Science.gov

Sample records for accountable nuclear material

  1. ABACC`s nuclear material accountancy

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolas, R.O.

    1995-12-31

    This article is a review of the history and policies of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC). The discussion leads up to a description of the database (presently utilizing Fox Pro) developed for materials accountability, with its broad requirements listed.

  2. Fundamentals of materials accounting for nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1989-04-01

    Materials accounting is essential to providing the necessary assurance for verifying the effectiveness of a safeguards system. The use of measurements, analyses, records, and reports to maintain knowledge of the quantities of nuclear material present in a defined area of a facility and the use of physical inventories and materials balances to verify the presence of special nuclear materials are collectively known as materials accounting for nuclear safeguards. This manual, prepared as part of the resource materials for the Safeguards Technology Training Program of the US Department of Energy, addresses fundamental aspects of materials accounting, enriching and complementing them with the first-hand experiences of authors from varied disciplines. The topics range from highly technical subjects to site-specific system designs and policy discussions. This collection of papers is prepared by more than 25 professionals from the nuclear safeguards field. Representing research institutions, industries, and regulatory agencies, the authors create a unique resource for the annual course titled ''Materials Accounting for Nuclear Safeguards,'' which is offered at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  3. Nuclear material accounting software for Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, M.; Ewing, T.; Lindley, R.; McWilliams, C.; Roche, C.; Sakunov, I.; Walters, G.

    1999-07-26

    Among the needs identified during initial surveys of nuclear facilities in Ukraine was improved accounting software for reporting material inventories to the regulatory body. AIMAS (Automated Inventory/Material Accounting System) is a PC-based application written in Microsoft Access that was jointly designed by an US/Ukraine development team. The design is highly flexible and configurable, and supports a wide range of computing infrastructure needs and facility requirements including situations where networks are not available or reliable. AIMAS has both English and Russian-language options for displays and reports, and it operates under Windows 3.1, 95, or NT 4.0{trademark}. AIMAS functions include basic physical inventory tracking, transaction histories, reporting, and system administration functions (system configuration, security, data backup and recovery). Security measures include multilevel password access control, all transactions logged with the user identification, and system administration control. Interfaces to external modules provide nuclear fuel burn-up adjustment and barcode scanning capabilities for physical inventory taking. AIMAS has been installed at Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR), South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant (SUNPP), Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT), Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy and Industry (SINEI), and the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety/Nuclear Regulatory Administration (MEPNS/NRA). Facility specialists are being trained to use the application to track material movement and report to the national regulatory authority.

  4. International safeguards: Accounting for nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fishbone, L.G.

    1988-09-28

    Nuclear safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are one element of the non-proliferation regime'', the collection of measures whose aim is to forestall the spread of nuclear weapons to countries that do not already possess them. Safeguards verifications provide evidence that nuclear materials in peaceful use for nuclear-power production are properly accounted for. Though carried out in cooperation with nuclear facility operators, the verifications can provide assurance because they are designed with the capability to detect diversion, should it occur. Traditional safeguards verification measures conducted by inspectors of the IAEA include book auditing; counting and identifying containers of nuclear material; measuring nuclear material; photographic and video surveillance; and sealing. Novel approaches to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in safeguards verifications are under investigation as the number and complexity of nuclear facilities grow. These include the zone approach, which entails carrying out verifications for groups of facilities collectively, and randomization approach, which entails carrying out entire inspection visits some fraction of the time on a random basis. Both approaches show promise in particular situations, but, like traditional measures, must be tested to ensure their practical utility. These approaches are covered on this report. 15 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  6. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  7. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  8. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  9. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  10. Revisiting Statistical Aspects of Nuclear Material Accounting

    DOE PAGES

    Burr, T.; Hamada, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear material accounting (NMA) is the only safeguards system whose benefits are routinely quantified. Process monitoring (PM) is another safeguards system that is increasingly used, and one challenge is how to quantify its benefit. This paper considers PM in the role of enabling frequent NMA, which is referred to as near-real-time accounting (NRTA). We quantify NRTA benefits using period-driven and data-driven testing. Period-driven testing makes a decision to alarm or not at fixed periods. Data-driven testing decides as the data arrives whether to alarm or continue testing. The difference between period-driven and datad-riven viewpoints is illustrated by using one-year andmore » two-year periods. For both one-year and two-year periods, period-driven NMA using once-per-year cumulative material unaccounted for (CUMUF) testing is compared to more frequent Shewhart and joint sequential cusum testing using either MUF or standardized, independently transformed MUF (SITMUF) data. We show that the data-driven viewpoint is appropriate for NRTA and that it can be used to compare safeguards effectiveness. In addition to providing period-driven and data-driven viewpoints, new features include assessing the impact of uncertainty in the estimated covariance matrix of the MUF sequence and the impact of both random and systematic measurement errors.« less

  11. Nuclear Material Management in Russia and New Federal Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Martyanov,A A; Pitel,V A; Babcock,R A; Heinberg,C L; Tynan,D M

    2001-06-25

    The Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom) is the federal authority empowered with the management of state-owned nuclear materials, with the exception of military applications. The Russian Federal Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting Information System (FIS) is a key component in establishing an effective nuclear materials management system in the Russian Federation. In December 2000, the Russian government issued the decree to enter into force the regulation on the accounting and control of nuclear materials and directed the State System of Accounting and Control (SSAC) of nuclear materials should begin October 2001. This regulation establishes the basic accounting documents and the requirement to report them to the FIS to launch the State Nuclear Material Registry of nuclear materials. The Nuclear Material Registry contains information on agencies and operating organizations that use nuclear material, along with the kinds, quantity and other characteristics of nuclear material. Minatom will use the Registry and the supporting database and functionality that reside in the FIS for carrying out the functions of nuclear materials management. At the same time, the FIS provides for reporting from material balance areas (MBA). With American support, 14 Russian enterprises are reporting material balance area level information to the FIS using full-function reporting (i.e., reporting inventory and inventory changes including closeout and reconciliation between the FIS and enterprises). Russian Federation regulations for nuclear material control and accounting and nuclear materials management have been or are being developed, some of which may impact the FIS, whether for full-function reporting or its support in preparing the Nuclear Material Registry. This paper discusses the role and the place of the FIS in nuclear material management, describes the goals and challenges facing the FIS based on Russian Federation regulations, and provides a brief

  12. 77 FR 28407 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... fundamentals of an SNM control and accounting system, including criteria for the receipt, internal control... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear...-5028, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' In...

  13. U.S. national nuclear material control and accounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S; Terentiev, V G

    1998-12-01

    Issues related to nuclear material control and accounting and illegal dealing in these materials were discussed at the April 19--20, 1996 Moscow summit meeting (G7 + Russia). The declaration from this meeting reaffirmed that governments are responsible for the safety of all nuclear materials in their possession and for the effectiveness of the national control and accounting system for these materials. The Russian delegation at this meeting stated that ''the creation of a nuclear materials accounting, control, and physical protection system has become a government priority''. Therefore, in order to create a government nuclear material control and accounting system for the Russian Federation, it is critical to study the structure, operating principles, and regulations supporting the control and accounting of nuclear materials in the national systems of nuclear powers. In particular, Russian specialists have a definite interest in learning about the National Nuclear Material Control and Accounting System of the US, which has been operating successfully as an automated system since 1968.

  14. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides guidance on recordkeeping and reporting requirements with respect to material control and accounting. This guide applies to all...

  15. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  16. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  17. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  18. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  19. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  20. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  1. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  2. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  3. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  4. International training course on nuclear materials accountability for safeguards purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The two volumes of this report incorporate all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Nuclear Materials Accountability and Control for Safeguards Purposes, held May 27-June 6, 1980, at the Bishop's Lodge near Santa Fe, New Mexico. The course, authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a National system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both National and IAEA International safeguards objectives. Volume I, covering the first week of the course, presents the background, requirements, and general features of material accounting and control in modern safeguard systems. Volume II, covering the second week of the course, provides more detailed information on measurement methods and instruments, practical experience at power reactor and research reactor facilities, and examples of operating state systems of accountability and control.

  5. A Measurement Control Program for Nuclear Material Accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, R. J.; Roberts, F. P.; Merrill, J. A.; Brown, W. B.

    1980-06-01

    A measurement control program for nuclear material accounting monitors and controls the quality of the measurements of special nuclear material that are involved in material balances. The quality is monitored by collecting data from which the current precision and accuracy of measurements can be evaluated. The quality is controlled by evaluations, reviews, and other administrative measures for control of selection or design of facilities. equipment and measurement methods and the training and qualification of personnel who perform SNM measurements. This report describes the most important elements of a program by which management can monitor and control measurement quality.

  6. Nuclear Material Control and Accountability System Effectiveness Tool (MSET)

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H; Roche, Charles T; Campbell, Billy J; Hammond, Glenn A; Meppen, Bruce W; Brown, Richard F

    2011-01-01

    A nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) has been developed in the United States for use in evaluating material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) systems in nuclear facilities. The project was commissioned by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of International Material Protection and Cooperation. MSET was developed by personnel with experience spanning more than six decades in both the U.S. and international nuclear programs and with experience in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the nuclear power industry. MSET offers significant potential benefits for improving nuclear safeguards and security in any nation with a nuclear program. MSET provides a design basis for developing an MC&A system at a nuclear facility that functions to protect against insider theft or diversion of nuclear materials. MSET analyzes the system and identifies several risk importance factors that show where sustainability is essential for optimal performance and where performance degradation has the greatest impact on total system risk. MSET contains five major components: (1) A functional model that shows how to design, build, implement, and operate a robust nuclear MC&A system (2) A fault tree of the operating MC&A system that adapts PRA methodology to analyze system effectiveness and give a relative risk of failure assessment of the system (3) A questionnaire used to document the facility's current MPC&A system (provides data to evaluate the quality of the system and the level of performance of each basic task performed throughout the material balance area [MBA]) (4) A formal process of applying expert judgment to convert the facility questionnaire data into numeric values representing the performance level of each basic event for use in the fault tree risk assessment calculations (5) PRA software that performs the fault tree risk assessment calculations and produces risk importance factor reports on the

  7. Nuclear material control and accounting safeguards in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Woltermann, H.A.; Rudy, C.R.; Rakel, D.A.; DeVer, E.A.

    1982-07-01

    Material control and accounting (MC and A) of special nuclear material (SNM) must supplement physical security to protect SNM from unlawful use such as terrorist activities. This article reviews MC and A safeguards of SNM in the United States. The following topics are covered: a brief perspective and history of MC and A safeguards, current MC and A practices, measurement methods for SNM, historical MC and A performance, a description of near-real-time MC and A systems, and conclusions on the status of MC and A in the United States.

  8. Use of Imaging for Nuclear Material Control and Accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Mullens, James Allen; Hausladen, Paul; Bingham, Philip R; Archer, Daniel E; Grogan, Brandon R; Mihalczo, John T

    2007-01-01

    The recent addition of imaging to the Nuclear Materials and Identification System (NMIS) using a small portable DT neutron generator with an embedded alpha detector to time and directionally tag neutrons from the DT reaction is discussed. The generator weighs {approx}35 lbs including power supplies (5 x 10{sup 7} n/sec) and operates on 50 watts power. Thus, the source can be easily moved to a variety of locations within an operational facility with minimum impact on operations or can be used at a fixed location for example to monitor receipts. Imaging NMIS (INMIS) not only characterizes the detailed shape of a containerized object by transmission tomography but determines the presence of fissile material by measuring the emitted radiation from induced fission. Previous work has shown that this type of imaging has a variety of applications other than nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A). These include nonproliferation applications such as verification of configuration of nuclear weapons/components shipped or received, warhead authentication behind an information barrier, and traceability of weapons components both fissile and non fissile in dismantlement and counter terrorism. This paper concentrates on the use for NMC&A. Some of the NMC&A applications discussed are: verifying inventory and receipts, making more accurate holdup measurements especially where thicknesses of materials affect gamma ray spectrometry , determining the shape of unknown configurations of fissile materials where the material type may be known but not the form, determining the oxidation of fissile metal in storage cans, fingerprinting the content of storage containers going into a storage facility, and determining unknown configurations for criticality safety.

  9. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and maintain a measurement system which assures that all quantities in the material accounting records...) In each inventory period, control total material control and accounting measurement uncertainty so... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for...

  10. Termination of Safeguards for Accountable Nuclear Materials at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Holzemer; Alan Carvo

    2012-04-01

    Termination of safeguards ends requirements of Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) and thereby removes the safeguards basis for applying physical protection requirements for theft and diversion of nuclear material, providing termination requirements are met as described. Department of Energy (DOE) M 470.4 6 (Nuclear Material Control and Accountability [8/26/05]) stipulates: 1. Section A, Chapter I (1)( q) (1): Safeguards can be terminated on nuclear materials provided the following conditions are met: (a) 'If the material is special nuclear material (SNM) or protected as SNM, it must be attractiveness level E and have a measured value.' (b) 'The material has been determined by DOE line management to be of no programmatic value to DOE.' (c) 'The material is transferred to the control of a waste management organization where the material is accounted for and protected in accordance with waste management regulations. The material must not be collocated with other accountable nuclear materials.' Requirements for safeguards termination depend on the safeguards attractiveness levels of the material. For attractiveness level E, approval has been granted from the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE ID) to Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) Safeguards and Security (S&S). In some cases, it may be necessary to dispose of nuclear materials of attractiveness level D or higher. Termination of safeguards for such materials must be approved by the Departmental Element (this is the DOE Headquarters Office of Nuclear Energy) after consultation with the Office of Security.

  11. Test and evaluation of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    In accordance with the definition of a Material Balance Area (MBA) as a well-defined geographical area involving an Integral operation, the building housing the BFS-1 and BFS-1 critical facilities is considered to consist of one MBA. The BFS materials are in the form of small disks clad in stainless steel and each disk with nuclear material has its own serial number. Fissile material disks in the BFS MBA can be located at three key monitoring points: BFS-1 facility, BFS-2 facility and main storage of BFS fissile materials (storage 1). When used in the BFS-1 or BFS-2 critical facilities, the fissile material disks are loaded in tubes (fuel rods) forming critical assembly cores. The following specific features of the BFS MBA should be taken into account for the purpose of computerized accounting of nuclear material: (1) very large number of nuclear material items (about 70,000 fissile material items); and (2) periodically very intensive shuffling of nuclear material items. Requirements for the computerized system are determined by basic objectives of nuclear material accounting: (1) providing accurate information on the identity and location of all items in the BFS material balance area; (2) providing accurate information on location and identity of tamper-indicating devices; (3) tracking nuclear material inventories; (4) issuing periodic reports; (5) assisting with the detection of material gains or losses; (6) providing a history of nuclear material transactions; (7) preventing unauthorized access to the system and data falsification. In August 1995, the prototype computerized accounting system was installed on the BFS facility for trial operation. Information on two nuclear material types was entered into the data base: weapon-grade plutonium metal and 36% enriched uranium dioxide. The total number of the weapon-grade plutonium disks is 12,690 and the total number of the uranium dioxide disks is 1,700.

