoptosis: No Significant Difference Between EDTA and EDTA-free Trypsin Treatment Procedure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-yan; Nie, Xiao-cui; Ma, Hai-ying; Song, Guo-qing; Zhang, Xiao-tong; Jin, Yu-nan; Yu, Yan-qiu

    2015-04-01

    Flow cytometry method (FCM) is a generally accepted tool to analyze apoptosis. Although apoptosis assay kit was applied by many companies, the manufacturers were not consistent with whether using Trypsin with EDTA to collect the adherent cells. In another words, the influence of EDTA on apoptotic ratio is not clear. In this work, we compared the proportion of apoptotic cells with EDTA or EDTA-free Trypsin treatment by FCM. We concluded that Trypsin with or without EDTA has little influence on the proportion of apoptotic cells. In addition, we found that the ratio of necrosis and apoptosis was different in cells collected by scraping. WAVE2 protein was analyzed as a typical example for movement related protein. WAVE2 expression is elevated in the EDTA Trypsin treated group, compared with EDTA-free Trypsin treatment and scrapping group.

  17. Significant differences in the use of healthcare resources of native-born and foreign born in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Barrera, Valentin Hernández; de Andrés, Ana López; de Miguel, Ángel Gil

    2009-01-01

    Background In the last decade, the number of foreign residents in Spain has doubled and it has become one of the countries in the European Union with the highest number of immigrants There is no doubt that the health of the immigrant population has become a relevant subject from the point of view of public healthcare. Our study aimed at describing the potential inequalities in the use of healthcare resources and in the lifestyles of the resident immigrant population of Spain. Methods Cross-sectional, epidemiological study from the Spanish National Health Survey (NHS) in 2006, from the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs. We have worked with individualized secondary data, collected in the Spanish National Health Survey carried out in 2006 and 2007 (SNHS-06), from the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs. The format of the SNHS-06 has been adapted to the requirements of the European project for the carrying out of health surveys. Results The economic immigrant population resident in Spain, present diseases that are similar to those of the indigenous population. The immigrant population shows significantly lower values in the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and physical activity (OR = 0.76; CI 95%: 0.65–0.89, they nonetheless perceive their health condition as worse than that reported by the autochthonous population (OR = 1.63, CI 95%: 1.34–1.97). The probability of the immigrant population using emergency services in the last 12 months was significantly greater than that of the autochthonous population (OR = 1.31, CI 95%: 1.12–1.54). This situation repeats itself when analyzing hospitalization data, with values of probability of being hospitalized greater among immigrants (OR = 1.39, CI 95%: 1.07–1.81). Conclusion The economic immigrants have better parameters in relation to lifestyles, but they have a poor perception of their health. Despite the fact that immigrant population shows higher percentages of emergency attendance and hospitalization than

  18. Significant differences in fecal microbiota are associated with various stages of glucose tolerance in African American male veterans.

    PubMed

    Ciubotaru, Irina; Green, Stefan J; Kukreja, Subhash; Barengolts, Elena

    2015-11-01

    The importance of gut microbiota in pathogenesis of diabetes remains unknown. This study investigated the relationship between microbiota and metabolic markers in African American men (AAM) with prediabetes and hypovitaminosis D. The study was ancillary to a randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation with weekly ergocalciferol (50,000 IU) conducted in AAM veterans over 12 months (D Intervention in Veterans Affairs). Glycemic groups (Gr) were characterized based on changes in oral glucose tolerance between baseline and exit. Subjects with stable normal glucose tolerance were assigned to Gr-1 and those with stable prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose) to Gr-2. Microbiota composition was analyzed in stool collected at the exit (n = 115) and compared between Gr-1 and Gr-2, as well as between the lowest and highest quartiles of dietary intake of energy and fat, hemoglobin A1c, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) level. Differences between Gr-1 and Gr-2 included the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes and Bacteroidales/Clostridia ratios and differences in genera such as Ruminococcus and Dialister. Changes in specific taxa associated with the lowest and highest quartiles of 25(OH)D (eg, Ruminococcus, Roseburia, Blautia, Dorea) were clearly distinct from those of dietary intake (eg, Bacteroides, Bacteroides/Prevotella ratio) or A1c (eg, Faecalibacterium, Catenibacterium, Streptococcus). These findings suggest a novel interaction between microbiota and vitamin D and a role for microbiota in early stages of diabetes development. Although results suggest that specific taxa are associated with glycemic stability over time, a causative relationship between microbiota makeup and dysglycemia is still to be demonstrated.

  19. Significant differences in fecal microbiota are associated with various stages of glucose tolerance in African American male veterans

    PubMed Central

    CIUBOTARU, IRINA; GREEN, STEFAN J.; KUKREJA, SUBHASH; BARENGOLTS, ELENA

    2016-01-01

    The importance of gut microbiota in pathogenesis of diabetes remains unknown. This study investigated the relationship between microbiota and metabolic markers in African American men (AAM) with prediabetes and hypovitaminosis D. The study was ancillary to a randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation with weekly ergocalciferol (50,000 IU) conducted in AAM veterans over 12 months (D Intervention in Veterans Affairs). Glycemic groups (Gr) were characterized based on changes in oral glucose tolerance between baseline and exit. Subjects with stable normal glucose tolerance were assigned to Gr-1 and those with stable prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose) to Gr-2. Microbiota composition was analyzed in stool collected at the exit (n = 115) and compared between Gr-1 and Gr-2, as well as between the lowest and highest quartiles of dietary intake of energy and fat, hemoglobin A1c, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) level. Differences between Gr-1 and Gr-2 included the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes and Bacteroidales/Clostridia ratios and differences in genera such as Ruminococcus and Dialister. Changes in specific taxa associated with the lowest and highest quartiles of 25(OH) D (eg, Ruminococcus, Roseburia, Blautia, Dorea) were clearly distinct from those of dietary intake (eg, Bacteroides, Bacteroides/Prevotella ratio) or A1c (eg, Faecalibacterium, Catenibacterium, Streptococcus). These findings suggest a novel interaction between microbiota and vitamin D and a role for microbiota in early stages of diabetes development. Although results suggest that specific taxa are associated with glycemic stability over time, a causative relationship between microbiota makeup and dysglycemia is still to be demonstrated. PMID:26209747

  20. Differences in the way potassium chloride and sucrose solutions effect osmotic potential of significance to stomata aperture modulation.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Thomas T; Cochrane, Thomas A

    2009-03-01

    Guard cell solution osmotic potential changes resulting in the opening and closing of stomata apertures follow an initial influx of potassium ions, their substitution with sucrose molecules and the subsequent reduction of the latter. To provide an insight into the osmotic mechanism of the changes, the new equation for calculating osmotic pressure, which equates the difference between the energy of pure water across a semi-permeable membrane interface with that of solution water, was used to compare the osmotic properties of KCl and sucrose. For sucrose solutions, the effect of the sucrose molecules in increasing the spacing of the solution water was mainly responsible for osmotic potential; this contrasted with K+ + Cl(-) ions where their spacing effect was only a little higher to that of water held to those ions. At solute concentrations giving an osmotic potential level of -3.0 MPa near that of turgid guard cells, the spacing effect on the potential of the unattached solution water molecules caused by sucrose, but in its theoretical absence, was estimated as -2.203 MPa compared with -1.431 MPa for KCl. In contrast, the potential attributed to water molecules firmly held to the K+ + Cl(-) ions was -1.212 MPa versus zero for sucrose. The potential to keep the sucrose molecules in solution was -0.797 MPa compared with -0.357 MPa for KCl. The findings illustrate that the way KCl effects osmotic pressure is very different to that of sucrose. It is concluded that stomata aperture modulation is closely linked to the osmotic properties of its guard cell solution solutes.

  1. Health savings accounts and health reimbursement arrangements: assets, account balances, and rollovers, 2006-2011.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, Paul

    2012-01-01

    was found, those exhibiting the cost-conscious behavior were found to have lower account balances and rollover amounts. DIFFERENCES IN ACCOUNT BALANCES: Men have higher account balances than women, older individuals have higher account balances than younger ones, account balances increase with household income, and education has a significant impact on account balances independent of income and other variables. DIFFERENCES IN ROLLOVER AMOUNTS: Men rolled over more money than women, and older individuals had higher rollover amounts than younger individuals. Rollover amounts increase with household income and education, and individuals with single coverage rolled over a slightly higher amount than those with family coverage.

  2. Variability in foliar essential oils among different morphotypes of Lantana species complexes, and its taxonomic and ecological significance.

    PubMed

    Love, Amit; Naik, Dattatraya; Basak, Sandip K; Babu, Suresh; Pathak, Namrata; Babu, Cherukuri R

    2009-12-01

    The genus Lantana has many species complexes, and L. camara is one of the aggressive alien weedy species complexes; species delimitation in these complexes is a nightmare for taxonomists. We examined the diversity in the chemical composition of foliar essential oils among morphotypes of Lantana species complexes inhabiting the same ecological gradient, and its taxonomic and ecological significance. The yields of essential oils varied from 0.1 to 0.79% in foliar hydrodistillates of eleven morphotypes, and a total of 39 chemical constituents were detected by GC/MS. The quantitative and qualitative variability in the composition of essential oils among morphotypes was very high, and hence they represent chemotypes. The diversity observed in the composition of essential oils appears to be of genetic origin and thus of taxonomic value. The formation of distinct clusters and sub-clusters at high distance cluster combine values also substantiates that the patterns of distribution of chemical constituents among morphotypes can be used in delimiting species and infraspecific taxa within the species complexes. The presence of beta-caryophyllene and other such compounds, which are known to prevent herbivory, in morphotypes of Lantana species complexes suggest that these compounds may provide selective advantage to Lantana over native species in the invasion of new and disturbed habitats.

  3. Differences in self-regulatory skills among talented athletes: the significance of competitive level and type of sport.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Laura; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Research has shown that talented athletes outscore their mainstream peers on the basis of self-regulation. Although valuable, this does not tell us more about the distinction between good athletes and the best, which is a prerequisite in talent development. Therefore, we examined the self-regulatory skills of 222 male and female talented athletes aged 12-16 years as a function of competitive sport level (junior international or junior national athletes) and type of sport (individual or team sports). Multivariate analyses of covariance in combination with a discriminant function analysis revealed that "reflection" distinguishes between athletes at the highest levels of excellence. Furthermore, athletes playing individual sports had higher scores on "planning" and "effort" than team sport athletes, highlighting the importance of differences between types of sport. In conclusion, we emphasize the importance of reflection as a self-regulatory skill. Reflection facilitates the development of sport-specific characteristics, which may vary by type of sport. This means that an advanced sense of reflection may help talented athletes to acquire desirable characteristics during their "talent" years to ultimately reach adult elite levels of competition.

  4. Garden and Landscape-Scale Correlates of Moths of Differing Conservation Status: Significant Effects of Urbanization and Habitat Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Adam J.; Sadler, Jon P.; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of

  5. Garden and landscape-scale correlates of moths of differing conservation status: significant effects of urbanization and habitat diversity.

    PubMed

    Bates, Adam J; Sadler, Jon P; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of

  6. Emerging accounting trends accounting for leases.

    PubMed

    Valletta, Robert; Huggins, Brian

    2010-12-01

    A new model for lease accounting can have a significant impact on hospitals and healthcare organizations. The new approach proposes a "right-of-use" model that involves complex estimates and significant administrative burden. Hospitals and health systems that draw heavily on lease arrangements should start preparing for the new approach now even though guidance and a final rule are not expected until mid-2011. This article highlights a number of considerations from the lessee point of view.

  7. Adaption of the LUCI framework to account for detailed farm management: a case study exploring potential for achieving locally and nationally significant greenhouse gas, flooding and nutrient mitigation without compromising livelihoods on New Zealand farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Bethanna; Trodahl, Martha; Maxwell, Deborah; Easton, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    This talk discusses recent progress in adapting the Land Utilisation and Capability Indicator (LUCI) framework to take account of the impact of detailed farm management on greenhouse gas emissions and on water, sediment and nutrient delivery to waterways. LUCI is a land management decision support framework which examines the impact of current and potential interventions on a variety of outcomes, including flood mitigation, water supply, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, erosion, sediment and nutrient delivery to waterways, and agricultural production. The potential of the landscape to provide benefits is a function of both the biophysical properties of individual landscape elements and their configuration. Both are respected in LUCI where possible. For example, the hydrology, sediment and chemical routing algorithms are based on physical principles of hillslope flow, taking information on the storage and permeability capacity of elements within the landscape from soil and land use data and honoring physical thresholds, mass and energy balance constraints. LUCI discretizes hydrological response units within the landscape according to similarity of their hydraulic properties and preserves spatially explicit topographical routing. Implications of keeping the "status quo" or potential scenarios of land management change can then be evaluated under different meteorological or climatic events (e.g. flood return periods, rainfall events, droughts), cascading water through the hydrological response units using a "fill and spill" approach. These and other component algorithms are designed to be fast-running while maintaining physical consistency and fine spatial detail. This allows it to operate from subfield level scale to catchment, or even national scale, simultaneously. It analyses and communicates the spatial pattern of individual provision and tradeoffs/synergies between desired outcomes at detailed resolutions and provides suggestions on where management

  8. Accounting Equals Applied Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sondra

    1997-01-01

    Argues that students should be given mathematics credits for completing accounting classes. Demonstrates that, although the terminology is different, the mathematical concepts are the same as those used in an introductory algebra class. (JOW)

  9. Superfund explanation of significant difference for the Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): Umatilla Army Depot (Lagoons), Hermiston, OR, September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This document presents an Explanation of Significant Difference (ESD) from the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) Explosives Washout Lagoons Soils Operable Unit issued September 25, 1992 (PB93-964610). This ESD documents the significant differences to the selected remedy outlined in the ROD. In summary, the significant difference from the selected remedy in the ROD is the utilization of the treated soil as the organic component in the re-vegetation of several designated sites on the installation rather than backfilling the former Explosive Washout Lagoons with the compost.

  10. No significant differences in the breadth of the foot-and-mouth disease serotype A vaccine induced antibody responses in cattle, using different adjuvants, mixed antigens and different routes of administration.

    PubMed

    Tekleghiorghis, Tesfaalem; Weerdmeester, Klaas; van Hemert-Kluitenberg, Froukje; Moormann, Rob J M; Dekker, Aldo

    2014-09-15

    Inactivated whole virus foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines are used worldwide for protection against FMD, but not all vaccines induce protection against all genetic variants of the same FMD virus serotype. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the "breadth" of the antibody response against different strains of the same FMD virus serotype in cattle could be improved by using a different adjuvant, a mix of antigens and/or different routes of administration. To this end, six groups of five cattle were vaccinated with different FMD virus serotype A strain vaccines formulated with Montanide ISA 206 VG adjuvant. Antibody responses for homologous and heterologous cross-reactivity against a panel of 10 different FMD virus serotype A strains were tested by a liquid-phase blocking ELISA. Results of cattle vaccinated with ISA 206 VG adjuvanted vaccine were compared with results obtained in a previous study using aluminium hydroxide-saponin adjuvant. No significant effect of adjuvant on the breadth of the antibody response was observed, neither for mixing of antigens nor for the route of administration (subcutaneous vs. intradermal). Comparison of antigen payload, however, increased both homologous and heterologous titres; a 10-fold higher antigen dose resulted in approximately four times higher titres against all tested strains. Our study shows that breadth of the antibody response depends mainly on the vaccine strain; we therefore propose that, for vaccine preparation, only FMD virus strains are selected that, among other important characteristics, will induce a wide antibody response to different field strains.

  11. Public accountants' field dependence: Canadian evidence.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Elizabeth; Bagg, Robert; Doyle, Wendy; Young, Jeffrey D

    2007-12-01

    The cognitive styles of 113 practicing, professional accountants from Nova Scotia, Canada were examined using the Group Embedded Figures Test. They completed a demographic survey for descriptive information as well as their rank in the firm and preferred area of professional practice. Analysis suggested professional accountants tend to be more analytical than intuitive in cognitive style and, consistent with recent findings in other fields, men and women in accounting do not appear to be different in cognitive style. No statistically significant differences were found on the embedded figures scores across ranks of trainee, manager, and partner or across select, preferred areas of professional practice.

  12. Dietary analysis of Late Cenozoic Mexican equids from three different geographic/geologic settings using stable carbon isotopes: Coincidences, differences and paleobiologic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Crespo, Víctor Adrian; Ferrusquía-Villafranca, Ismael; Bravo-Cuevas, Víctor Manuel; Morales-Puente, Pedro; Ruiz-González, José E.

    2016-03-01

    The development of Vertebrate Paleontology in Mexico is uneven, so that there is a strong bias in favor of Neogene/Quaternary mammals largely collected in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB hereafter) and Central Plateau (CeP hereafter) Morphotectonic Provinces [MP hereafter]; however, the time is ripe for pursuing research in other than taxonomic areas. Here we investigate C3/C4 plant consumption in the equid lineage in three such provinces, which provide different geographic/geologic and paleoecologic scenarios during the Barstovian, Hemphillian and Rancholabrean times. Our results show that the Barstovian equids from Oaxaca, Sierra Madre del Sur MP Cormohipparion aff. C. quinni, Merychippus cf. M. sejunctus and Pliohippus sp. largely fed on C3 plants, which were the chief food stuff of horses in Mexico, particularly in the Southeast. On the other hand, the Hemphillian equid from Guanajuato, CeP Astrohippus stocki, was an unbalanced C3/C4 mixed feeders in favor of C4 plants, a fact that indicates a profound plant diversification due to the inception and rapid diversification of C4 plants that occurred there at this time, as it occurred in temperate North America, resulting in the differential consumption of C4 plants over that of C3 plants. Such trend prevailed until the Rancholabrean, as born out by the inferred diet for Equus conversidens and Equus sp. from Hidalgo, TMVB. Clearly then, the coeval diet change observed in Mexico and temperate North America implies a correlative vegetation change resulting in the appearance and rapid diversification of C4 plants, which largely formed the preferred food stuff of equids since the Hemphillian, although some C3 plant consumption was maintained till the Rancholabrean. It should be noted that the development of hypsodonty in equids and many artiodactyls, has long been interpreted as the adaptive mammalian response to the new feeding conditions.

  13. User's guide for RIV2; a package for routing and accounting of river discharge for a modular, three-dimensional, finite-difference, ground- water flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Roger S.

    1988-01-01

    RIV2 is a package for the U.S. Geological Survey 's modular, three-dimensional, finite-difference, groundwater flow model developed by M. G. McDonald and A. W. Harbaugh that simulates river-discharge routing. RIV2 replaces RIVI, the original river package used in the model. RIV2 preserves the basic logic of RIV1, but better represents river-discharge routing. The main features of RIV2 are (1) The river system is divided into reaches and simulated river discharge is routed from one node to the next. (2) Inflow (river discharge) entering the upstream end of a reach can be specified. (3) More than one river can be represented at one node and rivers can cross, as when representing a siphon. (4) The quantity of leakage to or from the aquifer at a given node is proportional to the hydraulic-head difference between that specified for the river and that calculated for the aquifer. Also, the quantity of leakage to the aquifer at any node can be limited by the user and, within this limit, the maximum leakage to the aquifer is the discharge available in the river. This feature allows for the simulation of intermittent rivers and drains that have no discharge routed to their upstream reaches. (5) An accounting of river discharge is maintained. Neither stage-discharge relations nor storage in the river or river banks is simulated. (USGS)

  14. 32 CFR 37.570 - What must I do if a CAS-covered participant accounts differently for its own and the Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Accounting, Payments, and Recovery... in most cases will be an individual within the Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA). You...

  15. Implications of Accounting Practice for Financial Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, William M.

    1979-01-01

    Different kinds of financial data are needed by different levels of management and in different areas of support. Accounting principles for nonprofit organizations need to be determined. Accrual accounting principles, fund accounting, restricted and unrestricted funds, etc., are described. (MLW)

  16. Visual-haptic integration with pliers and tongs: signal "weights" take account of changes in haptic sensitivity caused by different tools.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Chie; Watt, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    When we hold an object while looking at it, estimates from visual and haptic cues to size are combined in a statistically optimal fashion, whereby the "weight" given to each signal reflects their relative reliabilities. This allows object properties to be estimated more precisely than would otherwise be possible. Tools such as pliers and tongs systematically perturb the mapping between object size and the hand opening. This could complicate visual-haptic integration because it may alter the reliability of the haptic signal, thereby disrupting the determination of appropriate signal weights. To investigate this we first measured the reliability of haptic size estimates made with virtual pliers-like tools (created using a stereoscopic display and force-feedback robots) with different "gains" between hand opening and object size. Haptic reliability in tool use was straightforwardly determined by a combination of sensitivity to changes in hand opening and the effects of tool geometry. The precise pattern of sensitivity to hand opening, which violated Weber's law, meant that haptic reliability changed with tool gain. We then examined whether the visuo-motor system accounts for these reliability changes. We measured the weight given to visual and haptic stimuli when both were available, again with different tool gains, by measuring the perceived size of stimuli in which visual and haptic sizes were varied independently. The weight given to each sensory cue changed with tool gain in a manner that closely resembled the predictions of optimal sensory integration. The results are consistent with the idea that different tool geometries are modeled by the brain, allowing it to calculate not only the distal properties of objects felt with tools, but also the certainty with which those properties are known. These findings highlight the flexibility of human sensory integration and tool-use, and potentially provide an approach for optimizing the design of visual-haptic devices.

  17. Health savings accounts and health reimbursement arrangements: assets, account balances, and rollovers, 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, Paul

    2010-06-01

    ASSET LEVELS GROWING: In 2009, there was $7.1 billion in consumer-driven health plans (CDHPs), which include health savings accounts (or HSAs) and health reimbursement arrangements (or HRAs), spread across 5 million accounts. This is up from 2006, when there were 1.2 million accounts with $835.4 million in assets, and 2008, when 4.2 million accounts held $5.7 billion in assets. AVERAGE ACCOUNT BALANCE LEVELING OFF: Increases in average account balances appear to have leveled off. In 2006, account balances averaged $696. They increased to $1320 in 2007, a 90 percent increase. Account balances averaged $1356 in 2008 and $1419 in 2009, 3 percent and 5 percent increases, respectively. TYPICAL ENROLLEE: The typical CDHP enrollee was more likely than traditional plan enrollees to be young, unmarried, higher-income, educated, and exhibit healthy behavior. No differences were found between CDHPs enrollees and traditional plan enrollees with respect to gender, race, and presence of children. MORE ROLLOVERS: Overall, the number of people with a rollover, as well as the total level of assets being rolled over, have been increasing. The average rollover increased from $592 in 2006 to $1295 in 2009. DIFFERENCES IN ACCOUNT BALANCES: Men tend to have higher account balances than women, account balances increase with household income, education has a significant impact on account balances independent of income and other variables, and no statistically significant differences in account balances were found by smoking, obesity, or the presence of chronic health conditions. Individuals who developed a budget to manage their health care expenses had a higher account balance ($1726) than those who did not ($1428), but otherwise, no statistically significant differences in average account balances were found between individuals who exhibited various aspects of cost-conscious decision-making behaviors and those who did not. DIFFERENCES IN ROLLOVER AMOUNTS: Men rolled over more money than

  18. Significant differences in the activities of alpha-amylases in the absence and presence of polyethylene glycol assayed on eight starches solubilized by two methods.

    PubMed

    Mukerjea, Rupendra; Slocum, Giles; Mukerjea, Romila; Robyt, John F

    2006-09-04

    Starch is a reserve chemical source of the energy of the sun found in plants as a water-insoluble granule that differs in their chemical and physical properties, depending on the source. The granules can be solubilized by heating in water or by treatment with various reagents, such as 1M NaOH. alpha-Amylases are widely distributed enzymes that initiate the hydrolysis of starch into low molecular weight maltodextrins. We recently found that the activities of a single alpha-amylase on two different starches were significantly different. We then determined the activities of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and porcine pancreas alpha-amylases, using eight different starches, solubilized by two methods: autoclaving at 121 degrees C and 1M NaOH at 20 degrees C. There were significant differences in the activities of both of the amylases on all eight of the starches. Previously, it had been found that polyethylene glycol (PEG) stabilized and activated the activities of both enzymes, using a soluble amylose as the substrate. Addition of PEG to the enzymes greatly increased the activities on the eight starches, but the activities still differed significantly. The different activities with the starches were hypothesized as differences in the amounts of secondary and tertiary structures that are partially retained when the different starches are solubilized; the activities on addition of PEG is hypothesized as the formation of highly active species from a series of less active forms.

  19. Conservation priorities for the different lines of Dutch Red and White Friesian cattle change when relationships with other breeds are taken into account.

