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Sample records for accountable flexible efficient

  1. Quality, Efficiency, and Accountability: Definitions and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbell, Loren Loomis

    2007-01-01

    This article presents working definitions of efficiency, accountability, and quality, offering a framework in which an individual institution can make idiosyncratic use of these definitions, suggests tools for managing educational processes with respect to these three attributes, and presents examples of how institutions have improved efficiency,…

  2. Flexible, reconfigurable, power efficient transmitter and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, James W. (Inventor); Zaki, Nazrul H. Mohd (Inventor); Newman, David Childress (Inventor); Bundick, Steven N. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A flexible, reconfigurable, power efficient transmitter device and method is provided. In one embodiment, the method includes receiving outbound data and determining a mode of operation. When operating in a first mode the method may include modulation mapping the outbound data according a modulation scheme to provide first modulation mapped digital data, converting the first modulation mapped digital data to an analog signal that comprises an intermediate frequency (IF) analog signal, upconverting the IF analog signal to produce a first modulated radio frequency (RF) signal based on a local oscillator signal, amplifying the first RF modulated signal to produce a first RF output signal, and outputting the first RF output signal via an isolator. In a second mode of operation method may include modulation mapping the outbound data according a modulation scheme to provide second modulation mapped digital data, converting the second modulation mapped digital data to a first digital baseband signal, conditioning the first digital baseband signal to provide a first analog baseband signal, modulating one or more carriers with the first analog baseband signal to produce a second modulated RF signal based on a local oscillator signal, amplifying the second RF modulated signal to produce a second RF output signal, and outputting the second RF output signal via the isolator. The digital baseband signal may comprise an in-phase (I) digital baseband signal and a quadrature (Q) baseband signal.

  3. Issues Relating to the Assessment of Flexible Efficient Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nacke, Phil L.

    An integral dimension in the concept of flexible efficient reading is the process of skimming, which is defined as the reading behavior in which information is processed without looking at all or most of the words in continuous printed discourse. Measurement of flexible reading efficiency presents problems which revolve around four major issues.…

  4. Efficient flapping flight using flexible wings oscillating at resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, Alexander; Masoud, Hassan

    2010-11-01

    Using a fully-coupled computational approach that integrates the lattice Boltzmann and lattice spring models, we investigate the three-dimensional aerodynamics of flexible flapping wings at resonance. The wings are tilted from the horizontal and oscillate vertically driven by a force applied at the wing root. Our simulations reveal that resonance oscillations drastically enhance the aerodynamic efficiency of low-Reynolds-number plunging, and yield lift and lift-to-weight ratio comparable to the values typical for small insects. Within the resonance band, we identify two flapping regimes leading to the maximum lift and the maximum efficiency, which are characterized by different bending modes of flexible flapping wings. Our results indicate the feasibility of using flexible wings driven by a simple harmonic stroke for designing efficient microscale flying machines.

  5. Earthquakes, Accounting Theory and the Art of Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosslamber, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Tuesday, 22 February was the second day of the University of Canterbury (UC) in Christchurch, New Zealand 2011 academic year and the author was preparing lectures for Accounting Theory (ACCT311) in his sixth-floor office of the Commerce building when a 6.3 magnitude earthquake struck. Although no university buildings collapsed, it soon became…

  6. The Tension between Teacher Accountability and Flexibility: The Paradox of Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadelson, Louis S.; Fuller, Michael; Briggs, Pamela; Hammons, David; Bubak, Katie; Sass, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The anticipated constraints imposed by the accountability process associated with standards-based reform on teachers' practice suggest a tension between teachers' desire for flexibility and the accountability mandates associated with reform initiatives. In particular, we posited that the teachers would negatively perceive the influence of…

  7. The Health Insurance Flexibility and Accountability (HIFA) Demonstration program. A new initiative to cover the uninsured.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, G C

    2001-01-01

    Seeking to keep his promise to give states more flexibility while expanding health insurance coverage to low-income people, President George W. Bush released a proposal to reform Medicaid and The Children's Health Insurance Program. This initiative, the Health Insurance Flexibility and Accountability Act (HIFA), represents a significant change in Medicaid policy. Whether states will find this proposal a useful tool to expand coverage remains to be seen.

  8. Flexible, highly efficient all-polymer solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taesu; Kim, Jae-Han; Kang, Tae Eui; Lee, Changyeon; Kang, Hyunbum; Shin, Minkwan; Wang, Cheng; Ma, Biwu; Jeong, Unyong; Kim, Taek-Soo; Kim, Bumjoon J.

    2015-01-01

    All-polymer solar cells have shown great potential as flexible and portable power generators. These devices should offer good mechanical endurance with high power-conversion efficiency for viability in commercial applications. In this work, we develop highly efficient and mechanically robust all-polymer solar cells that are based on the PBDTTTPD polymer donor and the P(NDI2HD-T) polymer acceptor. These systems exhibit high power-conversion efficiency of 6.64%. Also, the proposed all-polymer solar cells have even better performance than the control polymer-fullerene devices with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the electron acceptor (6.12%). More importantly, our all-polymer solar cells exhibit dramatically enhanced strength and flexibility compared with polymer/PCBM devices, with 60- and 470-fold improvements in elongation at break and toughness, respectively. The superior mechanical properties of all-polymer solar cells afford greater tolerance to severe deformations than conventional polymer-fullerene solar cells, making them much better candidates for applications in flexible and portable devices. PMID:26449658

  9. Flexible, highly efficient all-polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taesu; Kim, Jae-Han; Kang, Tae Eui; Lee, Changyeon; Kang, Hyunbum; Shin, Minkwan; Wang, Cheng; Ma, Biwu; Jeong, Unyong; Kim, Taek-Soo; Kim, Bumjoon J

    2015-01-01

    All-polymer solar cells have shown great potential as flexible and portable power generators. These devices should offer good mechanical endurance with high power-conversion efficiency for viability in commercial applications. In this work, we develop highly efficient and mechanically robust all-polymer solar cells that are based on the PBDTTTPD polymer donor and the P(NDI2HD-T) polymer acceptor. These systems exhibit high power-conversion efficiency of 6.64%. Also, the proposed all-polymer solar cells have even better performance than the control polymer-fullerene devices with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the electron acceptor (6.12%). More importantly, our all-polymer solar cells exhibit dramatically enhanced strength and flexibility compared with polymer/PCBM devices, with 60- and 470-fold improvements in elongation at break and toughness, respectively. The superior mechanical properties of all-polymer solar cells afford greater tolerance to severe deformations than conventional polymer-fullerene solar cells, making them much better candidates for applications in flexible and portable devices.

  10. Flexible, highly efficient all-polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taesu; Kim, Jae-Han; Kang, Tae Eui; Lee, Changyeon; Kang, Hyunbum; Shin, Minkwan; Wang, Cheng; Ma, Biwu; Jeong, Unyong; Kim, Taek-Soo; Kim, Bumjoon J.

    2015-10-01

    All-polymer solar cells have shown great potential as flexible and portable power generators. These devices should offer good mechanical endurance with high power-conversion efficiency for viability in commercial applications. In this work, we develop highly efficient and mechanically robust all-polymer solar cells that are based on the PBDTTTPD polymer donor and the P(NDI2HD-T) polymer acceptor. These systems exhibit high power-conversion efficiency of 6.64%. Also, the proposed all-polymer solar cells have even better performance than the control polymer-fullerene devices with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the electron acceptor (6.12%). More importantly, our all-polymer solar cells exhibit dramatically enhanced strength and flexibility compared with polymer/PCBM devices, with 60- and 470-fold improvements in elongation at break and toughness, respectively. The superior mechanical properties of all-polymer solar cells afford greater tolerance to severe deformations than conventional polymer-fullerene solar cells, making them much better candidates for applications in flexible and portable devices.

  11. Flexible All-Digital Receiver for Bandwidth Efficient Modulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Andrew; Srinivasan, Meera; Simon, Marvin; Yan, Tsun-Yee

    2000-01-01

    An all-digital high data rate parallel receiver architecture developed jointly by Goddard Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is presented. This receiver utilizes only a small number of high speed components along with a majority of lower speed components operating in a parallel frequency domain structure implementable in CMOS, and can currently process up to 600 Mbps with standard QPSK modulation. Performance results for this receiver for bandwidth efficient QPSK modulation schemes such as square-root raised cosine pulse shaped QPSK and Feher's patented QPSK are presented, demonstrating the flexibility of the receiver architecture.

  12. High-efficiency, flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahabaduge, H. P.; Rance, W. L.; Burst, J. M.; Reese, M. O.; Meysing, D. M.; Wolden, C. A.; Li, J.; Beach, J. D.; Gessert, T. A.; Metzger, W. K.; Garner, S.; Barnes, T. M.

    2015-03-01

    Flexible, high-efficiency, low-cost solar cells can enable applications that take advantage of high specific power, flexible form factors, lower installation and transportation costs. Here, we report a certified record efficiency of 16.4% for a flexible CdTe solar cell that is a marked improvement over the previous standard (14.05%). The improvement was achieved by replacing chemical-bath-deposited CdS with sputtered CdS:O and also replacing the high-temperature sputtered ZnTe:Cu back contact layer with co-evaporated and rapidly annealed ZnTe:Cu. We use quantum efficiency and capacitance-voltage measurements combined with device simulations to identify the reasons for the increase in efficiency. Both device simulations and experimental results show that higher carrier density can quantitatively account for the increased open circuit voltage (VOC) and Fill Factor (FF), and likewise, the increase in short circuit current density (JSC) can be attributed to the more transparent CdS:O.

  13. High-efficiency, flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Mahabaduge, H. P.; Rance, W. L.; Burst, J. M.; Reese, M. O.; Gessert, T. A.; Metzger, W. K.; Barnes, T. M.; Meysing, D. M.; Wolden, C. A.; Li, J.; Beach, J. D.; Garner, S.

    2015-03-30

    Flexible, high-efficiency, low-cost solar cells can enable applications that take advantage of high specific power, flexible form factors, lower installation and transportation costs. Here, we report a certified record efficiency of 16.4% for a flexible CdTe solar cell that is a marked improvement over the previous standard (14.05%). The improvement was achieved by replacing chemical-bath-deposited CdS with sputtered CdS:O and also replacing the high-temperature sputtered ZnTe:Cu back contact layer with co-evaporated and rapidly annealed ZnTe:Cu. We use quantum efficiency and capacitance-voltage measurements combined with device simulations to identify the reasons for the increase in efficiency. Both device simulations and experimental results show that higher carrier density can quantitatively account for the increased open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) and Fill Factor (FF), and likewise, the increase in short circuit current density (J{sub SC}) can be attributed to the more transparent CdS:O.

  14. Low-Cost Flexible Electrochromic Film for Energy Efficient Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: ITN is addressing the high cost of electrochromic windows with a new manufacturing process: roll-to-roll deposition of the film onto flexible plastic surfaces. Production of electrochromic films on plastic requires low processing temperatures and uniform film quality over large surface areas. ITN is overcoming these challenges using its previous experience in growing flexible thin-film solar cells and batteries. By developing sensor-based controls, ITN’s roll-to-roll manufacturing process yields more film over a larger area than traditional film deposition methods. Evaluating deposition processes from a control standpoint ultimately strengthens the ability for ITN to handle unanticipated deviations quickly and efficiently, enabling more consistent large-volume production. The team is currently moving from small-scale prototypes into pilot-scale production to validate roll-to-roll manufacturability and produce scaled prototypes that can be proven in simulated operating conditions. Electrochromic plastic films could also open new markets in building retrofit applications, vastly expanding the potential energy savings.

  15. An Efficient, Highly Flexible Multi-Channel Digital Downconverter Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodhart, Charles E.; Soriano, Melissa A.; Navarro, Robert; Trinh, Joseph T.; Sigman, Elliott H.

    2013-01-01

    In this innovation, a digital downconverter has been created that produces a large (16 or greater) number of output channels of smaller bandwidths. Additionally, this design has the flexibility to tune each channel independently to anywhere in the input bandwidth to cover a wide range of output bandwidths (from 32 MHz down to 1 kHz). Both the flexibility in channel frequency selection and the more than four orders of magnitude range in output bandwidths (decimation rates from 32 to 640,000) presented significant challenges to be solved. The solution involved breaking the digital downconversion process into a two-stage process. The first stage is a 2 oversampled filter bank that divides the whole input bandwidth as a real input signal into seven overlapping, contiguous channels represented with complex samples. Using the symmetry of the sine and cosine functions in a similar way to that of an FFT (fast Fourier transform), this downconversion is very efficient and gives seven channels fixed in frequency. An arbitrary number of smaller bandwidth channels can be formed from second-stage downconverters placed after the first stage of downconversion. Because of the overlapping of the first stage, there is no gap in coverage of the entire input bandwidth. The input to any of the second-stage downconverting channels has a multiplexer that chooses one of the seven wideband channels from the first stage. These second-stage downconverters take up fewer resources because they operate at lower bandwidths than doing the entire downconversion process from the input bandwidth for each independent channel. These second-stage downconverters are each independent with fine frequency control tuning, providing extreme flexibility in positioning the center frequency of a downconverted channel. Finally, these second-stage downconverters have flexible decimation factors over four orders of magnitude The algorithm was developed to run in an FPGA (field programmable gate array) at input data

  16. Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  17. Methods to account for movement and flexibility in cryo-EM data processing.

    PubMed

    Rawson, S; Iadanza, M G; Ranson, N A; Muench, S P

    2016-05-01

    Recent advances in direct electron detectors and improved CMOS cameras have been accompanied by the development of a range of software to take advantage of the data they produce. In particular they allow for the correction of two types of motion in cryo electron microscopy samples: motion correction for movements of the sample particles in the ice, and differential masking to account for heterogeneity caused by flexibility within protein complexes. Here we provide several scripts that allow users to move between RELION and standalone motion correction and centring programs. We then compare the computational cost and improvements in data quality with each program. We also describe our masking procedures to account for conformational flexibility. For the different elements of this study we have used three samples; a high symmetry virus, flexible protein complex (∼1MDa) and a relatively small protein complex (∼550kDa), to benchmark four widely available motion correction packages. Using these as test cases we demonstrate how motion correction and differential masking, as well as an additional particle re-centring protocol can improve final reconstructions when used within the RELION image-processing package.

  18. Promoting Accountability and Enhancing Efficiency: Using National Education Accounts to Track Expenditure Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chawla, Deepika; Forbes, Phyllis

    2010-01-01

    Increasing accountability and efficiency in the use of public and out-of-pocket financing in education are critical to realizing the maximum impact of the meager allocations to education in most developing countries. While broad estimates and numbers are routinely collected by most national ministries and state departments of education, the lack…

  19. RAD Capture (Rapture): Flexible and Efficient Sequence-Based Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Ali, Omar A; O'Rourke, Sean M; Amish, Stephen J; Meek, Mariah H; Luikart, Gordon; Jeffres, Carson; Miller, Michael R

    2016-02-01

    Massively parallel sequencing has revolutionized many areas of biology, but sequencing large amounts of DNA in many individuals is cost-prohibitive and unnecessary for many studies. Genomic complexity reduction techniques such as sequence capture and restriction enzyme-based methods enable the analysis of many more individuals per unit cost. Despite their utility, current complexity reduction methods have limitations, especially when large numbers of individuals are analyzed. Here we develop a much improved restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing protocol and a new method called Rapture ( R: AD c APTURE: ). The new RAD protocol improves versatility by separating RAD tag isolation and sequencing library preparation into two distinct steps. This protocol also recovers more unique (nonclonal) RAD fragments, which improves both standard RAD and Rapture analysis. Rapture then uses an in-solution capture of chosen RAD tags to target sequencing reads to desired loci. Rapture combines the benefits of both RAD and sequence capture, i.e., very inexpensive and rapid library preparation for many individuals as well as high specificity in the number and location of genomic loci analyzed. Our results demonstrate that Rapture is a rapid and flexible technology capable of analyzing a very large number of individuals with minimal sequencing and library preparation cost. The methods presented here should improve the efficiency of genetic analysis for many aspects of agricultural, environmental, and biomedical science. PMID:26715661

  20. A flexible framework for secure and efficient program obfuscation.

    SciTech Connect

    Solis, John Hector

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present a modular framework for constructing a secure and efficient program obfuscation scheme. Our approach, inspired by the obfuscation with respect to oracle machines model of [4], retains an interactive online protocol with an oracle, but relaxes the original computational and storage restrictions. We argue this is reasonable given the computational resources of modern personal devices. Furthermore, we relax the information-theoretic security requirement for computational security to utilize established cryptographic primitives. With this additional flexibility we are free to explore different cryptographic buildingblocks. Our approach combines authenticated encryption with private information retrieval to construct a secure program obfuscation framework. We give a formal specification of our framework, based on desired functionality and security properties, and provide an example instantiation. In particular, we implement AES in Galois/Counter Mode for authenticated encryption and the Gentry-Ramzan [13]constant communication-rate private information retrieval scheme. We present our implementation results and show that non-trivial sized programs can be realized, but scalability is quickly limited by computational overhead. Finally, we include a discussion on security considerations when instantiating specific modules.

  1. High-Efficiency Flexible Solar Cells Based on Organometal Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuming; Bai, Sai; Cheng, Lu; Wang, Nana; Wang, Jianpu; Gao, Feng; Huang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Flexible and light-weight solar cells are important because they not only supply power to wearable and portable devices, but also reduce the transportation and installation cost of solar panels. High-efficiency organometal halide perovskite solar cells can be fabricated by a low-temperature solution process, and hence are promising for flexible-solar-cell applications. Here, the development of perovskite solar cells is briefly discussed, followed by the merits of organometal halide perovskites as promising candidates as high-efficiency, flexible, and light-weight photovoltaic materials. Afterward, recent developments of flexible solar cells based on perovskites are reviewed. PMID:26669326

  2. High-Efficiency Flexible Solar Cells Based on Organometal Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuming; Bai, Sai; Cheng, Lu; Wang, Nana; Wang, Jianpu; Gao, Feng; Huang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Flexible and light-weight solar cells are important because they not only supply power to wearable and portable devices, but also reduce the transportation and installation cost of solar panels. High-efficiency organometal halide perovskite solar cells can be fabricated by a low-temperature solution process, and hence are promising for flexible-solar-cell applications. Here, the development of perovskite solar cells is briefly discussed, followed by the merits of organometal halide perovskites as promising candidates as high-efficiency, flexible, and light-weight photovoltaic materials. Afterward, recent developments of flexible solar cells based on perovskites are reviewed.

  3. Turgidity-dependent petiole flexibility enables efficient water use by a tree subjected to water stress.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Cournède, Paul-Henry; de Langre, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Water stress is a major cause of tree mortality. In response to drought, leaves wilt due to an increase in petiole flexibility. We present an analytical model coupling petiole mechanics, thermal balance, and xylem hydraulics to investigate the role of petiole flexibility in protecting a tree from water stress. Our model suggests that turgidity-dependent petiole flexibility can significantly attenuate the minimal xylem pressure and thus reduce the risk of cavitation. Moreover, we show that petiole flexibility increases water use efficiency by trees under water stress. PMID:26992577

  4. Turgidity-dependent petiole flexibility enables efficient water use by a tree subjected to water stress.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Cournède, Paul-Henry; de Langre, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Water stress is a major cause of tree mortality. In response to drought, leaves wilt due to an increase in petiole flexibility. We present an analytical model coupling petiole mechanics, thermal balance, and xylem hydraulics to investigate the role of petiole flexibility in protecting a tree from water stress. Our model suggests that turgidity-dependent petiole flexibility can significantly attenuate the minimal xylem pressure and thus reduce the risk of cavitation. Moreover, we show that petiole flexibility increases water use efficiency by trees under water stress.

  5. Accountable care organizations: the case for flexible partnerships between health plans and providers.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Under the Affordable Care Act, the new Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation will guide a number of experimental programs in health care payment and delivery. Among the most ambitious of the reform models is the accountable care organization (ACO), which will offer providers economic rewards if they can reduce Medicare's cost growth in their communities. However, the dismal history of provider-led attempts to manage costs suggests that this program is unlikely to accomplish its objectives. What's more, if ACOs foster more market concentration among providers, they have the potential to shift costs onto private insurers. This paper proposes a more flexible payment model for providers and private insurers that would divide health care services into three categories: long-term, low-intensity primary care; unscheduled care, including unscheduled emergency services; and major clinical interventions that usually involve hospitalization or organized outpatient care. Each category of care would be paid for differently, with each containing different elements of financial risk for the providers. Health plans would then be encouraged to provide logistical and analytic support to providers in managing health costs in these categories. PMID:21209435

  6. 14%-efficient flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Rance, W. L.; Burst, J. M.; Reese, M. O.; Gessert, T. A.; Metzger, W. K.; Barnes, T. M.; Meysing, D. M.; Wolden, C. A.; Garner, S.; Cimo, P.

    2014-04-07

    Flexible glass enables high-temperature, roll-to-roll processing of superstrate devices with higher photocurrents than flexible polymer foils because of its higher optical transmission. Using flexible glass in our high-temperature CdTe process, we achieved a certified record conversion efficiency of 14.05% for a flexible CdTe solar cell. Little has been reported on the flexibility of CdTe devices, so we investigated the effects of three different static bending conditions on device performance. We observed a consistent trend of increased short-circuit current and fill factor, whereas the open-circuit voltage consistently dropped. The quantum efficiency under the same static bend condition showed no change in the response. After storage in a flexed state for 24 h, there was very little change in device efficiency relative to its unflexed state. This indicates that flexible glass is a suitable replacement for rigid glass substrates, and that CdTe solar cells can tolerate bending without a decrease in device performance.

  7. Highly Efficient Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells with Antireflection and Self-Cleaning Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Tsui, Kwong-Hoi; Zhang, Qianpeng; He, Jin; Yao, Yan; Li, Dongdong; Fan, Zhiyong

    2015-10-27

    Flexible thin film solar cells have attracted a great deal of attention as mobile power sources and key components for building-integrated photovoltaics, due to their light weight and flexible features in addition to compatibility with low-cost roll-to-roll fabrication processes. Among many thin film materials, organometallic perovskite materials are emerging as highly promising candidates for high efficiency thin film photovoltaics; however, the performance, scalability, and reliability of the flexible perovskite solar cells still have large room to improve. Herein, we report highly efficient, flexible perovskite solar cells fabricated on ultrathin flexible glasses. In such a device structure, the flexible glass substrate is highly transparent and robust, with low thermal expansion coefficient, and perovskite thin film was deposited with a thermal evaporation method that showed large-scale uniformity. In addition, a nanocone array antireflection film was attached to the front side of the glass substrate in order to improve the optical transmittance and to achieve a water-repelling effect at the same time. It was found that the fabricated solar cells have reasonable bendability, with 96% of the initial value remaining after 200 bending cycles, and the power conversion efficiency was improved from 12.06 to 13.14% by using the antireflection film, which also demonstrated excellent superhydrophobicity.

  8. Highly Efficient Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells with Antireflection and Self-Cleaning Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Tsui, Kwong-Hoi; Zhang, Qianpeng; He, Jin; Yao, Yan; Li, Dongdong; Fan, Zhiyong

    2015-10-27

    Flexible thin film solar cells have attracted a great deal of attention as mobile power sources and key components for building-integrated photovoltaics, due to their light weight and flexible features in addition to compatibility with low-cost roll-to-roll fabrication processes. Among many thin film materials, organometallic perovskite materials are emerging as highly promising candidates for high efficiency thin film photovoltaics; however, the performance, scalability, and reliability of the flexible perovskite solar cells still have large room to improve. Herein, we report highly efficient, flexible perovskite solar cells fabricated on ultrathin flexible glasses. In such a device structure, the flexible glass substrate is highly transparent and robust, with low thermal expansion coefficient, and perovskite thin film was deposited with a thermal evaporation method that showed large-scale uniformity. In addition, a nanocone array antireflection film was attached to the front side of the glass substrate in order to improve the optical transmittance and to achieve a water-repelling effect at the same time. It was found that the fabricated solar cells have reasonable bendability, with 96% of the initial value remaining after 200 bending cycles, and the power conversion efficiency was improved from 12.06 to 13.14% by using the antireflection film, which also demonstrated excellent superhydrophobicity. PMID:26284607

  9. Effect of caudal fin flexibility on the propulsive efficiency of a fish-like swimmer.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, M; Iollo, A; Mittal, R

    2014-01-01

    A computational model is used to examine the effect of caudal fin flexibility on the propulsive efficiency of a self-propelled swimmer. The computational model couples a penalization method based Navier-Stokes solver with a simple model of flow induced deformation and self-propelled motion at an intermediate Reynolds number of about 1000. The results indicate that a significant increase in efficiency is possible by careful choice of caudal fin rigidity. The flow-physics underlying this observation is explained through the use of a simple hydrodynamic force model and guidelines for bioinspired designs of flexible fin propulsors are proposed. PMID:25252883

  10. Centralized Accounting and Electronic Filing Provides Efficient Receivables Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1983

    1983-01-01

    An electronic filing system makes financial control manageable at Bowling Green State University, Ohio. The system enables quick access to computer-stored consolidated account data and microfilm images of charges, statements, and other billing documents. (MLF)

  11. Highly Efficient Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells Using Solution-Derived NiOx Hole Contacts.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xingtian; Chen, Peng; Que, Meidan; Xing, Yonglei; Que, Wenxiu; Niu, Chunming; Shao, Jinyou

    2016-03-22

    A solution-derived NiOx film was employed as the hole contact of a flexible organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cell. The NiOx film, which was spin coated from presynthesized NiOx nanoparticles solution, can extract holes and block electrons efficiently, without any other post-treatments. An optimal power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.47% was demonstrated in the NiOx-based perovskite solar cell on an ITO-glass substrate, which is much higher than that of the perovskite solar cells using high temperature-derived NiOx film contacts. The low-temperature deposition process made the NiOx films suitable for flexible devices. NiOx-based flexible perovskite solar cells were fabricated on ITO-PEN substrates, and a preliminary PCE of 13.43% was achieved. PMID:26958704

  12. Flexible, Low Cost, and Platinum-Free Counter Electrode for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abid; Shehzad, Khurram; Ur-Rahman, Faiz; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Khurram, Muhammad; Mumtaz, Muhammad; Sagar, Rizwan Ur Rehman

    2016-09-28

    A platinum-free counter electrode composed of surface modified aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) fibers was fabricated for efficient flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Surface modification of MWCNTs fibers with simple one step hydrothermal deposition of cobalt selenide nanoparticles, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, provided a significant improvement (∼2-times) in their electrocatalytic activity. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy suggest a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 6.42% for our modified fibers, higher than 3.4% and 5.6% efficeincy of pristine MWCNTs fiber and commonly used Pt wire, respectively. Good mechanical and performance stability after repeated bending and high output voltage for in-series connection suggest that our surface modified MWCNTs fiber based DSSCs may find applications as flexible power source in next-generation flexible/wearable electronics.

  13. High-efficiency robust perovskite solar cells on ultrathin flexible substrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaowen; Meng, Lei; Yang, Yang Michael; Xu, Guiying; Hong, Ziruo; Chen, Qi; You, Jingbi; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang; Li, Yongfang

    2016-01-01

    Wide applications of personal consumer electronics have triggered tremendous need for portable power sources featuring light-weight and mechanical flexibility. Perovskite solar cells offer a compelling combination of low-cost and high device performance. Here we demonstrate high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells constructed on highly flexible and ultrathin silver-mesh/conducting polymer substrates. The device performance is comparable to that of their counterparts on rigid glass/indium tin oxide substrates, reaching a power conversion efficiency of 14.0%, while the specific power (the ratio of power to device weight) reaches 1.96 kW kg(-1), given the fact that the device is constructed on a 57-μm-thick polyethylene terephthalate based substrate. The flexible device also demonstrates excellent robustness against mechanical deformation, retaining >95% of its original efficiency after 5,000 times fully bending. Our results confirmed that perovskite thin films are fully compatible with our flexible substrates, and are thus promising for future applications in flexible and bendable solar cells. PMID:26750664

  14. High-efficiency robust perovskite solar cells on ultrathin flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yaowen; Meng, Lei; Yang, Yang (Michael); Xu, Guiying; Hong, Ziruo; Chen, Qi; You, Jingbi; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang; Li, Yongfang

    2016-01-01

    Wide applications of personal consumer electronics have triggered tremendous need for portable power sources featuring light-weight and mechanical flexibility. Perovskite solar cells offer a compelling combination of low-cost and high device performance. Here we demonstrate high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells constructed on highly flexible and ultrathin silver-mesh/conducting polymer substrates. The device performance is comparable to that of their counterparts on rigid glass/indium tin oxide substrates, reaching a power conversion efficiency of 14.0%, while the specific power (the ratio of power to device weight) reaches 1.96 kW kg-1, given the fact that the device is constructed on a 57-μm-thick polyethylene terephthalate based substrate. The flexible device also demonstrates excellent robustness against mechanical deformation, retaining >95% of its original efficiency after 5,000 times fully bending. Our results confirmed that perovskite thin films are fully compatible with our flexible substrates, and are thus promising for future applications in flexible and bendable solar cells.

  15. High-efficiency robust perovskite solar cells on ultrathin flexible substrates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaowen; Meng, Lei; Yang, Yang (Michael); Xu, Guiying; Hong, Ziruo; Chen, Qi; You, Jingbi; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang; Li, Yongfang

    2016-01-01

    Wide applications of personal consumer electronics have triggered tremendous need for portable power sources featuring light-weight and mechanical flexibility. Perovskite solar cells offer a compelling combination of low-cost and high device performance. Here we demonstrate high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells constructed on highly flexible and ultrathin silver-mesh/conducting polymer substrates. The device performance is comparable to that of their counterparts on rigid glass/indium tin oxide substrates, reaching a power conversion efficiency of 14.0%, while the specific power (the ratio of power to device weight) reaches 1.96 kW kg−1, given the fact that the device is constructed on a 57-μm-thick polyethylene terephthalate based substrate. The flexible device also demonstrates excellent robustness against mechanical deformation, retaining >95% of its original efficiency after 5,000 times fully bending. Our results confirmed that perovskite thin films are fully compatible with our flexible substrates, and are thus promising for future applications in flexible and bendable solar cells. PMID:26750664

  16. High-efficiency robust perovskite solar cells on ultrathin flexible substrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaowen; Meng, Lei; Yang, Yang Michael; Xu, Guiying; Hong, Ziruo; Chen, Qi; You, Jingbi; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang; Li, Yongfang

    2016-01-11

    Wide applications of personal consumer electronics have triggered tremendous need for portable power sources featuring light-weight and mechanical flexibility. Perovskite solar cells offer a compelling combination of low-cost and high device performance. Here we demonstrate high-performance planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells constructed on highly flexible and ultrathin silver-mesh/conducting polymer substrates. The device performance is comparable to that of their counterparts on rigid glass/indium tin oxide substrates, reaching a power conversion efficiency of 14.0%, while the specific power (the ratio of power to device weight) reaches 1.96 kW kg(-1), given the fact that the device is constructed on a 57-μm-thick polyethylene terephthalate based substrate. The flexible device also demonstrates excellent robustness against mechanical deformation, retaining >95% of its original efficiency after 5,000 times fully bending. Our results confirmed that perovskite thin films are fully compatible with our flexible substrates, and are thus promising for future applications in flexible and bendable solar cells.

  17. Highly efficient blue organic light emitting devices with indium-free transparent anode on flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Liang; Swensen, James S.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Matson, Dean W.; Bonham, Charles C.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2010-09-30

    Indium-free transparent conducting oxides may provide a lower cost solution for the transparent anode in flexible displays and energy efficient solid state lighting. We report herein a near room temperature sputtering process for generating an indium-free transparent conductive oxide (TCO) coating on a flexible substrate. Specifically, we deposited gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) uniformly over a 12” diameter area at room temperature on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). During deposition, the system heats to about 60oC due to the energetic sputtering conditions, without any noticeable damage to the PET substrate. The GZO films exhibit excellent physical, optical and electrical properties: roughness ~7 nm, transmittance >85% and resistivity ~ 10-3 ohm• cm. Phosphorescent blue organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) were fabricated on these substrates with comparable performance (16% external quantum efficiency and 33 lm/W power efficiency at 1mA/cm2) to that of devices fabricated on GZO (or ITO) deposited on glass substrates, suggesting flexible GZO/PET substrates may be used instead of high-cost and rigid ITO and glass for flexible displays and solid state lighting.

  18. Highly efficient single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sunghyun; Kim, Kangho; Kim, Youngjo; Heo, Junseok; Lee, Jaejin

    2016-01-01

    There has been much interest in developing a thin-film solar cell because it is lightweight and flexible. The GaAs thin-film solar cell is a top contender in the thin-film solar cell market in that it has a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to that of other thin-film solar cells. There are two common structures for the GaAs solar cell: n (emitter)-on-p (base) and p-on-n. The former performs better due to its high collection efficiency because the electron diffusion length of the p-type base region is much longer than the hole diffusion length of the n-type base region. However, it has been limited to fabricate highly efficient n-on-p single-junction GaAs thin film solar cell on a flexible substrate due to technical obstacles. We investigated a simple and fast epitaxial lift-off (ELO) method that uses a stress originating from a Cr/Au bilayer on a 125-μm-thick flexible substrate. A metal combination of AuBe/Pt/Au is employed as a new p-type ohmic contact with which an n-on-p single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate was successfully fabricated. The PCE of the fabricated single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cells reached 22.08% under air mass 1.5 global illumination. PMID:27435899

  19. Highly efficient single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Sunghyun; Kim, Kangho; Kim, Youngjo; Heo, Junseok; Lee, Jaejin

    2016-07-01

    There has been much interest in developing a thin-film solar cell because it is lightweight and flexible. The GaAs thin-film solar cell is a top contender in the thin-film solar cell market in that it has a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to that of other thin-film solar cells. There are two common structures for the GaAs solar cell: n (emitter)-on-p (base) and p-on-n. The former performs better due to its high collection efficiency because the electron diffusion length of the p-type base region is much longer than the hole diffusion length of the n-type base region. However, it has been limited to fabricate highly efficient n-on-p single-junction GaAs thin film solar cell on a flexible substrate due to technical obstacles. We investigated a simple and fast epitaxial lift-off (ELO) method that uses a stress originating from a Cr/Au bilayer on a 125-μm-thick flexible substrate. A metal combination of AuBe/Pt/Au is employed as a new p-type ohmic contact with which an n-on-p single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate was successfully fabricated. The PCE of the fabricated single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cells reached 22.08% under air mass 1.5 global illumination.

  20. Highly efficient single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sunghyun; Kim, Kangho; Kim, Youngjo; Heo, Junseok; Lee, Jaejin

    2016-07-20

    There has been much interest in developing a thin-film solar cell because it is lightweight and flexible. The GaAs thin-film solar cell is a top contender in the thin-film solar cell market in that it has a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to that of other thin-film solar cells. There are two common structures for the GaAs solar cell: n (emitter)-on-p (base) and p-on-n. The former performs better due to its high collection efficiency because the electron diffusion length of the p-type base region is much longer than the hole diffusion length of the n-type base region. However, it has been limited to fabricate highly efficient n-on-p single-junction GaAs thin film solar cell on a flexible substrate due to technical obstacles. We investigated a simple and fast epitaxial lift-off (ELO) method that uses a stress originating from a Cr/Au bilayer on a 125-μm-thick flexible substrate. A metal combination of AuBe/Pt/Au is employed as a new p-type ohmic contact with which an n-on-p single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate was successfully fabricated. The PCE of the fabricated single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cells reached 22.08% under air mass 1.5 global illumination.

  1. An easy and efficient method for flexible robots modeling and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celentano, Laura

    2013-10-01

    In this paper a very easy, numerically stable and computationally efficient method is presented, which allows to model and simulate a flexible robot with high precision, also under the hypothesis of large link deformations and of time-varying geometrical and physical parameters of the robot and of the end-effector. This methodology uses the same approach of the rigid robots modeling, after suitably and fictitiously subdividing each link of the robot into sublinks, rigid to the aim of the calculus of the inertia matrix and flexible to the aim of the calculus of the elastic matrix. The static and dynamic precision of the method is proved with interesting theorems. Finally, the method is used to model, control and simulate a crane with three flexible links and a varying length cable carrying a body with a variable mass.

  2. Efficiency and Effectiveness in Higher Education: Who Is Accountable for What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, John

    2008-01-01

    There is little doubt that the modern university is far different to that of the early 90s and the work of academics has changed considerably over this time driven by the efficiency and accountability agenda. In taking stock of the changes, it needs to be recognised that often the cry for efficiency and accountability has been used as a mechanism…

  3. A Solution Processed Flexible Nanocomposite Electrode with Efficient Light Extraction for Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lu; Liang, Jiajie; Chou, Shu-Yu; Zhu, Xiaodan; Niu, Xiaofan; ZhibinYu; Pei, Qibing

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on multiple layers of vapor evaporated small molecules, indium tin oxide transparent electrode, and glass substrate have been extensively investigated and are being commercialized. The light extraction from the exciton radiative decay is limited to less than 30% due to plasmonic quenching on the metallic cathode and the waveguide in the multi-layer sandwich structure. Here we report a flexible nanocomposite electrode comprising single-walled carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires stacked and embedded in the surface of a polymer substrate. Nanoparticles of barium strontium titanate are dispersed within the substrate to enhance light extraction efficiency. Green polymer OLED (PLEDs) fabricated on the nanocomposite electrode exhibit a maximum current efficiency of 118 cd/A at 10,000 cd/m2 with the calculated external quantum efficiency being 38.9%. The efficiencies of white PLEDs are 46.7 cd/A and 30.5%, respectively. The devices can be bent to 3 mm radius repeatedly without significant loss of electroluminescent performance. The nanocomposite electrode could pave the way to high-efficiency flexible OLEDs with simplified device structure and low fabrication cost. PMID:24632742

  4. A solution processed flexible nanocomposite electrode with efficient light extraction for organic light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Liang, Jiajie; Chou, Shu-Yu; Zhu, Xiaodan; Niu, Xiaofan; ZhibinYu; Pei, Qibing

    2014-03-17

    Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on multiple layers of vapor evaporated small molecules, indium tin oxide transparent electrode, and glass substrate have been extensively investigated and are being commercialized. The light extraction from the exciton radiative decay is limited to less than 30% due to plasmonic quenching on the metallic cathode and the waveguide in the multi-layer sandwich structure. Here we report a flexible nanocomposite electrode comprising single-walled carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires stacked and embedded in the surface of a polymer substrate. Nanoparticles of barium strontium titanate are dispersed within the substrate to enhance light extraction efficiency. Green polymer OLED (PLEDs) fabricated on the nanocomposite electrode exhibit a maximum current efficiency of 118 cd/A at 10,000 cd/m(2) with the calculated external quantum efficiency being 38.9%. The efficiencies of white PLEDs are 46.7 cd/A and 30.5%, respectively. The devices can be bent to 3 mm radius repeatedly without significant loss of electroluminescent performance. The nanocomposite electrode could pave the way to high-efficiency flexible OLEDs with simplified device structure and low fabrication cost.

  5. Strong photocurrent enhancements in highly efficient flexible organic solar cells by adopting a microcavity configuration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kung-Shih; Yip, Hin-Lap; Salinas, José-Francisco; Xu, Yun-Xiang; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2014-05-28

    Organic solar cells often show inefficient light harvesting due to a short absorption path length limited by the low charge mobility of organic semiconductors. We demonstrate a flexible organic solar cell in a microcavity configuration using a TeO2/Ag semitransparent electrode to confine the optical field within the device with significant performance improvements and reaching a power conversion efficiency of 8.56%.

  6. Efficient, flexible and mechanically robust perovskite solar cells on inverted nanocone plastic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Lin, Qingfeng; Leung, Siu-Fung; Lui, Ga Ching; Lu, Hao; Li, Liang; Xiang, Bin; Fan, Zhiyong

    2016-02-01

    Utilization of nanostructures on photovoltaic devices can significantly improve the device energy conversion efficiency by enhancing the device light harvesting capability as well as carrier collection efficiency. However, improvements in device mechanical robustness and reliability, particularly for flexible devices, have rarely been reported with in-depth understanding. In this work, we fabricated efficient, flexible and mechanically robust organometallic perovskite solar cells on plastic substrates with inverted nanocone (i-cone) structures. Compared with the reference cell that was fabricated on a flat substrate, it was shown that the device power conversion efficiency could be improved by 37%, and reached up to 11.29% on i-cone substrates. More interestingly, it was discovered that the performance of an i-cone device remained more than 90% of the initial value even after 200 mechanical bending cycles, which is remarkably better than for the flat reference device, which degraded down to only 60% in the same test. Our experiments, coupled with mechanical simulation, demonstrated that a nanostructured template can greatly help in relaxing stress and strain upon device bending, which suppresses crack nucleation in different layers of a perovskite solar cell. This essentially leads to much improved device reliability and robustness and will have significant impact on practical applications.Utilization of nanostructures on photovoltaic devices can significantly improve the device energy conversion efficiency by enhancing the device light harvesting capability as well as carrier collection efficiency. However, improvements in device mechanical robustness and reliability, particularly for flexible devices, have rarely been reported with in-depth understanding. In this work, we fabricated efficient, flexible and mechanically robust organometallic perovskite solar cells on plastic substrates with inverted nanocone (i-cone) structures. Compared with the reference cell

  7. Stable ultrathin partially oxidized copper film electrode for highly efficient flexible solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoqing; Wang, Wei; Bae, Tae-Sung; Lee, Sang-Geul; Mun, ChaeWon; Lee, Sunghun; Yu, Huashun; Lee, Gun-Hwan; Song, Myungkwan; Yun, Jungheum

    2015-01-01

    Advances in flexible optoelectronic devices have led to an increasing need for developing highly efficient, low-cost, flexible transparent conducting electrodes. Copper-based electrodes have been unattainable due to the relatively low optical transmission and poor oxidation resistance of copper. Here, we report the synthesis of a completely continuous, smooth copper ultra-thin film via limited copper oxidation with a trace amount of oxygen. The weakly oxidized copper thin film sandwiched between zinc oxide films exhibits good optoelectrical performance (an average transmittance of 83% over the visible spectral range of 400–800 nm and a sheet resistance of 9 Ω sq−1) and strong oxidation resistance. These values surpass those previously reported for copper-based electrodes; further, the record power conversion efficiency of 7.5% makes it clear that the use of an oxidized copper-based transparent electrode on a polymer substrate can provide an effective solution for the fabrication of flexible organic solar cells. PMID:26538008

  8. Efficient, flexible and mechanically robust perovskite solar cells on inverted nanocone plastic substrates.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Lin, Qingfeng; Leung, Siu-Fung; Lui, Ga Ching; Lu, Hao; Li, Liang; Xiang, Bin; Fan, Zhiyong

    2016-02-21

    Utilization of nanostructures on photovoltaic devices can significantly improve the device energy conversion efficiency by enhancing the device light harvesting capability as well as carrier collection efficiency. However, improvements in device mechanical robustness and reliability, particularly for flexible devices, have rarely been reported with in-depth understanding. In this work, we fabricated efficient, flexible and mechanically robust organometallic perovskite solar cells on plastic substrates with inverted nanocone (i-cone) structures. Compared with the reference cell that was fabricated on a flat substrate, it was shown that the device power conversion efficiency could be improved by 37%, and reached up to 11.29% on i-cone substrates. More interestingly, it was discovered that the performance of an i-cone device remained more than 90% of the initial value even after 200 mechanical bending cycles, which is remarkably better than for the flat reference device, which degraded down to only 60% in the same test. Our experiments, coupled with mechanical simulation, demonstrated that a nanostructured template can greatly help in relaxing stress and strain upon device bending, which suppresses crack nucleation in different layers of a perovskite solar cell. This essentially leads to much improved device reliability and robustness and will have significant impact on practical applications. PMID:26837801

  9. Efficient, flexible and mechanically robust perovskite solar cells on inverted nanocone plastic substrates.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Lin, Qingfeng; Leung, Siu-Fung; Lui, Ga Ching; Lu, Hao; Li, Liang; Xiang, Bin; Fan, Zhiyong

    2016-02-21

    Utilization of nanostructures on photovoltaic devices can significantly improve the device energy conversion efficiency by enhancing the device light harvesting capability as well as carrier collection efficiency. However, improvements in device mechanical robustness and reliability, particularly for flexible devices, have rarely been reported with in-depth understanding. In this work, we fabricated efficient, flexible and mechanically robust organometallic perovskite solar cells on plastic substrates with inverted nanocone (i-cone) structures. Compared with the reference cell that was fabricated on a flat substrate, it was shown that the device power conversion efficiency could be improved by 37%, and reached up to 11.29% on i-cone substrates. More interestingly, it was discovered that the performance of an i-cone device remained more than 90% of the initial value even after 200 mechanical bending cycles, which is remarkably better than for the flat reference device, which degraded down to only 60% in the same test. Our experiments, coupled with mechanical simulation, demonstrated that a nanostructured template can greatly help in relaxing stress and strain upon device bending, which suppresses crack nucleation in different layers of a perovskite solar cell. This essentially leads to much improved device reliability and robustness and will have significant impact on practical applications.

  10. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to

  11. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, David J., Ed.

    This monograph, prepared to assist Georgia elementary principals to better understand accountability and its implications for educational improvement, sets forth many of the theoretical and philosophical bases from which accountability is being considered. Leon M. Lessinger begins this 5-paper presentation by describing the need for accountability…

  12. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  13. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Controversy surrounding the accountability movement is related to how the movement began in response to dissatisfaction with public schools. Opponents see it as one-sided, somewhat mean-spirited, and a threat to the professional status of teachers. Supporters argue that all other spheres of the workplace have accountability systems and that the…

  14. A flexible and efficient multi-model framework in support of water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfs, Vincent; Tran Quoc, Quan; Willems, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Flexible, fast and accurate water quantity models are essential tools in support of water management. Adjustable levels of model detail and the ability to handle varying spatial and temporal resolutions are requisite model characteristics to ensure that such models can be employed efficiently in various applications. This paper uses a newly developed flexible modelling framework that aims to generate such models. The framework incorporates several approaches to model catchment hydrology, rivers and floodplains, and the urban drainage system by lumping processes on different levels. To illustrate this framework, a case study of integrated hydrological-hydraulic modelling is elaborated for the Grote Nete catchment in Belgium. Three conceptual rainfall-runoff models (NAM, PDM and VHM) were implemented in a generalized model structure, allowing flexibility in the spatial resolution by means of an innovative disaggregation/aggregation procedure. They were linked to conceptual hydraulic models of the rivers in the catchment, which were developed by means of an advanced model structure identification and calibration procedure. The conceptual models manage to emulate the simulation results of a detailed full hydrodynamic model accurately. The models configured using the approaches of this framework are well-suited for many applications in water management due to their very short calculation time, interfacing possibilities and adjustable level of detail.

  15. Efficient passive pitching motion caused by elastic deformation in flexible flapping wing MAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Trong; Truong, Tien; Yeo, Khoon Seng; Lim, Tee Tai

    2015-11-01

    Computational and experimental models which mimic Hawkmoth wings were constructed to investigate the effects of wing flexibility. The wing actuation mechanism is minimal with only one degree of freedom in sweeping motion with neither active pitching nor elevation. Despite the simplicity of the imparted motion, the wing models in both computations and experiments delivered convincing deformation features such as wing twisting and camber which closely resembles the ones observed in real Hawkmoth wings. The generated aerodynamic forces are remarkable both in magnitude and efficiency. The study hence reveals that a complicated actuation mechanism might not be required to produce the sophisticated and efficient motion of insect wings, which in fact could be the result of collective elastic deformation thanks to their highly optimized structure mainly comprised of well-organized veins and membranes.

  16. Graphene oxide/graphene vertical heterostructure electrodes for highly efficient and flexible organic light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Jia, S; Sun, H D; Du, J H; Zhang, Z K; Zhang, D D; Ma, L P; Chen, J S; Ma, D G; Cheng, H M; Ren, W C

    2016-05-19

    The relatively high sheet resistance, low work function and poor compatibility with hole injection layers (HILs) seriously limit the applications of graphene as transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Here, a graphene oxide/graphene (GO/G) vertical heterostructure is developed as TCEs for high-performance OLEDs, by directly oxidizing the top layer of three-layer graphene films with ozone treatment. Such GO/G heterostructure electrodes show greatly improved optical transmittance, a large work function, high stability, and good compatibility with HIL materials (MoO3 in this work). Moreover, the conductivity of the heterostructure is not sacrificed compared to the pristine three-layer graphene electrodes, but is significantly higher than that of pristine two-layer graphene films. In addition to high flexibility, OLEDs with different emission colors based on the GO/G heterostructure TCEs show much better performance than those based on indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes. Green OLEDs with GO/G heterostructure electrodes have the maximum current efficiency and power efficiency, as high as 82.0 cd A(-1) and 98.2 lm W(-1), respectively, which are 36.7% (14.8%) and 59.2% (15.0%) higher than those with pristine graphene (ITO) anodes. These findings open up the possibility of using graphene for next generation high-performance flexible and wearable optoelectronics with high stability. PMID:27153523

  17. Graphene oxide/graphene vertical heterostructure electrodes for highly efficient and flexible organic light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Jia, S; Sun, H D; Du, J H; Zhang, Z K; Zhang, D D; Ma, L P; Chen, J S; Ma, D G; Cheng, H M; Ren, W C

    2016-05-19

    The relatively high sheet resistance, low work function and poor compatibility with hole injection layers (HILs) seriously limit the applications of graphene as transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Here, a graphene oxide/graphene (GO/G) vertical heterostructure is developed as TCEs for high-performance OLEDs, by directly oxidizing the top layer of three-layer graphene films with ozone treatment. Such GO/G heterostructure electrodes show greatly improved optical transmittance, a large work function, high stability, and good compatibility with HIL materials (MoO3 in this work). Moreover, the conductivity of the heterostructure is not sacrificed compared to the pristine three-layer graphene electrodes, but is significantly higher than that of pristine two-layer graphene films. In addition to high flexibility, OLEDs with different emission colors based on the GO/G heterostructure TCEs show much better performance than those based on indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes. Green OLEDs with GO/G heterostructure electrodes have the maximum current efficiency and power efficiency, as high as 82.0 cd A(-1) and 98.2 lm W(-1), respectively, which are 36.7% (14.8%) and 59.2% (15.0%) higher than those with pristine graphene (ITO) anodes. These findings open up the possibility of using graphene for next generation high-performance flexible and wearable optoelectronics with high stability.

  18. An efficient approach to dynamics and control of flexible multibody systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modi, V. J.; Ng, A. C.; Suleman, A.

    A relatively general formulation for studying the dynamics and control of an arbitrary spacecraft, with interconnected flexible, deployable and articulating structural members, is reviewed which accounts for thermal deflection, transient system properties, shift in the center of mass, shear deformations, rotary inertias and geometric nonlinearities. A rather self-contained, comprehensive, numerical algorithm using system as well as component modes follows which is applicable to a large class of spacecraft configurations of contemporary and future interests. Versatility of the general formulation has been assessed so far through its application to Japan's Space Flyer Unit (SFU); Canadian Mobile Servicing System (MSS); and the recently launched (August 1992) Indian communications satellite INSAT-2. Here the focus is on the dynamics and control studies aimed at the evolving Space Station Freedom.