  12. Hybrid statistical testing for nuclear material accounting data and/or process monitoring data in nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom; Hamada, Michael S.; Ticknor, Larry; Sprinkle, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of nuclear safeguards is to ensure that special nuclear material is used for peaceful purposes. Historically, nuclear material accounting (NMA) has provided the quantitative basis for monitoring for nuclear material loss or diversion, and process monitoring (PM) data is collected by the operator to monitor the process. PM data typically support NMA in various ways, often by providing a basis to estimate some of the in-process nuclear material inventory. We develop options for combining PM residuals and NMA residuals (residual = measurement - prediction), using a hybrid of period-driven and data-driven hypothesis testing. The modified statistical tests can be used on time series of NMA residuals (the NMA residual is the familiar material balance), or on a combination of PM and NMA residuals. The PM residuals can be generated on a fixed time schedule or as events occur.

  13. Hybrid statistical testing for nuclear material accounting data and/or process monitoring data in nuclear safeguards

    DOE PAGES

    Burr, Tom; Hamada, Michael S.; Ticknor, Larry; ...

    2015-01-01

    The aim of nuclear safeguards is to ensure that special nuclear material is used for peaceful purposes. Historically, nuclear material accounting (NMA) has provided the quantitative basis for monitoring for nuclear material loss or diversion, and process monitoring (PM) data is collected by the operator to monitor the process. PM data typically support NMA in various ways, often by providing a basis to estimate some of the in-process nuclear material inventory. We develop options for combining PM residuals and NMA residuals (residual = measurement - prediction), using a hybrid of period-driven and data-driven hypothesis testing. The modified statistical tests canmore » be used on time series of NMA residuals (the NMA residual is the familiar material balance), or on a combination of PM and NMA residuals. The PM residuals can be generated on a fixed time schedule or as events occur.« less

  14. 10 CFR 74.33 - Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.33 Section 74.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF...

  15. Ensuring the Sustainability of Russian Federation National Nuclear Material Accounting System

    SciTech Connect

    Pitel, V; Kasumova, L; Kushnaryov, M; Babcock, R

    2006-06-07

    The Federal Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Information System (FIS) is the national information source on nuclear material accounting of the Russian Federation (RF). RF regulations mandated the creation of a national nuclear material accounting system to be managed by Federal Agency For Atomic Energy (Rosatom), and for the past decade, the FIS has been developed for all organizations required to report to Rosatom. The system represents a successful integration of U.S. financial support and consulting with Russian vision and technical expertise, creating a viable national nuclear material accounting system. This paper discusses crucial elements to ensure Sustainability of the FIS. A long-term plan for operation and maintenance of the information system is critical to a sustainable national accounting system. Plans undertaken throughout the FIS Project lifecycle have supported the necessary elements to ensure success. Through the next two years, long-term planning will be reevaluated and the successful elements and new initiatives will become part of an overall Operations Management Program. FIS resource needs will be managed through prioritization and ranking for each Program element, including: system operation; revising and implementing supporting regulations; establishing monitoring and control mechanisms to ensure validity of the data reported; maintaining and improving communication channels; and establishing regular FIS training. The results of a survey on improving FIS reporting, expected in June 2006, will be used in the prioritization and ranking process. Developing the Program and planning for long-term sustainability of the FIS will ensure a viable national nuclear material accounting system for the future.

  16. Production of an English/Russian glossary of terminology for nuclear materials control and accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Schachowskoj, S.; Smith, H.A. Jr.

    1995-05-01

    The program plans for Former Soviet Union National Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting (MC and A) Systems Enhancements call for the development of an English/Russian Glossary of MC and A terminology. This glossary was envisioned as an outgrowth of the many interactions, training sessions, and other talking and writing exercises that would transpire in the course of carrying out these programs. This report summarizes the status of the production of this glossary, the most recent copy of which is attached to this report. The glossary contains over 950 terms and acronyms associated with nuclear material control and accounting for safeguards and nonproliferation. This document is organized as follows: English/Russian glossary of terms and acronyms; Russian/English glossary of terms and acronyms; English/Russian glossary of acronyms; and Russian/English glossary of acronyms.

  17. Advanced international training course on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the Advanced International Training Course on State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material held April 27 through May 12, 1981 at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards. Major emphasis for the 1981 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at both the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, Richland, Washington.

  18. A generic, computerized nuclear materials accountability system (NucMAS) and its layered products

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jr, J M

    1989-01-01

    NucMAS provides a material balance area with a computerized data management system for nuclear materials accountability. NucMAS is a generic application. It handles the data management and reporting functions for different processing facilities by storing all process-specific information as data rather than procedure. A NucMAS application is configured for each facility it supports. NucMAS and its layered products are compatible with three types of data clients. Core NucMAS has a screen-oriented user interface to support the accountability clerk as a client. Accountability clerks enter data from operating logs and laboratory analyses one to three days after actual processing. Layered products support process operators and automated systems as near-real-time and real-time data clients. The core and layered products use a data-driven approach which results in software that is configurable and maintainable. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Material control and accounting in the Department of Energy's nuclear fuel complex

    SciTech Connect

    1989-01-01

    Material control and accounting takes place within an envelope of activities related to safeguards and security, as well as to safety, health, and environment, all of which need to be managed to assure that the entire nuclear fuel complex can operate in a societally accepted manner. Within this envelope the committee was directed to carry out the following scope of work: (1) Review the MCandA systems in use at selected DOE facilities that are processing special nuclear material (SNM) in various physical and chemical forms. (2) Design and convene a workshop for senior representatives from each of DOE's facilities on the flows and inventories of nuclear materials. (3) Plan and conduct a series of site visits to each of the facilities to observe first hand the processing operations and the related MCandA systems. (4) Review the potential improvement in overall safeguard systems effectiveness, as measured by expected reduction in inventory difference control limits and inventory differences for materials balance accounts and facilities, or other criteria as appropriate. Indicate how this affects the relative degree of uncertainty in the system. (5) Review the efficiency of operating the MCandA system with and without the upgrading options and assess whether upgrading will contribute further efficiencies in operation, which may reduce many of the current operations costs. Determine if the current system is cost-effective. (6) Recommend the most promising technical approaches for further development by DOE and further study as warranted.

  20. Computer-based accountability system (Phase I) for special nuclear materials at Argonne-West

    SciTech Connect

    Ingermanson, R.S.; Proctor, A.E.

    1982-05-01

    An automated accountability system for special nuclear materials (SNM) is under development at Argonne National Laboratory-West. Phase I of the development effort has established the following basic features of the system: a unique file organization allows rapid updating or retrieval of the status of various SNM, based on batch numbers, storage location, serial number, or other attributes. Access to the program is controlled by an interactive user interface that can be easily understood by operators who have had no prior background in electronic data processing. Extensive use of structured programming techniques make the software package easy to understand and to modify for specific applications. All routines are written in FORTRAN.

  1. Detecting anomalous nuclear materials accounting transactions: Applying machine learning to plutonium processing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Vaccaro, H.S. )

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear materials accountancy is the only safeguards measure that provides direct evidence of the status of nuclear materials. Of the six categories that gives rise to inventory differences, the technical capability is now in place to implement the technical innovations necessary to reduce the human error categories. There are really three main approaches to detecting anomalies in materials control and accountability (MC A) data: (1) Statistical: numeric methods such as the Page's Test, CUSUM, CUMUF, SITMUF, etc., can detect anomalies in metric (numeric) data. (2) Expert systems: Human expert's rules can be encoded into software systems such as ART, KEE, or Prolog. (3) Machine learning: Training data, such as historical MC A records, can be fed to a classifier program or neutral net or other machine learning algorithm. The Wisdom Sense (W S) software is a combination of approaches 2 and 3. The W S program includes full features for adding administrative rules and expert judgment rules to the rule base. if desired, the software can enforce consistency among all rules in the rule base.

  2. Evaluating Safeguards Benefits of Process Monitoring as compared with Nuclear Material Accountancy

    SciTech Connect

    Humberto Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Reed Carlson

    2014-07-01

    This paper illustrates potential safeguards benefits that process monitoring (PM) may have as a diversion deterrent and as a complementary safeguards measure to nuclear material accountancy (NMA). This benefit is illustrated by quantifying the standard deviation associated with detecting a considered material diversion scenario using either an NMA-based method or a PM-based approach. To illustrate the benefits of PM for effective safeguards, we consider a reprocessing facility. We assume that the diversion of interest for detection manifests itself as a loss of Pu caused by abnormally operating a dissolver for an extended period to accomplish protracted diversion (or misdirection) of Pu to a retained (unconditioned) waste stream. For detecting the occurrence of this diversion (which involves anomalous operation of the dissolver), we consider two different data evaluation and integration (DEI) approaches, one based on NMA and the other based on PM. The approach based on PM does not directly do mass balance calculations, but rather monitors for the possible occurrence of anomaly patterns related to potential loss of nuclear material. It is thus assumed that the loss of a given mass amount of nuclear material can be directly associated with the execution of proliferation-driven activities that trigger the occurrence of an anomaly pattern consisting of series of events or signatures occurring at different unit operations and time instances. By effectively assessing these events over time and space, the PM-based DEI approach tries to infer whether this specific pattern of events has occurred and how many times within a given time period. To evaluate the goodness of PM, the 3 Sigma of the estimated mass loss is computed under both DEI approaches as function of the number of input batches processed. Simulation results are discussed.

  3. Where do the Nuclear Materials Management functions fit in the Materials Control and Accountability (MC and A) plan

    SciTech Connect

    DeVer, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    Safeguards had its beginning in the early 1940s and has continued to grow through the stormy years in dealing with nuclear materials. MC and A Plans have been developed for each facility which includes requirements for containment, surveillance, internal controls, measurements, statistics, records and report systems, and inventory certification of its nuclear materials, in the context of how precisely the inventory is known at stated risk or confidence levels. The I and E Regulations, the newest document affecting the control system, are used for testing the current MC and A plan in place at each facility. Nuclear Materials Management activities also have reporting requirements that include: (1) Annual Forecast, (2) Materials Management Plan, (3) Quarterly Status Report, (4) Assessment Report, and (5) Scrap and Excess Material Management. Data used to generate reports for both functions come from the same data base and source documents at most facilities. The separation of sponsoring groups at the DOE for NM Accountability and NM Management can and does pose problems for contractors. In this paper, we will try to separate and identify these overlaps at the Facility and DOE level.

  4. Nuclear Material Accountability Applications of a Continuous Energy and Direction Gamma Ray Detector

    SciTech Connect

    David Gerts; Robert Bean; Marc Paff

    2010-07-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory has recently developed a detector system based on the principle of a Wilson cloud chamber that gives the original energy and direction to a gamma ray source. This detector has the properties that the energy resolution is continuous and the direction to the source can be resolved to desired fidelity. Furthermore, the detector has low power requirements, is durable, operates in widely varying environments, and is relatively cheap to produce. This detector is expected, however, to require significant time to perform measurements. To mitigate the significant time for measurements, the detector is expected to scale to very large sizes with a linear increase in cost. For example, the proof of principle detector is approximately 30,000 cm3. This work describes the technical results that lead to these assertions. Finally, the applications of this detector are described in the context of nuclear material accountability.

  5. A Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) for accountability monitoring of stored nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, C.A.; Barham, M.A.; Gafford, T.A.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Jordan, J.K.; Maxey, L.C.; Moran, B.W.; Muhs, J.; Nodine, R.; Simpson, M.L.

    1994-12-08

    Nearly all facilities that store hazardous (radioactive or non-radioactive) materials must comply with prevailing federal, state, and local laws. These laws usually have components that require periodic physical inspections to insure that all materials remain safely and securely stored. The inspections are generally labor intensive, slow, put personnel at risk, and only find anomalies after they have occurred. The system described in this paper was developed for monitoring stored nuclear materials resulting from weapons dismantlement, but its applications extend to any storage facility that meets the above criteria. The traditional special nuclear material (SNM) accountability programs, that are currently used within most of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, require the physical entry of highly trained personnel into SNM storage vaults. This imposes the need for additional security measures, which typically mandate that extra security personnel be present while SNM inventories are performed. These requirements increase labor costs and put additional personnel at risk to radiation exposure. In some cases, individuals have received radiation exposure equivalent to the annual maximum during just one inventory verification. With increasing overhead costs, the current system is rapidly becoming too expensive to operate, the need for an automated method of inventory verification is evident. The Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) described in this paper was designed and prototyped as a low cost, highly reliable, and user friendly system that is capable of providing, real-time weight, gamma. and neutron energy confirmation from each item stored in a SNM vault. This paper describes the sensor technologies, the CAVIS prototype system (built at Y- 12 for highly enriched uranium storage), the technical requirements that must be achieved to assure successful implementation, and descriptions of sensor technologies needed for a plutonium facility.

  6. SNMSP II: A system to fully automate special nuclear materials accountability reporting for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Pareto, V.; Venegas, R.

    1987-07-01

    The USNRC requires each licensee who is authorized to possess Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) to prepare and submit reports concerning SNM received, produced, possessed, transferred, consumed, disposed of, or lost. These SNM accountability reports, which need to be submitted twice a year, contain detailed information on the origin, quantity, and type of SNM for several locations. The amount of detail required makes these reports very time consuming and error prone when prepared manually. Yankee Atomic is developing an IBM PC-based computer code that fully automates the process of generating SNM accountability reports. The program, called SNMSP II, prints a number of summaries including facsimiles of the NRC/DOE-741, 742, 742C, and RW-859 reports in a format that can be submitted directly to the NRC/DOE. SNMSP II is menu-driven and is especially designed for people with little or no computer training. Input can be either from a mainframe-based corporate data base or manually through user-friendly screens. In addition, extensive quality assurance features are available to ensure the security and accuracy of the data. This paper discusses the major features of the code and describes its implementation at Yankee.

  7. Material accountancy measurement techniques in dry-powdered processing of nuclear spent fuels.

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, S. F.