    PubMed

    Hulsegge, B; Calus, M P L; Oldenbroek, J K; Windig, J J

    2017-02-01

    From a genetic point of view, the selection of breeds and animals within breeds for conservation in a national gene pool can be based on a maximum diversity strategy. This implies that priority is given to conservation of breeds and animals that diverge most and overlap of conserved diversity is minimized. This study investigated the genetic diversity in the Dutch Red and White Friesian (DFR) cattle breed and its contribution to the total genetic diversity in the pool of the Dutch dairy breeds. All Dutch cattle breeds are clearly distinct, except for Dutch Friesian breed (DF) and DFR and have their own specific genetic identity. DFR has a small but unique contribution to the total genetic diversity of Dutch cattle breeds and is closely related to the Dutch Friesian breed. Seven different lines are distinguished within the DFR breed and all contribute to the diversity of the DFR breed. Two lines show the largest contributions to the genetic diversity in DFR. One of these lines comprises unique diversity both within the breed and across all cattle breeds. The other line comprises unique diversity for the DFR but overlaps with the Holstein Friesian breed. There seems to be no necessity to conserve the other five lines separately, because their level of differentiation is very low. This study illustrates that, when taking conservation decisions for a breed, it is worthwhile to take into account the population structure of the breed itself and the relationships with other breeds.

  20. Gay-Straight Alliances Vary on Dimensions of Youth Socializing and Advocacy: Factors Accounting for Individual and Setting-Level Differences

    PubMed Central

    Poteat, V. Paul; Scheer, Jillian R.; Marx, Robert A.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Yoshikawa, Hiro

    2016-01-01

    Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) are school-based youth settings that could promote health. Yet, GSAs have been treated as homogenous without attention to variability in how they operate or to how youth are involved in different capacities. Using a systems perspective, we considered two primary dimensions along which GSAs function to promote health: providing socializing and advocacy opportunities. Among 448 students in 48 GSAs who attended six regional conferences in Massachusetts (59.8% LGBQ; 69.9% White; 70.1% cisgender female), we found substantial variation among GSAs and youth in levels of socializing and advocacy. GSAs were more distinct from one another on advocacy than socializing. Using multilevel modeling, we identified group and individual factors accounting for this variability. In the socializing model, youth and GSAs that did more socializing activities did more advocacy. In the advocacy model, youth who were more actively engaged in the GSA as well as GSAs whose youth collectively perceived greater school hostility and reported greater social justice efficacy did more advocacy. Findings suggest potential reasons why GSAs vary in how they function in ways ranging from internal provisions of support, to visibility raising, to collective social change. The findings are further relevant for settings supporting youth from other marginalized backgrounds and that include advocacy in their mission. PMID:25855133

  1. Assessing the Quality of Teleconsultations in a Store-And-Forward Telemedicine Network - Long-Term Monitoring Taking into Account Differences between Cases.

    PubMed

    Wootton, Richard; Liu, Joanne; Bonnardot, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    We have previously proposed a method for assessing the quality of individual teleconsultation cases; this paper proposes an additional step to allow the long-term monitoring of quality. The basic scenario is a teleconsultation system (aka an e-referral system or a tele-expertise system) where the referrer posts a question about a clinical case, the question is relayed to an appropriate expert, and the chosen expert provides an answer. The people running this system want assurances that it is stable, i.e., they want routine quality assurance information about the "output" from the "process." This requires two things. It needs a method of assessing the quality of individual patient consultations. And it needs a method for taking into account differences between patients, so that these quality assessments can be compared longitudinally. Building on the previously proposed methodology, the present paper proposes two techniques for measuring the difficulty posed by a particular teleconsultation. The first is an indirect method, similar to a willingness to pay economic estimation. The second is a direct method. Using these two methods with real data from a telemedicine network showed that the first method was feasible, but did not produce useful results in a pilot trial. The second method, while more laborious, was also feasible and did produce useful results. Thus, when output quality is measured, an allowance can be made for the characteristics of the case submitted. This means that fluctuations in output quality can be attributed to variations in the process (network) or to variations in the raw materials (queries submitted to the network). Long-term quality assurance should assist those providing telemedicine services in low-resource settings to ensure that the services are operated effectively and efficiently, despite the constraints and complexities of the environment.

  2. Quality of Life for Individuals with Hearing Impairment Who Have Not Consulted for Services and Their Significant Others: Same- and Different-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess perceptions of quality of life for individuals with hearing impairment who have not consulted for services and their significant others who are in same-sex relationships vs. those who are in different-sex relationships. Data were collected on a total of 20 older couples: 10 in same-sex…

  3. Superfund explanation of significant difference for the record of decision (EPA Region 4): Wrigley Charcoal Plant, Wrigley, TN, October 20, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is issuing this Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) for the Wrigley Charcoal Superfund site (``the Site``) in Wrigley, Hickman County, Tenn. The purpose of this fact sheet is to modify the Interim Action Record of Decision (IAROD) issued on September 30, 1991, and to inform the public of current site conditions and future actions.

  4. PROTAMINE1 and PROTAMINE2 genes expression in the sperms of oligoasthenospermic individuals and intrauterine insemination candidates couples: Is there any significant differences?

    PubMed Central

    Aboutorabi, Roshanak; Asghari, Mohsen; Bakhteyari, Abbas; Baghazadeh, Shokoofeh; Mostafavi, Fatemeh Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Male infertility refers to a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. It seems the large portion of this category of infertility, has roots in genetic factors. PROTAMINE family is one of the most important genes which are involved in male factor infertility. Hence, the aim of this study is to evaluate PROTAMINE1 and PROTAMINE2 (P1 and P2) genes expression in oligoasthenospermic individuals and intrauterine insemination (IUI) candidate couples’ sperms. Materials and Methods: Samples were gathered from the patients referred to the Isfahan Infertility Center of Shahid Beheshti, 80 semen samples were in IUI candidates groups and 16 semen samples were in oligoasthenospermia group was collected. The outcome of IUI procedure was followed up after 14 days. Through these samples, 16 couples achieved pregnancy (IUI+) and from the top of the list, 16 semen samples with negative β-HCG were obtained (IUI−). After RNA extraction from sperms, PROTAMINE genes family expression was evaluated in our three groups by real time-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: Our study revealed that P1 gene expression has no significant differences between IUI−, IUI+, and oligoasthenospermia groups, whereas P2 gene expression showed significant differences between oligoasthenospermia with two IUI groups. Main sperm parameters have no significant differences between IUI groups. Conclusion: This study reveals P1 and P2 genes expression value have no significant differences between IUI− and IUI+. On the other hand, P2 gene expression value has significant differences between oligoasthenospermia with two IUI groups. PMID:27995103

  5. Standardized Testing and School Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the use of standardized tests to hold schools accountable. The history of testing for accountability is reviewed, and it is shown that currently between-school differences account for less than 10% of the variance in student scores, in part because the progress of individuals is small compared to the spread of achievement…

  6. Comparison of tiletamine and zolazepam pharmacokinetics in tigers (Panthera tigris) and leopards (Panthera pardus): do species differences account for adverse effects in tigers?

    PubMed

    Lewis, J C M; Teale, P; Webber, G; Sear, J W; Taylor, P M

    2014-09-01

    Serious post-operative neurological complications of unknown aetiology are reported in tigers after immobilisation using tiletamine and zolazepam. These complications may arise from the persistent effects of tiletamine or active metabolites of tiletamine or zolazepam. Concentrations of tiletamine, zolazepam and some metabolites were measured using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in plasma from captive tigers (n = 8) and leopards (n = 9; an unaffected species, for comparison) during anaesthesia for routine clinical procedures. The zolazepam:tiletamine (Z:T) ratio was calculated. Peak concentrations occurred at 9-33 min and ranged from 83.5 to 379.2 ng/mL for tiletamine and 301.1 to 1239.3 ng/mL for zolazepam after correction for dose by weight. There were no significant differences between tigers and leopards. The Z:T ratio was generally <5 and did not differ between species. In both tigers and leopards, zolazepam metabolism appeared to be primarily via demethylation. There was evidence for hydroxylation in leopards, but much less in tigers than leopards. No major differences between the species in parent pharmacokinetics were identified. The metabolism of tiletamine could not be defined with any degree of certainty for either species.

  7. Regulatory and Structural Differences in the Cu,Zn-Superoxide Dismutases of Salmonella enterica and Their Significance for Virulence*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Ammendola, Serena; Pasquali, Paolo; Pacello, Francesca; Rotilio, Giuseppe; Castor, Margaret; Libby, Stephen J.; Figueroa-Bossi, Nara; Bossi, Lionello; Fang, Ferric C.; Battistoni, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Many of the most virulent strains of Salmonella enterica produce two distinct Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutases (SodCI and SodCII). The bacteriophage-encoded SodCI enzyme makes the greater contribution to Salmonella virulence. We have performed a detailed comparison of the functional, structural, and regulatory properties of the Salmonella SodC enzymes. Here we demonstrate that SodCI and SodCII differ with regard to specific activity, protease resistance, metal affinity, and peroxidative activity, with dimeric SodCI exhibiting superior stability and activity. In particular, monomeric SodCII is unable to retain its catalytic copper ion in the absence of zinc. We have also found that SodCI and SodCII are differentially affected by oxygen, zinc availability, and the transcriptional regulator FNR. SodCII is strongly down-regulated under anaerobic conditions and dependent on the high affinity ZnuABC zinc transport system, whereas SodCI accumulation in vitro and within macrophages is FNR-dependent. We have confirmed earlier findings that SodCII accumulation in intracellular Salmonella is negligible, whereas SodCI is strongly up-regulated in macrophages. Our observations demonstrate that differences in expression, activity, and stability help to account for the unique contribution of the bacteriophage-encoded SodCI enzyme to Salmonella virulence. PMID:18362154

  8. The Growth of Education Revenues from 1998-2006: An Update on What Accounts for Differences among States and the District of Columbia in the Context of Adequacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Nicola A.

    2012-01-01

    This article is an update of a previous study by the author which examined the growth of elementary and public school revenues for school years 1982-1983 through 1991-1992 (Alexander 1997). Using the same framework, this study provides an analysis of the factors accounting for changes in real per-pupil revenues across the 50 states and the…

  9. Geometric differences of the mitral apparatus between ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy with significant mitral regurgitation: real-time three-dimensional echocardiography study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, Jun; Shiota, Takahiro; Agler, Deborah A.; Popovic, Zoran B.; Qin, Jian Xin; Gillinov, Marc A.; Stewart, William J.; Cosgrove, Delos M.; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Thomas, James D.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to elucidate the geometric differences of the mitral apparatus in patients with significant mitral regurgitation caused by ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM-MR) and by idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM-MR) by use of real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six patients with ICM-MR caused by posterior infarction, 18 patients with DCM-MR, and 8 control subjects were studied. With the 3D software, commissure-commissure plane and 3 perpendicular anteroposterior (AP) planes were generated for imaging the medial, central, and lateral sides of the mitral valve (MV) during mid systole. In 3 AP planes, the angles between the annular plane and each leaflet (anterior, Aalpha; posterior, Palpha) were measured. In ICM-MR, Aalpha measured in the medial and central planes was significantly larger than that in the lateral plane (39+/-5 degrees, 34+/-6 degrees, and 27+/-5 degrees, respectively; P<0.01), whereas Palpha showed no significant difference in any of the 3 AP planes (61+/-7 degrees, 57+/-7 degrees, and 56+/-7 degrees, P>0.05). In DCM-MR, both Aalpha (38+/-8 degrees, 37+/-9 degrees, and 36+/-7 degrees, P>0.05) and Palpha (59+/-6 degrees, 58+/-5 degrees, and 57+/-6 degrees, P>0.05) revealed no significant differences in the 3 planes. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of MV deformation from the medial to the lateral side was asymmetrical in ICM-MR, whereas it was symmetrical in DCM-MR. RT3DE is a helpful tool for differentiating the geometry of the mitral apparatus between these 2 different types of functional mitral regurgitation.

  10. Health savings accounts and health reimbursement arrangements: assets, account balances, and rollovers, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, Paul

    2011-01-01

    , older individuals have higher account balances than younger ones, account balances increase with household income, and education has a significant impact on account balances independent of income and other variables. DIFFERENCES IN ROLLOVER AMOUNTS: Men rolled over more money than women, and older individuals had higher rollover amounts than younger individuals. Rollover amounts increase with household income and education, and individuals with single coverage rolled over a higher amount than those with family coverage.

  11. Biological significance of dead biomass retention trait in Mediterranean Basin species: an analysis between different successional niches and regeneration strategies as functional groups.

    PubMed

    Baeza, M J; Santana, V M

    2015-11-01

    Standing dead biomass retention is considered one of the most relevant fuel structural traits to affect plant flammability. However, very little is known about the biological significance of this trait and its distribution between different functional groups. Our aim was to analyse how the proportion of dead biomass produced in Mediterranean species is related to the successional niche of species (early-, mid- and late-successional stages) and the regeneration strategy of species (seeders and resprouters). We evaluated biomass distribution by size classes and standing dead biomass retention in nine dominant species from the Mediterranean Basin in different development stages (5, 9, 14 and 26 years since the last fire). The results revealed significant differences in the standing dead biomass retention of species that presented a distinct successional niche or regeneration strategy. These differences were restricted to the oldest ages studied (>9 years). Tree and small tree resprouters, typical in late-successional stages, presented slight variations with age and a less marked trend to retain dead biomass, while seeder shrubs and dwarf shrubs, characteristic of early-successional stages, showed high dead biomass loads. Our results suggest that the species that tend to retain more dead branches are colonising species that may promote fire in early-successional stages.

  12. SpO2 and Heart Rate During a Real Hike at Altitude Are Significantly Different than at Its Simulation in Normobaric Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Netzer, Nikolaus C.; Rausch, Linda; Eliasson, Arn H.; Gatterer, Hannes; Friess, Matthias; Burtscher, Martin; Pramsohler, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Exposures to simulated altitude (normobaric hypoxia, NH) are frequently used in preparation for mountaineering activities at real altitude (hypobaric hypoxia, HH). However, physiological responses to exercise in NH and HH may differ. Unfortunately clinically useful information on such differences is largely lacking. This study therefore compared exercise responses between a simulated hike on a treadmill in NH and a similar field hike in HH. Methods: Six subjects (four men) participated in two trials, one in a NH chamber and a second in HH at an altitude of 4,205 m on the mountain Mauna Kea. Subjects hiked in each setting for 7 h including breaks. In NH, hiking was simulated by walking on a treadmill. To achieve maximal similarity between hikes, subjects used the same nutrition, clothes, and gear weight. Measurements of peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate (HR) and barometrical pressure (PB)/inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2) were taken every 15 min. Acute mountain sickness (AMS) symptoms were assessed using the Lake-Louise-Score at altitudes of 2,800, 3,500, and 4,200 m. Results: Mean SpO2 values of 85.8% in NH were significantly higher compared to those of 80.2% in HH (p = 0.027). Mean HR values of 103 bpm in NH were significantly lower than those of 121 bpm in HH (p = 0.029). AMS scores did not differ significantly between the two conditions. Conclusion: Physiological responses to exercise recorded in NH are different from those provoked by HH. These findings are of clinical importance for subjects using simulated altitude to prepare for activity at real altitude. Trial registration: Registration at DRKS. (Approval No. 359/12, Trial No. DRKS00005241). PMID:28243206

  13. SpO2 and Heart Rate During a Real Hike at Altitude Are Significantly Different than at Its Simulation in Normobaric Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Netzer, Nikolaus C; Rausch, Linda; Eliasson, Arn H; Gatterer, Hannes; Friess, Matthias; Burtscher, Martin; Pramsohler, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Exposures to simulated altitude (normobaric hypoxia, NH) are frequently used in preparation for mountaineering activities at real altitude (hypobaric hypoxia, HH). However, physiological responses to exercise in NH and HH may differ. Unfortunately clinically useful information on such differences is largely lacking. This study therefore compared exercise responses between a simulated hike on a treadmill in NH and a similar field hike in HH. Methods: Six subjects (four men) participated in two trials, one in a NH chamber and a second in HH at an altitude of 4,205 m on the mountain Mauna Kea. Subjects hiked in each setting for 7 h including breaks. In NH, hiking was simulated by walking on a treadmill. To achieve maximal similarity between hikes, subjects used the same nutrition, clothes, and gear weight. Measurements of peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate (HR) and barometrical pressure (PB)/inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2) were taken every 15 min. Acute mountain sickness (AMS) symptoms were assessed using the Lake-Louise-Score at altitudes of 2,800, 3,500, and 4,200 m. Results: Mean SpO2 values of 85.8% in NH were significantly higher compared to those of 80.2% in HH (p = 0.027). Mean HR values of 103 bpm in NH were significantly lower than those of 121 bpm in HH (p = 0.029). AMS scores did not differ significantly between the two conditions. Conclusion: Physiological responses to exercise recorded in NH are different from those provoked by HH. These findings are of clinical importance for subjects using simulated altitude to prepare for activity at real altitude. Trial registration: Registration at DRKS. (Approval No. 359/12, Trial No. DRKS00005241).

  14. Juice, pulp and seeds fractionated from dry climate primocane raspberry cultivars (Rubus idaeus) have significantly different antioxidant capacity, anthocyanin content and color.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Shannon M; Low, Richard M; Stocks, Janet C; Eggett, Dennis L; Parker, Tory L

    2012-12-01

    Raspberries contain flavonoid antioxidants whose relative concentrations may vary between the juice, pulp, and seed fractions. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total anthocyanin content, and berry color were determined for six cultivars of primocane raspberries grown in a dry climate (Utah, USA). Significant ORAC differences were found between juice (18.4 ± 0.39 μmol TE/g), pulp (24.45 ± 0.43), and seeds (273.27 ± 11.15) with all Utah cultivars combined. A significantly higher concentration of anthocyanins was present in Utah raspberry juice (20.86 ± 0.35 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside eq./100 g), compared to pulp (13.96 ± 0.35). Anthocyanin content of juice and pulp were significantly positively correlated with dark color (L*). This is the first report of fractional differences in dry climate raspberries, and has implications for the juice and supplement industries.

  15. Effects of resisted sprint training on acceleration with three different loads accounting for 5, 12.5, and 20% of body mass.

    PubMed

    Bachero-Mena, Beatriz; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2014-10-01

    The optimal resisted load for sprint training has not been established yet, although it has been suggested that a resistance reducing the athlete's velocity by more than 10% from unloaded sprinting would entail substantial changes in the athlete's sprinting mechanics. This investigation has evaluated the effects of a 7-week, 14-session, sled-resisted sprint training on acceleration with 3 different loads according to a % of body mass (BM): low load (LL: 5% BM, n = 7), medium load (ML: 12.5% BM, n = 6), and high load (HL: 20% BM, n = 6), in young male students. Besides, the effects on untrained exercises: countermovement jump (CMJ), loaded vertical jump squat (JS), and full squat (SQ) were analyzed. The 3 groups followed the same training program consisting in maximal effort sprint accelerations with the respective loads assigned. Significant differences between groups only occurred between LL and ML in CMJ (p ≤ 0.05), favoring ML. Paired t-tests demonstrated statistical improvements in 0-40 m sprint times for the 3 groups (p ≤ 0.05), and in 0-20 m (p ≤ 0.05) and 0-30 m (p < 0.01) sprint times for HL. Sprint times in 10-40 m (p < 0.01) and 20-40 m (p ≤ 0.05) were improved in LL. Time intervals in 20-30 m and 20-40 m (p ≤ 0.05) were statistically reduced in ML. As regards, the untrained exercises, CMJ and SQ for ML and HL (p ≤ 0.05) and JS for HL were improved. The results show that depending on the magnitude of load used, the related effects will be attained in different phases of the 40 m. It would seem that to improve the initial phase of acceleration up to 30 m, loads around 20% of BM should be used, whereas to improve high-speed acceleration phases, loads around 5-12.5% of BM should be preferred. Moreover, sprint-resisted training with ML and HL would enhance vertical jump and leg strength in moderately trained subjects.

  16. Chloroplast protrusions in leaves of Ranunculus glacialis L. respond significantly to different ambient conditions, but are not related to temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Moser, Tim; Holzinger, Andreas; Buchner, Othmar

    2015-07-01

    The occurrence of chloroplast protrusions (CPs) in leaves of Ranunculus glacialis L. in response to different environmental conditions was assessed. CPs occur highly dynamically. They do not contain thylakoids and their physiological function is still largely unknown. Controlled in situ sampling showed that CP formation follows a pronounced diurnal rhythm. Between 2 and 27 °C the relative proportion of chloroplasts with CPs (rCP) showed a significant positive correlation to leaf temperature (TL; 0.793, P < 0.01), while irradiation intensity had a minor effect on rCP. In situ shading and controlled laboratory experiments confirmed the significant influence of TL. Under moderate irradiation intensity, an increase of TL up to 25 °C significantly promoted CP formation, while a further increase to 37 °C led to a decrease. Furthermore, rCP values were lower in darkness and under high irradiation intensity. Gas treatment at 2000 ppm CO2/2% O2 led to a significant decrease of rCP, suggesting a possible involvement of photorespiration in CP formation. Our findings demonstrate that in R. glacialis, CPs are neither a rare phenomenon nor a result of heat or light stress; on the contrary, they seem to be most abundant under moderate temperature and non-stress irradiation conditions.

  17. Chloroplast protrusions in leaves of R anunculus glacialis  L. respond significantly to different ambient conditions, but are not related to temperature stress

    PubMed Central

    MOSER, TIM; HOLZINGER, ANDREAS

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The occurrence of chloroplast protrusions (CPs) in leaves of R anunculus glacialis  L. in response to different environmental conditions was assessed. CPs occur highly dynamically. They do not contain thylakoids and their physiological function is still largely unknown. Controlled in situ sampling showed that CP formation follows a pronounced diurnal rhythm. Between 2 and 27 °C the relative proportion of chloroplasts with CPs (rCP) showed a significant positive correlation to leaf temperature (TL; 0.793, P < 0.01), while irradiation intensity had a minor effect on rCP. In situ shading and controlled laboratory experiments confirmed the significant influence of TL. Under moderate irradiation intensity, an increase of TL up to 25 °C significantly promoted CP formation, while a further increase to 37 °C led to a decrease. Furthermore, rCP values were lower in darkness and under high irradiation intensity. Gas treatment at 2000 ppm CO2/2% O2 led to a significant decrease of rCP, suggesting a possible involvement of photorespiration in CP formation. Our findings demonstrate that in R . glacialis, CPs are neither a rare phenomenon nor a result of heat or light stress; on the contrary, they seem to be most abundant under moderate temperature and non‐stress irradiation conditions. PMID:25393014

  18. Superfund Explanation of Significant Difference for the Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Refuse Hideaway Landfill, Middleton, WI, September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-03-01

    This Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) is for the Refuse Hideaway Landfill Superfund site in Middleton, Wisconsin. The June 28, 1995 ROD required groundwater extraction and treatment of the most highly contaminated groundwater (greater than 200 ppb total volatile organic compounds (VOCs)), treatment of groundwater to discharge standards and injection of the treated water into the aquifer upgradient of the landfill to stimulate in-situ biodegradation of the degradable components of the contamination. This ESD documents that US EPA, in consultation with WDNR, has determined, based on the 1998 groundwater data, that it is not necessary to implement the groundwater extraction and treatment component of the selected remedy. The significant decrease of total VOCs in groundwater over a short period of time indicates that groundwater should meet the remedial action objective of NR 140 PALs within a reasonable period of time if source control measures continue to be operated and maintained.

  19. Significant genotype difference in the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism of indigenous groups in Sabah, Malaysia with Asian and non-Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Goh, Lucky Poh Wah; Chong, Eric Tzyy Jiann; Chua, Kek Heng; Chuah, Jitt Aun; Lee, Ping-Chin

    2014-01-01

    CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C (rs3813867) genotype distributions vary significantly among different populations and are associated with both diseases, like cancer, and adverse drug effects. To date, there have been limited genotype distributions and allele frequencies of this polymorphism reported in the three major indigenous ethnic groups (KadazanDusun, Bajau, and Rungus) in Sabah, also known as North Borneo. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C in these three major indigenous peoples in Sabah. A total of 640 healthy individuals from the three dominant indigenous groups were recruited for this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) at G-1259C polymorphic site of CYP2E1 gene was performed using the Pst I restriction enzyme. Fragments were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed by direct sequencing. Overall, the allele frequencies were 90.3% for c1 allele and 9.7% for c2 allele. The genotype frequencies for c1/c1, c1/c2 and c2/c2 were observed as 80.9%, 18.8%, and 0.3%, respectively. A highly statistical significant difference (p<0.001) was observed in the genotype distributions between indigenous groups in Sabah with all Asian and non-Asian populations. However, among these three indigenous groups, there was no statistical significant difference (p>0.001) in their genotype distributions. The three major indigenous ethnic groups in Sabah show unique genotype distributions when compared with other populations. This finding indicates the importance of establishing the genotype distributions of CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism in the indigenous populations.