  19. Graphene oxide/graphene vertical heterostructure electrodes for highly efficient and flexible organic light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, S.; Sun, H. D.; Du, J. H.; Zhang, Z. K.; Zhang, D. D.; Ma, L. P.; Chen, J. S.; Ma, D. G.; Cheng, H. M.; Ren, W. C.

    2016-05-01

    The relatively high sheet resistance, low work function and poor compatibility with hole injection layers (HILs) seriously limit the applications of graphene as transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Here, a graphene oxide/graphene (GO/G) vertical heterostructure is developed as TCEs for high-performance OLEDs, by directly oxidizing the top layer of three-layer graphene films with ozone treatment. Such GO/G heterostructure electrodes show greatly improved optical transmittance, a large work function, high stability, and good compatibility with HIL materials (MoO3 in this work). Moreover, the conductivity of the heterostructure is not sacrificed compared to the pristine three-layer graphene electrodes, but is significantly higher than that of pristine two-layer graphene films. In addition to high flexibility, OLEDs with different emission colors based on the GO/G heterostructure TCEs show much better performance than those based on indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes. Green OLEDs with GO/G heterostructure electrodes have the maximum current efficiency and power efficiency, as high as 82.0 cd A-1 and 98.2 lm W-1, respectively, which are 36.7% (14.8%) and 59.2% (15.0%) higher than those with pristine graphene (ITO) anodes. These findings open up the possibility of using graphene for next generation high-performance flexible and wearable optoelectronics with high stability.The relatively high sheet resistance, low work function and poor compatibility with hole injection layers (HILs) seriously limit the applications of graphene as transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Here, a graphene oxide/graphene (GO/G) vertical heterostructure is developed as TCEs for high-performance OLEDs, by directly oxidizing the top layer of three-layer graphene films with ozone treatment. Such GO/G heterostructure electrodes show greatly improved optical transmittance, a large work function, high stability

  20. Flexible indium zinc oxide/Ag/indium zinc oxide multilayer electrode grown on polyethersulfone substrate by cost-efficient roll-to-roll sputtering for flexible organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Yong-Seok; Kim, Han-Ki

    2010-01-15

    The authors describe the preparation and characteristics of flexible indium zinc oxide (IZO)-Ag-IZO multilayer electrodes grown on flexible polyethersulfone (PES) substrates using a roll-to-roll sputtering system for use in flexible organic photovoltaics. By the continuous roll-to-roll sputtering of the bottom IZO, Ag, and top IZO layers at room temperature, they were able to fabricate a high quality IZO-Ag-IZO multilayer electrode with a sheet resistance of 6.15 {epsilon}/square, optical transmittance of 87.4%, and figure of merit value of 42.03x10{sup -3} {Omega}{sup -1} on the PES substrate. In addition, the IZO-Ag-IZO multilayer electrode exhibited superior flexibility to the roll-to-roll sputter grown single ITO electrode due to the existence of a ductile Ag layer between the IZO layers and stable amorphous structure of the IZO film. Furthermore, the flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) fabricated on the roll-to-roll sputter grown IZO-Ag-IZO electrode showed higher power efficiency (3.51%) than the OSCs fabricated on the roll-to-roll sputter grown single ITO electrode (2.67%).

  1. An efficient and flexible Abel-inversion method for noisy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antokhin, Igor I.

    2016-08-01

    We propose an efficient and flexible method for solving Abel integral equation of the first kind, frequently appearing in many fields of astrophysics, physics, chemistry, and applied sciences. This equation represents an ill-posed problem, thus solving it requires some kind of regularization. Our method is based on solving the equation on a so-called compact set of functions and/or using Tikhonov's regularization. A priori constraints on the unknown function, defining a compact set, are very loose and can be set using simple physical considerations. Tikhonov's regularization on itself does not require any explicit a priori constraints on the unknown function and can be used independently of such constraints or in combination with them. Various target degrees of smoothness of the unknown function may be set, as required by the problem at hand. The advantage of the method, apart from its flexibility, is that it gives uniform convergence of the approximate solution to the exact solution, as the errors of input data tend to zero. The method is illustrated on several simulated models with known solutions. An example of astrophysical application of the method is also given.

  2. The respiratory efficiency and flexibility of erythrocytes stored in acid-citrate-dextrose solution

    PubMed Central

    Sirs, John A.

    1969-01-01

    1. Measurements have been made of the flexibility and respiratory efficiency of erythrocytes stored in acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD). 2. The rate of packing of stored blood, during centrifugation, indicates that the red blood cells are relatively inflexible. 3. Spectrophotometric observations, using the rapid-mixing and stopped-flow technique, indicate that the rate of egress of oxygen from HbO2 in these erythrocytes is significantly reduced. This is not due to a change of the chemical rate of dissociation of HbO2. 4. Neither factor is significantly reversed by resuspending the cells in Ringer-Locke solution or adjusting to pH 7·4. 5. A small improvement is obtained by adding hypertonic NaCl or incubating the blood at 37° C for 1 hr. 6. Incubation with adenosine, 25 μ-mole/ml. blood, at 37° C for at least 1 hr, restored both the respiratory function and flexibility to normal. PMID:5821931

  3. Biomimetic flexible plate actuators are faster and more efficient with a passive attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Peter D.; Alexeev, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Using three-dimensional computer simulations, we probe biomimetic free swimming of an internally actuated flexible plate in the regime near the first natural frequency. The plate is driven by an oscillating internal moment approximating the actuation mechanism of a piezoelectric macro fiber composite (MFC) bimorph. We show in our simulations that the addition of a passive attachment increases both swimming velocity and efficiency. Specifically, if the active and passive sections are of similar size, the overall performance is the best. We determine that this optimum is a result of two competing factors. If the passive section is too large, then the actuated portion is unable to generate substantial deflection to create sufficient thrust. On the other hand, a large actuated section leads to a bending pattern that is inefficient at generating thrust especially at higher frequencies.

  4. Flexible thin-film black gold membranes with ultrabroadband plasmonic nanofocusing for efficient solar vapour generation.

    PubMed

    Bae, Kyuyoung; Kang, Gumin; Cho, Suehyun K; Park, Wounjhang; Kim, Kyoungsik; Padilla, Willie J

    2015-12-14

    Solar steam generation has been achieved by surface plasmon heating with metallic nanoshells or nanoparticles, which have inherently narrow absorption bandwidth. For efficient light-to-heat conversion from a wider solar spectrum, we employ adiabatic plasmonic nanofocusing to attain both polarization-independent ultrabroadband light absorption and high plasmon dissipation loss. Here we demonstrate large area, flexible thin-film black gold membranes, which have multiscale structures of varying metallic nanoscale gaps (0-200 nm) as well as microscale funnel structures. The adiabatic nanofocusing of self-aggregated metallic nanowire bundle arrays produces average absorption of 91% at 400-2,500 nm and the microscale funnel structures lead to average reflection of 7% at 2.5-17 μm. This membrane allows heat localization within the few micrometre-thick layer and continuous water provision through micropores. We efficiently generate water vapour with solar thermal conversion efficiency up to 57% at 20 kW m(-2). This new structure has a variety of applications in solar energy harvesting, thermoplasmonics and related technologies.

  5. Organic MEMS/NEMS-based high-efficiency 3D ITO-less flexible photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassegne, Sam; Moon, Kee; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Majzoub, Mohammad; Őzturk, Gunay; Desai, Krishna; Parikh, Mihir; Nguyen, Bao; Khosla, Ajit; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro

    2012-11-01

    A novel approach based on three-dimensional (3D) architecture for polymeric photovoltaic cells made up of an array of sub-micron and nano-pillars which not only increase the area of the light absorbing surface, but also improve the carrier collection efficiency of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells is presented. The approach also introduces coating of 3D anodes with a new solution-processable highly conductive transparent polymer (Orgacon™) that replaces expensive vacuum-deposited ITO (indium tin oxide) as well as the additional hole-collecting layer of conventional PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate)). In addition, the described procedure is well suited to roll-to-roll high-throughput manufacturing. The high aspect-ratio 3D pillars which form the basis for this new architecture are patterned through micro-electromechanical-system- and nano-electromechanical-system-based processes. For the particular case of P3HT (poly(3-hexylthiophene)) and PCBM (phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) active material, efficiencies in excess of 6% have been achieved for these photovoltaic cells of 3D architecture using ITO-less flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates. This increase in efficiency turns out to be more than twice higher than those achieved for their 2D counterparts.

  6. Flexible thin-film black gold membranes with ultrabroadband plasmonic nanofocusing for efficient solar vapour generation.

    PubMed

    Bae, Kyuyoung; Kang, Gumin; Cho, Suehyun K; Park, Wounjhang; Kim, Kyoungsik; Padilla, Willie J

    2015-01-01

    Solar steam generation has been achieved by surface plasmon heating with metallic nanoshells or nanoparticles, which have inherently narrow absorption bandwidth. For efficient light-to-heat conversion from a wider solar spectrum, we employ adiabatic plasmonic nanofocusing to attain both polarization-independent ultrabroadband light absorption and high plasmon dissipation loss. Here we demonstrate large area, flexible thin-film black gold membranes, which have multiscale structures of varying metallic nanoscale gaps (0-200 nm) as well as microscale funnel structures. The adiabatic nanofocusing of self-aggregated metallic nanowire bundle arrays produces average absorption of 91% at 400-2,500 nm and the microscale funnel structures lead to average reflection of 7% at 2.5-17 μm. This membrane allows heat localization within the few micrometre-thick layer and continuous water provision through micropores. We efficiently generate water vapour with solar thermal conversion efficiency up to 57% at 20 kW m(-2). This new structure has a variety of applications in solar energy harvesting, thermoplasmonics and related technologies. PMID:26657535

  7. Flexible thin-film black gold membranes with ultrabroadband plasmonic nanofocusing for efficient solar vapour generation

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Kyuyoung; Kang, Gumin; Cho, Suehyun K.; Park, Wounjhang; Kim, Kyoungsik; Padilla, Willie J.

    2015-01-01

    Solar steam generation has been achieved by surface plasmon heating with metallic nanoshells or nanoparticles, which have inherently narrow absorption bandwidth. For efficient light-to-heat conversion from a wider solar spectrum, we employ adiabatic plasmonic nanofocusing to attain both polarization-independent ultrabroadband light absorption and high plasmon dissipation loss. Here we demonstrate large area, flexible thin-film black gold membranes, which have multiscale structures of varying metallic nanoscale gaps (0–200 nm) as well as microscale funnel structures. The adiabatic nanofocusing of self-aggregated metallic nanowire bundle arrays produces average absorption of 91% at 400–2,500 nm and the microscale funnel structures lead to average reflection of 7% at 2.5–17 μm. This membrane allows heat localization within the few micrometre-thick layer and continuous water provision through micropores. We efficiently generate water vapour with solar thermal conversion efficiency up to 57% at 20 kW m−2. This new structure has a variety of applications in solar energy harvesting, thermoplasmonics and related technologies. PMID:26657535

  8. PLATSIM: An efficient linear simulation and analysis package for large-order flexible systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Periman; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    1995-01-01

    PLATSIM is a software package designed to provide efficient time and frequency domain analysis of large-order generic space platforms implemented with any linear time-invariant control system. Time domain analysis provides simulations of the overall spacecraft response levels due to either onboard or external disturbances. The time domain results can then be processed by the jitter analysis module to assess the spacecraft's pointing performance in a computationally efficient manner. The resulting jitter analysis algorithms have produced an increase in speed of several orders of magnitude over the brute force approach of sweeping minima and maxima. Frequency domain analysis produces frequency response functions for uncontrolled and controlled platform configurations. The latter represents an enabling technology for large-order flexible systems. PLATSIM uses a sparse matrix formulation for the spacecraft dynamics model which makes both the time and frequency domain operations quite efficient, particularly when a large number of modes are required to capture the true dynamics of the spacecraft. The package is written in MATLAB script language. A graphical user interface (GUI) is included in the PLATSIM software package. This GUI uses MATLAB's Handle graphics to provide a convenient way for setting simulation and analysis parameters.

  9. High-Efficiency Microiterative Optimization in QM/MM Simulations of Large Flexible Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Xie, Peng; He, Xiaohu; Han, Keli

    2016-09-13

    We present here a double-optimizations-of-buffer-region (DOBR) microiterative scheme for high-efficiency energy minimizations of large, flexible systems in combined quantum-mechanical/molecular-mechanical (QM/MM) calculations. In the DOBR scheme, an entire system is divided into three regions: the core, buffer, and outer regions. The core region includes QM atoms and the MM atoms within a cutoff distance R1 to the QM atoms (denoted by MM1 atoms), and the buffer region consists of MM atoms within another cutoff distance R2 to MM1 atoms. Each DOBR microcycle involves two steps: First, QM atoms are assigned electrostatic-potential (ESP) charges, and the buffer and outer regions are optimized at the MM level with the core region kept frozen. Second, the core and buffer regions are optimized at the QM/MM level using the electrostatic embedding with the outer region kept frozen. The two steps are repeated until two optimizations converge at one structure. The DOBR scheme was tested in the optimizations of nucleobases solvated in water spheres of 30 Å radius, where the initial geometries were extracted from the trajectories of classical molecular dynamics simulations, and the cutoff distances R1 and R2 were set to 5.0 and 4.0 Å, respectively. For comparisons, the optimizations were also carried out by a "standard" scheme without microiteration and by the two-region microiterative (TRM) method. We found that the averaged number of QM calculations for the DOBR scheme is only ∼1% of that of the standard scheme and ∼6% of the TRM approach. The promising results indicate that the DOBR scheme could significantly increase the efficiency of geometry optimizations for large, flexible systems in QM/MM calculations. PMID:27505170

  10. Full cost accounting in the analysis of separated waste collection efficiency: A methodological proposal.

    PubMed

    D'Onza, Giuseppe; Greco, Giulio; Allegrini, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Recycling implies additional costs for separated municipal solid waste (MSW) collection. The aim of the present study is to propose and implement a management tool - the full cost accounting (FCA) method - to calculate the full collection costs of different types of waste. Our analysis aims for a better understanding of the difficulties of putting FCA into practice in the MSW sector. We propose a FCA methodology that uses standard cost and actual quantities to calculate the collection costs of separate and undifferentiated waste. Our methodology allows cost efficiency analysis and benchmarking, overcoming problems related to firm-specific accounting choices, earnings management policies and purchase policies. Our methodology allows benchmarking and variance analysis that can be used to identify the causes of off-standards performance and guide managers to deploy resources more efficiently. Our methodology can be implemented by companies lacking a sophisticated management accounting system. PMID:26613351

  11. Full cost accounting in the analysis of separated waste collection efficiency: A methodological proposal.

    PubMed

    D'Onza, Giuseppe; Greco, Giulio; Allegrini, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Recycling implies additional costs for separated municipal solid waste (MSW) collection. The aim of the present study is to propose and implement a management tool - the full cost accounting (FCA) method - to calculate the full collection costs of different types of waste. Our analysis aims for a better understanding of the difficulties of putting FCA into practice in the MSW sector. We propose a FCA methodology that uses standard cost and actual quantities to calculate the collection costs of separate and undifferentiated waste. Our methodology allows cost efficiency analysis and benchmarking, overcoming problems related to firm-specific accounting choices, earnings management policies and purchase policies. Our methodology allows benchmarking and variance analysis that can be used to identify the causes of off-standards performance and guide managers to deploy resources more efficiently. Our methodology can be implemented by companies lacking a sophisticated management accounting system.

  12. Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaeho; Han, Tae-Hee; Park, Min-Ho; Jung, Dae Yool; Seo, Jeongmin; Seo, Hong-Kyu; Cho, Hyunsu; Kim, Eunhye; Chung, Jin; Choi, Sung-Yool; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Tae-Woo; Yoo, Seunghyup

    2016-06-01

    Graphene-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have recently emerged as a key element essential in next-generation displays and lighting, mainly due to their promise for highly flexible light sources. However, their efficiency has been, at best, similar to that of conventional, indium tin oxide-based counterparts. We here propose an ideal electrode structure based on a synergetic interplay of high-index TiO2 layers and low-index hole-injection layers sandwiching graphene electrodes, which results in an ideal situation where enhancement by cavity resonance is maximized yet loss to surface plasmon polariton is mitigated. The proposed approach leads to OLEDs exhibiting ultrahigh external quantum efficiency of 40.8 and 62.1% (64.7 and 103% with a half-ball lens) for single- and multi-junction devices, respectively. The OLEDs made on plastics with those electrodes are repeatedly bendable at a radius of 2.3 mm, partly due to the TiO2 layers withstanding flexural strain up to 4% via crack-deflection toughening.

  13. Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaeho; Han, Tae-Hee; Park, Min-Ho; Jung, Dae Yool; Seo, Jeongmin; Seo, Hong-Kyu; Cho, Hyunsu; Kim, Eunhye; Chung, Jin; Choi, Sung-Yool; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Tae-Woo; Yoo, Seunghyup

    2016-01-01

    Graphene-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have recently emerged as a key element essential in next-generation displays and lighting, mainly due to their promise for highly flexible light sources. However, their efficiency has been, at best, similar to that of conventional, indium tin oxide-based counterparts. We here propose an ideal electrode structure based on a synergetic interplay of high-index TiO2 layers and low-index hole-injection layers sandwiching graphene electrodes, which results in an ideal situation where enhancement by cavity resonance is maximized yet loss to surface plasmon polariton is mitigated. The proposed approach leads to OLEDs exhibiting ultrahigh external quantum efficiency of 40.8 and 62.1% (64.7 and 103% with a half-ball lens) for single- and multi-junction devices, respectively. The OLEDs made on plastics with those electrodes are repeatedly bendable at a radius of 2.3 mm, partly due to the TiO2 layers withstanding flexural strain up to 4% via crack-deflection toughening. PMID:27250743

  14. Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaeho; Han, Tae-Hee; Park, Min-Ho; Jung, Dae Yool; Seo, Jeongmin; Seo, Hong-Kyu; Cho, Hyunsu; Kim, Eunhye; Chung, Jin; Choi, Sung-Yool; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Tae-Woo; Yoo, Seunghyup

    2016-01-01

    Graphene-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have recently emerged as a key element essential in next-generation displays and lighting, mainly due to their promise for highly flexible light sources. However, their efficiency has been, at best, similar to that of conventional, indium tin oxide-based counterparts. We here propose an ideal electrode structure based on a synergetic interplay of high-index TiO2 layers and low-index hole-injection layers sandwiching graphene electrodes, which results in an ideal situation where enhancement by cavity resonance is maximized yet loss to surface plasmon polariton is mitigated. The proposed approach leads to OLEDs exhibiting ultrahigh external quantum efficiency of 40.8 and 62.1% (64.7 and 103% with a half-ball lens) for single- and multi-junction devices, respectively. The OLEDs made on plastics with those electrodes are repeatedly bendable at a radius of 2.3 mm, partly due to the TiO2 layers withstanding flexural strain up to 4% via crack-deflection toughening. PMID:27250743

  15. Efficient coupling of double-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers to flexible dielectric-lined hollow metallic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Wallis, R; Degl'Iinnocenti, R; Jessop, D S; Ren, Y; Klimont, A; Shah, Y D; Mitrofanov, O; Bledt, C M; Melzer, J E; Harrington, J A; Beere, H E; Ritchie, D A

    2015-10-01

    The growth in terahertz frequency applications utilising the quantum cascade laser is hampered by a lack of targeted power delivery solutions over large distances (>100 mm). Here we demonstrate the efficient coupling of double-metal quantum cascade lasers into flexible polystyrene lined hollow metallic waveguides via the use of a hollow copper waveguide integrated into the laser mounting block. Our approach exhibits low divergence, Gaussian-like emission, which is robust to misalignment error, at distances > 550 mm, with a coupling efficiency from the hollow copper waveguide into the flexible waveguide > 90%. We also demonstrate the ability to nitrogen purge the flexible waveguide, increasing the power transmission by up to 20% at 2.85 THz, which paves the way for future fibre based terahertz sensing and spectroscopy applications.

  16. Dual-Layer Nanostructured Flexible Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells with Enhanced Light Harvesting and Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yinyue; Xu, Zhen; Yu, Dongliang; Lu, Linfeng; Yin, Min; Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Hao, Yuying; Fan, Zhiyong; Cui, Yanxia; Li, Dongdong

    2016-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) structures have triggered tremendous interest for thin-film solar cells since they can dramatically reduce the material usage and incident light reflection. However, the high aspect ratio feature of some 3-D structures leads to deterioration of internal electric field and carrier collection capability, which reduces device power conversion efficiency (PCE). Here, we report high performance flexible thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells with a unique and effective light trapping scheme. In this device structure, a polymer nanopillar membrane is attached on top of a device, which benefits broadband and omnidirectional performances, and a 3-D nanostructure with shallow dent arrays underneath serves as a back reflector on flexible titanium (Ti) foil resulting in an increased optical path length by exciting hybrid optical modes. The efficient light management results in 42.7% and 41.7% remarkable improvements of short-circuit current density and overall efficiency, respectively. Meanwhile, an excellent flexibility has been achieved as PCE remains 97.6% of the initial efficiency even after 10 000 bending cycles. This unique device structure can also be duplicated for other flexible photovoltaic devices based on different active materials such as CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS), organohalide lead perovskites, and so forth.

  17. Dual-Layer Nanostructured Flexible Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells with Enhanced Light Harvesting and Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yinyue; Xu, Zhen; Yu, Dongliang; Lu, Linfeng; Yin, Min; Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Hao, Yuying; Fan, Zhiyong; Cui, Yanxia; Li, Dongdong

    2016-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) structures have triggered tremendous interest for thin-film solar cells since they can dramatically reduce the material usage and incident light reflection. However, the high aspect ratio feature of some 3-D structures leads to deterioration of internal electric field and carrier collection capability, which reduces device power conversion efficiency (PCE). Here, we report high performance flexible thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells with a unique and effective light trapping scheme. In this device structure, a polymer nanopillar membrane is attached on top of a device, which benefits broadband and omnidirectional performances, and a 3-D nanostructure with shallow dent arrays underneath serves as a back reflector on flexible titanium (Ti) foil resulting in an increased optical path length by exciting hybrid optical modes. The efficient light management results in 42.7% and 41.7% remarkable improvements of short-circuit current density and overall efficiency, respectively. Meanwhile, an excellent flexibility has been achieved as PCE remains 97.6% of the initial efficiency even after 10 000 bending cycles. This unique device structure can also be duplicated for other flexible photovoltaic devices based on different active materials such as CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS), organohalide lead perovskites, and so forth. PMID:27052357

  18. Developing flexible but efficient software for dynamical systems analysis of fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameli, Siavash; Desai, Yogin; Shadden, Shawn

    2012-11-01

    The computation of Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) has become a standard tool for the analysis of advective transport in unsteady flow applications. LCS identification is typically accomplished by computation of finite-time (or finite-size) Lyapunov exponent fields (FTLE), or similar measures based on the Cauchy Green deformation tensor. Sampling of such fields over the fluid domain requires the advection of large numbers of tracers, which can be computationally intensive, but presents a large degree of data parallelism. There is compelling need for software that provides a flexible interface for LCS computation from fluid flow data, while leveraging advances in parallel architectures for data processing. We will describe work on these fronts. Specifically, we discuss the use of the Visualization Toolkit (VTK) libraries as a foundation for object-oriented, polymorphic LCS computation, and how this framework can facilitate integration into powerful flow visualization software such as Paraview. We also discuss the development of CUDA-c and OpenCL GPU kernels, and multicore CPU implementation, for efficient parallel computation of the flow map. We demonstrate results of these implementations on large-scale computations involving millions of tracers on large unstructured grids. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation, award number 1047963.

  19. A promising approach to conductive patterns with high efficiency for flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Yan-Long; Yang, Zhen-Guo; Li, Zhi-Dong

    2011-06-01

    A promising approach for conductive patterns with high efficiency for flexible electronics was developed by direct-writing, silver(I) solution (silver nitrate, acetate silver, etc.) with no solid particles as a conductive ink, conductive pen as a writing implement, and polyimide (PI) film as a substrate. The physical properties of the conductive ink were investigated by a dynamic contact angle system, ubbelohde viscometer and surface tension instrument. Conductive properties of silver ink film were investigated by 4-point probe, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and surface profilometer. It is demonstrated how the design of solvent composition in conductive ink affects surface morphology, and conductivity of silver ink films. It can be obtained that conductive patterns drawn on PI substrate not only have good mechanical/electrical fatigue properties, but also have low resistivity. Especially, when the sintering condition is 200 °C for 60 min, the resistivity can be down to 6.6 μΩ cm, 4.25 times the silver bulk resistivity.

  20. Algorithms for Efficient Computation of Transfer Functions for Large Order Flexible Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    1998-01-01

    An efficient and robust computational scheme is given for the calculation of the frequency response function of a large order, flexible system implemented with a linear, time invariant control system. Advantage is taken of the highly structured sparsity of the system matrix of the plant based on a model of the structure using normal mode coordinates. The computational time per frequency point of the new computational scheme is a linear function of system size, a significant improvement over traditional, still-matrix techniques whose computational times per frequency point range from quadratic to cubic functions of system size. This permits the practical frequency domain analysis of systems of much larger order than by traditional, full-matrix techniques. Formulations are given for both open- and closed-loop systems. Numerical examples are presented showing the advantages of the present formulation over traditional approaches, both in speed and in accuracy. Using a model with 703 structural modes, the present method was up to two orders of magnitude faster than a traditional method. The present method generally showed good to excellent accuracy throughout the range of test frequencies, while traditional methods gave adequate accuracy for lower frequencies, but generally deteriorated in performance at higher frequencies with worst case errors being many orders of magnitude times the correct values.

  1. Lightweight Inflatable Solar Array: Providing a Flexible, Efficient Solution to Space Power Systems for Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Fabisinski, Leo; Justice, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Affordable and convenient access to electrical power is critical to consumers, spacecraft, military and other applications alike. In the aerospace industry, an increased emphasis on small satellite flights and a move toward CubeSat and NanoSat technologies, the need for systems that could package into a small stowage volume while still being able to power robust space missions has become more critical. As a result, the Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office identified a need for more efficient, affordable, and smaller space power systems to trade in performing design and feasibility studies. The Lightweight Inflatable Solar Array (LISA), a concept designed, prototyped, and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama provides an affordable, lightweight, scalable, and easily manufactured approach for power generation in space or on Earth. This flexible technology has many wide-ranging applications from serving small satellites to soldiers in the field. By using very thin, ultraflexible solar arrays adhered to an inflatable structure, a large area (and thus large amount of power) can be folded and packaged into a relatively small volume (shown in artist rendering in Figure 1 below). The proposed presentation will provide an overview of the progress to date on the LISA project as well as a look at its potential, with continued development, to revolutionize small spacecraft and portable terrestrial power systems.

  2. Efficient Computation of Closed-loop Frequency Response for Large Order Flexible Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    1997-01-01

    An efficient and robust computational scheme is given for the calculation of the frequency response function of a large order, flexible system implemented with a linear, time invariant control system. Advantage is taken of the highly structured sparsity of the system matrix of the plant based on a model of the structure using normal mode coordinates. The computational time per frequency point of the new computational scheme is a linear function of system size, a significant improvement over traditional, full-matrix techniques whose computational times per frequency point range from quadratic to cubic functions of system size. This permits the practical frequency domain analysis of systems of much larger order than by traditional, full-matrix techniques. Formulations are given for both open and closed loop loop systems. Numerical examples are presented showing the advantages of the present formulation over traditional approaches, both in speed and in accuracy. Using a model with 703 structural modes, a speed-up of almost two orders of magnitude was observed while accuracy improved by up to 5 decimal places.

  3. Enhanced light scattering and trapping effect of Ag nanowire mesh electrode for high efficient flexible organic solar cell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Byung-Yong; Yoo, Tae-Hee; Lim, Ju Won; Sang, Byoung-In; Lim, Dae-Soon; Choi, Won Kook; Hwang, Do Kyung; Oh, Young-Jei

    2015-04-24

    Ag nanowire (NW) mesh is used as transparent conducting electrode for high efficient flexible organic solar cells (OSCs). The Ag NW mesh electrode facilitates light scattering and trapping, allowing enhancement of light absorption in the active layer. OSCs incorporating Ag NW mesh electrode exhibit maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.47%, 25%, higher than that of OSCs with a conventional ITO electrode (3.63%).

  4. Medical savings accounts: assessing their impact on efficiency, equity and financial protection in health care.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Olivier J; Cylus, Jonathan; Yang, Wei; Thomson, Sarah; McKee, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Medical savings accounts (MSAs) allow enrolees to withdraw money from earmarked funds to pay for health care. The accounts are usually accompanied by out-of-pocket payments and a high-deductible insurance plan. This article reviews the association of MSAs with efficiency, equity, and financial protection. We draw on evidence from four countries where MSAs play a significant role in the financing of health care: China, Singapore, South Africa, and the United States of America. The available evidence suggests that MSA schemes have generally been inefficient and inequitable and have not provided adequate financial protection. The impact of these schemes on long-term health-care costs is unclear. Policymakers and others proposing the expansion of MSAs should make explicit what they seek to achieve given the shortcomings of the accounts. PMID:26883211

  5. A Comparison of Masticatory Performance and Efficiency of Complete Dentures Made with High Impact and Flexible Resins: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhoyar, Anjali; Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Yadav, Naveen S.; Mahajan, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Background In patients with extensive tooth loss, restoration of masticatory function and aesthetics is main concern for a prosthodontist. Aim of Study This study aimed to evaluate and compare differences in masticatory efficiency of patients treated with complete dentures made with either high impact or flexible resins. Setting and Design The sample size consisted of 10 study subjects. Two sets of dentures first conventional followed by flexible dentures were fabricated for each subject and both the sets of dentures were accessed for masticatory performance and efficiency. Materials and Methods This study compared the masticatory performance and efficiency of dentures by means of standardized mesh sieves. Masticatory efficiency was calculated by recording the total number of chewing cycles and time required to completely swallow a standardized food item. A patient satisfaction questionnaire was given and evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used The statistical analyses were performed using Z-test of Proportion and Paired t-test. Results The masticatory performance ratio was found to be more for hard food in conventional dentures. The values of masticatory performance ratios for soft food, time and number of masticatory strokes were indicating better masticatory efficiency of conventional dentures. Conclusion Though masticatory efficiency and performance were found to be better for patient’s dentures made with Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), a statistically significant number of patients reported that the flexible dentures were more satisfying than the conventional dentures. PMID:26266213

  6. Efficient Genetic Algorithm for Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problem Using Minimise Makespan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farashahi, Hamid Ghaani; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Shojaeipour, Shahed; Jaberi, Mohammad

    The aim of this paper is to minimise the makespan. The flexible job-shop scheduling is very common in practice and parallel machine is used in job-shop environment as flexibility. These flexibilities could be used for increasing the throughput rate, avoiding the production stop, removing bottleneck problems and finally achieving competitive advantages in economical environments. In opposition to classic job-shop where there is one machine in each stage, in this problem production system consists of multistage which in each stage there are one or several parallel machines with different speeds. The flexible job-shop scheduling with parallel machines problem consists of two sub-problems for solving: assigning and sequencing sub-problem.

  7. The application of finance and accounting theory to the valuation of new energy and efficiency options

    SciTech Connect

    Awerbuch, S.

    1995-12-31

    New, renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies are often passive and capital intensive-attributes they share with computer-integrated-manufacturing (CIM), robotics, computer-aided-design (CAD) and similar manufacturing process technologies. The experience in manufacturing over the last two decades indicates that traditional accounting-based procedures for valuing such new technologies significantly understate their benefits. This paper highlights recent research which extends project valuation principles and illustrates how reliance on the engineering oriented levelized energy cost distorst benefit/cost streams.

  8. A Flexible, Efficient Binomial Mixed Model for Identifying Differential DNA Methylation in Bisulfite Sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Lea, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying sources of variation in DNA methylation levels is important for understanding gene regulation. Recently, bisulfite sequencing has become a popular tool for investigating DNA methylation levels. However, modeling bisulfite sequencing data is complicated by dramatic variation in coverage across sites and individual samples, and because of the computational challenges of controlling for genetic covariance in count data. To address these challenges, we present a binomial mixed model and an efficient, sampling-based algorithm (MACAU: Mixed model association for count data via data augmentation) for approximate parameter estimation and p-value computation. This framework allows us to simultaneously account for both the over-dispersed, count-based nature of bisulfite sequencing data, as well as genetic relatedness among individuals. Using simulations and two real data sets (whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) data from Arabidopsis thaliana and reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) data from baboons), we show that our method provides well-calibrated test statistics in the presence of population structure. Further, it improves power to detect differentially methylated sites: in the RRBS data set, MACAU detected 1.6-fold more age-associated CpG sites than a beta-binomial model (the next best approach). Changes in these sites are consistent with known age-related shifts in DNA methylation levels, and are enriched near genes that are differentially expressed with age in the same population. Taken together, our results indicate that MACAU is an efficient, effective tool for analyzing bisulfite sequencing data, with particular salience to analyses of structured populations. MACAU is freely available at www.xzlab.org/software.html. PMID:26599596

  9. Tandem Microwire Solar Cells for Flexible High Efficiency Low Cost Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Atwater, Harry A.

    2015-03-10

    This project has developed components of a waferless, flexible, low-cost tandem multijunction III-V/Si microwire array solar cell technology which combines the efficiency of wafered III-V photovoltaic technologies with the process designed to meet the Sunshot object. The project focused on design of lattice-matched GaAsP/SiGe two junction cell design and lattice-mismatched GaInP/Si tandem cell design. Combined electromagnetic simulation/device physics models using realistic microwire tandem structures were developed that predict >22% conversion efficiency for known material parameters, such as tunnel junction structure, window layer structure, absorber lifetimes and optical absorption and these model indicate a clear path to 30% efficiency for high quality III-V heterostructures. SiGe microwire arrays were synthesized via Cu-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth with inexpensive chlorosilane and chlorogermance precursors in an atmospheric pressure reactor. SiGe alloy composition in microwires was found to be limited to a maximum of 12% Ge incorporation during chlorogermane growth, due to the melting of the alloy near the solidus composition. Lattice mismatched InGaP double heterostructures were grown by selective epitaxy with a thermal oxide mask on Si microwire substrates using metallorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirms the growth of individual step graded layers and a high density of defects near the wire/III-V interface. Selective epitaxy was initiated with a low temperature nucleation scheme under “atomic layer epitaxy” or “flow mediated epitaxy” conditions whereby the Ga and P containing precursors are alternately introduced into the reactor to promote layer-bylayer growth. In parallel to our efforts on conformal GaInP heteroepitaxy on selectively masked Si microwires, we explored direct, axial growth of GaAs on Si wire arrays as another route to a tandem junction architecture. We proposed axial

  10. Highly efficient and stable cupronickel nanomesh electrode for flexible organic photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Han-Jung; Song, Myungkwan; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Kim, Chang Su; Surabhi, Srivathsava; Jeong, Jong-Ryul; Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, Dae-Geun

    2016-11-01

    Advances in flexible optoelectronic devices have led to increasing need for developing high performance, low cost, and flexible transparent conducting electrodes. Copper-based electrodes have been unattainable due to the relatively thermal instability and poor oxidation resistance. Herein, we present oxidation-resistive CuNi nanomesh electrodes that exhibit a low sheet resistance of ∼7.5 Ω/□ and a high optical transmittance of ∼81% at 550 nm. Further, high long-term stability against the effects of oxidation, heat, and chemicals is exhibited by the CuNi nanomesh, in comparison with the behavior of a pure Cu nanomesh sample.

  11. Blue Copper Proteins: A rigid machine for efficient electron transfer, a flexible device for metal uptake.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Henarejos, Sergio Alejo; Alcaraz, Luis A; Donaire, Antonio

    2015-10-15

    Blue Copper Proteins (BCPs) are small and generally soluble copper-containing proteins which participate in monoelectron transfer processes in biological systems. An overview of their electronic and tertiary structure is detailed here. The well-established entatic/rack-induced mechanism is explained by comparing thermodynamic parameters between the folded (tense) and the unfolded (relaxed) forms of the BCP rusticyanin. Recently, NMR solution data have shown that the active sites of BCPs in absence of the metal ion, i.e. in the apoforms, are flexible in the micro-to-second timescale. The rigidity proposed by the entatic/rack-induced mechanism is an imperative for the holoprotein to perform electron transfer; while the flexibility of the apocupredoxin is necessary to uptake the metal ion from the metallochaperones. These apparently contradictory requirements are discussed in the present work. Finally, the role of azurin and some peptides derived from it in anticancer therapy are also described.

  12. Highly efficient and flexible electrospun carbon-silica nanofibrous membrane for ultrafast gravity-driven oil-water separation.

    PubMed

    Tai, Ming Hang; Gao, Peng; Tan, Benny Yong Liang; Sun, Darren D; Leckie, James O

    2014-06-25

    A novel free-standing and flexible electrospun carbon-silica composite nanofibrous membrane is newly introduced. The characterization results suggest that the electrospun composite nanofibers are constructed by carbon chains interpenetrated through a linear network of 3-dimensional SiO2. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the presence of insulating silica further improve the thermal resistance of the membrane. Additionally, the mechanical strength test shows that the membrane's toughness and flexibility can be enhanced if the concentration of SiO2 is maintained below 2.7 wt %. Thermal and chemical stability test show that the membrane's wettability properties can be sustained at an elevated temperature up to 300 °C and no discernible change in wettability was observed under highly acidic and basic conditions. After surface-coating with silicone oil for 30 mins, the composite membrane exhibits ultra-hydrophobic and superoleophilic properties with water and oil contact angles being 144.2 ± 1.2° and 0°, respectively. The enhanced flexibility and selective wetting property enables the membrane to serve as an effective substrate for separating free oil from water. Lab-scale oil-water separation test indicates that the membrane possesses excellent oil-water separation efficiency. In addition, its inherent property of high porosity allows oil-water separation to be performed in a gravity-driven process with high-flux. We anticipate that this study will open up a new avenue for fabrication of free-standing carbonaceous composite membrane with tunable flexibility for energy efficient and high-throughput production of clean water. PMID:24867399

  13. Highly efficient flexible optoelectronic devices using metal nanowire-conducting polymer composite transparent electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Eui Dae; Nam, Yun Seok; Seo, Houn; Lee, Bo Ram; Yu, Jae Choul; Lee, Sang Yun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jang-Ung; Song, Myoung Hoon

    2015-09-01

    Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of the electrical, optical, mechanical, and surface morphological properties of composite nanostrutures based on silver nanowires (AgNW) and PEDOT:PSS conducting polymer for the use as flexible and transparent electrodes. Compared to ITO or the single material of AgNW or PEDOT:PSS, the AgNW/PEDOT:PSS composite electrode showed high electrical conductivity with a low sheet resistance of 26.8 Ω/sq at 91% transmittance (at 550 nm), improves surface smoothness, and enhances mechanical properties assisted by an amphiphilic fluoro-surfactant. The polymeric light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and organic solar cells (OSCs) using the AgNW/PEDOT:PSS composite electrode showed higher device performances than those with AgNW and PEDOT:PSS electrodes and excellent flexibility under bending test. These results indicates that the AgNW/PEDOT:PSS composite presented is a good candidate as next-generation transparent elelctrodes for applications into flexible optoelectronic devices. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. An efficient formulation based on the Lagrangian method for contact-impact analysis of flexible multi-body system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Liu, Jin-Yang; Hong, Jia-Zhen

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, an efficient formulation based on the Lagrangian method is presented to investigate the contact-impact problems of flexible multi-body systems. Generally, the penalty method and the Hertz contact law are the most commonly used methods in engineering applications. However, these methods are highly dependent on various non-physical parameters, which have great effects on the simulation results. Moreover, a tremendous number of degrees of freedom in the contact-impact problems will influence the numerical efficiency significantly. With the consideration of these two problems, a formulation combining the component mode synthesis method and the Lagrangian method is presented to investigate the contact-impact problems in flexible multi-body system numerically. Meanwhile, the finite element meshing laws of the contact bodies will be studied preliminarily. A numerical example with experimental verification will certify the reliability of the presented formulation in contact-impact analysis. Furthermore, a series of numerical investigations explain how great the influence of the finite element meshing has on the simulation results. Finally the limitations of the element size in different regions are summarized to satisfy both the accuracy and efficiency.

  15. Spatial-spectral flexible optical networking: enabling switching solutions for a simplified and efficient SDM network platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomkos, I.; Zakynthinos, P.; Klonidis, D.; Marom, D.; Sygletos, S.; Ellis, A.; Salvadori, E.; Siracusa, D.; Angelou, M.; Papastergiou, G.; Psaila, N.; Ferran, J. F.; Ben-Ezra, S.; Jimenez, F.; Fernández-Palacios, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    The traffic carried by core optical networks grows at a steady but remarkable pace of 30-40% year-over-year. Optical transmissions and networking advancements continue to satisfy the traffic requirements by delivering the content over the network infrastructure in a cost and energy efficient manner. Such core optical networks serve the information traffic demands in a dynamic way, in response to requirements for shifting of traffics demands, both temporally (day/night) and spatially (business district/residential). However as we are approaching fundamental spectral efficiency limits of singlemode fibers, the scientific community is pursuing recently the development of an innovative, all-optical network architecture introducing the spatial degree of freedom when designing/operating future transport networks. Spacedivision- multiplexing through the use of bundled single mode fibers, and/or multi-core fibers and/or few-mode fibers can offer up to 100-fold capacity increase in future optical networks. The EU INSPACE project is working on the development of a complete spatial-spectral flexible optical networking solution, offering the network ultra-high capacity, flexibility and energy efficiency required to meet the challenges of delivering exponentially growing traffic demands in the internet over the next twenty years. In this paper we will present the motivation and main research activities of the INSPACE consortium towards the realization of the overall project solution.

  16. Ag nanocluster functionalized glasses for efficient photonic conversion in light sources, solar cells and flexible screen monitors.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, A S; Tikhomirov, V K; Shestakov, M V; Moshchalkov, V V

    2013-11-01

    An ever growing demand for efficient energy conversion, for instance in luminescent lamps, flexible screens and solar cells, results in the current significant growth of research on functionalized nanomaterials for these applications. This paper reviews recent developments of a new class of optically active nanostructured materials based on glasses doped with luminescent Ag nanoclusters consisting of only a few Ag atoms, suitable for mercury-free white light generation and solar down-shifting. This new approach, based solely on Ag nanocluster doped glasses, is compared to other alternatives in the field of Ag and rare-earth ion co-doped materials.

  17. Conducting polymer composite film incorporated with aligned carbon nanotubes for transparent, flexible and efficient supercapacitor

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huijuan; Li, Li; Ren, Jing; Cai, Zhenbo; Qiu, Longbin; Yang, Zhibin; Peng, Huisheng

    2013-01-01

    Polyaniline composite films incorporated with aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are synthesized through an easy electrodeposition process. These robust and electrically conductive films are found to function as effective electrodes to fabricate transparent and flexible supercapacitors with a maximum specific capacitance of 233 F/g at a current density of 1 A/g. It is 36 times of bare MWCNT sheet, 23 times of pure polyaniline and 3 times of randomly dispersed MWCNT/polyaniline film under the same conditions. The novel supercapacitors also show a high cyclic stability. PMID:23443325

  18. Enhancing the efficiency of flexible dye-sensitized solar cells utilizing natural dye extracted from Azadirachta indica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahare, Sanjay; Veldurthi, Naresh; Singh, Ranbir; Swarnkar, A. K.; Salunkhe, Manauti; Bhave, Tejashree

    2015-10-01

    The natural dye extracted from Azadirechta indica (neem) was used as a sensitizer in flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The fabricated DSSC exhibited open circuit voltage of 0.538 V with 2.81% power conversion efficiency (η) in back-illuminated mode which is higher than that reported in the literature. In order to understand the characteristics of DSSC, systematic study of solar cell component materials was carried out. Anatase TiO2 (30-40 nm) nanoparticles were synthesized by DC arc plasma method and deposited electrophoretically on a flexible titanium (Ti) substrate. A platinum-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate was used as a counter electrode to construct flexible DSSC. The structural and optical behavior of neem-dye sensitized TiO2 thin film has been studied using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy. We have observed that the neem dye gives a very good sensitization effect. In addition, the dye has good prospects as a low-cost and environmental friendly alternative to ruthenium-based sensitizers which are normally used in DSSCs.

  19. Time-efficient docking of flexible ligands into active sites of proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Rarey, M.; Kramer, B.; Lengauer, T.

    1995-12-31

    We present an algorithm for placing flexible molecules in active sites of proteins. The two major goals in the development of our. docking program, called FlexX, are the explicit exploitation of molecular flexibility of the ligand and the development of a model of the docking process that includes the physico-chemical properties of the molecules. The algorithm consists of three phases: The selection of a base fragment, the placement of the base fragment in the active site, and the incremental construction of the ligand inside the active site. Except for the selection of the base fragment, the algorithm runs without manual intervention. The algorithm is tested by reproducing 11 receptor-ligand complexes known from X-ray crystallography. In all cases, the algorithm predicts a placement of the ligand which is similar to the crystal structure (about 1.5 {Angstrom} RMS deviation or less) in a few minutes on a workstation, assuming that the receptor is given in the bound conformation.

  20. Sampling over Nonuniform Distributions: A Neural Efficiency Account of the Primacy Effect in Statistical Learning.

    PubMed

    Karuza, Elisabeth A; Li, Ping; Weiss, Daniel J; Bulgarelli, Federica; Zinszer, Benjamin D; Aslin, Richard N

    2016-10-01

    Successful knowledge acquisition requires a cognitive system that is both sensitive to statistical information and able to distinguish among multiple structures (i.e., to detect pattern shifts and form distinct representations). Extensive behavioral evidence has highlighted the importance of cues to structural change, demonstrating how, without them, learners fail to detect pattern shifts and are biased in favor of early experience. Here, we seek a neural account of the mechanism underpinning this primacy effect in learning. During fMRI scanning, adult participants were presented with two artificial languages: a familiar language (L1) on which they had been pretrained followed by a novel language (L2). The languages were composed of the same syllable inventory organized according to unique statistical structures. In the absence of cues to the transition between languages, posttest familiarity judgments revealed that learners on average more accurately segmented words from the familiar language compared with the novel one. Univariate activation and functional connectivity analyses showed that participants with the strongest learning of L1 had decreased recruitment of fronto-subcortical and posterior parietal regions, in addition to a dissociation between downstream regions and early auditory cortex. Participants with a strong new language learning capacity (i.e., higher L2 scores) showed the opposite trend. Thus, we suggest that a bias toward neural efficiency, particularly as manifested by decreased sampling from the environment, accounts for the primacy effect in learning. Potential implications of this hypothesis are discussed, including the possibility that "inefficient" learning systems may be more sensitive to structural changes in a dynamic environment. PMID:27315265

  1. Sampling over Nonuniform Distributions: A Neural Efficiency Account of the Primacy Effect in Statistical Learning.

    PubMed

    Karuza, Elisabeth A; Li, Ping; Weiss, Daniel J; Bulgarelli, Federica; Zinszer, Benjamin D; Aslin, Richard N

    2016-10-01

    Successful knowledge acquisition requires a cognitive system that is both sensitive to statistical information and able to distinguish among multiple structures (i.e., to detect pattern shifts and form distinct representations). Extensive behavioral evidence has highlighted the importance of cues to structural change, demonstrating how, without them, learners fail to detect pattern shifts and are biased in favor of early experience. Here, we seek a neural account of the mechanism underpinning this primacy effect in learning. During fMRI scanning, adult participants were presented with two artificial languages: a familiar language (L1) on which they had been pretrained followed by a novel language (L2). The languages were composed of the same syllable inventory organized according to unique statistical structures. In the absence of cues to the transition between languages, posttest familiarity judgments revealed that learners on average more accurately segmented words from the familiar language compared with the novel one. Univariate activation and functional connectivity analyses showed that participants with the strongest learning of L1 had decreased recruitment of fronto-subcortical and posterior parietal regions, in addition to a dissociation between downstream regions and early auditory cortex. Participants with a strong new language learning capacity (i.e., higher L2 scores) showed the opposite trend. Thus, we suggest that a bias toward neural efficiency, particularly as manifested by decreased sampling from the environment, accounts for the primacy effect in learning. Potential implications of this hypothesis are discussed, including the possibility that "inefficient" learning systems may be more sensitive to structural changes in a dynamic environment.

  2. A Highly Flexible and Efficient Passive Optical Network Employing Dynamic Wavelength Allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsueh, Yu-Li; Rogge, Matthew S.; Yamamoto, Shu; Kazovsky, Leonid G.

    2005-01-01

    A novel and high-performance passive optical network (PON), the SUCCESS-DWA PON, employs dynamic wavelength allocation to provide bandwidth sharing across multiple physical PONs. In the downstream, tunable lasers, an arrayed waveguide grating, and coarse/fine filtering combine to create a flexible new optical access solution. In the upstream, several distributed and centralized schemes are proposed and investigated. The network performance is compared to conventional TDM-PONs under different traffic models, including the self-similar traffic model and the transaction-oriented model. Broadcast support and deployment issues are addressed. The network's excellent scalability can bridge the gap between conventional TDM-PONs and WDM-PONs. The powerful architecture is a promising candidate for next generation optical access networks.

  3. Antifragility and Tinkering in Biology (and in Business) Flexibility Provides an Efficient Epigenetic Way to Manage Risk

    PubMed Central

    Danchin, Antoine; Binder, Philippe M.; Noria, Stanislas

    2011-01-01

    The notion of antifragility, an attribute of systems that makes them thrive under variable conditions, has recently been proposed by Nassim Taleb in a business context. This idea requires the ability of such systems to ‘tinker’, i.e., to creatively respond to changes in their environment. A fairly obvious example of this is natural selection-driven evolution. In this ubiquitous process, an original entity, challenged by an ever-changing environment, creates variants that evolve into novel entities. Analyzing functions that are essential during stationary-state life yield examples of entities that may be antifragile. One such example is proteins with flexible regions that can undergo functional alteration of their side residues or backbone and thus implement the tinkering that leads to antifragility. This in-built property of the cell chassis must be taken into account when considering construction of cell factories driven by engineering principles. PMID:24710302

  4. Flexible, thorn-like ZnO-multiwalled carbon nanotube hybrid paper for efficient ultraviolet sensing and photocatalyst applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Dali; Sun, Hongtao; Gao, Jian; Xin, Guoqing; Anthony Aguilar, Mark; Yao, Tiankai; Koratkar, Nikhil; Lian, Jie; Sawyer, Shayla

    2014-10-01

    We report fabrication of a flexible, thorn-like ZnO-multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) hybrid paper with high aspect ratio for efficient ultraviolet (UV) sensing and photocatalyst applications. The thorn-like ZnO-MWCNT hybrid paper was synthesized via atomic layer deposition (ALD) of a uniform ZnO thin film on the outside surface of the MWCNT followed by hydrothermal growth of ZnO branches. The hybrid paper achieved very high surface to volume ratio, which is favorable for photodetector and photocatalyst applications. A photodetector fabricated from the hybrid paper demonstrates a high sensitivity to UV light with a maximum photoresponsivity of 45.1 A W-1 at 375 nm, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency as high as 14927%. The rise time and fall time of the UV photodetector are 29 ms and 33 ms, respectively, indicating fast transient response characteristics for the device. The high photoresponsivity and fast transient response are attributed to efficient carrier transport and collection efficiency of the hybrid paper. Besides, the thorn-like ZnO-MWCNT hybrid paper demonstrates excellent photocatalytic performance under UV irradiation, enabling photo-degradation of organic dyes such as Rhodamine B (RhB) within 90 minutes, with good recyclability.