    1999-03-24

    The paper addresses the development of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS), thermal ionization-mass spectrometry (TIMS), alpha-spectrometry, and gamma spectrometry techniques for in-line analysis of highly irradiated (18 to 64 GWD/T) PWR spent fuels in a dry-powdered processing cycle. The dry-powdered technique for direct elemental and isotopic accountancy assay measurements was implemented without the need for separation of the plutonium, uranium and fission product elements in the bulk powdered process. The analyses allow the determination of fuel burn-up based on the isotopic composition of neodymium and/or cesium. An objective of the program is to develop the ICPMS method for direct fissile nuclear materials accountancy in the dry-powdered processing of spent fuel. The ICPMS measurement system may be applied to the KAERI DUPIC (direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) experiment, and in a near-real-time mode for international safeguards verification and non-proliferation policy concerns.

  8. MATERIAL CONTROL ACCOUNTING INMM

    SciTech Connect

    Hasty, T.

    2009-06-14

    Since 1996, the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC - formerly known as K-26), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have been cooperating under the cooperative Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program between the Russian Federation and the U.S. Governments. Since MCC continues to operate a reactor for steam and electricity production for the site and city of Zheleznogorsk which results in production of the weapons grade plutonium, one of the goals of the MPC&A program is to support implementation of an expanded comprehensive nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) program. To date MCC has completed upgrades identified in the initial gap analysis and documented in the site MC&A Plan and is implementing additional upgrades identified during an update to the gap analysis. The scope of these upgrades includes implementation of MCC organization structure relating to MC&A, establishing material balance area structure for special nuclear materials (SNM) storage and bulk processing areas, and material control functions including SNM portal monitors at target locations. Material accounting function upgrades include enhancements in the conduct of physical inventories, limit of error inventory difference procedure enhancements, implementation of basic computerized accounting system for four SNM storage areas, implementation of measurement equipment for improved accountability reporting, and both new and revised site-level MC&A procedures. This paper will discuss the implementation of MC&A upgrades at MCC based on the requirements established in the comprehensive MC&A plan developed by the Mining and Chemical Combine as part of the MPC&A Program.

  9. Aqueous Processing Material Accountability Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean

    2007-09-01

    Increased use of nuclear power will require new facilities. The U.S. has not built a new spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facility for decades. Reprocessing facilities must maintain accountability of their nuclear fuel. This survey report on the techniques used in current aqueous reprocessing facilities, and provides references to source materials to assist facility design efforts.

  10. Active Interrogation using Photofission Technique for Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Haori

    2016-03-31

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. In addition to thermal or high-energy neutrons, high-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. Electron linear accelerators (linacs) are widely used as the interrogating photon sources for inspection methods involving photofission technique. After photofission reactions, prompt signals are much stronger than the delayed signals, but it is difficult to quantify them in practical measurements. Delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the delayed signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. In this work, high-energy delayed γ-rays were demonstrated to be signatures for detection, identification, and quantification of special nuclear materials. Such γ-rays were measured in between linac pulses using independent data acquisition systems. A list-mode system was developed to measure low-energy delayed γ-rays after irradiation. Photofission product yields of 238U and 239Pu were determined based on the measured delayed γ-ray spectra. The differential yields of delayed γ-rays were also proven to be able to discriminate nuclear from non-nuclear materials. The measurement outcomes were compared with Monte Carlo simulation results. It was demonstrated that the current available codes have capabilities and limitations in the simulation of photofission process. A two

  11. International training course on implementation of state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Implementation of State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials held October 17 through November 4, 1983, at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a State system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards requirements. Major emphasis for the 1983 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Westinghouse Fast Flux Test Facility Visitor Center, and Washington Public Power System nuclear reactor facilities in Richland, Washington. Individual presentations were indexed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  12. International training course on implementation of state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Implementation of State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials held June 3 through June 21, 1985, at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and San Clemente, California. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards requirements. Major emphasis for the 1985 course was placed on safeguards methods used at item-control facilities, particularly nuclear power generating stations and test reactors. An introduction to safeguards methods used at bulk handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants, was also included. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Southern California Edison Company. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, San Clemente, California.

  13. VALIDATION OF NUCLEAR MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTABILITY (MC&A) SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS TOOL (MSET) AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY (INL)

    SciTech Connect

    Meppen, Bruce; Haga, Roger; Moedl, Kelley; Bean, Tom; Sanders, Jeff; Thom, Mary Alice

    2008-07-01

    A Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) Functional Model has been developed to describe MC&A systems at facilities possessing Category I or II Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Emphasis is on achieving the objectives of 144 “Fundamental Elements” in key areas ranging from categorization of nuclear material to establishment of Material Balance Areas (MBAs), controlling access, performing quality measurements of inventories and transfers, timely reporting all activities, and detecting and investigating anomalies. An MC&A System Effectiveness Tool (MSET), including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) technology for evaluating MC&A effectiveness and relative risk, has been developed to accompany the Functional Model. The functional model and MSET were introduced at the 48th annual International Nuclear Material Management (INMM) annual meeting in July, 20071,2. A survey/questionnaire is used to accumulate comprehensive data regarding the MC&A elements at a facility. Data is converted from the questionnaire to numerical values using the DELPHI method and exercises are conducted to evaluate the overall effectiveness of an MC&A system. In 2007 a peer review was conducted and a questionnaire was completed for a hypothetical facility and exercises were conducted. In the first quarter of 2008, a questionnaire was completed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and MSET exercises were conducted. The experience gained from conducting the MSET exercises at INL helped evaluate the completeness and consistency of the MC&A Functional Model, descriptions of fundamental elements of the MC&A Functional Model, relationship between the MC&A Functional Model and the MC&A PRA tool and usefulness of the MSET questionnaire data collection process.

  14. RISK REDUCTION FOR MATERIAL ACCOUNTABILITY UPGRADES.

    SciTech Connect

    FISHBONE, L.G.; SISKIND, B.

    2005-05-16

    We present in this paper a method for evaluating explicitly the contribution of nuclear material accountability upgrades to risk reduction at nuclear facilities. The method yields the same types of values for conditional risk reduction that physical protection and material control upgrades yield. Thereby, potential material accountability upgrades can be evaluated for implementation in the same way that protection and control upgrades are evaluated.

  15. Nuclear material operations manual

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

  16. The Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant Sustainability Program of Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting System Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Vakhonin, Alexander; Yuldashev, Rashid; Dabbs, Richard D.; Carroll, Michael F.; Garrett, Albert G.; Patrick, Scott W.; Ku, Eshter M.

    2009-09-30

    UEIP has been working on a comprehensive sustainability program that includes establishing a site sustainability working group, information gathering, planning, organizing, developing schedule and estimated costs, trhough joint UEIP-US DOE/NNSA National Laboratory sustainability contracts. Considerable efforts have been necessary in the sustainability planning, monitoring, and control of the scope of work using tools such as Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Project and SAP R/3. While information interchanges within the sustainability program provides adequate US assurances that US funds are well spent through its quarterly reporting methodology, proper information security and protection measures are taken throughout the process. Decommissioning of outdated equipment has also become part of determining sustainability requirements and processes. The site’s sustainability program has facilitated the development of a transition plan toward eventual full Russian funding of sustaining nuclear security upgrades.

  17. Novel Problems Associated with Accounting and Control of Nuclear Material from Decontamination and Decommissioning and in Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, Steven C.

    2007-01-10

    The United States is eliminating many facilities that support the nuclear weapons program. With the changing political conditions around the world and changes in military capabilities, the decreased emphasis on nuclear weapons has eliminated the need for many of the aging facilities. Since weapons program and commercial applications do not mix in the United States, the facilities in the weapons complex that no longer have a mission are being deinventoried, decontaminated, decommissioned, and dismantled/demolished. The materials from these activities are then disposed of in various ways but usually in select waste burial sites. Additionally, the waste in many historical burial sites associated with the weapons complex are being recovered, repackaged if necessary, and disposed of in either geological sites or low-level waste sites.

  18. Proposals for the Future Development of the Russian Automated Federal Information System for Nuclear Material Control and Accounting: The Universal Reporting Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Martiyanov, A; Pitel, V; Kasumova, L; Babcock, R; Heinberg, C

    2004-06-17

    Development of the automated Russian Federation Federal Information System for Nuclear Material Control and Accounting (FIS) started in 1996. From the beginning, the creation of the FIS was based on the concept of obtaining data from the material balance areas of the organizations, which would enable the system to collect detailed information on nuclear material. In December 2000, the organization-level summarized reporting method was mandated by the Russian Federation and subsequently implemented for all organizations. Analysis of long-term FIS objectives, reporting by all the MBAs in Russia, showed that the present summarized reporting approach decreed by regulations posed a fair number of problems. We need alternative methods that allow the FIS to obtain more detailed information on nuclear material but which accurately reflect the technical and economic resources available to Russian organizations. One possible solution is the universal reporting method. In August 2003, the proposals of the FIS working group to transition to the universal reporting method were approved at the fourth meeting of the Joint Coordinating Committee for Implementation of the Russian Federation and U.S. Government-to-Government Agreement on Cooperation in the Area of Nuclear Material Physical Protection, Control and Accounting (JCC). One of the important elements of universal reporting is that organizations handling nuclear material will establish 'reporting areas' in cooperation with MinAtom of Russia. A reporting area may consist of one MBA, several MBAs, or even an entire organization. This paper will discuss the universal reporting concept and its major objectives and methods for the FIS.

  19. Comprehensive Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Dr. Rudy J. M.; Allen, Todd R.; Stoller, Roger E; Yamanaka, Prof. Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    This book encompasses a rich seam of current information on the vast and multidisciplinary field of nuclear materials employed in fission and prototype fusion systems. Discussion includes both historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds leading scientists and engineers. Synthesizes pertinent current science to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  20. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  1. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  2. Creating a Comprehensive, Efficient, and Sustainable Nuclear Regulatory Structure: A Process Report from the U.S. Department of Energy's Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Troy L.; O'Brien, Patricia E.; Hazel, Michael J.; Tuttle, John D.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Schlegel, Steven C.

    2010-08-11

    With the congressionally mandated January 1, 2013 deadline for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program to complete its transition of MPC&A responsibility to the Russian Federation, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) management directed its MPC&A program managers and team leaders to demonstrate that work in ongoing programs would lead to successful and timely achievement of these milestones. In the spirit of planning for successful project completion, the NNSA review of the Russian regulatory development process confirmed the critical importance of an effective regulatory system to a sustainable nuclear protection regime and called for an analysis of the existing Russian regulatory structure and the identification of a plan to ensure a complete MPC&A regulatory foundation. This paper describes the systematic process used by DOE’s MPC&A Regulatory Development Project (RDP) to develop an effective and sustainable MPC&A regulatory structure in the Russian Federation. This nuclear regulatory system will address all non-military Category I and II nuclear materials at State Corporation for Atomic Energy “Rosatom,” the Federal Service for Ecological, Technological, and Nuclear Oversight (Rostechnadzor), the Federal Agency for Marine and River Transport (FAMRT, within the Ministry of Transportation), and the Ministry of Industry and Trade (Minpromtorg). The approach to ensuring a complete and comprehensive nuclear regulatory structure includes five sequential steps. The approach was adopted from DOE’s project management guidelines and was adapted to the regulatory development task by the RDP. The five steps in the Regulatory Development Process are: 1) Define MPC&A Structural Elements; 2) Analyze the existing regulatory documents using the identified Structural Elements; 3) Validate the analysis with Russian colleagues and define the list of documents to be developed; 4) Prioritize and

  3. Insider Threat - Material Control and Accountability Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H; Roche, Charles T

    2011-01-01

    The technical objectives of nuclear safeguards are (1) the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown and (2) the deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards and security program must address both outsider threats and insider threats. Outsider threats are primarily addressed by the physical protection system. Insider threats can be any level of personnel at the site including passive or active insiders that could attempt protracted or abrupt diversion. This could occur by an individual acting alone or by collusion between an individual with material control and accountability (MC&A) responsibilities and another individual who has responsibility or control within both the physical protection and the MC&A systems. The insider threat is one that must be understood and incorporated into the safeguards posture. There have been more than 18 documented cases of theft or loss of plutonium or highly enriched uranium. The insider has access, authority, and knowledge, as well as a set of attributes, that make him/her difficult to detect. An integrated safeguards program is designed as a defense-in-depth system that seeks to prevent the unauthorized removal of nuclear material, to provide early detection of any unauthorized attempt to remove nuclear material, and to rapidly respond to any attempted removal of nuclear material. The program is also designed to support protection against sabotage, espionage, unauthorized access, compromise, and other hostile acts that may cause unacceptable adverse impacts on national security, program continuity, the health and safety of employees, the public, or the environment. Nuclear MC&A play an essential role in the capabilities of an integrated safeguards system to deter and detect theft or diversion of nuclear material. An integrated safeguards system with

  4. KrasMAS: Implementation of a nuclear material computerized accounting system at the Mining and Chemical Combine through the Russian/US cooperative MPC and A program

    SciTech Connect

    Dorofeev, K.V.; Zhidkov, V.V.; Martinez, B.J.; Perry, R.T.; Scott, S.C.

    1998-12-31

    The Russian/US Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Kimichesky Kombinat, GKhK, also referred to as Krasnoyarsk-26) Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) project was initiated in June 1996. A critical component of the ongoing cooperative MPC and A enhancements at the GKhK is the implementation of a computerized nuclear material control and accountability (MC and A) system. This system must meet the MC and A requirements of the GKhK by integrating the information generated by numerous existing and new MC and A components in place at the GKhK (e.g., scales, bar-code equipment, NDA measurement systems). During the first phase of this effort, the GKhK adapted CoreMAS (developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory) for use in the PuO{sub 2} storage facility. This included formulation of Web-based user interfaces for plant personnel, Russification of the existing user interface, and at the functional level, modification of the CoreMAS stored procedures. The modified system is referred to as KrasMAS and builds upon completed work on CoreMAS. Ongoing efforts include adding GKhK specific report forms and expanding the functionality of the system for implementation at the radiochemical processing and reactor plants of the GKhK. Collaborations with other Russian facilities for appropriate parts of these efforts will be pursued.