  20. The Circadian Variation in Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Differs Significantly from Normally Ovulating Women

    PubMed Central

    Bungum, Leif; Franssohn, Florencia; Bungum, Mona; Humaidan, Peter; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    Obective To improve the biologic understanding of the Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) condition by examining the circadian variation and relationship between Anti Müllerian Hormone (AMH), gonadotropins and ovarian steroids in PCOS patients compared to normally ovulating and menstruating women. By comparing the pattern of co-variation between AMH and Luteinizing Hormone, two compounds closely linked to hyperandrogenism and anovulation in PCOS, the involvement of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian axis in PCOS pathology could be elucidated. Patients Eight normal-weighted young, anovulatory PCOS-women as study group and ten normal menstruating and ovulating women as controls. Interventions Observational prospective study of the circadian variation in AMH, gonadotropins, sex steroids and androgens in a study and a control group. A circadian profile was performed in each study and control subject during a 24-h period by blood sampling every second hour, starting at 8:00 a.m. and continuing until 8:00 a.m. the following day. Result(s) Significant differences in hormonal levels were found between the groups, with higher concentrations of AMH, LH and androgens in the PCOS group and lower amounts of FSH and progesterone. A distinct difference in the circadian variation pattern of AMH and LH between PCOS patients and normal controls was seen, with PCOS patients presenting a uniform pattern in serum levels of AMH and LH throughout the study period, without significant nadir late-night values as was seen in the control group. In PCOS women, a significant positive association between LH/ FSH and testosterone was found opposite to controls. Main outcome measures Circadian variation in Anti-Müllerian Hormone, gonadotropins and ovarian steroids and the covariation between them. Conclusion A significant difference in the circadian secretion of LH and AMH in PCOS women compared to normally ovulating women indicate an increased GnRH pulse, creating high and constant LH serum

  1. Superfund explanation of significant difference for the record of decision (EPA region 2): Love Canal, Niagara Falls, NY, September 5, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) announce this Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) to explain modifications to the selected remedy for the final destruction and disposal of Love Canal dioxin-contaminated sewer and creek sediments. These modifications are embodied in proposed changes to a partial consent decree between the United States and the State of New York and the Occidental Chemical Corporation (OCC) in the United States District Court for the Western District of New York.

  2. Rest and stress transluminal attenuation gradient and contrast opacification difference for detection of hemodynamically significant stenoses in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Ko, Brian S; Seneviratne, Sujith; Cameron, James D; Gutman, Sarah; Crossett, Marcus; Munnur, Kiran; Meredith, Ian T; Wong, Dennis T L

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of stress 320 detector CT coronary angiography (CTA) derived transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG320) and contrast opacification (CO) difference to detect hemodynamically significant stenoses as determined by invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR ≤ 0.80). Twenty-seven patients, including 51 vessels on rest CTA were studied. 16 (31 %) vessels were not interpretable on stress CTA largely secondary to motion artefacts. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed a comparable area under the curve (AUC) for rest and stress TAG320 (0.78 and 0.75) which was higher than CTA alone (0.68), and rest and stress CO difference (0.76 and 0.67). Compared with rest CTA, stress CTA demonstrated inferior image quality (Median Likert score 4 vs. 3, P < 0.0001) and required a higher mean radiation exposure (3.2 vs. 5.1 mSv, P < 0.0001). Stress TAG320 and CO difference is less feasible and was not superior in diagnostic performance when compared with rest TAG320 and CO difference.

  3. Significant interethnic differencies in functional variants of PON1 and P2RY12 genes in Roma and Hungarian population samples.

    PubMed

    Janicsek, Ingrid; Sipeky, Csilla; Bene, Judit; Duga, Balazs; Melegh, Bela I; Melegh, Bela; Sümegi, Katalin; Jaromi, Luca; Magyari, Lili; Melegh, Bela

    2015-01-01

    Antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel is one of the most common therapies given to patients worldwide. However, the clinical efficacy and toxicity of clopidogrel is not constant in every patient due to interindividual variations. There are several factors that contribute to these interindividual differencies such as SNPs in genes of specific receptors and enzymes. PON1 (paraoxonase 1) plays an important role in the bioactivation of clopidogrel. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of this gene decrease the activity of paraoxonase enzyme and lead to an unefficient clopidogrel effect. P2RY12 (purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 12) gene is coding a receptor, which is situated on the surface of the platelets and plays a role in ADP-induced platelet aggregation. In this study we investigated 2 functional SNPs of PON1 gene (rs662 and rs854560) and 3 variants of the P2RY12 gene (rs2046934, rs6798347, rs6801273) in samples pooled from average Hungarian Roma and Hungarian population samples with PCR-RFLP method. For the PON1 variants we detected that the R allele frequency was significantly lower in the Roma group compared to the Hungarian population. (0.249 vs 0.318 p < 0.001). By contrast, the frequency of the M allele was significantly higher in Roma than in Hungarians (0.332 vs 0.290 p < 0.05). For the 3 P2RY12 variants we could find significant differencies only in rs2046934: the frequency of the CC genotype is 7 times higher in Hungarians than in Romas (1.4 vs 0.2 %, p < 0.05). The data presented here represent a unique genetic profile in Roma people that has not been reported for other populations.

  4. Accounting Fundamentals for Non-Accountants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this module is to provide an introduction and overview of accounting fundamentals for non-accountants. The module also covers important topics such as communication, internal controls, documentation and recordkeeping.

  5. Differences in the Cellular Response to Acute Spinal Cord Injury between Developing and Mature Rats Highlights the Potential Significance of the Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Theresa C.; Mathews, Kathryn J.; Mao, Yilin; Nguyen, Tara; Gorrie, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    There exists a trend for a better functional recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI) in younger patients compared to adults, which is also reported for animal studies; however, the reasons for this are yet to be elucidated. The post injury tissue microenvironment is a complex milieu of cells and signals that interact on multiple levels. Inflammation has been shown to play a significant role in this post injury microenvironment. Endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPC), in the ependymal layer of the central canal, have also been shown to respond and migrate to the lesion site. This study used a mild contusion injury model to compare adult (9 week), juvenile (5 week) and infant (P7) Sprague-Dawley rats at 24 h, 1, 2, and 6 weeks post-injury (n = 108). The innate cells of the inflammatory response were examined using counts of ED1/IBA1 labeled cells. This found a decreased inflammatory response in the infants, compared to the adult and juvenile animals, demonstrated by a decreased neutrophil infiltration and macrophage and microglial activation at all 4 time points. Two other prominent cellular contributors to the post-injury microenvironment, the reactive astrocytes, which eventually form the glial scar, and the NPC were quantitated using GFAP and Nestin immunohistochemistry. After SCI in all 3 ages there was an obvious increase in Nestin staining in the ependymal layer, with long basal processes extending into the parenchyma. This was consistent between age groups early post injury then deviated at 2 weeks. The GFAP results also showed stark differences between the mature and infant animals. These results point to significant differences in the inflammatory response between infants and adults that may contribute to the better recovery indicated by other researchers, as well as differences in the overall injury progression and cellular responses. This may have important consequences if we are able to mirror and manipulate this response in patients of all ages; however

  6. Young Mania Rating Scale: how to interpret the numbers? Determination of a severity threshold and of the minimal clinically significant difference in the EMBLEM cohort.

    PubMed

    Lukasiewicz, Michael; Gerard, Stephanie; Besnard, Adeline; Falissard, Bruno; Perrin, Elena; Sapin, Helene; Tohen, Mauricio; Reed, Catherine; Azorin, Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this analysis was to identify Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) meaningful benchmarks for clinicians (severity threshold, minimal clinically significant difference [MCSD]) using the Clinical Global Impressions Bipolar (CGI-BP) mania scale, to provide a clinical perspective to randomized clinical trials (RCTs) results. We used the cohort of patients with acute manic/mixed state of bipolar disorders (N = 3459) included in the European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication (EMBLEM) study. A receiver-operating characteristic analysis was performed on randomly selected patients to determine the YMRS optimal severity threshold with CGI-BP mania score ≥ "Markedly ill" defining severity. The MCSD (clinically meaningful change in score relative to one point difference in CGI-BP mania for outcome measures) of YMRS, was assessed with a linear regression on baseline data. At baseline, YMRS mean score was 26.4 (±9.9), CGI-BP mania mean score was 4.8 (±1.0) and 61.7% of patients had a score ≥ 5. The optimal YMRS severity threshold of 25 (positive predictive value [PPV] = 83.0%; negative predictive value [NPV] = 66.0%) was determined. In this cohort, a YMRS score of 20 (typical cutoff for RCTs inclusion criteria) corresponds to a PPV of 74.6% and to a NPV of 77.6%, meaning that the majority of patients included would be classified as severely ill. The YMRS minimal clinically significant difference was 6.6 points.

  7. Time to virological failure with atazanavir/ritonavir and lopinavir/ritonavir, with or without an H2-receptor blocker, not significantly different in HIV observational database study.

    PubMed

    Keiser, Philip H; Nassar, Naiel

    2008-08-01

    A retrospective electronic database study was conducted to determine any differences in time to virological failure and percent of virological failure among HIV-infected patients concurrently receiving H2-blockers versus patients not receiving these agents while receiving atazanavir (ATV)/ritonavir (r) or lopinavir (LPV)/r-containing antiretroviral treatment regimens. Data were culled from October 2003 (when ATV became commercially available) through February 2006. Virological failure was defined as (1) two plasma HIV-1 RNA levels >400 copies/mL after at least one HIV-1 RNA level below the level of detection or (2) failure to achieve an HIV-1 RNA <400 copies/mL within 24 weeks. Data from 267 ATV/r-treated patients who met the case definition were compared with data from 670 LPV/r-treated patients. Approximately 10% of the ATV/r group received concurrent H2-blockers when compared with 20% of the LPV/r group. Multivariate analysis showed no statistically significant differences regarding time to virological failure between or among the four subgroups, adjusting for differences in baseline characteristics (P = 0.79, log-rank test). At 750 days following treatment initiation, the proportion of patients not experiencing virological failure was 56% in the ATV/r-blocker subgroup, 48% in the ATV/r-alone subgroup, 45% in the LPV/r-alone subgroup and 42% in the LPV/r-blocker subgroup.

  8. Accounting: Accountants Need Verbal Skill Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Bruce L.

    1978-01-01

    Verbal skills training is one aspect of accounting education not usually included in secondary and postsecondary accounting courses. The author discusses the need for verbal competency and methods of incorporating it into accounting courses, particularly a variation of the Keller plan of individualized instruction. (MF)

  9. A new dinucleotide repeat polymorphism at the telomere of chromosome 21q reveals a significant difference between male and female rates of recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Blouin, J.L.; Gos, A.; Morris, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    We have used a half-YAC containing the human chromosome 21 long-arm telomere to clone, map, and characterize a new dinucleotide repeat polymorphism (D21S1575) close to 21qter. The marker is <120 kb from the telomeric (TTAGGG){sub n} sequences and is the most distal highly polymorphic marker on chromosome 21q. This marker has a heterozygosity of 71% because of a variable (TA){sub n} repeat embedded within a long interspersed element (LINE) element. Genotyping of the CEPH families and linkage analysis provided a more accurate determination of the full length of the chromosome 21 genetic map. A highly significant difference was detected between male and female recombination rates in the telomeric region: in the most telomeric 2.3 Mb of chromosome 21q, recombination was only observed in male meioses. 35 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Capsules from Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Cryptococcus spp. Manifest Significant Differences in Structure and Ability to Protect against Phagocytic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Glauber de S.; Fonseca, Fernanda L.; Pontes, Bruno; Torres, Andre; Cordero, Radames J. B.; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M.; Casadevall, Arturo; Viana, Nathan B.; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Garcia, Eloi S.; de Souza, Wanderley; Frases, Susana

    2012-01-01

    Capsule production is common among bacterial species, but relatively rare in eukaryotic microorganisms. Members of the fungal Cryptococcus genus are known to produce capsules, which are major determinants of virulence in the highly pathogenic species Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Although the lack of virulence of many species of the Cryptococcus genus can be explained solely by the lack of mammalian thermotolerance, it is uncertain whether the capsules from these organisms are comparable to those of the pathogenic cryptococci. In this study, we compared the characteristic of the capsule from the non-pathogenic environmental yeast Cryptococcus liquefaciens with that of C. neoformans. Microscopic observations revealed that C. liquefaciens has a capsule visible in India ink preparations that was also efficiently labeled by three antibodies generated to specific C. neoformans capsular antigens. Capsular polysaccharides of C. liquefaciens were incorporated onto the cell surface of acapsular C. neoformans mutant cells. Polysaccharide composition determinations in combination with confocal microscopy revealed that C. liquefaciens capsule consisted of mannose, xylose, glucose, glucuronic acid, galactose and N-acetylglucosamine. Physical chemical analysis of the C. liquefaciens polysaccharides in comparison with C. neoformans samples revealed significant differences in viscosity, elastic properties and macromolecular structure parameters of polysaccharide solutions such as rigidity, effective diameter, zeta potential and molecular mass, which nevertheless appeared to be characteristics of linear polysaccharides that also comprise capsular polysaccharide of C. neoformans. The environmental yeast, however, showed enhanced susceptibility to the antimicrobial activity of the environmental phagocytes, suggesting that the C. liquefaciens capsular components are insufficient in protecting yeast cells against killing by amoeba. These results suggest that capsular

  11. Significant differences in incubation times in sheep infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy result from variation at codon 141 in the PRNP gene.

    PubMed

    Tan, Boon Chin; Blanco, Anthony R Alejo; Houston, E Fiona; Stewart, Paula; Goldmann, Wilfred; Gill, Andrew C; de Wolf, Christopher; Manson, Jean C; McCutcheon, Sandra

    2012-12-01

    The susceptibility of sheep to prion infection is linked to variation in the PRNP gene, which encodes the prion protein. Common polymorphisms occur at codons 136, 154 and 171. Sheep which are homozygous for the A(136)R(154)Q(171) allele are the most susceptible to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). The effect of other polymorphisms on BSE susceptibility is unknown. We orally infected ARQ/ARQ Cheviot sheep with equal amounts of BSE brain homogenate and a range of incubation periods was observed. When we segregated sheep according to the amino acid (L or F) encoded at codon 141 of the PRNP gene, the shortest incubation period was observed in LL(141) sheep, whilst incubation periods in FF(141) and LF(141) sheep were significantly longer. No statistically significant differences existed in the expression of total prion protein or the disease-associated isoform in BSE-infected sheep within each genotype subgroup. This suggested that the amino acid encoded at codon 141 probably affects incubation times through direct effects on protein misfolding rates.

  12. Bile salt receptor TGR5 is highly expressed in esophageal adenocarcinoma and precancerous lesions with significantly worse overall survival and gender differences

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Chunhong; LaLonde, Amy; Godfrey, Tony E; Que, Jianwen; Sun, Jun; Wu, Tong Tong; Zhou, Zhongren

    2017-01-01

    Bile acid reflux in the esophagus plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). The G-protein coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5) has been associated with the development of gastrointestinal cancer. However, little is known regarding the role of TGR5 in esophageal carcinoma and precancerous lesions. We analyzed genomic DNA from 116 EACs for copy number aberrations via Affymetrix SNP6.0 microarrays. The TGR5 gene locus was amplified in 12.7% (14/116) of the EACs. The TGR5 protein expression was also assessed using immunohistochemistry from tissue microarrays, including Barrett’s esophagus (BE), low-(LGD) and high-grade dysplasia (HGD), columnar cell metaplasia (CM), squamous epithelium (SE), EAC and squamous cell carcinoma. The TGR5 protein was highly expressed in 71% of EAC (75/106), 100% of HGD (11/11), 72% of LGD (13/18), 66% of BE (23/35), 84% of CM (52/62), and 36% of SE (30/83). The patients with high expression of TGR5 exhibited significantly worse overall survival compared to the patients with nonhigh expression. TGR5 high expression was significantly increased in the males compared to the females in all cases with an odds ratio of 1.9 times. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) was significantly correlated with TGR5 expression. Our findings indicated that TGR5 may play an important role in the development and prognosis of EAC through a bile acid ligand. Gender differences in TGR5 and VDR expression may explain why males have a higher incidence of EAC compared to females. PMID:28223834

  13. MATERIAL CONTROL ACCOUNTING INMM

    SciTech Connect

    Hasty, T.

    2009-06-14

    Since 1996, the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC - formerly known as K-26), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have been cooperating under the cooperative Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program between the Russian Federation and the U.S. Governments. Since MCC continues to operate a reactor for steam and electricity production for the site and city of Zheleznogorsk which results in production of the weapons grade plutonium, one of the goals of the MPC&A program is to support implementation of an expanded comprehensive nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) program. To date MCC has completed upgrades identified in the initial gap analysis and documented in the site MC&A Plan and is implementing additional upgrades identified during an update to the gap analysis. The scope of these upgrades includes implementation of MCC organization structure relating to MC&A, establishing material balance area structure for special nuclear materials (SNM) storage and bulk processing areas, and material control functions including SNM portal monitors at target locations. Material accounting function upgrades include enhancements in the conduct of physical inventories, limit of error inventory difference procedure enhancements, implementation of basic computerized accounting system for four SNM storage areas, implementation of measurement equipment for improved accountability reporting, and both new and revised site-level MC&A procedures. This paper will discuss the implementation of MC&A upgrades at MCC based on the requirements established in the comprehensive MC&A plan developed by the Mining and Chemical Combine as part of the MPC&A Program.

  14. Significant differences in demographic, clinical, and pathological features in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption among 1,633 head and neck cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Moyses, Raquel Ajub; López, Rossana Verónica Mendoza; Cury, Patrícia Maluf; Siqueira, Sheila Aparecida Coelho; Curioni, Otávio Alberto; de Gois Filho, José Francisco; Figueiredo, David Livingstone Alves; Head; GENCAPO, Neck Genome Project; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Michaluart, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: As a lifestyle-related disease, social and cultural disparities may influence the features of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in different geographic regions. We describe demographic, clinical, and pathological aspects of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck according to the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of patients in a Brazilian cohort. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of 1,633 patients enrolled in five São Paulo hospitals that participated in the Brazilian Head and Neck Genome Project – Gencapo. RESULTS: The patients who smoked and drank were younger, and those who smoked were leaner than the other patients, regardless of alcohol consumption. The non-smokers/non-drinkers were typically elderly white females who had more differentiated oral cavity cancers and fewer first-degree relatives who smoked. The patients who drank presented significantly more frequent nodal metastasis, and those who smoked presented less-differentiated tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck demonstrated demographic, clinical, and pathological features that were markedly different according to their smoking and drinking habits. A subset of elderly females who had oral cavity cancer and had never smoked or consumed alcohol was notable. Alcohol consumption seemed to be related to nodal metastasis, whereas smoking correlated with the degree of differentiation. PMID:23778492

  15. The Origin of MoS2 Significantly Influences Its Performance for the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction due to Differences in Phase Purity.

    PubMed

    Chua, Xing Juan; Tan, Shu Min; Chia, Xinyi; Sofer, Zdenek; Luxa, Jan; Pumera, Martin

    2017-03-02

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) is at the forefront of materials research. It shows great promise for electrochemical applications, especially for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysis. There is a significant discrepancy in the literature on the reported catalytic activity for HER catalysis on MoS2 . Here we test the electrochemical performance of MoS2 obtained from seven sources and we show that these sources provide MoS2 of various phase purity (2H and 3R, and their mixtures) and composition, which is responsible for their different electrochemical properties. The overpotentials for HER at -10 mA cm(-2) for MoS2 from seven different sources range from -0.59 V to -0.78 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). This is of very high importance as with much interest in 2D-MoS2 , the use of the top-down approach would usually involve the application of commercially available MoS2 . These commercially available MoS2 are rarely characterized for composition and phase purity. These key parameters are responsible for large variance of reported catalytic properties of MoS2 .

  16. Avian serum. cap alpha. /sub 1/-glycoprotein, hemopexin, differing significantly in both amino acid and carbohydrate composition from mammalian (. beta. -glycoprotein) counter parts

    SciTech Connect

    Goldfarb, V.; Trimble, R.B.; Falco, M.D.; Liem, H.H.; Metcalfe, S.A.; Wellner, D.; Muller-Eberhard, U.

    1986-10-21

    The physicochemical characteristics of chicken hemopexin, which can be isolated by heme-agarose affinity chromatography, is compared with representative mammalian hemopexins of rat, rabbit, and human. The avian polypeptide chain appears to be slightly longer (52 kDa) than the human, rat, or rabbit forms (49 kDa), and also the glycoprotein differs from the mammalian hemopexins in being an ..cap alpha../sub 1/-glycoprotein instead of a ..beta../sub 1/-glycoprotein. The distinct electrophoretic mobility probably arises from significant differences in the amino acid composition of the chicken form, which, although lower in serine and particularly in lysine, has a much higher glutamine/glutamate and agrinine content, and also a higher proline, glycine, and histidine content, than the mammalian hemopexins. Compositional analyses and /sup 125/I concanavalin A and /sup 125/I wheat germ agglutinin binding suggest that chicken hemopexin has a mixture of three fucose-free N-linked bi- and triantennary oligosaccharides. In contrast, human hemopexin has give N-linked oligosaccharides and an additional O-linked glycan blocking the N-terminal threonine residue, while the rabbit form has four N-linked oligosaccharides. In keeping with the finding of a simpler carbohydrate structure, the avian hemopexin shows only a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under both nondenaturing and denaturing conditions, whereas the hemopexins of the three mammalian species tested show several bands. In contrast, the isoelectric focusing pattern of chicken hemopexin is very complex, revealing at least nine bands between pH 4.0 and pH band 5.0, while the other hemopexins show a broad smear of multiple ill-defined bands in the same region.Results indicate the hemopexin of avians differs substantially from the hemopexins of mammals, which show a notable similarity with regard to carbohydrate structure and amino acid composition.

  17. Age Differences in Big Five Behavior Averages and Variabilities Across the Adult Lifespan: Moving Beyond Retrospective, Global Summary Accounts of Personality

    PubMed Central

    Noftle, Erik E.; Fleeson, William

    2009-01-01

    In three intensive cross-sectional studies, age differences in behavior averages and variabilities were examined. Three questions were posed: Does variability differ among age groups? Does the sizable variability in young adulthood persist throughout the lifespan? Do past conclusions about trait development, based on trait questionnaires, hold up when actual behavior is examined? Three groups participated: younger adults (18-23 years), middle-aged adults (35-55 years), and older adults (65-81 years). In two experience-sampling studies, participants reported their current behavior multiple times per day for one or two week spans. In a third study, participants interacted in standardized laboratory activities on eight separate occasions. First, results revealed a sizable amount of intraindividual variability in behavior for all adult groups, with standard deviations ranging from about half a point to well over one point on 6-point scales. Second, older adults were most variable in Openness whereas younger adults were most variable in Agreeableness and Emotional Stability. Third, most specific patterns of maturation-related age differences in actual behavior were both more greatly pronounced and differently patterned than those revealed by the trait questionnaire method. When participants interacted in standardized situations, personality differences between younger adults and middle-aged adults were larger, and older adults exhibited a more positive personality profile than they exhibited in their everyday lives. PMID:20230131

  18. Characterization of TiN, TiC and Ti(C,N) in titanium-alloyed ferritic chromium steels focusing on the significance of different particle morphologies

    SciTech Connect

    Michelic, S.K.; Loder, D.; Reip, T.; Ardehali Barani, A.; Bernhard, C.

    2015-02-15

    Titanium-alloyed ferritic chromium steels are a competitive option to classical austenitic stainless steels owing to their similar corrosion resistance. The addition of titanium significantly influences their final steel cleanliness. The present contribution focuses on the detailed metallographic characterization of titanium nitrides, titanium carbides and titanium carbonitrides with regard to their size, morphology and composition. The methods used are manual and automated Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy as well as optical microscopy. Additional thermodynamic calculations are performed to explain the precipitation procedure of the analyzed titanium nitrides. The analyses showed that homogeneous nucleation is decisive at an early process stage after the addition of titanium. Heterogeneous nucleation gets crucial with ongoing process time and essentially influences the final inclusion size of titanium nitrides. A detailed investigation of the nuclei for heterogeneous nucleation with automated Scanning Electron Microscopy proved to be difficult due to their small size. Manual Scanning Electron Microscopy and optical microscopy have to be applied. Furthermore, it was found that during solidification an additional layer around an existing titanium nitride can be formed which changes the final inclusion morphology significantly. These layers are also characterized in detail. Based on these different inclusion morphologies, in combination with thermodynamic results, tendencies regarding the formation and modification time of titanium containing inclusions in ferritic chromium steels are derived. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The formation and modification of TiN in the steel 1.4520 was examined. • Heterogeneous nucleation essentially influences the final steel cleanliness. • In most cases heterogeneous nuclei in TiN inclusions are magnesium based. • Particle morphology provides important information

  19. Spore test parameters matter: Mesophilic and thermophilic spore counts detected in raw milk and dairy powders differ significantly by test method.