  5. Na incorporation into Cu(In ,Ga)Se2 for high-efficiency flexible solar cells on polymer foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudmann, D.; Brémaud, D.; Zogg, H.; Tiwari, A. N.

    2005-04-01

    Incorporation of a small amount of sodium into Cu(In ,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) absorbers for thin-film solar cells is well known to enhance conversion efficiencies. Usually, Na is added in a way such that it is present during CIGS growth and therewith influences the growth kinetics. We have used post-deposition Na in-diffusion into as-grown, Na-free absorbers and observed typical efficiency improvements. This suggests that in general the main positive Na effect originates from changes in the electronic absorber properties rather than from modification of CIGS growth kinetics. At low substrate temperatures, Na impedes CIGS phase formation. This may explain why absorbers grown at substrate temperatures below 450°C in the presence of Na yield inferior cells compared with post-deposition-treated CIGS. We have developed post-deposition Na incorporation for the processing of flexible CIGS solar cells on polyimide substrates. A conversion efficiency of 14.1% under AM1.5 standard test conditions was independently measured. This represents the highest reported efficiency of any solar cell grown on a polymer substrate to date.

  6. A Flexible, Computationally Efficient Method for Fitting the Proportional Hazards Model to Interval-Censored Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lianming; Hudgens, Michael G.; Qureshi, Zaina P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The proportional hazards model (PH) is currently the most popular regression model for analyzing time-to-event data. Despite its popularity, the analysis of interval-censored data under the PH model can be challenging using many available techniques. This paper presents a new method for analyzing interval-censored data under the PH model. The proposed approach uses a monotone spline representation to approximate the unknown nondecreasing cumulative baseline hazard function. Formulating the PH model in this fashion results in a finite number of parameters to estimate while maintaining substantial modeling flexibility. A novel expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is developed for finding the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters. The derivation of the EM algorithm relies on a two-stage data augmentation involving latent Poisson random variables. The resulting algorithm is easy to implement, robust to initialization, enjoys quick convergence, and provides closed-form variance estimates. The performance of the proposed regression methodology is evaluated through a simulation study, and is further illustrated using data from a large population-based randomized trial designed and sponsored by the United States National Cancer Institute. PMID:26393917

  7. An efficient flexible-order model for 3D nonlinear water waves

    SciTech Connect

    Engsig-Karup, A.P. Bingham, H.B.; Lindberg, O.

    2009-04-01

    The flexible-order, finite difference based fully nonlinear potential flow model described in [H.B. Bingham, H. Zhang, On the accuracy of finite difference solutions for nonlinear water waves, J. Eng. Math. 58 (2007) 211-228] is extended to three dimensions (3D). In order to obtain an optimal scaling of the solution effort multigrid is employed to precondition a GMRES iterative solution of the discretized Laplace problem. A robust multigrid method based on Gauss-Seidel smoothing is found to require special treatment of the boundary conditions along solid boundaries, and in particular on the sea bottom. A new discretization scheme using one layer of grid points outside the fluid domain is presented and shown to provide convergent solutions over the full physical and discrete parameter space of interest. Linear analysis of the fundamental properties of the scheme with respect to accuracy, robustness and energy conservation are presented together with demonstrations of grid independent iteration count and optimal scaling of the solution effort. Calculations are made for 3D nonlinear wave problems for steep nonlinear waves and a shoaling problem which show good agreement with experimental measurements and other calculations from the literature.

  8. Constraint Network Analysis (CNA): a Python software package for efficiently linking biomacromolecular structure, flexibility, (thermo-)stability, and function.

    PubMed

    Pfleger, Christopher; Rathi, Prakash Chandra; Klein, Doris L; Radestock, Sebastian; Gohlke, Holger

    2013-04-22

    For deriving maximal advantage from information on biomacromolecular flexibility and rigidity, results from rigidity analyses must be linked to biologically relevant characteristics of a structure. Here, we describe the Python-based software package Constraint Network Analysis (CNA) developed for this task. CNA functions as a front- and backend to the graph-based rigidity analysis software FIRST. CNA goes beyond the mere identification of flexible and rigid regions in a biomacromolecule in that it (I) provides a refined modeling of thermal unfolding simulations that also considers the temperature-dependence of hydrophobic tethers, (II) allows performing rigidity analyses on ensembles of network topologies, either generated from structural ensembles or by using the concept of fuzzy noncovalent constraints, and (III) computes a set of global and local indices for quantifying biomacromolecular stability. This leads to more robust results from rigidity analyses and extends the application domain of rigidity analyses in that phase transition points ("melting points") and unfolding nuclei ("structural weak spots") are determined automatically. Furthermore, CNA robustly handles small-molecule ligands in general. Such advancements are important for applying rigidity analysis to data-driven protein engineering and for estimating the influence of ligand molecules on biomacromolecular stability. CNA maintains the efficiency of FIRST such that the analysis of a single protein structure takes a few seconds for systems of several hundred residues on a single core. These features make CNA an interesting tool for linking biomacromolecular structure, flexibility, (thermo-)stability, and function. CNA is available from http://cpclab.uni-duesseldorf.de/software for nonprofit organizations.

  9. A flexible, extendable, modular and computationally efficient approach to scattering-integral-based seismic full waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, F.; Friederich, W.; Lamara, S.

    2016-02-01

    We present a new conceptual approach to scattering-integral-based seismic full waveform inversion (FWI) that allows a flexible, extendable, modular and both computationally and storage-efficient numerical implementation. To achieve maximum modularity and extendability, interactions between the three fundamental steps carried out sequentially in each iteration of the inversion procedure, namely, solving the forward problem, computing waveform sensitivity kernels and deriving a model update, are kept at an absolute minimum and are implemented by dedicated interfaces. To realize storage efficiency and maximum flexibility, the spatial discretization of the inverted earth model is allowed to be completely independent of the spatial discretization employed by the forward solver. For computational efficiency reasons, the inversion is done in the frequency domain. The benefits of our approach are as follows: (1) Each of the three stages of an iteration is realized by a stand-alone software program. In this way, we avoid the monolithic, unflexible and hard-to-modify codes that have often been written for solving inverse problems. (2) The solution of the forward problem, required for kernel computation, can be obtained by any wave propagation modelling code giving users maximum flexibility in choosing the forward modelling method. Both time-domain and frequency-domain approaches can be used. (3) Forward solvers typically demand spatial discretizations that are significantly denser than actually desired for the inverted model. Exploiting this fact by pre-integrating the kernels allows a dramatic reduction of disk space and makes kernel storage feasible. No assumptions are made on the spatial discretization scheme employed by the forward solver. (4) In addition, working in the frequency domain effectively reduces the amount of data, the number of kernels to be computed and the number of equations to be solved. (5) Updating the model by solving a large equation system can be

  10. A Flexible Docking Scheme Efficiently Captures the Energetics of Glycan-Cyanovirin Binding

    PubMed Central

    Bolia, Ashini; Woodrum, Brian W.; Cereda, Angelo; Ruben, Melissa A.; Wang, Xu; Ozkan, S. Banu; Ghirlanda, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Cyanovirin-N (CVN), a cyanobacterial lectin, exemplifies a class of antiviral agents that inhibit HIV by binding to the highly glycosylated envelope protein gp120. Here, we investigate the energetics of glycan recognition using a computationally inexpensive flexible docking approach, backbone perturbation docking (BP-Dock). We benchmarked our method using two mutants of CVN: P51G-m4-CVN, which binds dimannose with high affinity through domain B, and CVN(mutDB), in which binding to domain B has been abolished through mutation of five polar residues to small nonpolar side chains. We investigated the energetic contribution of these polar residues along with the additional position 53 by docking dimannose to single-point CVN mutant models. Analysis of the docking simulations indicated that the E41A/G and T57A mutations led to a significant decrease in binding energy scores due to rearrangements of the hydrogen-bond network that reverberated throughout the binding cavity. N42A decreased the binding score to a level comparable to that of CVN(mutDB) by affecting the integrity of the local protein structure. In contrast, N53S resulted in a high binding energy score, similar to P51G-m4-CVN. Experimental characterization of the five mutants by NMR spectroscopy confirmed the binding affinity pattern predicted by BP-Dock. Despite their mostly conserved fold and stability, E41A, E41G, and T57A displayed dissociation constants in the millimolar range. N53S showed a binding constant in the low micromolar range, similar to that observed for P51G-m4-CVN. No binding was observed for N42A. Our results show that BP-Dock is a useful tool for rapidly screening the relative binding affinity pattern of in silico-designed mutants compared with wild-type, supporting its use to design novel mutants with enhanced binding properties. PMID:24606938

  11. Efficient and Flexible Computation of Many-Electron Wave Function Overlaps

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A new algorithm for the computation of the overlap between many-electron wave functions is described. This algorithm allows for the extensive use of recurring intermediates and thus provides high computational efficiency. Because of the general formalism employed, overlaps can be computed for varying wave function types, molecular orbitals, basis sets, and molecular geometries. This paves the way for efficiently computing nonadiabatic interaction terms for dynamics simulations. In addition, other application areas can be envisaged, such as the comparison of wave functions constructed at different levels of theory. Aside from explaining the algorithm and evaluating the performance, a detailed analysis of the numerical stability of wave function overlaps is carried out, and strategies for overcoming potential severe pitfalls due to displaced atoms and truncated wave functions are presented. PMID:26854874

  12. A Nerve Model of Greatly Increased Energy-Efficiency and Encoding Flexibility over the Hodgkin-Huxley Model

    PubMed Central

    Fohlmeister, Jurgen F.

    2009-01-01

    A mammalian “RGC model” (retinal ganglion cells) is distinguished from the Hodgkin-Huxley model by the virtual absence of K-current during, and the virtual absence of Na-current after, the regenerative (rising) phase of the action potential. Both Na- and K-currents remain negligible throughout the interspike interval, whose control is therefore relinquished to stimulus currents. These properties yield a highly flexible and energy-efficient nerve impulse encoder. For the Hodgkin-Huxley model, in contrast, only 15 % of the Na-ions enter the axon regeneratively during the action potential (squid giant axon); a wasteful 85 % enter during the falling phase. Further, early activation of K-current causes the Na- and K-currents of the action potential to dominate over stimulus currents in controlling the sub-threshold membrane potential (interspike interval). This property makes the Hodgkin-Huxley model an intractable high frequency oscillator, which cannot be converted to flexible impulse encoding. The temperature difference between the squid giant axon (6.3° C) and RGCs (37° C) is bridged by a Q10 analysis, which suggests that an additional molecular gating mechanism of high Q10 – which is not present in the squid – is active in RGCs. PMID:19596283

  13. Selective and Efficient Removal of Mercury from Aqueous Media with the Highly Flexible Arms of a BioMOF.

    PubMed

    Mon, Marta; Lloret, Francesc; Ferrando-Soria, Jesús; Martí-Gastaldo, Carlos; Armentano, Donatella; Pardo, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    A robust and water-stable metal-organic framework (MOF), featuring hexagonal channels decorated with methionine residues (1), selectively captures toxic species such as CH3 Hg(+) and Hg(2+) from water. 1 exhibits the largest Hg(2+) uptake capacity ever reported for a MOF, decreasing the [Hg(2+) ] and [CH3 Hg(+) ] concentrations in potable water from highly hazardous 10 ppm to the much safer values of 6 and 27 ppb, respectively. Just like with biological systems, the high-performance metal capture also involves a molecular recognition process. Both CH3 Hg(+) and Hg(2+) are efficiently immobilized by specific conformations adopted by the flexible thioether "claws" decorating the pores of 1. This leads to very stable structural conformations reminiscent of those responsible for the biological activity of the enzyme mercury reductase (MR). PMID:27529544

  14. Donor-Flexible Nitrogen Ligands for Efficient Iridium-Catalyzed Water Oxidation Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Miquel; Li, Mo; Müller-Bunz, Helge; Bernhard, Stefan; Albrecht, Martin

    2016-05-10

    A pyridylideneamide ligand with variable donor properties owing to a pronounced zwitterionic and a neutral diene-type resonance structure was used as a dynamic ligand at a Cp* iridium center to facilitate water oxidation catalysis, a reaction that requires the stabilization of a variety of different iridium oxidation states and that is key for developing an efficient solar fuel device. The ligand imparts high activity (nearly three-fold increase of turnover frequency compared to benchmark systems), and exceptionally high turnover numbers, which indicate a robust catalytic cycle and little catalyst degradation.

  15. The Endless Pursuit of Efficiency: The International Movement To Increase Accountability and Performance in Higher Education. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, F. King

    This paper examines the trend toward demanding increased accountability and efficiency by institutions of higher education in the United States and Europe and its implications for the relationship between government and the college or university. It notes that such factors as limited state resources, rising educational costs, and the growing…

  16. Flexible Superhydrophobic and Superoleophilic MoS2 Sponge for Highly Efficient Oil-Water Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaojia; Wang, Xiufeng; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Wen, Cuie

    2016-06-01

    Removal of oils and organic solvents from water is an important global challenge for energy conservation and environmental protection. Advanced sorbent materials with excellent sorption capacity need to be developed. Here we report on a superhydrophobic and superoleophilic MoS2 nanosheet sponge (SMS) for highly efficient separation and absorption of oils or organic solvents from water. This novel sponge exhibits excellent absorption performance through a combination of superhydrophobicity, high porosity, robust stability in harsh conditions (including flame retardance and inertness to corrosive and different temperature environments) and excellent mechanical properties. The dip-coating strategy proposed for the fabrication of the SMS, which does not require a complicated process or sophisticated equipment, is very straightforward and easy to scale up. This finding shows promise for water remediation and oil recovery.

  17. Flexible Superhydrophobic and Superoleophilic MoS2 Sponge for Highly Efficient Oil-Water Separation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaojia; Wang, Xiufeng; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Wen, Cuie

    2016-01-01

    Removal of oils and organic solvents from water is an important global challenge for energy conservation and environmental protection. Advanced sorbent materials with excellent sorption capacity need to be developed. Here we report on a superhydrophobic and superoleophilic MoS2 nanosheet sponge (SMS) for highly efficient separation and absorption of oils or organic solvents from water. This novel sponge exhibits excellent absorption performance through a combination of superhydrophobicity, high porosity, robust stability in harsh conditions (including flame retardance and inertness to corrosive and different temperature environments) and excellent mechanical properties. The dip-coating strategy proposed for the fabrication of the SMS, which does not require a complicated process or sophisticated equipment, is very straightforward and easy to scale up. This finding shows promise for water remediation and oil recovery. PMID:27272562

  18. Flexible Superhydrophobic and Superoleophilic MoS2 Sponge for Highly Efficient Oil-Water Separation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaojia; Wang, Xiufeng; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Wen, Cuie

    2016-01-01

    Removal of oils and organic solvents from water is an important global challenge for energy conservation and environmental protection. Advanced sorbent materials with excellent sorption capacity need to be developed. Here we report on a superhydrophobic and superoleophilic MoS2 nanosheet sponge (SMS) for highly efficient separation and absorption of oils or organic solvents from water. This novel sponge exhibits excellent absorption performance through a combination of superhydrophobicity, high porosity, robust stability in harsh conditions (including flame retardance and inertness to corrosive and different temperature environments) and excellent mechanical properties. The dip-coating strategy proposed for the fabrication of the SMS, which does not require a complicated process or sophisticated equipment, is very straightforward and easy to scale up. This finding shows promise for water remediation and oil recovery. PMID:27272562

  19. Rail corrugation growth accounting for the flexibility and rotation of the wheel set and the non-Hertzian and non-steady-state effects at contact patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, Paloma; Baeza, Luis; Martínez-Casas, José; Carballeira, Javier

    2014-05-01

    In this work, a simulation tool is developed to analyse the growth of rail corrugation consisting of several models connected in a feedback loop in order to account for both the short-term dynamic vehicle-track interaction and the long-term damage. The time-domain vehicle-track interaction model comprises a flexible rotating wheel set model, a cyclic track model based on a substructuring technique and a non-Hertzian and non-steady-state three-dimensional wheel-rail contact model, based on the variational theory by Kalker. Wear calculation is performed with Archard's wear model by using the contact parameters obtained with the non-Hertzian and non-steady-state three-dimensional contact model. The aim of this paper is to analyse the influence of the excitation of two coinciding resonances of the flexible rotating wheel set on the rail corrugation growth in the frequency range from 20 to 1500 Hz, when contact conditions similar to those that can arise while a wheel set is negotiating a gentle curve are simulated. Numerical results show that rail corrugation grows only on the low rail for two cases in which two different modes of the rotating wheel set coincide in frequency. In the first case, identified by using the Campbell diagram, the excitation of both the backward wheel mode and the forward third bending mode of the wheel set model (B-F modes) promotes the growth of rail corrugation with a wavelength of 110 mm for a vehicle velocity of 142 km/h. In the second case, the excitation of both the backward wheel mode and the backward third bending mode (B-B modes) gives rise to rail corrugation growth at a wavelength of 156 mm when the vehicle velocity is 198 km/h.

  20. A Flexible and Efficient Algorithmic Framework for Constrained Matrix and Tensor Factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kejun; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D.; Liavas, Athanasios P.

    2016-10-01

    We propose a general algorithmic framework for constrained matrix and tensor factorization, which is widely used in signal processing and machine learning. The new framework is a hybrid between alternating optimization (AO) and the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM): each matrix factor is updated in turn, using ADMM, hence the name AO-ADMM. This combination can naturally accommodate a great variety of constraints on the factor matrices, and almost all possible loss measures for the fitting. Computation caching and warm start strategies are used to ensure that each update is evaluated efficiently, while the outer AO framework exploits recent developments in block coordinate descent (BCD)-type methods which help ensure that every limit point is a stationary point, as well as faster and more robust convergence in practice. Three special cases are studied in detail: non-negative matrix/tensor factorization, constrained matrix/tensor completion, and dictionary learning. Extensive simulations and experiments with real data are used to showcase the effectiveness and broad applicability of the proposed framework.

  1. Peptide Self-Assembled Biofilm with Unique Electron Transfer Flexibility for Highly Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yun-Xiang; Cong, Huai-Ping; Men, Yu-Long; Xin, Sen; Sun, Zheng-Qing; Liu, Chang-Jun; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2015-11-24

    Inspired by natural photosynthesis, biomaterial-based catalysts are being confirmed to be excellent for visible-light-driven photocatalysis, but are far less well explored. Herein, an ultrathin and uniform biofilm fabricated from cold-plasma-assisted peptide self-assembly was employed to support Eosin Y (EY) and Pt nanoparticles to form an EY/Pt/Film catalyst for photocatalytic water splitting to H2 and photocatalytic CO2 reduction with water to CO, under irradiation of visible light. The H2 evolution rate on EY/Pt/Film is 62.1 μmol h(-1), which is about 5 times higher than that on Pt/EY and 1.5 times higher than that on the EY/Pt/TiO2 catalyst. EY/Pt/Film exhibits an enhanced CO evolution rate (19.4 μmol h(-1)), as compared with Pt/EY (2.8 μmol h(-1)) and EY/Pt/TiO2 (6.1 μmol h(-1)). The outstanding activity of EY/Pt/Film results from the unique flexibility of the biofilm for an efficient transfer of the photoinduced electrons. The present work is helpful for designing efficient biomaterial-based catalysts for visible-light-driven photocatalysis and for imitating natural photosynthesis.

  2. Flexible and conductive cotton fabric counter electrode coated with graphene nanosheets for high efficiency dye sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Sun, Kyung Chul; Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Choi, Yun Seon; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Textile fabric based electrodes due to their lightweight, flexibility and cost effectiveness, coupled with the ease of fabrication are recently given a huge attention as wearable energy sources. The current dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are based on Platinized-Fluorinated Tin oxide (Pt-FTO) glass electrode, which is not only expensive, but also rigid and heavyweight. In this work, a highly conductive-graphene coated cotton fabric (HC-GCF) is fabricated with a surface resistance of only 7 Ω sq-1. HC-GCF is used as an efficient counter electrode (CE) in DSSC and the results are examined using photovoltaic and electrochemical analysis. HC-GCF counter electrode shows a negligible change of resistance to bending at various bending positions and is also found extremely resistant to electrolyte solution and washing with water. Cyclic voltammogram, Nyquist and the Tafel plots suggest an excellent electro catalytic activity (ECA) for the reduction of tri-iodide (I3-) ions. Symmetrical cells prepared using HC-GCF, indicate a very low charge transfer resistance (RCT) of only 1.2 Ω, which is nearly same to that of the Pt with 1.04 Ω. Furthermore, a high photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.93% is achieved using HC-GCF counter electrode using polymer electrolyte.

  3. Serrated, flexible and ultrathin polyaniline nanoribbons: An efficient counter electrode for the dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Wenjing; Xiao, Yaoming; Han, Gaoyi; Fu, Dongying; Wu, Ruifang

    2016-08-01

    Development of cost-effective counter electrodes (CEs) and enhancement of power conversion efficiency are two persistent objectives for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We report a novel method for synthesizing the state of art polyaniline nanoribbons (PANI NRs) CE with serrated, flexible and ultrathin nanostructure by in situ polymerization of aniline on an inorganic template, followed by acid etching. Herein, electrospun vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) nanofibers are chosen as templates to deposit PANI by a chemical bath polymerization method, which are served as the oxidants as well. Owing to its abundant active sites and the good contact performance, the PANI NRs CE shows high catalytic activity and the DSSC based on the PANI-c NRs CE shows a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 7.23% under full sunlight illumination (100 mW cm-2, AM 1.5 G), which is 97.44% that of the Pt-based DSSC (7.42%). Therefore, the high performance of PANI NRs can be considered as a cost-effective CE for the DSSC.

  4. Efficient estimation and prediction for the Bayesian binary spatial model with flexible link functions.

    PubMed

    Roy, Vivekananda; Evangelou, Evangelos; Zhu, Zhengyuan

    2016-03-01

    Spatial generalized linear mixed models (SGLMMs) are popular models for spatial data with a non-Gaussian response. Binomial SGLMMs with logit or probit link functions are often used to model spatially dependent binomial random variables. It is known that for independent binomial data, the robit regression model provides a more robust (against extreme observations) alternative to the more popular logistic and probit models. In this article, we introduce a Bayesian spatial robit model for spatially dependent binomial data. Since constructing a meaningful prior on the link function parameter as well as the spatial correlation parameters in SGLMMs is difficult, we propose an empirical Bayes (EB) approach for the estimation of these parameters as well as for the prediction of the random effects. The EB methodology is implemented by efficient importance sampling methods based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms. Our simulation study shows that the robit model is robust against model misspecification, and our EB method results in estimates with less bias than full Bayesian (FB) analysis. The methodology is applied to a Celastrus Orbiculatus data, and a Rhizoctonia root data. For the former, which is known to contain outlying observations, the robit model is shown to do better for predicting the spatial distribution of an invasive species. For the latter, our approach is doing as well as the classical models for predicting the disease severity for a root disease, as the probit link is shown to be appropriate. Though this article is written for Binomial SGLMMs for brevity, the EB methodology is more general and can be applied to other types of SGLMMs. In the accompanying R package geoBayes, implementations for other SGLMMs such as Poisson and Gamma SGLMMs are provided. PMID:26331903

  5. Efficient estimation and prediction for the Bayesian binary spatial model with flexible link functions.

    PubMed

    Roy, Vivekananda; Evangelou, Evangelos; Zhu, Zhengyuan

    2016-03-01

    Spatial generalized linear mixed models (SGLMMs) are popular models for spatial data with a non-Gaussian response. Binomial SGLMMs with logit or probit link functions are often used to model spatially dependent binomial random variables. It is known that for independent binomial data, the robit regression model provides a more robust (against extreme observations) alternative to the more popular logistic and probit models. In this article, we introduce a Bayesian spatial robit model for spatially dependent binomial data. Since constructing a meaningful prior on the link function parameter as well as the spatial correlation parameters in SGLMMs is difficult, we propose an empirical Bayes (EB) approach for the estimation of these parameters as well as for the prediction of the random effects. The EB methodology is implemented by efficient importance sampling methods based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms. Our simulation study shows that the robit model is robust against model misspecification, and our EB method results in estimates with less bias than full Bayesian (FB) analysis. The methodology is applied to a Celastrus Orbiculatus data, and a Rhizoctonia root data. For the former, which is known to contain outlying observations, the robit model is shown to do better for predicting the spatial distribution of an invasive species. For the latter, our approach is doing as well as the classical models for predicting the disease severity for a root disease, as the probit link is shown to be appropriate. Though this article is written for Binomial SGLMMs for brevity, the EB methodology is more general and can be applied to other types of SGLMMs. In the accompanying R package geoBayes, implementations for other SGLMMs such as Poisson and Gamma SGLMMs are provided.

  6. Water-Use Efficiency and Stable Carbon Isotopes: Accounting for Photosynthetic Refixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubierna Lopez, N.; Marshall, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    for Light plants decreased to 10% and the observed enrichment on δ13CLR was 1‰. Correspondingly, Shade plants showed a 37% level of refixation and 3.6‰ enrichment at PAR=20. Our findings support the hypothesis that leaves re-fix carbon under low-light intensity environments. The degree of refixation is proportional to light intensity, with higher refixation rates associated with higher light intensities and more depleted leaf biomass. The continuous refixation of the internal leaf carbon pool during leaf expansion together with diurnal refixation periods in mature leaves adds depleted biomass into the leaf that is likely to account for the patterns described in the literature (i.e. 2‰ depletion of leaf versus stem biomass). This can influence the interpretation of δ13C leaf biomass data of previous studies and can compromise the utility of δ13C from leaf tissue as a precise meter of water-use efficiency.

  7. An evaluation of accounting-based finding costs as efficiency measures for oil and gas exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Boynton, C.E. IV; Boone, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    The authors have operationalized firm-specific exploration efficiency as the difference between a firm-specific intercept estimated in a fixed-effects panel data Cobb-Douglas production frontier model and the maximum firm-specific intercept estimated in that model. The production model was estimated during two different time periods, 1982--1985 and 1989--1992, allowing efficiency to vary intertemporally. This efficiency estimate served as a benchmark against which they compared various measures of inverse finding costs. They assumed that the degree of association with an efficiency benchmark is an important attribute of any finding cost measure and that, further, the degree of association may be used as a metric for choosing between alternative finding cost measures. Accordingly, they evaluated the cross-sectional statistical association between estimated efficiency and alternative inverse finding cost measures. They discovered that the inverse finding cost measure that exhibited the strongest association with efficiency during the two time periods was a three-year moving-average finding cost which included exploration plus development expenditures as costs and reserve extensions and additions plus revisions as the units added.

  8. An efficient constraint to account for mistuning effects in the optimal design of engine rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Durbha V.; Pierre, Christophe; Ottarsson, Gisli

    1992-01-01

    Blade-to-blade differences in structural properties, unavoidable in practice due to manufacturing tolerances, can have significant influence on the vibratory response of engine rotor blade. Accounting for these differences, also known as mistuning, in design and in optimization procedures is generally not possible. This note presents an easily calculated constraint that can be used in design and optimization procedures to control the sensitivity of final designs to mistuning.

  9. A New Accountability Metric for a New Time: A Proposed Graduation Efficiency Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Howard; Ibrahim, Nabile

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose "graduation efficiency" as a metric that can show the success of universities in graduating students. They are not suggesting that the current measure of graduation rates be abandoned, but rather that they be supplemented with other measures that could round out the picture of how colleges and universities are…

  10. Savings account for health care costs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flexible Spending Accounts; Medical Savings Accounts; Health Reimbursement Arrangements; HSA; MSA; Archer MSA; FSA; HRA ... Account (HSA) Medical Savings Account (MSA) Flexible Spending Arrangement (FSA) Health Reimbursement Arrangement (HRA) Your employer may ...

  11. Analysis of Uptime Efficiency of the SLC as Measured by Pulse Accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Krejik, P .

    2006-04-19

    The repetition frequency of a linear collider can deviate substantially from nominal design values as a result of lost pulses. Pulses are typically lost as a result of a veto imposed by the many machine protection systems (MPSs). A system has been installed at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) to use the existing beam position monitor hardware to count every beam pulse that passes each of the strategic locations. Also counted are the signals from various beam dumpers, as well as trigger signals generated by the MPS. Representative data of SLC running that have been used to determine how to improve running efficiency are shown.

  12. The MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy: A Flexible Strategy for Efficient Information Collection and Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Bos, Peter M J; Gottardo, Stefania; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; van Tongeren, Martie; Semenzin, Elena; Fernandes, Teresa F; Hristozov, Danail; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Hunt, Neil; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Landsiedel, Robert; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Sánchez Jiménez, Araceli; van Kesteren, Petra C E; Oomen, Agnes G

    2015-11-27

    An engineered nanomaterial (ENM) may actually consist of a population of primary particles, aggregates and agglomerates of various sizes. Furthermore, their physico-chemical characteristics may change during the various life-cycle stages. It will probably not be feasible to test all varieties of all ENMs for possible health and environmental risks. There is therefore a need to further develop the approaches for risk assessment of ENMs. Within the EU FP7 project Managing Risks of Nanoparticles (MARINA) a two-phase risk assessment strategy has been developed. In Phase 1 (Problem framing) a base set of information is considered, relevant exposure scenarios (RESs) are identified and the scope for Phase 2 (Risk assessment) is established. The relevance of an RES is indicated by information on exposure, fate/kinetics and/or hazard; these three domains are included as separate pillars that contain specific tools. Phase 2 consists of an iterative process of risk characterization, identification of data needs and integrated collection and evaluation of data on the three domains, until sufficient information is obtained to conclude on possible risks in a RES. Only data are generated that are considered to be needed for the purpose of risk assessment. A fourth pillar, risk characterization, is defined and it contains risk assessment tools. This strategy describes a flexible and efficient approach for data collection and risk assessment which is essential to ensure safety of ENMs. Further developments are needed to provide guidance and make the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy operational. Case studies will be needed to refine the strategy.

  13. Accounting for Limited Detection Efficiency and Localization Precision in Cluster Analysis in Single Molecule Localization Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Shivanandan, Arun; Unnikrishnan, Jayakrishnan; Radenovic, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Single Molecule Localization Microscopy techniques like PhotoActivated Localization Microscopy, with their sub-diffraction limit spatial resolution, have been popularly used to characterize the spatial organization of membrane proteins, by means of quantitative cluster analysis. However, such quantitative studies remain challenged by the techniques’ inherent sources of errors such as a limited detection efficiency of less than 60%, due to incomplete photo-conversion, and a limited localization precision in the range of 10 – 30nm, varying across the detected molecules, mainly depending on the number of photons collected from each. We provide analytical methods to estimate the effect of these errors in cluster analysis and to correct for them. These methods, based on the Ripley’s L(r) – r or Pair Correlation Function popularly used by the community, can facilitate potentially breakthrough results in quantitative biology by providing a more accurate and precise quantification of protein spatial organization. PMID:25794150

  14. Collision Efficiency of Brownian Coagulation for Nanoparticles Taking Into Account the Slip Boundary Condition on the Particle Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhongli; Jiang, Renjie; Ku, Xiaoke

    2012-08-01

    The collision efficiency of Brownian coagulation for monodisperse nanoparticles is considered. A new expression for friction coefficient of particle pair is proposed based on an assumption from a statistical point of view and the relative diffusion coefficient is thus be modified in order to take into account this influence as well as the effects of slip. The modified diffusion coefficient increases the collision efficiency to some extent as expected whether van der Waals interparticle potential is considered or not. A comparison with experimental measurements shows the accuracy of the results predicted by modified theory and the necessity of considering the decrease of friction coefficient due to the random motion of nanoparticles as well as the slip effects arising from the finite mean free path of gas molecules.

  15. Efficiently accounting for ion correlations in electrokinetic nanofluidic devices using density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Dirk; Khair, Aditya S; Bardhan, Jaydeep P; Pennathur, Sumita

    2011-07-15

    The electrokinetic behavior of nanofluidic devices is dominated by the electrical double layers at the device walls. Therefore, accurate, predictive models of double layers are essential for device design and optimization. In this paper, we demonstrate that density functional theory (DFT) of electrolytes is an accurate and computationally efficient method for computing finite ion size effects and the resulting ion-ion correlations that are neglected in classical double layer theories such as Poisson-Boltzmann. Because DFT is derived from liquid-theory thermodynamic principles, it is ideal for nanofluidic systems with small spatial dimensions, high surface charge densities, high ion concentrations, and/or large ions. Ion-ion correlations are expected to be important in these regimes, leading to nonlinear phenomena such as charge inversion, wherein more counterions adsorb at the wall than is necessary to neutralize its surface charge, leading to a second layer of co-ions. We show that DFT, unlike other theories that do not include ion-ion correlations, can predict charge inversion and other nonlinear phenomena that lead to qualitatively different current densities and ion velocities for both pressure-driven and electro-osmotic flows. We therefore propose that DFT can be a valuable modeling and design tool for nanofluidic devices as they become smaller and more highly charged.

  16. Computationally efficient and flexible modular modelling approach for river and urban drainage systems based on surrogate conceptual models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfs, Vincent; Willems, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Water managers rely increasingly on mathematical simulation models that represent individual parts of the water system, such as the river, sewer system or waste water treatment plant. The current evolution towards integral water management requires the integration of these distinct components, leading to an increased model scale and scope. Besides this growing model complexity, certain applications gained interest and importance, such as uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, auto-calibration of models and real time control. All these applications share the need for models with a very limited calculation time, either for performing a large number of simulations, or a long term simulation followed by a statistical post-processing of the results. The use of the commonly applied detailed models that solve (part of) the de Saint-Venant equations is infeasible for these applications or such integrated modelling due to several reasons, of which a too long simulation time and the inability to couple submodels made in different software environments are the main ones. Instead, practitioners must use simplified models for these purposes. These models are characterized by empirical relationships and sacrifice model detail and accuracy for increased computational efficiency. The presented research discusses the development of a flexible integral modelling platform that complies with the following three key requirements: (1) Include a modelling approach for water quantity predictions for rivers, floodplains, sewer systems and rainfall runoff routing that require a minimal calculation time; (2) A fast and semi-automatic model configuration, thereby making maximum use of data of existing detailed models and measurements; (3) Have a calculation scheme based on open source code to allow for future extensions or the coupling with other models. First, a novel and flexible modular modelling approach based on the storage cell concept was developed. This approach divides each

  17. Enhanced photoconversion efficiency of all-flexible dye-sensitized solar cells based on a Ti substrate with TiO₂ nanoforest underlayer.

    PubMed

    An, Jiang; Guo, Wei; Ma, Tingli

    2012-11-19

    An easily prepared TiO2 nanoforest underlayer improves the photovoltaic performance of Ti substrate-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A high photoconversion efficiency of 8.46% is reached, which is almost 2.5 times that of the DSSCs without surface treatment of the flexible substrates. The nanoforest underlayer increases both the surface roughness of the substrate and the electrical contact between the Ti substrate and the screen-printed TiO2 nanoparticles.

  18. Computationally efficient and flexible modular modelling approach for river and urban drainage systems based on surrogate conceptual models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfs, Vincent; Willems, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Water managers rely increasingly on mathematical simulation models that represent individual parts of the water system, such as the river, sewer system or waste water treatment plant. The current evolution towards integral water management requires the integration of these distinct components, leading to an increased model scale and scope. Besides this growing model complexity, certain applications gained interest and importance, such as uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, auto-calibration of models and real time control. All these applications share the need for models with a very limited calculation time, either for performing a large number of simulations, or a long term simulation followed by a statistical post-processing of the results. The use of the commonly applied detailed models that solve (part of) the de Saint-Venant equations is infeasible for these applications or such integrated modelling due to several reasons, of which a too long simulation time and the inability to couple submodels made in different software environments are the main ones. Instead, practitioners must use simplified models for these purposes. These models are characterized by empirical relationships and sacrifice model detail and accuracy for increased computational efficiency. The presented research discusses the development of a flexible integral modelling platform that complies with the following three key requirements: (1) Include a modelling approach for water quantity predictions for rivers, floodplains, sewer systems and rainfall runoff routing that require a minimal calculation time; (2) A fast and semi-automatic model configuration, thereby making maximum use of data of existing detailed models and measurements; (3) Have a calculation scheme based on open source code to allow for future extensions or the coupling with other models. First, a novel and flexible modular modelling approach based on the storage cell concept was developed. This approach divides each

  19. Roll-to-roll fabrication of large scale and regular arrays of three-dimensional nanospikes for high efficiency and flexible photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Siu-Fung; Gu, Leilei; Zhang, Qianpeng; Tsui, Kwong-Hoi; Shieh, Jia-Min; Shen, Chang-Hong; Hsiao, Tzu-Hsuan; Hsu, Chin-Hung; Lu, Linfeng; Li, Dongdong; Lin, Qingfeng; Fan, Zhiyong

    2014-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) nanostructures have demonstrated enticing potency to boost performance of photovoltaic devices primarily owning to the improved photon capturing capability. Nevertheless, cost-effective and scalable fabrication of regular 3-D nanostructures with decent robustness and flexibility still remains as a challenging task. Meanwhile, establishing rational design guidelines for 3-D nanostructured solar cells with the balanced electrical and optical performance are of paramount importance and in urgent need. Herein, regular arrays of 3-D nanospikes (NSPs) were fabricated on flexible aluminum foil with a roll-to-roll compatible process. The NSPs have precisely controlled geometry and periodicity which allow systematic investigation on geometry dependent optical and electrical performance of the devices with experiments and modeling. Intriguingly, it has been discovered that the efficiency of an amorphous-Si (a-Si) photovoltaic device fabricated on NSPs can be improved by 43%, as compared to its planar counterpart, in an optimal case. Furthermore, large scale flexible NSP solar cell devices have been fabricated and demonstrated. These results not only have shed light on the design rules of high performance nanostructured solar cells, but also demonstrated a highly practical process to fabricate efficient solar panels with 3-D nanostructures, thus may have immediate impact on thin film photovoltaic industry.

  20. Roll-to-roll fabrication of large scale and regular arrays of three-dimensional nanospikes for high efficiency and flexible photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Leung, Siu-Fung; Gu, Leilei; Zhang, Qianpeng; Tsui, Kwong-Hoi; Shieh, Jia-Min; Shen, Chang-Hong; Hsiao, Tzu-Hsuan; Hsu, Chin-Hung; Lu, Linfeng; Li, Dongdong; Lin, Qingfeng; Fan, Zhiyong

    2014-03-07

    Three-dimensional (3-D) nanostructures have demonstrated enticing potency to boost performance of photovoltaic devices primarily owning to the improved photon capturing capability. Nevertheless, cost-effective and scalable fabrication of regular 3-D nanostructures with decent robustness and flexibility still remains as a challenging task. Meanwhile, establishing rational design guidelines for 3-D nanostructured solar cells with the balanced electrical and optical performance are of paramount importance and in urgent need. Herein, regular arrays of 3-D nanospikes (NSPs) were fabricated on flexible aluminum foil with a roll-to-roll compatible process. The NSPs have precisely controlled geometry and periodicity which allow systematic investigation on geometry dependent optical and electrical performance of the devices with experiments and modeling. Intriguingly, it has been discovered that the efficiency of an amorphous-Si (a-Si) photovoltaic device fabricated on NSPs can be improved by 43%, as compared to its planar counterpart, in an optimal case. Furthermore, large scale flexible NSP solar cell devices have been fabricated and demonstrated. These results not only have shed light on the design rules of high performance nanostructured solar cells, but also demonstrated a highly practical process to fabricate efficient solar panels with 3-D nanostructures, thus may have immediate impact on thin film photovoltaic industry.

  1. Roll-to-roll fabrication of large scale and regular arrays of three-dimensional nanospikes for high efficiency and flexible photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Leung, Siu-Fung; Gu, Leilei; Zhang, Qianpeng; Tsui, Kwong-Hoi; Shieh, Jia-Min; Shen, Chang-Hong; Hsiao, Tzu-Hsuan; Hsu, Chin-Hung; Lu, Linfeng; Li, Dongdong; Lin, Qingfeng; Fan, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) nanostructures have demonstrated enticing potency to boost performance of photovoltaic devices primarily owning to the improved photon capturing capability. Nevertheless, cost-effective and scalable fabrication of regular 3-D nanostructures with decent robustness and flexibility still remains as a challenging task. Meanwhile, establishing rational design guidelines for 3-D nanostructured solar cells with the balanced electrical and optical performance are of paramount importance and in urgent need. Herein, regular arrays of 3-D nanospikes (NSPs) were fabricated on flexible aluminum foil with a roll-to-roll compatible process. The NSPs have precisely controlled geometry and periodicity which allow systematic investigation on geometry dependent optical and electrical performance of the devices with experiments and modeling. Intriguingly, it has been discovered that the efficiency of an amorphous-Si (a-Si) photovoltaic device fabricated on NSPs can be improved by 43%, as compared to its planar counterpart, in an optimal case. Furthermore, large scale flexible NSP solar cell devices have been fabricated and demonstrated. These results not only have shed light on the design rules of high performance nanostructured solar cells, but also demonstrated a highly practical process to fabricate efficient solar panels with 3-D nanostructures, thus may have immediate impact on thin film photovoltaic industry. PMID:24603964

  2. Balancing Fairness and Efficiency: The Impact of Identity-Blind and Identity-Conscious Accountability on Applicant Screening.

    PubMed

    Self, William T; Mitchell, Gregory; Mellers, Barbara A; Tetlock, Philip E; Hildreth, J Angus D

    2015-01-01

    This study compared two forms of accountability that can be used to promote diversity and fairness in personnel selections: identity-conscious accountability (holding decision makers accountable for which groups are selected) versus identity-blind accountability (holding decision makers accountable for making fair selections). In a simulated application screening process, undergraduate participants (majority female) sorted applicants under conditions of identity-conscious accountability, identity-blind accountability, or no accountability for an applicant pool in which white males either did or did not have a human capital advantage. Under identity-conscious accountability, participants exhibited pro-female and pro-minority bias, particularly in the white-male-advantage applicant pool. Under identity-blind accountability, participants exhibited no biases and candidate qualifications dominated interview recommendations. Participants exhibited greater resentment toward management under identity-conscious accountability.

  3. Balancing Fairness and Efficiency: The Impact of Identity-Blind and Identity-Conscious Accountability on Applicant Screening.

    PubMed

    Self, William T; Mitchell, Gregory; Mellers, Barbara A; Tetlock, Philip E; Hildreth, J Angus D

    2015-01-01

    This study compared two forms of accountability that can be used to promote diversity and fairness in personnel selections: identity-conscious accountability (holding decision makers accountable for which groups are selected) versus identity-blind accountability (holding decision makers accountable for making fair selections). In a simulated application screening process, undergraduate participants (majority female) sorted applicants under conditions of identity-conscious accountability, identity-blind accountability, or no accountability for an applicant pool in which white males either did or did not have a human capital advantage. Under identity-conscious accountability, participants exhibited pro-female and pro-minority bias, particularly in the white-male-advantage applicant pool. Under identity-blind accountability, participants exhibited no biases and candidate qualifications dominated interview recommendations. Participants exhibited greater resentment toward management under identity-conscious accountability. PMID:26660723

  4. Balancing Fairness and Efficiency: The Impact of Identity-Blind and Identity-Conscious Accountability on Applicant Screening

    PubMed Central

    Self, William T.; Mitchell, Gregory; Mellers, Barbara A.; Tetlock, Philip E.; Hildreth, J. Angus D.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared two forms of accountability that can be used to promote diversity and fairness in personnel selections: identity-conscious accountability (holding decision makers accountable for which groups are selected) versus identity-blind accountability (holding decision makers accountable for making fair selections). In a simulated application screening process, undergraduate participants (majority female) sorted applicants under conditions of identity-conscious accountability, identity-blind accountability, or no accountability for an applicant pool in which white males either did or did not have a human capital advantage. Under identity-conscious accountability, participants exhibited pro-female and pro-minority bias, particularly in the white-male-advantage applicant pool. Under identity-blind accountability, participants exhibited no biases and candidate qualifications dominated interview recommendations. Participants exhibited greater resentment toward management under identity-conscious accountability. PMID:26660723

  5. Intense pulsed light induced crystallization of a liquid-crystalline polymer semiconductor for efficient production of flexible thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hee Yeon; Park, Han-Wool; Kim, Soo Jin; Hong, Jae-Min; Kim, Tae Whan; Kim, Do Hwan; Lim, Jung Ah

    2016-02-14

    Here we demonstrated the split-second crystallization of a liquid-crystalline conjugated polymer semiconductor induced by irradiation with intense pulsed white light (IPWL) for the efficient improvement of electrical properties of flexible thin film transistors. A few seconds of IPWL irradiation of poly(didodecylquaterthiophene-alt-didodecylbithiazole) (PQTBTz-C12) thin films generated heat energy through the photo-thermal effect, leading to the crystallization of PQTBTz-C12 and formation of nodule-like nanostructures. The IPWL-induced crystallization of PQTBTz-C12 resulted in a threefold improvement in the field-effect mobility of thin film transistors compared to as-prepared devices. The conformational change of the PQTBTz-C12 chains was found to be strongly related to the irradiation fluence. As a proof-of-concept, the IPWL treatment was successfully applied to the PQTBTz-C12 layer in flexible transistors based on plastic substrates. The performance of these flexible devices was significantly improved after only 0.6 s of IPWL treatment, without deformation of the plastic substrate. PMID:26795202

  6. SU-E-T-477: An Efficient Dose Correction Algorithm Accounting for Tissue Heterogeneities in LDR Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mashouf, S; Lai, P; Karotki, A; Keller, B; Beachey, D; Pignol, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Seed brachytherapy is currently used for adjuvant radiotherapy of early stage prostate and breast cancer patients. The current standard for calculation of dose surrounding the brachytherapy seeds is based on American Association of Physicist in Medicine Task Group No. 43 (TG-43 formalism) which generates the dose in homogeneous water medium. Recently, AAPM Task Group No. 186 emphasized the importance of accounting for tissue heterogeneities. This can be done using Monte Carlo (MC) methods, but it requires knowing the source structure and tissue atomic composition accurately. In this work we describe an efficient analytical dose inhomogeneity correction algorithm implemented using MIM Symphony treatment planning platform to calculate dose distributions in heterogeneous media. Methods: An Inhomogeneity Correction Factor (ICF) is introduced as the ratio of absorbed dose in tissue to that in water medium. ICF is a function of tissue properties and independent of source structure. The ICF is extracted using CT images and the absorbed dose in tissue can then be calculated by multiplying the dose as calculated by the TG-43 formalism times ICF. To evaluate the methodology, we compared our results with Monte Carlo simulations as well as experiments in phantoms with known density and atomic compositions. Results: The dose distributions obtained through applying ICF to TG-43 protocol agreed very well with those of Monte Carlo simulations as well as experiments in all phantoms. In all cases, the mean relative error was reduced by at least 50% when ICF correction factor was applied to the TG-43 protocol. Conclusion: We have developed a new analytical dose calculation method which enables personalized dose calculations in heterogeneous media. The advantages over stochastic methods are computational efficiency and the ease of integration into clinical setting as detailed source structure and tissue segmentation are not needed. University of Toronto, Natural Sciences and

  7. A study on the efficiency improvement of a single fiber guided illumination system for disposable flexible endoscope (DFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Hyeon Jin; Park, Byung Jun; Won, Young Jae; Lee, Seungrag

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the method to improve the illumination efficiency in DFE with optical illumination design software. We have showed the result of illumination efficiency according to the change of geometrical shape in distal tip of plastic optical fiber (POF). We simulated the illumination efficiency in the case of the polished POF distal tip and the unpolished one, respectively using optical illumination system design software. We obtained the illumination efficiency was increased by about 46 percent in the polished distal tip more than in the unpolished distal tip when a light emitting diode (LED) was directly excited to the distal tip of POF. In order to demonstrate the simulated results, we showed the polishing fabrication of the distal tip in POF and have measured the illumination efficiency of the polished POF using LED. The measured results showed that illumination efficiency was increased by about 23 percent in the polished distal tip more than in the unpolished distal tip of POF. We have demonstrated the optimized geometrical shapes of the POF for minimization of the illumination loss. We have suggested the method to improve the illumination efficiency by 69 percent for a single fiber illumination delivery system of DFE.

  8. Flexible transparent PES/silver nanowires/PET sandwich-structured film for high-efficiency electromagnetic interference shielding.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mingjun; Gao, Jiefeng; Dong, Yucheng; Li, Kai; Shan, Guangcun; Yang, Shiliu; Li, Robert Kwok-Yiu

    2012-05-01

    We have developed a kind of high-yield synthesis strategy for silver nanowires by a two-step injection polyol method. Silver nanowires and polyethylene oxide (PEO) (M(w) = 900,000) were prepared in a homogeneous-coating ink. Wet composite films with different thicknesses were fabricated on a PET substrate by drawn-down rod-coating technology. Silver nanowires on PET substrates present a homogeneous distribution under the assistance of PEO. Then PEO was thermally removed in situ at a relatively low temperature attributed to its special thermal behavior under atmospheric conditions. As-prepared metallic nanowire films on PET substrates show excellent stability and a good combination of conductivity and light transmission. A layer of transparent poly(ethersulfones) (PESs) was further coated on silver nanowire networks by the same coating method to prevent the shedding and corrosion of silver nanowires. Sandwich-structured flexible transparent films were obtained and displayed excellent electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness.

  9. Peel-and-Stick: Mechanism Study for Efficient Fabrication of Flexible/Transparent Thin-film Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Jae-Han; Zou, Chenyu; Cho, In Sun; Weisse, Jeffery M.; Nemeth, William; Wang, Qi; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Kim, Taek-Soo; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    Peel-and-stick process, or water-assisted transfer printing (WTP), represents an emerging process for transferring fully fabricated thin-film electronic devices with high yield and fidelity from a SiO2/Si wafer to various non-Si based substrates, including papers, plastics and polymers. This study illustrates that the fundamental working principle of the peel-and-stick process is based on the water-assisted subcritical debonding, for which water reduces the critical adhesion energy of metal-SiO2 interface by 70 ~ 80%, leading to clean and high quality transfer of thin-film electronic devices. Water-assisted subcritical debonding is applicable for a range of metal-SiO2 interfaces, enabling the peel-and-stick process as a general and tunable method for fabricating flexible/transparent thin-film electronic devices. PMID:24108063

  10. An Efficient Finite Element Framework to Assess Flexibility Performances of SMA Self-Expandable Carotid Artery Stents

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Mauro; Auricchio, Ferdinando; Boatti, Elisa; Scalet, Giulia; Conti, Michele; Morganti, Simone; Reali, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Computer-based simulations are nowadays widely exploited for the prediction of the mechanical behavior of different biomedical devices. In this aspect, structural finite element analyses (FEA) are currently the preferred computational tool to evaluate the stent response under bending. This work aims at developing a computational framework based on linear and higher order FEA to evaluate the flexibility of self-expandable carotid artery stents. In particular, numerical simulations involving large deformations and inelastic shape memory alloy constitutive modeling are performed, and the results suggest that the employment of higher order FEA allows accurately representing the computational domain and getting a better approximation of the solution with a widely-reduced number of degrees of freedom with respect to linear FEA. Moreover, when buckling phenomena occur, higher order FEA presents a superior capability of reproducing the nonlinear local effects related to buckling phenomena. PMID:26184329

  11. The wing of the enhancer-binding domain of Mu phage transposase is flexible and is essential for efficient transposition.