  5. Implementing New Methods of Laser Marking of Items in the Nuclear Material Control and Accountability System at SSC RF-IPPE: An Automated Laser Marking System

    SciTech Connect

    Regoushevsky, V I; Tambovtsev, S D; Dvukhsherstnov, V G; Efimenko, V F; Ilyantsev, A I; Russ III, G P

    2009-05-18

    For over ten years SSC RF-IPPE, together with the US DOE National Laboratories, has been working on implementing automated control and accountability methods for nuclear materials and other items. Initial efforts to use adhesive bar codes or ones printed (painted) onto metal revealed that these methods were inconvenient and lacked durability under operational conditions. For NM disk applications in critical stands, there is the additional requirement that labels not affect the neutron characteristics of the critical assembly. This is particularly true for the many stainless-steel clad disks containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium that are used at SSC RF-IPPE for modeling nuclear power reactors. In search of an alternate method for labeling these disks, we tested several technological options, including laser marking and two-dimensional codes. As a result, the method of laser coloring was chosen in combination with Data Matrix ECC200 symbology. To implement laser marking procedures for the HEU disks and meet all the nuclear material (NM) handling standards and rules, IPPE staff, with U.S. technical and financial support, implemented an automated laser marking system; there are also specially developed procedures for NM movements during laser marking. For the laser marking station, a Zenith 10F system by Telesis Technologies (10 watt Ytterbium Fiber Laser and Merlin software) is used. The presentation includes a flowchart for the automated system and a list of specially developed procedures with comments. Among other things, approaches are discussed for human-factor considerations. To date, markings have been applied to numerous steel-clad HEU disks, and the work continues. In the future this method is expected to be applied to other MC&A items.

  6. Keeping Nuclear Materials Secure

    SciTech Connect

    2016-10-19

    For 50 years, Los Alamos National Laboratory has been helping to keep nuclear materials secure. We do this by developing instruments and training inspectors that are deployed to other countries to make sure materials such as uranium are being used for peaceful purposes and not diverted for use in weapons. These measures are called “nuclear safeguards,” and they help make the world a safer place.

  7. 10 CFR 74.15 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material transaction reports. 74.15 Section 74.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.15 Nuclear material transaction reports....

  8. 10 CFR 74.15 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material transaction reports. 74.15 Section 74.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.15 Nuclear material transaction reports....

  9. 10 CFR 74.15 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material transaction reports. 74.15 Section 74.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.15 Nuclear material transaction reports....

  10. 10 CFR 74.15 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material transaction reports. 74.15 Section 74.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.15 Nuclear material transaction reports....

  11. 10 CFR 74.15 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material transaction reports. 74.15 Section 74.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.15 Nuclear material transaction reports....

  12. NUCLEAR FUEL MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Goeddel, W.V.

    1962-06-26

    An improved method is given for making the carbides of nuclear fuel material. The metal of the fuel material, which may be a fissile and/or fertile material, is transformed into a silicide, after which the silicide is comminuted to the desired particle size. This silicide is then carburized at an elevated temperature, either above or below the melting point of the silicide, to produce an intimate mixture of the carbide of the fuel material and the carbide of silicon. This mixture of the fuel material carbide and the silicon carbide is relatively stable in the presence of moisture and does not exhibit the highly reactive surface condition which is observed with fuel material carbides made by most other known methods. (AEC)

  13. 78 FR 71532 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations and Proposed Guidance for Fuel Cycle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Control and Accounting Regulations and Proposed Guidance for Fuel Cycle Facility Material Control and Accounting Plans and Completing the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Form 327 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... regulations for material control and accounting (MC&A) of special nuclear material (SNM) and the...

  14. 78 FR 79328 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations and Proposed Guidance for Fuel Cycle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... Control and Accounting Regulations and Proposed Guidance for Fuel Cycle Facility Material Control and Accounting Plans and Completing the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Form 327 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... and accounting (MC&A) of special nuclear material (SNM). The public meeting has been rescheduled...

  15. Electrochemically modulated separations for material accountability measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hazelton, Sandra G.; Liezers, Martin; Naes, Benjamin E.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2012-07-08

    A method for the accurate and timely analysis of accountable materials is critical for safeguards measurements in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Non-destructive analysis (NDA) methods, such as gamma spectroscopy, are desirable for their ability to produce near real-time data. However, the high gamma background of the actinides and fission products in spent nuclear fuel limits the use of NDA for real-time online measurements. A simple approach for at-line separation of materials would facilitate the use of at-line detection methods. A promising at-line separation method for plutonium and uranium is electrochemically modulated separations (EMS). Using an electrochemical cell with an anodized glassy carbon electrode, Pu and U oxidation states can be altered by applying an appropriate voltage. Because the affinity of the actinides for the electrode depends on their oxidation states, selective deposition can be turned “on” and “off” with changes in the applied target electrode voltage. A high surface-area cell was designed in house for the separation of Pu from spent nuclear fuel. The cell is shown to capture over 1 µg of material, increasing the likelihood for gamma spectroscopic detection of Pu extracted from dissolver solutions. The large surface area of the electrode also reduces the impact of competitive interferences from some fission products. Flow rates of up to 1 mL min-1 with >50% analyte deposition efficiency are possible, allowing for rapid separations to be effected. Results from the increased surface-area EMS cell are presented, including dilute dissolver solution simulant data.

  16. Anomaly detection applied to a materials control and accounting database

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteson, R.; Spanks, L.; Yarbro, T.

    1995-09-01

    An important component of the national mission of reducing the nuclear danger includes accurate recording of the processing and transportation of nuclear materials. Nuclear material storage facilities, nuclear chemical processing plants, and nuclear fuel fabrication facilities collect and store large amounts of data describing transactions that involve nuclear materials. To maintain confidence in the integrity of these data, it is essential to identify anomalies in the databases. Anomalous data could indicate error, theft, or diversion of material. Yet, because of the complex and diverse nature of the data, analysis and evaluation are extremely tedious. This paper describes the authors work in the development of analysis tools to automate the anomaly detection process for the Material Accountability and Safeguards System (MASS) that tracks and records the activities associated with accountable quantities of nuclear material at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Using existing guidelines that describe valid transactions, the authors have created an expert system that identifies transactions that do not conform to the guidelines. Thus, this expert system can be used to focus the attention of the expert or inspector directly on significant phenomena.

  17. Investigation of the effects of correlated measurement errors in time series analysis techniques applied to nuclear material accountancy data. [Program COVAR

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, D.H.; Morrison, G.W.; Downing, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    It has been shown in previous work that the Kalman Filter and Linear Smoother produces optimal estimates of inventory and loss from a material balance area. The assumptions of the Kalman Filter/Linear Smoother approach assume no correlation between inventory measurement error nor does it allow for serial correlation in these measurement errors. The purpose of this report is to extend the previous results by relaxing these assumptions to allow for correlation of measurement errors. The results show how to account for correlated measurement errors in the linear system model of the Kalman Filter/Linear Smoother. An algorithm is also included for calculating the required error covariance matrices.

  18. Global nuclear material flow/control model

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.S.; Fasel, P.K.; Riese, J.M.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of an international regime for nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool which treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. The prototype model developed visually represents the fundamental data, information, and capabilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle in a framework supportive of national or an international perspective. This includes an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, facility specific geographic identification, and the capability to estimate resource requirements for the management and control of nuclear material. The model establishes the foundation for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material and supports the development of other pertinent algorithmic capabilities necessary to undertake further global nuclear material related studies.

  19. Nuclear material control in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeger, C.; Waddoups, I.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy has defined a safeguards system to be an integrated system of physical protection, material accounting and material control subsystems designed to deter, prevent, detect, and respond to unauthorized possession, use, or sabotage of SNM. In practice, safeguards involve the development and application of techniques and procedures dealing with the establishment and continued maintenance of a system of activities. The system must also include administrative controls and surveillance to assure that the procedures and techniques of the system are effective and are being carried out. The control of nuclear material is critical to the safeguarding of nuclear materials within the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy includes as part of material control four functional performance areas. They include access controls, material surveillance, material containment and detection/assessment. This paper will address not only these areas but also the relationship between material control and other safeguards and security functions.

  20. IMPORTANCE OF MATERIAL BALANCES AND THEIR STATISTICAL EVALUATION IN RUSSIAN MATERIAL, PROTECTION, CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING

    SciTech Connect

    FISHBONE,L.G.

    1999-07-25

    While substantial work has been performed in the Russian MPC&A Program, much more needs to be done at Russian nuclear facilities to complete four necessary steps. These are (1) periodically measuring the physical inventory of nuclear material, (2) continuously measuring the flows of nuclear material, (3) using the results to close the material balance, particularly at bulk processing facilities, and (4) statistically evaluating any apparent loss of nuclear material. The periodic closing of material balances provides an objective test of the facility's system of nuclear material protection, control and accounting. The statistical evaluation using the uncertainties associated with individual measurement systems involved in the calculation of the material balance provides a fair standard for concluding whether the apparent loss of nuclear material means a diversion or whether the facility's accounting system needs improvement. In particular, if unattractive flow material at a facility is not measured well, the accounting system cannot readily detect the loss of attractive material if the latter substantially derives from the former.

  1. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    SciTech Connect

    Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  2. Materials challenges for nuclear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Todd; Busby, Jeremy; Meyer, Mitch; Petti, David

    2010-11-26

    The safe and economical operation of any nuclear power system relies to a great extent, on the success of the fuel and the materials of construction. During the lifetime of a nuclear power system which currently can be as long as 60 years, the materials are subject to high temperature, a corrosive environment, and damage from high-energy particles released during fission. The fuel which provides the power for the reactor has a much shorter life but is subject to the same types of harsh environments. This article reviews the environments in which fuels and materials from current and proposed nuclear systems operate and then describes how the creation of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility is allowing researchers from across the U.S. to test their ideas for improved fuels and materials.

  3. Navy Stock Account (NSA) Material Expenditure Errors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    AD-A241 855 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California ,.V ST A C -,. S ’GR t- D TIQ : 0T.281 " THESIS & NAVY STOCK ACCOUNT (NSA: ATEP.AL...Stock Account (NSA) Material Expenditure Errors 12, PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Magsombol, Anacleto M. 13a TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 14 DATE OF REPORT (Year...Continue on reverse if necessary andl identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Expenditures, Navy Stock Account (NSA), Recon- ciliation Process

  4. Materials Science for Nuclear Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Peurrung, Anthony J.

    2008-03-01

    In response to the elevated importance of nuclear detection technology, a variety of research efforts have sought to accelerate the discovery and development of useful new radiation detection materials These efforts have goals such as improving our understanding of how these materials perform, supporting the development of formalized discovery tools, or enabling rapid and effective performance characterization. This article provides an overview of these efforts along with an introduction to the history, physics, and taxonomy of these materials.

  5. Nuclear Forensic Materials and Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheon, I. D.; Grant, P. M.; Moody, K. J.

    A short history and treatment of the various aspects of nuclear forensic analysis is followed by a discussion of the most common chemical procedures, including applications of tracers, radioisotopic generators, and sample chronometry. Analytic methodology discussed includes sample preparation, radiation detection, various forms of microscopy, and mass-spectrometric techniques. The chapter concludes with methods for the production and treatment of special nuclear materials and with a description of several actual case studies conducted at Livermore.

  6. Materials Challenges in Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, Steven J; Was, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power currently provides about 13% of the worldwide electrical power, and has emerged as a reliable baseload source of electricity. A number of materials challenges must be successfully resolved for nuclear energy to continue to make further improvements in reliability, safety and economics. The operating environment for materials in current and proposed future nuclear energy systems is summarized, along with a description of materials used for the main operating components. Materials challenges associated with power uprates and extensions of the operating lifetimes of reactors are described. The three major materials challenges for the current and next generation of water-cooled fission reactors are centered on two structural materials aging degradation issues (corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of structural materials and neutron-induced embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels), along with improved fuel system reliability and accident tolerance issues. The major corrosion and stress corrosion cracking degradation mechanisms for light water reactors are reviewed. The materials degradation issues for the Zr alloy clad UO2 fuel system currently utilized in the majority of commercial nuclear power plants is discussed for normal and off-normal operating conditions. Looking to proposed future (Generation IV) fission and fusion energy systems, there are 5 key bulk radiation degradation effects (low temperature radiation hardening and embrittlement, radiation-induced and modified solute segregation and phase stability, irradiation creep, void swelling, and high temperature helium embrittlement) and a multitude of corrosion and stress corrosion cracking effects (including irradiation-assisted phenomena) that can have a major impact on the performance of structural materials.

  7. Nuclear and hazardous material perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Sandquist, Gary M.; Kunze, Jay F.; Rogers, Vern C.

    2007-07-01

    The reemerging nuclear enterprise in the 21. century empowering the power industry and nuclear technology is still viewed with fear and concern by many of the public and many political leaders. Nuclear phobia is also exhibited by many nuclear professionals. The fears and concerns of these groups are complex and varied, but focus primarily on (1) management and disposal of radioactive waste [especially spent nuclear fuel and low level radioactive waste], (2) radiation exposures at any level, and (3) the threat nuclear terrorism. The root cause of all these concerns is the exaggerated risk perceived to human health from radiation exposure. These risks from radiation exposure are compounded by the universal threat of nuclear weapons and the disastrous consequences if these weapons or materials become available to terrorists or rogue nations. This paper addresses the bases and rationality for these fears and considers methods and options for mitigating these fears. Scientific evidence and actual data are provided. Radiation risks are compared to similar risks from common chemicals and familiar human activities that are routinely accepted. (authors)

  8. Materials challenges for nuclear systems

    DOE PAGES

    Allen, Todd; Busby, Jeremy; Meyer, Mitch; ...

    2010-11-26

    The safe and economical operation of any nuclear power system relies to a great extent, on the success of the fuel and the materials of construction. During the lifetime of a nuclear power system which currently can be as long as 60 years, the materials are subject to high temperature, a corrosive environment, and damage from high-energy particles released during fission. The fuel which provides the power for the reactor has a much shorter life but is subject to the same types of harsh environments. This article reviews the environments in which fuels and materials from current and proposed nuclearmore » systems operate and then describes how the creation of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility is allowing researchers from across the U.S. to test their ideas for improved fuels and materials.« less

  9. 78 FR 67223 - Proposed Guidance for Fuel Cycle Facility; Material Control and Accounting Plans and Completing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... for Fuel Cycle Facility; Material Control and Accounting Plans and Completing NRC Form 327 and Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78... and Accounting Plans and Completing NRC Form 327 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION:...

  10. Accounting for the Material Stock of Nations.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Tomer; Schandl, Heinz; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Walker, Paul; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2014-05-01

    National material stock (MS) accounts have been a neglected field of analysis in industrial ecology, possibly because of the difficulty in establishing such accounts. In this research, we propose a novel method to model national MS based on historical material flow data. This enables us to avoid the laborious data work involved with bottom-up accounts for stocks and to arrive at plausible levels of stock accumulation for nations. We apply the method for the United States and Japan to establish a proof of concept for two very different cases of industrial development. Looking at a period of 75 years (1930-2005), we find that per capita MS has been much higher in the United States for the entire period, but that Japan has experienced much higher growth rates throughout, in line with Japan's late industrial development. By 2005, however, both Japan and the United States arrive at a very similar level of national MS of 310 to 375 tonnes per capita, respectively. This research provides new insight into the relationship between MS and flows in national economies and enables us to extend the debate about material efficiency from a narrow perspective of throughput to a broader perspective of stocks.