    PubMed

    Kent, D J; Chauhan, K; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M; Martin, N H

    2016-07-01

    United States dairy industry exports have steadily risen in importance over the last 10yr, with dairy powders playing a particularly critical role. Currently, approximately half of US-produced nonfat dry milk and skim milk powder is exported. Reaching new and expanding existing export markets relies in part on the control of endospore-forming bacteria in dairy powders. This study reports baseline mesophilic and thermophilic spore counts and spore populations from 55 raw material samples (primarily raw milk) and 33 dairy powder samples from dairy powder processors across the United States. Samples were evaluated using various spore testing methodologies and included initial heat treatments of (1) 80°C for 12 min; (2) 100°C for 30 min; and (3) 106°C for 30 min. Results indicate that significant differences in both the level and population of spores were found for both raw milk and dairy powders with the various testing methods. Additionally, on average, spore counts were not found to increase significantly from the beginning to the end of dairy powder processing, most likely related to the absence of biofilm formation by processing plant-associated sporeformers (e.g., Anoxybacillus sp.) in the facilities sampled. Finally, in agreement with other studies, Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent sporeformer in both raw materials and dairy powders, highlighting the importance of this organism in developing strategies for control and reduction of spore counts in dairy powders. Overall, this study emphasizes the need for standardization of spore enumeration methodologies in the dairy powder industry.

  20. Clinical significance of the changes of platelet counts and serum thrombopoietin levels in chronic hepatitis C patients treated with different doses of consensus interferon.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chen Wei; Hwang, Shinn Jang; Lu, Rei Hwa; Lai, Chiung Ru; Luo, Jiing Chyuan; Wang, Yuan Jen; Chang, Full Young; Lee, Shou Dong

    2002-11-01

    Thrombocytopenia is commonly seen in patients with cirrhosis. Both splenomegaly and inadequate thrombopoietin (TPO) production by the cirrhotic liver are responsible for thrombocytopenia. In addition, thrombocytopenia is frequently observed in chronic hepatitis patients who received interferon therapy, and may even lead to the discontinuation of treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of the changes of platelet counts and serum TPO levels in chronic hepatitis C patients treated with different doses of consensus interferon (CIFN). Data from 75 chronic hepatitis C patients who received subcutaneous injection of either CIFN 9 (25 patients) or 3 &mgr;g (26 patients) or placebo (24 patients), three times a week for 24 weeks, were analyzed from a randomized controlled study. All patients received a 24-week observation period after the end of the treatment. The results showed a significantly higher degree of decrease in platelet counts and elevated serum TPO in patients receiving CIFN 9 or 3 &mgr;g as compared with placebo at week 12 and week 24 of treatment, respectively. These changes were more obvious in patients receiving CIFN 9 &mgr;g than in patients receiving CIFN 3 &mgr;g. However, both the decrease of platelet counts and elevated serum TPO levels returned to the baseline values after stopping CIFN therapy. Lower hepatic fibrosis score, lower pretreatment serum HCV RNA level, genotype non-1b infection and patients with sustained response to CIFN were manifested with higher degree of serum TPO elevation in response to the CIFN-induced thrombocytopenia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that an age of less than 45 years and a serum TPO level elevation greater than 50% of baseline level at week 12 of CIFN treatment were significantly independent predictors associated with the sustained response to the CIFN treatment. In conclusion, the changes of platelet counts and serum TPO levels in chronic hepatitis C patients

  1. Significant differences in struvite and cystine stone frequency seen among Chinese nephrolithiasis patients living in North America compared to those living in China

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Thomas; Usawachintachit, Manint; Filippou, Pauline; Bayne, David; Hu, Weiguo; Chang, Helena; Xia, Lei; Chen, Qi; Xue, Wei; He, Hui; Long, Qingzhi; Arsovska, Olga; Taylor, Eric; Paterson, Ryan; Sur, Roger L.; Chew, Ben; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Interracial disparities in nephrolithiasis prevalence have been reported, but the interplay between genetics and the environment for urinary stone disease risk factors is poorly understood. To examine how environment may alter genetic predisposition for stone formation, we established the International Chinese Consortium on Nephrolithiasis (ICCON) as a multi-institutional collaboration to examine patterns of nephrolithiasis presentation between Chinese patients living in different countries. Methods Chinese patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) at six participating institutions in China and North America over 4 years were reviewed retrospectively. Patient demographics and clinical data were compared between Chinese patients living in China and North America. Results A total of 806 patients were included, encompassing 721 Chinese patients living in China and 85 living in North America. Nephrolithiasis patients living in China were more likely to be male (67% vs. 56%, P=0.02), present at a younger age (48.6±15.0 vs. 55.0±13.0 years, P<0.01), and have a lower BMI (24.6±4.0 vs. 25.9±5.7, P=0.04) but were less likely to form struvite stones (5.5% vs. 14.1%, P<0.01). No cystine stone patients were seen in North American Chinese patients, whereas 1.8% of nephrolithiasis patients living in China presented with cystine stones. Similar rates of calcium-based and uric acid calculi as well as urinary pH were seen among both groups. Conclusions Significant differences exist between Chinese nephrolithiasis patients living in China compared to those living in North America, highlighting the importance of environmental factors in addition to genetics in modulating risk for urinary stone disease. PMID:27298786

  2. A method for correcting standard-based real-time PCR DNA quantitation when the standard's polymerase reaction efficiency is significantly different from that of the unknown's.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Peter L; Nguyen, Ly-Huong T; Chen, Chin-Yi; Uhlich, Gaylen A; Paoli, George C

    2012-03-01

    Standard-based real-time or quantitative polymerase chain reaction quantitation of an unknown sample's DNA concentration (i.e., [DNA](unk)) assumes that the concentration dependence of the standard and unknown reactions (related to reaction efficiency, E) are equivalent. In our work with background food-borne organisms which can interfere with pathogen detection, we have found that it is generally possible to achieve an acceptable E (1 ± 0.05) for standard solutions by optimizing the PCR conditions, template purity, primer sequence, and amplicon lengths. However, this is frequently not true for the solutions containing unknown amounts of target DNA inasmuch as cell extracts are more chemically complex than the standards which have been amplified (2(30)-fold) as well as undergone a purification process. When significant differences in E occur, it is not possible to accurately estimate unknown target DNA concentration from the standard solution's slope and intercept (from threshold cycle number, or C(T), versus Log[DNA] data). What is needed is a standard-mediated intercept which can be specifically coupled with an unknown solution's PCR concentration dependence. In this work, we develop a simple mathematical procedure to generate a new standard curve with a slope (∂C(T)/∂Log[Dilution](unk)) derived from at least three dilutions of the unknown target DNA solution ([DNA](unk)) and an intercept calculated from the unknown's C(T)s, DNA concentrations interpolated from the standard curve (i.e., the traditional estimate of [DNA](unk)), and ∂C(T)/∂Log[Dilution](unk). We were able to achieve this due to our discovery of the predictable way in which the observed and ideal C(T) versus Log[DNA] slopes and intercepts deviate from one another. This "correction" in the standard-based [DNA](unk) determination is typically 20-60% when the difference in the standard and unknown E is >0.1.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus Fibronectin Binding Proteins Are Essential for Internalization by Osteoblasts but Do Not Account for Differences in Intracellular Levels of Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Saddif; Meghji, Sajeda; Williams, Rachel J.; Henderson, Brian; Brock, Jeremy H.; Nair, Sean P.

    2001-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen of bone that has been shown to be internalized by osteoblasts via a receptor-mediated pathway. Here we report that there are strain-dependent differences in the uptake of S. aureus by osteoblasts. An S. aureus septic arthritis isolate, LS-1, was internalized some 10-fold more than the laboratory strain 8325-4. Disruption of the genes for the fibronectin binding proteins in these two strains of S. aureus blocked their ability to be internalized by osteoblasts, thereby demonstrating the essentiality of these genes in this process. However, there were no differences in the capacity of these two strains to bind to fibronectin or osteoblasts. Analysis of the kinetics of internalization of the two strains by osteoblasts revealed that strain 8325-4 was internalized only over a short period of time (2 h) and to low numbers, while LS-1 was taken up by osteoblasts in large numbers for over 3 h. These differences in the kinetics of uptake explain the fact that the two strains of S. aureus are internalized by osteoblasts to different extents and suggest that in addition to the fibronectin binding proteins there are other, as yet undetermined virulence factors that play a role in the internalization process. PMID:11292701

  4. Performance and Accountability Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Fiscal Year 2002 Performance and Accountability Report is presented. Over the past year, significant changes have been implemented to greatly improve NASA's management while continuing to break new ground in science and technology. Excellent progress has been made in implementing the President's Management Agenda. NASA is leading the government in its implementation of the five government-wide initiatives. NASA received an unqualified audit opinion on FY 2002 financial statements. The vast majority of performance goals have been achieved, furthering each area of NASA's mission. The contents include: 1) NASA Vision and Mission; 2) Management's Discussion and Analysis; 3) Performance; and 4) Financial.

  5. Apparently-Different Clearance Rates from Cohort Studies of Mycoplasma genitalium Are Consistent after Accounting for Incidence of Infection, Recurrent Infection, and Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Smieszek, Timo; White, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a potentially major cause of urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and increased HIV risk. A better understanding of its natural history is crucial to informing control policy. Two extensive cohort studies (students in London, UK; Ugandan sex workers) suggest very different clearance rates; we aimed to understand the reasons and obtain improved estimates by making maximal use of the data from the studies. As M. genitalium is a sexually-transmitted infectious disease, we developed a model for time-to-event analysis that incorporates the processes of (re)infection and clearance, and fitted to data from the two cohort studies to estimate incidence and clearance rates under different scenarios of sexual partnership dynamics and study design (including sample handling and associated test sensitivity). In the London students, the estimated clearance rate is 0.80p.a. (mean duration 15 months), with incidence 1.31%-3.93%p.a. Without adjusting for study design, corresponding estimates from the Ugandan data are 3.44p.a. (mean duration 3.5 months) and 58%p.a. Apparent differences in clearance rates are probably mostly due to lower testing sensitivity in the Uganda study due to differences in sample handling, with 'true' clearance rates being similar, and adjusted incidence in Uganda being 28%p.a. Some differences are perhaps due to the sex workers having more-frequent antibiotic treatment, whilst reinfection within ongoing sexual partnerships might have caused some of the apparently-persistent infection in the London students. More information on partnership dynamics would inform more accurate estimates of natural-history parameters. Detailed studies in men are also required. PMID:26910762

  6. Evaluation of the Therapeutic Potential of Anti-TLR4-Antibody MTS510 in Experimental Stroke and Significance of Different Routes of Application

    PubMed Central

    Czech-Zechmeister, Bozena; Könnecke, Birte; Lühder, Fred; Trendelenburg, George

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are central sensors for the inflammatory response in ischemia-reperfusion injury. We therefore investigated whether TLR4 inhibition could be used to treat stroke in a standard model of focal cerebral ischemia. Anti-TLR4/MD2-antibody (mAb clone MTS510) blocked TLR4-induced cell activation in vitro, as reported previously. Here, different routes of MTS510 application in vivo were used to study the effects on stroke outcome up to 2d after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 45min in adult male C57Bl/6 wild-type mice. Improved neurological performance, reduced infarct volumes, and reduced brain swelling showed that intravascular application of MTS510 had a protective effect in the model of 45min MCAO. Evaluation of potential long-term adverse effects of anti-TLR4-mAb-treament revealed no significant deleterious effect on infarct volumes nor neurological deficit after 14d of reperfusion in a mild model of stroke (15min MCAO). Interestingly, inhibition of TLR4 resulted in an altered adaptive immune response at 48 hours after reperfusion. We conclude that blocking TLR4 by the use of specific mAb is a promising strategy for stroke therapy. However, long-term studies with increased functional sensitivity, larger sampling sizes and use of other species are required before a clinical use could be envisaged. PMID:26849209

  7. Evaluation of the Therapeutic Potential of Anti-TLR4-Antibody MTS510 in Experimental Stroke and Significance of Different Routes of Application.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Lena; Theodorou, Konstantina; Grünewald, Sarah; Czech-Zechmeister, Bozena; Könnecke, Birte; Lühder, Fred; Trendelenburg, George

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are central sensors for the inflammatory response in ischemia-reperfusion injury. We therefore investigated whether TLR4 inhibition could be used to treat stroke in a standard model of focal cerebral ischemia. Anti-TLR4/MD2-antibody (mAb clone MTS510) blocked TLR4-induced cell activation in vitro, as reported previously. Here, different routes of MTS510 application in vivo were used to study the effects on stroke outcome up to 2d after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 45 min in adult male C57Bl/6 wild-type mice. Improved neurological performance, reduced infarct volumes, and reduced brain swelling showed that intravascular application of MTS510 had a protective effect in the model of 45 min MCAO. Evaluation of potential long-term adverse effects of anti-TLR4-mAb-treament revealed no significant deleterious effect on infarct volumes nor neurological deficit after 14d of reperfusion in a mild model of stroke (15 min MCAO). Interestingly, inhibition of TLR4 resulted in an altered adaptive immune response at 48 hours after reperfusion. We conclude that blocking TLR4 by the use of specific mAb is a promising strategy for stroke therapy. However, long-term studies with increased functional sensitivity, larger sampling sizes and use of other species are required before a clinical use could be envisaged.

  8. Significant Correlation between TLR2 Agonist Activity and TNF-α Induction in J774.A1 Macrophage Cells by Different Medicinal Mushroom Products.

    PubMed

    Coy, Catherine; Standish, Leanna J; Bender, Geoff; Lu, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    In the US market, there is a variety of mushroom preparations available, even within the same species of mushroom. Nonetheless, little is known about whether species or the various extraction methods affect biological activity and potency of the immune modulatory activity of mushroom extracts. After discovering that protein-bound polysaccharide-K, a hot water extract from Trametes versicolor, was a potent Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 agonist that stimulates both innate and adaptive immunity, this study was initiated to evaluate whether other medicinal mushroom products also have TLR2 agonist activity and immune-enhancing potential as measured by the induction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in J774.A1 murine macrophage cells. Furthermore, the products were divided by extraction method and species to determine whether these factors affect their immunomodulatory activity. The results showed that the majority (75%) of mushroom products tested had TLR2 agonist activity and that there was a significant correlation between TLR2 agonist activity and TNF-α induction potential in the mushroom products analyzed. In addition, the data demonstrated that hot water mushroom extracts are more potent than ground mushroom products in activating TLR2 and inducing TNF-α. These data provide evidence that extraction methods may affect the biological activity of mushroom products; thus, further studies are warranted to investigate the structural differences between various mushroom products.

  9. Structural and functional analysis of aa3-type and cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidases of Paracoccus denitrificans reveals significant differences in proton-pump design.

    PubMed

    de Gier, J W; Schepper, M; Reijnders, W N; van Dyck, S J; Slotboom, D J; Warne, A; Saraste, M; Krab, K; Finel, M; Stouthamer, A H; van Spanning, R J; van der Oost, J

    1996-06-01

    In Paracoccus denitrificans the aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase and the bb3-type quinol oxidase have previously been characterized in detail, both biochemically and genetically. Here we report on the isolation of a genomic locus that harbours the gene cluster ccoNOOP, and demonstrate that it encodes an alternative cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase. This oxidase has previously been shown to be specifically induced at low oxygen tensions, suggesting that its expression is controlled by an oxygen-sensing mechanism. This view is corroborated by the observation that the ccoNOOP gene cluster is preceded by a gene that encodes an FNR homologue and that its promoter region contains an FNR-binding motif. Biochemical and physiological analyses of a set of oxidase mutants revealed that, at least under the conditions tested, cytochromes aa3, bb3 and cbb3 make up the complete set of terminal oxidases in P. denitrificans. Proton-translocation measurements of these oxidase mutants indicate that all three oxidase types have the capacity to pump protons. Previously, however, we have reported decreased H+/e- coupling efficiencies of the cbb3-type oxidase under certain conditions. Sequence alignment suggests that many residues that have been proposed to constitute the chemical and pumped proton channels in cytochrome aa3 (and probably also in cytochrome bb3) are not conserved in cytochrome cbb3. It is concluded that the design of the proton pump in cytochrome cbb3 differs significantly from that in the other oxidase types.

  10. Using the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA) to examine leisure time as a stress coping resource: Taking into account stress severity and gender difference

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xinyi Lisa; Yarnal, Careen M.; Almeida, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Affective complexity (AC) is a marker of psychological well-being. According to the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA), stressful experiences reduce AC while positive events increase AC. One type of positive events is leisure, which was also identified as a coping resource. This study extended the DMA and leisure coping research by assessing gender difference in how daily stress severity and leisure time influence AC. Analyzing eight-day diary data, we found that females, compared to males, experienced greater decrease in AC with increase in stress severity but also bigger increase in AC with increase in leisure time. The finding highlights gender difference in affective reactivity to and coping with daily stress, the value of the DMA, and the importance of severity appraisal. PMID:25242824

  11. International Accounting and the Accounting Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laribee, Stephen F.

    The American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) has been instrumental in internationalizing the accounting curriculum by means of accreditation requirements and standards. Colleges and universities have met the AACSB requirements either by providing separate international accounting courses or by integrating international topics…

  12. 14 CFR Sec. 1-7 - Interpretation of accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-7 Interpretation of accounts. To the end that uniform accounting may be maintained, questions involving matters of accounting significance which are not clearly...

  13. Cost Accounting in the Automated Manufacturing Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    current cost accounting systems...Bennett et al., 1987]. First, users of cost accounting information express different levels of satisfaction with the 65 effectiveness of current cost accounting systems...Bennett et al., 1987). For example, it was found that, ආ percent of the users are unhappy with current cost accounting

  14. CAN PERSONALITY ACCOUNT FOR DIFFERENCES IN DRINKING BETWEEN COLLEGE ATHLETES AND NON-ATHLETES? EXPLAINING THE ROLE OF SENSATION SEEKING, RISK-TAKING, AND IMPULSIVITY

    PubMed Central

    MASTROLEO, NADINE R.; SCAGLIONE, NICHOLE; MALLETT, KIMBERLY A.; TURRISI, ROB

    2015-01-01

    Collegiate athletes are an at-risk population for high risk drinking and related consequences when compared to the general college student population. However, little is known about how aspects of an individual’s personality contribute to this relationship, making intervention efforts challenging. The current study examined sensation seeking, risk-taking, and impulsivity as methods of explaining the relationship between athlete and non-athlete drinking behaviors. Findings suggested athletes drank significantly more than non-athletes and this relationship seemed to function through sensation seeking and risk-taking. The role these characteristics play as risk or protective factors for high risk drinking and implications for interventions prioritizing athletes are discussed. PMID:24855885

  15. Smart grid initialization reduces the computational complexity of multi-objective image registration based on a dual-dynamic transformation model to account for large anatomical differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosman, Peter A. N.; Alderliesten, Tanja

    2016-03-01

    We recently demonstrated the strong potential of using dual-dynamic transformation models when tackling deformable image registration problems involving large anatomical differences. Dual-dynamic transformation models employ two moving grids instead of the common single moving grid for the target image (and single fixed grid for the source image). We previously employed powerful optimization algorithms to make use of the additional flexibility offered by a dual-dynamic transformation model with good results, directly obtaining insight into the trade-off between important registration objectives as a result of taking a multi-objective approach to optimization. However, optimization has so far been initialized using two regular grids, which still leaves a great potential of dual-dynamic transformation models untapped: a-priori grid alignment with image structures/areas that are expected to deform more. This allows (far) less grid points to be used, compared to using a sufficiently refined regular grid, leading to (far) more efficient optimization, or, equivalently, more accurate results using the same number of grid points. We study the implications of exploiting this potential by experimenting with two new smart grid initialization procedures: one manual expert-based and one automated image-feature-based. We consider a CT test case with large differences in bladder volume with and without a multi-resolution scheme and find a substantial benefit of using smart grid initialization.

  16. A comparative account of quantum dynamics of the H{sup +} + H{sub 2} reaction at low temperature on two different potential energy surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, T. Rajagopala; Mahapatra, S.; Honvault, P.

    2014-08-14

    Rotationally resolved reaction probabilities, integral cross sections, and rate constant for the H{sup +} + H{sub 2} (v = 0, j = 0 or 1) → H{sub 2} (v′ = 0, j′) + H{sup +} reaction are calculated using a time-independent quantum mechanical method and the potential energy surface of Kamisaka et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 116, 654 (2002)] (say KBNN PES). All partial wave contributions of the total angular momentum, J, are included to obtain converged cross sections at low collision energies and rate constants at low temperatures. In order to test the accuracy of the KBNN PES, the results obtained here are compared with those obtained in our earlier work [P. Honvault et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 023201 (2011)] using the accurate potential energy surface of Velilla et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 129, 084307 (2008)]. Integral cross sections and rate constants obtained on the two potential energy surfaces considered here show remarkable differences in terms of magnitude and dependence on collision energy (or temperature) which can be attributed to the differences observed in the topography of the surfaces near to the entrance channel. This clearly shows the inadequacy of the KBNN PES for calculations at low collision energies.

  17. Significant alteration of soil bacterial communities and organic carbon decomposition by different long-term fertilization management conditions of extremely low-productivity arable soil in South China.

    PubMed

    Xun, Weibing; Zhao, Jun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Guishan; Ran, Wei; Wang, Boren; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-06-01

    Different fertilization managements of red soil, a kind of Ferralic Cambisol, strongly affected the soil properties and associated microbial communities. The association of the soil microbial community and functionality with long-term fertilization management in the unique low-productivity red soil ecosystem is important for both soil microbial ecology and agricultural production. Here, 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S recombinant ribonucleic acid genes and GeoChip4-NimbleGen-based functional gene analysis were used to study the soil bacterial community composition and functional genes involved in soil organic carbon degradation. Long-term nitrogen-containing chemical fertilization-induced soil acidification and fertility decline and significantly altered the soil bacterial community, whereas long-term organic fertilization and fallow management improved the soil quality and maintained the bacterial diversity. Short-term quicklime remediation of the acidified soils did not change the bacterial communities. Organic fertilization and fallow management supported eutrophic ecosystems, in which copiotrophic taxa increased in relative abundance and have a higher intensity of labile-C-degrading genes. However, long-term nitrogen-containing chemical fertilization treatments supported oligotrophic ecosystems, in which oligotrophic taxa increased in relative abundance and have a higher intensity of recalcitrant-C-degrading genes but a lower intensity of labile-C-degrading genes. Quicklime application increased the relative abundance of copiotrophic taxa and crop production, although these effects were utterly inadequate. This study provides insights into the interaction of soil bacterial communities, soil functionality and long-term fertilization management in the red soil ecosystem; these insights are important for improving the fertility of unique low-productivity red soil.

  18. Accountability Practices in the History of Danish Primary Public Education from the 1660s to the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ydesen, Christian; Andreasen, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on primary education accountability as a concept and as an organizational practice in the history of Danish public education. Contemporary studies of education policy often address questions of accountability, but the manifestations of school accountability differ significantly between different national settings. Furthermore,…

  19. Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for Interim Actions in Zone 1, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2011-02-01

    Zone 1 is a 1400-acre area outside the fence of the main plant at The East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Record of Decision for Interim Actions in Zone, ETTP (Zone 1 Interim ROD) (DOE 2002) identifies the remedial actions for contaminated soil, buried waste, and subsurface infrastructure necessary to protect human health and to limit further contamination of groundwater. Since the Zone 1 Interim Record of Decision (ROD) was signed, new information has been obtained that requires the remedy to be modified as follows: (1) Change the end use in Contractor's Spoil Area (CSA) from unrestricted industrial to recreational; (2) Remove Exposure Units (EU5) ZI-50, 51, and 52 from the scope of the Zone I Interim ROD; (3) Change the end use of the duct bank corridor from unrestricted industrial to restricted industrial; and (4) Remove restriction for the disturbance of soils below 10 feet in Exposure Unit (EU) Z1-04. In accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 300.435, these scope modifications are a 'significant' change to the Zone 1 Interim ROD. In accordance with CERCLA Sect. 117 (c) and 40 CFR 300.435 (c)(2)(i), such a significant change is documented with an Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD). The purpose of this ESD is to make the changes listed above. This ESD is part of the Administrative Record file, and it, and other information supporting the selected remedy, can be found at the DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830, from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Monday through Friday. The ORR is located in Roane and Anderson counties, within and adjacent to the corporate city limits of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. ETTP is located in Roane County near the northwest corner of the ORR. ETTP began operation during World War II as part of the Manhattan Project. The original mission of ETTP was to produce enriched uranium for use in atomic weapons. The plant produced enriched uranium from 1945 until 1985

  20. A Harmonious Accounting Duo?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schapperle, Robert F.; Hardiman, Patrick F.