    PubMed

    Clubb, R T; Mizuuchi, M; Huth, J R; Omichinski, J G; Savilahti, H; Mizuuchi, K; Clore, G M; Gronenborn, A M

    1996-02-01

    A tetramer of the Mu transposase (MuA) pairs the recombination sites, cleaves the donor DNA, and joins these ends to a target DNA by strand transfer. Juxtaposition of the recombination sites is accomplished by the assembly of a stable synaptic complex of MuA protein and Mu DNA. This initial critical step is facilitated by the transient binding of the N-terminal domain of MuA to an enhancer DNA element within the Mu genome (called the internal activation sequence, IAS). Recently we solved the three-dimensional solution structure of the enhancer-binding domain of Mu phage transposase (residues 1-76, MuA76) and proposed a model for its interaction with the IAS element. Site-directed mutagenesis coupled with an in vitro transposition assay has been used to assess the validity of the model. We have identified five residues on the surface of MuA that are crucial for stable synaptic complex formation but dispensable for subsequent events in transposition. These mutations are located in the loop (wing) structure and recognition helix of the MuA76 domain of the transposase and do not seriously perturb the structure of the domain. Furthermore, in order to understand the dynamic behavior of the MuA76 domain prior to stable synaptic complex formation, we have measured heteronuclear 15N relaxation rates for the unbound MuA76 domain. In the DNA free state the backbone atoms of the helix-turn-helix motif are generally immobilized whereas the residues in the wing are highly flexible on the pico- to nanosecond time scale. Together these studies define the surface of MuA required for enhancement of transposition in vitro and suggest that a flexible loop in the MuA protein required for DNA recognition may become structurally ordered only upon DNA binding. PMID:8577730

  12. Hierarchical Ni-Mo-S nanosheets on carbon fiber cloth: A flexible electrode for efficient hydrogen generation in neutral electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jianwei; Xiao, Fang-Xing; Yang, Hong Bin; Khoo, Si Yun; Chen, Jiazang; Fan, Zhanxi; Hsu, Ying-Ya; Chen, Hao Ming; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Bin

    2015-08-01

    A unique functional electrode made of hierarchal Ni-Mo-S nanosheets with abundant exposed edges anchored on conductive and flexible carbon fiber cloth, referred to as Ni-Mo-S/C, has been developed through a facile biomolecule-assisted hydrothermal method. The incorporation of Ni atoms in Mo-S plays a crucial role in tuning its intrinsic catalytic property by creating substantial defect sites as well as modifying the morphology of Ni-Mo-S network at atomic scale, resulting in an impressive enhancement in the catalytic activity. The Ni-Mo-S/C electrode exhibits a large cathodic current and a low onset potential for hydrogen evolution reaction in neutral electrolyte (pH ~7), for example, current density of 10 mA/cm(2) at a very small overpotential of 200 mV. Furthermore, the Ni-Mo-S/C electrode has excellent electrocatalytic stability over an extended period, much better than those of MoS2/C and Pt plate electrodes. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to understand the formation process and electrocatalytic properties of Ni-Mo-S/C. The intuitive comparison test was designed to reveal the superior gas-evolving profile of Ni-Mo-S/C over that of MoS2/C, and a laboratory-scale hydrogen generator was further assembled to demonstrate its potential application in practical appliances.

  13. Hierarchical Ni-Mo-S nanosheets on carbon fiber cloth: A flexible electrode for efficient hydrogen generation in neutral electrolyte

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Jianwei; Xiao, Fang-Xing; Yang, Hong Bin; Khoo, Si Yun; Chen, Jiazang; Fan, Zhanxi; Hsu, Ying-Ya; Chen, Hao Ming; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    A unique functional electrode made of hierarchal Ni-Mo-S nanosheets with abundant exposed edges anchored on conductive and flexible carbon fiber cloth, referred to as Ni-Mo-S/C, has been developed through a facile biomolecule-assisted hydrothermal method. The incorporation of Ni atoms in Mo-S plays a crucial role in tuning its intrinsic catalytic property by creating substantial defect sites as well as modifying the morphology of Ni-Mo-S network at atomic scale, resulting in an impressive enhancement in the catalytic activity. The Ni-Mo-S/C electrode exhibits a large cathodic current and a low onset potential for hydrogen evolution reaction in neutral electrolyte (pH ~7), for example, current density of 10 mA/cm2 at a very small overpotential of 200 mV. Furthermore, the Ni-Mo-S/C electrode has excellent electrocatalytic stability over an extended period, much better than those of MoS2/C and Pt plate electrodes. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to understand the formation process and electrocatalytic properties of Ni-Mo-S/C. The intuitive comparison test was designed to reveal the superior gas-evolving profile of Ni-Mo-S/C over that of MoS2/C, and a laboratory-scale hydrogen generator was further assembled to demonstrate its potential application in practical appliances. PMID:26601227

  14. Novel near-infrared carboxylated 1,3-indandione sensitizers for highly efficient flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Naoyuki; Inoue, Yukiko; Abe, Masahiro; Kajiyama, Shingo; Ozawa, Hironobu; Miura, Hidetoshi; Arakawa, Hironori

    2015-08-18

    Three novel metal-free organic dyes (DN458, DN475 and DN484) were designed for use in plastic-substrate dye-sensitized solar cells (PDSCs). The photoelectric conversion region of DN475 was successfully expanded into the near-infrared region. As a result, an energy conversion efficiency of 5.76% was achieved.

  15. Novel near-infrared carboxylated 1,3-indandione sensitizers for highly efficient flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Naoyuki; Inoue, Yukiko; Abe, Masahiro; Kajiyama, Shingo; Ozawa, Hironobu; Miura, Hidetoshi; Arakawa, Hironori

    2015-08-18

    Three novel metal-free organic dyes (DN458, DN475 and DN484) were designed for use in plastic-substrate dye-sensitized solar cells (PDSCs). The photoelectric conversion region of DN475 was successfully expanded into the near-infrared region. As a result, an energy conversion efficiency of 5.76% was achieved. PMID:26166712

  16. Enhancing the Reliability of GPCR Models by Accounting for Flexibility of Their Pro-Containing Helices: the Case of the Human mAChR1 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Pedretti, Alessandro; Mazzolari, Angelica; Ricci, Chiara; Vistoli, Giulio

    2015-04-01

    To better investigate the GPCR structures, we have recently proposed to explore their flexibility by simulating the bending of their Pro-containing TM helices so generating a set of models (the so-called chimeras) which exhaustively combine the two conformations (bent and straight) of these helices. The primary objective of the study is to investigate whether such an approach can be exploited to enhance the reliability of the GPCR models generated by distant templates. The study was focused on the human mAChR1 receptor for which a presumably reliable model was generated using the congener mAChR3 as the template along with a second less reliable model based on the distant β2-AR template. The second model was then utilized to produce the chimeras by combining the conformations of its Pro-containing helices (i.e., TM4, TM5, TM6 and TM7 with 16 modeled chimeras). The reliability of such chimeras was assessed by virtual screening campaigns as evaluated using a novel skewness metric where they surpassed the predictive power of the more reliable mAChR1 model. Finally, the virtual screening campaigns emphasize the opportunity of synergistically combining the scores of more chimeras using a specially developed tool which generates highly predictive consensus functions by maximizing the corresponding enrichment factors. PMID:27490167

  17. Cognitive flexibility predicts early reading skills.

    PubMed

    Colé, Pascale; Duncan, Lynne G; Blaye, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    An important aspect of learning to read is efficiency in accessing different kinds of linguistic information (orthographic, phonological, and semantic) about written words. The present study investigates whether, in addition to the integrity of such linguistic skills, early progress in reading may require a degree of cognitive flexibility in order to manage the coordination of this information effectively. Our study will look for evidence of a link between flexibility and both word reading and passage reading comprehension, and examine whether any such link involves domain-general or reading-specific flexibility. As the only previous support for a predictive relationship between flexibility and early reading comes from studies of reading comprehension in the opaque English orthography, another possibility is that this relationship may be largely orthography-dependent, only coming into play when mappings between representations are complex and polyvalent. To investigate these questions, 60 second-graders learning to read the more transparent French orthography were presented with two multiple classification tasks involving reading-specific cognitive flexibility (based on words) and non-specific flexibility (based on pictures). Reading skills were assessed by word reading, pseudo-word decoding, and passage reading comprehension measures. Flexibility was found to contribute significant unique variance to passage reading comprehension even in the less opaque French orthography. More interestingly, the data also show that flexibility is critical in accounting for one of the core components of reading comprehension, namely, the reading of words in isolation. Finally, the results constrain the debate over whether flexibility has to be reading-specific to be critically involved in reading.

  18. Case study of piezoelectric flexible thin films in pulse excited electromechanical transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamon, Natalia; Gozdur, Roman; Turczyński, Marcin; Lisik, Zbigniew; Soupremanien, Ulrich; Ollier, Emmanuel; Monfray, Stéphane; Skotnicki, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents the examination of modern flexible piezoelectric thin films made of PVDF (polyvinylidene difluoride) in terms of their application in electromechanical transducers, a brief overview of available piezoelectric materials and energy harvesting devices based on piezoelectric. In order to assess the usefulness of these films from the perspective of described devices, the energy efficiency coefficient determined under the pulse excitation conditions was taken into account. Normalized volumetric efficiency ratio allows to evaluate the commercially available flexible piezoelectric films.

  19. A Facile and Low-Cost Method to Enhance the Internal Quantum Yield and External Light-Extraction Efficiency for Flexible Light-Emitting Carbon-Dot Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Z. C.; Lin, T. N.; Lin, H. T.; Talite, M. J.; Tzeng, T. T.; Hsu, C. L.; Chiu, K. P.; Lin, C. A. J.; Shen, J. L.; Yuan, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed, non-toxic carbon dots (CDs) have attracted much attention due to their unique photoluminescence (PL) properties. They are promising emissive layers for flexible light-emitting devices. To this end, the CDs in pristine aqueous solutions need to be transferred to form solid-state thin films without sacrificing their original PL characteristics. Unfortunately, solid-state PL quenching induced by extra non-radiative (NR) energy transfer among CDs would significantly hinder their practical applications in optoelectronics. Here, a facile, low-cost and effective method has been utilized to fabricate high-performance CD/polymer light-emitting flexible films with submicron-structured patterns. The patterned polymers can serve as a solid matrix to disperse and passivate CDs, thus achieving high internal quantum yields of 61%. In addition, they can act as an out-coupler to mitigate the waveguide-mode losses, approximately doubling the external light-extraction efficiency. Such CD/polymer composites also exhibit good photo-stability, and thus can be used as eco-friendly, low-cost phosphors for solid-state lighting.

  20. High voltage and efficient bilayer heterojunction solar cells based on an organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite absorber with a low-cost flexible substrate.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yi-Fang; Jeng, Jun-Yuan; Lee, Mu-Huan; Peng, Shin-Rung; Chen, Peter; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Wen, Ten-Chin; Hsu, Yao-Jane; Hsu, Ching-Ming

    2014-04-01

    A low temperature (<100 °C), flexible solar cell based on an organic-inorganic hybrid CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite-fullerene planar heterojunction (PHJ) is successfully demonstrated. In this manuscript, we study the effects of energy level offset between a solar absorber (organic-inorganic hybrid CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite) and the selective contact materials on the photovoltaic behaviors of the planar organometallic perovskite-fullerene heterojunction solar cells. We find that the difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite and the Fermi level of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) dominates the voltage output of the device. ITO films on glass or on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrate with different work functions are investigated to illustrate this phenomenon. The higher work function of the PET/ITO substrate decreases the energy loss of hole transfer from the HOMO of perovskite to ITO and minimizes the energy redundancy of the photovoltage output. The devices using the high work function ITO substrate as contact material show significant open-circuit voltage enhancement (920 mV), with the power conversion efficiency of 4.54%, and these types of extra-thin planar bilayer heterojunction solar cells have the potential advantages of low-cost and lightweight. PMID:24553998

  1. A Facile and Low-Cost Method to Enhance the Internal Quantum Yield and External Light-Extraction Efficiency for Flexible Light-Emitting Carbon-Dot Films

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Z. C.; Lin, T. N.; Lin, H. T.; Talite, M. J.; Tzeng, T. T.; Hsu, C. L.; Chiu, K. P.; Lin, C. A. J.; Shen, J. L.; Yuan, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed, non-toxic carbon dots (CDs) have attracted much attention due to their unique photoluminescence (PL) properties. They are promising emissive layers for flexible light-emitting devices. To this end, the CDs in pristine aqueous solutions need to be transferred to form solid-state thin films without sacrificing their original PL characteristics. Unfortunately, solid-state PL quenching induced by extra non-radiative (NR) energy transfer among CDs would significantly hinder their practical applications in optoelectronics. Here, a facile, low-cost and effective method has been utilized to fabricate high-performance CD/polymer light-emitting flexible films with submicron-structured patterns. The patterned polymers can serve as a solid matrix to disperse and passivate CDs, thus achieving high internal quantum yields of 61%. In addition, they can act as an out-coupler to mitigate the waveguide-mode losses, approximately doubling the external light-extraction efficiency. Such CD/polymer composites also exhibit good photo-stability, and thus can be used as eco-friendly, low-cost phosphors for solid-state lighting. PMID:26822337

  2. A Facile and Low-Cost Method to Enhance the Internal Quantum Yield and External Light-Extraction Efficiency for Flexible Light-Emitting Carbon-Dot Films.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z C; Lin, T N; Lin, H T; Talite, M J; Tzeng, T T; Hsu, C L; Chiu, K P; Lin, C A J; Shen, J L; Yuan, C T

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed, non-toxic carbon dots (CDs) have attracted much attention due to their unique photoluminescence (PL) properties. They are promising emissive layers for flexible light-emitting devices. To this end, the CDs in pristine aqueous solutions need to be transferred to form solid-state thin films without sacrificing their original PL characteristics. Unfortunately, solid-state PL quenching induced by extra non-radiative (NR) energy transfer among CDs would significantly hinder their practical applications in optoelectronics. Here, a facile, low-cost and effective method has been utilized to fabricate high-performance CD/polymer light-emitting flexible films with submicron-structured patterns. The patterned polymers can serve as a solid matrix to disperse and passivate CDs, thus achieving high internal quantum yields of 61%. In addition, they can act as an out-coupler to mitigate the waveguide-mode losses, approximately doubling the external light-extraction efficiency. Such CD/polymer composites also exhibit good photo-stability, and thus can be used as eco-friendly, low-cost phosphors for solid-state lighting. PMID:26822337

  3. The new open Flexible Emission Inventory for Greece and the Greater Athens Area (FEI-GREGAA): Account of pollutant sources and their importance from 2006 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fameli, Kyriaki-Maria; Assimakopoulos, Vasiliki D.

    2016-07-01

    Photochemical and particulate pollution problems persist in Athens as they do in various European cities, despite measures taken. Although, for many cities, organized and updated pollutant emissions databases exist, as well as infrastructure for the support of policy implementation, this is not the case for Greece and Athens. So far abstract efforts to create inventories from temporal and spatial annual low resolution data have not lead to the creation of a useful database. The objective of this study was to construct an emission inventory in order to examine the emission trends in Greece and the Greater Athens Area for the period 2006-2012 on a spatial scale of 6 × 6 km2 and 2 × 2 km2, respectively and on a temporal scale of 1 h. Emissions were calculated from stationary combustion sources, transportation (road, navigation and aviation), agriculture and industry obtained from official national and European sources. Moreover, new emission factors were calculated for road transport and aviation. The final database named F.E.I. - GREGAA (Flexible Emission Inventory for GREece and the GAA) is open-structured so as to receive data updates, new pollutants, various emission scenarios and/or different emission factors and be transformed for any grid spacing. Its main purpose is to be used in applications with photochemical models to contribute to the investigation on the type of sources and activities that lead to the configuration of air quality. Results showed a decreasing trend in CO, NOx and VOCs-NMVOCs emissions and an increasing trend from 2011 onwards in PM10 emissions. Road transport and small combustion contribute most to CO emissions, road transport and navigation to NOx and small combustion and industries to PM10. The onset of the economic crisis can be seen from the reduction of emissions from industry and the increase of biomass burning for heating purposes.

  4. Facile in situ growth of highly monodispersed Ag nanoparticles on electrospun PU nanofiber membranes: Flexible and high efficiency substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarjargal, Altangerel; Tijing, Leonard D.; Shon, Ho Kyong; Park, Chan-Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2014-07-01

    In this study, by utilizing a two-step route of electrospinning and polyol immersion, in the absence of any surfactant or sensitizing and stabilizing reagent, a well-distributed assembly of Ag NPs on the electrospun polyurethane (PU) nanofibers was successfully fabricated through a simple and controllable manner. Based on the FE-SEM, XRD and FT-IR analyses, the polyol medium plays an important role in the growth of highly monodispersed Ag NPs, wherein the hydroxyl group of ethylene glycol (EG) can be bridged to the amide group on the surface of the PU nanofibers through intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Fabrication of a polymer fibrous membrane effectively attached/decorated with noble metal NPs, which is essential as flexible and high efficiency substrates for SERS application where the molecule analytes are directly adsorbed on their surfaces is important, could be realized by the present electrospun PU-Ag(EG) nanofibers, employing 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) as probe molecules.

  5. Graphene composite for improvement in the conversion efficiency of flexible poly 3-hexyl-thiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, A. K.; Gusain, Abhay; Jha, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Saxena, Vibha; Veerender, P.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.

    2014-03-01

    The solution of thin graphene-sheets obtained from a simple ultrasonic exfoliation process was found to chemically interact with [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) molecules. The thinner graphene-sheets have significantly altered the positions of highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of PCBM, which is beneficial for the enhancement of the open circuit voltage of the solar cells. Flexible bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated using poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT):PCBM-graphene exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.51%, which is a ˜2-fold increase as compared to those fabricated using P3HT:PCBM. Inclusion of graphene-sheets not only improved the open-circuit voltage but also enhanced the short-circuit current density owing to an improved electron transport.

  6. A flexible genome-wide bootstrap method that accounts for ranking and threshold-selection bias in GWAS interpretation and replication study design.

    PubMed

    Faye, Laura L; Sun, Lei; Dimitromanolakis, Apostolos; Bull, Shelley B

    2011-07-10

    The phenomenon known as the winner's curse is a form of selection bias that affects estimates of genetic association. In genome-wide association studies (GWAS) the bias is exacerbated by the use of stringent selection thresholds and ranking over hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We develop an improved multi-locus bootstrap point estimate and confidence interval, which accounts for both ranking- and threshold-selection bias in the presence of genome-wide SNP linkage disequilibrium structure. The bootstrap method easily adapts to various study designs and alternative test statistics as well as complex SNP selection criteria. The latter is demonstrated by our application to the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium findings, in which the selection criterion was the minimum of the p-values for the additive and genotypic genetic effect models. In contrast, existing likelihood-based bias-reduced estimators account for the selection criterion applied to an SNP as if it were the only one tested, and so are more simple computationally, but do not address ranking across SNPs. Our simulation studies show that the bootstrap bias-reduced estimates are usually closer to the true genetic effect than the likelihood estimates and are less variable with a narrower confidence interval. Replication study sample size requirements computed from the bootstrap bias-reduced estimates are adequate 75-90 per cent of the time compared to 53-60 per cent of the time for the likelihood method. The bootstrap methods are implemented in a user-friendly package able to provide point and interval estimation for both binary and quantitative phenotypes in large-scale GWAS.

  7. Using Python for scientific computing: Efficient and flexible evaluation of the statistical characteristics of functions with multivariate random inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudoba, R.; Sadílek, V.; Rypl, R.; Vořechovský, M.

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of high-level Python based utilities for numerically intensive applications via an example of a multidimensional integration for the evaluation of the statistical characteristics of a random variable. We discuss the approaches to the implementation of mathematically formulated incremental expressions using high-level scripting code and low-level compiled code. Due to the dynamic typing of the Python language, components of the algorithm can be easily coded in a generic way as algorithmic templates. Using the Enthought Development Suite they can be effectively assembled into a flexible computational framework that can be configured to execute the code for arbitrary combinations of integration schemes and versions of instantiated code. The paper describes the development cycle using a simple running example involving averaging of a random two-parametric function that includes discontinuity. This example is also used to compare the performance of the available algorithmic and executional features. The implemented package including further examples and the results of performance studies have been made available via the free repository [1] and CPCP library. Program summaryProgram title: spirrid Catalogue identifier: AENL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Special licence provided by the author No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 10722 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 157099 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python and C. Computer: PC. Operating system: LINUX, UNIX, Windows. Classification: 4.13, 6.2. External routines: NumPy (http://numpy.scipy.org/), SciPy (http://www.scipy.com) Nature of problem: Evaluation of the statistical moments of a function of random variables. Solution method: Direct multidimensional

  8. Efficient generation, storage, and manipulation of fully flexible pharmacophore multiplets and their use in 3-D similarity searching.

    PubMed

    Abrahamian, Edmond; Fox, Peter C; Naerum, Lars; Christensen, Inge Thøger; Thøgersen, Henning; Clark, Robert D

    2003-01-01

    , successfully retrieving active compounds across a range of structural classes from a corporate database. The current implementation allows multiconformer bitmaps to be obtained from pregenerated conformations or by random perturbation on-the-fly. The latter application involves random sampling of the full range of conformations not precluded by steric clashes, which limits the usefulness of classical fingerprint similarity measures. A new measure of similarity, The Stochastic Cosine, is introduced here to address this need. This new similarity measure uses the average number of bits common to independently drawn conformer sets to normalize the cosine coefficient. Its use frees the user from having to ensure strict comparability of starting conformations and having to use fixed torsional increments, thereby allowing fully flexible characterization of pharmacophoric patterns.

  9. Assessment of myocardial metabolic flexibility and work efficiency in human type 2 diabetes using 16-[18F]fluoro-4-thiapalmitate, a novel PET fatty acid tracer.

    PubMed

    Mather, K J; Hutchins, G D; Perry, K; Territo, W; Chisholm, R; Acton, A; Glick-Wilson, B; Considine, R V; Moberly, S; DeGrado, T R

    2016-03-15

    Altered myocardial fuel selection likely underlies cardiac disease risk in diabetes, affecting oxygen demand and myocardial metabolic flexibility. We investigated myocardial fuel selection and metabolic flexibility in human type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), using positron emission tomography to measure rates of myocardial fatty acid oxidation {16-[(18)F]fluoro-4-thia-palmitate (FTP)} and myocardial perfusion and total oxidation ([(11)C]acetate). Participants underwent paired studies under fasting conditions, comparing 3-h insulin + glucose euglycemic clamp conditions (120 mU·m(-2)·min(-1)) to 3-h saline infusion. Lean controls (n = 10) were compared with glycemically controlled volunteers with T2DM (n = 8). Insulin augmented heart rate, blood pressure, and stroke index in both groups (all P < 0.01) and significantly increased myocardial oxygen consumption (P = 0.04) and perfusion (P = 0.01) in both groups. Insulin suppressed available nonesterified fatty acids (P < 0.0001), but fatty acid concentrations were higher in T2DM under both conditions (P < 0.001). Insulin-induced suppression of fatty acid oxidation was seen in both groups (P < 0.0001). However, fatty acid oxidation rates were higher under both conditions in T2DM (P = 0.003). Myocardial work efficiency was lower in T2DM (P = 0.006) and decreased in both groups with the insulin-induced increase in work and shift in fuel utilization (P = 0.01). Augmented fatty acid oxidation is present under baseline and insulin-treated conditions in T2DM, with impaired insulin-induced shifts away from fatty acid oxidation. This is accompanied by reduced work efficiency, possibly due to greater oxygen consumption with fatty acid metabolism. These observations suggest that improved fatty acid suppression, or reductions in myocardial fatty acid uptake and retention, could be therapeutic targets to improve myocardial ischemia tolerance in T2DM.

  10. Assessment of myocardial metabolic flexibility and work efficiency in human type 2 diabetes using 16-[18F]fluoro-4-thiapalmitate, a novel PET fatty acid tracer.

    PubMed

    Mather, K J; Hutchins, G D; Perry, K; Territo, W; Chisholm, R; Acton, A; Glick-Wilson, B; Considine, R V; Moberly, S; DeGrado, T R

    2016-03-15

    Altered myocardial fuel selection likely underlies cardiac disease risk in diabetes, affecting oxygen demand and myocardial metabolic flexibility. We investigated myocardial fuel selection and metabolic flexibility in human type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), using positron emission tomography to measure rates of myocardial fatty acid oxidation {16-[(18)F]fluoro-4-thia-palmitate (FTP)} and myocardial perfusion and total oxidation ([(11)C]acetate). Participants underwent paired studies under fasting conditions, comparing 3-h insulin + glucose euglycemic clamp conditions (120 mU·m(-2)·min(-1)) to 3-h saline infusion. Lean controls (n = 10) were compared with glycemically controlled volunteers with T2DM (n = 8). Insulin augmented heart rate, blood pressure, and stroke index in both groups (all P < 0.01) and significantly increased myocardial oxygen consumption (P = 0.04) and perfusion (P = 0.01) in both groups. Insulin suppressed available nonesterified fatty acids (P < 0.0001), but fatty acid concentrations were higher in T2DM under both conditions (P < 0.001). Insulin-induced suppression of fatty acid oxidation was seen in both groups (P < 0.0001). However, fatty acid oxidation rates were higher under both conditions in T2DM (P = 0.003). Myocardial work efficiency was lower in T2DM (P = 0.006) and decreased in both groups with the insulin-induced increase in work and shift in fuel utilization (P = 0.01). Augmented fatty acid oxidation is present under baseline and insulin-treated conditions in T2DM, with impaired insulin-induced shifts away from fatty acid oxidation. This is accompanied by reduced work efficiency, possibly due to greater oxygen consumption with fatty acid metabolism. These observations suggest that improved fatty acid suppression, or reductions in myocardial fatty acid uptake and retention, could be therapeutic targets to improve myocardial ischemia tolerance in T2DM. PMID:26732686

  11. Accounting for conformational flexibility and torsional anharmonicity in the H + CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH hydrogen abstraction reactions: A multi-path variational transition state theory study

    SciTech Connect

    Meana-Pañeda, Rubén; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio

    2014-05-07

    This work reports a detailed theoretical study of the hydrogen abstraction reactions from ethanol by atomic hydrogen. The calculated thermal rate constants take into account torsional anharmonicity and conformational flexibility, in addition to the variational and tunneling effects. Specifically, the kinetics calculations were performed by using multi-path canonical variational transition state theory with least-action path tunneling corrections, to which we have added the two-dimensional non-separable method to take into account torsional anharmonicity. The multi-path thermal rate constant is expressed as a sum over conformational reaction channels. Each of these channels includes all the transition states that can be reached by internal rotations. The results show that, in the interval of temperatures between 250 and 2500 K, the account for multiple paths leads to higher thermal rate constants with respect to the single path approach, mainly at low and at high temperatures. In addition, torsional anharmonicity enhances the slope of the Arrhenius plot in this range of temperatures. Finally, we show that the incorporation of tunneling into the hydrogen abstraction reactions substantially changes the contribution of each of the transition states to the conformational reaction channel.

  12. Accounting for target flexibility and water molecules by docking to ensembles of target structures: the HCV NS5B palm site I inhibitors case study.

    PubMed

    Barreca, Maria Letizia; Iraci, Nunzio; Manfroni, Giuseppe; Gaetani, Rosy; Guercini, Chiara; Sabatini, Stefano; Tabarrini, Oriana; Cecchetti, Violetta

    2014-02-24

    gathered from this work confirms the primary role of water molecules and protein flexibility in docking-based studies and can be exploited to aid NS5B-directed HCV drug discovery efforts.

  13. Hierarchical Oriented Anatase TiO2 Nanostructure arrays on Flexible Substrate for Efficient Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wu-Qiang; Rao, Hua-Shang; Xu, Yang-Fan; Wang, Yu-Fen; Su, Cheng-Yong; Kuang, Dai-Bin

    2013-01-01

    The vertically oriented anatase single crystalline TiO2 nanostructure arrays (TNAs) consisting of TiO2 truncated octahedrons with exposed {001} facets or hierarchical TiO2 nanotubes (HNTs) consisting of numerous nanocrystals on Ti-foil substrate were synthesized via a two-step hydrothermal growth process. The first step hydrothermal reaction of Ti foil and NaOH leads to the formation of H-titanate nanowire arrays, which is further performed the second step hydrothermal reaction to obtain the oriented anatase single crystalline TiO2 nanostructures such as TiO2 nanoarrays assembly with truncated octahedral TiO2 nanocrystals in the presence of NH4F aqueous or hierarchical TiO2 nanotubes with walls made of nanocrystals in the presence of pure water. Subsequently, these TiO2 nanostructures were utilized to produce dye-sensitized solar cells in a backside illumination pattern, yielding a significant high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.66% (TNAs, JSC = 7.46 mA cm−2, VOC = 839 mV, FF = 0.75) and 5.84% (HNTs, JSC = 10.02 mA cm−2, VOC = 817 mV, FF = 0.72), respectively. PMID:23715529

  14. Flexible Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Harold S.; Bechard, Joseph E.

    A flexible schedule allows teachers to change group size, group composition, and class length according to the purpose of the lesson. This pamphlet presents various "master" schedules for flexible scheduling: (1) Simple block schedules, (2) back-to-back schedules, (3) interdisciplinary schedules, (4) school-wide block schedules, (5) open-lab…

  15. Flexibility Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    These brief guidelines for a muscular flexibility program state that the purpose of such a program is to increase the range of motion in order to avoid injuries and eliminate awkwardness in physical activities. A flexibility program is described as an extension of the warm-up period and should be an ongoing, permanent effort to lengthen muscles. A…

  16. Solution-processed flexible planar perovskite solar cells: A strategy to enhance efficiency by controlling the ZnO electron transfer layer, PbI2 phase, and CH3NH3PbI3 morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kyungeun; Lee, Jeongwon; Kim, Joosun; Chae, Weon-Sik; Lee, Man-Jong

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports a synergistic strategy to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of flexible planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) by controlling the thickness of the ZnO electron transport layer (ETL), PbI2 phase, and size/morphology of the perovskite (MAPbI3) absorber layer. To optimize the size/morphology of MAPbI3 via a two-step spin coating process, various volumes of CH3NH3I precursor solutions with a constant concentration were continuously coated, which greatly affected the grain growth condition of the MAPbI3. In addition, the remnant PbI2 phase in the MAPbI3, which acted as a recombination barrier, was simultaneously controlled. This strategic method to synergistically combine the major factors affecting the final PCE resulted in the best efficiency of 12.3%, which is the highest efficiency among ZnO-ETL-based flexible planar PSCs to date.

  17. Generalized flexibility-rigidity index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Duc Duy; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Flexibility-rigidity index (FRI) has been developed as a robust, accurate, and efficient method for macromolecular thermal fluctuation analysis and B-factor prediction. The performance of FRI depends on its formulations of rigidity index and flexibility index. In this work, we introduce alternative rigidity and flexibility formulations. The structure of the classic Gaussian surface is utilized to construct a new type of rigidity index, which leads to a new class of rigidity densities with the classic Gaussian surface as a special case. Additionally, we introduce a new type of flexibility index based on the domain indicator property of normalized rigidity density. These generalized FRI (gFRI) methods have been extensively validated by the B-factor predictions of 364 proteins. Significantly outperforming the classic Gaussian network model, gFRI is a new generation of methodologies for accurate, robust, and efficient analysis of protein flexibility and fluctuation. Finally, gFRI based molecular surface generation and flexibility visualization are demonstrated.

  18. Low levels of ribosomal RNA partly account for the very high photosynthetic phosphorus-use efficiency of Proteaceae species

    PubMed Central

    Sulpice, Ronan; Ishihara, Hirofumi; Schlereth, Armin; Cawthray, Gregory R; Encke, Beatrice; Giavalisco, Patrick; Ivakov, Alexander; Arrivault, StÉphanie; Jost, Ricarda; Krohn, Nicole; Kuo, John; Laliberté, Etienne; Pearse, Stuart J; Raven, John A; Scheible, Wolf-rüdiger; Teste, François; Veneklaas, Erik J; Stitt, Mark; Lambers, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Proteaceae species in south-western Australia occur on phosphorus- (P) impoverished soils. Their leaves contain very low P levels, but have relatively high rates of photosynthesis. We measured ribosomal RNA (rRNA) abundance, soluble protein, activities of several enzymes and glucose 6-phosphate (Glc6P) levels in expanding and mature leaves of six Proteaceae species in their natural habitat. The results were compared with those for Arabidopsis thaliana. Compared with A. thaliana, immature leaves of Proteaceae species contained very low levels of rRNA, especially plastidic rRNA. Proteaceae species showed slow development of the photosynthetic apparatus (‘delayed greening’), with young leaves having very low levels of chlorophyll and Calvin–Benson cycle enzymes. In mature leaves, soluble protein and Calvin–Benson cycle enzyme activities were low, but Glc6P levels were similar to those in A. thaliana. We propose that low ribosome abundance contributes to the high P efficiency of these Proteaceae species in three ways: (1) less P is invested in ribosomes; (2) the rate of growth and, hence, demand for P is low; and (3) the especially low plastidic ribosome abundance in young leaves delays formation of the photosynthetic machinery, spreading investment of P in rRNA. Although Calvin–Benson cycle enzyme activities are low, Glc6P levels are maintained, allowing their effective use. PMID:24895754

  19. Flexible Mental Calculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlfall, John

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that strategy choice is a misleading characterization of efficient mental calculation and that teaching mental calculation methods as a whole is not conducive to flexibility. Proposes an alternative in which calculation is thought of as an interaction between noticing and knowledge. Presents an associated teaching approach to promote…

  20. A low-cost, high-efficiency and high-flexibility surface modification technology for a black bisphenol A polycarbonate board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Suhuan; Liu, Jianguo; Lv, Ming; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a low-cost, high-efficiency and high-flexibility surface modification technology for polymer materials was achieved at high laser scanning speeds (600-1000 mm s-1) and using an all-solid state, Q-switched, high-average power, and nanosecond pulse ultraviolet (355 nm wavelength) laser. During the surface modification of a very important engineering plastic, i.e., black bisphenol A polycarbonate (BAPC) board, it was found that different laser parameters (e.g., laser fluence and pulse frequency) were able to result in different surface microstructures (e.g., many tiny protuberances or a porous microstructure with periodical V-type grooves). After the modification, although the total relative content of the oxygen-containing groups (e.g., Csbnd O and COO-) on the BAPC surface increased, however, the special microstructures played a deciding role in the surface properties (e.g., contact angle and surface energy) of the BAPC. The change trend of the water contact angle on the BAPC surface was with an obvious increase, that of the diiodomethane contact angle was with a most decrease, and that of the ethylene glycol contact angle was between the above two. It showed that the wetting properties of the three liquids on the modified BAPC surface were different. Basing on the measurements of the contact angles of the three liquids, and according to the Young equation and the Lifshitz van der Waals and Lewis acid-base theory, the BAPC surface energy after the modification was calculated. The results were that, in a broad range of laser fluences, pulse frequencies and scanning speeds, the surface energy had a significant increase (e.g., from the original of about 44 mJ m-2 to the maximum of about 70 mJ m-2), and the higher the laser pulse frequency, the more significant the increase. This would be very advantageous to fabricate the high-quality micro-devices and micro-systems on the modified surface.

  1. Testing for the dual-route cascade reading model in the brain: an fMRI effective connectivity account of an efficient reading style.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jonathan; Pernet, Cyril; Treserras, Sébastien; Boulanouar, Kader; Aubry, Florent; Démonet, Jean-François; Celsis, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Neuropsychological data about the forms of acquired reading impairment provide a strong basis for the theoretical framework of the dual-route cascade (DRC) model which is predictive of reading performance. However, lesions are often extensive and heterogeneous, thus making it difficult to establish precise functional anatomical correlates. Here, we provide a connective neural account in the aim of accommodating the main principles of the DRC framework and to make predictions on reading skill. We located prominent reading areas using fMRI and applied structural equation modeling to pinpoint distinct neural pathways. Functionality of regions together with neural network dissociations between words and pseudowords corroborate the existing neuroanatomical view on the DRC and provide a novel outlook on the sub-regions involved. In a similar vein, congruent (or incongruent) reliance of pathways, that is reliance on the word (or pseudoword) pathway during word reading and on the pseudoword (or word) pathway during pseudoword reading predicted good (or poor) reading performance as assessed by out-of-magnet reading tests. Finally, inter-individual analysis unraveled an efficient reading style mirroring pathway reliance as a function of the fingerprint of the stimulus to be read, suggesting an optimal pattern of cerebral information trafficking which leads to high reading performance. PMID:19688099

  2. Testing for the Dual-Route Cascade Reading Model in the Brain: An fMRI Effective Connectivity Account of an Efficient Reading Style

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Jonathan; Pernet, Cyril; Treserras, Sébastien; Boulanouar, Kader; Aubry, Florent; Démonet, Jean-François; Celsis, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Neuropsychological data about the forms of acquired reading impairment provide a strong basis for the theoretical framework of the dual-route cascade (DRC) model which is predictive of reading performance. However, lesions are often extensive and heterogeneous, thus making it difficult to establish precise functional anatomical correlates. Here, we provide a connective neural account in the aim of accommodating the main principles of the DRC framework and to make predictions on reading skill. We located prominent reading areas using fMRI and applied structural equation modeling to pinpoint distinct neural pathways. Functionality of regions together with neural network dissociations between words and pseudowords corroborate the existing neuroanatomical view on the DRC and provide a novel outlook on the sub-regions involved. In a similar vein, congruent (or incongruent) reliance of pathways, that is reliance on the word (or pseudoword) pathway during word reading and on the pseudoword (or word) pathway during pseudoword reading predicted good (or poor) reading performance as assessed by out-of-magnet reading tests. Finally, inter-individual analysis unraveled an efficient reading style mirroring pathway reliance as a function of the fingerprint of the stimulus to be read, suggesting an optimal pattern of cerebral information trafficking which leads to high reading performance. PMID:19688099

  3. FLEXIBLE COUPLING

    DOEpatents

    Babelay, E.F.

    1962-02-13

    A flexible shaft coupling for operation at speeds in excess of 14,000 rpm is designed which requires no lubrication. A driving sleeve member and a driven sleeve member are placed in concentric spaced relationship. A torque force is transmitted to the driven member from the driving member through a plurality of nylon balls symmetrically disposed between the spaced sleeves. The balls extend into races and recesses within the respective sleeve members. The sleeve members have a suitable clearance therebetween and the balls have a suitable radial clearance during operation of the coupling to provide a relatively loose coupling. These clearances accommodate for both parallel and/or angular misalignments and avoid metal-tometal contact between the sleeve members during operation. Thus, no lubrication is needed, and a minimum of vibrations is transmitted between the sleeve members. (AEC)

  4. States Seek Flexibility on Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele; Gewertz, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    With the debut of common assessments less than two years away, states and districts are worried about the accountability systems that hinge on those tests. A growing chorus of policy groups is urging more flexibility in how states evaluate teachers, label schools, and enforce other high-stakes consequences during what's likely to be a messy…

  5. Educational Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincoffs, Edmund L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses educational accountability as the paradigm of performance contracting, presents some arguments for and against accountability, and discusses the goals of education and the responsibility of the teacher. (Author/PG)

  6. Flexible composite radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Bennett, Bryan L.; Muenchausen, Ross E.; Wrobleski, Debra A.; Orler, Edward B.

    2006-12-05

    A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum response of photomultipliers (about 400 nanometers) or photodiodes (about 600 nanometers), which maximizes the overall detector efficiency.

  7. Multifunctional flexible free-standing titanate nanobelt membranes as efficient sorbents for the removal of radioactive 90Sr2+ and 137Cs+ ions and oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Tao; Zhao, Zhiwei; Shen, Congcong; Li, Jiaxing; Tan, Xiaoli; Zeb, Akif; Wang, Xiangke; Xu, An-Wu

    2016-02-01

    For the increasing attention focused on saving endangered environments, there is a growing need for developing membrane materials able to perform complex functions such as removing radioactive pollutants and oil spills from water. A major challenge is the scalable fabrication of membranes with good mechanical and thermal stability, superior resistance to radiation, and excellent recyclability. In this study, we constructed a multifunctional flexible free-standing sodium titanate nanobelt (Na-TNB) membrane that was assembled as advanced radiation-tainted water treatment and oil uptake. We compared the adsorption behavior of 137Cs+ and 90Sr2+ on Na-TNB membranes under various environmental conditions. The maximum adsorption coefficient value (Kd) for Sr2+ reaches 107 mL g-1. The structural collapse of the exchange materials were confirmed by XRD, FTIR and XPS spectroscopy as well as Raman analysis. The adsorption mechanism of Na-TNB membrane is clarified by forming a stable solid with the radioactive cations permanently trapped inside. Besides, the engineered multilayer membrane is exceptionally capable in selectively and rapidly adsorbing oils up to 23 times the adsorbent weight when coated with a thin layer of hydrophobic molecules. This multifunctional membrane has exceptional potential as a suitable material for next generation water treatment and separation technologies.

  8. DynEarthSol3D: An Efficient and Flexible Unstructured Finite Element Method to Study Long-Term Tectonic Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, E.; Choi, E.; Lavier, L. L.; Calo, V. M.

    2013-12-01

    Many tectonic problems treat the lithosphere as a compressible elastic material, which can also flow viscously or break in a brittle fashion depending on the stress level applied and the temperature conditions. We present a flexible methodology to address the resulting complex material response, which imposes severe challenges on the discretization and rheological models used. This robust, adaptive, multidimensional, finite element method solves the momentum balance and the heat equation in Lagrangian form with unstructured simplicial mesh (triangles in 2D and tetrahedra in 3D). The mesh locking problem is avoided by using averaged volumetric strain rate to update the stress. The solver uses contingent mesh adaptivity in places where shear strain is focused (localization) during remeshing. A simple scheme of mesh coarsening is employed to prevent tiny elements during remeshing. Lagrangian markers are used to track multiple compositions of rocks. The code is parallelized via OpenMP with graph coloring. We detail the solver and verify it in a number of benchmark problems against analytic and numerical solutions from the literature.

  9. Multifunctional flexible free-standing titanate nanobelt membranes as efficient sorbents for the removal of radioactive 90Sr2+ and 137Cs+ ions and oils

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Tao; Zhao, Zhiwei; Shen, Congcong; Li, Jiaxing; Tan, Xiaoli; Zeb, Akif; Wang, Xiangke; Xu, An-Wu

    2016-01-01

    For the increasing attention focused on saving endangered environments, there is a growing need for developing membrane materials able to perform complex functions such as removing radioactive pollutants and oil spills from water. A major challenge is the scalable fabrication of membranes with good mechanical and thermal stability, superior resistance to radiation, and excellent recyclability. In this study, we constructed a multifunctional flexible free-standing sodium titanate nanobelt (Na-TNB) membrane that was assembled as advanced radiation-tainted water treatment and oil uptake. We compared the adsorption behavior of 137Cs+ and 90Sr2+ on Na-TNB membranes under various environmental conditions. The maximum adsorption coefficient value (Kd) for Sr2+ reaches 107 mL g−1. The structural collapse of the exchange materials were confirmed by XRD, FTIR and XPS spectroscopy as well as Raman analysis. The adsorption mechanism of Na-TNB membrane is clarified by forming a stable solid with the radioactive cations permanently trapped inside. Besides, the engineered multilayer membrane is exceptionally capable in selectively and rapidly adsorbing oils up to 23 times the adsorbent weight when coated with a thin layer of hydrophobic molecules. This multifunctional membrane has exceptional potential as a suitable material for next generation water treatment and separation technologies. PMID:26865116

  10. Multifunctional flexible free-standing titanate nanobelt membranes as efficient sorbents for the removal of radioactive (90)Sr(2+) and (137)Cs(+) ions and oils.

    PubMed

    Wen, Tao; Zhao, Zhiwei; Shen, Congcong; Li, Jiaxing; Tan, Xiaoli; Zeb, Akif; Wang, Xiangke; Xu, An-Wu

    2016-01-01

    For the increasing attention focused on saving endangered environments, there is a growing need for developing membrane materials able to perform complex functions such as removing radioactive pollutants and oil spills from water. A major challenge is the scalable fabrication of membranes with good mechanical and thermal stability, superior resistance to radiation, and excellent recyclability. In this study, we constructed a multifunctional flexible free-standing sodium titanate nanobelt (Na-TNB) membrane that was assembled as advanced radiation-tainted water treatment and oil uptake. We compared the adsorption behavior of (137)Cs(+) and (90)Sr(2+) on Na-TNB membranes under various environmental conditions. The maximum adsorption coefficient value (Kd) for Sr(2+) reaches 10(7) mL g(-1). The structural collapse of the exchange materials were confirmed by XRD, FTIR and XPS spectroscopy as well as Raman analysis. The adsorption mechanism of Na-TNB membrane is clarified by forming a stable solid with the radioactive cations permanently trapped inside. Besides, the engineered multilayer membrane is exceptionally capable in selectively and rapidly adsorbing oils up to 23 times the adsorbent weight when coated with a thin layer of hydrophobic molecules. This multifunctional membrane has exceptional potential as a suitable material for next generation water treatment and separation technologies. PMID:26865116

  11. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Holekamp, Kay E.; Swanson, Eli M.; Van Meter, Page E.

    2013-01-01

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility. PMID:23569298

  12. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.

    PubMed

    Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E

    2013-05-19

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility. PMID:23569298

  13. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.

    PubMed

    Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E

    2013-05-19

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility.

  14. Printing graphene-carbon nanotube-ionic liquid gel on graphene paper: Towards flexible electrodes with efficient loading of PtAu alloy nanoparticles for electrochemical sensing of blood glucose.

    PubMed

    He, Wenshan; Sun, Yimin; Xi, Jiangbo; Abdurhman, Abduraouf Alamer Mohamed; Ren, Jinghua; Duan, Hongwei

    2016-01-15

    The increasing demands for portable, wearable, and implantable sensing devices have stimulated growing interest in innovative electrode materials. In this work, we have demonstrated that printing a conductive ink formulated by blending three-dimensional (3D) porous graphene-carbon nanotube (CNT) assembly with ionic liquid (IL) on two-dimensional (2D) graphene paper (GP), leads to a freestanding GP supported graphene-CNT-IL nanocomposite (graphene-CNT-IL/GP). The incorporation of highly conductive CNTs into graphene assembly effectively increases its surface area and improves its electrical and mechanical properties. The graphene-CNT-IL/GP, as freestanding and flexible substrates, allows for efficient loading of PtAu alloy nanoparticles by means of ultrasonic-electrochemical deposition. Owing to the synergistic effect of PtAu alloy nanoparticles, 3D porous graphene-CNT scaffold, IL binder and 2D flexible GP substrate, the resultant lightweight nanohybrid paper electrode exhibits excellent sensing performances in nonenzymatic electrochemical detection of glucose in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility and mechanical properties. PMID:26709299

  15. Printing graphene-carbon nanotube-ionic liquid gel on graphene paper: Towards flexible electrodes with efficient loading of PtAu alloy nanoparticles for electrochemical sensing of blood glucose.

    PubMed

    He, Wenshan; Sun, Yimin; Xi, Jiangbo; Abdurhman, Abduraouf Alamer Mohamed; Ren, Jinghua; Duan, Hongwei

    2016-01-15

    The increasing demands for portable, wearable, and implantable sensing devices have stimulated growing interest in innovative electrode materials. In this work, we have demonstrated that printing a conductive ink formulated by blending three-dimensional (3D) porous graphene-carbon nanotube (CNT) assembly with ionic liquid (IL) on two-dimensional (2D) graphene paper (GP), leads to a freestanding GP supported graphene-CNT-IL nanocomposite (graphene-CNT-IL/GP). The incorporation of highly conductive CNTs into graphene assembly effectively increases its surface area and improves its electrical and mechanical properties. The graphene-CNT-IL/GP, as freestanding and flexible substrates, allows for efficient loading of PtAu alloy nanoparticles by means of ultrasonic-electrochemical deposition. Owing to the synergistic effect of PtAu alloy nanoparticles, 3D porous graphene-CNT scaffold, IL binder and 2D flexible GP substrate, the resultant lightweight nanohybrid paper electrode exhibits excellent sensing performances in nonenzymatic electrochemical detection of glucose in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility and mechanical properties.

  16. Graphene composite for improvement in the conversion efficiency of flexible poly 3-hexyl-thiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, A. K. E-mail: akc.barc@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay; Jha, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Saxena, Vibha; Veerender, P.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.

    2014-03-31

    The solution of thin graphene-sheets obtained from a simple ultrasonic exfoliation process was found to chemically interact with [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) molecules. The thinner graphene-sheets have significantly altered the positions of highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of PCBM, which is beneficial for the enhancement of the open circuit voltage of the solar cells. Flexible bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated using poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT):PCBM-graphene exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.51%, which is a ∼2-fold increase as compared to those fabricated using P3HT:PCBM. Inclusion of graphene-sheets not only improved the open-circuit voltage but also enhanced the short-circuit current density owing to an improved electron transport.

  17. Robotic control of a traditional flexible endoscope for therapy.

    PubMed

    Ruiter, J G; Bonnema, G M; van der Voort, M C; Broeders, I A M J

    2013-09-01

    In therapeutic flexible endoscopy a team of physician and assistant(s) is required to control all independent translations and rotations of the flexible endoscope and its instruments. As a consequence the physician lacks valuable force feedback information on tissue interaction, communication errors easily occur, and procedures are not cost-effective. Current tools are not suitable for performing therapeutic procedures in an intuitive and user-friendly way by one person. A shift from more invasive surgical procedures that require external incisions to endoluminal procedures that use the natural body openings could be expected if enabling techniques were available. This paper describes the design and evaluation of a robotic system which interacts with traditional flexible endoscopes to perform therapeutic procedures that require advanced maneuverability. The physician uses one multi-degree-of-freedom input device to control camera steering as well as shaft manipulation of the motorized flexible endoscope, while the other hand is able to manipulate instruments. We identified critical use aspects that need to be addressed in the robotic setup. A proof-of-principle setup was built and evaluated to judge the usability of our system. Results show that robotic endoscope control increases efficiency and satisfaction. Participants valued its intuitiveness, its accuracy, the feeling of being in control, and its single-person setup. Future work will concentrate on the design of a system that is fully functional and takes safety, cleanability, and easy positioning close to the patient into account.