  11. Accounting for the Material Stock of Nations

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Tomer; Schandl, Heinz; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Walker, Paul; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2014-01-01

    National material stock (MS) accounts have been a neglected field of analysis in industrial ecology, possibly because of the difficulty in establishing such accounts. In this research, we propose a novel method to model national MS based on historical material flow data. This enables us to avoid the laborious data work involved with bottom-up accounts for stocks and to arrive at plausible levels of stock accumulation for nations. We apply the method for the United States and Japan to establish a proof of concept for two very different cases of industrial development. Looking at a period of 75 years (1930–2005), we find that per capita MS has been much higher in the United States for the entire period, but that Japan has experienced much higher growth rates throughout, in line with Japan's late industrial development. By 2005, however, both Japan and the United States arrive at a very similar level of national MS of 310 to 375 tonnes per capita, respectively. This research provides new insight into the relationship between MS and flows in national economies and enables us to extend the debate about material efficiency from a narrow perspective of throughput to a broader perspective of stocks. PMID:25505368

  12. Special nuclear material simulation device

    DOEpatents

    Leckey, John H.; DeMint, Amy; Gooch, Jack; Hawk, Todd; Pickett, Chris A.; Blessinger, Chris; York, Robbie L.

    2014-08-12

    An apparatus for simulating special nuclear material is provided. The apparatus typically contains a small quantity of special nuclear material (SNM) in a configuration that simulates a much larger quantity of SNM. Generally the apparatus includes a spherical shell that is formed from an alloy containing a small quantity of highly enriched uranium. Also typically provided is a core of depleted uranium. A spacer, typically aluminum, may be used to separate the depleted uranium from the shell of uranium alloy. A cladding, typically made of titanium, is provided to seal the source. Methods are provided to simulate SNM for testing radiation monitoring portals. Typically the methods use at least one primary SNM spectral line and exclude at least one secondary SNM spectral line.

  13. Material control and accountancy at EDF PWR plants; GCN: Gestion du Combustible Nucleaire

    SciTech Connect

    de Cormis, F. )

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the comprehensive system which is developed and implemented at Electricite de France to provide a single reliable nuclear material control and accounting system for all nuclear plants. This software aims at several objectives among which are: the control and the accountancy of nuclear material at the plant, the optimization of the consistency of data by minimizing the possibility of transcription errors, the fulfillment of the statutory requirements by automatic transfer of reports to national and international safeguards authorities, the servicing of other EDF users of nuclear material data for technical or commercial purposes.

  14. Coprecal: materials accounting in the modified process

    SciTech Connect

    Dayem, H.A.; Kern, E.A.; Shipley, J.P.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an advanced materials accounting system for a uranium-plutonium nitrate-to-oxide coconversion facility based on the General Electric Coprecal process as modified by Savannah River Laboratory and Plant and DuPont Engineering. The modifications include adding small aliquot tanks to feed the process and reconfiguring the calciner filter systems. Diversion detection sensitivities for the modified Coprecal process are somewhat better than the original Coprecal design, but they are still significantly worse than a same-sized conversion facility based on the oxalate (III) precipitation process.

  15. MAC, material accounting database user guide

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-09-22

    The K Basins Material Accounting (MAC) database system user guide describes the user features and functions, and the document is structured like the database menus. This document presents the MAC database system user instructions which explain how to record the movements and configuration of canisters and materials within the K Basins on the computer, the mechanics of handling encapsulation tracking, and administrative functions associated with the system. This document includes the user instructions, which also serve as the software requirements specification for the system implemented on the microcomputer. This includes suggested user keystrokes, examples of screens displayed by the system, and reports generated by the system. It shows how the system is organized, via menus and screens. It does not explain system design nor provide programmer instructions.

  16. Fieldable Nuclear Material Identification System

    SciTech Connect

    Radle, James E; Archer, Daniel E; Carter, Robert J; Mullens, James Allen; Mihalczo, John T; Britton Jr, Charles L; Lind, Randall F; Wright, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    The Fieldable Nuclear Material Identification System (FNMIS), funded by the NA-241 Office of Dismantlement and Transparency, provides information to determine the material attributes and identity of heavily shielded nuclear objects. This information will provide future treaty participants with verifiable information required by the treaty regime. The neutron interrogation technology uses a combination of information from induced fission neutron radiation and transmitted neutron imaging information to provide high confidence that the shielded item is consistent with the host's declaration. The combination of material identification information and the shape and configuration of the item are very difficult to spoof. When used at various points in the warhead dismantlement sequence, the information complimented by tags and seals can be used to track subassembly and piece part information as the disassembly occurs. The neutron transmission imaging has been developed during the last seven years and the signature analysis over the last several decades. The FNMIS is the culmination of the effort to put the technology in a usable configuration for potential treaty verification purposes.

  17. Statistical methods for nuclear material management

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen W.M.; Bennett, C.A.

    1988-12-01

    This book is intended as a reference manual of statistical methodology for nuclear material management practitioners. It describes statistical methods currently or potentially important in nuclear material management, explains the choice of methods for specific applications, and provides examples of practical applications to nuclear material management problems. Together with the accompanying training manual, which contains fully worked out problems keyed to each chapter, this book can also be used as a textbook for courses in statistical methods for nuclear material management. It should provide increased understanding and guidance to help improve the application of statistical methods to nuclear material management problems.

  18. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) Advanced Integration Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Durkee, Joe W.; Cipiti, Ben; Demuth, Scott Francis; Fallgren, Andrew James; Jarman, Ken; Li, Shelly; Meier, Dave; Miller, Mike; Osburn, Laura Ann; Pereira, Candido; Dasari, Venkateswara Rao; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Yoo, Tae-Sic

    2016-09-30

    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal (Miller, 2015). This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling, simulation and integration.

  19. Safeguarding nuclear materials in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Erkkila, B.

    1995-12-31

    This article is a discussion of the safeguarding of nuclear materials in the states of the former Soviet Union. Several issues have been identified and improvements are being pursued at many facilities. These issues include: (1) improvements to existing computerized accounting systems, (2) access control, and (3) control of material movement.

  20. Techniques and methods in nuclear materials traceability

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, P.J.

    1996-08-01

    The nonproliferation community is currently addressing concerns that the access to special nuclear materials may increase the illicit trafficking in weapons-usable materials from civil and/or weapons material stores and/or fuel cycles systems. Illicit nuclear traffic usually involves reduced quantities of nuclear materials perhaps as samplings of a potential protracted diversionary flow from sources to users. To counter illicit nuclear transactions requires the development of techniques and methods in nuclear material traceability as an important phase of a broad forensic analysis capability. This report discusses how isotopic signatures and correlation methods were applied to determine the origins of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and Plutonium samples reported as illicit trafficking in nuclear materials.

  1. 10 CFR 74.17 - Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report. 74.17 Section 74.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.17 Special...

  2. 10 CFR 74.17 - Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report. 74.17 Section 74.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.17 Special...

  3. 10 CFR 74.17 - Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report. 74.17 Section 74.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.17 Special...

  4. 10 CFR 74.17 - Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report. 74.17 Section 74.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.17 Special...

  5. 10 CFR 74.17 - Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special nuclear material physical inventory summary report. 74.17 Section 74.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 74.17 Special...

  6. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  7. Management of Global Nuclear Materials for International Security

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, T; Choi, J-S

    2003-09-18

    Nuclear materials were first used to end the World War II. They were produced and maintained during the cold war for global security reasons. In the succeeding 50 years since the Atoms for Peace Initiative, nuclear materials were produced and used in global civilian reactors and fuel cycles intended for peaceful purposes. The Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1970 established a framework for appropriate applications of both defense and civilian nuclear activities by nuclear weapons states and non-nuclear weapons states. As global inventories of nuclear materials continue to grow, in a diverse and dynamically changing manner, it is time to evaluate current and future trends and needed actions: what are the current circumstances, what has been done to date, what has worked and what hasn't? The aim is to identify mutually reinforcing programmatic directions, leading to global partnerships that measurably enhance international security. Essential elements are material protection, control and accountability (MPC&A) of separated nuclear materials, interim storage, and geologic repositories for all nuclear materials destined for final disposal. Cooperation among key partners, such as the MPC&A program between the U.S. and Russia for nuclear materials from dismantled weapons, is necessary for interim storage and final disposal of nuclear materials. Such cooperative partnerships can lead to a new nuclear regime where a complete fuel cycle service with fuel leasing and spent fuel take-back can be offered to reactor users. The service can effectively minimize or even eliminate the incentive or rationale for the user-countries to develop their indigenous enrichment and reprocessing technologies. International cooperation, supported by governments of key countries can be best to facilitate the forum for formation of such cooperative partnerships.

  8. The nuclear materials control technology briefing book

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J.K.; Fernandez, S.J.

    1992-03-01

    As national and international interests in nuclear arms control and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, intensify, it becomes ever more important that contributors be aware of the technologies available for the measurement and control of the nuclear materials important to nuclear weapons development. This briefing book presents concise, nontechnical summaries of various special nuclear material (SNM) and tritium production monitoring technologies applicable to the control of nuclear materials and their production. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) operates a multinational, on-site-inspector-based safeguards program in support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), many (but not all) of the technologies reported in this document are in routine use or under development for IAEA safeguards.

  9. Nuclear materials safeguards for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Tape, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    Basic concepts of domestic and international safeguards are described, with an emphasis on safeguards systems for the fuel cycles of commercial power reactors. Future trends in institutional and technical measures for nuclear materials safeguards are outlined. The conclusion is that continued developments in safeguards approaches and technology, coupled with institutional measures that facilitate the global management and protection of nuclear materials, are up to the challenge of safeguarding the growing inventories of nuclear materials in commercial fuel cycles in technologically advanced States with stable governments that have signed the nonproliferation treaty. These same approaches also show promise for facilitating international inspection of excess weapons materials and verifying a fissile materials cutoff convention.

  10. Metabonomics for detection of nuclear materials processing.

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Todd Michael; Luxon, Bruce A.; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Ansari, S.; Volk, David; Sarkar, S.; Alam, Mary Kathleen

    2010-08-01

    Tracking nuclear materials production and processing, particularly covert operations, is a key national security concern, given that nuclear materials processing can be a signature of nuclear weapons activities by US adversaries. Covert trafficking can also result in homeland security threats, most notably allowing terrorists to assemble devices such as dirty bombs. Existing methods depend on isotope analysis and do not necessarily detect chronic low-level exposure. In this project, indigenous organisms such as plants, small mammals, and bacteria are utilized as living sensors for the presence of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Such 'metabolic fingerprinting' (or 'metabonomics') employs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess alterations in organismal metabolism provoked by the environmental presence of nuclear materials processing, for example the tributyl phosphate employed in the processing of spent reactor fuel rods to extract and purify uranium and plutonium for weaponization.

  11. Detection Of Special Nuclear Materials Tagged Neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Deyglun, Clement; Perot, Bertrand; Carasco, Cedric; Sannie, Guillaume; Gameiro, Jordan; Corre, Gwenole; Boudergui, Karim; Konzdrasovs, Vladimir; Normand, Stephane; Cusset, Eric

    2015-07-01

    In order to detect Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) in unattended luggage or cargo containers in the field of homeland security, fissions are induced by 14 MeV neutrons produced by an associated particle DT neutron generator, and prompt fission particles correlated with tagged neutron are detected by plastic scintillators. SMN produce high multiplicity events due to induced fissions, whereas nonnuclear materials produce low multiplicity events due to cross-talk, (n,2n) or (n,n'γ) reactions. The data acquisition electronics is made of compact FPGA boards. The coincidence window is triggered by the alpha particle detection, allowing to tag the emission date and direction of the 14 MeV interrogating neutron. The first part of the paper presents experiment vs. calculation comparisons to validate MCNP-PoliMi simulations and the post-processing tools developed with the data analysis framework ROOT. Measurements have been performed using different targets (iron, lead, graphite), first with small plastic scintillators (10 x 10 x 10 cm{sup 3}) and then with large detectors (10 x 10 x 100 cm{sup 3}) to demonstrate that nuclear materials can be differentiated from nonnuclear dense materials (iron, lead) in iron and wood matrixes. A special attention is paid on SNM detection in abandoned luggage. In the second part of the paper, the performances of a cargo container inspection system are studied by numerical simulation, following previous work reported in. Detectors dimensions and shielding against the neutron generator background are optimized for container inspection. Events not correlated to an alpha particle (uncorrelated background), counting statistics, time and energy resolutions of the data acquisition system are all taken into account in a realistic numerical model. The impact of the container matrix (iron, ceramic, wood) has been investigated by studying the system capability to detect a few kilograms of SNM in different positions in the cargo container, within 10

  12. Integrated safeguards & security for material protection, accounting, and control.

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2009-10-01

    Traditional safeguards and security design for fuel cycle facilities is done separately and after the facility design is near completion. This can result in higher costs due to retrofits and redundant use of data. Future facilities will incorporate safeguards and security early in the design process and integrate the systems to make better use of plant data and strengthen both systems. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the integration of materials control and accounting (MC&A) measurements with physical security design for a nuclear reprocessing plant. Locations throughout the plant where data overlap occurs or where MC&A data could be a benefit were identified. This mapping is presented along with the methodology for including the additional data in existing probabilistic assessments to evaluate safeguards and security systems designs.

  13. Using bar codes for material control and accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, B.

    1997-04-01

    Modern computers have become an important part of almost all business operations, including nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A). However the effectiveness of any computer hardware/software system is a function of the input data provided to it. To maximize the benefit from a computer, timely (ideally, real-time) and accurate data are required. This paper presents the benefits of using automatic data collection, and more specifically bar code technology. Bar coding is a simple and cost effective keyless data entry solution that has been widely adopted in world commerce and government agencies. Since its introduction to the first MINATOM facility in 1995, bar code activities at other facilities have increased. Tasks to integrate bar code technology with computerized MC&A, equipment, and training workshops have been an important part of the USDOE/MINATOM collaboration.