    1992-01-01

    Accountants have urged "harmonization" of standards between the Governmental Accounting Standards Board and the Financial Accounting Standards Board, recommending similar reporting of like transactions. However, varying display of similar accounting events does not necessarily indicate disharmony. The potential for problems because of…

  1. The Numerical Predominance and Large Transcriptome Differences of Neutrophils in Peripheral Blood Together Inevitably Account for a Reported Pulmonary Tuberculosis Signature

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wang-Long; Zhang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Previous transcriptomic analysis revealed a 393-transcript signature (PTBsig), which is dominated by interferon inducible genes, in whole blood of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients. Comparisons with a limited set of interferon-driven genes among separated monocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and neutrophils indicated that the signature is due to changes in neutrophils, the overwhelmingly predominant cell type. By extending the analysis to the entire 393 transcripts of PTBsig and by switching the cell proportions between separated monocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and neutrophils, we create putative PTBsig for whole blood (pPTBsig) in which CD4+ or CD8+ T cells or monocytes predominated or in which the cell proportions were unchanged. These putative signatures are then compared to the actual reported PTBsig. We show that, because of their predominance in peripheral blood and their larger transcriptional responses, neutrophils were indeed almost exclusively responsible for PTBsig. We caution that the functional significance of changes in other cell types might escape notice in transcriptome analysis that is based upon whole blood. PMID:28265564

  2. Custom accounts receivable modeling.

    PubMed

    Veazie, J

    1994-04-01

    In hospital and clinic management, accounts are valued as units and handled equally--a $20 account receives the same minimum number of statements as a $20,000 account. Quite often, the sheer number of accounts a hospital or clinic has to handle forces executives to manage accounts by default and failure--accounts mature on an aging track and, if left unpaid by patients, eventually are sent to collections personnel. Of the bad-debt accounts placed with collections agencies, many are misclassified as charity or hardship cases, while others could be collected by hospital or clinic staff with a limited amount of additional effort.

  3. Genetic differences accounting for evolution and pathogenicity of simian immunodeficiency virus from a sooty mangabey monkey after cross-species transmission to a pig-tailed macaque.

    PubMed Central

    Courgnaud, V; Lauré, F; Fultz, P N; Montagnier, L; Bréchot, C; Sonigo, P

    1992-01-01

    We determined the nucleotide sequences of two related isolates of simian immunodeficiency virus from the sooty mangabey monkey (SIVsmm) that exhibit dramatic differences in virulence. These isolates are separated by one experimental cross-species transmission, from sooty mangabey to pig-tailed macaque. The parental virus (SIVsmm9), nonpathogenic in the original host (sooty mangabeys), causes a chronic AIDS-like disease in macaques. In contrast, the variant virus (SIVsmmPBj14) induces an acute lethal disease in various macaque species and is also pathogenic for sooty mangabeys. The combination of necessary and sufficient mutations that determined the acutely lethal phenotype on the SIVsmm9 genetic background is included within a maximal set of 57 point mutations, plus two insertions located in the long terminal repeat (22 bp spanning an NF-kappa B-like enhancer element) and in the surface envelope glycoprotein (5 amino acids). Comparisons of synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in the genome of SIVsmm indicated that selective pressures, probably due to the host immune response, favored amino acid changes in the envelope. This immunoevolutionary mechanism could explain the increase in diversity and the apparition of new virulent phenotypes after cross-species transmission. PMID:1727495

  4. Accounting for sap flow from different parts of the root system improves the prediction of xylem ABA concentration in plants grown with heterogeneous soil moisture

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Ian C.; Egea, Gregorio; Davies, William J.

    2008-01-01

    When soil moisture is heterogeneous, sap flow from, and ABA status of, different parts of the root system impact on leaf xylem ABA concentration ([X-ABA]leaf). The robustness of a model for predicting [X-ABA]leaf was assessed. ‘Two root-one shoot’ grafted sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants received either deficit irrigation (DI, each root system received the same irrigation volumes) or partial rootzone drying (PRD, only one root system was watered and the other dried the soil). Irrespective of whether relative sap flow was assessed using sap flow sensors in vivo or by pressurization of de-topped roots, each root system contributed similarly to total sap flow during DI, while sap flow from roots in drying soil declined linearly with soil water potential (Ψsoil) during PRD. Although Ψsoil of the irrigated pot determined the threshold Ψsoil at which sap flow from roots in drying soil decreased, the slope of this decrease was independent of the wet pot Ψsoil. Irrespective of whether sap was collected from the wet or dry root system of PRD plants, or a DI plant, root xylem ABA concentration increased as Ψsoil declined. The model, which weighted ABA contributions of each root system according to the sap flow from each, almost perfectly explained [X-ABA] immediately above the graft union. That the model overestimated measured [X-ABA]leaf may result from changes in [X-ABA] along the transport pathway or an artefact of collecting xylem sap from detached leaves. The implications of declining sap flow through partially dry roots during PRD for the control of stomatal behaviour and irrigation scheduling are discussed. PMID:18940933

  5. What accounts for ethnic differences in newborn skinfold thickness comparing South Asians and White Caucasians? Findings from the START and FAMILY Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Anand, S S; Gupta, M K; Schulze, K M; Desai, D; Abdalla, N; Wahi, G; Wade, C; Scheufler, P; McDonald, S D; Morrison, K M; Vasudevan, A; Dwarakanath, P; Srinivasan, K; Kurpad, A; Gerstein, H C; Teo, K K

    2016-01-01

    Objective: South Asians are a high-risk group for type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. We sought to determine ethnic differences in newborn adiposity comparing South Asians (SA) to White Caucasians (Whites). Methods: Seven hundred ninety pregnant women (401 SA, 389 Whites) and their full-term offspring from two birth cohorts in Canada were analyzed. Pregnant women completed a health assessment including a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test to assess for dysglycemia. Birthweight, length, waist and hip circumference, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness (a surrogate measure of body adiposity) were measured in all newborns. Multivariate regression was used to identify maternal factors associated with newborn skinfold measurements. Results: South Asian women were younger (30.1 vs 31.8 years, P<0.001), their prepregnancy body mass index was lower (23.7 vs 26.2, P<0.0001) and gestational diabetes was substantially higher (21% vs 13%, P=0.005) compared with Whites. Among full-term newborns, South Asians had lower birthweight (3283 vs 3517 g, P=0.0001), had greater skinfold thickness (11.7 vs 10.6 mm; P=0.0001) and higher waist circumference (31.1 vs 29.9 cm, P=0.0001) compared with Whites. Risk factors for newborn skinfold thickness included South Asian ethnicity (standardized estimate (s.e.): 0.24; P<0.0001), maternal glucose (s.e.: 0.079; P=0.04) and maternal body fat (s.e.: 0.14; P=0.0002). Conclusions: South Asian newborns are lower birthweight and have greater skinfold thickness, compared with White newborns, and this is influenced by maternal body fat and glucose. Interventions aimed at reducing body fat prior to pregnancy and gestational diabetes during pregnancy in South Asians may favorably alter newborn body composition and require evaluation. PMID:26315840

  6. Intra-Subtype Variation in Enteroadhesion Accounts for Differences in Epithelial Barrier Disruption and Is Associated with Metronidazole Resistance in Blastocystis Subtype-7

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kevin Shyong Wei

    2014-01-01

    Blastocystis is an extracellular, enteric pathogen that induces intestinal disorders in a range of hosts including humans. Recent studies have identified potential parasite virulence factors in and host responses to this parasite; however, little is known about Blastocystis-host attachment, which is crucial for colonization and virulence of luminal stages. By utilizing 7 different strains of the parasite belonging to two clinically relevant subtypes ST-4 and ST-7, we investigated Blastocystis-enterocyte adhesion and its association with parasite-induced epithelial barrier disruption. We also suggest that drug resistance in ST-7 strains might result in fitness cost that manifested as impairment of parasite adhesion and, consequently, virulence. ST-7 parasites were generally highly adhesive to Caco-2 cells and preferred binding to intercellular junctions. These strains also induced disruption of ZO-1 and occludin tight junction proteins as well as increased dextran-FITC flux across epithelial monolayers. Interestingly, their adhesion was correlated with metronidazole (Mz) susceptibility. Mz resistant (Mzr) strains were found to be less pathogenic, owing to compromised adhesion. Moreover, tolerance of nitrosative stress was also reduced in the Mzr strains. In conclusion, the findings indicate that Blastocystis attaches to intestinal epithelium and leads to epithelial barrier dysfunction and that drug resistance might entail a fitness cost in parasite virulence by limiting entero-adhesiveness. This is the first study of the cellular basis for strain-to-strain variation in parasite pathogenicity. Intra- and inter-subtype variability in cytopathogenicity provides a possible explanation for the diverse clinical outcomes of Blastocystis infections. PMID:24851944

  7. Accounting for sap flow from different parts of the root system improves the prediction of xylem ABA concentration in plants grown with heterogeneous soil moisture.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Ian C; Egea, Gregorio; Davies, William J

    2008-01-01

    When soil moisture is heterogeneous, sap flow from, and ABA status of, different parts of the root system impact on leaf xylem ABA concentration ([X-ABA]leaf). The robustness of a model for predicting [X-ABA]leaf was assessed. 'Two root-one shoot' grafted sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants received either deficit irrigation (DI, each root system received the same irrigation volumes) or partial rootzone drying (PRD, only one root system was watered and the other dried the soil). Irrespective of whether relative sap flow was assessed using sap flow sensors in vivo or by pressurization of de-topped roots, each root system contributed similarly to total sap flow during DI, while sap flow from roots in drying soil declined linearly with soil water potential (Psisoil) during PRD. Although Psisoil of the irrigated pot determined the threshold Psisoil at which sap flow from roots in drying soil decreased, the slope of this decrease was independent of the wet pot Psisoil. Irrespective of whether sap was collected from the wet or dry root system of PRD plants, or a DI plant, root xylem ABA concentration increased as Psisoil declined. The model, which weighted ABA contributions of each root system according to the sap flow from each, almost perfectly explained [X-ABA] immediately above the graft union. That the model overestimated measured [X-ABA]leaf may result from changes in [X-ABA] along the transport pathway or an artefact of collecting xylem sap from detached leaves. The implications of declining sap flow through partially dry roots during PRD for the control of stomatal behaviour and irrigation scheduling are discussed.

  8. Good Asset Accounting Procedures for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golz, William C.

    1981-01-01

    Increased accountability is required in school accounting due to rising education costs and the significant investment made in property and equipment in educational facilities. Guidelines for planning and implementing a property record-keeping system are provided. (Author/MLF)

  9. Long-Term Outcomes of Services for Two Persons with Significant Disabilities with Differing Educational Experiences: A Qualitative Consideration of the Impact of Educational Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryndak, Diane Lea; Ward, Terri; Alper, Sandra; Montgomery, Jennifer Wilson; Storch, Jill F.

    2010-01-01

    Though research exists related to effective services in inclusive general education settings for students with significant disabilities, there are no longitudinal investigations of adult outcomes for persons with significant disabilities who received services in inclusive general education settings. This study uses qualitative methods to describe…

  10. An Analysis of the Readability of Financial Accounting Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gerald; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The Flesch formula was used to calculate the readability of 15 financial accounting textbooks. The 15 textbooks represented introductory, intermediate, and advanced levels and also were classified by five different publishers. Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc analysis revealed some significant differences. (Author/CT)

  11. Significant differences in cell-cell fusion and viral entry between strains revealed by scanning mutagenesis of the C-heptad repeat of HIV gp41.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Aguilar, Barbara; Dewispelaere, Karen; Yi, Hyun Ah; Jacobs, Amy

    2013-05-21

    The transmembrane subunit, gp41, of the HIV envelope mediates the viral fusion step of entry into the host cell. The protein consists of an extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail. The extracellular domain contains a fusion peptide, an N-terminal heptad repeat, a loop region, a C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR), and a membrane-proximal external region. For this study, we examined each amino acid in the CHR (residues 623-659) by alanine scanning mutagenesis in two HIV strains: one CCR5-utilizing strain (JRFL) and one CXCR4-utilizing strain (HXB2). We studied the functional importance of each amino acid residue by measuring mutational effects in both cell-cell fusion and viral entry and assessing envelope expression and gp120-gp41 proteolytic processing. The transmembrane subunit of the HIV envelope, gp41, is very sensitive to subtle changes, like alanine substitution, which severely affect envelope function at multiple sites. Two important general findings are apparent when the entire data set from this study is taken into account. (1) Strain HXB2 is much more stable to mutagenesis than strain JRFL, and (2) viral entry is much more stable to mutagenesis than cell-cell fusion. These findings strengthen our notion that gp41 is a vulnerable target for therapeutic and prophylactic intervention. Further structural studies aimed at gaining a full understanding of the intermediate states that drive HIV membrane fusion are imperative.

  12. Significant Differences in the Development of Acquired Resistance to the MDM2 Inhibitor SAR405838 between In Vitro and In Vivo Drug Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman-Luca, C. Gianna; Yang, Chao-Yie; Lu, Jianfeng; Ziazadeh, Daniel; McEachern, Donna; Debussche, Laurent; Wang, Shaomeng

    2015-01-01

    405838 is 3–5 times less effective in all the in vivo derived sublines containing a single heterozygous C176F p53 mutation than in the SJSA-1 parental cell line in assays of cell growth and apoptosis. Computational modeling suggested that a p53 tetramer containing two wild-type p53 molecules and two C176F mutated molecules can maintain the structural stability and interactions with DNA by formation of additional hydrophobic and cation-π interactions which compensate for the loss of sulphur-zinc coordination. Our data thus show that SJSA-1 tumor cells acquire very different levels of resistance in vitro and in vivo to the MDM2 inhibitor SAR405838. Our present study may have a significant implication for the investigation of resistant mechanisms for other classes of anticancer drugs. PMID:26070072

  13. Different continuous cropping spans significantly affect microbial community membership and structure in a vanilla-grown soil as revealed by deep pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wu; Zhao, Qingyun; Zhao, Jun; Xun, Weibing; Li, Rong; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, soil bacterial and fungal communities across vanilla continuous cropping time-series fields were assessed through deep pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The results demonstrated that the long-term monoculture of vanilla significantly altered soil microbial communities. Soil fungal diversity index increased with consecutive cropping years, whereas soil bacterial diversity was relatively stable. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity cluster and UniFrac-weighted principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed that monoculture time was the major determinant for fungal community structure, but not for bacterial community structure. The relative abundances (RAs) of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Basidiomycota phyla were depleted along the years of vanilla monoculture. Pearson correlations at the phyla level demonstrated that Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes had significant negative correlations with vanilla disease index (DI), while no significant correlation for fungal phyla was observed. In addition, the amount of the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum accumulated with increasing years and was significantly positively correlated with vanilla DI. By contrast, the abundance of beneficial bacteria, including Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus, significantly decreased over time. In sum, soil weakness and vanilla stem wilt disease after long-term continuous cropping can be attributed to the alteration of the soil microbial community membership and structure, i.e., the reduction of the beneficial microbes and the accumulation of the fungal pathogen.

  14. Healthy sheep that differ in scrapie associated PRNP genotypes exhibit significant differences of expression pattern associated with immune response and cell-to-cell signalling in retropharyngeal lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Komolka, Katrin; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Schwerin, Manfred

    2013-04-15

    The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis whether prion protein gene (PRNP) associated scrapie susceptibility is connected with physiological changes in tissue involved in pathogen uptake, migration and propagation. Jejunum, ileal Peyer's patches, retropharyngeal lymph nodes, brain stem and liver of healthy and non scrapie-infected sheep with PRNP genotypes representing the scrapie risk class R1 (scrapie-resistant) and R5 (scrapie-susceptible), respectively, were comparatively analysed by microarray technology and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT qPCR). Significantly higher expression levels of genes involved in immune response and cell communication pathways in retropharyngeal lymph nodes of R1 sheep in comparison with R5 animals strongly suggest PRNP associated physiological processes with impact as an early barrier in pathogen defence. Equal expression patterns in brain stem suggest no physiological differences in brain of healthy R1 and R5 animals. In addition, similar expression pattern in liver indicates that there are no transcriptional differences in genes of the hepatic energy metabolism between animals of scrapie classes R1 and R5.

  15. LMAL Accounting Office 1936

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1936-01-01

    Accounting Office: The Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory's accounting office, 1936, with photographs of the Wright brothers on the wall. Although the Lab was named after Samuel P. Langley, most of the NACA staff held the Wrights as their heroes.

  16. Intelligent Accountability in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Onora

    2013-01-01

    Systems of accountability are "second order" ways of using evidence of the standard to which "first order" tasks are carried out for a great variety of purposes. However, more accountability is not always better, and processes of holding to account can impose high costs without securing substantial benefits. At their worst,…

  17. Accounting Education in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Karen F.; Reed, Ronald O.; Greiman, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Almost on a daily basis new accounting rules and laws are put into use, creating information that must be known and learned by the accounting faculty and then introduced to and understood by the accounting student. Even with the 150 hours of education now required for CPA licensure, it is impossible to teach and learn all there is to learn. Over…

  18. Automated Accounting. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Duane R.

    This curriculum guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting College Edition Version 2.0 software in their accounting programs. The module consists of four units containing assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting. The first…

  19. Accounting & Computing Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avani, Nathan T.; And Others

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching a competency-based accounting and computing course that is designed to prepare students for employability in the following occupational areas: inventory control clerk, invoice clerk, payroll clerk, traffic clerk, general ledger bookkeeper, accounting clerk, account information clerk,…

  20. The Accounting Capstone Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Henry; Norris, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Capstone courses in accounting programs bring students experiences integrating across the curriculum (University of Washington, 2005) and offer unique (Sanyal, 2003) and transformative experiences (Sill, Harward, & Cooper, 2009). Students take many accounting courses without preparing complete sets of financial statements. Accountants not only…

  1. The Accounting Principles Instructor's Influence on Students' Decision To Major in Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauldin, Shawn; Crain, John L.; Mounce, Patricia H.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 81 accounting majors, 60 business majors, 12 nonbusiness majors, and 13 undecided students in accounting principles courses found that accounting principles instructors play the most significant role in the decision to major in accounting. Many students decide to major during their first principles course. (SK)

  2. Pain: A Statistical Account

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Michael A.; Moseley, G. Lorimer

    2017-01-01

    Perception is seen as a process that utilises partial and noisy information to construct a coherent understanding of the world. Here we argue that the experience of pain is no different; it is based on incomplete, multimodal information, which is used to estimate potential bodily threat. We outline a Bayesian inference model, incorporating the key components of cue combination, causal inference, and temporal integration, which highlights the statistical problems in everyday perception. It is from this platform that we are able to review the pain literature, providing evidence from experimental, acute, and persistent phenomena to demonstrate the advantages of adopting a statistical account in pain. Our probabilistic conceptualisation suggests a principles-based view of pain, explaining a broad range of experimental and clinical findings and making testable predictions. PMID:28081134

  3. Accounting: "Balancing Out" the Accounting Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Coleen

    1979-01-01

    The vocational accounting laboratory is a viable, meaningful educational experience for high school seniors, due to the uniqueness of its educational approach and the direct involvement of the professional and business community. A balance of experiences is provided to match individual needs and goals of students. (CT)

  4. Biological significance of [14C]phenol accumulation in different organs of a murrel, Channa punctatus, and the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, D; Bhattacharya, S; Kumar, V; Moitra, J

    1990-09-01

    Phenol, a ubiquitous component of industrial effluents, is a common pollutant of water resources and a serious threat to fish. The present work demonstrates that a significant amount of phenol is retained by various tissues of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and the snake-headed murrel, Channa punctatus. The rate of [14C]phenol accumulation was higher carp than in the murrel. It is suggested that retention of phenol in the brain and ovary may seriously affect the reproductive potential of the fish.

  5. Quantitative Gait Analysis Detects Significant Differences in Movement between Osteoarthritic and Nonosteoarthritic Guinea Pig Strains before and after Treatment with Flunixin Meglumine.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, K S; Kaeding, A C; Baker, S A; Bertone, A L

    2014-01-01

    A computer-aided gait analysis system was used to contrast two guinea pig strains with differing propensity for osteoarthritis (OA), with/without administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Walking speed and static/dynamic gait parameters were determined at baseline. Flunixin meglumine was given and animals were evaluated 4, 24, and 72 hours after treatment. Body weight was compared using unpaired t-tests. Knee joints were histologically evaluated using species-specific criteria; indices were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Dunn's multiple comparisons. A generalized linear model followed by Tukey's posttests juxtaposed gait parameters; walking speed was a covariate for other outcome measures. Body weight was not different between strains; OA-prone animals demonstrated more progressive chondropathy. At baseline, OA-prone animals had slower walking speeds, narrower hind limb bases of support, shorter stride lengths, and slower limb swing speeds relative to OA-resistant animals. These differences were not detected 4 or 24 hours after treatment. By 72 hours, OA-prone animals had returned to baseline values. These findings indicate a distinct voluntary gait pattern in a rodent model of bilateral primary OA, modification of which may allow rapid screening of novel therapies. Flunixin meglumine temporarily permitted OA-prone animals to move in a manner that was analogous to OA-resistant animals.

  6. Differences in the osmotic fragility of recycling and reserve synaptic vesicles from the cholinergic electromotor nerve terminals of Torpedo and their possible significance for vesicle recycling.

    PubMed

    Giompres, P E; Whittaker, V P

    1984-03-14

    In this study we demonstrate differences in the osmotic fragility of two metabolically and physically heterogeneous synaptic vesicle populations from stimulated electromotor nerve terminals. When synaptic vesicles isolated on sucrose density gradients are submitted to solutions of decreasing osmolarity 50% of VP2-type vesicles lysed at (mean + S.E. (number of experiments] 332 +/- 14 (4) mosM and 50% of VP1-type vesicles lysed at 573 +/- 8 (3) mosM. These results indicate that recycling vesicles are more resistant to hypo-osmotic lysis and they are consistent with our earlier conclusion that changes in water content on recycling are secondary to changes in the content of the osmotically active small-molecular-mass constituents acetylcholine and ATP.

  7. Short separation regression improves statistical significance and better localizes the hemodynamic response obtained by near-infrared spectroscopy for tasks with differing autonomic responses

    PubMed Central

    Yücel, Meryem A.; Selb, Juliette; Aasted, Christopher M.; Petkov, Mike P.; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David; Boas, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Autonomic nervous system response is known to be highly task-dependent. The sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements to superficial layers, particularly to the scalp, makes it highly susceptible to systemic physiological changes. Thus, one critical step in NIRS data processing is to remove the contribution of superficial layers to the NIRS signal and to obtain the actual brain response. This can be achieved using short separation channels that are sensitive only to the hemodynamics in the scalp. We investigated the contribution of hemodynamic fluctuations due to autonomous nervous system activation during various tasks. Our results provide clear demonstrations of the critical role of using short separation channels in NIRS measurements to disentangle differing autonomic responses from the brain activation signal of interest. PMID:26835480

  8. Blastocystis Isolates from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and from Asymptomatic Carriers Exhibit Similar Parasitological Loads, but Significantly Different Generation Times and Genetic Variability across Multiple Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Sanchez, Gie-Bele; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Ramirez-Guerrero, Celedonio; Vargas-Hernandez, Ines; Ramirez-Miranda, Maria Elena; Martinez-Ocaña, Joel; Valadez, Alicia; Ximenez, Cecilia; Lopez-Escamilla, Eduardo; Hernandez-Campos, Maria Elena; Villalobos, Guiehdani; Martinez-Hernandez, Fernando; Maravilla, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Blastocystis spp is a common intestinal parasite of humans and animals that has been associated to the etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, some studies have not found this association. Furthermore, many biological features of Blastocystis are little known. The objective of present study was to assess the generation times of Blastocystis cultures, from IBS patients and from asymptomatic carriers. A total of 100 isolates were obtained from 50 IBS patients and from 50 asymptomatic carriers. Up to 50 mg of feces from each participant were cultured in Barret's and in Pavlova's media during 48 h. Initial and final parasitological load were measured by microscopy and by quantitative PCR. Amplicons were purified, sequenced and submitted to GenBank; sequences were analysed for genetic diversity and a Bayesian inference allowed identifying genetic subtypes (ST). Generation times for Blastocystis isolates in both media, based on microscopic measures and molecular assays, were calculated. The clinical symptoms of IBS patients and distribution of Blastocystis ST 1, 2 and 3 in both groups was comparable to previous reports. Interestingly, the group of cases showed scarce mean nucleotide diversity (π) as compared to the control group (0.011±0.016 and 0.118±0.177, respectively), whilst high gene flow and small genetic differentiation indexes between different ST were found. Besides, Tajima's D test showed negative values for ST1-ST3. No statistical differences regarding parasitological load between cases and controls in both media, as searched by microscopy and by qPCR, were detected except that parasites grew faster in Barret's than in Pavlova's medium. Interestingly, slow growth of isolates recovered from cases in comparison to those of controls was observed (p<0.05). We propose that generation times of Blastocystis might be easily affected by intestinal environmental changes due to IBS probably because virulent strains with slow growth may be selected

  9. Blastocystis Isolates from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and from Asymptomatic Carriers Exhibit Similar Parasitological Loads, but Significantly Different Generation Times and Genetic Variability across Multiple Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Guerrero, Celedonio; Vargas-Hernandez, Ines; Ramirez-Miranda, Maria Elena; Martinez-Ocaña, Joel; Valadez, Alicia; Ximenez, Cecilia; Lopez-Escamilla, Eduardo; Hernandez-Campos, Maria Elena; Villalobos, Guiehdani; Martinez-Hernandez, Fernando; Maravilla, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Blastocystis spp is a common intestinal parasite of humans and animals that has been associated to the etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, some studies have not found this association. Furthermore, many biological features of Blastocystis are little known. The objective of present study was to assess the generation times of Blastocystis cultures, from IBS patients and from asymptomatic carriers. A total of 100 isolates were obtained from 50 IBS patients and from 50 asymptomatic carriers. Up to 50 mg of feces from each participant were cultured in Barret’s and in Pavlova’s media during 48 h. Initial and final parasitological load were measured by microscopy and by quantitative PCR. Amplicons were purified, sequenced and submitted to GenBank; sequences were analysed for genetic diversity and a Bayesian inference allowed identifying genetic subtypes (ST). Generation times for Blastocystis isolates in both media, based on microscopic measures and molecular assays, were calculated. The clinical symptoms of IBS patients and distribution of Blastocystis ST 1, 2 and 3 in both groups was comparable to previous reports. Interestingly, the group of cases showed scarce mean nucleotide diversity (π) as compared to the control group (0.011±0.016 and 0.118±0.177, respectively), whilst high gene flow and small genetic differentiation indexes between different ST were found. Besides, Tajima’s D test showed negative values for ST1-ST3. No statistical differences regarding parasitological load between cases and controls in both media, as searched by microscopy and by qPCR, were detected except that parasites grew faster in Barret’s than in Pavlova’s medium. Interestingly, slow growth of isolates recovered from cases in comparison to those of controls was observed (p<0.05). We propose that generation times of Blastocystis might be easily affected by intestinal environmental changes due to IBS probably because virulent strains with slow growth may be

  10. Comparison of Essential Oils Obtained from Different Extraction Techniques as an Aid in Identifying Aroma Significant Compounds of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans).