  18. Flexible and fragmentable tandem photosensitive nanocrystal skins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, S.; Uran, C.; Bozok, B.; Gungor, K.; Kelestemur, Y.; Lesnyak, V.; Gaponik, N.; Eychmüller, A.; Demir, H. V.

    2016-02-01

    We proposed and demonstrated the first account of large-area, semi-transparent, tandem photosensitive nanocrystal skins (PNSs) constructed on flexible substrates operating on the principle of photogenerated potential buildup, which avoid the need for applying an external bias and circumvent the current-matching limitation between junctions. We successfully fabricated and operated the tandem PNSs composed of single monolayers of colloidal water-soluble CdTe and CdHgTe nanocrystals (NCs) in adjacent junctions on a Kapton polymer tape. Owing to the usage of a single NC layer in each junction, noise generation was significantly reduced while keeping the resulting PNS films considerably transparent. In each junction, photogenerated excitons are dissociated at the interface of the semi-transparent Al electrode and the NC layer, with holes migrating to the contact electrode and electrons trapped in the NCs. As a result, the tandem PNSs lead to an open-circuit photovoltage buildup equal to the sum of those of the two single junctions, exhibiting a total voltage buildup of 128.4 mV at an excitation intensity of 75.8 μW cm-2 at 350 nm. Furthermore, we showed that these flexible PNSs could be bent over 3.5 mm radius of curvature and cut out in arbitrary shapes without damaging the operation of individual parts and without introducing any significant loss in the total sensitivity. These findings indicate that the NC skins are promising as building blocks to make low-cost, flexible, large-area UV/visible sensing platforms with highly efficient full-spectrum conversion.We proposed and demonstrated the first account of large-area, semi-transparent, tandem photosensitive nanocrystal skins (PNSs) constructed on flexible substrates operating on the principle of photogenerated potential buildup, which avoid the need for applying an external bias and circumvent the current-matching limitation between junctions. We successfully fabricated and operated the tandem PNSs composed of

  19. High-Performance Flexible Waveguiding Photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chun-Hsien; Chuang, Jui-Kang; Chen, Fang-Chung

    2013-01-01

    The use of flat-plane solar concentrators is an effective approach toward collecting sunlight economically and without sun trackers. The optical concentrators are, however, usually made of rigid glass or plastics having limited flexibility, potentially restricting their applicability. In this communication, we describe flexible waveguiding photovoltaics (FWPVs) that exhibit high optical efficiencies and great mechanical flexibility. We constructed these FWPVs by integrating poly-Si solar cells, a soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) waveguide, and a TiO2-doped backside reflector. Optical microstructures that increase the light harvesting ability of the FWPVs can be fabricated readily, through soft lithography, on the top surface of the PDMS waveguide. Our optimized structure displayed an optical efficiency of greater than 42% and a certified power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.57%, with a projected PCE as high as approximately 18%. This approach might open new avenues for the harvesting of solar energy at low cost with efficient, mechanically flexible photovoltaics. PMID:23873225

  20. Flexible HVAC System for Lab or Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedan, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Discusses an effort to design a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system flexible enough to accommodate an easy conversion of classrooms to laboratories and dry labs to wet labs. The design's energy efficiency and operations and maintenance are examined. (GR)

  1. A Cu(ii) MOF with a flexible bifunctionalised terpyridine as an efficient catalyst for the single-pot hydrocarboxylation of cyclohexane to carboxylic acid in water/ionic liquid medium.

    PubMed

    Paul, Anup; Ribeiro, Ana P C; Karmakar, Anirban; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2016-08-01

    The copper(ii) metal-organic framework (MOF) [Cu(η-1κN,N',N'':2κO,O'-L)(NO3)]n (1) [L = 4-((4-([2,2':6',2''-terpyridin]-4'-yl)benzyl)oxy)benzoate] has been synthesized from a flexible bifunctionalised terpyridine species (HL). It was characterized by elemental, FT-IR, powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Single crystal X-ray crystallography of 1 shows a 1D polymeric architecture, whose topological analysis illustrates a uninodal (2)-connected net having topological type 2C1. 1 shows good catalytic activity and selectivity towards the hydrocarboxylation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanecarboxylic acid in water/acetonitrile or water/ionic liquid [BMPyr][NTf2] [BMPyr = 1-butyl-1 methylpyrrolidinium; NTf2 = bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide] medium. It can be recycled and reused without any significant loss of catalytic efficiency. This study provides the first example of an efficient alkane hydrocarboxylation to carboxylic acid, in an ionic liquid and under mild conditions. PMID:27460349

  2. Spatial operator algebra for flexible multibody dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, A.; Rodriguez, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to modeling the dynamics of flexible multibody systems such as flexible spacecraft and limber space robotic systems. A large number of degrees of freedom and complex dynamic interactions are typical in these systems. This paper uses spatial operators to develop efficient recursive algorithms for the dynamics of these systems. This approach very efficiently manages complexity by means of a hierarchy of mathematical operations.

  3. Modified independent modal space control method for active control of flexible systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Poh, S.; Studer, P.

    1989-01-01

    A modified independent modal space control (MIMSC) method is developed for designing active vibration control systems for large flexible structures. The method accounts for the interaction between the controlled and residual modes. It incorporates also optimal placement procedures for selecting the optimal locations of the actuators in the structure in order to minimize the structural vibrations as well as the actuation energy. The MIMSC method relies on an important feature which is based on time sharing of a small number of actuators, in the modal space, to control effectively a large number of modes. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the application of the method to generic flexible systems. The results obtained suggest the potential of the devised method in designing efficient active control systems for large flexible structures.

  4. Modified independent modal space control method for active control of flexible systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Poh, S.

    1987-01-01

    A modified independent modal space control (MIMSC) method is developed for designing active vibration control systems for large flexible structures. The method accounts for the interaction between the controlled and residual modes. It incorporates also optimal placement procedures for selecting the optimal locations of the actuators in the structure in order to minimize the structural vibrations as well as the actuation energy. The MIMSC method relies on an important feature which is based on time sharing of a small number of actuators, in the modal space, to control effectively a large number of modes. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the application of the method to generic flexible systems. The results obtained suggest the potential of the devised method in designing efficient active control systems for large flexible structures.

  5. Modified independent modal space control method for active control of flexible systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Poh, S.; Studer, P.

    1988-01-01

    A modified independent modal space control (MIMSC) method is developed for designing active vibration control systems for large flexible structures. The method accounts for the interaction between the controlled and residual modes. It incorporates also optimal placement procedures for selecting the optimal locations of the actuators in the structure in order to minimize the structural vibrations as well as the actuation energy. The MIMSC method relies on an important feature which is based on time sharing of a small number of actuators, in the modal space, to control effectively a large number of modes. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the application of the method to generic flexible systems. The results obtained suggest the potential of the devised method in designing efficient active control systems for large flexible structures.

  6. Efficiency of fish propulsion.

    PubMed

    Maertens, A P; Triantafyllou, M S; Yue, D K P

    2015-07-30

    The system efficiency of a self-propelled flexible body is ill-defined, hence we introduce the concept of quasi-propulsive efficiency, defined as the ratio of the power needed to tow a body in rigid-straight condition over the power it requires for self-propulsion, both measured for the same speed. Through examples we show that the quasi-propulsive efficiency is a rational non-dimensional metric of the propulsive fitness of fish and fish-like mechanisms, consistent with the goal to minimize fuel consumption under size and velocity constraints. We perform two-dimensional viscous simulations and apply the concept of quasi-propulsive efficiency to illustrate and discuss the efficiency of two-dimensional undulating foils employing first carangiform and then anguilliform kinematics. We show that low efficiency may be due to adverse body-propulsor hydrodynamic interactions, which cannot be accounted for by an increase in friction drag, as done previously, since at the Reynolds number Re = 5 000 considered in the simulations, pressure is a major contributor to both thrust and drag.

  7. Sources of Operational Flexibility, Greening the Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Jessica; Milligan, Michael; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2015-05-01

    Changes in electricity demand and generation must be constantly balanced to maintain power system stability and reliability. Operational flexibility refers to the ability of a power system to respond to these changes. Power systems are designed and operated to efficiently manage variability and uncertainty in electricity demand and resource availability. Variable renewable energy (VRE) increases this inherent variability and uncertainty, and thus increases the need for flexibility. Systems with significant variability and uncertainty require flexible generators that can rapidly change output, operate efficiently at lower outputs, and operate for short durations. This flexibility in turn can reduce the need to curtail (decrease the output of) solar and wind generation; improve investor confidence in VRE and revenue streams; decrease the risk of negative market pricing (which results when conventional generators cannot turn down to low outputs during times of high VRE output); and reduce environmental impacts by increasing system efficiency and maximizing the utilization of VRE.

  8. An efficient model to predict guided wave radiation by finite-sized sources in multilayered anisotropic plates with account of caustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stévenin, M.; Lhémery, A.; Grondel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Elastic guided waves (GW) are used in various non-destructive testing (NDT) methods to inspect plate-like structures, generated by finite-sized transducers. Thanks to GW long range propagation, using a few transducers at permanent positions can provide a full coverage of the plate. Transducer diffraction effects take place, leading to complex radiated fields. Optimizing transducers positioning makes it necessary to accurately predict the GW field radiated by a transducer. Fraunhofer-like approximations applied to GW in isotropic homogeneous plates lead to fast and accurate field computation but can fail when applied to multi-layered anisotropic composite plates, as shown by some examples given. Here, a model is proposed for composite plates, based on the computation of the approximate Green's tensor describing modal propagation from a source point, with account of caustics typically seen when strong anisotropy is concerned. Modal solutions are otherwise obtained by the Semi-Analytic Finite Element method. Transducer diffraction effects are accounted for by means of an angular integration over the transducer surface as seen from the calculation point, that is, over energy paths involved, which are mode-dependent. The model is validated by comparing its predictions with those computed by means of a full convolution integration of the Green's tensor with the source over transducer surface. Examples given concern disk and rectangular shaped transducers commonly used in NDT.

  9. Accountability Overboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chieppo, Charles D.; Gass, James T.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that special interest groups opposed to charter schools and high-stakes testing have hijacked Massachusetts's once-independent board of education and stand poised to water down the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) tests and the accountability system they support. President Barack Obama and Massachusetts…

  10. Painless Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. W.; And Others

    The computerized Painless Accountability System is a performance objective system from which instructional programs are developed. Three main simplified behavioral response levels characterize this system: (1) cognitive, (2) psychomotor, and (3) affective domains. Each of these objectives are classified by one of 16 descriptors. The second major…

  11. Accounting Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication identifies 20 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of accounting specialist, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 20 units are as follows:…

  12. Flexibility and Muscular Strength.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell

    1988-01-01

    This definition of flexibility and muscular strength also explores their roles in overall physical fitness and focuses on how increased flexibility and muscular strength can help decrease or eliminate lower back pain. (CB)

  13. Rigidity and flexibility of biological networks.

    PubMed

    Gáspár, Merse E; Csermely, Peter

    2012-11-01

    The network approach became a widely used tool to understand the behaviour of complex systems in the last decade. We start from a short description of structural rigidity theory. A detailed account on the combinatorial rigidity analysis of protein structures, as well as local flexibility measures of proteins and their applications in explaining allostery and thermostability is given. We also briefly discuss the network aspects of cytoskeletal tensegrity. Finally, we show the importance of the balance between functional flexibility and rigidity in protein-protein interaction, metabolic, gene regulatory and neuronal networks. Our summary raises the possibility that the concepts of flexibility and rigidity can be generalized to all networks. PMID:23165349

  14. Behavioral flexibility and problem solving in an invasive bird.

    PubMed

    Logan, Corina J

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is considered an important trait for adapting to environmental change, but it is unclear what it is, how it works, and whether it is a problem solving ability. I investigated behavioral flexibility and problem solving experimentally in great-tailed grackles, an invasive bird species and thus a likely candidate for possessing behavioral flexibility. Grackles demonstrated behavioral flexibility in two contexts, the Aesop's Fable paradigm and a color association test. Contrary to predictions, behavioral flexibility did not correlate across contexts. Four out of 6 grackles exhibited efficient problem solving abilities, but problem solving efficiency did not appear to be directly linked with behavioral flexibility. Problem solving speed also did not significantly correlate with reversal learning scores, indicating that faster learners were not the most flexible. These results reveal how little we know about behavioral flexibility, and provide an immense opportunity for future research to explore how individuals and species can use behavior to react to changing environments.

  15. Behavioral flexibility and problem solving in an invasive bird

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is considered an important trait for adapting to environmental change, but it is unclear what it is, how it works, and whether it is a problem solving ability. I investigated behavioral flexibility and problem solving experimentally in great-tailed grackles, an invasive bird species and thus a likely candidate for possessing behavioral flexibility. Grackles demonstrated behavioral flexibility in two contexts, the Aesop’s Fable paradigm and a color association test. Contrary to predictions, behavioral flexibility did not correlate across contexts. Four out of 6 grackles exhibited efficient problem solving abilities, but problem solving efficiency did not appear to be directly linked with behavioral flexibility. Problem solving speed also did not significantly correlate with reversal learning scores, indicating that faster learners were not the most flexible. These results reveal how little we know about behavioral flexibility, and provide an immense opportunity for future research to explore how individuals and species can use behavior to react to changing environments. PMID:27168984

  16. Flexible propulsors in ground effect.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Daniel B; Lauder, George V; Smits, Alexander J

    2014-09-01

    We present experimental evidence for the hydrodynamic benefits of swimming 'in ground effect', that is, near a solid boundary. This situation is common to fish that swim near the substrate, especially those that are dorsoventrally compressed, such as batoids and flatfishes. To investigate flexible propulsors in ground effect, we conduct force measurements and particle image velocimetry on flexible rectangular panels actuated at their leading edge near the wall of a water channel. For a given actuation mode, the panels swim faster near the channel wall while maintaining the same propulsive economy. In conditions producing net thrust, panels produce more thrust near the ground. When operating in resonance, swimming near the ground can also increase propulsive efficiency. Finally, the ground can act to suppress three-dimensional modes, thereby increasing thrust and propulsive efficiency. The planform considered here is non-biological, but the hydrodynamic benefits are likely to apply to more complex geometries, especially those where broad flexible propulsors are involved such as fish bodies and fins. Such fish could produce more thrust by swimming near the ground, and in some cases do so more efficiently. PMID:24667542

  17. Flexible propulsors in ground effect.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Daniel B; Lauder, George V; Smits, Alexander J

    2014-09-01

    We present experimental evidence for the hydrodynamic benefits of swimming 'in ground effect', that is, near a solid boundary. This situation is common to fish that swim near the substrate, especially those that are dorsoventrally compressed, such as batoids and flatfishes. To investigate flexible propulsors in ground effect, we conduct force measurements and particle image velocimetry on flexible rectangular panels actuated at their leading edge near the wall of a water channel. For a given actuation mode, the panels swim faster near the channel wall while maintaining the same propulsive economy. In conditions producing net thrust, panels produce more thrust near the ground. When operating in resonance, swimming near the ground can also increase propulsive efficiency. Finally, the ground can act to suppress three-dimensional modes, thereby increasing thrust and propulsive efficiency. The planform considered here is non-biological, but the hydrodynamic benefits are likely to apply to more complex geometries, especially those where broad flexible propulsors are involved such as fish bodies and fins. Such fish could produce more thrust by swimming near the ground, and in some cases do so more efficiently.

  18. Individual differences in subjective circadian flexibility.

    PubMed

    Marcoen, Nele; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Neu, Daniel; Pattyn, Nathalie; Mairesse, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate individual differences in the subjective flexibility of the circadian system in a community sample, with respect to age, gender, chronotype, and sleepiness perceptions. An online questionnaire containing the Circadian Type Inventory, the Composite Scale of Morningness, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale was administered. In addition, participants performed a visuo-verbal judgment task to determine time-of-day variations in estimated sleepiness. We analyzed data of 752 participants, aged between 18 and 83 years, who reported good sleep quality, no sleep disturbances, no excessive daytime sleepiness, and no engagement in shiftwork. Our results suggest gender- and chronotype-related differences in the subjective flexibility of the circadian system. Subjective circadian flexibility was higher in men in comparison with women and was positively related to evening preference. Age was not associated with flexibility scores. Additionally, the subjective flexibility of the circadian system had an influence on estimated sleepiness profiles: individuals with a high flexibility displayed lower sleepiness estimations during the biological night in comparison to individuals with a low flexibility. These findings suggests that, next to known chronotype and other dispositional differences, subjective circadian flexibility should be taken into account when evaluating tolerance to activities associated with nighttime functioning (e.g. night shifts).

  19. Flexible Foot Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-04-27

    A test model of the flexible foot support was constructed early in the design stages to check its reactions to applied loads. The prototype was made of SS 304 and contained four vertical plates as opposed to the fourteen Inconel 718 plates which comprise the actual structure. Due to the fact that the prototype was built before the design of the support was finalized, the plate dimensions are different from those of the actual proposed design (i.e. model plate thickness is approximately one-half that of the actual plates). See DWG. 3740.210-MC-222376 for assembly details of the test model and DWG. 3740.210-MB-222377 for plate dimensions. This stanchion will be required to not only support the load of the inner vessel of the cryostat and its contents, but it must also allow for the movement of the vessel due to thermal contraction. Assuming that each vertical plate acts as a column, then the following formula from the Manual of Steel Construction (American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Eigth edition, 1980) can be applied to determine whether or not such columns undergoing simultaneous axial compression and transverse loading are considered safe for the given loading. The first term is representative of the axially compressive stress, and the second term, the bending stress. If the actual compressive stress is greater than 15% of the allowable compressive stress, then there are additional considerations which must be accounted for in the bending stress term.

  20. Moving to micro-based cost accounting.

    PubMed

    Baird, P J; Kazamek, T J

    1988-03-01

    Cost accounting information is needed for flexible budgeting, productivity management, contracting with third party payors, physician evaluation, and investment and divestment decisions. This article discusses why an increasing number of hospital managers are turning to microcomputer-based accounting systems as solutions to these growing needs.

  1. Resonance of flexible flapping wings at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoud, Hassan; Alexeev, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Using three-dimensional computer simulations, we examine hovering aerodynamics of flexible planar wings oscillating at resonance. We model flexible wings as tilted elastic plates whose sinusoidal plunging motion is imposed at the plate root. Our simulations reveal that large-amplitude resonance oscillations of elastic wings drastically enhance aerodynamic lift and efficiency of low-Reynolds-number plunging. Driven by a simple sinusoidal stroke, flexible wings at resonance generate a hovering force comparable to that of small insects that employ a very efficient but much more complicated stroke kinematics. Our results indicate the feasibility of using flexible wings driven by a simple harmonic stroke for designing efficient microscale flying machines.

  2. A highly efficient tree structure for the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate accounts for the commonly observed disaccharides and suggests a mechanism for domain synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Timothy R; Yates, Edwin A

    2012-04-01

    The form of the biosynthetic pathway of the biologically and medically important polysaccharides heparan sulfate (HS) and the closely related heparin remain obscure despite significant progress characterising the biosynthetic machinery. Considering possible biosynthetic schemes using a graph approach and applying known constraints of enzyme order and specificity, a previously unreported system with a highly efficient tree structure emerged with two features: (1) All commonly occurring HS disaccharides could be synthesised through a common route, the major branch. (2) The least common disaccharides also occurred on a separate common branch, termed here the minor branch. This suggested that the relative abundance of these two sets of structures were the result of the specificity of a single enzyme (HS epimerase) acting at an early point in the scheme, to convert GlcA-GlcNS to IdoA-GlcNS in preference to converting GlcA-GlcNAc to IdoA-GlcNAc. A third key finding was that the common substrates for 3-O-sulfation all lie on the same (major) branch. The proposed scheme is consistent with a wide body of experiments comprising both biochemical data and results from HS biosynthetic enzyme knockout experiments in the literature. The major branch also contains a bifurcation, providing a choice of two distinct backbone geometries with the same charge. Further development of this novel biosynthetic scheme, in which frame shifts in the site of action of the enzymes were permitted to occur, while maintaining their order of action, suggested a mechanism by which domains could be generated, or further modification blocked. The relationship between the proposed pathway and the geometric and charge possibilities it allows were also explored.

  3. Thin, Flexible IMM Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walmsley, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    NASA needs solar arrays that are thin, flexible, and highly efficient; package compactly for launch; and deploy into large, structurally stable high-power generators. Inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cells can enable these arrays, but integration of this thin crystalline cell technology presents certain challenges. The Thin Hybrid Interconnected Solar Array (THINS) technology allows robust and reliable integration of IMM cells into a flexible blanket comprising standardized modules engineered for easy production. The modules support the IMM cell by using multifunctional materials for structural stability, shielding, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) stress relief, and integrated thermal and electrical functions. The design approach includes total encapsulation, which benefits high voltage as well as electrostatic performance.

  4. Lightweight flexible rooftop PV module

    SciTech Connect

    Izu, M.; Ovshinsky, H.C.; Whelan, K.

    1994-12-31

    Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. (ECD) and United Solar Systems Corp. (United Solar) are developing lightweight, flexible photovoltaic modules that can replace conventional roofing materials and be economically and aesthetically integrated into residential and commercial buildings. The modules will be fabricated from high-efficiency multi-junction a-Si alloy solar cells developed by ECD and United Solar. These cells are produced on thin, flexible, stainless steel substrates. Two types of products 1 ft by 10 ft overlapping PV shingles and 1.3 ft by 20 ft PV roof panels are being developed by United Solar and ECD, respectively. United Solar`s shingle type design uses a roof mounting procedures similar to those used with conventional asphalt shingles, while ECD`s PV panel uses mounting procedures conforming to metal roof systems. Thus, they can be installed on roof sheathings, replacing ordinary shingles or metal roofing panels, on a standard wood roof construction.

  5. Energy minimization on manifolds for docking flexible molecules

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Hanieh; Zarbafian, Shahrooz; Villar, Elizabeth; Mottarella, Scott; Beglov, Dmitri; Vajda, Sandor; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch.; Vakili, Pirooz; Kozakov, Dima

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we extend a recently introduced rigid body minimization algorithm, defined on manifolds, to the problem of minimizing the energy of interacting flexible molecules. The goal is to integrate moving the ligand in six dimensional rotational/translational space with internal rotations around rotatable bonds within the two molecules. We show that adding rotational degrees of freedom to the rigid moves of the ligand results in an overall optimization search space that is a manifold to which our manifold optimization approach can be extended. The effectiveness of the method is shown for three different docking problems of increasing complexity. First we minimize the energy of fragment-size ligands with a single rotatable bond as part of a protein mapping method developed for the identification of binding hot spots. Second, we consider energy minimization for docking a flexible ligand to a rigid protein receptor, an approach frequently used in existing methods. In the third problem we account for flexibility in both the ligand and the receptor. Results show that minimization using the manifold optimization algorithm is substantially more efficient than minimization using a traditional all-atom optimization algorithm while producing solutions of comparable quality. In addition to the specific problems considered, the method is general enough to be used in a large class of applications such as docking multidomain proteins with flexible hinges. The code is available under open source license (at http://cluspro.bu.edu/Code/Code_Rigtree.tar), and with minimal effort can be incorporated into any molecular modeling package. PMID:26478722

  6. Thrust generation by a heaving flexible foil: Resonance, nonlinearities, and optimality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraz, Florine; Schouveiler, Lionel; Eloy, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility of marine animal fins has been thought to enhance swimming performance. However, despite numerous experimental and numerical studies on flapping flexible foils, there is still no clear understanding of the effect of flexibility and flapping amplitude on thrust generation and swimming efficiency. Here, to address this question, we combine experiments on a model system and a weakly nonlinear analysis. Experiments consist in immersing a flexible rectangular plate in a uniform flow and forcing this plate into a heaving motion at its leading edge. A complementary theoretical model is developed assuming a two-dimensional inviscid problem. In this model, nonlinear effects are taken into account by considering a transverse resistive drag. Under these hypotheses, a modal decomposition of the system motion allows us to predict the plate response amplitude and the generated thrust, as a function of the forcing amplitude and frequency. We show that this model can correctly predict the experimental data on plate kinematic response and thrust generation, as well as other data found in the literature. We also discuss the question of efficiency in the context of bio-inspired propulsion. Using the proposed model, we show that the optimal propeller for a given thrust and a given swimming speed is achieved when the actuating frequency is tuned to a resonance of the system, and when the optimal forcing amplitude scales as the square root of the required thrust.

  7. Flexible Animation Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Scott S.

    1990-01-01

    FLEXAN (Flexible Animation), computer program animating structural dynamics on Evans and Sutherland PS300-series graphics workstation with VAX/VMS host computer. Typical application is animation of spacecraft undergoing structural stresses caused by thermal and vibrational effects. Displays distortions in shape of spacecraft. Program displays single natural mode of vibration, mode history, or any general deformation of flexible structure. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  8. TOWARDS AN ECONOMICAL FLEXIBILITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUDILL, WILLIAM W.; RICHARDSON, L.S.

    AN ARCHITECT AND A SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS COLLABORATED ON THE DESIGN FOR A HIGH SCHOOL, WHICH STRESSED ECONOMY AND FLEXIBILITY. THEY CONSIDERED THREE ASPECTS OF FLEXIBILITY--(1) EXPANDABILITY, (2) CONVERTIBILITY, AND (3) VERSATILITY. EXPANDABILITY IS DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF SITE SELECTION AND PLANNING. CONVERTIBILITY FEATURES IDENTIFIED INCLUDE…

  9. Flexibility within Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C.; Gosch, Elizabeth; Furr, Jami M.; Sood, Erica

    2008-01-01

    The authors address concerns regarding manual-based treatments, highlighting the role of flexibility and creativity. A cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety called the Coping Cat program demonstrates the flexible application of manuals and emphasizes the importance of a child-centered, personalized approach that involves the child in the…

  10. Flexibility, Is That All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renes, Wim M.

    This paper discusses the design of flexible and intelligent library buildings. The first section addresses how flexibility, as one of the requirements of a library building, that has high priority in the planning process. Intelligent libraries are considered in the second section, and functionality is stressed. The third section examines…

  11. Flexible Learning Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    One way for colleges to meet the demand for a wider range of learning opportunities for adults in Great Britain is to provide more flexibility within the further education system. The concept of flexible learning involves the modification of delivery systems, specific providing agencies, target populations, specific determinants such as geographic…

  12. In Situ Coupling of Strung Co4N and Intertwined N-C Fibers toward Free-Standing Bifunctional Cathode for Robust, Efficient, and Flexible Zn-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanlu; Zhong, Haixia; Bao, Di; Yan, Junmin; Zhang, Xinbo

    2016-08-17

    Flexible power sources with high energy density are crucial for the realization of next-generation flexible electronics. Theoretically, rechargeable flexible zinc-air (Zn-air) batteries could provide high specific energy, while their large-scale applications are still greatly hindered by high cost and resources scarcity of noble-metal-based oxygen evolution reaction (OER)/oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts as well as inferior mechanical properties of the air cathode. Combining metallic Co4N with superior OER activity and Co-N-C with perfect ORR activity on a free-standing and flexible electrode could be a good step for flexible Zn-air batteries, while lots of difficulties need to be overcome. Herein, as a proof-of-concept experiment, we first propose a strategy for in situ coupling of strung Co4N and intertwined N-C fibers, by pyrolyzation of the novel pearl-like ZIF-67/polypyrrole nanofibers network rooted on carbon cloth. Originating from the synergistic effect of Co4N and Co-N-C and the stable 3D interconnected conductive network structure, the obtained free-standing and highly flexible bifunctional oxygen electrode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability for both OER and ORR in terms of low overpotential (310 mV at 10 mA cm(-2)) for OER, a positive half-wave potential (0.8 V) for ORR, and a stable current density retention for at least 20 h, and especially, the obtained Zn-air batteries exhibit a low discharge-charge voltage gap (1.09 V at 50 mA cm(-2)) and long cycle life (up to 408 cycles). Furthermore, the perfect bendable and twistable and rechargeable properties of the flexible Zn-air battery particularly make it a potentially power portable and wearable electronic device.

  13. In Situ Coupling of Strung Co4N and Intertwined N-C Fibers toward Free-Standing Bifunctional Cathode for Robust, Efficient, and Flexible Zn-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanlu; Zhong, Haixia; Bao, Di; Yan, Junmin; Zhang, Xinbo

    2016-08-17

    Flexible power sources with high energy density are crucial for the realization of next-generation flexible electronics. Theoretically, rechargeable flexible zinc-air (Zn-air) batteries could provide high specific energy, while their large-scale applications are still greatly hindered by high cost and resources scarcity of noble-metal-based oxygen evolution reaction (OER)/oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts as well as inferior mechanical properties of the air cathode. Combining metallic Co4N with superior OER activity and Co-N-C with perfect ORR activity on a free-standing and flexible electrode could be a good step for flexible Zn-air batteries, while lots of difficulties need to be overcome. Herein, as a proof-of-concept experiment, we first propose a strategy for in situ coupling of strung Co4N and intertwined N-C fibers, by pyrolyzation of the novel pearl-like ZIF-67/polypyrrole nanofibers network rooted on carbon cloth. Originating from the synergistic effect of Co4N and Co-N-C and the stable 3D interconnected conductive network structure, the obtained free-standing and highly flexible bifunctional oxygen electrode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability for both OER and ORR in terms of low overpotential (310 mV at 10 mA cm(-2)) for OER, a positive half-wave potential (0.8 V) for ORR, and a stable current density retention for at least 20 h, and especially, the obtained Zn-air batteries exhibit a low discharge-charge voltage gap (1.09 V at 50 mA cm(-2)) and long cycle life (up to 408 cycles). Furthermore, the perfect bendable and twistable and rechargeable properties of the flexible Zn-air battery particularly make it a potentially power portable and wearable electronic device. PMID:27463122

  14. FReDoWS: a method to automate molecular docking simulations with explicit receptor flexibility and snapshots selection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In silico molecular docking is an essential step in modern drug discovery when driven by a well defined macromolecular target. Hence, the process is called structure-based or rational drug design (RDD). In the docking step of RDD the macromolecule or receptor is usually considered a rigid body. However, we know from biology that macromolecules such as enzymes and membrane receptors are inherently flexible. Accounting for this flexibility in molecular docking experiments is not trivial. One possibility, which we call a fully-flexible receptor model, is to use a molecular dynamics simulation trajectory of the receptor to simulate its explicit flexibility. To benefit from this concept, which has been known since 2000, it is essential to develop and improve new tools that enable molecular docking simulations of fully-flexible receptor models. Results We have developed a Flexible-Receptor Docking Workflow System (FReDoWS) to automate molecular docking simulations using a fully-flexible receptor model. In addition, it includes a snapshot selection feature to facilitate acceleration the virtual screening of ligands for well defined disease targets. FReDoWS usefulness is demonstrated by investigating the docking of four different ligands to flexible models of Mycobacterium tuberculosis’ wild type InhA enzyme and mutants I21V and I16T. We find that all four ligands bind effectively to this receptor as expected from the literature on similar, but wet experiments. Conclusions A work that would usually need the manual execution of many computer programs, and the manipulation of thousands of files, was efficiently and automatically performed by FReDoWS. Its friendly interface allows the user to change the docking and execution parameters. Besides, the snapshot selection feature allowed the acceleration of docking simulations. We expect FReDoWS to help us explore more of the role flexibility plays in receptor-ligand interactions. FReDoWS can be made available upon

  15. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-10-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity--the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice--but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals.

  16. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-01-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity—the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice—but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals. PMID:27734829

  17. Selective disruption of disulphide bonds lowered activation energy and improved catalytic efficiency in TALipB from Trichosporon asahii MSR54: MD simulations revealed flexible lid and extended substrate binding area in the mutant.

    PubMed

    Singh, Yogesh; Gupta, Namita; Verma, Ved Vrat; Goel, Manisha; Gupta, Rani

    2016-03-25

    TALipB (33 kDa) is a solvent stable, enantioselective lipase from Trichosporon asahii MSR54. It is cysteine-rich and shows activation in presence of thiol reducing agents. DIANNA server predicted three disulphide bridges C53-C195 (S1), C89-C228 (S2) and C164-C254 (S3) in the enzyme. Selective disruption of disulphide bonds by cysteine to alanine mutations at Cys53 and Cys89 of S1 and S2 bonds resulted in enzyme activation. Mutant mTALipB (S1+S2) showed increase in specific activity by ∼4-fold (834 mM/mg) and improved Vmax of 6.27 μmol/ml/min at 40 °Con pNP caprate. Temperature optima of mTALipB shifted from 50 to 40 °C and activation energy decreased by 0.7 kcal mol(-1). However, the mutant was less thermostable with a t1/2 of 18 min at 60 °C as compared to t1/2 of 38 min for the native enzyme. Mutant also displayed an improved activity on all pNP esters and higher enantiomeric excess (61%) during esterification of (±) 1-phenylethanol. Far-UV CD analysis showed significant changes in secondary structure after S-S bridge disruption with 7.16% decrease in α-helices and 1.31% increase in β-sheets. In silico analysis predicted two lids (α5 and α9) in TALipB. Molecular dynamic simulations at 40 °C and 50 °C revealed that in the mTALipB, both the lids opened at 40 °C with clockwise and anticlockwise rotations in Lid1 and Lid2, respectively. In the native protein, however, the lid was only partially open even at 50 °C. Concomitant to lid flexibility, there was an extension of accessible catalytic triad surface area resulting in improved catalytic efficiency of the mutant enzyme.

  18. DHS Acquisition Accountability and Efficiency Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Duncan, Jeff [R-SC-3

    2014-03-13

    06/10/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Lifting the weight of a diagnosis-related groups family change: a comparison between refined and non-refined DRG systems for top-down cost accounting and efficiency indicators.

    PubMed

    Zlotnik, Alexander; Cuchi, Miguel Alfaro; Pérez Pérez, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Public healthcare providers in all Spanish Regions - Autonomous Communities (ACs) use All Patients Diagnosis-Related Groups (AP-DRGs) for billing non-insured patients, cost accounting and inpatient efficiency indicators. A national migration to All Patients Refined Diagnosis-Related Groups (APR-DRGs) has been scheduled for 2016. The analysis was performed on 202,912 inpatient care episodes ranging from 2005 to 2010. All episodes were grouped using AP-DRG v25.0 and APR-DRG v24.0. Normalised DRG weight variations for an AP-DRG to APR-DRG migration scenario were calculated and compared. Major differences exist between normalised weights for inpatient episodes depending on the DRGs family used. The usage of the APR-DRG system in Spain without any adjustments, as it was developed in the United States, should be approached with care. In order to avoid reverse incentives and provider financial risks, coding practices should be reviewed and structural differences between DRG families taken into account.

  20. Lifting the weight of a diagnosis-related groups family change: a comparison between refined and non-refined DRG systems for top-down cost accounting and efficiency indicators.

    PubMed

    Zlotnik, Alexander; Cuchi, Miguel Alfaro; Pérez Pérez, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Public healthcare providers in all Spanish Regions - Autonomous Communities (ACs) use All Patients Diagnosis-Related Groups (AP-DRGs) for billing non-insured patients, cost accounting and inpatient efficiency indicators. A national migration to All Patients Refined Diagnosis-Related Groups (APR-DRGs) has been scheduled for 2016. The analysis was performed on 202,912 inpatient care episodes ranging from 2005 to 2010. All episodes were grouped using AP-DRG v25.0 and APR-DRG v24.0. Normalised DRG weight variations for an AP-DRG to APR-DRG migration scenario were calculated and compared. Major differences exist between normalised weights for inpatient episodes depending on the DRGs family used. The usage of the APR-DRG system in Spain without any adjustments, as it was developed in the United States, should be approached with care. In order to avoid reverse incentives and provider financial risks, coding practices should be reviewed and structural differences between DRG families taken into account. PMID:26157082

  1. Functional flexibility in wild bonobo vocal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Clay, Zanna; Archbold, Jahmaira; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    A shared principle in the evolution of language and the development of speech is the emergence of functional flexibility, the capacity of vocal signals to express a range of emotional states independently of context and biological function. Functional flexibility has recently been demonstrated in the vocalisations of pre-linguistic human infants, which has been contrasted to the functionally fixed vocal behaviour of non-human primates. Here, we revisited the presumed chasm in functional flexibility between human and non-human primate vocal behaviour, with a study on our closest living primate relatives, the bonobo (Pan paniscus). We found that wild bonobos use a specific call type (the "peep") across a range of contexts that cover the full valence range (positive-neutral-negative) in much of their daily activities, including feeding, travel, rest, aggression, alarm, nesting and grooming. Peeps were produced in functionally flexible ways in some contexts, but not others. Crucially, calls did not vary acoustically between neutral and positive contexts, suggesting that recipients take pragmatic information into account to make inferences about call meaning. In comparison, peeps during negative contexts were acoustically distinct. Our data suggest that the capacity for functional flexibility has evolutionary roots that predate the evolution of human speech. We interpret this evidence as an example of an evolutionary early transition away from fixed vocal signalling towards functional flexibility. PMID:26290789

  2. Functional flexibility in wild bonobo vocal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Archbold, Jahmaira; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    A shared principle in the evolution of language and the development of speech is the emergence of functional flexibility, the capacity of vocal signals to express a range of emotional states independently of context and biological function. Functional flexibility has recently been demonstrated in the vocalisations of pre-linguistic human infants, which has been contrasted to the functionally fixed vocal behaviour of non-human primates. Here, we revisited the presumed chasm in functional flexibility between human and non-human primate vocal behaviour, with a study on our closest living primate relatives, the bonobo (Pan paniscus). We found that wild bonobos use a specific call type (the “peep”) across a range of contexts that cover the full valence range (positive-neutral-negative) in much of their daily activities, including feeding, travel, rest, aggression, alarm, nesting and grooming. Peeps were produced in functionally flexible ways in some contexts, but not others. Crucially, calls did not vary acoustically between neutral and positive contexts, suggesting that recipients take pragmatic information into account to make inferences about call meaning. In comparison, peeps during negative contexts were acoustically distinct. Our data suggest that the capacity for functional flexibility has evolutionary roots that predate the evolution of human speech. We interpret this evidence as an example of an evolutionary early transition away from fixed vocal signalling towards functional flexibility. PMID:26290789

  3. Functional flexibility in wild bonobo vocal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Clay, Zanna; Archbold, Jahmaira; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    A shared principle in the evolution of language and the development of speech is the emergence of functional flexibility, the capacity of vocal signals to express a range of emotional states independently of context and biological function. Functional flexibility has recently been demonstrated in the vocalisations of pre-linguistic human infants, which has been contrasted to the functionally fixed vocal behaviour of non-human primates. Here, we revisited the presumed chasm in functional flexibility between human and non-human primate vocal behaviour, with a study on our closest living primate relatives, the bonobo (Pan paniscus). We found that wild bonobos use a specific call type (the "peep") across a range of contexts that cover the full valence range (positive-neutral-negative) in much of their daily activities, including feeding, travel, rest, aggression, alarm, nesting and grooming. Peeps were produced in functionally flexible ways in some contexts, but not others. Crucially, calls did not vary acoustically between neutral and positive contexts, suggesting that recipients take pragmatic information into account to make inferences about call meaning. In comparison, peeps during negative contexts were acoustically distinct. Our data suggest that the capacity for functional flexibility has evolutionary roots that predate the evolution of human speech. We interpret this evidence as an example of an evolutionary early transition away from fixed vocal signalling towards functional flexibility.

  4. Painful Flexible Flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Sheikh Taha, Abdel Majid; Feldman, David S

    2015-12-01

    Flatfoot is commonly encountered by pediatric orthopedic surgeons and pediatricians. A paucity of literature exists on how to define a flatfoot. The absence of the medial arch with a valgus hindfoot is the hallmark of this pathology. Flatfoot can be flexible or rigid. This review focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of the flexible flatfoot. Most flatfeet are flexible and clinically asymptomatic, and warrant little intervention. If feet are symptomatic, treatment is needed. Most patients who require treatment improve with foot orthotics and exercises. Only feet resistant to conservative modalities are deemed surgical candidates. The presence of a tight heel cord is often found in patients who fail conservative management.

  5. Rolling cuff flexible bellows

    DOEpatents

    Lambert, Donald R.

    1985-01-01

    A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.

  6. 5 CFR 610.404 - Requirement for time-accounting method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.404 Requirement for time-accounting method. An agency that authorizes a flexible work schedule or a compressed work schedule under...

  7. 5 CFR 610.404 - Requirement for time-accounting method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.404 Requirement for time-accounting method. An agency that authorizes a flexible work schedule or a compressed work schedule under...

  8. 5 CFR 610.404 - Requirement for time-accounting method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.404 Requirement for time-accounting method. An agency that authorizes a flexible work schedule or a compressed work schedule under...

  9. 5 CFR 610.404 - Requirement for time-accounting method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.404 Requirement for time-accounting method. An agency that authorizes a flexible work schedule or a compressed work schedule under...

  10. Technical Institute Stresses Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Industrial Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    At the Waukesha County Technical Institute in Wisconsin students benefit from individualized instruction and open entry/open exit system. The key to this flexibility is a series of audio-visual modules to support lecture presentations and demonstrations. (HD)

  11. Composite flexible blanket insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Lowe, David M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An improved composite flexible blanket insulation is presented comprising top silicon carbide having an interlock design, wherein the reflective shield is composed of single or double aluminized polyimide and wherein the polyimide film has a honeycomb pattern.

  12. High speed simulation of flexible multibody dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacot, A. D.; Jones, R. E.; Juengst, C. D.

    1987-01-01

    A multiflexible body dynamics code intended for fast turnaround control design trades is described. Nonlinear rigid body dynamics and linearized flexible dynamics combine to provide efficient solution of the equations of motion. Comparison with results from the DISCOS code provide verification of accuracy.

  13. Vibration and Control of Flexible Rotor Supported by Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonami, Kenzou

    1988-01-01

    Active vibration control of flexible rotors supported by magnetic bearings is discussed. Using a finite-element method for a mathematical model of the flexible rotor, the eigenvalue problem is formulated taking into account the interaction between a mechanical system of the flexible rotor and an electrical system of the magnetic bearings and the controller. However, for the sake of simplicity, gyroscopic effects are disregarded. It is possible to adapt this formulation to a general flexible rotor-magnetic bearing system. Controllability with and without collocation sensors and actuators located at the same distance along the rotor axis is discussed for the higher order flexible modes of the test rig. In conclusion, it is proposed that it is necessary to add new active control loops for the higher flexible modes even in the case of collocation. Then it is possible to stabilize for the case of uncollocation by means of this method.

  14. Recent progress in flexible OLED displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, Michael G.; Weaver, Michael S.; Mahon, Janice K.; Brown, Julie J.

    2001-09-01

    Organic light emitting device (OLED) technology has recently been shown to demonstrate excellent performance and cost characteristics for use in numerous flat panel display (FPD) applications. OLED displays emit bright, colorful light with excellent power efficiency, wide viewing angle and video response rates. OLEDs are also demonstrating the requisite environmental robustness for a wide variety of applications. OLED technology is also the first FPD technology with the potential to be highly functional and durable in a flexible format. The use of plastic and other flexible substrate materials offers numerous advantages over commonly used glass substrates, including impact resistance, light weight, thinness and conformability. Currently, OLED displays are being fabricated on rigid substrates, such as glass or silicon wafers. At Universal Display Corporation (UDC), we are developing a new class of flexible OLED displays (FOLEDs). These displays also have extremely low power consumption through the use of electrophosphorescent doped OLEDs. To commercialize FOLED technology, a number of technical issues related to packaging and display processing on flexible substrates need to be addressed. In this paper, we report on our recent results to demonstrate the key technologies that enable the manufacture of power efficient, long-life flexible OLED displays for commercial and military applications.

  15. Nanoscale Electrodes for Flexible Electronics by Swelling Controlled Cracking.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Wenjun; Shao, Jinyou; Li, Xiangming; Tian, Hongmiao; Liu, Lu; Mei, Xuesong; Ding, Yucheng; Lu, Bingheng

    2016-08-01

    Nanogap electrodes are realized using pre-patterned electrodes and a swelling controlled cracking method. Parallel fabrication of nanogap electrodes on flexible substrates can be achieved using this method. This swelling-controlled cracking method is promising for fabricating high-performance flexible electronics. UV photodetectors with ZnO nanoparticle-bridged nanogap electrodes exhibit high responsivity and external quantum efficiency.

  16. Nanoscale Electrodes for Flexible Electronics by Swelling Controlled Cracking.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Wenjun; Shao, Jinyou; Li, Xiangming; Tian, Hongmiao; Liu, Lu; Mei, Xuesong; Ding, Yucheng; Lu, Bingheng

    2016-08-01

    Nanogap electrodes are realized using pre-patterned electrodes and a swelling controlled cracking method. Parallel fabrication of nanogap electrodes on flexible substrates can be achieved using this method. This swelling-controlled cracking method is promising for fabricating high-performance flexible electronics. UV photodetectors with ZnO nanoparticle-bridged nanogap electrodes exhibit high responsivity and external quantum efficiency. PMID:27197807

  17. Dynamics and Control of Flexible Multibody Systems - Part I: General Formulation with an Order N Forward Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Takashi; Modi, Vinod J.; Matsuo, Hiroki

    2001-12-01

    This paper presents a rather general recursive formulation of flexible multibody systems. It accounts for an arbitrary level of topological branching, character of the structural members, slewing, deployment, orbital perturbations, etc. By introducing the concept of equivalent disconnected system, it leads to an efficient order n algorithm. Validity and efficiency of the formulation are assessed through several numerical examples of flexible multibody systems, which show high accuracy in terms of system energy and angular momentum conservation. A simple and unified methodology for extending the formulation to systems in general topology is also given. A companion paper describes a numerical simulation code which has been developed based upon the formulation, and illustrates versatility of the approach through parametric studies of several particular systems.

  18. Flexible sucker rod unit

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, L.F.

    1987-02-03

    This patent describes a deep well having: a. an education tube with an inside diameter extending from the surface of the earth to far below the surface, b. a reciprocating pump housing attached to the bottom of the education tube, c. pump jack means at the surface for reciprocating the pump, d. a light sucker rod connected to the pump jack means and extending into the education tube, and e. a series of heavy sinker bars having a large cross sectional area in the education tube connecting the light sucker rod to the pump; f. an improved integral metal flexible rod unit interconnecting the sinker bars comprising in combination with the above: g. a coupling on each end of the integral metal flexible rod unit connecting the flexible rod unit to the contiguous sinker bar, h. a segment which is flexible as compared to the sinker bars connecting one of the couplings to i. an integral metal bearing adjacent to the other of the couplings, the bearing having j. a cylindrical surface with k. a diameter i. only slightly smaller than the inside diameter of the education tube thereby forming a sliding fit therewith, and ii. greater than the diameter of any other portion of the flexible rod unit and the sinker bar, and l. grooves in the cylindrical surface for the passage of fluid between in the education tube around the bearing.

  19. Printed Microinductors for Flexible Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Erik; Whitacre, Jay; Wesseling, Emily

    2005-01-01

    A method of fabricating planar, flexible microinductors that exhibit a relatively high quality factor (Q) between 1 and 10 MHz has been devised. These inductors are targeted for use in flexible, low-profile power-converter circuits. They could also be incorporated into electronic circuits integrated into flexible structures, including flexible antenna and solar-sail structures that are deployable.

  20. Improved Thin, Flexible Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Wollen, Peter J.; Surina, Frank C.; Fale, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Flexible heat pipes of an improved type are fabricated as layers of different materials laminated together into vacuum- tight sheets or tapes. In comparison with prior flexible heat pipes, these flexible heat pipes are less susceptible to leakage. Other advantages of these flexible heat pipes, relative to prior flexible heat pipes, include high reliability and greater ease and lower cost of fabrication. Because these heat pipes are very thin, they are highly flexible. When coated on outside surfaces with adhesives, these flexible heat pipes can be applied, like common adhesive tapes, to the surfaces of heat sinks and objects to be cooled, even if those surfaces are curved.

  1. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bodong; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho N.; Kosel, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors's magnetic field and frequency responses and their dependence on the sensors's deflection. For the first time, the impedance characteristic is obtained through reflection coefficient analysis over a wide range of frequencies from 0.1 MHz to 3 GHz and for deflections ranging from zero curvature to a radius of 7.2 cm. The sensor element maintains a high MI ratio of up to 90% and magnetic sensitivity of up to 9.2%/Oe over different bending curvatures. The relationship between the curvature and material composition is discussed based on the magnetostriction effect and stress simulations. The sensor's large frequency range, simple fabrication process and high sensitivity provide a great potential for flexible electronics and wireless applications.

  2. Natural flexible dermal armor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fish (Atractosteus spatula, Arapaima gigas, Polypterus senegalus, Morone saxatilis, Cyprinius carpio), and osteoderms from armadillos, alligators, and leatherback turtles. Dermal armor has clearly been developed by convergent evolution in these different species. In general, it has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining more rigid units (scales or osteoderms), thereby increasing flexibility without significantly sacrificing strength, in contrast to rigid monolithic mineral composites. These dermal structures are also multifunctional, with hydrodynamic drag (in fish), coloration for camouflage or intraspecies recognition, temperature and fluid regulation being other important functions. The understanding of such flexible dermal armor is important as it may provide a basis for new synthetic, yet bioinspired, armor materials. PMID:23161399

  3. Flexible radiator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The soft tube radiator subsystem is described including applicable system requirements, the design and limitations of the subsystem components, and the panel manufacturing method. The soft tube radiator subsystem is applicable to payloads requiring 1 to 12 kW of heat rejection for orbital lifetimes per mission of 30 days or less. The flexible radiator stowage volume required is about 60% and the system weight is about 40% of an equivalent heat rejection rigid panel. The cost should also be considerably less. The flexible radiator is particularly suited to shuttle orbiter sortie payloads and also whose mission lengths do not exceed the 30 day design life.

  4. 4 CFR 21.10 - Express options, flexible alternative procedures, accelerated schedules, summary decisions, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Express options, flexible alternative procedures... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES BID PROTEST REGULATIONS § 21.10 Express options, flexible... submissions by the parties. (e) GAO, on its own initiative or upon request by the parties, may use...

  5. 4 CFR 21.10 - Express options, flexible alternative procedures, accelerated schedules, summary decisions, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Express options, flexible alternative procedures... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES BID PROTEST REGULATIONS § 21.10 Express options, flexible... submissions by the parties. (e) GAO, on its own initiative or upon request by the parties, may use...

  6. Dynamical modeling of serial manipulators with flexible links and joints using the method of kinematic influence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Philip L.

    1989-01-01

    A method of formulating the dynamical equations of a flexible, serial manipulator is presented, using the Method of Kinematic Influence. The resulting equations account for rigid body motion, structural motion due to link and joint flexibilities, and the coupling between these two motions. Nonlinear inertial loads are included in the equations. A finite order mode summation method is used to model flexibilities. The structural data may be obtained from experimental, finite element, or analytical methods. Nonlinear flexibilities may be included in the model.