  14. 76 FR 28193 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 72, 74, and 150 RIN 3150-AI61 Amendments to Material Control and Accounting... proposed rule language concerning the NRC's proposed amendments to the material control and accounting (MC... FNMC is an outdated term, as it does not include ``accounting,'' and thus does not fully describe...

  15. 10 CFR 60.78 - Material control and accounting records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Material control and accounting records and reports. 60.78 Section 60.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Records, Reports, Tests, and Inspections § 60.78 Material control...

  16. 10 CFR 60.78 - Material control and accounting records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material control and accounting records and reports. 60.78 Section 60.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Records, Reports, Tests, and Inspections § 60.78 Material control...

  17. 10 CFR 60.78 - Material control and accounting records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Material control and accounting records and reports. 60.78 Section 60.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Records, Reports, Tests, and Inspections § 60.78 Material control...

  18. 10 CFR 60.78 - Material control and accounting records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Material control and accounting records and reports. 60.78 Section 60.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Records, Reports, Tests, and Inspections § 60.78 Material control...

  19. 10 CFR 60.78 - Material control and accounting records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Material control and accounting records and reports. 60.78 Section 60.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Records, Reports, Tests, and Inspections § 60.78 Material control...

  20. 10 CFR 76.111 - Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information. 76.111 Section 76.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.111 Physical security, material...

  1. 10 CFR 76.111 - Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information. 76.111 Section 76.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.111 Physical security, material...

  2. 10 CFR 76.111 - Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information. 76.111 Section 76.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.111 Physical security, material...

  3. 10 CFR 76.111 - Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information. 76.111 Section 76.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.111 Physical security, material...

  4. 10 CFR 76.111 - Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information. 76.111 Section 76.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.111 Physical security, material...

  5. Selecting and using materials for a nuclear rocket engine reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanin, Anatolii G.; Fedik, Ivan I.

    2011-03-01

    This paper provides a historical account of how the nuclear rocket engine reactor was created and discusses the problem of selecting materials for a gas environment at a temperature of up to 3100 K and energy release of 30 MW per liter.

  6. 78 FR 67225 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 40, 70, 72, 74, and 150 RIN 3150-AI61 Amendments to Material Control and Accounting... Commission (NRC) is proposing to amend its regulations for material control and accounting (MC&A) of special... would requirements be added to designate material balance areas, item control areas, and custodians?...

  7. Thermodynamics of Asymmetric Nuclear Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Alan; Bonasera, A.; Cammarata, P. J.; Hagel, K.; Kohley, Z.; Heilborn, L.; Mabiala, J.; May, L. W.; Marini, P.; Raphelt, A.; Souliotis, G. A.; Wuenschel, S.; Zarrella, A.; Zheng, H.; Yennello, S. J.

    2013-10-01

    The nuclear caloric curve is observed to depend on the neutron-proton asymmetry. Three independent methods, each with multiple probes, are used to extract the temperatures of excited emitting sources. A linear decrease in the temperature with increasing neutron excess is observed for all 12 probes studied. Comparison of these results to theoretical model calculations may allow further characterization of the nuclear equation of state, in particular the asymmetry energy.

  8. The U.S. national nuclear forensics library, nuclear materials information program, and data dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    Lamont, Stephen Philip; Brisson, Marcia; Curry, Michael

    2011-02-17

    Nuclear forensics assessments to determine material process history requires careful comparison of sample data to both measured and modeled nuclear material characteristics. Developing centralized databases, or nuclear forensics libraries, to house this information is an important step to ensure all relevant data will be available for comparison during a nuclear forensics analysis and help expedite the assessment of material history. The approach most widely accepted by the international community at this time is the implementation of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, which would be developed and maintained by individual nations. This is an attractive alternative toan international database since it provides an understanding that each country has data on materials produced and stored within their borders, but eliminates the need to reveal any proprietary or sensitive information to other nations. To support the concept of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, the United States Department of Energy has developed a model library, based on a data dictionary, or set of parameters designed to capture all nuclear forensic relevant information about a nuclear material. Specifically, information includes material identification, collection background and current location, analytical laboratories where measurements were made, material packaging and container descriptions, physical characteristics including mass and dimensions, chemical and isotopic characteristics, particle morphology or metallurgical properties, process history including facilities, and measurement quality assurance information. While not necessarily required, it may also be valuable to store modeled data sets including reactor burn-up or enrichment cascade data for comparison. It is fully expected that only a subset of this information is available or relevant to many materials, and much of the data populating a National Nuclear Forensics library would be process analytical or material accountability

  9. Nuclear materials stewardship: Our enduring mission

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, T.H.

    1998-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have handled a remarkably wide variety of nuclear materials over the past 50 yr. Two fundamental changes have occurred that shape the current landscape regarding nuclear materials. If one recognizes the implications and opportunities, one sees that the stewardship of nuclear materials will be a fundamental and important job of the DOE for the foreseeable future. The first change--the breakup of the Soviet Union and the resulting end to the nuclear arms race--altered US objectives. Previously, the focus was on materials production, weapon design, nuclear testing, and stockpile enhancements. Now the attention is on dismantlement of weapons, excess special nuclear material inventories, accompanying increased concern over the protection afforded to such materials; new arms control measures; and importantly, maintenance of the safety and reliability of the remaining arsenal without testing. The second change was the raised consciousness and sense of responsibility for dealing with the environmental legacies of past nuclear arms programs. Recognition of the need to clean up radioactive contamination, manage the wastes, conduct current operations responsibly, and restore the environment have led to the establishment of what is now the largest program in the DOE. Two additional features add to the challenge and drive the need for recognition of nuclear materials stewardship as a fundamental, enduring, and compelling mission of the DOE. The first is the extraordinary time frames. No matter what the future of nuclear weapons and no matter what the future of nuclear power, the DOE will be responsible for most of the country`s nuclear materials and wastes for generations. Even if the Yucca Mountain program is successful and on schedule, it will last more than 100 yr. Second, the use, management, and disposition of nuclear materials and wastes affect a variety of nationally important and diverse objectives, from national

  10. Applied Nuclear Accountability Systems: A Case Study in the System Architecture and Development of NuMAC

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Andrea Beth

    2004-07-01

    This is a case study of the NuMAC nuclear accountability system developed at a private fuel fabrication facility. This paper investigates nuclear material accountability and safeguards by researching expert knowledge applied in the system design and development. Presented is a system developed to detect and deter the theft of weapons grade nuclear material. Examined is the system architecture that includes: issues for the design and development of the system; stakeholder issues; how the system was built and evolved; software design, database design, and development tool considerations; security and computing ethics. (author)

  11. Nuclear Materials Safeguards - Manpower Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Manuel A.

    Nuclear safeguard systems, their operation and implications for future manpower needs, and the need for these topics to be integrated into the engineering education curriculum, are focused on in this paper. The elements of a safeguard system and factors influencing the selection of a particular system are presented. Projections concerning the use…

  12. Nuclear Concrete Materials Database Phase I Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju; Naus, Dan J

    2012-05-01

    The FY 2011 accomplishments in Phase I development of the Nuclear Concrete Materials Database to support the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program are summarized. The database has been developed using the ORNL materials database infrastructure established for the Gen IV Materials Handbook to achieve cost reduction and development efficiency. In this Phase I development, the database has been successfully designed and constructed to manage documents in the Portable Document Format generated from the Structural Materials Handbook that contains nuclear concrete materials data and related information. The completion of the Phase I database has established a solid foundation for Phase II development, in which a digital database will be designed and constructed to manage nuclear concrete materials data in various digitized formats to facilitate electronic and mathematical processing for analysis, modeling, and design applications.

  13. Assessing the integrity of local area network materials accountability systems against insider threats

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.; Sicherman, A.

    1996-07-01

    DOE facilities rely increasingly on computerized systems to manage nuclear materials accountability data and to protect against diversion of nuclear materials or other malevolent acts (e.g., hoax due to falsified data) by insider threats. Aspects of modern computerized material accountability (MA) systems including powerful personal computers and applications on networks, mixed security environments, and more users with increased knowledge, skills and abilities help heighten the concern about insider threats to the integrity of the system. In this paper, we describe a methodology for assessing MA applications to help decision makers identify ways of and compare options for preventing or mitigating possible additional risks from the insider threat. We illustrate insights from applying the methodology to local area network materials accountability systems.

  14. PLANNING AND COORDINATION OF ACTIVITIES SUPPORTING THE RUSSIAN SYSTEM OF CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS AT ROSATOM FACILITIES IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE U.S.-RUSSIAN COOPERATION.

    SciTech Connect

    SVIRIDOVA, V.V.; ERASTOV, V.V.; ISAEV, N.V.; ROMANOV, V.A.; RUDENKO, V.S.; SVIRIDOV, A.S.; TITOV, G.V.; JENSEN, B.; NEYMOTIN, L.; SANDERS, J.

    2005-05-16

    The MC&A Equipment and Methodological Support Strategic Plan (MEMS SP) for implementing modern MC&A equipment and methodologies at Rosatom facilities has been developed within the framework of the U.S.-Russian MPC&A Program. This plan developed by the Rosatom's Russian MC&A Equipment and Methodologies (MEM) Working Group and is coordinated by that group with support and coordination provided by the MC&A Measurements Project, Office of National Infrastructure and Sustainability, US DOE. Implementation of different tasks of the MEMS Strategic Plan is coordinated by Rosatom and US-DOE in cooperation with different U.S.-Russian MC&A-related working groups and joint site project teams. This cooperation allows to obtain and analyze information about problems, current needs and successes at Rosatom facilities and facilitates solution of the problems, satisfying the facilities' needs and effective exchange of expertise and lessons learned. The objective of the MEMS Strategic Plan is to enhance effectiveness of activities implementing modern equipment and methodologies in the Russian State MC&A system. These activities are conducted within the joint Russian-US MPC&A program aiming at reduction of possibility for theft or diversion of nuclear materials and enhancement of control of nuclear materials.

  15. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    2004-02-04

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited.

  16. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.

    2005-09-30

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. This work provides the underpinning science to develop improved glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposition of high-level tank waste, excess plutonium, plutonium residues and scrap, other actinides, and other nuclear waste streams. Furthermore, this work is developing develop predictive models for the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Thus, the research performed under this project has significant implications for the immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Nuclear Materials, two mission areas within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). With regard to the HLW mission, this research will lead to improved understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials mission, this research will lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. The research uses plutonium incorporation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of alpha decay and beta decay on relevant glasses and ceramics. The research under this project has the potential to result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials.

  17. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. This work provides the underpinning science to develop improved glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposition of high-level tank waste, excess plutonium, plutonium residues and scrap, other actinides, and other nuclear waste streams. Furthermore, this work is developing develop predictive models for the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Thus, the research performed under this project has significant implications for the immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Nuclear Materials, two mission areas within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). With regard to the HLW mission, this research will lead to improved understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials mission, this research will lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. The research uses plutonium incorporation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of alpha decay and beta decay on relevant glasses and ceramics. The research under this project has the potential to result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials.

  18. 10 CFR 63.78 - Material control and accounting records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material control and accounting records and reports. 63.78 Section 63.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Records, Reports, Tests, and Inspections §...

  19. 10 CFR 63.78 - Material control and accounting records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Material control and accounting records and reports. 63.78 Section 63.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Records, Reports, Tests, and Inspections §...

  20. 10 CFR 63.78 - Material control and accounting records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Material control and accounting records and reports. 63.78 Section 63.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Records, Reports, Tests, and Inspections §...

  1. 10 CFR 63.78 - Material control and accounting records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Material control and accounting records and reports. 63.78 Section 63.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Records, Reports, Tests, and Inspections §...

  2. 10 CFR 63.78 - Material control and accounting records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Material control and accounting records and reports. 63.78 Section 63.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Records, Reports, Tests, and Inspections §...

  3. Materials analysis with a nuclear microprobe

    SciTech Connect

    Maggiore, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The ability to produce focused beams of a few MeV light ions from Van de Graaff accelerators has resulted in the development of nuclear microprobes. Rutherford backscattering, nuclear reactions, and particle-induced x-ray emission are used to provide spatially resolved information from the near surface region of materials. Rutherford backscattering provides nondestructive depth and mass resolution. Nuclear reactions are sensitive to light elements (Z < 15). Particle-induced x-ray analysis is similar to electron microprobe analysis, but 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive. The focused beams are usually produced with specially designed multiplets of magnetic quadrupoles. The LASL microprobe uses a superconducting solenoid as a final lens. The data are acquired by a computer interfaced to the experiment with CAMAC. The characteristics of the information acquired with a nuclear microprobe are discussed; the means of producing the beams of nuclear particles are described; and the limitations and applications of such systems are given.

  4. Systems Analysis for Material Control and Accountancy Technology (SAMCAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, P.J., Bucher, R.G.; Rothman, A.B.; Cha, B.K.

    1990-01-01

    The Systems Analysis for Material Control and Accountancy Technology (SAMCAT) is an interactive computer-based management system developed for the Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security, to assist in defining and prioritizing measurement upgrades programs for Material Control and Accountancy (MC A). The accountancy upgrades options evaluated by SAMCAT in this study are: (1) improvement of the uncertainties in the SNM measurement methods, (2) reduction of throughputs and/or inventories of SNM, and (3) reduction of the material balance accounting period. The goals of the MC A upgrades program are reduced inventory differences and associated uncertainties, improved detection probabilities for theft/diversion, decreased operating costs, and enhanced material traceability. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.; Corrales, L. Rene; Ness, Nancy J.; Williford, Ralph E.; Heinisch, Howard L.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; McGrail, B. Peter; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Song, Jakyoung; Park, Byeongwon; Jiang, Weilin; Begg, Bruce D.; Birtcher, R. B.; Chen, X.; Conradson, Steven D.

    2000-10-02

    Radiation effects from the decay of radionuclides may impact the long-term performance and stability of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. In an effort to address these concerns, the objective of this project was the development of fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, particularly on solid-state radiation effects and their influence on aqueous dissolution kinetics. This study has employed experimental, theoretical and computer simulation methods to obtain new results and insights into radiation damage processes and to initiate the development of predictive models. Consequently, the research that has been performed under this project has significant implications for the High-Level Waste and Nuclear Materials focus areas within the current DOE/EM mission. In the High-Level Waste (HLW) focus area, the results of this research could lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials focus area, the results of this research could lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. Ultimately, this research could result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials.

  6. 18 CFR 3a.71 - Accountability for classified material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accountability for classified material. 3a.71 Section 3a.71 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Accountability for...

  7. 18 CFR 3a.71 - Accountability for classified material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accountability for classified material. 3a.71 Section 3a.71 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Accountability for...