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, S Prasad

    2015-08-01

    Distribution of volatile constituents in the essential oil of nutmeg obtained by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), high vacuum distillation (HVD) and super critical fluid extraction (SFE) was compared with reduced pressure distillation (RPD) and head space (HS) analysis. HS and RPD volatiles were characterized by a high content of sabinene, followed by α-pinene and β-pinene. Interestingly, unlike the SDE, HVD and SFE oils, distillates from HS and RPD were marked by the absence of phenolic ethers namely myristicin, elemicin and safrole. The HS and RPD volatiles possessed a pleasant nutmeg aroma indicating a significant role of terpenic constituents in contributing to the top aroma note. GC-olfactometry (GC-O) of the oils aided in establishing the role of sabinene, α-pinene and β-pinene in contributing to the distinctive note of the spice. A high odor activity value (OAV) of sabinene and α-pinene established the role of these two constituents in imparting the characteristic nutmeg odor.

  11. Accounting and accountability: observations on the AHERF settlements.

    PubMed

    Maco, P S; Weinstein, S J

    2000-10-01

    Recent enforcement proceedings involving health care and accounting--relating primarily to the Allegheny Health, Education and Research Foundation (AHERF)--have sparked renewed interest in the activities of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission in the municipal securities market. Officials and accountants who are working for public-sector issuers in the healthcare industry have responsibilities under the Federal securities laws. Other issues of relevance include disclosure in the secondary market as well as upon initial issuance, and the significance of antifraud actions in other areas.

  12. Improving School Accountability in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, S. Eric; Lipscomb, Stephen; Jaquet, Karina

    2011-01-01

    Federal education policy will soon undergo a major revision, with significant consequences for the state's own policy and practices. This report seeks to help federal and state policymakers consider this restructuring and one of its core questions: How should schools and school districts be held accountable for the academic progress of their…

  13. A novel method for RNA extraction from FFPE samples reveals significant differences in biomarker expression between orthotopic and subcutaneous pancreatic cancer patient-derived xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Mark; Maawy, Ali; Chang, Alexander; Lee, Jacqueline; Gharibi, Armen; Katz, Matthew H; Fleming, Jason; Hoffman, Robert M; Bouvet, Michael; Doebler, Robert; Kelber, Jonathan A

    2017-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can identify and validate new biomarkers of cancer onset, progression and therapy resistance. Substantial archives of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cancer samples from patients represent a rich resource for linking molecular signatures to clinical data. However, performing NGS on FFPE samples is limited by poor RNA purification methods. To address this hurdle, we developed an improved methodology for extracting high-quality RNA from FFPE samples. By briefly integrating a newly-designed micro-homogenizing (mH) tool with commercially available FFPE RNA extraction protocols, RNA recovery is increased by approximately 3-fold while maintaining standard A260/A280 ratios and RNA quality index (RQI) values. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the mH-purified FFPE RNAs are longer and of higher integrity. Previous studies have suggested that pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) gene expression signatures vary significantly under in vitro versus in vivo and in vivo subcutaneous versus orthotopic conditions. By using our improved mH-based method, we were able to preserve established expression patterns of KRas-dependency genes within these three unique microenvironments. Finally, expression analysis of novel biomarkers in KRas mutant PDAC samples revealed that PEAK1 decreases and MST1R increases by over 100-fold in orthotopic versus subcutaneous microenvironments. Interestingly, however, only PEAK1 levels remain elevated in orthotopically grown KRas wild-type PDAC cells. These results demonstrate the critical nature of the orthotopic tumor microenvironment when evaluating the clinical relevance of new biomarkers in cells or patient-derived samples. Furthermore, this new mH-based FFPE RNA extraction method has the potential to enhance and expand future FFPE-RNA-NGS cancer biomarker studies. PMID:27602776

  14. Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces boulardii Induce Distinct Levels of Dendritic Cell Cytokine Secretion and Significantly Different T Cell Responses In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ida M.; Baker, Adam; Christensen, Jeffrey E.; Boekhout, Teun; Frøkiær, Hanne; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between members of the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system can significantly impact human health, and in this context, fungi and food-related yeasts are known to influence intestinal inflammation through direct interactions with specialized immune cells in vivo. The aim of the present study was to characterize the immune modulating properties of the food-related yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus in terms of adaptive immune responses indicating inflammation versus tolerance and to explore the mechanisms behind the observed responses. Benchmarking against a Saccharomyces boulardii strain with probiotic effects documented in clinical trials, we evaluated the ability of K. marxianus to modulate human dendritic cell (DC) function in vitro. Further, we assessed yeast induced DC modulation of naive T cells toward effector responses dominated by secretion of IFNγ and IL-17 versus induction of a Treg response characterized by robust IL-10 secretion. In addition, we blocked relevant DC surface receptors and investigated the stimulating properties of β-glucan containing yeast cell wall extracts. K. marxianus and S. boulardii induced distinct levels of DC cytokine secretion, primarily driven by Dectin-1 recognition of β-glucan components in their cell walls. Upon co-incubation of yeast exposed DCs and naive T cells, S. boulardii induced a potent IFNγ response indicating TH1 mobilization. In contrast, K. marxianus induced a response dominated by Foxp3+ Treg cells, a characteristic that may benefit human health in conditions characterized by excessive inflammation and positions K. marxianus as a strong candidate for further development as a novel yeast probiotic. PMID:27898740

  15. Effects of fluvial processes in different order river valleys on redistribution and storage of particle-bound radioactive caesium-137 in area of significant Chernobyl fallout and impact on linked rivers with lower contamination levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Vladimir; Golosov, Valentin; Shamshurina, Evgeniya; Ivanov, Maxim; Ivanova, Nadezhda; Bezukhov, Dmitry; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Evrard, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Detailed investigations of the post-fallout fate of radionuclide contamination represent an important task in terms of environmental quality assessment. In addition, particle-bound radionuclides such as the most widespread anthropogenic isotope caesium-137 can be used as tracers for quantitative assessment of different sediment redistribution processes. In landscapes of humid plains with agriculture-dominated land use the post-fallout redistribution of caesium-137 is primarily associated with fluvial activity of various scales in cascade systems starting from soil erosion on cultivated hillslopes through gully and small dry valley network into different order perennial streams and rivers. Our investigations in the so-called Plavsk hotspot (area of very high Chernobyl caesium-137 contamination within the Plava River basin, Tula Region, Central European Russia) has been continuing for more than 15 years by now, while the time passed since the Chernobyl disaster and associated radioactive fallout (1986) is almost 29 years. Detailed information on the fluvial sediment and associated caesium-137 redistribution has been obtained for case study sites of different size from individual cultivated slopes and small catchments of different size (2-180 km2) to the entire Plava River basin scale (1856 km2). It has been shown that most of the contaminated sediment over the time passed since the fallout has remained stored within the small dry valleys of the 1-4 Hortonian order and local reservoirs (>70%), while only about 5% reached the 5-6 order valleys (main tributaries of the Plava River) and storage of the Plava floodplain itself represents as low as 0.3% of the basin-scale total sediment production from eroded cultivated hillslopes. Nevertheless, it has been shown that contaminated sediment yield from the Plava River basin exerts significant influence on less polluted downstream-linked river system. Recent progress of the investigations involved sampling of 7 detailed depth

  16. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  17. Leadership for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    2001-01-01

    This document explores issues of leadership for accountability and reviews five resources on the subject. These include: (1) "Accountability by Carrots and Sticks: Will Incentives and Sanctions Motivate Students, Teachers, and Administrators for Peak Performance?" (Larry Lashway); (2) "Organizing Schools for Teacher Learning"…

  18. The Choreography of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2006-01-01

    The prevailing performance discourse in education claims school improvements can be achieved through transparent accountability procedures. The article identifies how teachers generate performances of their work in order to satisfy accountability demands. By identifying sources of teachers' knowledge that produce choreographed performances, I…

  19. Cluster Guide. Accounting Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaverton School District 48, OR.

    Based on a recent task inventory of key occupations in the accounting cluster taken in the Portland, Oregon, area, this curriculum guide is intended to assist administrators and teachers in the design and implementation of high school accounting cluster programs. The guide is divided into four major sections: program organization and…

  20. The Accountability Illusion: Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  1. The Accountability Illusion: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  2. The Accountability Illusion: Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  3. The Accountability Illusion: Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  4. The Accountability Illusion: Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  5. The Evolution of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Campus 2020: Thinking ahead is a policy in British Columbia (BC), Canada, that attempted to hold universities accountable to performance. Within, I demonstrate how this Canadian articulation of educational accountability intended to develop "governmentality constellations" to control the university and regulate its knowledge output. This…

  6. The Coming Accounting Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Tim V.

    2007-01-01

    The accounting profession is facing a potential crisis not only from the overall shortage of accounting faculty driven by smaller numbers of new faculty entering the profession as many existing faculty retire but also from changes that have been less well documented. This includes: (1) changes in attitude towards the roles of teaching, service and…

  7. Accountability in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chippendale, P. R., Ed.; Wilkes, Paula V., Ed.

    This collection of papers delivered at a conference on accountability held at Darling Downs Institute of Advanced Education in Australia examines the meaning of accountability in education for teachers, lecturers, government, parents, administrators, education authorities, and the society at large. In Part 1, W. G. Walker attempts to answer the…

  8. The Accountability Illusion: Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  9. Career Expectations of Accounting Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Dennis; Mendez, Francis

    2010-01-01

    The demographic make-up of accounting students is dramatically changing. This study sets out to measure how well the profession is ready to accommodate what may be very different needs and expectations of this new generation of students. Non-traditional students are becoming more and more of a tradition in the current college classroom.…

  10. Kant's Account of Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    While Kant's pedagogical lectures present an account of moral education, his theory of freedom and morality seems to leave no room for the possibility of an education for freedom and morality. In this paper, it is first shown that Kant's moral philosophy and his educational philosophy are developed within different theoretical paradigms: whereas…

  11. 77 FR 43542 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards Pension Harmonization Rule AGENCY: Cost Accounting... correcting amendments. SUMMARY: The Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting...

  12. No Significant Difference in Service Learning Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGorry, Sue Y.

    2012-01-01

    Institutions of higher education are realizing the importance of service learning initiatives in developing awareness of students' civic responsibilities, leadership and management skills, and social responsibility. These skills and responsibilities are the foundation of program outcomes in accredited higher education business programs at…

  13. Power Differences among Tests of Combined Significance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Betsy Jane

    Power is an indicator of the ability of a statistical analysis to detect a phenomenon that does in fact exist. The issue of power is crucial for social science research because sample size, effects, and relationships studied tend to be small and the power of a study relates directly to the size of the effect of interest and the sample size.…

  14. Human Resource Accounting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    I AD-RI54 787 HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 1/2 F MONTEREY CR J C MARTINS DEC 84 1UNCLASSIFIED /G 5/9 NL -~~ .. 2. . L...Monterey, California JUN1im THESISG HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING by Joaquim C. Martins LLJ.. December 1984 Thesis Advisor: R.A. McGonigal Approved for...REPORT & PECRI00 COVERED Master’s Thesis; Human Resource Accounting Dcme 94- ’ 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTOR(*) . CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER

  15. A Liberal Account of Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Foddy, Bennett; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Philosophers and psychologists have been attracted to two differing accounts of addictive motivation. In this paper, we investigate these two accounts and challenge their mutual claim that addictions compromise a person’s self-control. First, we identify some incompatibilities between this claim of reduced self-control and the available evidence from various disciplines. A critical assessment of the evidence weakens the empirical argument for reduced autonomy. Second, we identify sources of unwarranted normative bias in the popular theories of addiction that introduce systematic errors in interpreting the evidence. By eliminating these errors, we are able to generate a minimal, but correct account, of addiction that presumes addicts to be autonomous in their addictive behavior, absent further evidence to the contrary. Finally, we explore some of the implications of this minimal, correct view. PMID:24659901

  16. The Effect of Teaching Methods on Examination Performance and Attitudes in an Introductory Financial Accounting Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcheggiani, Joseph; Davis, Karel A.; Sander, James F.

    1999-01-01

    Comparison of accounting students taught with a group Socratic method (n=22) and interactive lecture method (n=15) found no evidence that either method significantly improved examination scores. Student attitudes toward the course or the accounting profession did not differ. (SK)

  17. Ideas for the Accounting Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerby, Debra; Romine, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Innovative ideas for accounting education include having students study accounting across historical periods, using businesses for student research, exploring nontraditional accounting careers, and collaborating with professional associations. (SK)

  18. Readability of Accounting Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razek, Joseph R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This article describes the results of a survey of the readability of most of the intermediate and advanced accounting textbooks currently in use at colleges and universities throughout the United States. (CT)

  19. 18 CFR 367.1840 - Account 184, Clearing accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1840 Account 184, Clearing accounts. This account must include undistributed balances in clearing accounts at the date of the balance sheet... accounts. 367.1840 Section 367.1840 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  20. An Empirical Investigation of the Relevant Skills of Forensic Accountants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGabriele, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The author investigated whether views of the relevant skills of forensic accountants differ among forensic accounting practitioners, accounting academics, and users of forensic accounting services. Universities and colleges are currently considering adding forensic accounting courses to their curriculum. The results of the present study provide…

  1. Accounting for the environment.

    PubMed

    Lutz, E; Munasinghe, M

    1991-03-01

    Environmental awareness in the 1980s has led to efforts to improve the current UN System of National Accounts (SNA) for better measurement of the value of environmental resources when estimating income. National governments, the UN, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank are interested in solving this issue. The World Bank relies heavily on national aggregates in income accounts compiled by means of the SNA that was published in 1968 and stressed gross domestic product (GDP). GDP measures mainly market activity, but it takes does not consider the consumption of natural capital, and indirectly inhibits sustained development. The deficiencies of the current method of accounting are inconsistent treatment of manmade and natural capital, the omission of natural resources and their depletion from balance sheets, and pollution cleanup costs from national income. In the calculation of GDP pollution is overlooked, and beneficial environmental inputs are valued at zero. The calculation of environmentally adjusted net domestic product (EDP) and environmentally adjusted net income (ENI) would lower income and growth rate, as the World Resources Institute found with respect to Indonesia for 1971-84. When depreciation for oil, timber, and top soil was included the net domestic product (NDP) was only 4% compared with a 7.1% GDP. The World Bank has advocated environmental accounting since 1983 in SNA revisions. The 1989 revised Blue Book of the SNA takes environment concerns into account. Relevant research is under way in Mexico and Papua New Guinea using the UN Statistical Office framework as a system for environmentally adjusted economic accounts that computes EDP and ENI and integrates environmental data with national accounts while preserving SNA concepts.

  2. Variations in Phytoestrogen Content between Different Mill Dates of the Same Diet Produces Significant Differences in the Time of Vaginal Opening in CD-1 Mice and F344 Rats but Not in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thigpen, Julius E.; Setchell, Kenneth D.R.; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; Haseman, Joseph K.; Saunders, Hannah E.; Caviness, Gordon F.; Kissling, Grace E.; Grant, Mary G.; Forsythe, Diane B.

    2007-01-01

    Background The optimum test diet and rodent species/strain for evaluating endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are critical. Objectives We conducted studies to evaluate rodent species sensitivity and the effects of diets varying in phytoestrogen content on the time of vaginal opening (VO) in CD-1 mice, Fischer 344 (F344) rats, and CD Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats. Methods Mice were weaned on postnatal day (PND) 15 and rats on PND19 and randomly assigned to control or test diets. Body weights, food consumption, and time of VO were recorded. Results The time of VO was significantly advanced in F344 rats fed diets containing daidzein and genistein, whereas these same diets did not advance VO in S-D rats. When animals were fed the AIN-76A diet spiked with genistein, time of VO was significantly advanced at all doses in CD-1 mice, at the two highest doses in F344 rats, and at the highest dose in S-D rats. The time of VO in F344 rats was more highly correlated with the phytoestrogen content than with the total metabolizable energy (ME) of 12 diets. Conclusions The S-D rat is less sensitive to dietary phytoestrogens compared with the F344 rat or the CD-1 mouse, suggesting that the S-D rat is not the ideal model for evaluating estrogenic activity of EDCs. The profound effects of dietary phytoestrogens on the time of VO, an estrogen-sensitive marker, indicate that a standardized open-formula phytoestrogen-free diet containing a low ME level should be used to optimize the sensitivity of estrogenic bioassays. PMID:18087589

  3. Thinking about Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Accountability is a key component of healthcare reforms, in Canada and internationally, but there is increasing recognition that one size does not fit all. A more nuanced understanding begins with clarifying what is meant by accountability, including specifying for what, by whom, to whom and how. These papers arise from a Partnership for Health System Improvement (PHSI), funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), on approaches to accountability that examined accountability across multiple healthcare subsectors in Ontario. The partnership features collaboration among an interdisciplinary team, working with senior policy makers, to clarify what is known about best practices to achieve accountability under various circumstances. This paper presents our conceptual framework. It examines potential approaches (policy instruments) and postulates that their outcomes may vary by subsector depending upon (a) the policy goals being pursued, (b) governance/ownership structures and relationships and (c) the types of goods and services being delivered, and their production characteristics (e.g., contestability, measurability and complexity). PMID:25305385

  4. Accountability and Control in American Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Richard M.; Collins, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most controversial and significant of contemporary education reforms has been the teacher accountability movement. From this perspective, low-quality teachers and teaching are a major factor behind inadequate school performance, and a lack of accountability and control in schools is a major factor behind the problem of low-quality…

  5. new lease accounting and health care.

    PubMed

    Berman, Mindy

    2016-05-01

    Recently released lease accounting standards from the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) present three significant challenges for healthcare organizations: All leases must be reported on a company's balance sheet, increasing liabilities on the balance sheets of healthcare organizations considerably. Contractual agreements not previously considered leases will now be treated as leases. Classification of some equipment leases could change.

  6. Viewpoints on Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Innovators Press, Tucson, AZ.

    This booklet contains five papers which examine the activities, successes, and pitfalls encountered by educators who are introducing accountability techniques into instructional programs where they did not exist in the past. The papers are based on actual programs and offer possible solutions in the areas considered, which are 1) performance…

  7. Making Accountability Really Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Lauren B.

    2006-01-01

    Standards-based education has now reached a stage where it is possible to evaluate its overall effectiveness. Several earlier papers in the special issue of "Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice" on "Test Scores and State Accountability" (Volume 24, Number 4) examined specific state policies and their effects on schools…

  8. Accountability Update, March 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    This report provides the Washington State legislature, the Governor, and other interested parties with an update on the accountability performance of each of the state's public baccalaureate institutions (Central Washington University, Eastern Washington University, Evergreen State College, Washington State University, Western Washington…

  9. Educational Accounting Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Sam B.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" reviews the functions, procedures, and reports with which school business officials must be familiar in order to interpret and make decisions regarding the school district's financial position. Among the accounting functions discussed are financial management, internal auditing,…

  10. Professional Capital as Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael; Rincón-Gallardo, Santiago; Hargreaves, Andy

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to clarify and spells out the responsibilities of policy makers to create the conditions for an effective accountability system that produces substantial improvements in student learning, strengthens the teaching profession, and provides transparency of results to the public. The authors point out that U.S. policy makers will need…

  11. Accountability for Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Productivity gains in higher education won't be made just by improving cost effectiveness or even performance. They need to be documented, communicated, and integrated into a strategic agenda to increase attainment. This requires special attention to "accountability" for productivity, meaning public presentation and communication of evidence about…

  12. Legal responsibility and accountability.

    PubMed

    Cox, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Shifting boundaries in healthcare roles have led to anxiety among some nurses about their legal responsibilities and accountabilities. This is partly because of a lack of education about legal principles that underpin healthcare delivery. This article explains the law in terms of standards of care, duty of care, vicarious liability and indemnity insurance.

  13. Democracy, Accountability, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Meira

    2011-01-01

    Educational standards, assessments, and accountability systems are of immense political moment around the world. But there is no developed theory exploring the role that these systems should play within a democratic polity in particular. On the one hand, well-designed standards are public goods, supported by assessment and accountability…

  14. Community Accountability Conferencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsborne, Margaret

    Community Accountability Conferencing (CAC) was first introduced in Queensland, Australia schools in early 1994 after a serious assault in the school community. Some family members, students, and staff were dissatisfied with the solution of suspending the offenders. Seeking an alternative, comprehensive intervention strategy, the school community…

  15. Planning for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuneo, Tim; Bell, Shareen; Welsh-Gray, Carol

    1999-01-01

    Through its Challenge 2000 program, Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network's 21st Century Education Initiative has been working with K-12 schools to improve student performance in literature, math, and science. Clearly stated standards, appropriate assessments, formal monitoring, critical friends, and systemwide accountability are keys to success.…

  16. Institutional Accountability Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    This document discusses Santa Fe Community College's (SFCC) (Florida) five accountability measures. The type of data available provided on these measures is as follows: (1) District High School Enrollment Report and Retention and Success Rate Report; (2) Associate of Arts Degree Transfer Performance in the State University System; (3) Licensure…

  17. Fiscal Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Housing and Community Development, Sacramento. Indian Assistance Program.

    Written in simple, easy to understand form, the manual provides a vehicle for the untrained person in bookkeeping to control funds received from grants for Indian Tribal Councils and Indian organizations. The method used to control grants (federal, state, or private) is fund accounting, designed to organize rendering services on a non-profit…

  18. Curtail Accountability, Cultivate Attainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wraga, William G.

    2011-01-01

    The current test-driven accountability movement, codified in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 ([NCLB] 2002), was a misguided idea that will have the effect not of improving the education of children and youth, but of indicting the public school system of the United States. To improve education in the United States, politicians, policy makers,…

  19. Higher Education Accountability Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Washington state's public four-year universities and college have submitted their 2003-05 accountability plans to the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB). The state operating budget directs the Board to review these plans and set biennial performance targets for each institution. For 2003-05, the four-year institutions are reporting on a…

  20. Accounting 202, 302.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide consists of guidelines for conducting two secondary-level introductory accounting courses. Intended for vocational business education students, the courses are designed to introduce financial principles and practices important to personal and business life, to promote development of clerical and bookkeeping skills sufficient…

  1. Student Attendance Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitas, Joseph M.

    In response to state legislation authorizing procedures for changes in academic calendars and measurement of student workload in California community colleges, this manual from the Chancellor's Office provides guidelines for student attendance accounting. Chapter 1 explains general items such as the academic calendar, admissions policies, student…

  2. Full Accounting for Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Marie-Louise

    1988-01-01

    Given the curriculum's importance in the educational process, curriculum evaluation should be considered as essential as a district financial audit. When Fenwick English conducted a 1979 curriculum audit of Columbus, Ohio, schools, the accounting firm encountered numerous problems concerning development, review, and management practices. Planning…

  3. Excel in the Accounting Curriculum: Perceptions from Accounting Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandran Rackliffe, Usha; Ragland, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Public accounting firms emphasize the importance of accounting graduates being proficient in Excel. Since many accounting graduates often aspire to work in public accounting, a question arises as to whether there should be an emphasis on Excel in accounting education. The purpose of this paper is to specifically look at this issue by examining…

  4. A Pariah Profession? Some Student Perceptions of Accounting and Accountancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Roy; Murphy, Vivienne

    1995-01-01

    Existing literature and a survey of 106 undergraduate accounting students in the United Kingdom were analyzed for perceptions of the accounting profession and the academic discipline of accounting. Results suggest that among accounting and nonaccounting students alike, there exist coexisting perceptions of accounting as having high status and low…

  5. 18 CFR 367.1420 - Account 142, Customer accounts receivable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 142, Customer... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1420 Account 142, Customer accounts receivable. (a) This account must include amounts due from customers for service, and...