  7. Early lessons from accountable care models in the private sector: partnerships between health plans and providers.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Aparna; Stewart, Kristin; Dawson, Kirstin; Bocchino, Carmella

    2011-09-01

    New health care delivery and payment models in the private sector are being shaped by active collaboration between health insurance plans and providers. We examine key characteristics of several of these private accountable care models, including their overall efforts to improve the quality, efficiency, and accountability of care; their criteria for selecting providers; the payment methods and performance measures they are using; and the technical assistance they are supplying to participating providers. Our findings show that not all providers are equally ready to enter into these arrangements with health plans and therefore flexibility in design of these arrangements is critical. These findings also hold lessons for the emerging public accountable care models, such as the Medicare Shared Savings Program-underscoring providers' need for comprehensive and timely data and analytic reports; payment tailored to providers' readiness for these contracts; and measurement of quality across multiple years and care settings. PMID:21900663

  8. Flexible optical-infrared metafilter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brückner, Jean-Baptiste; Brissonneau, Vincent; Le Rouzo, Judikaël.; Ferchichi, Abdelkerim; Gourgon, Cécile; Dubarry, Christophe; Berginc, Gérard; Escoubas, Ludovic

    2014-02-01

    By combining the antireflective properties from gradual changes in the effective refractive index and cavity coupling from cone gratings, and the efficient optical behavior of a tungsten film, we have conceived a flexible filter showing very broad antireflective (AR) properties from the visible to short wavelength infrared region (SWIR: 0.7-1.5 μm) and simultaneously a mirror-like behavior in the mid-infrared wavelength region (MWIR: 3-5 μm) and long-infrared wavelength region (LWIR: 8 to 15 μm). Nanoimprint technology has permitted us to replicate inverted cone patterns on a large scale on a flexible polymer, afterwards coated with a thin tungsten film. This optical metafilter is of great interest in the stealth domain where optical signature reduction from the optical to SWIR region is an important matter. As it also acts as selective thermal emitter offering a good solar-absorption/ infrared-emissivity ratio, interests are found as well for solar heating applications.

  9. Flexible Classroom Furniture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim Hassell,

    2011-01-01

    Classroom design for the 21st-century learning environment should accommodate a variety of learning skills and needs. The space should be large enough so it can be configured to accommodate a number of learning activities. This also includes furniture that provides flexibility and accommodates collaboration and interactive work among students and…

  10. ESEA Flexibility. Updated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In order to move forward with State and local reforms designed to improve academic achievement and increase the quality of instruction for all students in a manner that was not originally contemplated by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), a State educational agency (SEA) may request flexibility, on its own behalf and on behalf of its…

  11. Diversity and Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    1990-01-01

    Responds to five major articles by Duckworth, Goldman, Healy, Sampson, and Goodyear on issues pertaining to testing and assessment in counseling psychology. Suggests that such a diversity of approaches leads to a more comprehensive and flexible model of counseling, adaptable to differences in clients, context, and counselor personalities. (TE)

  12. Designing Flexible Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Clark R.; Kaff, Marilyn S.; Anderson, Mary Jo; Knackendoffel, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Principals and teachers need a framework that will allow school personnel to reach and teach all students within the general education setting. One such framework is universal design for learning (UDL). UDL is achieved by means of flexible curricular materials and activities that provide alternatives for students with disparities in abilities and…

  13. Flexible electronics: Sophisticated skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Siegfried

    2013-10-01

    Advances in materials science and layout design have enabled the realization of flexible and multifunctional electronic devices. Two demonstrations of electronic skins, which combine temperature and pressure sensing with integrated thermal actuators and organic displays, unveil the potential of these devices for robotics and clinical applications.

  14. Flexible Nanogenerators for Energy Harvesting and Self-Powered Electronics.

    PubMed

    Fan, Feng Ru; Tang, Wei; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-06-01

    Flexible nanogenerators that efficiently convert mechanical energy into electrical energy have been extensively studied because of their great potential for driving low-power personal electronics and self-powered sensors. Integration of flexibility and stretchability to nanogenerator has important research significance that enables applications in flexible/stretchable electronics, organic optoelectronics, and wearable electronics. Progress in nanogenerators for mechanical energy harvesting is reviewed, mainly including two key technologies: flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (PENGs) and flexible triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs). By means of material classification, various approaches of PENGs based on ZnO nanowires, lead zirconate titanate (PZT), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), 2D materials, and composite materials are introduced. For flexible TENG, its structural designs and factors determining its output performance are discussed, as well as its integration, fabrication and applications. The latest representative achievements regarding the hybrid nanogenerator are also summarized. Finally, some perspectives and challenges in this field are discussed.

  15. A decoupled recursive approach for constrained flexible multibody system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Hao-Jan; Kim, Sung-Soo; Haug, Edward J.; Bae, Dae-Sung

    1989-01-01

    A variational-vector calculus approach is employed to derive a recursive formulation for dynamic analysis of flexible multibody systems. Kinematic relationships for adjacent flexible bodies are derived in a companion paper, using a state vector notation that represents translational and rotational components simultaneously. Cartesian generalized coordinates are assigned for all body and joint reference frames, to explicitly formulate deformation kinematics under small deformation kinematics and an efficient flexible dynamics recursive algorithm is developed. Dynamic analysis of a closed loop robot is performed to illustrate efficiency of the algorithm.

  16. Development of Flexible Multilayer Circuits and Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Kevin N.; Bryant, Robert; Holloway, Nancy; Draughon, Fred

    2005-01-01

    A continuing program addresses the development of flexible multilayer electronic circuits and associated flexible cables. This development is undertaken to help satisfy aerospace-system-engineering requirements for efficient, lightweight electrical and electronic subsystems that can fit within confined spaces, adhere to complexly shaped surfaces, and can be embedded within composite materials. Heretofore, substrate layers for commercial flexible circuitry have been made from sheets of Kapton (or equivalent) polyimide and have been bonded to copper conductors and to other substrate layers by means of adhesives. The substrates for the present developmental flexible circuitry are made from thin films of a polyimide known as LaRC(TM)-SI. This polyimide is thermoplastic and, therefore, offers the potential to eliminate delamination and the need for adhesives. The development work undertaken thus far includes experiments in the use of several techniques of design and fabrication (including computer-aided design and fabrication) of representative flexible circuits. Anticipated future efforts would focus on multilayer bonding, fabrication of prototypes, and overcoming limitations.

  17. Accountability: A New Disneyland Fantasy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundy, Robert F.

    1974-01-01

    Parents, professional educators, boards of education, legislators, and the general public are justifiably questioning the monies spent on education, school efficiency, what schools are actually accomplishing, and who controls the results of schooling. However, accountability, as envisioned by its major supporters, will address none of these…

  18. Flexible cryogenic conduit

    DOEpatents

    Brindza, Paul Daniel; Wines, Robin Renee; Takacs, James Joseph

    1999-01-01

    A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament.

  19. Flexible rotor dynamics analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, F. A.

    1973-01-01

    A digital computer program was developed to analyze the general nonaxisymmetric and nonsynchronous transient and steady-state rotor dynamic performance of a bending- and shear-wise flexible rotor-bearing system under various operating conditions. The effects of rotor material mechanical hysteresis, rotor torsion flexibility, transverse effects of rotor axial and torsional loading and the anisotropic, in-phase and out-of-phase bearing stiffness and damping force and moment coefficients were included in the program to broaden its capability. An optimum solution method was found and incorporated in the computer program. Computer simulation of experimental data was made and qualitative agreements observed. The mathematical formulations, computer program verification, test data simulation, and user instruction was presented and discussed.

  20. FLEXIBLE GEIGER COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Richter, H.G.; Gillespie, A.S. Jr.

    1963-11-12

    A flexible Geiger counter constructed from materials composed of vinyl chloride polymerized with plasticizers or co-polymers is presented. The counter can be made either by attaching short segments of corrugated plastic sleeving together, or by starting with a length of vacuum cleaner hose composed of the above materials. The anode is maintained substantially axial Within the sleeving or hose during tube flexing by means of polystyrene spacer disks or an easily assembled polyethylene flexible cage assembly. The cathode is a wire spiraled on the outside of the counter. The sleeving or hose is fitted with glass end-pieces or any other good insulator to maintain the anode wire taut and to admit a counting gas mixture into the counter. Having the cathode wire on the outside of the counter substantially eliminates the objectional sheath effect of prior counters and permits counting rates up to 300,000 counts per minute. (AEC)

  1. Ginga: Flexible FITS viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeschke, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Ginga is a viewer for astronomical data FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) files; the viewer centers around a FITS display widget which supports zooming and panning, color and intensity mapping, a choice of several automatic cut levels algorithms and canvases for plotting scalable geometric forms. In addition to this widget, the FITS viewer provides a flexible plugin framework for extending the viewer with many different features. A fairly complete set of "standard" plugins are provided for expected features of a modern viewer: panning and zooming windows, star catalog access, cuts, star pick/fwhm, thumbnails, and others. This viewer was written by software engineers at Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and is in use at that facility.

  2. Flexible Flapping Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, Catherine; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro; Wesfreid, José. Eduardo

    2010-11-01

    Hydrodynamic tunnel experiments with flexible flapping foils of 4:1 span-to-chord aspect ratio are used in the present work to study the effect of foil compliance in the dynamical features of a propulsive wake. The average thrust force produced by the foil is estimated from 2D PIV measurements and the regime transitions in the wake are characterized according to a flapping frequency-amplitude phase diagram as in Godoy-Diana et al. (Phys. Rev. E 77, 016308, 2008). We show that the thrust production regime occurs on a broader region of the parameter space for flexible foils, with propulsive forces up to 3 times greater than for the rigid case. We examine in detail the vortex generation at the trailing edge of the foils, and propose a mechanism to explain how foil deformation leads to an optimization of propulsion.

  3. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  4. Psychological flexibility and mindfulness explain intuitive eating in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Sairanen, Essi; Tolvanen, Asko; Karhunen, Leila; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Järvelä, Elina; Rantala, Sanni; Peuhkuri, Katri; Korpela, Riitta; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2015-07-01

    The current study investigated whether mindfulness and psychological flexibility, independently and together, explain intuitive eating. The participants were overweight or obese persons (N = 306) reporting symptoms of perceived stress and enrolled in a psychological lifestyle intervention study. Participants completed self-report measures of psychological flexibility; mindfulness including the subscales observe, describe, act with awareness, non-react, and non-judgment; and intuitive eating including the subscales unconditional permission to eat, eating for physical reasons, and reliance on hunger/satiety cues. Psychological flexibility and mindfulness were positively associated with intuitive eating factors. The results suggest that mindfulness and psychological flexibility are related constructs that not only account for some of the same variance in intuitive eating, but they also account for significant unique variances in intuitive eating. The present results indicate that non-judgment can explain the relationship between general psychological flexibility and unconditional permission to eat as well as eating for physical reasons. However, mindfulness skills-acting with awareness, observing, and non-reacting-explained reliance on hunger/satiety cues independently from general psychological flexibility. These findings suggest that mindfulness and psychological flexibility are interrelated but not redundant constructs and that both may be important for understanding regulation processes underlying eating behavior.

  5. Flexible multiply towpreg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muzzy, John D. (Inventor); Varughese, Babu (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved flexible towpreg and a method of production therefor. The improved flexible towpreg comprises a plurality of towpreg plies which comprise reinforcing filaments and matrix forming material; the reinforcing filaments being substantially wetout by the matrix forming material such that the towpreg plies are substantially void-free composite articles, and the towpreg plies having an average thickness less than about 100 microns. The method of production for the improved flexible towpreg comprises the steps of spreading the reinforcing filaments to expose individually substantially all of the reinforcing filaments; coating the reinforcing filaments with the matrix forming material in a manner causing interfacial adhesion of the matrix forming material to the reinforcing filaments; forming the towpreg plies by heating the matrix forming material contacting the reinforcing filaments until the matrix forming material liquifies and coats the reinforcing filaments; and cooling the towpreg plies in a manner such that substantial cohesion between neighboring towpreg plies is prevented until the matrix forming material solidifies.

  6. Efficient Quality Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, David

    1995-01-01

    Strategies for promoting efficient control of quality in colleges and universities are examined. It is proposed that integration of external review and institutional self-evaluation can be used to support the goals of accountability, efficiency, and institutional effectiveness. (MSE)

  7. Current Issues in Flexibility Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Duane V.; Magnusson, Peter; McHugh, Malachy

    2000-01-01

    Physical activity is extremely important in maintaining good health. Activity is not possible without a certain amount of flexibility. This report discusses issues related to flexibility fitness. Flexibility is a property of the musculoskeletal system that determines the range of motion achievable without injury to the joints. Static flexibility…

  8. Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Peggy Milam

    2008-01-01

    Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

  9. Global mapping of DNA conformational flexibility on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Menconi, Giulia; Bedini, Andrea; Barale, Roberto; Sbrana, Isabella

    2015-04-01

    In this study we provide the first comprehensive map of DNA conformational flexibility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae complete genome. Flexibility plays a key role in DNA supercoiling and DNA/protein binding, regulating DNA transcription, replication or repair. Specific interest in flexibility analysis concerns its relationship with human genome instability. Enrichment in flexible sequences has been detected in unstable regions of human genome defined fragile sites, where genes map and carry frequent deletions and rearrangements in cancer. Flexible sequences have been suggested to be the determinants of fragile gene proneness to breakage; however, their actual role and properties remain elusive. Our in silico analysis carried out genome-wide via the StabFlex algorithm, shows the conserved presence of highly flexible regions in budding yeast genome as well as in genomes of other Saccharomyces sensu stricto species. Flexibile peaks in S. cerevisiae identify 175 ORFs mapping on their 3'UTR, a region affecting mRNA translation, localization and stability. (TA)n repeats of different extension shape the central structure of peaks and co-localize with polyadenylation efficiency element (EE) signals. ORFs with flexible peaks share common features. Transcripts are characterized by decreased half-life: this is considered peculiar of genes involved in regulatory systems with high turnover; consistently, their function affects biological processes such as cell cycle regulation or stress response. Our findings support the functional importance of flexibility peaks, suggesting that the flexible sequence may be derived by an expansion of canonical TAYRTA polyadenylation efficiency element. The flexible (TA)n repeat amplification could be the outcome of an evolutionary neofunctionalization leading to a differential 3'-end processing and expression regulation in genes with peculiar function. Our study provides a new support to the functional role of flexibility in genomes and a

  10. An overview of carbon materials for flexible electrochemical capacitors.

    PubMed

    He, Yongmin; Chen, Wanjun; Gao, Caitian; Zhou, Jinyuan; Li, Xiaodong; Xie, Erqing

    2013-10-01

    Under the background of the quick development of lightweight, flexible, and wearable electronic devices in our society, a flexible and highly efficient energy management strategy is needed for their counterpart energy-storage systems. Among them, flexible electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have been considered as one of the most promising candidates because of their significant advantages in power and energy densities, and unique properties of being flexible, lightweight, low-cost, and environmentally friendly compared with current energy storage devices. In a common EC, carbon materials play an irreplaceable and principal role in its energy-storage performance. Up till now, most progress towards flexible ECs technologies has mostly benefited from the continuous development of carbon materials. As a result, in view of the dual remarkable highlights of ECs and carbon materials, a summary of recent research progress on carbon-based flexible EC electrode materials is presented in this review, including carbon fiber (CF, consisting of carbon microfiber-CMF and carbon nanofiber-CNF) networks, carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene coatings, CNT and/or graphene papers (or films), and freestanding three-dimensional (3D) flexible carbon-based macroscopic architectures. Furthermore, some promising carbon materials for great potential applications in flexible ECs are introduced. Finally, the trends and challenges in the development of carbon-based electrode materials for flexible ECs and their smart applications are analyzed.

  11. Nanoscale Electrodes: Nanoscale Electrodes for Flexible Electronics by Swelling Controlled Cracking (Adv. Mater. 30/2016).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Wenjun; Shao, Jinyou; Li, Xiangming; Tian, Hongmiao; Liu, Lu; Mei, Xuesong; Ding, Yucheng; Lu, Bingheng

    2016-08-01

    The fabrication of nanospaced electrodes on a flexible substrate is a great challenge. W. Wang, J. Shao, and co-workers propose a novel approach to fabricate nanogap electrodes for flexible electronics using a swelling-controlled cracking method, which is described on page 6337. This method has the advantages of high applicability, parallel manufacturing capacity, and compatibility with flexible substrates. It provides a new way to create high-performance flexible electronics in a cost-efficient fashion.

  12. Nanoscale Electrodes: Nanoscale Electrodes for Flexible Electronics by Swelling Controlled Cracking (Adv. Mater. 30/2016).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Wenjun; Shao, Jinyou; Li, Xiangming; Tian, Hongmiao; Liu, Lu; Mei, Xuesong; Ding, Yucheng; Lu, Bingheng

    2016-08-01

    The fabrication of nanospaced electrodes on a flexible substrate is a great challenge. W. Wang, J. Shao, and co-workers propose a novel approach to fabricate nanogap electrodes for flexible electronics using a swelling-controlled cracking method, which is described on page 6337. This method has the advantages of high applicability, parallel manufacturing capacity, and compatibility with flexible substrates. It provides a new way to create high-performance flexible electronics in a cost-efficient fashion. PMID:27493073

  13. Flexible electrochromic supercapacitor hybrid electrodes based on tungsten oxide films and silver nanowires.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liuxue; Du, Lianhuan; Tan, Shaozao; Zang, Zhigang; Zhao, Chuanxi; Mai, Wenjie

    2016-05-01

    We successfully fabricate flexible electrochromic supercapacitor (SC) electrodes employing novel flexible transparent conducting substrates. The as-synthesized flexible electrochromic SC electrodes exhibit great electrochemical performances (13.6 mF cm(-2), 138.2 F g(-1)) and high coloration efficiency (80.2 cm(2) C(-1)), which demonstrate their potential applications in flexible smart windows combining energy storage and electrochromism. PMID:27087032

  14. Control of nonlinear flexible space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jianjun

    With the advances made in computer technology and efficiency of numerical algorithms over last decade, the MPC strategies have become quite popular among control community. However, application of MPC or GPC to flexible space structure control has not been explored adequately in the literature. The work presented in this thesis primarily focuses on application of GPC to control of nonlinear flexible space structures. This thesis is particularly devoted to the development of various approximate dynamic models, design and assessment of candidate controllers, and extensive numerical simulations for a realistic multibody flexible spacecraft, namely, Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO)---a Prometheus class of spacecraft proposed by NASA for deep space exploratory missions. A stable GPC algorithm is developed for Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) systems. An end-point weighting (penalty) is used in the GPC cost function to guarantee the nominal stability of the closed-loop system. A method is given to compute the desired end-point state from the desired output trajectory. The methodologies based on Fake Algebraic Riccati Equation (FARE) and constrained nonlinear optimization, are developed for synthesis of state weighting matrix. This makes this formulation more practical. A stable reconfigurable GPC architecture is presented and its effectiveness is demonstrated on both aircraft as well as spacecraft model. A representative in-orbit maneuver is used for assessing the performance of various control strategies using various design models. Different approximate dynamic models used for analysis include linear single body flexible structure, nonlinear single body flexible structure, and nonlinear multibody flexible structure. The control laws evaluated include traditional GPC, feedback linearization-based GPC (FLGPC), reconfigurable GPC, and nonlinear dissipative control. These various control schemes are evaluated for robust stability and robust performance in the presence of

  15. Controlling Flexible Manipulators, an Experimental Investigation. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Gordon Greene

    1986-01-01

    Lightweight, slender manipulators offer faster response and/or greater workspace range for the same size actuators than tradional manipulators. Lightweight construction of manipulator links results in increased structural flexibility. The increase flexibility must be considered in the design of control systems to properly account for the dynamic flexible vibrations and static deflections. Real time control of the flexible manipulator vibrations are experimentally investigated. Models intended for real-time control of distributed parameter system such as flexible manipulators rely on model approximation schemes. An linear model based on the application of Lagrangian dynamics to a rigid body mode and a series of separable flexible modes is examined with respect to model order requirements, and modal candidate selection. Balanced realizations are applied to the linear flexible model to obtain an estimate of appropriate order for a selected model. Describing the flexible deflections as a linear combination of modes results in measurements of beam state, which yield information about several modes. To realize the potential of linear systems theory, knowledge of each state must be available. State estimation is also accomplished by implementation of a Kalman Filter. State feedback control laws are implemented based upon linear quadratic regulator design.

  16. International Accounting and the Accounting Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laribee, Stephen F.

    The American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) has been instrumental in internationalizing the accounting curriculum by means of accreditation requirements and standards. Colleges and universities have met the AACSB requirements either by providing separate international accounting courses or by integrating international topics…

  17. Analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, D. F.; Razavi, H.

    2012-07-01

    Three methods for analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact are presented. The first proposed method (Method A) consists of: (1) modifying an available deceleration on a rigid target with conservation principles to account for structural flexibility; and (2) transient nonlinear analysis of the structure with the corrected forcing function. The second proposed method (Method B) is similar to Method A in obtaining the forcing function but it solves the equations of motion of an idealized two-degree-of-freedom system instead of directly using conservation principles. The last method simply provides the maximum force in the structure using the conservation of energy and linear momentum. A coupled simulation is also performed in LS-DYNA and compared against the proposed methods. A case study is presented to illustrate the applicability of all three methods and the LS-DYNA simulation. (authors)

  18. A Harmonious Accounting Duo?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schapperle, Robert F.; Hardiman, Patrick F.

    1992-01-01

    Accountants have urged "harmonization" of standards between the Governmental Accounting Standards Board and the Financial Accounting Standards Board, recommending similar reporting of like transactions. However, varying display of similar accounting events does not necessarily indicate disharmony. The potential for problems because of differing…

  19. Flexible DM-NRG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeza, Örs; Moca, Pascu; Tóth, Anna; Weymann, Ireneusz; Zaránd, Gergely

    2011-07-01

    This code combines the spectral sum-conserving methods of Weichselbaum and von Delft and of Peters, Pruschke and Anders (both relying upon the complete basis set construction of Anders and Schiller) with the use of non-Abelian symmetries in a flexible manner: Essentially any non-Abelian symmetry can be taught to the code, and any number of such symmetries can be used throughout the computation for any density of states, and to compute any local operators' correlation function's real and imaginary parts or any thermodynamical expectation value. The code works both at zero and finite temperatures.

  20. Flexible Volumetric Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Schlecht, Robin W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A flexible volumetric structure has a first spring that defines a three-dimensional volume and includes a serpentine structure elongatable and compressible along a length thereof. A second spring is coupled to at least one outboard edge region of the first spring. The second spring is a sheet-like structure capable of elongation along an in-plane dimension thereof. The second spring is oriented such that its in-plane dimension is aligned with the length of the first spring's serpentine structure.

  1. Flexible Material Systems Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, John K.; Shook, Lauren S.; Ware, Joanne S.; Welch, Joseph V.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental program has been undertaken to better characterize the stress-strain characteristics of flexible material systems to support a NASA ground test program for inflatable decelerator material technology. A goal of the current study is to investigate experimental methods for the characterization of coated woven material stiffness. This type of experimental mechanics data would eventually be used to define the material inputs of fluid-structure interaction simulation models. The test methodologies chosen for this stress-strain characterization are presented along with the experimental results.

  2. Automatic and Flexible

    PubMed Central

    Hassin, Ran R.; Bargh, John A.; Zimerman, Shira

    2008-01-01

    Arguing from the nature of goal pursuit and from the economy of mental resources this paper suggests that automatic goal pursuit, much like its controlled counterpart, may be flexible. Two studies that employ goal priming procedures examine this hypothesis using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Study 1) and a variation of the Iowa Gambling Task (Study 2). Implications of the results for our understanding of the dichotomy between automatic and controlled processes in general, and for our conception of automatic goal pursuit in particular, are discussed. PMID:19325712

  3. Rotating flexible drag mill

    DOEpatents

    Pepper, W.B.

    1984-05-09

    A rotating parachute for decelerating objects travelling through atmosphere at subsonic or supersonic deployment speeds includes a circular canopy having a plurality of circumferentially arranged flexible panels projecting radially from a solid central disk. A slot extends radially between adjacent panels to the outer periphery of the canopy. Upon deployment, the solid disk diverts air radially to rapidly inflate the panels into a position of maximum diameter. Air impinging on the panels adjacent the panel slots rotates the parachute during its descent. Centrifugal force flattens the canopy into a constant maximum diameter during terminal descent for maximum drag and deceleration.

  4. Composite Flexible Blanket Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Pitts, William C. (Inventor); Goldstein, Howard E. (Inventor); Sawko, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Composite flexible multilayer insulation systems (MLI) were evaluated for thermal performance and compared with the currently used fibrous silica (baseline) insulation system. The systems described are multilayer insulations consisting of alternating layers of metal foil and scrim ceramic cloth or vacuum metallized polymeric films quilted together using ceramic thread. A silicon carbide thread for use in the quilting and the method of making it are also described. These systems are useful in providing lightweight insulation for a variety of uses, particularly on the surface of aerospace vehicles subject to very high temperatures during flight.

  5. Flexible polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaics for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. H.; Lanning, B. R.; Misra, M. S.; Kapur, V. K.; Basol, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaics (PV), such as CIS and CdTe, have received considerable attention recently with respect to space power applications. Their combination of stability, efficiency, and economy from large-scale monolithic-integration of modules can have significant impact on cost and weight of PV arrays for spacecraft and planetary experiments. An added advantage, due to their minimal thickness (approximately 6 microns sans substrate), is the ability to manufacture lightweight, flexible devices (approximately 2000 W/kg) using large-volume manufacturing techniques. The photovoltaic effort at Martin Marietta and ISET is discussed, including large-area, large-volume thin-film deposition techniques such as electrodeposition and rotating cylindrical magnetron sputtering. Progress in the development of flexible polycrystalline thin-film PV is presented, including evaluation of flexible CIS cells. In addition, progress on flexible CdTe cells is presented. Finally, examples of lightweight, flexible arrays and their potential cost and weight impact is discussed.

  6. Flexible polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaics for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, J. H.; Lanning, B. R.; Misra, M. S.; Kapur, V. K.; Basol, B. M.

    1993-05-01

    Polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaics (PV), such as CIS and CdTe, have received considerable attention recently with respect to space power applications. Their combination of stability, efficiency, and economy from large-scale monolithic-integration of modules can have significant impact on cost and weight of PV arrays for spacecraft and planetary experiments. An added advantage, due to their minimal thickness (approximately 6 microns sans substrate), is the ability to manufacture lightweight, flexible devices (approximately 2000 W/kg) using large-volume manufacturing techniques. The photovoltaic effort at Martin Marietta and ISET is discussed, including large-area, large-volume thin-film deposition techniques such as electrodeposition and rotating cylindrical magnetron sputtering. Progress in the development of flexible polycrystalline thin-film PV is presented, including evaluation of flexible CIS cells. In addition, progress on flexible CdTe cells is presented. Finally, examples of lightweight, flexible arrays and their potential cost and weight impact is discussed.

  7. Exploring the role of receptor flexibility in structure-based drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Feixas, Ferran; Lindert, Steffen; Sinko, William; McCammon, J Andrew

    2014-02-01

    The proper understanding of biomolecular recognition mechanisms that take place in a drug target is of paramount importance to improve the efficiency of drug discovery and development. The intrinsic dynamic character of proteins has a strong influence on biomolecular recognition mechanisms and models such as conformational selection have been widely used to account for this dynamic association process. However, conformational changes occurring in the receptor prior and upon association with other molecules are diverse and not obvious to predict when only a few structures of the receptor are available. In view of the prominent role of protein flexibility in ligand binding and its implications for drug discovery, it is of great interest to identify receptor conformations that play a major role in biomolecular recognition before starting rational drug design efforts. In this review, we discuss a number of recent advances in computer-aided drug discovery techniques that have been proposed to incorporate receptor flexibility into structure-based drug design. The allowance for receptor flexibility provided by computational techniques such as molecular dynamics simulations or enhanced sampling techniques helps to improve the accuracy of methods used to estimate binding affinities and, thus, such methods can contribute to the discovery of novel drug leads. PMID:24332165

  8. Exploring the Role of Receptor Flexibility in Structure-Based Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Feixas, Ferran; Lindert, Steffen; Sinko, William; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The proper understanding of biomolecular recognition mechanisms that take place in a drug target is of paramount importance to improve the efficiency of drug discovery and development. The intrinsic dynamic character of proteins has a strong influence on biomolecular recognition mechanisms and models such as conformational selection have been widely used to account for this dynamic association process. However, conformational changes occurring in the receptor prior and upon association with other molecules are diverse and not obvious to predict when only a few structures of the receptor are available. In view of the prominent role of protein flexibility in ligand binding and its implications for drug discovery, it is of great interest to identify receptor conformations that play a major role in biomolecular recognition before starting rational drug design efforts. In this review, we discuss a number of recent advances in computer-aided drug discovery techniques that have been proposed to incorporate receptor flexibility into structure-based drug design. The allowance for receptor flexibility provided by computational techniques such as molecular dynamics simulations or enhanced sampling techniques helps to improve the accuracy of methods used to estimate binding affinities and, thus, such methods can contribute to the discovery of novel drug leads. PMID:24332165

  9. Flexible ocean upwelling pipe

    DOEpatents

    Person, Abraham

    1980-01-01

    In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

  10. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Electrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm) based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM). An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  11. Approaches to encapsulation of flexible CIGS cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, L. C.; Gross, M. E.; Graff, G. L.; Kundu, S. N.; Chu, Xi; Lin, Steve

    2008-08-01

    Thin-film solar cells based on CIGS are being considered for large scale power plants as well as building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) applications. Past studies indicate that CIGS cells degrade rapidly when exposed to moisture. As a result, an effective approach to encapsulation is required for CIGS cells to satisfy the international standard IEC 61646. CIGS modules fabricated for use in large power plants can be encapsulated with glass sheets on the top and bottom surfaces and can be effectively sealed around the edges. In the case of BIPV applications, however, it is desirable to utilize CIGS cells grown on flexible substrates, both for purposes of achieving reduced weight and for cases involving non-flat surfaces. For these cases, approaches to encapsulation must be compatible with the flexible substrate requirement. Even in the case of large power plants, the glass-to-glass approach to encapsulation may eventually be considered too costly. We are investigating encapsulation of flexible CIGS cells by lamination. Sheets of PET or PEN coated with multilayer barrier coatings are used to laminate the flexible cells. Results are discussed for laminated cells from two CIGS manufacturers. In both cases, the cell efficiency decreases less than 10% after 1000 hours of exposure to an environment of 85°C/85%RH. This paper discusses these two approaches, and reviews results for uncoated cells and mini-modules fabricated by the former Shell Solar Industries (SSI).

  12. Flexible Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Memory.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chungwan; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-05-24

    Active research has been done on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials for application to solar cells with high power conversion efficiency. However, this material often shows hysteresis, which is undesirable, shift in the current-voltage curve. The hysteresis may come from formation of defects and their movement in perovskite materials. Here, we utilize the defects in perovskite materials to be used in memory operations. We demonstrate flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite as the resistive switching layer on a plastic substrate. A uniform perovskite layer is formed on a transparent electrode-coated plastic substrate by solvent engineering. Flexible nonvolatile memory based on the perovskite layer shows reproducible and reliable memory characteristics in terms of program/erase operations, data retention, and endurance properties. The memory devices also show good mechanical flexibility. It is suggested that resistive switching is done by migration of vacancy defects and formation of conducting filaments under the electric field in the perovskite layer. It is believed that organic-inorganic perovskite materials have great potential to be used in high-performance, flexible memory devices. PMID:27093096

  13. Monitoring of Vital Signs with Flexible and Wearable Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Khan, Yasser; Ostfeld, Aminy E; Lochner, Claire M; Pierre, Adrien; Arias, Ana C

    2016-06-01

    Advances in wireless technologies, low-power electronics, the internet of things, and in the domain of connected health are driving innovations in wearable medical devices at a tremendous pace. Wearable sensor systems composed of flexible and stretchable materials have the potential to better interface to the human skin, whereas silicon-based electronics are extremely efficient in sensor data processing and transmission. Therefore, flexible and stretchable sensors combined with low-power silicon-based electronics are a viable and efficient approach for medical monitoring. Flexible medical devices designed for monitoring human vital signs, such as body temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, blood pressure, pulse oxygenation, and blood glucose have applications in both fitness monitoring and medical diagnostics. As a review of the latest development in flexible and wearable human vitals sensors, the essential components required for vitals sensors are outlined and discussed here, including the reported sensor systems, sensing mechanisms, sensor fabrication, power, and data processing requirements.

  14. BP-Dock: A Flexible Docking Scheme for Exploring Protein–Ligand Interactions Based on Unbound Structures

    PubMed Central

    Bolia, Ashini; Gerek, Z. Nevin; Ozkan, S. Banu

    2016-01-01

    Molecular docking serves as an important tool in modeling protein–ligand interactions. However, it is still challenging to incorporate overall receptor flexibility, especially backbone flexibility, in docking due to the large conformational space that needs to be sampled. To overcome this problem, we developed a novel flexible docking approach, BP-Dock (Backbone Perturbation-Dock) that can integrate both backbone and side chain conformational changes induced by ligand binding through a multi-scale approach. In the BP-Dock method, we mimic the nature of binding-induced events as a first-order approximation by perturbing the residues along the protein chain with a small Brownian kick one at a time. The response fluctuation profile of the chain upon these perturbations is computed using the perturbation response scanning method. These response fluctuation profiles are then used to generate binding-induced multiple receptor conformations for ensemble docking. To evaluate the performance of BP-Dock, we applied our approach on a large and diverse data set using unbound structures as receptors. We also compared the BP-Dock results with bound and unbound docking, where overall receptor flexibility was not taken into account. Our results highlight the importance of modeling backbone flexibility in docking for recapitulating the experimental binding affinities, especially when an unbound structure is used. With BP-Dock, we can generate a wide range of binding site conformations realized in nature even in the absence of a ligand that can help us to improve the accuracy of unbound docking. We expect that our fast and efficient flexible docking approach may further aid in our understanding of protein–ligand interactions as well as virtual screening of novel targets for rational drug design. PMID:24380381

  15. Gravure printing of graphene for large-area flexible electronics.

    PubMed

    Secor, Ethan B; Lim, Sooman; Zhang, Heng; Frisbie, C Daniel; Francis, Lorraine F; Hersam, Mark C

    2014-07-01

    Gravure printing of graphene is demonstrated for the rapid production of conductive patterns on flexible substrates. Development of suitable inks and printing parameters enables the fabrication of patterns with a resolution down to 30 μm. A mild annealing step yields conductive lines with high reliability and uniformity, providing an efficient method for the integration of graphene into large-area printed and flexible electronics.

  16. Attitude stabilization of a flexible spacecraft under actuator complete failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dong; Yang, Hao; Jiang, Bin; Wen, Liyan

    2016-06-01

    This paper considers the attitude and angular velocity stabilization problem of a class of flexible spacecraft under actuator complete failure. Firstly a new model simplification strategy is put forward to weaken the coupling effects. Then an adaptive observer-based estimation method is proposed to estimate the uncertainty of flexibility, based on which a feedback fault-tolerant control scheme is further developed which guarantees the system stability and asymptotic attitude converging properties. The simulation results illustrate the efficiency of the theoretical results.

  17. Flexible thermochromic window based on hybridized VO2/graphene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeongkeun; Kim, Yena; Kim, Keun Soo; Jeong, Hu Young; Jang, A-Rang; Han, Seung Ho; Yoon, Dae Ho; Suh, Kwang S; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Kim, TaeYoung; Yang, Woo Seok

    2013-07-23

    Large-scale integration of vanadium dioxide (VO2) on mechanically flexible substrates is critical to the realization of flexible smart window films that can respond to environmental temperatures to modulate light transmittance. Until now, the formation of highly crystalline and stoichiometric VO2 on flexible substrate has not been demonstrated due to the high-temperature condition for VO2 growth. Here, we demonstrate a VO2-based thermochromic film with unprecedented mechanical flexibility by employing graphene as a versatile platform for VO2. The graphene effectively functions as an atomically thin, flexible, yet robust support which enables the formation of stoichiometric VO2 crystals with temperature-driven phase transition characteristics. The graphene-supported VO2 was capable of being transferred to a plastic substrate, forming a new type of flexible thermochromic film. The flexible VO2 films were then integrated into the mock-up house, exhibiting its efficient operation to reduce the in-house temperature under infrared irradiation. These results provide important progress for the fabrication of flexible thermochromic films for energy-saving windows.

  18. Flexible thermochromic window based on hybridized VO2/graphene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeongkeun; Kim, Yena; Kim, Keun Soo; Jeong, Hu Young; Jang, A-Rang; Han, Seung Ho; Yoon, Dae Ho; Suh, Kwang S; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Kim, TaeYoung; Yang, Woo Seok

    2013-07-23

    Large-scale integration of vanadium dioxide (VO2) on mechanically flexible substrates is critical to the realization of flexible smart window films that can respond to environmental temperatures to modulate light transmittance. Until now, the formation of highly crystalline and stoichiometric VO2 on flexible substrate has not been demonstrated due to the high-temperature condition for VO2 growth. Here, we demonstrate a VO2-based thermochromic film with unprecedented mechanical flexibility by employing graphene as a versatile platform for VO2. The graphene effectively functions as an atomically thin, flexible, yet robust support which enables the formation of stoichiometric VO2 crystals with temperature-driven phase transition characteristics. The graphene-supported VO2 was capable of being transferred to a plastic substrate, forming a new type of flexible thermochromic film. The flexible VO2 films were then integrated into the mock-up house, exhibiting its efficient operation to reduce the in-house temperature under infrared irradiation. These results provide important progress for the fabrication of flexible thermochromic films for energy-saving windows. PMID:23758656

  19. Flexible transformation plasmonics using graphene.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei Bing; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Hong Ju; Ni, Zhen Hua; Dong, Zheng Gao; Cui, Tie Jun

    2013-05-01

    The flexible control of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is important and intriguing due to its wide application in novel plasmonic devices. Transformation optics (TO) offers the capability either to confine the SPP propagation on rigid curved/uneven surfaces, or to control the flow of SPPs on planar surfaces. However, TO has not permitted us to confine, manipulate, and control SPP waves on flexible curved surfaces. Here, we propose to confine and freely control flexible SPPs using TO and graphene. We show that SPP waves can be naturally confined and propagate on curved or uneven graphene surfaces with little bending and radiation losses, and the confined SPPs are further manipulated and controlled using TO. Flexible plasmonic devices are presented, including the bending waveguides, wave splitter, and Luneburg lens on curved surfaces. Together with the intrinsic flexibility, graphene can be served as a good platform for flexible transformation plasmonics. PMID:23669904

  20. Flexible transformation plasmonics using graphene.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei Bing; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Hong Ju; Ni, Zhen Hua; Dong, Zheng Gao; Cui, Tie Jun

    2013-05-01

    The flexible control of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is important and intriguing due to its wide application in novel plasmonic devices. Transformation optics (TO) offers the capability either to confine the SPP propagation on rigid curved/uneven surfaces, or to control the flow of SPPs on planar surfaces. However, TO has not permitted us to confine, manipulate, and control SPP waves on flexible curved surfaces. Here, we propose to confine and freely control flexible SPPs using TO and graphene. We show that SPP waves can be naturally confined and propagate on curved or uneven graphene surfaces with little bending and radiation losses, and the confined SPPs are further manipulated and controlled using TO. Flexible plasmonic devices are presented, including the bending waveguides, wave splitter, and Luneburg lens on curved surfaces. Together with the intrinsic flexibility, graphene can be served as a good platform for flexible transformation plasmonics.

  1. Conformational flexibility of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, Claudio; Temussi, Pierandrea

    2016-05-01

    L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, better known as aspartame, is not only one of the most used artificial sweeteners, but also a very interesting molecule with respect to the correlation between molecular structure and taste. The extreme conformational flexibility of this dipeptide posed a huge difficulty when researchers tried to use it as a lead compound to design new sweeteners. In particular, it was difficult to take advantage of its molecular model as a mold to infer the shape of the, then unknown, active site of the sweet taste receptor. Here, we follow the story of the 3D structural aspects of aspartame from early conformational studies to recent docking into homology models of the receptor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 376-384, 2016. PMID:27038223

  2. Flexible cloth seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumar; Taura, Joseph Charles; Aksit, Mahmut Faruk; Demiroglu, Mehmet; Predmore, Daniel Ross

    1999-01-01

    A seal assembly having a flexible cloth seal which includes a shim assemblage surrounded by a cloth assemblage. A first tubular end portion, such as a gas turbine combustor, includes a longitudinal axis and has smooth and spaced-apart first and second surface portions defining a notch therebetween which is wider at its top than at its bottom and which extends outward from the axis. The second surface portion is outside curved, and a first edge of the cloth seal is positioned in the bottom of the notch. A second tubular end portion, such as a first stage nozzle, is located near, spaced apart from, and coaxially aligned with, the first tubular end portion. The second tubular end portion has a smooth third surface portion which surrounds at least a portion of the first tubular end portion and which is contacted by the cloth seal.

  3. Flexible retinal electrode array

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2006-10-24

    An electrode array which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array can include a large number of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, with electrode tips that can include an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis where the electrodes can be tailored to provide a uniform gentle contact pressure with optional sensing of this contact pressure at one or more of the electrodes.

  4. Conformational flexibility of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, Claudio; Temussi, Pierandrea

    2016-05-01

    L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, better known as aspartame, is not only one of the most used artificial sweeteners, but also a very interesting molecule with respect to the correlation between molecular structure and taste. The extreme conformational flexibility of this dipeptide posed a huge difficulty when researchers tried to use it as a lead compound to design new sweeteners. In particular, it was difficult to take advantage of its molecular model as a mold to infer the shape of the, then unknown, active site of the sweet taste receptor. Here, we follow the story of the 3D structural aspects of aspartame from early conformational studies to recent docking into homology models of the receptor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 376-384, 2016.

  5. Flexible cloth seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, B.S.; Taura, J.C.; Aksit, M.F.; Demiroglu, M.; Predmore, D.R.

    1999-06-29

    A seal assembly is described having a flexible cloth seal which includes a shim assemblage surrounded by a cloth assemblage. A first tubular end portion, such as a gas turbine combustor, includes a longitudinal axis and has smooth and spaced-apart first and second surface portions defining a notch there between which is wider at its top than at its bottom and which extends outward from the axis. The second surface portion is outside curved, and a first edge of the cloth seal is positioned in the bottom of the notch. A second tubular end portion, such as a first stage nozzle, is located near, spaced apart from, and coaxially aligned with, the first tubular end portion. The second tubular end portion has a smooth third surface portion which surrounds at least a portion of the first tubular end portion and which is contacted by the cloth seal. 7 figs.

  6. Damped flexible seal

    DOEpatents

    DuBois, Neil J.; Amaral, Antonio M.

    1992-10-27

    A damped flexible seal assembly for a torpedo isolates the tailcone thereof rom vibrational energy present in the drive shaft assembly. A pair of outside flanges, each of which include an inwardly facing groove and an O-ring constrained therein, provide a watertight seal against the outer non-rotating surface of the drive shaft assembly. An inside flange includes an outwardly-facing groove and an O-ring constrained therein, and provides a watertight seal against the inner surface of the tail cone. Two cast-in-place elastomeric seals provide a watertight seal between the flanges and further provide a damping barrier between the outside flanges and the inside flanges for damping vibrational energy present in the drive shaft assembly before the energy can reach the tailcone through the seal assembly.

  7. Nonlinear formulation for flexible multibody system with large deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinyang; Hong, Jiazhen

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, nonlinear modeling for flexible multibody system with large deformation is investigated. Absolute nodal coordinates are employed to describe the displacement, and variational motion equations of a flexible body are derived on the basis of the geometric nonlinear theory, in which both the shear strain and the transverse normal strain are taken into account. By separating the inner and the boundary nodal coordinates, the motion equations of a flexible multibody system are assembled. The advantage of such formulation is that the constraint equations and the forward recursive equations become linear because the absolute nodal coordinates are used. A spatial double pendulum connected to the ground with a spherical joint is simulated to investigate the dynamic performance of flexible beams with large deformation. Finally, the resultant constant total energy validates the present formulation.

  8. A computational procedure for multibody systems including flexible beam dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, J. D.; Park, K. C.; Chiou, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    A computational procedure suitable for the solution of equations of motions for flexible multibody systems has been developed. A fully nonlinear continuum approach capable of accounting for both finite rotations and large deformations has been used to model a flexible beam component. The beam kinematics are referred directly to an inertial reference frame such that the degrees of freedom embody both the rigid and flexible deformation motions. As such, the beam inertia expression is identical to that of rigid body dynamics. The nonlinear coupling between gross body motion and elastic deformation is contained in the internal force expression. Numerical solution procedures for the integration of spatial kinematic systems can be directily applied to the generalized coordinates of both the rigid and flexible components. An accurate computation of the internal force term which is invariant to rigid motions is incorporated into the general solution procedure.

  9. Wing flexibility enhances load-lifting capacity in bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Mountcastle, Andrew M; Combes, Stacey A

    2013-05-22

    The effect of wing flexibility on aerodynamic force production has emerged as a central question in insect flight research. However, physical and computational models have yielded conflicting results regarding whether wing deformations enhance or diminish flight forces. By experimentally stiffening the wings of live bumblebees, we demonstrate that wing flexibility affects aerodynamic force production in a natural behavioural context. Bumblebee wings were artificially stiffened in vivo by applying a micro-splint to a single flexible vein joint, and the bees were subjected to load-lifting tests. Bees with stiffened wings showed an 8.6 per cent reduction in maximum vertical aerodynamic force production, which cannot be accounted for by changes in gross wing kinematics, as stroke amplitude and flapping frequency were unchanged. Our results reveal that flexible wing design and the resulting passive deformations enhance vertical force production and load-lifting capacity in bumblebees, locomotory traits with important ecological implications. PMID:23536604

  10. Wing flexibility enhances load-lifting capacity in bumblebees

    PubMed Central

    Mountcastle, Andrew M.; Combes, Stacey A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of wing flexibility on aerodynamic force production has emerged as a central question in insect flight research. However, physical and computational models have yielded conflicting results regarding whether wing deformations enhance or diminish flight forces. By experimentally stiffening the wings of live bumblebees, we demonstrate that wing flexibility affects aerodynamic force production in a natural behavioural context. Bumblebee wings were artificially stiffened in vivo by applying a micro-splint to a single flexible vein joint, and the bees were subjected to load-lifting tests. Bees with stiffened wings showed an 8.6 per cent reduction in maximum vertical aerodynamic force production, which cannot be accounted for by changes in gross wing kinematics, as stroke amplitude and flapping frequency were unchanged. Our results reveal that flexible wing design and the resulting passive deformations enhance vertical force production and load-lifting capacity in bumblebees, locomotory traits with important ecological implications. PMID:23536604

  11. Silvabase: A flexible data file management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambing, Steven J.; Reynolds, Sandra J.

    1991-01-01

    The need for a more flexible and efficient data file management system for mission planning in the Mission Operations Laboratory (EO) at MSFC has spawned the development of Silvabase. Silvabase is a new data file structure based on a B+ tree data structure. This data organization allows for efficient forward and backward sequential reads, random searches, and appends to existing data. It also provides random insertions and deletions with reasonable efficiency, utilization of storage space well but not at the expense of speed, and performance of these functions on a large volume of data. Mission planners required that some data be keyed and manipulated in ways not found in a commercial product. Mission planning software is currently being converted to use Silvabase in the Spacelab and Space Station Mission Planning Systems. Silvabase runs on a Digital Equipment Corporation's popular VAX/VMS computers in VAX Fortran. Silvabase has unique features involving time histories and intervals such as in operations research. Because of its flexibility and unique capabilities, Silvabase could be used in almost any government or commercial application that requires efficient reads, searches, and appends in medium to large amounts of almost any kind of data.

  12. Negotiations and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, Charles R.

    1971-01-01

    School boards by state statutes are alone accountable for the education of their communities' youth. What's needed, the writer contends, is a rectification of the statutes so that all parties to negotiations are accountable. (Editor)

  13. LMAL Accounting Office 1936

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1936-01-01

    Accounting Office: The Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory's accounting office, 1936, with photographs of the Wright brothers on the wall. Although the Lab was named after Samuel P. Langley, most of the NACA staff held the Wrights as their heroes.

  14. Implementing a trustworthy cost-accounting model.

    PubMed

    Spence, Jay; Seargeant, Dan

    2015-03-01

    Hospitals and health systems can develop an effective cost-accounting model and maximize the effectiveness of their cost-accounting teams by focusing on six key areas: Implementing an enhanced data model. Reconciling data efficiently. Accommodating multiple cost-modeling techniques. Improving transparency of cost allocations. Securing department manager participation. Providing essential education and training to staff members and stakeholders.

  15. Flexibility of centromere and kinetochore structures

    PubMed Central

    Burrack, Laura S.; Berman, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Centromeres, and the kinetochores that assemble on them, are essential for accurate chromosome segregation. Diverse centromere organization patterns and kinetochore structures have evolved in eukaryotes ranging from yeast to humans. In addition, centromere DNA and kinetochore position can vary even within individual cells. This flexibility manifests in several ways: centromere DNA sequences evolve rapidly, kinetochore positions shift in response to altered chromosome structure, and kinetochore complex numbers change in response to fluctuations in kinetochore protein levels. Despite their differences, all of these diverse structures promote efficient chromosome segregation. This robustness is inherent to chromosome segregation mechanisms and balances genome stability with adaptability. In this review, we explore the mechanisms and consequences of centromere and kinetochore flexibility as well as the benefits and limitations of different experimental model systems for studying them. PMID:22445183

  16. Expected Utility Distributions for Flexible, Contingent Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Washington, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a method for using expected utility distributions in the execution of flexible, contingent plans. A utility distribution maps the possible start times of an action to the expected utility of the plan suffix starting with that action. The contingent plan encodes a tree of possible courses of action and includes flexible temporal constraints and resource constraints. When execution reaches a branch point, the eligible option with the highest expected utility at that point in time is selected. The utility distributions make this selection sensitive to the runtime context, yet still efficient. Our approach uses predictions of action duration uncertainty as well as expectations of resource usage and availability to determine when an action can execute and with what probability. Execution windows and probabilities inevitably change as execution proceeds, but such changes do not invalidate the cached utility distributions, thus, dynamic updating of utility information is minimized.