  8. 18 CFR 3a.71 - Accountability for classified material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accountability for classified material. 3a.71 Section 3a.71 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Accountability for...

  9. 18 CFR 3a.71 - Accountability for classified material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accountability for classified material. 3a.71 Section 3a.71 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Accountability for...

  10. 18 CFR 3a.71 - Accountability for classified material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accountability for classified material. 3a.71 Section 3a.71 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Accountability for...

  11. Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials

    DOEpatents

    Heubeck, Norman B.

    1998-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000.degree. F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics.

  12. Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials

    DOEpatents

    Heubeck, N.B.

    1998-09-08

    A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000 F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics. 5 figs.

  13. Designed porosity materials in nuclear reactor components

    DOEpatents

    Yacout, A. M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Stan, Marius

    2016-09-06

    A nuclear fuel pellet with a porous substrate, such as a carbon or tungsten aerogel, on which at least one layer of a fuel containing material is deposited via atomic layer deposition, and wherein the layer deposition is controlled to prevent agglomeration of defects. Further, a method of fabricating a nuclear fuel pellet, wherein the method features the steps of selecting a porous substrate, depositing at least one layer of a fuel containing material, and terminating the deposition when the desired porosity is achieved. Also provided is a nuclear reactor fuel cladding made of a porous substrate, such as silicon carbide aerogel or silicon carbide cloth, upon which layers of silicon carbide are deposited.

  14. Muon Tracking to Detect Special Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schwellenbach, D.; Dreesen, W.; Green, J. A.; Tibbitts, A.; Schotik, G.; Borozdin, K.; Bacon, J.; Midera, H.; Milner, C.; Morris, C.; Perry, J.; Barrett, S.; Perry, K.; Scott, A.; Wright, C.; Aberle, D.

    2013-03-18

    Previous experiments have proven that nuclear assemblies can be imaged and identified inside of shipping containers using vertical trajectory cosmic-ray muons with two-sided imaging. These experiments have further demonstrated that nuclear assemblies can be identified by detecting fission products in coincidence with tracked muons. By developing these technologies, advanced sensors can be designed for a variety of warhead monitoring and detection applications. The focus of this project is to develop tomographic-mode imaging using near-horizontal trajectory muons in conjunction with secondary particle detectors. This will allow imaging in-situ without the need to relocate the objects and will enable differentiation of special nuclear material (SNM) from other high-Z materials.

  15. Developing standard performance testing procedures for material control and accounting components at a site

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, Carolynn P; Bushlya, Anatoly V; Efimenko, Vladimir F; Ilyanstev, Anatoly; Regoushevsky, Victor I

    2010-01-01

    The condition of a nuclear material control and accountability system (MC&A) and its individual components, as with any system combining technical elements and documentation, may be characterized through an aggregate of values for the various parameters that determine the system's ability to perform. The MC&A system's status may be functioning effectively, marginally or not functioning based on a summary of the values of the individual parameters. This work included a review of the following subsystems, MC&A and Detecting Material Losses, and their respective elements for the material control and accountability system: (a) Elements of the MC&A Subsystem - Information subsystem (Accountancy/Inventory), Measurement subsystem, Nuclear Material Access subsystem, including tamper-indicating device (TID) program, and Automated Information-gathering subsystem; (b) Elements for Detecting Nuclear Material Loses Subsystem - Inventory Differences, Shipper/receiver Differences, Confirmatory Measurements and differences with accounting data, and TID or Seal Violations. In order to detect the absence or loss of nuclear material there must be appropriate interactions among the elements and their respective subsystems from the list above. Additionally this work includes a review of regulatory requirements for the MC&A system component characteristics and criteria that support the evaluation of the performance of the listed components. The listed components had performance testing algorithms and procedures developed that took into consideration the regulatory criteria. The developed MC&A performance-testing procedures were the basis for a Guide for MC&A Performance Testing at the material balance areas (MBAs) of State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF-IPPE).

  16. Atoms on the Move: Transporting Nuclear Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    This is an Energy Research and Development Administration pamphlet outlining in detail the many aspects involved in safe transportation of all types of nuclear materials. The detailed safety regulations and designs of various shipping packages and containers are emphasized. Included are maps of waste burial sites and fuel production facilities, an…

  17. Nuclear Materials Identification System Operational Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, L.G.

    2001-04-10

    This report describes the operation and setup of the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) with a {sup 252}Cf neutron source at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The components of the system are described with a description of the setup of the system along with an overview of the NMIS measurements for scanning, calibration, and confirmation of inventory items.

  18. Material protection, control and accounting cooperation at the Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP), Novouralsk, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, S., LLNL

    1998-07-15

    The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is one of the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy`s nuclear material production sites participating in the US Department of Energy`s Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program. The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is Russia`s largest uranium enrichment facility and blends tons of high-enriched uranium into low enriched uranium each year as part of the US high-enriched uranium purchase. The Electrochemical Integrated Plant and six participating national laboratories are cooperating to implement a series of enhancements to the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability systems at the site This paper outlines the overall objectives of the MPC&A program at Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant and the work completed as of the date of the presentation.

  19. Material protection, control, and accounting enhancements through the Russian/US cooperative MPC & A program

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, S.C.; Sude, S.; Buckley, W.M.

    1997-11-01

    The cooperative Russian/US Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK, also referred to as Krasnoyarsk-26) Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC & A) project was initiated in June 1996. Since then, the GKhK has collaborated with Brookhaven, Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories to test, evaluate, and implement MPC & A elements including bar codes, computerized nuclear material accounting software, nondestructive assay technologies, bulk measurement systems, seals, video surveillance systems, radio communication systems, metal detectors, vulnerability assessment tools, personnel access control systems, and pedestrian nuclear material portal monitors. This paper describes the strategy for implementation of these elements at the GKhK and the status of the collaborative efforts. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Material Protection, Control, and Accountancy (MPC&A) Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Mark; Farmer, James; Haase, Michael; Mann, Greg; Soo Hoo, Mark; Toth, William

    1999-07-21

    To date, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Material Protection, Control, and Accountancy (MPC and A) program has assisted in the implementation of operational site-wide MPC and A systems at several nuclear facilities in Russia. Eleven sites from the civilian sector have completed the site-wide installations and two have completed sub-site installations. By the end of 1999, several additional sites will have completed site-wide and sub-site system installations through DOE assistance. the effort at the completed sites has focused primarily on the design, integration, and installation of upgraded MPC and A systems. In most cases, little work has been performed to ensure that the installed systems will be sustained. Because of concerns that the installed systems would not be operated in the future, DOE established a sustainability pilot program involving the 11 sites. The purpose of DOE's MPC and A Sustainability Program is to ensure that MPC and A upgrades installed at sites in Russia are effective and will continue to operate over the long term. The program mission is to work with sites where rapid upgrades have been completed to cultivate enduring and consistent MPC and A practices. The program attempts to assist the Russian sites to develop MPC and A organizations that will operate, maintain, and continue to improve the systems and procedures. Future assistance will strive to understand and incorporate culturally sensitive approaches so that the sites take ownership for all MPC and A matters. This paper describes the efforts of the sustainability program to date.

  1. 10 CFR 1017.9 - Nuclear material determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material determinations. 1017.9 Section 1017.9... NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially Determining What Information Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.9 Nuclear material determinations. (a) The Secretary may determine that a material other...

  2. 10 CFR 1017.9 - Nuclear material determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material determinations. 1017.9 Section 1017.9... NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially Determining What Information Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.9 Nuclear material determinations. (a) The Secretary may determine that a material other...

  3. 10 CFR 70.42 - Transfer of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfer of special nuclear material. 70.42 Section 70.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.42 Transfer of...

  4. 10 CFR 1017.9 - Nuclear material determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material determinations. 1017.9 Section 1017.9... NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially Determining What Information Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.9 Nuclear material determinations. (a) The Secretary may determine that a material other...

  5. 10 CFR 1017.9 - Nuclear material determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material determinations. 1017.9 Section 1017.9... NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially Determining What Information Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.9 Nuclear material determinations. (a) The Secretary may determine that a material other...

  6. 10 CFR 70.42 - Transfer of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfer of special nuclear material. 70.42 Section 70.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.42 Transfer of...

  7. 10 CFR 1017.9 - Nuclear material determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material determinations. 1017.9 Section 1017.9... NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially Determining What Information Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.9 Nuclear material determinations. (a) The Secretary may determine that a material other...

  8. 10 CFR 70.42 - Transfer of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfer of special nuclear material. 70.42 Section 70.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.42 Transfer of...

  9. 10 CFR 70.42 - Transfer of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfer of special nuclear material. 70.42 Section 70.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.42 Transfer of...

  10. 10 CFR 70.42 - Transfer of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer of special nuclear material. 70.42 Section 70.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.42 Transfer of...

  11. Tungsten - Yttrium Based Nuclear Structural Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramana, Chintalapalle; Chessa, Jack; Martinenz, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    The challenging problem currently facing the nuclear science community in this 21st century is design and development of novel structural materials, which will have an impact on the next-generation nuclear reactors. The materials available at present include reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, dispersion strengthened reduced activation ferritic steels, and vanadium- or tungsten-based alloys. These materials exhibit one or more specific problems, which are either intrinsic or caused by reactors. This work is focussed towards tungsten-yttrium (W-Y) based alloys and oxide ceramics, which can be utilized in nuclear applications. The goal is to derive a fundamental scientific understanding of W-Y-based materials. In collaboration with University of Califonia -- Davis, the project is designated to demonstrate the W-Y based alloys, ceramics and composites with enhanced physical, mechanical, thermo-chemical properties and higher radiation resistance. Efforts are focussed on understanding the microstructure, manipulating materials behavior under charged-particle and neutron irradiation, and create a knowledge database of defects, elemental diffusion/segregation, and defect trapping along grain boundaries and interfaces. Preliminary results will be discussed.

  12. New technologies for monitoring nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, B.W.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes new technologies for monitoring the continued presence of nuclear materials that are being evaluated in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to reduce the effort, cost, and employee exposures associated with conducting nuclear material inventories. These technologies also show promise for the international safeguarding of process systems and nuclear materials in storage, including spent fuels. The identified systems are based on innovative technologies that were not developed for safeguards applications. These advanced technologies include passive and active sensor systems based on optical materials, inexpensive solid-state radiation detectors, dimensional surface characterization, and digital color imagery. The passive sensor systems use specialized scintillator materials coupled to optical-fiber technologies that not only are capable of measuring radioactive emissions but also are capable of measuring or monitoring pressure, weight, temperature, and source location. Small, durable solid-state gamma-ray detection devices, whose components are estimated to cost less than $25 per unit, can be implemented in a variety of configurations and can be adapted to enhance existing monitoring systems. Variations in detector design have produced significantly different system capabilities. Dimensional surface characterization and digital color imaging are applications of developed technologies that are capable of motion detection, item surveillance, and unique identification of items.

  13. Robot development for nuclear material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrotti, L.R.; Armantrout, G.A.; Allen, D.C.; Sievers, R.H. Sr.

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Energy is seeking to modernize its special nuclear material (SNM) production facilities and concurrently reduce radiation exposures and process and incidental radioactive waste generated. As part of this program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) lead team is developing and adapting generic and specific applications of commercial robotic technologies to SNM pyrochemical processing and other operations. A working gantry robot within a sealed processing glove box and a telerobot control test bed are manifestations of this effort. This paper describes the development challenges and progress in adapting processing, robotic, and nuclear safety technologies to the application. 3 figs.

  14. Nuclear Materials: Reconsidering Wastes and Assets - 13193

    SciTech Connect

    Michalske, T.A.

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable ('assets') to worthless ('wastes'). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or - in the case of high level waste - awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site's (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as 'waste' include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national interest. (authors)

  15. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Materials Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Quiter, Brian J.; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Prussin, Stanley

    2009-06-29

    This paper discusses the use of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) techniques for the isotopic and quantitative assaying of radioactive material. Potential applications include age-dating of an unknown radioactive source, pre- and post-detonation nuclear forensics, and safeguards for nuclear fuel cycles Examples of age-dating a strong radioactive source and assaying a spent fuel pin are discussed. The modeling work has ben performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNPX, and the capability to simulate NRF has bee added to the code. Discussed are the limitations in MCNPX?s photon transport physics for accurately describing photon scattering processes that are important contributions to the background and impact the applicability of the NRF assay technique.

  16. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Materials Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Quiter, Brian; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Prussin, Stanley

    2009-06-05

    This paper discusses the use of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) techniques for the isotopic and quantitative assaying of radioactive material. Potential applications include age-dating of an unknown radioactive source, pre- and post-detonation nuclear forensics, and safeguards for nuclear fuel cycles Examples of age-dating a strong radioactive source and assaying a spent fuel pin are discussed. The modeling work has ben performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNPX, and the capability to simulate NRF has bee added to the code. Discussed are the limitations in MCNPX's photon transport physics for accurately describing photon scattering processes that are important contributions to the background and impact the applicability of the NRF assay technique.

  17. Nuclear Fuels & Materials Spotlight Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    I. J. van Rooyen,; T. M. Lillo; Y. Q. WU; P.A. Demkowicz; L. Scott; D.M. Scates; E. L. Reber; J. H. Jackson; J. A. Smith; D.L. Cottle; B.H. Rabin; M.R. Tonks; S.B. Biner; Y. Zhang; R.L. Williamson; S.R. Novascone; B.W. Spencer; J.D. Hales; D.R. Gaston; C.J. Permann; D. Anders; S.L. Hayes; P.C. Millett; D. Andersson; C. Stanek; R. Ali; S.L. Garrett; J.E. Daw; J.L. Rempe; J. Palmer; B. Tittmann; B. Reinhardt; G. Kohse; P. Ramuhali; H.T. Chien; T. Unruh; B.M. Chase; D.W. Nigg; G. Imel; J. T. Harris

    2014-04-01

    As the nation's nuclear energy laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory brings together talented people and specialized nuclear research capability to accomplish our mission. This edition of the Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division Spotlight provides an overview of some of our recent accomplishments in research and capability development. These accomplishments include: • The first identification of silver and palladium migrating through the SiC layer in TRISO fuel • A description of irradiation assisted stress corrosion testing capabilities that support commercial light water reactor life extension • Results of high-temperature safety testing on coated particle fuels irradiated in the ATR • New methods for testing the integrity of irradiated plate-type reactor fuel • Description of a 'Smart Fuel' concept that wirelessly provides real time information about changes in nuclear fuel properties and operating conditions • Development and testing of ultrasonic transducers and real-time flux sensors for use inside reactor cores, and • An example of a capsule irradiation test. Throughout Spotlight, you'll find examples of productive partnerships with academia, industry, and government agencies that deliver high-impact outcomes. The work conducted at Idaho National Laboratory helps to spur innovation in nuclear energy applications that drive economic growth and energy security. We appreciate your interest in our work here at INL, and hope that you find this issue informative.