  6. Accounting for Accountability: A Discourse Analysis of Psychiatric Nurses’ Experience of a Patient Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Maggie; Paterson, Brodie; Lauder, Billy; Fenton, Rosemary; Gavin, John

    2010-01-01

    Whilst the experience of a patient suicide is likely to have a significant impact upon the nurses who had been providing care, little work has actually explored this experience in any depth. In this article we explore how two psychiatric nurses construct and orient to accountability when talking of their experiences of a patient suicide. Discourse analysis was used to explore particular phases that the nurses oriented to in their accounts: scene setting; risk assessment; attributing for the suicide. Findings highlight the different, sometimes contradictory, ways the nurses attended to interactional concerns relating to implicit accountability and potential inferences of blame. Analysis of the nurses’ talk can make a valuable contribution to understanding the nature and the impact of ‘accountability’ in a mental health setting and so help nurses and other professionals gain an insight into their practice. The results from this study suggest that as a consequence of internalising fundamentally unrealisable expectations regarding suicide prevention, nurses can hold themselves to blame raising significant concerns around their needs in terms of support, which may not be recognised. This paper also makes a valuable contribution to our methodological understanding and the value of using discourse analysis in this setting. PMID:20305746

  7. Accounting and the Use of the Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Donald D.

    1969-01-01

    The nature, scope, and potential of electronic data processing are discussed as significant factors in the changing function and role of accountants. Decision making, not bookkeeping, is emerging as a realm of professional activity. (CH)

  8. Accounting Students' Perceptions of Effective Faculty Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfraih, Mishari M.; Alanezi, Faisal S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the attributes of an effective accounting faculty from the student perspective. It also examines similarities and differences in the perceived importance of these attributes between bachelor's and associate's accounting degree students in two public higher education institutions in Kuwait, namely, Kuwait…

  9. A Guide to American Accounting Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Karen

    1988-01-01

    Describes the different bodies that have been responsible for setting standards for the American accounting profession. The discussion covers the roles of these bodies, their publications, and methods of access to these publications. A listing of major accounting organizations, publications, and tools for access is provided. (eight references)…

  10. First-Person Accounts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gribs, H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Personal accounts describe the lives of 2 individuals with deaf-blindness, one an 87-year-old woman who was deaf from birth and became totally blind over a 50-year period and the other of a woman who became deaf-blind as a result of a fever at the age of 7. Managing activities of daily life and experiencing sensory hallucinations are among topics…

  11. Managing global accounts.

    PubMed

    Yip, George S; Bink, Audrey J M

    2007-09-01

    Global account management--which treats a multinational customer's operations as one integrated account, with coherent terms for pricing, product specifications, and service--has proliferated over the past decade. Yet according to the authors' research, only about a third of the suppliers that have offered GAM are pleased with the results. The unhappy majority may be suffering from confusion about when, how, and to whom to provide it. Yip, the director of research and innovation at Capgemini, and Bink, the head of marketing communications at Uxbridge College, have found that GAM can improve customer satisfaction by 20% or more and can raise both profits and revenues by at least 15% within just a few years of its introduction. They provide guidelines to help companies achieve similar results. The first steps are determining whether your products or services are appropriate for GAM, whether your customers want such a program, whether those customers are crucial to your strategy, and how GAM might affect your competitive advantage. If moving forward makes sense, the authors' exhibit, "A Scorecard for Selecting Global Accounts," can help you target the right customers. The final step is deciding which of three basic forms to offer: coordination GAM (in which national operations remain relatively strong), control GAM (in which the global operation and the national operations are fairly balanced), and separate GAM (in which a new business unit has total responsibility for global accounts). Given the difficulty and expense of providing multiple varieties, the vast majority of companies should initially customize just one---and they should be careful not to start with a choice that is too ambitious for either themselves or their customers to handle.

  12. Accounting for Every Kilowatt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Equation 1. One estimate of the energy density of diesel fuel (ρdiesel) coupled with the efficiency (η) of a 60-kilowatt generator op- erating at...are going. Reduc- ing demand without reducing our capability requires appliance -level feedback, which current smart-meter technology does not...event. Accountability Soldiers need appliance -level feedback to reduce electrical consumption. Specifically, they need to know what loads are currently

  13. Integrated Cost Accounting System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-27

    few other companies. Harvard Business Review contained articles explaining the ideas behind the new costing methods and examples of applications...technical report. Peter Drucker in an article in Harvard Business Review ’carefully explains that accounting must change in response to the changes in...Kaplan in a Harvard Business Review article develop the idea of four levels of activities: facility sustaining activities; product-sustaining activities

  14. Hospitals' Internal Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K.; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387

  15. Inflation Accounting Methods and their Effectiveness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    accounting and current cost accounting are explained as the major inflation accounting methods. Inflation accounting standards announced in the United...inflation accounting, constant purchasing power accounting, constant dollar accounting, current cost accounting , current value.

  16. Problems and the potential direction of reforms for the current individual medical savings accounts in the Chinese health care system.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangjin; Yang, Yang; Gong, Fuqing; Zhao, Mingjie

    2012-12-01

    Individual health savings accounts are an important part of the current basic medical insurance system for urban workers in China. Since 1998 when the system of personal medical insurance accounts was first implemented, there has been considerable controversy over its function and significance within different social communities. This paper analyzes the main problems in the practical implementation of individual medical insurance accounts and discusses the social and cultural foundations for the establishment of family health savings accounts from the perspective of Chinese Confucian familism. Accordingly, it addresses the direction of the reform and the development of the current system of individual health insurance accounts in China.

  17. Tritium accountancy in fusion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Clark, E.A.; Harvel, C.D.; Farmer, D.A.; Tovo, L.L.; Poore, A.S.; Moore, M.L.

    2015-03-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MCA) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MCA requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBA) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material sub-accounts (MSA) are established along with key measurement points (KMP) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSA. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breeding, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of 'net' tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines. (authors)

  18. The Integration of Behavioral Accounting in Undergraduate Accounting Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Phillip G.; Cao, Le Thi

    1986-01-01

    The study reported here is part of a continuing project with the goal of determining the place of behavioral accounting in the accounting curricula. While the first two studies focused on the graduate accounting curricula and the practitioners' opinions on the subject, this study concentrates on the behavioral accounting content of undergraduate…

  19. New Frontiers: Training Forensic Accountants within the Accounting Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswamy, Vinita

    2007-01-01

    Accountants have recently been subject to very unpleasant publicity following the collapse of Enron and other major companies. There has been a plethora of accounting failures and accounting restatements of falsified earnings, with litigations and prosecutions taking place every day. As the FASB struggles to tighten the loopholes in accounting,…

  20. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    PubMed

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.

  1. 47 CFR 32.7899 - Content of accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Content of accounts. 32.7899 Section 32.7899 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Other Income Accounts § 32.7899 Content of accounts. Jurisdictional differences...

  2. Best practice in unbilled account management: one medical center's story.

    PubMed

    Menaker, Debra; Miller, Joshua

    2016-02-01

    After implementing its new electronic health record, a large metropolitan academic medical center (AMC) decided to optimize its supporting business systems, beginning with billing. By identifying problems and taking the following corrective actions immediately, the AMC significantly reduced the number and average age of its unbilled accounts: Realigning system automation to improve routing efficiency. Facilitating interdisciplinary collaboration to better identify and correct the root causes of issues. Ensuring transparent data reporting by setting up different ways of viewing the underlying information.

  3. Automated Accounting. Payroll. Instructor Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Duane R.

    This teacher's guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting Payroll Version 3.0 edition software in their accounting programs. The module contains assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting--payroll. Basic accounting skills are…

  4. Where Are the Accounting Professors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Jui-Chin; Sun, Huey-Lian

    2008-01-01

    Accounting education is facing a crisis of shortage of accounting faculty. This study discusses the reasons behind the shortage and offers suggestions to increase the supply of accounting faculty. Our suggestions are as followings. First, educators should begin promoting accounting academia as one of the career choices to undergraduate and…

  5. Revamping High School Accounting Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittner, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Provides ideas for updating accounting courses: convert to semester length; focus on financial reporting/analysis, financial statements, the accounting cycle; turn textbook exercises into practice sets for the accounting cycle; teach about corporate accounting; and address individual line items on financial statements. (SK)

  6. FASB (Financial Accounting Standards Board) issues new accounting rules for debt and equity securities.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, A; Bayou, M E

    1994-10-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) recently issued a new statement that requires all companies to change their methods of accounting for debt and equity securities. Rather than allowing organizations to use a historical cost approach in accounting for such financial instruments, FASB Statement No. 115 requires organizations to adopt a market value approach. The provisions of this statement will affect significantly organizations in the healthcare industry that have large investment portfolios.

  7. Automated attendance accounting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automated accounting system useful for applying data to a computer from any or all of a multiplicity of data terminals is disclosed. The system essentially includes a preselected number of data terminals which are each adapted to convert data words of decimal form to another form, i.e., binary, usable with the computer. Each data terminal may take the form of a keyboard unit having a number of depressable buttons or switches corresponding to selected data digits and/or function digits. A bank of data buffers, one of which is associated with each data terminal, is provided as a temporary storage. Data from the terminals is applied to the data buffers on a digit by digit basis for transfer via a multiplexer to the computer.

  8. Financial accounting for radiology executives.

    PubMed

    Seidmann, Abraham; Mehta, Tushar

    2005-03-01

    The authors review the role of financial accounting information from the perspective of a radiology executive. They begin by introducing the role of pro forma statements. They discuss the fundamental concepts of accounting, including the matching principle and accrual accounting. The authors then explore the use of financial accounting information in making investment decisions in diagnostic medical imaging. The paper focuses on critically evaluating the benefits and limitations of financial accounting for decision making in a radiology practice.

  9. Determinants of mRNA stability in Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae: differences in poly(A) tail length, ribosome loading, and mRNA size cannot account for the heterogeneity of mRNA decay rates.

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, R A; Herrick, D; Manrow, R E; Blinder, D; Jacobson, A

    1988-01-01

    As an approach to understanding the structures and mechanisms which determine mRNA decay rates, we have cloned and begun to characterize cDNAs which encode mRNAs representative of the stability extremes in the poly(A)+ RNA population of Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae. The cDNA clones were identified in a screening procedure which was based on the occurrence of poly(A) shortening during mRNA aging. mRNA half-lives were determined by hybridization of poly(A)+ RNA, isolated from cells labeled in a 32PO4 pulse-chase, to dots of excess cloned DNA. Individual mRNAs decayed with unique first-order decay rates ranging from 0.9 to 9.6 h, indicating that the complex decay kinetics of total poly(A)+ RNA in D. discoideum amoebae reflect the sum of the decay rates of individual mRNAs. Using specific probes derived from these cDNA clones, we have compared the sizes, extents of ribosome loading, and poly(A) tail lengths of stable, moderately stable, and unstable mRNAs. We found (i) no correlation between mRNA size and decay rate; (ii) no significant difference in the number of ribosomes per unit length of stable versus unstable mRNAs, and (iii) a general inverse relationship between mRNA decay rates and poly(A) tail lengths. Collectively, these observations indicate that mRNA decay in D. discoideum amoebae cannot be explained in terms of random nucleolytic events. The possibility that specific 3'-structural determinants can confer mRNA instability is suggested by a comparison of the labeling and turnover kinetics of different actin mRNAs. A correlation was observed between the steady-state percentage of a given mRNA found in polysomes and its degree of instability; i.e., unstable mRNAs were more efficiently recruited into polysomes than stable mRNAs. Since stable mRNAs are, on average, "older" than unstable mRNAs, this correlation may reflect a translational role for mRNA modifications that change in a time-dependent manner. Our previous studies have demonstrated both a time

  10. NASA Accountability Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    NASA is piloting fiscal year (FY) 1997 Accountability Reports, which streamline and upgrade reporting to Congress and the public. The document presents statements by the NASA administrator, and the Chief Financial Officer, followed by an overview of NASA's organizational structure and the planning and budgeting process. The performance of NASA in four strategic enterprises is reviewed: (1) Space Science, (2) Mission to Planet Earth, (3) Human Exploration and Development of Space, and (4) Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology. Those areas which support the strategic enterprises are also reviewed in a section called Crosscutting Processes. For each of the four enterprises, there is discussion about the long term goals, the short term objectives and the accomplishments during FY 1997. The Crosscutting Processes section reviews issues and accomplishments relating to human resources, procurement, information technology, physical resources, financial management, small and disadvantaged businesses, and policy and plans. Following the discussion about the individual areas is Management's Discussion and Analysis, about NASA's financial statements. This is followed by a report by an independent commercial auditor and the financial statements.

  11. Spills, drills, and accountability

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    NRDC seeks preventive approaches to oil pollution on U.S. coasts. The recent oil spills in Spain and Scotland have highlighted a fact too easy to forget in a society that uses petroleum every minute of every day: oil is profoundly toxic. One tiny drop on a bald eagle`s egg has been known to kill the embryo inside. Every activity involving oil-drilling for it, piping it, shipping it-poses risks that must be taken with utmost caution. Moreover, oil production is highly polluting. It emits substantial air pollution, such as nitrogen oxides that can form smog and acid rain. The wells bring up great quantities of toxic waste: solids, liquids and sludges often contaminated by oil, toxic metals, or even radioactivity. This article examines the following topics focusing on oil pollution control and prevention in coastal regions of the USA: alternate energy sources and accountability of pollutor; ban on offshore drilling as exemplified by the energy policy act; tanker free zones; accurate damage evaluations. Policy of the National Resource Defence Council is articulated.

  12. Accounting: The Integration of Computers into the Accounting Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Dorothy Lee

    1980-01-01

    Since computers are universally accepted in business today, the accounting classroom is the appropriate place to teach their use. A California high school accounting committee's recommendation led to the school's development of a computer processing program within the accounting department. The program's curriculum is described. (CT)

  13. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... payable. This account must include all amounts payable by the service company within one year that are not... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 232, Accounts payable. 367.2320 Section 367.2320 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  14. 18 CFR 367.1430 - Account 143, Other accounts receivable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1430 Account 143, Other... accounts receivable. 367.1430 Section 367.1430 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF...

  15. 76 FR 53378 - Cost Accounting Standards: Accounting for Insurance Costs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... the measurement and allocation of the cost of infrequent and difficult to predict events. The FAR at... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Accounting for Insurance Costs AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board (Board), Office of Federal Procurement Policy...

  16. Accounting Issues: An Essay Series. Part II--Accounts Receivable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judith A.

    2007-01-01

    This is the second in a series of articles designed to help academics refocus the introductory accounting course on the theoretical underpinnings of accounting. Intended as a supplement for the principles course, this article connects the asset Accounts Receivable to the essential theoretical constructs, discusses the inherent tradeoffs and…

  17. Extended Statistical Learning as an account for slow vocabulary growth.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Stephanie F; Kern, Sophie; Dos Santos, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Stokes (2010) compared the lexicons of English-speaking late talkers (LT) with those of their typically developing (TD) peers on neighborhood density (ND) and word frequency (WF) characteristics and suggested that LTs employed learning strategies that differed from those of their TD peers. This research sought to explore the cross-linguistic validity of this conclusion. The lexicons (production, not recognition) of 208 French-speaking two-year-old children were coded for ND and WF. Regression revealed that ND and WF together predicted 62% of the variance in vocabulary size, with ND and WF uniquely accounting for 53% and 9% of that variance respectively. Epiphenomenal findings were ruled out by comparison of simulated data sets with the actual data. A generalized Mann-Whitney test showed that children with small vocabularies had significantly higher ND values and significantly lower WF values than children with large vocabularies. An EXTENDED STATISTICAL LEARNING theory is proposed to account for the findings.

  18. Accountable care organizations: legal concerns.

    PubMed

    Sanbar, S Sandy

    2011-01-01

    The Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) shared savings program has serious concerns about anti-trust and anti-fraud laws. Additionally, ACOs present several other legal concerns relating to the duties and responsibilities of the physician-hospital partnership. The federal regulations hold physicians who participate in the ACO shared savings program to the highest standards of care without offering them protection from liability. The structure and procedures required of ACOs may be detrimental and may significantly impact the liability of its contracting physicians. Therefore, it behooves physicians to obtain legal advice regarding one's estate planning and legal asset protection or wealth management techniques, and to thoroughly review the agreement with one's attorney before signing a contract with an ACO.

  19. TRITIUM ACCOUNTANCY IN FUSION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J. E.; Farmer, D. A.; Moore, M. L.; Tovo, L. L.; Poore, A. S.; Clark, E. A.; Harvel, C. D.

    2014-03-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MC&A requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBAs) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material subaccounts (MSAs) are established along with key measurement points (KMPs) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSAs. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breading, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of “net” tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines.

  20. No statistically significant kinematic difference found between a cruciate-retaining and posterior-stabilised Triathlon knee arthroplasty: a laboratory study involving eight cadavers examining soft-tissue laxity.

    PubMed

    Hunt, N C; Ghosh, K M; Blain, A P; Rushton, S P; Longstaff, L M; Deehan, D J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the maximum laxity conferred by the cruciate-retaining (CR) and posterior-stabilised (PS) Triathlon single-radius total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for anterior drawer, varus-valgus opening and rotation in eight cadaver knees through a defined arc of flexion (0º to 110º). The null hypothesis was that the limits of laxity of CR- and PS-TKAs are not significantly different. The investigation was undertaken in eight loaded cadaver knees undergoing subjective stress testing using a measurement rig. Firstly the native knee was tested prior to preparation for CR-TKA and subsequently for PS-TKA implantation. Surgical navigation was used to track maximal displacements/rotations at 0º, 30º, 60º, 90º and 110° of flexion. Mixed-effects modelling was used to define the behaviour of the TKAs. The laxity measured for the CR- and PS-TKAs revealed no statistically significant differences over the studied flexion arc for the two versions of TKA. Compared with the native knee both TKAs exhibited slightly increased anterior drawer and decreased varus-valgus and internal-external roational laxities. We believe further study is required to define the clinical states for which the additional constraint offered by a PS-TKA implant may be beneficial.

  1. Accountability report - fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This document contains the US NRC`s accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement.

  2. Listening: A Virtue Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Suzanne; Burbules, Nicholas C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Context: Despite its significance for learning, listening has received very little attention in the philosophy of education literature. This article draws on the philosophy and educational thought of Aristotle to illuminate characteristics of good listening. The current project is exploratory and preliminary, seeking mainly to suggest…

  3. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accounting. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME... Sec. 5 Accounting. The General Agent shall record the amounts of compensation paid from the NSA... Accounting Office, at which time the Maritime Administration will take custody of the records....

  4. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accounting. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME... Sec. 5 Accounting. The General Agent shall record the amounts of compensation paid from the NSA... Accounting Office, at which time the Maritime Administration will take custody of the records....

  5. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accounting. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME... Sec. 5 Accounting. The General Agent shall record the amounts of compensation paid from the NSA... Accounting Office, at which time the Maritime Administration will take custody of the records....

  6. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accounting. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME... Sec. 5 Accounting. The General Agent shall record the amounts of compensation paid from the NSA... Accounting Office, at which time the Maritime Administration will take custody of the records....

  7. Accounting Instruction Builds Economic Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albaugh, Thomas A.; Porreca, Anthony G.

    1985-01-01

    A study of 236 11th-grade accounting students was conducted to measure the economic literacy of students enrolled in high school business education. It was found that those students who had accounting instruction had mean scores that were higher than those students who did not have accounting instruction. (CT)

  8. Vocational Accounting and Computing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avani, Nathan T.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an "Accounting and Computing" program in Michigan that emphasizes computerized accounting procedures. This article describes the program curriculum and duty areas (such as handling accounts receivable), presents a list of sample tasks in each duty area, and specifies components of each task. Computer equipment necessary for this program…

  9. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME... Sec. 5 Accounting. The General Agent shall record the amounts of compensation paid from the NSA... Accounting Office, at which time the Maritime Administration will take custody of the records....

  10. A DRDC Management Accountability Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    difficult to hold subordinates to account . Level 3 123 Atlantic, Valcartier, Ottawa, Toronto, and...Canada A DRDC Management Accountability Framework Final Report Contract Project Manager: Dr. Fazley Siddiq, 902-494-8802 Contract Number: W7707...B3H 3J5 This page intentionally left blank.   A DRDC Management Accountability Framework Final Report Judy A. Baroni Research

  11. Model Accounting Program. Adopters Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaverton School District 48, OR.

    The accounting cluster demonstration project conducted at Aloha High School in the Beaverton, Oregon, school district developed a model curriculum for high school accounting. The curriculum is based on interviews with professionals in the accounting field and emphasizes the use of computers. It is suitable for use with special needs students as…

  12. Mastering the Vocabulary of Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tischler, Helene

    Developed for use by students in an introductory accounting course, these learning modules deal with mastering the vocabulary of accounting. Focus of the modules is on vocabulary appearing in the first six chapters of the text, "Accounting Principles" by Niswonger and Fess. Covered in the individual modules are the following topics:…

  13. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited availability of data and, moreover, the different scopes of the accounting lead to many ways of quantifying emissions and producing the accounts. The importance of transparency in GHG accounting is emphasised regarding waste type, waste composition, time period considered, GHGs included, global warming potential (GWP) assigned to the GHGs, counting of biogenic carbon dioxide, choice of system boundaries, interactions with the energy system, and generic emissions factors. In order to enhance transparency and consistency, a format called the upstream-operating-downstream framework (UOD) is proposed for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities.

  14. Exploring Culture-Specific Learning Styles in Accounting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikkema, Seth E.; Sauerwein, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review whether culture affects accounting students' learning processes to identify practical guidance for accounting educators facing a culturally diverse classroom. In spite of a significant literature thread in accounting education on student learning, relatively, little emphasis has been placed on…

  15. 40 CFR 97.520 - Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts. 97.520 Section 97.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... persons who have an ownership interest with respect to TR NOX Ozone Season allowances held in the...

  16. 40 CFR 97.720 - Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts. 97.720 Section 97.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... persons who have an ownership interest with respect to TR SO2 Group 2 allowances held in the...

  17. 40 CFR 97.420 - Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts. 97.420 Section 97.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... persons who have an ownership interest with respect to TR NOX Annual allowances held in the...

  18. 40 CFR 97.420 - Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts. 97.420 Section 97.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... persons who have an ownership interest with respect to TR NOX Annual allowances held in the...

  19. 40 CFR 97.620 - Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts. 97.620 Section 97.620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... persons who have an ownership interest with respect to TR SO2 Group 1 allowances held in the...

  20. 40 CFR 97.620 - Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts. 97.620 Section 97.620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... persons who have an ownership interest with respect to TR SO2 Group 1 allowances held in the...

  1. 40 CFR 97.720 - Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts. 97.720 Section 97.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... persons who have an ownership interest with respect to TR SO2 Group 2 allowances held in the...

  2. 40 CFR 97.520 - Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts. 97.520 Section 97.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... persons who have an ownership interest with respect to TR NOX Ozone Season allowances held in the...

  3. Physician accountability, patient safety and patient compensation.

    PubMed

    Gray, John E

    2006-01-01

    In Canada, the response to adverse medical events follows one or more of three main paths: patient safety, physician accountability and patient compensation. While their goals differ, each of these responses serves a valuable function. There are however competing imperatives inherent in each response, particularly in terms of information disclosure: Effective patient safety depends on the full and protected disclosure of all information relevant to an adverse event and requires a "no blame" environment. While natural justice demands that a physician be held accountable for his actions, the doctor should be accorded the right of due process and be judged against an established standard of care. This is necessarily a fault-finding activity. Patient compensation meets both accountability demands and the social justice imperatives of supporting a patient injured through physician negligence. The most effective approach is one that achieves balance between competing imperatives. With clear information disclosure rules, patient safety, physician accountability and patient compensation can operate synergistically.

  4. The construction of mental accounts in benefits decision making.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, M E

    1999-01-01

    Mental accounting describes the psychological creation of separate accounts or budgets for categories of decisions. This process simplifies complex budget decisions in ways that significantly affect consumer behavior (Kahneman and Tversky 1981, 1984) and has been incorporated into economic theory (Shefrin and Thaler 1988). The impact of mental accounts on benefits decisions is likely to be significant. The creation of these accounts is context dependent, and prior work has demonstrated that the source and timing of payments affects the allocation of resources into mental accounts. Results from this work demonstrate that other normatively unimportant factors of the choice such as presentation order impact the construction of mental accounts. These results describe mental accounting biases within the context of health care benefits and demonstrate that the construction of mental accounts is highly unstable and easily manipulated within this domain.