  17. Managerial Accounting. Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plachta, Leonard E.

    This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course in managerial accounting. The study guide is intended for use by students in conjuction with a separate textbook, Horngren's "Accounting for Management Control: An Introduction," and a workbook, Curry's "Student Guide to Accounting for Management…

  18. Accounting & Computing Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avani, Nathan T.; And Others

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching a competency-based accounting and computing course that is designed to prepare students for employability in the following occupational areas: inventory control clerk, invoice clerk, payroll clerk, traffic clerk, general ledger bookkeeper, accounting clerk, account information clerk,…

  19. Accounting Education in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Karen F.; Reed, Ronald O.; Greiman, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Almost on a daily basis new accounting rules and laws are put into use, creating information that must be known and learned by the accounting faculty and then introduced to and understood by the accounting student. Even with the 150 hours of education now required for CPA licensure, it is impossible to teach and learn all there is to learn. Over…

  20. The Accounting Capstone Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Henry; Norris, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Capstone courses in accounting programs bring students experiences integrating across the curriculum (University of Washington, 2005) and offer unique (Sanyal, 2003) and transformative experiences (Sill, Harward, & Cooper, 2009). Students take many accounting courses without preparing complete sets of financial statements. Accountants not only…

  1. Improved accounting of emissions from utility energy storage system operation

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Denholm; Tracey Holloway

    2005-12-01

    Several proposed utility-scale energy storage systems in the U.S. will use the spare output capacity of existing electric power systems to create the equivalent of new load-following plants that can rapidly respond to fluctuations in electricity demand and increase the flexibility of baseload generators. New energy storage systems using additional generation from existing plants can directly compete with new traditional sources of load-following and peaking electricity, yet this application of energy storage is not required to meet many of the Clean Air Act standards required of new electricity generators (e.g., coal- or gas-fired power plants). This study evaluates the total emissions that will likely result from the operation of a new energy storage facility when coupled with an average existing U.S. coal-fired power plant and estimates that the emission rates of SO{sub 2} and NOx will be considerably higher than the rate of a new plant meeting Clean Air Act standards, even accounting for the efficiency benefits of energy storage. This study suggests that improved emissions 'accounting' might be necessary to provide accurate environmental comparisons between energy storage and more traditional sources of electricity generation. 35 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Improved accounting of emissions from utility energy storage system operation.

    PubMed

    Denholm, Paul; Holloway, Tracey

    2005-12-01

    Several proposed utility-scale energy storage systems in the U.S. will use the spare output capacity of existing electric power systems to create the equivalent of new load-following plants that can rapidly respond to fluctuations in electricity demand and increase the flexibility of baseload generators. New energy storage systems using additional generation from existing plants can directly compete with new traditional sources of load-following and peaking electricity, yet this application of energy storage is not required to meet many of the Clean Air Act standards required of new electricity generators (e.g., coal- or gas-fired power plants). This study evaluates the total emissions that will likely result from the operation of a new energy storage facility when coupled with an average existing U.S. coal-fired power plant and estimates that the emission rates of SO2 and NOx will be considerably higher than the rate of a new plant meeting Clean Air Act standards, even accounting for the efficiency benefits of energy storage. This study suggests that improved emissions "accounting" might be necessary to provide accurate environmental comparisons between energy storage and more traditional sources of electricity generation.

  3. Progress Towards III-V Photovoltaics on Flexible Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNatt, Jeremiah S.; Pal, AnnaMaria T.; Clark, Eric B.; Sayir, Ali; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Hubbard, Seth M.; Maurer, William F.; Fritzemeier, Les

    2008-01-01

    Presented here is the recent progress of the NASA Glenn Research Center OMVPE group's efforts in the development of high efficiency thin-film polycrystalline III-V photovoltaics on optimum substrates. By using bulk polycrystalline germanium (Ge) films, devices of high efficiency and low mass will be developed and incorporated onto low-cost flexible substrates. Our progress towards the integration of high efficiency polycrystalline III-V devices and recrystallized Ge films on thin metal foils is discussed.

  4. Fast and anisotropic flexibility-rigidity index for protein flexibility and fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opron, Kristopher; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-06-01

    Protein structural fluctuation, typically measured by Debye-Waller factors, or B-factors, is a manifestation of protein flexibility, which strongly correlates to protein function. The flexibility-rigidity index (FRI) is a newly proposed method for the construction of atomic rigidity functions required in the theory of continuum elasticity with atomic rigidity, which is a new multiscale formalism for describing excessively large biomolecular systems. The FRI method analyzes protein rigidity and flexibility and is capable of predicting protein B-factors without resorting to matrix diagonalization. A fundamental assumption used in the FRI is that protein structures are uniquely determined by various internal and external interactions, while the protein functions, such as stability and flexibility, are solely determined by the structure. As such, one can predict protein flexibility without resorting to the protein interaction Hamiltonian. Consequently, bypassing the matrix diagonalization, the original FRI has a computational complexity of O(N^2). This work introduces a fast FRI (fFRI) algorithm for the flexibility analysis of large macromolecules. The proposed fFRI further reduces the computational complexity to O(N). Additionally, we propose anisotropic FRI (aFRI) algorithms for the analysis of protein collective dynamics. The aFRI algorithms permit adaptive Hessian matrices, from a completely global 3N × 3N matrix to completely local 3 × 3 matrices. These 3 × 3 matrices, despite being calculated locally, also contain non-local correlation information. Eigenvectors obtained from the proposed aFRI algorithms are able to demonstrate collective motions. Moreover, we investigate the performance of FRI by employing four families of radial basis correlation functions. Both parameter optimized and parameter-free FRI methods are explored. Furthermore, we compare the accuracy and efficiency of FRI with some established approaches to flexibility analysis, namely, normal

  5. Fast and anisotropic flexibility-rigidity index for protein flexibility and fluctuation analysis.

    PubMed

    Opron, Kristopher; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-06-21

    Protein structural fluctuation, typically measured by Debye-Waller factors, or B-factors, is a manifestation of protein flexibility, which strongly correlates to protein function. The flexibility-rigidity index (FRI) is a newly proposed method for the construction of atomic rigidity functions required in the theory of continuum elasticity with atomic rigidity, which is a new multiscale formalism for describing excessively large biomolecular systems. The FRI method analyzes protein rigidity and flexibility and is capable of predicting protein B-factors without resorting to matrix diagonalization. A fundamental assumption used in the FRI is that protein structures are uniquely determined by various internal and external interactions, while the protein functions, such as stability and flexibility, are solely determined by the structure. As such, one can predict protein flexibility without resorting to the protein interaction Hamiltonian. Consequently, bypassing the matrix diagonalization, the original FRI has a computational complexity of O(N(2)). This work introduces a fast FRI (fFRI) algorithm for the flexibility analysis of large macromolecules. The proposed fFRI further reduces the computational complexity to O(N). Additionally, we propose anisotropic FRI (aFRI) algorithms for the analysis of protein collective dynamics. The aFRI algorithms permit adaptive Hessian matrices, from a completely global 3N × 3N matrix to completely local 3 × 3 matrices. These 3 × 3 matrices, despite being calculated locally, also contain non-local correlation information. Eigenvectors obtained from the proposed aFRI algorithms are able to demonstrate collective motions. Moreover, we investigate the performance of FRI by employing four families of radial basis correlation functions. Both parameter optimized and parameter-free FRI methods are explored. Furthermore, we compare the accuracy and efficiency of FRI with some established approaches to flexibility analysis, namely, normal

  6. Fast and anisotropic flexibility-rigidity index for protein flexibility and fluctuation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Opron, Kristopher; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-06-21

    Protein structural fluctuation, typically measured by Debye-Waller factors, or B-factors, is a manifestation of protein flexibility, which strongly correlates to protein function. The flexibility-rigidity index (FRI) is a newly proposed method for the construction of atomic rigidity functions required in the theory of continuum elasticity with atomic rigidity, which is a new multiscale formalism for describing excessively large biomolecular systems. The FRI method analyzes protein rigidity and flexibility and is capable of predicting protein B-factors without resorting to matrix diagonalization. A fundamental assumption used in the FRI is that protein structures are uniquely determined by various internal and external interactions, while the protein functions, such as stability and flexibility, are solely determined by the structure. As such, one can predict protein flexibility without resorting to the protein interaction Hamiltonian. Consequently, bypassing the matrix diagonalization, the original FRI has a computational complexity of O(N{sup 2}). This work introduces a fast FRI (fFRI) algorithm for the flexibility analysis of large macromolecules. The proposed fFRI further reduces the computational complexity to O(N). Additionally, we propose anisotropic FRI (aFRI) algorithms for the analysis of protein collective dynamics. The aFRI algorithms permit adaptive Hessian matrices, from a completely global 3N × 3N matrix to completely local 3 × 3 matrices. These 3 × 3 matrices, despite being calculated locally, also contain non-local correlation information. Eigenvectors obtained from the proposed aFRI algorithms are able to demonstrate collective motions. Moreover, we investigate the performance of FRI by employing four families of radial basis correlation functions. Both parameter optimized and parameter-free FRI methods are explored. Furthermore, we compare the accuracy and efficiency of FRI with some established approaches to flexibility analysis, namely

  7. Labour Markets and Employment Practices in the Age of Flexibility: A Case Study of Silicon Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Flexible employment has accounted for more than half of Silicon Valley's total employment growth in the past 10 years. Flexible employment has become a permanent strategy that may create insecurity for low-skilled workers; it also leads to a high turnover rate among highly skilled workers. (JOW)

  8. A flexible search strategy for production systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dey, Pradip; Srinivasan, S.; Sundararaghavan, K. R.

    1988-01-01

    Most problems considered to be solvable by expert systems have very large search space. It is imperative to use efficient search strategy in expert system tools. Thus, OPS5 uses a kind of hill climbing which is very efficient. However, hill climbing is inadequate for many problems because it is one of the least dependable search strategies. In order to make the search efficient and adequate one can: (1) adopt best-first search instead of hill climbing, or (2) modify hill climbing with intelligent backtracking. The second alternative is adopted. It is implemented in a production system called PRO2 embedded in C running on UNIX. It is called hill tracking. It is a general purpose tool for developing expert systems. This is a rule based production system with an effective, intelligent and flexible backtracking control mechanism, which makes the system more dependable. The advantages and disadvantages of PRO2 are discussed.

  9. Sensor Technologies on Flexible Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehne, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    NASA Ames has developed sensor technologies on flexible substrates integrated into textiles for personalized environment monitoring and human performance evaluation. Current technologies include chemical sensing for gas leak and event monitoring and biological sensors for human health and performance monitoring. Targeted integration include next generation EVA suits and flexible habitats.

  10. Teacher Flexibility in Mathematical Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leikin, Roza; Dinur, Sariga

    2007-01-01

    The significance of discussion in mathematics classes has been prominently debated in the research literature. Different studies have stressed the importance of teacher flexibility in orchestrating the discussion. We introduce an operational definition of teacher flexibility. In a case study with one secondary-school mathematics teacher, we…

  11. copCAR: A Flexible Regression Model for Areal Data

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, John

    2014-01-01

    Non-Gaussian spatial data are common in many fields. When fitting regressions for such data, one needs to account for spatial dependence to ensure reliable inference for the regression coefficients. The two most commonly used regression models for spatially aggregated data are the automodel and the areal generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). These models induce spatial dependence in different ways but share the smoothing approach, which is intuitive but problematic. This article develops a new regression model for areal data. The new model is called copCAR because it is copula-based and employs the areal GLMM’s conditional autoregression (CAR). copCAR overcomes many of the drawbacks of the automodel and the areal GLMM. Specifically, copCAR (1) is flexible and intuitive, (2) permits positive spatial dependence for all types of data, (3) permits efficient computation, and (4) provides reliable spatial regression inference and information about dependence strength. An implementation is provided by R package copCAR, which is available from the Comprehensive R Archive Network, and supplementary materials are available online. PMID:26539023

  12. [The flexibility of family medicine].

    PubMed

    Minguet, C; Aubrege, A; Aubart, M; Cornuz, J; di Patrizio, P; Du Boullay, D; Farghadani, H; Flammang, M; Haas, N; Kacenelenbogen, N; Kopp, M; Leners, J C; Levêque, M; Mbengue, M; Paur, H; Paur, I; Raphaël, F; Rausch, S; Shetgen, M; Stein R; Tabouring, P; Thomas, J M; Vignon, G

    2015-01-01

    We are a European academic group of family doctors and we propose a definition of flexibility in family medicine. A review of the literature shows that flexibility and complexity are emerging concepts in the field of family practice. The outcomes of a workshop at the WONCA-Europe congress in 2014 are discussed. The flexibility is a capability of the general practitioner to deal with complex clinical situations in a biomedical and societal changing world. Flexibility is framed by ethics. It could improve the quality of care, be useful against burnout and used in medical research. In conclusion, family medicine should adopt a specific definition of the flexibility describing its specificity, a useful and teachable capacity. PMID:26946851

  13. SOCMA study urges flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, E.

    1993-02-10

    In implementing the 1990 Pollution Prevention Act, regulators and legislators should hold off on cookie-cutter, numerical goal-based requirements to allow for site and process specific programs, says a study sponsored by the Synthetic Organic Chemicals Manufacturers Association (SOCMA; Washington). Companies should have that flexibility to target their resources toward those activities that reduce pollution cost effectively, says SOCMA environmental quality committee chairman Art Gillen, who is also BASF director of environmental regulatory affairs. The study - conducted by Woodward-Clyde Consultants (Denver) - examines four batch and custom chemical manufacturing films. As in the Clean Air Act, the batch processing of SOCMA-member plants should be considered in new regulations, Gillen says. For example, the study found that most wastes are from shutdowns and cleanouts, and there are frequent charges in waste streams and raw materials. Those characteristics do not lend themselves to annual reduction goals. Also, specific goals could have a wide range of costs: measures to reduce stack air emissions run from $18/lb to $1,106/lb. SOCMA says it will present the study to Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency.

  14. Metabolic flexibility and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Galgani, Jose E; Moro, Cedric; Ravussin, Eric

    2008-11-01

    Metabolic flexibility is the capacity for the organism to adapt fuel oxidation to fuel availability. The inability to modify fuel oxidation in response to changes in nutrient availability has been implicated in the accumulation of intramyocellular lipid and insulin resistance. The metabolic flexibility assessed by the ability to switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation is usually impaired during a hyperinsulinemic clamp in insulin-resistant subjects; however, this "metabolic inflexibility" is mostly the consequence of impaired cellular glucose uptake. Indeed, after controlling for insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rate (amount of glucose available for oxidation), metabolic flexibility is not altered in obesity regardless of the presence of type 2 diabetes. To understand how intramyocellular lipids accumulate and cause insulin resistance, the assessment of metabolic flexibility to high-fat diets is more relevant than metabolic flexibility during a hyperinsulinemic clamp. An impaired capacity to upregulate muscle lipid oxidation in the face of high lipid supply may lead to increased muscle fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Surprisingly, very few studies have investigated the response to high-fat diets. In this review, we discuss the role of glucose disposal rate, adipose tissue lipid storage, and mitochondrial function on metabolic flexibility. Additionally, we emphasize the bias of using the change in respiratory quotient to calculate metabolic flexibility and propose novel approaches to assess metabolic flexibility. On the basis of current evidence, one cannot conclude that impaired metabolic flexibility is responsible for the accumulation of intramyocellular lipid and insulin resistance. We propose to study metabolic flexibility in response to high-fat diets in individuals having contrasting degree of insulin sensitivity and/or mitochondrial characteristics. PMID:18765680

  15. Characterization and Prediction of Protein Flexibility Based on Structural Alphabets

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Motivation. To assist efforts in determining and exploring the functional properties of proteins, it is desirable to characterize and predict protein flexibilities. Results. In this study, the conformational entropy is used as an indicator of the protein flexibility. We first explore whether the conformational change can capture the protein flexibility. The well-defined decoy structures are converted into one-dimensional series of letters from a structural alphabet. Four different structure alphabets, including the secondary structure in 3-class and 8-class, the PB structure alphabet (16-letter), and the DW structure alphabet (28-letter), are investigated. The conformational entropy is then calculated from the structure alphabet letters. Some of the proteins show high correlation between the conformation entropy and the protein flexibility. We then predict the protein flexibility from basic amino acid sequence. The local structures are predicted by the dual-layer model and the conformational entropy of the predicted class distribution is then calculated. The results show that the conformational entropy is a good indicator of the protein flexibility, but false positives remain a problem. The DW structure alphabet performs the best, which means that more subtle local structures can be captured by large number of structure alphabet letters. Overall this study provides a simple and efficient method for the characterization and prediction of the protein flexibility. PMID:27660756

  16. Characterization and Prediction of Protein Flexibility Based on Structural Alphabets

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Motivation. To assist efforts in determining and exploring the functional properties of proteins, it is desirable to characterize and predict protein flexibilities. Results. In this study, the conformational entropy is used as an indicator of the protein flexibility. We first explore whether the conformational change can capture the protein flexibility. The well-defined decoy structures are converted into one-dimensional series of letters from a structural alphabet. Four different structure alphabets, including the secondary structure in 3-class and 8-class, the PB structure alphabet (16-letter), and the DW structure alphabet (28-letter), are investigated. The conformational entropy is then calculated from the structure alphabet letters. Some of the proteins show high correlation between the conformation entropy and the protein flexibility. We then predict the protein flexibility from basic amino acid sequence. The local structures are predicted by the dual-layer model and the conformational entropy of the predicted class distribution is then calculated. The results show that the conformational entropy is a good indicator of the protein flexibility, but false positives remain a problem. The DW structure alphabet performs the best, which means that more subtle local structures can be captured by large number of structure alphabet letters. Overall this study provides a simple and efficient method for the characterization and prediction of the protein flexibility.

  17. Lightweight IMM PV Flexible Blanket Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) photovoltaic (PV) integrated modular blanket assembly (IMBA) that can be rolled or z-folded. This IMM PV IMBA technology enables a revolutionary flexible PV blanket assembly that provides high specific power, exceptional stowed packaging efficiency, and high-voltage operation capability. DSS's technology also accommodates standard third-generation triple junction (ZTJ) PV device technologies to provide significantly improved performance over the current state of the art. This SBIR project demonstrated prototype, flight-like IMM PV IMBA panel assemblies specifically developed, designed, and optimized for NASA's high-voltage solar array missions.

  18. Swarming: flexible roaming plans.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Jonathan D; Harshey, Rasika M

    2013-03-01

    Movement over an agar surface via swarming motility is subject to formidable challenges not encountered during swimming. Bacteria display a great deal of flexibility in coping with these challenges, which include attracting water to the surface, overcoming frictional forces, and reducing surface tension. Bacteria that swarm on "hard" agar surfaces (robust swarmers) display a hyperflagellated and hyperelongated morphology. Bacteria requiring a "softer" agar surface (temperate swarmers) do not exhibit such a dramatic morphology. For polarly flagellated robust swarmers, there is good evidence that restriction of flagellar rotation somehow signals the induction of a large number of lateral flagella, but this scenario is apparently not relevant to temperate swarmers. Swarming bacteria can be further subdivided by their requirement for multiple stators (Mot proteins) or a stator-associated protein (FliL), secretion of essential polysaccharides, cell density-dependent gene regulation including surfactant synthesis, a functional chemotaxis signaling pathway, appropriate cyclic (c)-di-GMP levels, induction of virulence determinants, and various nutritional requirements such as iron limitation or nitrate availability. Swarming strategies are as diverse as the bacteria that utilize them. The strength of these numerous designs stems from the vantage point they offer for understanding mechanisms for effective colonization of surface niches, acquisition of pathogenic potential, and identification of environmental signals that regulate swarming. The signature swirling and streaming motion within a swarm is an interesting phenomenon in and of itself, an emergent behavior with properties similar to flocking behavior in diverse systems, including birds and fish, providing a convenient new avenue for modeling such behavior. PMID:23264580

  19. Swarming: flexible roaming plans.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Jonathan D; Harshey, Rasika M

    2013-03-01

    Movement over an agar surface via swarming motility is subject to formidable challenges not encountered during swimming. Bacteria display a great deal of flexibility in coping with these challenges, which include attracting water to the surface, overcoming frictional forces, and reducing surface tension. Bacteria that swarm on "hard" agar surfaces (robust swarmers) display a hyperflagellated and hyperelongated morphology. Bacteria requiring a "softer" agar surface (temperate swarmers) do not exhibit such a dramatic morphology. For polarly flagellated robust swarmers, there is good evidence that restriction of flagellar rotation somehow signals the induction of a large number of lateral flagella, but this scenario is apparently not relevant to temperate swarmers. Swarming bacteria can be further subdivided by their requirement for multiple stators (Mot proteins) or a stator-associated protein (FliL), secretion of essential polysaccharides, cell density-dependent gene regulation including surfactant synthesis, a functional chemotaxis signaling pathway, appropriate cyclic (c)-di-GMP levels, induction of virulence determinants, and various nutritional requirements such as iron limitation or nitrate availability. Swarming strategies are as diverse as the bacteria that utilize them. The strength of these numerous designs stems from the vantage point they offer for understanding mechanisms for effective colonization of surface niches, acquisition of pathogenic potential, and identification of environmental signals that regulate swarming. The signature swirling and streaming motion within a swarm is an interesting phenomenon in and of itself, an emergent behavior with properties similar to flocking behavior in diverse systems, including birds and fish, providing a convenient new avenue for modeling such behavior.

  20. Swarming: Flexible Roaming Plans

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Movement over an agar surface via swarming motility is subject to formidable challenges not encountered during swimming. Bacteria display a great deal of flexibility in coping with these challenges, which include attracting water to the surface, overcoming frictional forces, and reducing surface tension. Bacteria that swarm on “hard” agar surfaces (robust swarmers) display a hyperflagellated and hyperelongated morphology. Bacteria requiring a “softer” agar surface (temperate swarmers) do not exhibit such a dramatic morphology. For polarly flagellated robust swarmers, there is good evidence that restriction of flagellar rotation somehow signals the induction of a large number of lateral flagella, but this scenario is apparently not relevant to temperate swarmers. Swarming bacteria can be further subdivided by their requirement for multiple stators (Mot proteins) or a stator-associated protein (FliL), secretion of essential polysaccharides, cell density-dependent gene regulation including surfactant synthesis, a functional chemotaxis signaling pathway, appropriate cyclic (c)-di-GMP levels, induction of virulence determinants, and various nutritional requirements such as iron limitation or nitrate availability. Swarming strategies are as diverse as the bacteria that utilize them. The strength of these numerous designs stems from the vantage point they offer for understanding mechanisms for effective colonization of surface niches, acquisition of pathogenic potential, and identification of environmental signals that regulate swarming. The signature swirling and streaming motion within a swarm is an interesting phenomenon in and of itself, an emergent behavior with properties similar to flocking behavior in diverse systems, including birds and fish, providing a convenient new avenue for modeling such behavior. PMID:23264580

  1. Emerging accounting trends accounting for leases.

    PubMed

    Valletta, Robert; Huggins, Brian

    2010-12-01

    A new model for lease accounting can have a significant impact on hospitals and healthcare organizations. The new approach proposes a "right-of-use" model that involves complex estimates and significant administrative burden. Hospitals and health systems that draw heavily on lease arrangements should start preparing for the new approach now even though guidance and a final rule are not expected until mid-2011. This article highlights a number of considerations from the lessee point of view.

  2. Flexible time domain averaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

    2013-09-01

    Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

  3. Flexible sensors for biomedical technology.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Diana; Romeo, Agostino; Sánchez, Samuel

    2016-02-01

    Flexible sensing devices have gained a great deal of attention among the scientific community in recent years. The application of flexible sensors spans over several fields, including medicine, industrial automation, robotics, security, and human-machine interfacing. In particular, non-invasive health-monitoring devices are expected to play a key role in the improvement of patient life and in reducing costs associated with clinical and biomedical diagnostic procedures. Here, we focus on recent advances achieved in flexible devices applied on the human skin for biomedical and healthcare purposes. PMID:26675174

  4. Guideline Implementation: Processing Flexible Endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Bashaw, Marie A

    2016-09-01

    The updated AORN "Guideline for processing flexible endoscopes" provides guidance to perioperative, endoscopy, and sterile processing personnel for processing all types of reusable flexible endoscopes and accessories in all procedural settings. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel safely and effectively process flexible endoscopes to prevent infection transmission. The key points address verification of manual cleaning, mechanical cleaning and processing, storage in a drying cabinet, determination of maximum storage time before reprocessing is needed, and considerations for implementing a microbiologic surveillance program. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  5. Flexible sensors for biomedical technology.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Diana; Romeo, Agostino; Sánchez, Samuel

    2016-02-01

    Flexible sensing devices have gained a great deal of attention among the scientific community in recent years. The application of flexible sensors spans over several fields, including medicine, industrial automation, robotics, security, and human-machine interfacing. In particular, non-invasive health-monitoring devices are expected to play a key role in the improvement of patient life and in reducing costs associated with clinical and biomedical diagnostic procedures. Here, we focus on recent advances achieved in flexible devices applied on the human skin for biomedical and healthcare purposes.

  6. Rolling-cuff flexible bellows

    DOEpatents

    Lambert, D.R.

    1982-09-27

    A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping, is described. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.

  7. Guideline Implementation: Processing Flexible Endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Bashaw, Marie A

    2016-09-01

    The updated AORN "Guideline for processing flexible endoscopes" provides guidance to perioperative, endoscopy, and sterile processing personnel for processing all types of reusable flexible endoscopes and accessories in all procedural settings. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel safely and effectively process flexible endoscopes to prevent infection transmission. The key points address verification of manual cleaning, mechanical cleaning and processing, storage in a drying cabinet, determination of maximum storage time before reprocessing is needed, and considerations for implementing a microbiologic surveillance program. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. PMID:27568535

  8. Public Accountancy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    A reference guide to laws, rules, and regulations that govern public accountancy practice in New York State is presented. In addition to identifying licensing requirements/procedures for certified public accountants, general provisions of Title VIII of the Education Law are covered, along with state management, professional misconduct, and…

  9. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  10. Public Accountancy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules and regulations of the State Education Department governing public accountancy practice in New York State are provided in this handbook. Licensure requirements are also described, and the forms for obtaining a license and first registration as a certified public accountant are provided. The booklet is divided into the following…

  11. Leadership for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    2001-01-01

    This document explores issues of leadership for accountability and reviews five resources on the subject. These include: (1) "Accountability by Carrots and Sticks: Will Incentives and Sanctions Motivate Students, Teachers, and Administrators for Peak Performance?" (Larry Lashway); (2) "Organizing Schools for Teacher Learning" (Judith Warren…

  12. The Accountability Illusion: Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  13. The Accountability Illusion: Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  14. The Accountability Illusion: Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  15. Teaching Accounting with Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaoul, Jean

    This paper addresses the numerous ways that computers may be used to enhance the teaching of accounting and business topics. It focuses on the pedagogical use of spreadsheet software to improve the conceptual coverage of accounting principles and practice, increase student understanding by involvement in the solution process, and reduce the amount…

  16. The Accountability Illusion: California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  17. Accountability for What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Rex; Knowles; Trudy

    2001-01-01

    Our emphasis on accountability overlooks children's differences. Half of all individuals who take a norm-referenced test will be below average. Should such students be pushed, mauled, and remediated or squeezed into a common learning mold? Holding teachers accountable for humane treatment of "whole children" is a worthier pursuit. (MLH)

  18. The Evolution of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Campus 2020: Thinking ahead is a policy in British Columbia (BC), Canada, that attempted to hold universities accountable to performance. Within, I demonstrate how this Canadian articulation of educational accountability intended to develop "governmentality constellations" to control the university and regulate its knowledge output. This research…

  19. Accountability in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chippendale, P. R., Ed.; Wilkes, Paula V., Ed.

    This collection of papers delivered at a conference on accountability held at Darling Downs Institute of Advanced Education in Australia examines the meaning of accountability in education for teachers, lecturers, government, parents, administrators, education authorities, and the society at large. In Part 1, W. G. Walker attempts to answer the…

  20. Accountability and Primary Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Mukhi, Shaheena; Barnsley, Jan; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the accountability structures within primary healthcare (PHC) in Ontario; in particular, who is accountable for what and to whom, and the policy tools being used. Ontario has implemented a series of incremental reforms, using expenditure policy instruments, enforced through contractual agreements to provide a defined set of publicly financed services that are privately delivered, most often by family physicians. The findings indicate that reporting, funding, evaluation and governance accountability requirements vary across service provider models. Accountability to the funder and patients is most common. Agreements, incentives and compensation tools have been used but may be insufficient to ensure parties are being held responsible for their activities related to stated goals. Clear definitions of various governance structures, a cohesive approach to monitoring critical performance indicators and associated improvement strategies are important elements in operationalizing accountability and determining whether goals are being met. PMID:25305392

  1. Accountability and primary healthcare.

    PubMed

    Mukhi, Shaheena; Barnsley, Jan; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    This paper examines the accountability structures within primary healthcare (PHC) in Ontario; in particular, who is accountable for what and to whom, and the policy tools being used. Ontario has implemented a series of incremental reforms, using expenditure policy instruments, enforced through contractual agreements to provide a defined set of publicly financed services that are privately delivered, most often by family physicians. The findings indicate that reporting, funding, evaluation and governance accountability requirements vary across service provider models. Accountability to the funder and patients is most common. Agreements, incentives and compensation tools have been used but may be insufficient to ensure parties are being held responsible for their activities related to stated goals. Clear definitions of various governance structures, a cohesive approach to monitoring critical performance indicators and associated improvement strategies are important elements in operationalizing accountability and determining whether goals are being met. PMID:25305392

  2. Flexible Transparent Electronic Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Guo, Yunlong; Wan, Pengbo; Zhang, Han; Chen, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-07-01

    Flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors capable of real-time, sensitive, and selective analysis at room-temperature, have gained immense popularity in recent years for their potential to be integrated into various smart wearable electronics and display devices. Here, recent advances in flexible transparent sensors constructed from semiconducting oxides, carbon materials, conducting polymers, and their nanocomposites are presented. The sensing material selection, sensor device construction, and sensing mechanism of flexible transparent sensors are discussed in detail. The critical challenges and future development associated with flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors are presented. Smart wearable gas sensors are believed to have great potential in environmental monitoring and noninvasive health monitoring based on disease biomarkers in exhaled gas.

  3. Photocatalytic reactor with flexible supports

    DOEpatents

    Jacoby, William A.; Blake, Daniel M.

    1995-01-01

    Organic pollutants and bioaerosols in a gaseous stream are oxidized by exposure to light (e.g., UV light) in the presence of semiconductor catalyst particles or coatings supported on flexible strips suspended in the gaseous stream.

  4. Flexible Transparent Electronic Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Guo, Yunlong; Wan, Pengbo; Zhang, Han; Chen, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-07-01

    Flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors capable of real-time, sensitive, and selective analysis at room-temperature, have gained immense popularity in recent years for their potential to be integrated into various smart wearable electronics and display devices. Here, recent advances in flexible transparent sensors constructed from semiconducting oxides, carbon materials, conducting polymers, and their nanocomposites are presented. The sensing material selection, sensor device construction, and sensing mechanism of flexible transparent sensors are discussed in detail. The critical challenges and future development associated with flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors are presented. Smart wearable gas sensors are believed to have great potential in environmental monitoring and noninvasive health monitoring based on disease biomarkers in exhaled gas. PMID:27276698

  5. Photocatalytic reactor with flexible supports

    DOEpatents

    Jacoby, W.A.; Blake, D.M.

    1995-09-12

    Organic pollutants and bioaerosols in a gaseous stream are oxidized by exposure to light (e.g., UV light) in the presence of semiconductor catalyst particles or coatings supported on flexible strips suspended in the gaseous stream. 3 figs.

  6. Ultra-Thin, Flexible Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Brian; McPherson, Ryan; Zhang, Tan; Hou, Zhenwei; Dean, Robert; Johnson, R. Wayne; DelCastillo, Linda; Moussessian, Alina

    2008-01-01

    Thinned die can be used to realize ultra-thin flexible electronics for applications such as conformal and wearable electronics. Three techniques have been developed to achieve this goal using thinned die: die flip chip bonded onto flexible substrates, die laminated onto LCP films, and die embedded in polyimide. A key to achieving each of these techniques is the thinning of die to a thickness of 50 microns or thinner. Conventional CMP processing can be used to thin to 50 microns. At 50 microns, the active die become flexible and must be handled by temporarily bonding them to a holder die, for further processing. Once bonded face down to the holder die, the active die can be further thinned by DRIE etching the exposed backside. The thinned die can then been packaged in or on the flexible substrate.

  7. Flexible Protocrystalline Silicon Solar Cells with Amorphous Buffer Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Schubert, Markus B.

    2006-09-01

    A low deposition temperature of 110 °C is mandatory for directly growing amorphous-silicon-based solar cells on plastic foil. The optimum absorber material at this low temperature is protocrystalline, i.e., right at the transition between amorphous and crystalline silicon. Polyethylene terephtalate foil of 50 μm thickness form the substrate of our flexible p-i-n single-junction cells. We discuss three peculiar processing techniques for achieving the maximum photovoltaic conversion efficiency of flexible low-temperature solar cells. First, we employ an optimized microcrystalline silicon p-type window layer; second, we use protocrystalline silicon for the i-layer; third, we insert an undoped amorphous silicon buffer layer at the p/i interface. The best flexible cells attain power conversion efficiencies of up to 4.9%.

  8. Flow Interaction With Highly Flexible Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoele, Kourosh

    Studying the interaction between fluid and structure is an essential step towards the understanding of many engineering and physical problems, from the flow instability of structures to the biolocomotion of insects, birds and fishes. The simulation of such problems is computationally challenging. This justifies the attempts to develop more sophisticated and more efficient numerical models of fluid-solid interactions. In this dissertation, we proposed numerical models both in potential flow and fully viscous flow for the interaction of immersed structure with a strongly unsteady flow. In particular we have developed efficient approaches to study two groups of problems, the flow interaction with skeleton-reinforced fish fins and flow interaction with highly flexible bluff bodies. Fins of bony fishes are characterized by a skeleton-reinforced membrane structure consisting of a soft collagen membrane strengthened by embedded flexible rays. Morphologically, each ray is connected to a group of muscles so that the fish can control the rotational motion of each ray individually, enabling multi-degree of freedom control over the fin motion and deformation. We have developed fluid-structure interaction models to simulate the kinematics and dynamic performance of a structurally idealized fin. The first method includes a boundary-element model of the fluid motion and a fully-nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam model of the embedded rays. In the second method, we use an improved immersed boundary approach. Using these models, we study thrust generation and propulsion efficiency of the fin at different combinations of parameters at both high-Re and intermediate-Re flow. Effects of kinematic as well as structural properties are examined. It has been illustrated that the fish's capacity to control the motion of each individual ray, as well as the anisotropic deformability of the fin determined by distribution of the rays (especially the detailed distribution of ray stiffness), is

  9. Flexible solar-array mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    One of the key elements of the flexible rolled-up solar array system is a mechanism to deploy, retract, and store the flexible solar-cell arrays. The selection of components, the design of the mechanism assembly, and the tests that were performed are discussed. During 6 months in orbit, all mission objectives were satisfied, and inflight performance has shown good correlation with preflight analyses and tests.

  10. Prospects for cost-efficient water protection in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Hyytiäinen, Kari; Ahlvik, Lassi

    2015-01-15

    This study investigates the economic consequences of the nutrient load reductions agreed in the 2013 revision of the Baltic Sea Action Plan. The cost of meeting the targets set for waterborne sources was estimated to be 1980 MEUR annually. The 2013 revision is a step towards cost-efficient water protection: the cost of meeting the earlier targets would have been 328 MEUR (14%) higher, although the revised targets are now more ambitious with respect to phosphorus. We demonstrate that there is potential for efficiency gains by introducing flexibility mechanisms, such as 'joint implementation' to trans-boundary water protection. The potential gains can be as high as 280 MEUR (14%). The most flexible interpretation of the basin targets, one allowing Contracting Parties to account for reductions in other sea basins in proportion to their effect in the focal basin, could further reduce the total cost by 200 MEUR (12%). PMID:25467871

  11. Accountability in delivering care.

    PubMed

    Castledine, G

    In the penultimate part of this series on issues in ward management facing charge nurses. George Castledine concentrates on the issue of accountability. The immensely powerful position of the charge nurse as arbitrator and co-ordinator of all health care given to the patient demands that helshe exercises this power responsibly and positively; hence, the crucial importance of accountability. The author explores this concept and also those of advocacy and conscientious objection. He concludes by suggesting that the ultimate area of accountability in nursing is the individual conscience of the practitioner and that in this may lie the key to the setting and maintenance of high standards of care.

  12. Intelligent Control of Flexible-Joint Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colbaugh, R.; Gallegos, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper considers the trajectory tracking problem for uncertain rigid-link. flexible.joint manipulators, and presents a new intelligent controller as a solution to this problem. The proposed control strategy is simple and computationally efficient, requires little information concerning either the manipulator or actuator/transmission models and ensures uniform boundedness of all signals and arbitrarily accurate task-space trajectory tracking.

  13. Dynamics and control of flexible multibody structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemple, Timothy John

    The goal of this study is to present a method for deriving equations of motion capable of modeling the controlled motion of an open loop multibody structure comprised of an arbitrary number of rigid bodies and slender beams. The procedure presented here for deriving equations of motion for flexible multibody systems is carried out by means of the Principle of Virtual Work (often referred to in the dynamics literature as d'Alembert's Principle). We first consider the motion of a general flexible body relative to the inertial space, and then derive specific formulas for both rigid bodies and slender beams. Next, we make a small motions assumption, with the end result being equations for a Rayleigh beam, which include terms which account for the axial motion, due to bending, of points on the beam central axis. This process includes a novel application of the exponential form of an orthogonal matrix, which is ideally suited for truncation. Then, the generalized coordinates and quasi-velocities used in the mathematical model, including those needed in the spatial discretization process of the beam equations are discussed. Furthermore, we develop a new set of recursive relations used to compute the inertial motion of a body in terms of the generalized coordinates and quasi-velocities. This research was motivated by the desire to model the controlled motion of a flexible space robot, and consequently, we use the multibody dynamics equations to simulate the motion of such a structure, providing a demonstration of the computer program. For this particular example we make use of a new sequence of shape functions, first used by Meirovitch and Stemple to model a two dimensional building frame subjected to earthquake excitations.

  14. Management accounting for advanced technological environments.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, R S

    1989-08-25

    Management accounting systems designed decades ago no longer provide timely, relevant information for companies in today's highly competitive environment. New operational control and performance measurement systems are recognizing the importance of direct measurement of quality, manufacturing lead times, flexibility, and customer responsiveness, as well as more accurate measures of the actual costs of consumed resources. Activity-based cost systems can assign the costs of indirect and support resources to the specific products and activities that benefit from these resources. Both operational control and activity-based systems represent new opportunities for improved managerial information in complex, technologically advanced environments. PMID:17773356

  15. Regional Resource Center Program (RRCP) Technical Assistance and ESEA Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Resource Center Program, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Elementary and Secondary Education (ESEA) flexibility program initiated in September 2011 holds several implications for special education accountability and, by extension, state education agencies and the technical assistance providers who support them. The U.S. Department of Education has approved ESEA waiver applications for a majority of…

  16. Accountability. State Implementation of College- and Career-Readiness Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly; Mira, Mary Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    All of the states in this study have recently been involved in school accountability system reform. Since 2011, the states have taken advantage of a federal program to give them flexibility around certain requirements of the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001 (NCLB), the most recent reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary…

  17. Computerized material accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Claborn, J.; Erkkila, B.

    1995-07-01

    With the advent of fast, reliable database servers running on inexpensive networked personal computers, it is possible to create material accountability systems that are easy to learn, easy to use, and cost-effective to implement. Maintaining the material data in a relational database allows data to be viewed in ways that were previously very difficult. This paper describes a software and hardware platforms for the implementation of such an accountability system.

  18. Evaluation of flexible flapping wing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakotomamonjy, Thomas; Le Moing, Thierry; Danet, Brieuc; Gadoullet, Xavier; Osmont, Daniel; Dupont, Marc

    2009-03-01

    ONERA - The French Aerospace Lab - has launched an internal program on biologically-inspired Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs), covering many research topics such as unsteady aerodynamics, actuation, structural dynamics or control. The aim is to better understand the flapping flight performed in nature by insects, and to control state of the art technologies and applications in this field. For that purpose, a flight-dynamics oriented simulation model of a flapping-wing concept has been developed. This model, called OSCAB, features a body and two wings along which the aerodynamics efforts are integrated, so as to determine the global motion of the MAV. The model has been improved by taking into account the flexibility of the wings (flexion of the leading edge and passive torsion of the wings, induced by the flapping motion itself under wing inertia). Thus, it becomes possible to estimate the coupling between flexibility and the aerodynamic forces. Furthermore, the model shows that using elastic properties of the wings allows a diminution of the mechanical energy needed for wings motion, and a reduction of the number of actuators to be implanted into the MAV.

  19. Transportation Security Administration Efficiency and Flexibility Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Wicker, Roger F. [R-MS

    2011-07-13

    07/13/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. mreps: efficient and flexible detection of tandem repeats in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Kolpakov, Roman; Bana, Ghizlane; Kucherov, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    The presence of repeated sequences is a fundamental feature of genomes. Tandemly repeated DNA appears in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes, it is associated with various regulatory mechanisms and plays an important role in genomic fingerprinting. In this paper, we describe mreps, a powerful software tool for a fast identification of tandemly repeated structures in DNA sequences. mreps is able to identify all types of tandem repeats within a single run on a whole genomic sequence. It has a resolution parameter that allows the program to identify ‘fuzzy’ repeats. We introduce main algorithmic solutions behind mreps, describe its usage, give some execution time benchmarks and present several case studies to illustrate its capabilities. The mreps web interface is accessible through http://www.loria.fr/mreps/. PMID:12824391

  1. Efficient continuous dryer for flexible polyurethane foam and cleaning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jody, B.; Daniels, E.; Libera, J.A.

    1999-03-16

    A method of cleaning polyurethane foams where the material is transported through a wash station while alternately soaking the polyurethane foam in an organic solvent and squeezing solvent from the polyurethane foam a number of times. Then the polyurethane foam is sent through a rinse or solvent transfer station for reducing the concentration of solvent in the foam. The rinsed polyurethane foam is sent to a drying station wherein the foam is repeatedly squeezed while being exposed to hot air to remove wet air from the foam. 4 figs.

  2. Efficient continuous dryer for flexible polyurethane foam and cleaning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jody, Bassam; Daniels, Edward; Libera, Joseph A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of cleaning polyurethane foams where the material is transported through a wash station while alternately soaking the polyurethane foam in an organic solvent and squeezing solvent from the polyurethane foam a number of times. Then the polyurethane foam is sent through a rinse or solvent transfer station for reducing the concentration of solvent in the foam. The rinsed polyurethane foam is sent to a drying station wherein the foam is repeatedly squeezed while being exposed to hot air to remove wet air from the foam.

  3. An aeroelastic analysis of a flexible flapping wing using modified strip theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Kwan; Lee, Jun-Seong; Lee, Jin-Young; Han, Jae-Hung

    2008-03-01

    The present study proposed a coupling method for the fluid-structural interaction analysis of a flexible flapping wing. An efficient numerical aerodynamic model was suggested, which was based on the modified strip theory and further improved to take into account a high relative angle of attack and dynamic stall effects induced by pitching and plunging motions. The aerodynamic model was verified with experimental data of rigid wings. A reduced structural model of a rectangular flapping wing was also established by using flexible multibody dynamics and a modal approach technique, so as to consider large flapping motions and local elastic deformations. Then, the aeroelastic analysis method was developed by coupling these aerodynamic and structural modules. To measure the aerodynamic forces of the rectangular flapping wing, static and dynamic tests were performed in a low speed wind-tunnel for various flapping pitch angles, flapping frequencies and the airspeeds. Finally, the aerodynamic forces predicted by the aeroelastic analysis method showed good agreement with the experimental data of the rectangular flapping wing.

  4. Validation Report for the EO-1 Lightweight Flexible Solar Array Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Bernie; Lyons, John; Day, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The controlled deployment of the Lightweight Flexible Solar Array (LFSA) experiment using the shape memory alloy release and deployment system has been demonstrated. Work remains to be done in increasing the efficiency of Copper Indium Diselinide (CIS) terminations to the flexible harness that carries current from the array to the I-V measurement electronics.

  5. Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Aspects in the Control of Flexible Systems, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    Control/Structures Integration program software needs, computer aided control engineering for flexible spacecraft, computer aided design, computational efficiency and capability, modeling and parameter estimation, and control synthesis and optimization software for flexible structures and robots are among the topics discussed.

  6. Highly Flexible Self-Powered Organolead Trihalide Perovskite Photodetectors with Gold Nanowire Networks as Transparent Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bao, Chunxiong; Zhu, Weidong; Yang, Jie; Li, Faming; Gu, Shuai; Wang, Yangrunqian; Yu, Tao; Zhu, Jia; Zhou, Yong; Zou, Zhigang

    2016-09-14

    Organolead trihalide perovskites (OTPs) such as CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) have attracted much attention as the absorbing layer in solar cells and photodetectors (PDs). Flexible OTP devices have also been developed. Transparent electrodes (TEs) with higher conductivity, stability, and flexibility are necessary to improve the performance and flexibility of flexible OTP devices. In this work, patterned Au nanowire (AuNW) networks with high conductivity and stability are prepared and used as TEs in self-powered flexible MAPbI3 PDs. These flexible PDs show peak external quantum efficiency and responsivity of 60% and 321 mA/W, which are comparable to those of MAPbI3 PDs based on ITO TEs. The linear dynamic range and response time of the AuNW-based flexible PDs reach ∼84 dB and ∼4 μs, respectively. Moreover, they show higher flexibility than ITO-based devices, around 90%, and 60% of the initial photocurrent can be retained for the AuNW-based flexible PDs when bent to radii of 2.5 and 1.5 mm. This work suggests a high-performance, highly flexible, and stable TE for OTP flexible devices.

  7. Highly Flexible Self-Powered Organolead Trihalide Perovskite Photodetectors with Gold Nanowire Networks as Transparent Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bao, Chunxiong; Zhu, Weidong; Yang, Jie; Li, Faming; Gu, Shuai; Wang, Yangrunqian; Yu, Tao; Zhu, Jia; Zhou, Yong; Zou, Zhigang

    2016-09-14

    Organolead trihalide perovskites (OTPs) such as CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) have attracted much attention as the absorbing layer in solar cells and photodetectors (PDs). Flexible OTP devices have also been developed. Transparent electrodes (TEs) with higher conductivity, stability, and flexibility are necessary to improve the performance and flexibility of flexible OTP devices. In this work, patterned Au nanowire (AuNW) networks with high conductivity and stability are prepared and used as TEs in self-powered flexible MAPbI3 PDs. These flexible PDs show peak external quantum efficiency and responsivity of 60% and 321 mA/W, which are comparable to those of MAPbI3 PDs based on ITO TEs. The linear dynamic range and response time of the AuNW-based flexible PDs reach ∼84 dB and ∼4 μs, respectively. Moreover, they show higher flexibility than ITO-based devices, around 90%, and 60% of the initial photocurrent can be retained for the AuNW-based flexible PDs when bent to radii of 2.5 and 1.5 mm. This work suggests a high-performance, highly flexible, and stable TE for OTP flexible devices. PMID:27556340

  8. Accounting for the environment.

    PubMed

    Lutz, E; Munasinghe, M

    1991-03-01

    Environmental awareness in the 1980s has led to efforts to improve the current UN System of National Accounts (SNA) for better measurement of the value of environmental resources when estimating income. National governments, the UN, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank are interested in solving this issue. The World Bank relies heavily on national aggregates in income accounts compiled by means of the SNA that was published in 1968 and stressed gross domestic product (GDP). GDP measures mainly market activity, but it takes does not consider the consumption of natural capital, and indirectly inhibits sustained development. The deficiencies of the current method of accounting are inconsistent treatment of manmade and natural capital, the omission of natural resources and their depletion from balance sheets, and pollution cleanup costs from national income. In the calculation of GDP pollution is overlooked, and beneficial environmental inputs are valued at zero. The calculation of environmentally adjusted net domestic product (EDP) and environmentally adjusted net income (ENI) would lower income and growth rate, as the World Resources Institute found with respect to Indonesia for 1971-84. When depreciation for oil, timber, and top soil was included the net domestic product (NDP) was only 4% compared with a 7.1% GDP. The World Bank has advocated environmental accounting since 1983 in SNA revisions. The 1989 revised Blue Book of the SNA takes environment concerns into account. Relevant research is under way in Mexico and Papua New Guinea using the UN Statistical Office framework as a system for environmentally adjusted economic accounts that computes EDP and ENI and integrates environmental data with national accounts while preserving SNA concepts. PMID:12285741

  9. Thinking about Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Accountability is a key component of healthcare reforms, in Canada and internationally, but there is increasing recognition that one size does not fit all. A more nuanced understanding begins with clarifying what is meant by accountability, including specifying for what, by whom, to whom and how. These papers arise from a Partnership for Health System Improvement (PHSI), funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), on approaches to accountability that examined accountability across multiple healthcare subsectors in Ontario. The partnership features collaboration among an interdisciplinary team, working with senior policy makers, to clarify what is known about best practices to achieve accountability under various circumstances. This paper presents our conceptual framework. It examines potential approaches (policy instruments) and postulates that their outcomes may vary by subsector depending upon (a) the policy goals being pursued, (b) governance/ownership structures and relationships and (c) the types of goods and services being delivered, and their production characteristics (e.g., contestability, measurability and complexity). PMID:25305385

  10. Analyses to improve operational flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Trikouros, N.G.

    1986-01-01

    Operational flexibility is greatly enhanced if the technical bases for plant limits and design margins are fully understood, and the analyses necessary to evaluate the effect of plant modifications or changes in operating modes on these parameters can be performed as required. If a condition should arise that might jeopardize a plant limit or reduce operational flexibility, it would be necessary to understand the basis for the limit or the specific condition limiting operational flexibility and be capable of performing a reanalysis to either demonstrate that the limit will not be violated or to change the limit. This paper provides examples of GPU Nuclear efforts in this regard. Examples of Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island operating experiences are discussed.

  11. Meditation, mindfulness and cognitive flexibility.

    PubMed

    Moore, Adam; Malinowski, Peter

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the link between meditation, self-reported mindfulness and cognitive flexibility as well as other attentional functions. It compared a group of meditators experienced in mindfulness meditation with a meditation-naïve control group on measures of Stroop interference and the "d2-concentration and endurance test". Overall the results suggest that attentional performance and cognitive flexibility are positively related to meditation practice and levels of mindfulness. Meditators performed significantly better than non-meditators on all measures of attention. Furthermore, self-reported mindfulness was higher in meditators than non-meditators and correlations with all attention measures were of moderate to high strength. This pattern of results suggests that mindfulness is intimately linked to improvements of attentional functions and cognitive flexibility. The relevance of these findings for mental balance and well-being are discussed.

  12. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Charles F.; Howard, Boyd D.

    1998-01-01

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

  13. Studies Of Residual Flexibility And Vibration Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Admire, John R.; Tinker, Michael L.; Bookout, Paul S.; Ivey, Edward W.

    1995-01-01

    Collection of reports presents theoretical and experimental studies in which concept of residual flexibility applied to modal vibration testing and verification of mathematical models of vibrations of flexible structure constrained by another structure. "Residual flexibility" denotes that part of interface flexibility due to mode shapes out of frequency range of test. Studies directed toward assessing residual-flexibility approach as substitute for fixed-base vibrational testing of payloads installed in spacecraft.

  14. Flexible Dermal Armor in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H.; Mckittrick, Joanna; Meyers, Marc A.

    2012-04-01

    Many animals possess dermal armor, which acts primarily as protection against predators. We illustrate this through examples from both our research and the literature: alligator, fish (alligator gar, arapaima, and Senegal bichir), armadillo, leatherback turtle, and a lizard, the Gila monster. The dermal armor in these animals is flexible and has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining mineralized units (scales, tiles, or plates). This combination significantly increases the strength and flexibility in comparison with a simple monolithic mineral composite or rigid dermal armor. This dermal armor is being studied for future bioinspired armor applications providing increased mobility.

  15. FRP and pipe flexibility analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenman, J.D.

    1999-11-01

    Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) is an excellent material of construction for piping carrying corrosive media. Since FRP is an anisotropic material additional design detail is required to assure safe and reliable service. For this reason the resin selection, material specification, construction and detailed engineering are critical to the success of the project. This paper moves through this engineering process, including resin systems, fitting construction and pipe flexibility analysis. A comparison of fitting construction methods and discussion of stress/flexibility analysis design approaches will also be provided.

  16. Space Station flexible dynamics under plume impingement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor

    1993-01-01

    Assembly of the Space Station requires numerous construction flights by the Space Shuttle. A particularly challenging problem is that of control of each intermediate station configuration when the shuttle orbiter is approaching it to deliver the next component. The necessary braking maneuvers cause orbiter thruster plumes to impinge on the station, especially its solar arrays. This in turn causes both overall attitude errors and excitation of flexible-body vibration modes. These plume loads are predicted to lead to CMG saturation during the approach of the orbiter to the SC-5 station configuration, necessitating the use of the station RCS jets for desaturation. They are also expected to lead to significant excitation of solar array vibrations. It is therefore of great practical importance to investigate the effects of plume loads on the flexible dynamics of station configuration SC-5 as accurately as possible. However, this system possesses a great many flexible modes (89 below 5 rad/s), making analysis time-consuming and complicated. Model reduction techniques can be used to overcome this problem, reducing the system model to one which retains only the significant dynamics, i.e. those which are strongly excited by the control inputs or plume disturbance forces and which strongly couple with the measured outputs. The particular technique to be used in this study is the subsystem balancing approach which was previously developed by the present investigator. This method is very efficient computationally. Furthermore, it gives accurate results even for the difficult case where the structure has many closed-spaced natural frequencies, when standard modal truncation can give misleading results. Station configuration SC-5 is a good example of such a structure.

  17. Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Aspects in the Control of Flexible Systems, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    The Control/Structures Integration Program, a survey of available software for control of flexible structures, computational efficiency and capability, modeling and parameter estimation, and control synthesis and optimization software are discussed.

  18. Fuel Flexibility in Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, M.C.; O'Dowd, W.J.; Mathur, M.P.; Walbert, G.F.

    2001-11-06

    This poster presents research findings from cofiring studies of various biomass feedstocks such as pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote-treated wood, lumber mill and furniture waste sawdusts, pallets, feedlot biomass (cattle manure), hybrid willow, and switchgrass with several bituminous and subbituminous coals. This research includes evaluation of advanced instrumentation and the study of interrelated combustion/emissions issues, such as char burnout, impacts on SO2, NOx, fine particulate (PM2.5), mercury (Hg) and other trace emissions, as well as issues impacting heat transfer, such as ash deposition slagging/fouling behavior. Biomass cofiring in large industrial and utility coal-fired boilers is a practical approach for increasing renewable energy given the wide availability, capital investment, and established performance of coal-fired boilers for providing efficient, low cost power. Although some utility biomass cofiring is successfully practiced in the U.S. and abroad, establishing long-term reliability and improving economics are still significant needs, along with research to support advanced combustion in future Vision 21 systems. Biomass cofiring in Vision 21 systems may reduce fossil CO2 emissions per MWe at capital and operations/maintenance cost savings relative to other technology options. Because an increasing number (currently 14) states have recently passed legislation establishing renewable portfolio standards (RPS), goals, or set-asides that will impact new power generation by 2009 and beyond, cofiring may broaden the appeal of Vision 21 systems to solve other environmental issues, including reducing landfill requirements. Legislation has been proposed to establish a federal RPS as well as extend IRS Section 29/45 tax credits (e.g., $0.005-0.010/kW-hr) for cofiring residues to supplement existing incentives, such as a $0.015/kW-hr tax credit for closed loop biomass (e.g., energy crops, such as switchgrass, hybrid willow) gasification. In addition

  19. 17 CFR 17.01 - Identification of special accounts, volume threshold accounts, and omnibus accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accounts, volume threshold accounts, and omnibus accounts. 17.01 Section 17.01 Commodity and Securities..., CLEARING MEMBERS, AND FOREIGN BROKERS § 17.01 Identification of special accounts, volume threshold accounts... in § 17.02(b). (b) Identification of volume threshold accounts. Each clearing member shall...

  20. A Pariah Profession? Some Student Perceptions of Accounting and Accountancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Roy; Murphy, Vivienne

    1995-01-01

    Existing literature and a survey of 106 undergraduate accounting students in the United Kingdom were analyzed for perceptions of the accounting profession and the academic discipline of accounting. Results suggest that among accounting and nonaccounting students alike, there exist coexisting perceptions of accounting as having high status and low…

  1. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Account 232, Accounts... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2320 Account 232,...

  2. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 232, Accounts... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2320 Account 232,...

  3. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 232, Accounts... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2320 Account 232,...

  4. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 232, Accounts... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2320 Account 232,...

  5. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Account 232, Accounts... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2320 Account 232,...

  6. Excel in the Accounting Curriculum: Perceptions from Accounting Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandran Rackliffe, Usha; Ragland, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Public accounting firms emphasize the importance of accounting graduates being proficient in Excel. Since many accounting graduates often aspire to work in public accounting, a question arises as to whether there should be an emphasis on Excel in accounting education. The purpose of this paper is to specifically look at this issue by examining…

  7. Fuel Flexibility in Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    McLendon, T. Robert; Pineault, Richard L.; Richardson, Steven W.; Rockey, John M.; Beer, Stephen K.; Lui, Alain P.; Batton, William A.

    2001-11-06

    In order to increase efficiencies of carbonizers, operation at high pressures is needed. In addition, waste biomass fuels of opportunity can be used to offset fossil fuel use. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Fluidized Bed Gasifier/Combustor (FBG/C) was used to gasify coal and mixtures of coal and biomass (sawdust) at 425 psig. The purpose of the testing program was to generate steady state operating data for modeling efforts of carbonizers. A test program was completed with a matrix of parameters varied one at a time in order to avoid second order interactions. Variables were: coal feed rate, pressure, and varying mixtures of sawdust and coal types. Coal types were Montana Rosebud subbituminous and Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous. The sawdust was sanding waste from a furniture manufacturer in upstate New York. Coal was sieved from -14 to +60 mesh and sawdust was sieved to -14 mesh. The FBG/C operates at a nominal 425 psig, but pressures can be lowered. For the tests reported it was operated as a jetting, fluidized bed, ash-agglomerating gasifier. Preheated air and steam are injected into the center of the bottom along with the solid feed that is conveyed with cool air. Fairly stable reactor internal flow patterns develop and temperatures stabilize (with some fluctuations) when steady state is reached. At nominal conditions the solids residence time in the reactor is on the order of 1.5 to 2 hours, so changes in feed types can require on the order of hours to equilibrate. Changes in operating conditions (e.g. feed rate) usually require much less time. The operating periods of interest for these tests were only the steady state periods, so transient conditions were not monitored as closely. The test matrix first established a base case of operations to which single parameter changes in conditions could be compared. The base case used Montana Rosebud at a coal feed rate of 70 lbm/hr at 425 psig. The coal sawdust mixtures are reported as percent by weight

  8. A Novel Flexible Virtual Fixtures for Teleoperation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed a novel spatial-motion-constraints virtual fixtures (VFs) method for the human-machine interface collaborative technique. In our method, two 3D flexible VFs have been presented: warning pipe and safe pipe. And a potential-collision-detection method based on two flexible VFs has been proposed. The safe pipe constructs the safe workspace dynamically for the robot, which makes it possible to detect the potential collision between the robot and the obstacles. By calculating the speed and the acceleration of the robot end-effecter (EE), the warning pipe can adjust its radius to detect the deviation from the EE to the reference path. These spatial constraints serve as constraint conditions for constrained robot control. The approach enables multiobstacle manipulation task of telerobot in precise interactive teleoperation environment. We illustrate our approach on a teleoperative manipulation task and analyze the performance results. The performance-comparison experimental results demonstrate that the control mode employing our method can assist the operator more precisely in teleoperative tasks. Due to the properties such as collision avoidance and safety, operators can complete the tasks more efficiently along with reduction in operating tension. PMID:24693252

  9. A flexible nurse scheduling support system.

    PubMed

    Ozkarahan, I

    1989-01-01

    Salaries paid to nursing personnel constitute the largest chunk of a hospital's budget. Therefore, this human resource must be utilized efficiently. Hospitals provide continuous service without the exception of holidays and personal preferences. This causes the nurses' discontent in shift scheduling. And the consequence of this discontent is the nurse shortage. This and the pressures on hospitals to limit costs increase the importance of the nurse scheduling problem. Scheduling nursing personnel in hospitals is very complex due to the variety of conflicting interests or objectives between hospitals and nurses. Also, the demand, which varies widely 24-h a day 7-day a week is skill specific and hard to forecast. In the face of this complexity, the present nurse scheduling models have met with little success. In this paper, we propose a more flexible decision support system that will satisfy the interests of both hospitals and nurses through alternative models that attempt to accommodate flexible work patterns as it integrates time of the day (TOD) and day of the week (DOW) scheduling problems. PMID:2582748

  10. A novel flexible virtual fixtures for teleoperation.

    PubMed

    Du, Guanglong; Zhang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed a novel spatial-motion-constraints virtual fixtures (VFs) method for the human-machine interface collaborative technique. In our method, two 3D flexible VFs have been presented: warning pipe and safe pipe. And a potential-collision-detection method based on two flexible VFs has been proposed. The safe pipe constructs the safe workspace dynamically for the robot, which makes it possible to detect the potential collision between the robot and the obstacles. By calculating the speed and the acceleration of the robot end-effecter (EE), the warning pipe can adjust its radius to detect the deviation from the EE to the reference path. These spatial constraints serve as constraint conditions for constrained robot control. The approach enables multiobstacle manipulation task of telerobot in precise interactive teleoperation environment. We illustrate our approach on a teleoperative manipulation task and analyze the performance results. The performance-comparison experimental results demonstrate that the control mode employing our method can assist the operator more precisely in teleoperative tasks. Due to the properties such as collision avoidance and safety, operators can complete the tasks more efficiently along with reduction in operating tension.

  11. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  12. Flexible ultrasonic transducers incorporating piezoelectric fibres.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Gerald; Gachagan, Anthony; Mackersie, John W; McCunnie, Thomas; Banks, Robert

    2009-09-01

    It is possible to produce a high-performance, flexible 1-3 connectivity piezoelectric ceramic composite with conventional methods but the process is difficult and time-consuming. Extensive finite element modeling was used to design a piezocomposite structure which incorporated randomly positioned piezoceramic fibers in a polymer matrix. Simple manufacturing techniques were developed which resulted in the production of large numbers of fully populated fiber composites that offered performance comparable with a conventional 1-3 piezocomposite. A modified process facilitated the production of efficient fiber piezocomposite elements separated by polymer channels which conformed to a highly flexible (13 mm radius of curvature), 2-D matrix array configuration. This arrangement has been termed a Composite Element Composite Array Transducer, or CECAT. These devices were evaluated in terms of their impedance spectra, pulse-echo response, and surface displacement characteristics. The random piezoceramic fiber arrangements showed comparable sensitivity and bandwidth to periodic devices while minimizing the parasitic interpillar modes associated with periodic structures. Investigations have indicated that CECAT arrays constructed with 250 microm diameter fibers can be operated at frequencies of up to 3 MHz and transducers incorporating 10 microm diameter fibers can extend the frequency range above 6 MHz. Conversely, improved low-frequency devices can be produced with taller pillars than possible with conventional manufacturing techniques. PMID:19812003

  13. Flexible Composite-Material Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Glen; Haggard, Roy; Harris, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    A proposed lightweight pressure vessel would be made of a composite of high-tenacity continuous fibers and a flexible matrix material. The flexibility of this pressure vessel would render it (1) compactly stowable for transport and (2) more able to withstand impacts, relative to lightweight pressure vessels made of rigid composite materials. The vessel would be designed as a structural shell wherein the fibers would be predominantly bias-oriented, the orientations being optimized to make the fibers bear the tensile loads in the structure. Such efficient use of tension-bearing fibers would minimize or eliminate the need for stitching and fill (weft) fibers for strength. The vessel could be fabricated by techniques adapted from filament winding of prior composite-material vessels, perhaps in conjunction with the use of dry film adhesives. In addition to the high-bias main-body substructure described above, the vessel would include a low-bias end substructure to complete coverage and react peak loads. Axial elements would be overlaid to contain damage and to control fiber orientation around side openings. Fiber ring structures would be used as interfaces for connection to ancillary hardware.

  14. STAR facility tritium accountancy

    SciTech Connect

    Pawelko, R. J.; Sharpe, J. P.; Denny, B. J.

    2008-07-15

    The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility has been established to provide a laboratory infrastructure for the fusion community to study tritium science associated with the development of safe fusion energy and other technologies. STAR is a radiological facility with an administrative total tritium inventory limit of 1.5 g (14,429 Ci) [1]. Research studies with moderate tritium quantities and various radionuclides are performed in STAR. Successful operation of the STAR facility requires the ability to receive, inventory, store, dispense tritium to experiments, and to dispose of tritiated waste while accurately monitoring the tritium inventory in the facility. This paper describes tritium accountancy in the STAR facility. A primary accountancy instrument is the tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS): a system designed to receive, assay, store, and dispense tritium to experiments. Presented are the methods used to calibrate and operate the SAS. Accountancy processes utilizing the Tritium Cleanup System (TCS), and the Stack Tritium Monitoring System (STMS) are also discussed. Also presented are the equations used to quantify the amount of tritium being received into the facility, transferred to experiments, and removed from the facility. Finally, the STAR tritium accountability database is discussed. (authors)

  15. STAR Facility Tritium Accountancy

    SciTech Connect

    R. J. Pawelko; J. P. Sharpe; B. J. Denny

    2007-09-01

    The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility has been established to provide a laboratory infrastructure for the fusion community to study tritium science associated with the development of safe fusion energy and other technologies. STAR is a radiological facility with an administrative total tritium inventory limit of 1.5g (14,429 Ci) [1]. Research studies with moderate tritium quantities and various radionuclides are performed in STAR. Successful operation of the STAR facility requires the ability to receive, inventory, store, dispense tritium to experiments, and to dispose of tritiated waste while accurately monitoring the tritium inventory in the facility. This paper describes tritium accountancy in the STAR facility. A primary accountancy instrument is the tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS): a system designed to receive, assay, store, and dispense tritium to experiments. Presented are the methods used to calibrate and operate the SAS. Accountancy processes utilizing the Tritium Cleanup System (TCS), and the Stack Tritium Monitoring System (STMS) are also discussed. Also presented are the equations used to quantify the amount of tritium being received into the facility, transferred to experiments, and removed from the facility. Finally, the STAR tritium accountability database is discussed.

  16. Planning for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuneo, Tim; Bell, Shareen; Welsh-Gray, Carol

    1999-01-01

    Through its Challenge 2000 program, Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network's 21st Century Education Initiative has been working with K-12 schools to improve student performance in literature, math, and science. Clearly stated standards, appropriate assessments, formal monitoring, critical friends, and systemwide accountability are keys to success.…

  17. Student Attendance Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitas, Joseph M.

    In response to state legislation authorizing procedures for changes in academic calendars and measurement of student workload in California community colleges, this manual from the Chancellor's Office provides guidelines for student attendance accounting. Chapter 1 explains general items such as the academic calendar, admissions policies, student…

  18. Accountability for Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Productivity gains in higher education won't be made just by improving cost effectiveness or even performance. They need to be documented, communicated, and integrated into a strategic agenda to increase attainment. This requires special attention to "accountability" for productivity, meaning public presentation and communication of evidence about…

  19. The Accountability Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, John; Dahlin, Michael; Xiang, Yun; McCahon, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states have leeway to: (1) Craft their own academic standards, select their own tests, and define…

  20. Accounting for What Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joseph O.; Ferran, Joan E.; Martin, Katharine Y.

    2003-01-01

    No Child Left Behind legislation makes it clear that outside evaluators determine what gets taught in the classroom. It is important to ensure they measure what truly counts in school. This fact is poignantly and sadly true for the under funded, poorly resourced, "low performing" schools that may be hammered by administration accountants in the…

  1. Professional Capital as Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael; Rincón-Gallardo, Santiago; Hargreaves, Andy

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to clarify and spells out the responsibilities of policy makers to create the conditions for an effective accountability system that produces substantial improvements in student learning, strengthens the teaching profession, and provides transparency of results to the public. The authors point out that U.S. policy makers will need…

  2. Accountability: A Rationale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brademas, John

    1974-01-01

    The idea of accountability has by now been interpreted in ways which are different enough from one another to have permitted a certain ambiguity to creep into the notion in its present use within the educational community. The principal purpose of this report is, therefore, to try to set forth some clearer statement of what the idea of…

  3. Fiscal Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Housing and Community Development, Sacramento. Indian Assistance Program.

    Written in simple, easy to understand form, the manual provides a vehicle for the untrained person in bookkeeping to control funds received from grants for Indian Tribal Councils and Indian organizations. The method used to control grants (federal, state, or private) is fund accounting, designed to organize rendering services on a non-profit…

  4. Curtail Accountability, Cultivate Attainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wraga, William G.

    2011-01-01

    The current test-driven accountability movement, codified in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 ([NCLB] 2002), was a misguided idea that will have the effect not of improving the education of children and youth, but of indicting the public school system of the United States. To improve education in the United States, politicians, policy makers,…

  5. Legal responsibility and accountability.

    PubMed

    Cox, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Shifting boundaries in healthcare roles have led to anxiety among some nurses about their legal responsibilities and accountabilities. This is partly because of a lack of education about legal principles that underpin healthcare delivery. This article explains the law in terms of standards of care, duty of care, vicarious liability and indemnity insurance.

  6. Accounting 202, 302.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide consists of guidelines for conducting two secondary-level introductory accounting courses. Intended for vocational business education students, the courses are designed to introduce financial principles and practices important to personal and business life, to promote development of clerical and bookkeeping skills sufficient…

  7. Democracy, Accountability, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Meira

    2011-01-01

    Educational standards, assessments, and accountability systems are of immense political moment around the world. But there is no developed theory exploring the role that these systems should play within a democratic polity in particular. On the one hand, well-designed standards are public goods, supported by assessment and accountability…

  8. Educational Accounting Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Sam B.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" reviews the functions, procedures, and reports with which school business officials must be familiar in order to interpret and make decisions regarding the school district's financial position. Among the accounting functions discussed are financial management, internal auditing, annual…

  9. CEBAF beam loss accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Ursic, R.; Mahoney, K.; Hovater, C.; Hutton, A.; Sinclair, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a beam loss accounting system for the CEBAF electron accelerator. This system samples the beam curent throughout the beam path and measures the beam current accurately. Personnel Safety and Machine Protection systems use this system to turn off the beam when hazardous beam losses occur.

  10. A salamander's flexible spinal network for locomotion, modeled at two levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Knüsel, Jeremie; Bicanski, Andrej; Ryczko, Dimitri; Cabelguen, Jean-Marie; Ijspeert, Auke Jan

    2013-08-01

    Animals have to coordinate a large number of muscles in different ways to efficiently move at various speeds and in different and complex environments. This coordination is in large part based on central pattern generators (CPGs). These neural networks are capable of producing complex rhythmic patterns when activated and modulated by relatively simple control signals. Although the generation of particular gaits by CPGs has been successfully modeled at many levels of abstraction, the principles underlying the generation and selection of a diversity of patterns of coordination in a single neural network are still not well understood. The present work specifically addresses the flexibility of the spinal locomotor networks in salamanders. We compare an abstract oscillator model and a CPG network composed of integrate-and-fire neurons, according to their ability to account for different axial patterns of coordination, and in particular the transition in gait between swimming and stepping modes. The topology of the network is inspired by models of the lamprey CPG, complemented by additions based on experimental data from isolated spinal cords of salamanders. Oscillatory centers of the limbs are included in a way that preserves the flexibility of the axial network. Similarly to the selection of forward and backward swimming in lamprey models via different excitation to the first axial segment, we can account for the modification of the axial coordination pattern between swimming and forward stepping on land in the salamander model, via different uncoupled frequencies in limb versus axial oscillators (for the same level of excitation). These results transfer partially to a more realistic model based on formal spiking neurons, and we discuss the difference between the abstract oscillator model and the model built with formal spiking neurons.

  11. Flexible Diaphragm Withstands Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerma, G.

    1986-01-01

    Diaphragm seal retains flexibility throughout temperature range of -200 to +600 degree F (-129 to +316 degree C). Diaphragm durable, simple, versatile, and relatively inexpensive to manufacture. Suitable for refrigeration seals, autoclaves, storage lockers, and other sealing applications subjected to extreme temperature differentials.

  12. Pipelined Flexible Krylov Subspace Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanan, Patrick; Schnepp, Sascha M.; May, Dave A.

    2015-04-01

    State-of-the-art geophysical forward models expend most of their computational resources solving large, sparse linear systems. To date, preconditioned Krylov subspace methods have proven to be the only algorithmically scalable approach to solving these systems. However, at `extreme scale', the global reductions required by the inner products within these algorithms become a computational bottleneck, and it becomes advantageous to use pipelined Krylov subspace methods. These allow overlap of global reductions with other work, at the expense of using more storage and local computational effort, including overhead required to synchronize overlapping work. An impediment to using currently-available pipelined solvers for relevant geophysical forward modeling is that they are not `flexible', meaning that they cannot support nonlinear or varying preconditioners. Such preconditioners are effective for solving challenging linear systems, notably those arising from modelling of Stokes flow with highly heterogeneous viscosity structure. To this end, we introduce, for the first time, Krylov subspace methods which are both pipelined and flexible. We implement and demonstrate pipelined, flexible Conjugate Gradient, GMRES, and Conjugate Residual methods, which will be made publicly available via the open source PETSc library. Our algorithms are nontrivial modifications of the flexible methods they are based on (that is, they are not equivalent in exact arithmetic), so we analyze them mathematically and through a number of numerical experiments employing multi-level preconditioners. We highlight the benefits of these algorithms by solving variable viscosity Stokes problems directly relevant to lithospheric dynamics.

  13. Flexible Learning: A Luddite View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggaley, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects on the flexible learning concept through the eyes of the 19th-century industrial activists known as the Luddites. During a period of economic uncertainty, the Luddite perspective provides a sensitive justification for a change-free educational environment, and for a backlash in favour of "inflexible learning" (IL). The…

  14. Exploring Quadrilaterals through Flexible Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Kerri; Reynolds, Anne; Schwartz, Catherine S.

    2012-01-01

    The quadrilaterals problem is a particularly rich task, applicable to in-service teachers as well as to the students they teach. The ways in which students engage in this task, the strategies they use, and the mathematics that results align well with this "MT" Focus Issue on flexible mathematical thinking. The authors offer their observations of…

  15. Promoting Flexibility in Male Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Charles D., Comp.; Linn, Eleanor, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    In this publication issues are discussed which pertain to male roles and fatherhood. "From the Desk of the Director" (Charles D. Moody, Sr.) discusses the need for increased role flexibility for men in general and black men in particular. The lead article, "Equity: A Question in Balance" (D. Groves Dugger), delves into the causes and consequences…

  16. Flexibility in Language and Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Mahesh

    2011-01-01

    Many words can be used flexibly: a book can be physically heavy, but also have provocative content, a "chicken" might live in a coop, but could also be tasty to eat. What do the uses of "polysemous" words such as these reveal about the structure of language and thought? Paper 1 examined 4-year-old children's representations of polysemous words…

  17. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

  18. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  19. Flexible Metal-Fabric Radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Cynthia; Nguyen, Hai D.; Ruemmele, Warren; Andish, Kambiz K.; McCalley, Sean

    2005-01-01

    Flexible metal-fabric radiators have been considered as alternative means of dissipating excess heat from spacecraft and space suits. The radiators also may be useful in such special terrestrial applications as rejecting heat from space-suit-like protective suits worn in hot work environments. In addition to flexibility and consequent ease of deployment and installation on objects of varying sizes and shapes, the main advantages of these radiators over conventional rigid radiators are that they weigh less and occupy less volume for a given amount of cooling capacity. A radiator of this type includes conventional stainless-steel tubes carrying a coolant fluid. The main radiating component consists of a fabric of interwoven aluminum-foil strips bonded to the tubes by use of a proprietary process. The strip/tube bonds are strong and highly thermally conductive. Coolant is fed to and from the tubes via flexible stainless-steel manifolds designed to accommodate flexing of, and minimize bending forces on, the fabric. The manifolds are sized to minimize pressure drops and distribute the flow of coolant evenly to all the tubes. The tubes and manifolds are configured in two independent flow loops for operational flexibility and protective redundancy.

  20. Flexible separator for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Device is fabricated from low-cost readily-available commercial-materials by automated methods utilizing conventional paper coating processes. Flexibility of unit prevents cracking and disintegration caused by electrode warpage and dendrite growth, major causes of early battery failure with present separators.

  1. Flexible radiator system: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. R.; Cox, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A full scale prototype flexible radiator panel was designed, built and tested. The panel, has approximately 173 sq ft of radiating area and is designed to reject 1.33 kW of heat to a 0 F sink with a 100 F fluid inlet. The panel is constructed from a flexible Teflon/silver mesh fin surrounding 1/8 inch Teflon tubes. The prototype panel is stowed on a 10 inch diameter by 4 foot wide drum. (It rolls up to a diameter of 17 inches when fully stowed). Deployment of the soft tube prototype is via two four inch diameter Kevlar/Mylar inflation tubes with flat springs incorporated in each tube. Nitrogen is normally used for the deployment with approximately 1 psi required. The springs retract the panels when the inflation tubes are deflated. Another method of deployment available for the soft tube flexible is a motor driven deployable boom. This eliminates the need for expendables when the panel area is varied during the mission for heat load control. The soft tube panel is designed for a 90% probability of no punctured tube in a 30 day mission. The acceptable working fluids for this soft tube flexible are Coolanol 15, Coolanol 20 and Glycol/water (a eutectic mixture).

  2. Flexible Work Schedules. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Flexible work schedules are one response to changes in the composition of the work force, new life-styles, and changes in work attitudes. Types of alternative work schedules are part-time and temporary employment, job sharing, and flextime. Part-time workers are a diverse group--women, the very young, and older near-retirees. Although part-time…

  3. Flexible hose for liquefied gases

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, H.B.

    1984-05-01

    Flexible hose for liquefied gases, comprising a tubular body of biaxially oriented polypropylene film (2) arranged between an inner helically wound wire (3) and an outer helically wound wire (4), said wires being wound at the same pitch but having the windings displaced by half a pitch width from each other.

  4. Flexible substrate for printed wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asakura, M.; Yabe, K.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, A.

    1982-01-01

    A very flexible substrate for printed wiring is disclosed which is composed of a blend of phenoxy resin-polyisocyanate-brominated epoxy resin in which the equivalent ration of the functional groups is hydroxyl grouped: isocyanate group: epoxy group = 1:0.2 to 2:0.5 to 3. The product has outstanding solder resistance and is applied to metal without using adhesives.

  5. Flexible Systems Invade the Factory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnucan, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) are systems that can be programed to alter their procedures to suit varying production requirements. Use of and trends related to these systems in the United States and foreign countries are discussed. A detailed diagram of a hypothetical FMS is provided. (JN)

  6. PNF and Other Flexibility Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, William L.

    Effective flexibility procedures are one of the essential tools by which excellence can be attained. Although stretching exercises provide obvious benefits, negative outcomes can result unless effective stretching procedures are incoroporated. Characteristics of effective stretching include warmup before stretching, stretch before and after…

  7. Flexible Space Takes Center Stage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Lisa M.

    1997-01-01

    Design flexibility allows a new auditorium at an Illinois high school to be three theaters in one. While the large auditorium supports 1,200 seats, two rotating platforms can divide the large space into a 240-seat small theater and a 240-seat recital hall, leaving a 720-seat auditorium in the center. (MLF)

  8. Adaptive Control For Flexible Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Ih, Che-Hang Charles; Wang, Shyh Jong

    1988-01-01

    Paper discusses ways to cope with measurement noise in adaptive control system for large, flexible structure in outer space. System generates control signals for torque and thrust actuators to turn all or parts of structure to desired orientations while suppressing torsional and other vibrations. Main result of paper is general theory for introduction of filters to suppress measurement noise while preserving stability.

  9. Flexible healthcare structures: analysis and evaluation of possible strategies and technologies.

    PubMed

    Buffoli, M; Nachiero, D; Capolongo, S

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals are complex buildings because of their articulation, function, organization and technology equipment. Planning hospitals needs an interdisciplinary approach in order to organize efficiently the construction of qualitative and flexible units, that must be able to answer to all the requirements of different users and to the fast changes due to the research innovations. Human and care activities have a rapid progress, that creates a constant demand of modernizations of the hospitals and readjustment of the functional connections. Flexibility becomes the core of all the modifications depending on the progress of the medical science. The future challenge is to build structures that promote sustainable flexibility and also allow to achieve wellness in a synergic relation with complementary external activities. Therefore the research aims to identify lay-out models, technical and constructive solutions to guarantee different levels of flexibility. The research was made of different stages to define flexibility inside healthcare structures using strategies and technologies. The first step has followed the evolution of hospital structures during the centuries. It illustrates the most efficient methods and solutions used in last fifty years to achieve the flexibility. The second step was the analysis of the most important contemporaries healthcare structures. In that analysis, the hospitals will be compared through an evaluation matrix made by diferent flexibility levels that underlines the most efficient technologies and strategies used. At the end it was made a list of design indications focused on the definition of a new design approach that guarantees flexibility for these complex systems. PMID:23234192

  10. Flexible healthcare structures: analysis and evaluation of possible strategies and technologies.

    PubMed

    Buffoli, M; Nachiero, D; Capolongo, S

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals are complex buildings because of their articulation, function, organization and technology equipment. Planning hospitals needs an interdisciplinary approach in order to organize efficiently the construction of qualitative and flexible units, that must be able to answer to all the requirements of different users and to the fast changes due to the research innovations. Human and care activities have a rapid progress, that creates a constant demand of modernizations of the hospitals and readjustment of the functional connections. Flexibility becomes the core of all the modifications depending on the progress of the medical science. The future challenge is to build structures that promote sustainable flexibility and also allow to achieve wellness in a synergic relation with complementary external activities. Therefore the research aims to identify lay-out models, technical and constructive solutions to guarantee different levels of flexibility. The research was made of different stages to define flexibility inside healthcare structures using strategies and technologies. The first step has followed the evolution of hospital structures during the centuries. It illustrates the most efficient methods and solutions used in last fifty years to achieve the flexibility. The second step was the analysis of the most important contemporaries healthcare structures. In that analysis, the hospitals will be compared through an evaluation matrix made by diferent flexibility levels that underlines the most efficient technologies and strategies used. At the end it was made a list of design indications focused on the definition of a new design approach that guarantees flexibility for these complex systems.

  11. MATERIAL CONTROL ACCOUNTING INMM

    SciTech Connect

    Hasty, T.

    2009-06-14

    Since 1996, the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC - formerly known as K-26), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have been cooperating under the cooperative Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program between the Russian Federation and the U.S. Governments. Since MCC continues to operate a reactor for steam and electricity production for the site and city of Zheleznogorsk which results in production of the weapons grade plutonium, one of the goals of the MPC&A program is to support implementation of an expanded comprehensive nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) program. To date MCC has completed upgrades identified in the initial gap analysis and documented in the site MC&A Plan and is implementing additional upgrades identified during an update to the gap analysis. The scope of these upgrades includes implementation of MCC organization structure relating to MC&A, establishing material balance area structure for special nuclear materials (SNM) storage and bulk processing areas, and material control functions including SNM portal monitors at target locations. Material accounting function upgrades include enhancements in the conduct of physical inventories, limit of error inventory difference procedure enhancements, implementation of basic computerized accounting system for four SNM storage areas, implementation of measurement equipment for improved accountability reporting, and both new and revised site-level MC&A procedures. This paper will discuss the implementation of MC&A upgrades at MCC based on the requirements established in the comprehensive MC&A plan developed by the Mining and Chemical Combine as part of the MPC&A Program.

  12. Multilingual Services Accounting Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Foxx, Virginia [R-NC-5

    2011-05-04

    05/13/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Organization, Efficiency, and Financial Management . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Mounting for diodes provides efficient heat sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Efficient heat sink is provided by soldering diodes to metal support bars which are brazed to a ceramic base. Electrical connections between diodes on adjacent bars are made flexible by metal strips which aid in heat dissipation.

  14. Multi Band Gap High Efficiency Converter (RAINBOW)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, I.; Lewis, C.; Phillips, W.; Shields, V.; Stella, P.

    1997-01-01

    The RAINBOW multi band gap system represents a unique combination of solar cells, concentrators and beam splitters. RAINBOW is a flexible system which can readily expand as new high efficiency components are developed.

  15. Efficient flapping flight of pterosaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strang, Karl Axel

    the membrane subject to glide loads and pretension from the wing joint positions. The flapping gait is optimized in a two-stage procedure. First the design space is explored using a binary genetic algorithm. The best design points are then used as starting points in a sequential quadratic programming optimization algorithm. This algorithm is used to refine the solutions by precisely satisfying the constraints. The refined solutions are found in generally less than twenty major iterations and constraints are violated generally by less than 0.1%. We find that the optimal motions are in agreement with previous results for simple wing motions. By adding joint motions, the required flapping power is reduced by 7% to 17%. Because of the large uncertainties for some estimates, we investigate the sensitivity of the optimized flapping gait. We find that the optimal motions are sensitive mainly to flight speed, body accelerations, and to the material properties of the wing membrane. The optimal flight speed found correlates well with other studies of pterosaur flapping flight, and is 31% to 37% faster than previous estimates based on glide performance. Accounting for the body accelerations yields an increase of 10% to 16% in required flapping power. When including the aeroelastic effects, the optimal flapping gait is only slightly modified to accommodate for the deflections of stiff membranes. For a flexible membrane, the motion is significantly modified and the power increased by up to 57%. Finally, the flapping gait and required power compare well with published results for similar wing motions. Some published estimates of required power assumed a propulsive efficiency of 100%, whereas the propulsive efficiency computed for Coloborhynchus robustus ranges between 54% and 87%.

  16. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of flexible multibody systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauchau, Olivier A.; Kang, Nam Kook

    1991-01-01

    Two approaches are developed to analyze the dynamic behavior of flexible multibody systems. In the first approach each body is modeled with a modal methodology in a local non-inertial frame of reference, whereas in the second approach, each body is modeled with a finite element methodology in the inertial frame. In both cases, the interaction among the various elastic bodies is represented by constraint equations. The two approaches were compared for accuracy and efficiency: the first approach is preferable when the nonlinearities are not too strong but it becomes cumbersome and expensive to use when many modes must be used. The second approach is more general and easier to implement but could result in high computation costs for a large system. The constraints should be enforced in a time derivative fashion for better accuracy and stability.

  17. Status of flexible CIS research at ISET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basol, B. M.; Kapur, V. K.; Minnick, A.; Halani, A.; Leidholm, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin film solar cells fabricated on light-weight, flexible substrates are very attractive for space applications. In this work CulnSe2 (CIS) based thin film devices were processed on metallic foil substrates using the selenization technique. CIS deposition method involved reaction of electron-bean evaporated Cu-In precursor layers with a selenizing atmosphere at around 400 C. Several metallic foils such as Mo, Ti, Al, Ni, and Cu were evaluated as possible substrates for these devices. Solar cells with AM1.5 efficiencies of 9.0-9.34 percent and good mechanical integrity were demonstrated on Mo and Ti foils. Monolithic integration of these devices was also demonstrated up to 4 in x 4 in size.

  18. Deceit: A flexible distributed file system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Alex; Birman, Kenneth; Marzullo, Keith

    1989-01-01

    Deceit, a distributed file system (DFS) being developed at Cornell, focuses on flexible file semantics in relation to efficiency, scalability, and reliability. Deceit servers are interchangeable and collectively provide the illusion of a single, large server machine to any clients of the Deceit service. Non-volatile replicas of each file are stored on a subset of the file servers. The user is able to set parameters on a file to achieve different levels of availability, performance, and one-copy serializability. Deceit also supports a file version control mechanism. In contrast with many recent DFS efforts, Deceit can behave like a plain Sun Network File System (NFS) server and can be used by any NFS client without modifying any client software. The current Deceit prototype uses the ISIS Distributed Programming Environment for all communication and process group management, an approach that reduces system complexity and increases system robustness.

  19. Flexible Residential Smart Grid Simulation Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Wang

    Different scheduling and coordination algorithms controlling household appliances' operations can potentially lead to energy consumption reduction and/or load balancing in conjunction with different electricity pricing methods used in smart grid programs. In order to easily implement different algorithms and evaluate their efficiency against other ideas, a flexible simulation framework is desirable in both research and business fields. However, such a platform is currently lacking or underdeveloped. In this thesis, we provide a simulation framework to focus on demand side residential energy consumption coordination in response to different pricing methods. This simulation framework, equipped with an appliance consumption library using realistic values, aims to closely represent the average usage of different types of appliances. The simulation results of traditional usage yield close matching values compared to surveyed real life consumption records. Several sample coordination algorithms, pricing schemes, and communication scenarios are also implemented to illustrate the use of the simulation framework.

  20. Cost Accounting: Production and Equipment Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, William T.

    Cost accounting for audiovisual productions should include direct costs, and, in some cases, the media administrator may have to calculate a per-hour surcharge for general operating overhead as well. Such procedures enable the administrator to determine cost effectiveness, to control cost overruns, and to generate more staff efficiency. Cost…

  1. Holding Students Accountable in Team Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an efficient peer evaluation process that can be implemented at the middle and high school levels, and that holds students accountable for their individual contributions in a team-based project. Teachers faced with this challenge will welcome the web-based peer-evaluation interface that was capable of soliciting student…

  2. 16 Steps to Student & Program Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Gary

    The accountability model presented in this report was developed by the Student Support Services staff of Gavilan College (GC) to help meet public demands for learner success, to increase efficiency, and to promote a proactive mode of delivering student support services. Introductory material traces the development of the model and discusses the…

  3. Energy accounting of apple processing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, R.; Singh, R.P.; Brown, D.

    1981-01-01

    A thermal-energy accounting study was conducted at an apple processing plant. An analysis is given of thermal energy use and thermal efficiencies of an apple-juice single-effect evaporator and an apple-sauce cooker. 3 refs.

  4. Iowa Community Colleges Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Community Colleges and Workforce Preparation.

    This document describes account classifications and definitions for the accounting system of the Iowa community colleges. In view of the objectives of the accounting system, it is necessary to segregate the assets of the community college according to its source and intended use. Additionally, the accounting system should provide for accounting by…

  5. Flexible and fluorophore-doped luminescent solar concentrators based on polydimethylsiloxane.

    PubMed

    Tummeltshammer, Clemens; Taylor, Alaric; Kenyon, Anthony J; Papakonstantinou, Ioannis

    2016-02-15

    We demonstrate a simple and inexpensive method to fabricate flexible and fluorophore-doped luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs). Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) serves as a host material which additionally offers the potential to cast LSCs in arbitrary shapes. The laser dye Pyrromethene 567 is used as a prototype fluorophore, and it is shown that it has a high quantum yield of 93% over the concentration range investigated. The optical efficiency and loss channels of the flexible LSCs are investigated; it is also demonstrated that the efficiency remains high while bending the LSC which is essential for flexible LSCs to make an impact on solar energy.

  6. Performance analysis of flexible DSSC with binder addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muliani, Lia; Hidayat, Jojo; Anggraini, Putri Nur

    2016-04-01

    Flexible DSSC is one of modification of DSSC based on its substrate. Operating at low temperature, flexible DSSC requires a binder to improve particles interconnection. This research was done to compare the morphology and performance of flexible DSSC that was produced with binder-added and binder-free. TiO2 powder, butanol, and HCl were mixed for preparation of TiO2 paste. Small amount of titanium isopropoxide as binder was added into the mixture. TiO2 paste was deposited on ITO-PET plastic substrate with area of 1x1 cm2 by doctor blade method. Furthermore, SEM, XRD, and BET characterization were done to analyze morphology and surface area of the TiO2 photoelectrode microstructures. Dyed TiO2 photoelectrode and platinum counter electrode were assembled and injected by electrolyte. In the last process, flexible DSSCs were illuminated by sun simulator to do J-V measurement. As a result, flexible DSSC containing binder showed higher performance with photoconversion efficiency of 0.31%.

  7. Managing global accounts.

    PubMed

    Yip, George S; Bink, Audrey J M

    2007-09-01

    Global account management--which treats a multinational customer's operations as one integrated account, with coherent terms for pricing, product specifications, and service--has proliferated over the past decade. Yet according to the authors' research, only about a third of the suppliers that have offered GAM are pleased with the results. The unhappy majority may be suffering from confusion about when, how, and to whom to provide it. Yip, the director of research and innovation at Capgemini, and Bink, the head of marketing communications at Uxbridge College, have found that GAM can improve customer satisfaction by 20% or more and can raise both profits and revenues by at least 15% within just a few years of its introduction. They provide guidelines to help companies achieve similar results. The first steps are determining whether your products or services are appropriate for GAM, whether your customers want such a program, whether those customers are crucial to your strategy, and how GAM might affect your competitive advantage. If moving forward makes sense, the authors' exhibit, "A Scorecard for Selecting Global Accounts," can help you target the right customers. The final step is deciding which of three basic forms to offer: coordination GAM (in which national operations remain relatively strong), control GAM (in which the global operation and the national operations are fairly balanced), and separate GAM (in which a new business unit has total responsibility for global accounts). Given the difficulty and expense of providing multiple varieties, the vast majority of companies should initially customize just one---and they should be careful not to start with a choice that is too ambitious for either themselves or their customers to handle.

  8. First-Person Accounts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gribs, H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Personal accounts describe the lives of 2 individuals with deaf-blindness, one an 87-year-old woman who was deaf from birth and became totally blind over a 50-year period and the other of a woman who became deaf-blind as a result of a fever at the age of 7. Managing activities of daily life and experiencing sensory hallucinations are among topics…

  9. Managing global accounts.

    PubMed

    Yip, George S; Bink, Audrey J M

    2007-09-01

    Global account management--which treats a multinational customer's operations as one integrated account, with coherent terms for pricing, product specifications, and service--has proliferated over the past decade. Yet according to the authors' research, only about a third of the suppliers that have offered GAM are pleased with the results. The unhappy majority may be suffering from confusion about when, how, and to whom to provide it. Yip, the director of research and innovation at Capgemini, and Bink, the head of marketing communications at Uxbridge College, have found that GAM can improve customer satisfaction by 20% or more and can raise both profits and revenues by at least 15% within just a few years of its introduction. They provide guidelines to help companies achieve similar results. The first steps are determining whether your products or services are appropriate for GAM, whether your customers want such a program, whether those customers are crucial to your strategy, and how GAM might affect your competitive advantage. If moving forward makes sense, the authors' exhibit, "A Scorecard for Selecting Global Accounts," can help you target the right customers. The final step is deciding which of three basic forms to offer: coordination GAM (in which national operations remain relatively strong), control GAM (in which the global operation and the national operations are fairly balanced), and separate GAM (in which a new business unit has total responsibility for global accounts). Given the difficulty and expense of providing multiple varieties, the vast majority of companies should initially customize just one---and they should be careful not to start with a choice that is too ambitious for either themselves or their customers to handle. PMID:17886487

  10. Hospitals' Internal Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K.; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387

  11. Hospitals' internal accountability.

    PubMed

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387

  12. Disk flexibility effects on the rotordynamics of the SSME high pressure turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, George T.

    1990-01-01

    Rotordynamical analyses are typically performed using rigid disk models. Studies of rotor models in which the effects of disk flexibility were included indicate that it may be an important effect for many systems. This issue is addressed with respect to the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure turbopumps. Finite element analyses were performed for a simplified free-free flexible disk rotor models and the modes and frequencies compared to those of a rigid disk model. Equations were developed to account for disk flexibility in rotordynamical analysis. Simulation studies were conducted to assess the influence of disk flexibility on the HPOTP. Some recommendations are given as to the importance of disk flexibility and for how this project should proceed.

  13. Two essays on efficiency in the electric power industry: Measurement of technical and allocative efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, John Corby

    The electric power industry market structure has changed over the last twenty years since the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). These changes include the entry by unregulated generator plants and, more recently, the deregulation of entry and price in the retail generation market. Such changes have introduced and expanded competitive forces on the incumbent electric power plants. Proponents of this deregulation argued that the enhanced competition would lead to a more efficient allocation of resources. Previous studies of power plant technical and allocative efficiency have failed to measure technical and allocative efficiency at the plant level. In contrast, this study uses panel data on 35 power plants over 59 years to estimate technical and allocative efficiency of each plant. By using a flexible functional form, which is not constrained by the assumption that regulation is constant over the 59 years sampled, the estimation procedure accounts for changes in both state and national regulatory/energy policies that may have occurred over the sample period. The empirical evidence presented shows that most of the power plants examined have operated more efficiently since the passage of PURPA and the resultant increase of competitive forces. Chapter 2 extends the model used in Chapter 1 and clarifies some issues in the efficiency literature by addressing the case where homogeneity does not hold. A more general model is developed for estimating both input and output inefficiency simultaneously. This approach reveals more information about firm inefficiency than the single estimation approach that has previously been used in the literature. Using the more general model, estimates are provided on the type of inefficiency that occurs as well as the cost of inefficiency by type of inefficiency. In previous studies, the ranking of firms by inefficiency has been difficult because of the cardinal and ordinal differences between different types of

  14. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurlyandskaya, G. V.; Fernández, E.; Svalov, A.; Burgoa Beitia, A.; García-Arribas, A.; Larrañaga, A.

    2016-10-01

    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz.

  15. Multilayer coatings on flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.M.; Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.; Coronado, C.A.; Bennett, W.D.; Stewart, D.C.

    1995-04-01

    Thin-film optical and non-optical multilayer coatings are deposited onto flexible substrates using a vacuum web coater developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The coater`s primary application is rapid prototyping of multilayer (1) polymer coatings, (2) polymer/metal coatings, (3) ceramic/metal coatings, and (4) hybrid polymer, ceramic, and metal coatings. The coater is fully automated and incorporates polymer evaporation and extrusion heads, high-rate magnetron sputtering cathodes, and e-beam evaporation sources. Polymer electrolytes are deposited by extrusion techniques. Flexible plastic, metal, and ceramic substrates can be coated using roll-to-roll or closed-loop configurations. Examples of multilayer optical coatings demonstrated to date are solar reflectors, heat mirrors, Fabry-Perot filters, and alpha particle sensors. Nonoptical coatings include multilayer magnetic metal/ceramic and lamellar composites.

  16. The evolution of flexible parenting.

    PubMed

    Royle, Nick J; Russell, Andrew F; Wilson, Alastair J

    2014-08-15

    Parenting behaviors, such as the provisioning of food by parents to offspring, are known to be highly responsive to changes in environment. However, we currently know little about how such flexibility affects the ways in which parenting is adapted and evolves in response to environmental variation. This is because few studies quantify how individuals vary in their response to changing environments, especially social environments created by other individuals with which parents interact. Social environmental factors differ from nonsocial factors, such as food availability, because parents and offspring both contribute and respond to the social environment they experience. This interdependence leads to the coevolution of flexible behaviors involved in parenting, which could, paradoxically, constrain the ability of individuals to rapidly adapt to changes in their nonsocial environment.

  17. Flexible chains of ferromagnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Townsend, James; Burtovyy, Ruslan; Galabura, Yuriy; Luzinov, Igor

    2014-07-22

    We report the fabrication of flexible chains of ferromagnetic Ni nanoparticles that possess the ability to adapt other than the typically observed rigid (nearly) straight configurations in the absence of an external magnetic field. The dynamic mobility of the ferromagnetic chains originates from a layer of densely grafted polyethylene glycol macromolecules enveloping each nanoparticle in the chain. While ferromagnetic chains of unmodified Ni nanoparticles behave as stiff nickel nanorods, the chains made of the grafted nanoparticles demonstrate extreme flexibility. Upon changing the direction of the field, and inevitably going through a zero-field point, the shorter chains undergo chain-globule-chain transformation. The longer chains can bend to a high degree, attaining "snake-like" configurations.

  18. Automated design of flexible linkers.

    PubMed

    Manion, Charles; Arlitt, Ryan; Campbell, Matthew I; Tumer, Irem; Stone, Rob; Greaney, P Alex

    2016-03-14

    This paper presents a method for the systematic and automated design of flexible organic linkers for construction of metal organic-frameworks (MOFs) in which flexibility, compliance, or other mechanically exotic properties originate at the linker level rather than from the framework kinematics. Our method couples a graph grammar method for systematically generating linker like molecules with molecular dynamics modeling of linkers' mechanical response. Using this approach we have generated a candidate pool of >59,000 hypothetical linkers. We screen linker candidates according to their mechanical behaviors under large deformation, and extract fragments common to the most performant candidate materials. To demonstrate the general approach to MOF design we apply our system to designing linkers for pressure switching MOFs-MOFs that undergo reversible structural collapse after a stress threshold is exceeded. PMID:26687337

  19. Flexible Temperature Sensors on Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Sibinski, Maciej; Jakubowska, Malgorzata; Sloma, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present research dedicated to the elaboration of novel, miniaturized flexible temperature sensors for textronic applications. Examined sensors were manufactured on a single yarn, which ensures their high flexibility and good compatibility with textiles. Stable and linear characteristics were obtained by special technological process and applied temperature profiles. As a thermo-sensitive materials the innovative polymer compositions filled with multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used. Elaborated material was adapted to printing and dip-coating techniques to produce NTC composites. Nanotube sensors were free from tensometric effect typical for other carbon-polymer sensor, and demonstrated TCR of 0.13%/K. Obtained temperature sensors, compatible with textile structure, can be applied in rapidly developing smart textiles and be used for health and protections purposes. PMID:22163634

  20. Large-area, uniform white light LED source on a flexible substrate.

    PubMed

    Sher, Chin-Wei; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Lin, Chien-Chung; Han, Hau-Vei; Lin, Huang-Yu; Tu, Zong-Yi; Tu, Hsien-Hao; Honjo, Keiji; Jiang, Hsin-Yi; Ou, Sin-Liang; Horng, Ray-Hua; Li, Xiuling; Fu, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2015-09-21

    This study demonstrates the flexible white LED structure with high lumen efficiency and uniform optical performance for neutral white and warm white CCT. Flip-chip LEDs were attached on a polyimide substrate with copper strips as electrical and thermal conduction paths. Yellow phosphors are mixed with polydimenthysiloxane (PDMS) to provide mechanical support and flexibility. The light efficiency of this device can reach 120 lm/W and 85% of light output uniformity of the emission area can be achieved. Moreover, the optical simulation is employed to evaluate various designs of this flexible film in order to obtain uniform output. Both the pitch between the individual devices and the thickness of the phosphor film are calculated for optimization purpose. This flexible white LED with high lumen efficiency and good reliability is suitable for the large area fixture in the general lighting applications. PMID:26406747