  5. Ethnic differences in serum lipids and lipoproteins in overweight/obese African-American and white American women with pre-diabetes: significance of NMR-derived lipoprotein particle concentrations and sizes

    PubMed Central

    Gaillard, Trudy; Osei, Kwame

    2016-01-01

    Objective African-American women (AAW) suffer disproportionately from higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality compared with white American women (WAW), despite favorable lipid and lipoprotein profile. Therefore, we used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to examine lipoprotein particle concentrations and sizes in overweight/obese AAW and WAW with pre-diabetes. Participants and methods We studied 69 AAW and 41 WAW, with mean age 46.5±11.3 years and body mass index (BMI) 37.8±6.4 kg/m2. All participants completed standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT). Insulin sensitivity (Si) was calculated using MINIMOD method. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Fasting blood was obtained for traditional lipids/lipoproteins and NMR-derived lipoprotein particle sizes and concentrations. Results We found that AAW with pre-diabetes were more obese (BMI 38.8±6.7 vs 36.0±5.4 kg/m2, p=0.02) than WAW. Mean Si was not significantly different. However, the mean serum triglycerides were lower, whereas the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1) were significantly higher in AAW versus WAW. The large HDL particle concentration (6.1±3.1 vs 4.6±3.1 µmol/L, p=0.02) was significantly higher in AAW versus WAW. Mean total very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle concentration was lower in AAW versus WAW (39.9±24.4 vs 59.2±25.6 nmol/L, p≤0.001). While mean total LDL particle concentrations were not different, mean small LDL particle concentrations were lower in AAW versus WAW (538.8±294.1 vs 638.4±266 nmol/L, p=0.07). Conclusions We found a more favorable NMR-derived lipoprotein profile in AAW that extends the traditional antiatherogenic lipid/lipoprotein profiles. Clinically, these favorable lipid/lipoprotein profiles cannot explain the paradoxically higher CVD mortality in AAW than WAW and warrant further

  6. Patient accounting systems: needs and capabilities.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, O G; Collignon, S

    1987-09-01

    In the first article of this series, it was stated that most finance executives are not very satisfied with the performance of their current patient accounting systems. What steps can a patient accounting system planner take to help ensure the system selected will garner high ratings from managers and users? Two primarily steps need to be taken. First, the planner needs to perform a thorough evaluation of both near- and long-term patient accounting requirements. He should determine which features and functions are most critical and ensure they are incorporated as selection criteria. The planner should also incorporate institutional planning into that process, such as planned expansion of facilities or services, to ensure that the system selected has the growth potential, interfacing capabilities, and flexibility to respond to the changing environment. Then, once system needs are fully charted, the planner should educate himself about the range of patient accounting system solutions available. The data show that most financial managers lack knowledge about most of the major patient accounting system vendors in the marketplace. Once vendors that offer systems that seemingly could meet needs are identified, the wise system planner will also want to obtain information from users about those vendors, to determine whether the systems perform as described and whether the vendor has been responsive to the needs of its customers. This step is a particularly important part of the planning process, because the data also show that users of some systems are significantly more satisfied than users of other patient accounting systems.

  7. Educational Context: Preparing Accounting Students to Identify Ethical Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billiot, Mary Jo; Daniel, David; Glandon, Sid; Glandon, TerryAnn

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effect of different contexts in an educational process on measures of ethical sensitivity and levels of moral reasoning of accounting majors in the first Intermediate Accounting course. The educational process compared a context that centers on ethical issues with one that focuses on technical accounting issues. At the end of the…

  8. Benchmarking can add up for healthcare accounting.

    PubMed

    Czarnecki, M T

    1994-09-01

    In 1993, a healthcare accounting and finance benchmarking survey of hospital and nonhospital organizations gathered statistics about key common performance areas. A low response did not allow for statistically significant findings, but the survey identified performance measures that can be used in healthcare financial management settings. This article explains the benchmarking process and examines some of the 1993 study's findings.

  9. Accounting Standards: What Do They Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Jerry B.

    1992-01-01

    Four recent and proposed changes in national school accounting standards have significant policy implications for colleges and universities. These changes address (1) standards regarding postemployment benefits other than pensions, (2) depreciation, (3) financial report format, and (4) contributions and pledges made to the school. Governing boards…

  10. Planning for Your Second Accounting Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucenski-Keck, Lynn; Hintz, Arthur F.; Fedoryshyn, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    For many accounting students the focus of their fourth or fifth years is finding a job to start them on an exciting and financially rewarding career. Colleges provide significant guidance and direction to these students in the form of internship assistance, resume writing workshops, interview practice, networking events and career guidance. At…

  11. AACSB Standards and Accounting Faculty's Intellectual Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, B. Brian; Quddus, Munir

    2008-01-01

    The authors performed a content analysis of intellectual contribution portfolios of accounting faculty at various business schools that Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International recently accredited. The results showed a significant divergence in faculty research (e.g., areas, topics) and their teaching assignments. This…

  12. School accountability and the black-white test score gap.

    PubMed

    Gaddis, S Michael; Lauen, Douglas Lee

    2014-03-01

    Since at least the 1960s, researchers have closely examined the respective roles of families, neighborhoods, and schools in producing the black-white achievement gap. Although many researchers minimize the ability of schools to eliminate achievement gaps, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased pressure on schools to do so by 2014. In this study, we examine the effects of NCLB's subgroup-specific accountability pressure on changes in black-white math and reading test score gaps using a school-level panel dataset on all North Carolina public elementary and middle schools between 2001 and 2009. Using difference-in-difference models with school fixed effects, we find that accountability pressure reduces black-white achievement gaps by raising mean black achievement without harming mean white achievement. We find no differential effects of accountability pressure based on the racial composition of schools, but schools with more affluent populations are the most successful at reducing the black-white math achievement gap. Thus, our findings suggest that school-based interventions have the potential to close test score gaps, but differences in school composition and resources play a significant role in the ability of schools to reduce racial inequality.

  13. A Study on Financial Reporting Standards and Accounting Quality- Evidence from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Cheng-Hwai

    2013-02-01

    According to institutional theorists, the forms and business models of corporation are mainly shaped by factors such as politics, regulations, social norms and cultures. This paper examines how the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and institutional environment influence the accounting quality, in response to the threat of political extraction in China. We took mainland China as an example instead in our study, following the accounting quality definition of Barth et al. [2], we found that the developments of Chinese government performance audit are conspicuously different by region; to reflect such differences, we elaborated our research by dividing mainland China into 31 categories (provinces or cities). We set 2003-2010 as the time horizon for this study. After testing the Regression model, our empirical research achieved two conclusions: 1) IFRS adoption in China should significantly improve the accounting quality, and 2) IFRS and institutional environment should synthetically influence the quality of accounting as well.

  14. Toward Reflective Accountability: Using NSSE for Accountability and Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Alexander C.

    2009-01-01

    Accountability pressures in higher education are not new; they are part of an enduring public policy discourse about the costs and benefits, both individual and social, of higher education. What is relatively new, however, is the prominent place that issues of accountability now occupy on the nation's higher education agenda. There is an important…

  15. Community Accountability: A Theory of Information, Accountability, and School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gary T.

    1996-01-01

    Punitive accountability systems rely on eternally induced motives (avoiding sanctions) to improve low-rung educational performance. Community accountability uses information to bring the public and its schools together and improve total school performance. Emphasis is on positive, internal mechanisms to motivate performance and use of market…

  16. An existentialist account of identity formation.

    PubMed

    Bilsker, D

    1992-06-01

    An account of James Marcia's identity formation model is given in the language of existentialist philosophy. Parallels between ego-identity and existentialist approaches are examined and identity is described in terms of existentialist concepts formulated by Martin Heidegger (Being and Time) and Jean-Paul Sartre (Being and Nothingness). While identity formation has previously been formulated in terms of ego-analytic theory, this paper argues and seeks to demonstrate that significant benefits accrue from an existentialist account. These benefits include clarification of difficult theoretical issues, delineation of specific research directions and enrichment of clinical understanding.

  17. Cost Accounting System for fusion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, W.R.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

    1985-12-01

    A Cost Accounting System that is applicable to all magnetic fusion reactor design studies has been developed. This system provides: (1) definitions of the elements of cost and methods for the combination of these elements to form a cost estimate; (2) a Code of Accounts that uses a functional arrangement for identification of the plant components; and (3) definitions and methods to analyze actual cost data so that the data can be directly reported into this Cost Accounting System. The purpose of the Cost Accounting System is to provide the structure for the development of a fusion cost data base and for the development of validated cost estimating procedures. This system has been developed through use at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) and has been applied to different confinement concepts (tokamaks and tandem mirrors) and to different types of projects (experimental devices and commercial power plants). The use of this Cost Accounting System by all magnetic fusion projects will promote the development of a common cost data base, allow the direct comparison of cost estimates, and ultimately establish the cost credibility of the program.

  18. The Accountability Illusion: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  19. Efficacy and Accountability in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitzug, Ulrich C.

    This study examined the relationship among accountability, efficacy, and organizational effectiveness by integrating findings from 17 research and development reports on Management by Objectives (MBO), an intervention that incorporates elements and processes of both accountability (goal-setting, measuring and monitoring, feedback) and efficacy…

  20. Training within the Accounting Firm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Beth; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A survey received 509 responses from 2,000 randomly selected accounting employees about which training topics are receiving the most attention and who is receiving the training. Results prove that training has become an integral part of a certified public accountant's job; topics most often covered were tax related--individual and corporate income…

  1. Teacher Accountability: Trends and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the growing public demand for holding teachers accountable for student performance. Asserts that this position assumes that effectiveness can be measured, whereas the incluence teachers have on student achievement is complex and variable, and may be less than that of family and peers. Describes various State-effort accountability plans.…

  2. Integrating Systems into Accounting Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heatherington, Ralph

    1980-01-01

    By incorporating a discussion of systems into the beginning accounting class, students will have a more accurate picture of business and the role accounting plays in it. Students should understand the purpose of forms, have a basic knowledge of flowcharting principles and symbols, and know how source documents are created. (CT)

  3. Reengineering Elementary Accounting. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Chico.

    This final report describes activities and accomplishments of a 3-year project at California State University Chico (CSUC) to reengineer the 2-semester elementary accounting course. The new model emphasized, first, shifting from the traditional view of the preparer of accounting information to that of the user; second, forcing the student to adopt…

  4. Careers for Women in Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayburn, Letricia Gayle

    1976-01-01

    This survey showed that most accounting firms are either actively trying to solve the problem of discrimination or are at least interested in seeking solutions. Some companies indicated that they would hire more women college graduates if they were qualified accountants. (Author)

  5. Incentives for Accountability. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    Policymakers and educators are taking a new look at incentives as they work to improve accountability systems. This ERIC Digest examines the role of rewards and sanctions in school reform and identifies key issues in implementing incentive systems. The new accountability is based on five components: carefully designed standards, assessments…

  6. An Accounting International Experience Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Leigh Redd; Rudolph, Holly R.; Seay, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Accounting students need practical opportunities to personally experience other cultures and international business practices if they are to effectively compete in today's global marketplace. In order to address this need, the Department of Accounting at Murray State University offers an international experience course which includes a short-term…

  7. The Accountability Illusion: New Hampshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  8. The Accountability Illusion: Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  9. Machine Accounting. An Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, E. Noah, Ed.

    Designed to prepare students to operate the types of accounting machines used in many medium-sized businesses, this instructor's guide presents a full-year high school course in machine accounting covering 120 hours of instruction. An introduction for the instructor suggests how to adapt the guide to present a 60-hour module which would be…

  10. The Accountability Illusion: New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  11. GASB's Basis of Accounting Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovlak, Daniel L.

    1986-01-01

    In July 1984, the Governmental Accounting Standards Board began its "Measurement Focus/Basis of Accounting" project, which addresses measurement issues and revenue and expenditure recognition problems involving governmental funds. This article explains the project's background, alternatives discussed by the board, and tentative…

  12. School Centered Evidence Based Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Achievement scores drive much of the effort in today's accountability system, however, there is much more that occurs in every school, every day. School Centered Evidence Based Accountability can be used from micro to macro giving School Boards and Administration a process for monitoring the results of the entire school operation effectively and…

  13. Revised Accounting for Business Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Arlette C.; Key, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has recently issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 141 (Revised 2007) Business Combinations. The object of this Statement is to improve the relevance, representational faithfulness, and comparability of reported information about a business combination and its effects. This Statement…

  14. Canadian Accountants: Examining Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Elizabeth; Bagg, Robert; Doyle, Wendy; Young, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine workplace learning strategies, learning facilitators and learning barriers of public accountants in Canada across three professional levels--trainees, managers, and partners. Design/methodology/approach: Volunteer participants from public accounting firms in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick completed a demographic…

  15. Accounting Experiences in Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmond, Tracie; Tiggeman, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses incorporating collaborative learning into accounting classes as a response to the Accounting Education Change Commission's call to install a more active student learner in the classroom. Collaborative learning requires the students to interact with each other and with the material within the classroom setting. It is a…

  16. PLATO Instruction for Elementary Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, James C.

    A progress report of a study using computer assisted instruction (CAI) materials for an elementary course in accounting principles is presented. The study was based on the following objectives: (1) improvement of instruction in the elementary accounting sequence, and (2) help for transfer students from two-year institutions. The materials under…

  17. Career Integration in the Public Accounting Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ras, Gerard J. M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to solve the labor shortage in the public accounting profession. It examines why people want to become CPAs, the influence of generational differences on career choices and considers methods to attract and retain CPAs that focus on attracting students, work-life balance issues and alternative work arrangements through career…

  18. Data for Improvement, Data for Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary on the special issue on data use highlights the distinctions between data systems intended to improve the performance of school staff and those intended to hold schools and districts accountable for outcomes. It advises researchers to be alert to the differences in the policy logics connected with each approach.

  19. Accounting For Nonlinearity In A Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelzried, Charles T.

    1991-01-01

    Simple mathematical technique found to account adequately for nonlinear component of response of microwave radiometer. Five prescribed temperatures measured to obtain quadratic calibration curve. Temperature assumed to vary quadratically with reading. Concept not limited to radiometric application; applicable to other measuring systems in which relationships between quantities to be determined and readings of instruments differ slightly from linearity.

  20. Accountability,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    Lroubhle in Vietna 3 was Lia i: nur )rwere, js~el to I i( lit a war: ha t we cooli niev m:win. ś I was ai~ 3 ijried( to lJd ~rn Ro,-yal Thai i r 13a...Reich le, ’NCO IC of tuie Tk1£ * Iorce Chapil~ain School told me thit "I am accountalble for miy ac tionrs on and off duty. There’s a LQrice to pay . Thie

  1. Pendulum Shifts, Context, Error, and Personal Accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Harold Blackman; Oren Hester

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a series of tools that were developed to achieve a balance in under-standing LOWs and the human component of events (including accountability) as the INL continues its shift to a learning culture where people report, are accountable and interested in making a positive difference - and want to report because information is handled correctly and the result benefits both the reporting individual and the organization. We present our model for understanding these interrelationships; the initiatives that were undertaken to improve overall performance.

  2. OPERATIONS RESEARCH AND THE ACCOUNTANT,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    There has been a certain amount of scepticism and even apprehension on the part of accountants with respect to the sudden appearance of scientists in...sharpened form of common sense. As an illustration of the use of mathematics, a cost accounting problem is discussed and it is shown that a statistical...definition of ’overhead’ can lead to simplified pricing methods and management controls. Also, some of the confusing aspects of ’overhead’ accounting can be avoided by using mathematical techniques. (Author)

  3. Mirror reversal: empirical tests of competing accounts.

    PubMed

    Takano, Yohtaro; Tanaka, Akihiro

    2007-11-01

    In a mirror, left and right are said to look reversed. Surprisingly, this very familiar phenomenon, mirror reversal, has still no agreed-upon account to date. This study compared a variety of accounts in the light of empirical data. In Experiment 1, 102 students judged whether the mirror image of a person or a character looked reversed or not in 15 settings and also judged the directional relation between its components. In Experiment 2, 52 students made the reversal judgements in 13 settings. It was found for the first time that a substantial proportion of people denied the left-right mirror reversal of a person, whereas virtually all of them did recognize that of a character. This discrepancy strongly suggested that these two kinds of mirror reversal are produced by different processes, respectively. A number of findings including this discrepancy clearly contradicted two accounts that are currently active: the one based on the priority of the up-down and front-back axes over the left-right axis, and the one based on the physical rotation of an object. All the findings were consistent with an account that considered mirror reversal a complex of three different phenomena produced by three different processes, respectively.

  4. 77 FR 202 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updated Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting References

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... 9000-AM00 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updated Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting... accounting standards owing to the Financial Accounting Standards Board's Accounting Standards Codification of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. DATES: Effective Date: February 2, 2012. FOR FURTHER...

  5. Modeling habitat dynamics accounting for possible misclassification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veran, Sophie; Kleiner, Kevin J.; Choquet, Remi; Collazo, Jaime; Nichols, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Land cover data are widely used in ecology as land cover change is a major component of changes affecting ecological systems. Landscape change estimates are characterized by classification errors. Researchers have used error matrices to adjust estimates of areal extent, but estimation of land cover change is more difficult and more challenging, with error in classification being confused with change. We modeled land cover dynamics for a discrete set of habitat states. The approach accounts for state uncertainty to produce unbiased estimates of habitat transition probabilities using ground information to inform error rates. We consider the case when true and observed habitat states are available for the same geographic unit (pixel) and when true and observed states are obtained at one level of resolution, but transition probabilities estimated at a different level of resolution (aggregations of pixels). Simulation results showed a strong bias when estimating transition probabilities if misclassification was not accounted for. Scaling-up does not necessarily decrease the bias and can even increase it. Analyses of land cover data in the Southeast region of the USA showed that land change patterns appeared distorted if misclassification was not accounted for: rate of habitat turnover was artificially increased and habitat composition appeared more homogeneous. Not properly accounting for land cover misclassification can produce misleading inferences about habitat state and dynamics and also misleading predictions about species distributions based on habitat. Our models that explicitly account for state uncertainty should be useful in obtaining more accurate inferences about change from data that include errors.

  6. Significance of periodogram peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süveges, Maria; Guy, Leanne; Zucker, Shay

    2016-10-01

    Three versions of significance measures or False Alarm Probabilities (FAPs) for periodogram peaks are presented and compared for sinusoidal and box-like signals, with specific application on large-scale surveys in mind.

  7. Counting, accounting, and accountability: Helen Verran's relational empiricism.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Martha

    2015-10-01

    Helen Verran uses the term 'relational empiricism' to describe situated empirical inquiry that is attentive to the relations that constitute its objects of study, including the investigator's own practices. Relational empiricism draws on and reconfigures Science and Technology Studies' traditional concerns with reflexivity and relationality, casting empirical inquiry as an important and non-innocent world-making practice. Through a reading of Verran's postcolonial projects in Nigeria and Australia, this article develops a concept of empirical and political 'accountability' to complement her relational empiricism. In Science and an African Logic, Verran provides accounts of the relations that materialize her empirical objects. These accounts work to decompose her original objects, generating new objects that are more promising for the specific postcolonial contexts of her work. The process of decomposition is part of remaining accountable for her research methods and accountable to the worlds she is working in and writing about. This is a practice of narrating relations and learning to tell better technoscientific stories. What counts as better, however, is not given, but is always contextual and at stake. In this way, Verran acts not as participant-observer, but as participant-storyteller, telling stories to facilitate epistemic flourishing within and as part of a historically located community of practice. The understanding of accountability that emerges from this discussion is designed as a contribution, both practical and evocative, to the theoretical toolkit of Science and Technology Studies scholars who are interested in thinking concretely about how we can be more accountable to the worlds we study.

  8. Accounting Internships: A Practical Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Linvol G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe a framework for administration and implementation of postsecondary internships in accounting. Topics covered include (1) qualifications, (2) duration, (3) timing, (4) granting credit and providing grades, and (5) evaluation criteria. Implementation guidelines are included. (CH)

  9. Speaking the Language of Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Leslie B.

    1997-01-01

    Round Robin is a game in which students must express accounting information in their own words. It is a means of familiarizing students with the language of vocabulary and of developing their verbal expressiveness. (SK)

  10. Meeting the Needs of Nonpublic and Public Accountants in a 4-Year Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Kristine N.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Nonpublic (n=820) and public (n=200) accountants rated 112 knowledge and skill areas required of entry workers. Some differences in the importance of these requirements for nonpublic and public accountants have implications for accounting curriculum design. (SK)

  11. Comparing model predictions and experimental data for the response of stomatal conductance and guard cell turgor to manipulations of cuticular conductance, leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference and temperature: feedback mechanisms are able to account for all observations.

    PubMed

    Eamus, Derek; Taylor, Daniel T; Macinnis-Ng, Catriona M O; Shanahan, Steve; De Silva, Lionel

    2008-03-01

    Stomata respond to increasing leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference (LAVPD) (D) by closing. The mechanism by which this occurs is debated. A role for feedback and peristomatal transpiration has been proposed. In this paper, we apply a recent mechanistic model of stomatal behaviour, and compare model and experimental data for the influence of increasing D on stomatal conductance. We manipulated cuticular conductance (g(c)) by three independent methods. First, we increased g(c) by using a solvent mixture applied to both leaf surfaces prior to determining stomatal responses to D; second, we increased g(c) by increasing leaf temperature at constant D; and third, we coated a small area of leaf with a light oil to decrease g(c). In all three experiments, experimental data and model outputs showed very close agreement. We conclude, from the close agreement between model and experimental data and the fact that manipulations of g(c), and hence cuticular transpiration, influenced g(s) in ways consistent with a feedback mechanism, that feedback is central in determining stomatal responses to D.

  12. Statistical Significance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E., Ed.; Kaufman, Alan S., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The controversy about the use or misuse of statistical significance testing has become the major methodological issue in educational research. This special issue contains three articles that explore the controversy, three commentaries on these articles, an overall response, and three rejoinders by the first three authors. They are: (1)…

  13. Significance of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of brown dwarfs for resolving some major problems in astronomy is discussed. The importance of brown dwarfs for models of star formation by fragmentation of molecular clouds and for obtaining independent measurements of the ages of stars in binary systems is addressed. The relationship of brown dwarfs to planets is considered.

  14. Accounting and Accountability for Distributed and Grid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thigpen, William; McGinnis, Laura F.; Hacker, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    While the advent of distributed and grid computing systems will open new opportunities for scientific exploration, the reality of such implementations could prove to be a system administrator's nightmare. A lot of effort is being spent on identifying and resolving the obvious problems of security, scheduling, authentication and authorization. Lurking in the background, though, are the largely unaddressed issues of accountability and usage accounting: (1) mapping resource usage to resource users; (2) defining usage economies or methods for resource exchange; (3) describing implementation standards that minimize and compartmentalize the tasks required for a site to participate in a grid.

  15. Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

  16. MASS: An automated accountability system

    SciTech Connect

    Erkkila, B.H.; Kelso, F.

    1994-08-01

    All Department of Energy contractors who manage accountable quantities of nuclear materials are required to implement an accountability system that tracks, and records the activities associated with those materials. At Los Alamos, the automated accountability system allows data entry on computer terminals and data base updating as soon as the entry is made. It is also able to generate all required reports in a timely Fashion. Over the last several years, the hardware and software have been upgraded to provide the users with all the capability needed to manage a large variety of operations with a wide variety of nuclear materials. Enhancements to the system are implemented as the needs of the users are identified. The system has grown with the expanded needs of the user; and has survived several years of changing operations and activity. The user community served by this system includes processing, materials control and accountability, and nuclear material management personnel. In addition to serving the local users, the accountability system supports the national data base (NMMSS). This paper contains a discussion of several details of the system design and operation. After several years of successful operation, this system provides an operating example of how computer systems can be used to manage a very dynamic data management problem.

  17. Composite Defect Significance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-13

    A12i 299 COMPOSITE DEFECT SIGNIFICANCE(U) MATERIALS SCIENCES 1/1 \\ CORP SPRING HOUSE PA S N CHATTERJEE ET AL. 13 JUL 82 MSC/TFR/1288/il87 NADC-80848...Directorate 30 Sensors & Avionics Technology Directorate 40 Communication & Navigation Technology Directorate 50 Software Computer Directorate 60 Aircraft ...instructions concerning commercial products herein do not constitute an endorsement by the Government nor do they convey or imply the license or right to use

  18. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  19. Good Accounting Skills: What More Does a Successful Accountant Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Leslie Jane

    1994-01-01

    Most of 189 accounting students surveyed (77% of whom were nonnative speakers of English) were not in favor of adding communication skills courses, although they recognized their importance in hiring. The area most needing improvement for nonnative speakers was vocabulary, for native speakers speaking and spelling. All preferred maintaining their…

  20. Media Accounts of School Performance: Reinforcing Dominant Practices of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroutsis, Aspa

    2016-01-01

    Media reportage often act as interpretations of accountability policies thereby making the news media a part of the policy enactment process. Within such a process, their role is that of policy reinforcement rather than policy construction or contestation. This paper draws on the experiences of school leaders in regional Queensland, Australia, and…