  18. Molecular forensic science analysis of nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Dallas David

    Concerns over the proliferation and instances of nuclear material in the environment have increased interest in the expansion of nuclear forensics analysis and attribution programs. A new related field, molecular forensic science (MFS) has helped meet this expansion by applying common scientific analyses to nuclear forensics scenarios. In this work, MFS was applied to three scenarios related to nuclear forensics analysis. In the first, uranium dioxide was synthesized and aged at four sets of static environmental conditions and studied for changes in chemical speciation. The second highlighted the importance of bulk versus particle characterizations by analyzing a heterogeneous industrially prepared sample with similar techniques. In the third, mixed uranium/plutonium hot particles were collected from the McGuire Air Force Base BOMARC Site and analyzed for chemical speciation and elemental surface composition. This work has identified new signatures and has indicated unexpected chemical behavior under various conditions. These findings have lead to an expansion of basic actinide understanding, proof of MFS as a tool for nuclear forensic science, and new areas for expansion in these fields.

  19. 77 FR 60482 - Regulatory Guide 5.67, Material Control and Accounting for Uranium Enrichment Facilities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Authorized To Produce Special Nuclear Material of Low Strategic Significance AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide; withdrawal. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)...

  20. Detecting errors and anomalies in computerized materials control and accountability databases

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteson, R.; Hench, K.; Yarbro, T.; Baumgart, C.

    1998-12-31

    The Automated MC and A Database Assessment project is aimed at improving anomaly and error detection in materials control and accountability (MC and A) databases and increasing confidence in the data that they contain. Anomalous data resulting in poor categorization of nuclear material inventories greatly reduces the value of the database information to users. Therefore it is essential that MC and A data be assessed periodically for anomalies or errors. Anomaly detection can identify errors in databases and thus provide assurance of the integrity of data. An expert system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory that examines these large databases for anomalous or erroneous data. For several years, MC and A subject matter experts at Los Alamos have been using this automated system to examine the large amounts of accountability data that the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility generates. These data are collected and managed by the Material Accountability and Safeguards System, a near-real-time computerized nuclear material accountability and safeguards system. This year they have expanded the user base, customizing the anomaly detector for the varying requirements of different groups of users. This paper describes the progress in customizing the expert systems to the needs of the users of the data and reports on their results.

  1. Integrating the stabilization of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, H.F.

    1996-05-01

    In response to Recommendation 94-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, the Department of Energy committed to stabilizing specific nuclear materials within 3 and 8 years. These efforts are underway. The Department has already repackaged the plutonium at Rocky Flats and metal turnings at Savannah River that had been in contact with plastic. As this effort proceeds, we begin to look at activities beyond stabilization and prepare for the final disposition of these materials. To describe the plutonium materials being stabilize, Figure 1 illustrates the quantities of plutonium in various forms that will be stabilized. Plutonium as metal comprises 8.5 metric tons. Plutonium oxide contains 5.5 metric tons of plutonium. Plutonium residues and solutions, together, contain 7 metric tons of plutonium. Figure 2 shows the quantity of plutonium-bearing material in these four categories. In this depiction, 200 metric tons of plutonium residues and 400 metric tons of solutions containing plutonium constitute most of the material in the stabilization program. So, it is not surprising that much of the work in stabilization is directed toward the residues and solutions, even though they contain less of the plutonium.

  2. Two-stage decision approach to material accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Opelka, J.H.; Sutton, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    The validity of the alarm threshold 4sigma has been checked for hypothetical large and small facilities using a two-stage decision model in which the diverter's strategic variable is the quantity diverted, and the defender's strategic variables are the alarm threshold and the effectiveness of the physical security and material control systems in the possible presence of a diverter. For large facilities, the material accounting system inherently appears not to be a particularly useful system for the deterrence of diversions, and essentially no improvement can be made by lowering the alarm threshold below 4sigma. For small facilities, reduction of the threshold to 2sigma or 3sigma is a cost effective change for the accounting system, but is probably less cost effective than making improvements in the material control and physical security systems.

  3. Recovery of fissile materials from nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1999-10-05

    A process is described for recovering fissile materials such as uranium, and plutonium, and rare earth elements, from complex waste feed material, and converting the remaining wastes into a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. The waste feed is mixed with a dissolution glass formed of lead oxide and boron oxide resulting in oxidation, dehalogenation, and dissolution of metal oxides. Carbon is added to remove lead oxide, and a boron oxide fusion melt is produced. The fusion melt is essentially devoid of organic materials and halogens, and is easily and rapidly dissolved in nitric acid. After dissolution, uranium, plutonium and rare earth elements are separated from the acid and recovered by processes such as PUREX or ion exchange. The remaining acid waste stream is vitrified to produce a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. Potential waste feed materials include plutonium scrap and residue, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, organic material and other carbon-containing material.

  4. Recovery of fissile materials from nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1997-12-01

    A process is described for recovering fissile materials such as uranium, and plutonium, and rare earth elements, from complex waste feed material, and converting the remaining wastes into a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. The waste feed is mixed with a dissolution glass formed of lead oxide and boron oxide resulting in oxidation, dehalogenation, and dissolution of metal oxides. Carbon is added to remove lead oxide, and a boron oxide fusion melt is produced. The fusion melt is essentially devoid of organic materials and halogens, and is easily and rapidly dissolved in nitric acid. After dissolution, uranium, plutonium, and rare earth elements are separated from the acid and recovered by processes such as PUREX or ion exchange. The remaining acid waste stream is vitrified to produce a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. Potential waste feed materials include plutonium scrap and residue, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, organic material and other carbon-containing material.

  5. Recovery of fissile materials from nuclear wastes

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1999-01-01

    A process for recovering fissile materials such as uranium, and plutonium, and rare earth elements, from complex waste feed material, and converting the remaining wastes into a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. The waste feed is mixed with a dissolution glass formed of lead oxide and boron oxide resulting in oxidation, dehalogenation, and dissolution of metal oxides. Carbon is added to remove lead oxide, and a boron oxide fusion melt is produced. The fusion melt is essentially devoid of organic materials and halogens, and is easily and rapidly dissolved in nitric acid. After dissolution, uranium, plutonium and rare earth elements are separated from the acid and recovered by processes such as PUREX or ion exchange. The remaining acid waste stream is vitrified to produce a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. Potential waste feed materials include plutonium scrap and residue, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, organic material and other carbon-containing material.

  6. United States Department of Energy Nuclear Materials Stewardship

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, J. W.

    2002-02-27

    The Department of Energy launched the Nuclear Materials Stewardship Initiative in January 2000 to accelerate the work of achieving integration and cutting long-term costs associated with the management of the Department's nuclear materials, with the principal focus on excess materials. Management of nuclear materials is a fundamental and enduring responsibility that is essential to meeting the Department's national security, nonproliferation, energy, science, and environmental missions into the distant future. The effective management of nuclear materials is important for a set of reasons: (1) some materials are vital to our national defense; (2) the materials pose physical and security risks; (3) managing them is costly; and (4) costs are likely to extend well into the future. The Department currently manages nuclear materials under eight programs, with offices in 36 different locations. Through the Nuclear Materials Stewardship Initiative, progress was during calendar year 20 00 in achieving better coordination and integration of nuclear materials management responsibilities and in evaluating opportunities to further coordinate and integrate cross-program responsibilities for the treatment, storage, and disposition of excess nuclear materials. During CY 2001 the Departmental approach to nuclear materials stewardship changed consistent with the business processes followed by the new administration. This paper reports on the progress of the Nuclear Materials Stewardship Initiative in evaluating and implementing these opportunities, and the remaining challenges in integrating the long-term management of nuclear materials.

  7. 48 CFR 970.4402-4 - Nuclear material transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nuclear material transfers... 970.4402-4 Nuclear material transfers. (a) Management and operating contractors, in preparing... nuclear material, shall be required to assure that each such subcontract or agreement contains a—...

  8. 48 CFR 970.4402-4 - Nuclear material transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nuclear material transfers... 970.4402-4 Nuclear material transfers. (a) Management and operating contractors, in preparing... nuclear material, shall be required to assure that each such subcontract or agreement contains a—...

  9. 48 CFR 970.4402-4 - Nuclear material transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nuclear material transfers... 970.4402-4 Nuclear material transfers. (a) Management and operating contractors, in preparing... nuclear material, shall be required to assure that each such subcontract or agreement contains a—...

  10. 48 CFR 970.4402-4 - Nuclear material transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nuclear material transfers... 970.4402-4 Nuclear material transfers. (a) Management and operating contractors, in preparing... nuclear material, shall be required to assure that each such subcontract or agreement contains a—...

  11. Distributional properties of stochastic shortest paths for smuggled nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Cuellar, Leticia; Pan, Feng; Roach, Fred; Saeger, Kevin J

    2011-01-05

    The shortest path problem on a network with fixed weights is a well studied problem with applications to many diverse areas such as transportation and telecommunications. We are particularly interested in the scenario where a nuclear material smuggler tries to succesfully reach herlhis target by identifying the most likely path to the target. The identification of the path relies on reliabilities (weights) associated with each link and node in a multi-modal transportation network. In order to account for the adversary's uncertainty and to perform sensitivity analysis we introduce random reliabilities. We perform some controlled experiments on the grid and present the distributional properties of the resulting stochastic shortest paths.

  12. Straight-Line -- A nuclear material storage information management system

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, C.; Mangan, D.

    1995-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing Straight-Line -- a pilot system to demonstrate comprehensive monitoring of nuclear material in storage. Straight-Line is an integrated system of sensors providing information that will enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. The goals of this effort are to (1) Provide the right sensor information to the right user in a timely manner. (2) Reduce the expenses, risks, and frequency of human inspection of the material. (3) Provide trustworthy data to international inspectors to minimize their need to make on site inspections. In pursuit of these goals, Straight-Line unites technology from Sandia`s Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) and other programs to communicate the authenticated status of the monitored item back to central magazine receivers. Straight-Line, however, incorporates several important features not found in previous systems: (1) Information Security -- the ability to collect and safely disseminate both classified and unclassified sensor data to users on a need-to-know basis. (2) Integrate into a single system the monitoring needs of safety, security, and international accountability. (3) Incorporate the use of sensors providing analog or digital output. This paper will present the overall architecture and status of the Straight-Line project.

  13. Straight-Line: A nuclear material storage information management system

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, C.; Mangan, D.

    1995-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing Straight-Line -- a pilot system to demonstrate comprehensive monitoring of nuclear material in storage. Straight-Line is an integrated system of sensors providing information that will enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. The goals of this effort are to: (1) Provide the right sensor information to the right user immediately. (2) Reduce the expenses, risks, and frequency of human inspection of the material. (3) Provide trustworthy data to international inspectors to minimize their need to make on site inspections. In pursuit of these goals, Straight-Line unites technology from Sandia`s Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) and other programs to communicate the authenticated status of the monitored item back to central magazine receivers. Straight-Line, however, incorporates several important features not found in previous systems: (1) Information Security -- the ability to collect and safely disseminate both classified and unclassified sensor data to users on a need-to-know basis. (2) Integrate into a single system the monitoring needs of safety, security, and international accountability. (3) Incorporate the use of sensors providing analog or digital output. This paper will present the overall architecture and status of the Straight-Line project.

  14. Attributes mode sampling schemes for international material accountancy verification

    SciTech Connect

    Sanborn, J.B.

    1982-12-01

    This paper addresses the question of detecting falsifications in material balance accountancy reporting by comparing independently measured values to the declared values of a randomly selected sample of items in the material balance. A two-level strategy is considered, consisting of a relatively large number of measurements made at low accuracy, and a smaller number of measurements made at high accuracy. Sampling schemes for both types of measurements are derived, and rigorous proofs supplied that guarantee desired detection probabilities. Sample sizes derived using these methods are sometimes considerably smaller than those calculated previously.

  15. Scanning of vehicles for nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, J. I.

    2014-05-01

    Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

  16. Scanning of vehicles for nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J. I.

    2014-05-09

    Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

  17. Applying RFID technology in nuclear materials management.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Chen, K.; Liu, Y.; Norair, J. P.; Bellamy, S.; Shuler, J.; SRL; Savi Technology; DOE

    2008-01-01

    The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) of US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM), Office of Safety Management and Operations (EM-60), has developed a radio frequency identification (RFID) system for the management of nuclear materials. Argonne National Laboratory, a PCP supporting laboratory, and Savi Technology, a Lockheed Martin Company, are collaborating in the development of the RFID system, a process that involves hardware modification (form factor, seal sensor and batteries), software development and irradiation experiments. Savannah River National Laboratory and Argonne will soon field test the active RFID system on Model 9975 drums, which are used for storage and transportation of fissile and radioactive materials. Potential benefits of the RFID system are enhanced safety and security, reduced need for manned surveillance, real time access of status and history data, and overall cost effectiveness.

  18. Passive sensor systems for nuclear material monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.L.; Boatner, L.A.; Holcomb, D.E.; McElhaney, S.A.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Muhs, J.D.; Roberts, M.R.; Hill, N.W.

    1993-09-01

    Passive fiber optic sensor systems capable of confirming the presence of special nuclear materials in storage or process facilities are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These sensors provide completely passive, remote measurement capability. No power supplies, amplifiers, or other active components that could degrade system reliability are required at the sensor location. ORNL, through its research programs in scintillator materials, has developed a variety of materials for use in alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and neutron-sensitive scintillator detectors. In addition to sensors for measuring radiation flux, new sensor materials have been developed which are capable of measuring weight, temperature, and source location. An example of a passive sensor for temperature measurement is the combination of a thermophosphor (e.g., rare-earth activated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with {sup 6}LiF (95% {sup 6}Li). This combination results in a new class of scintillators for thermal neutrons that absorb energy from the radiation particles and remit the energy as a light pulse, the decay rate of which, over a specified temperature range, is temperature dependent. Other passive sensors being developed include pressure-sensitive triboluminescent materials, weight-sensitive silicone rubber fibers, scintillating fibers, and other materials for gamma and neutron detection. The light from the scintillator materials of each sensor would be sent through optical fibers to a monitoring station, where the attribute quantity could be measured and compared with previously recorded emission levels. Confirmatory measurement applications of these technologies are being evaluated to reduce the effort, costs, and employee exposures associated with inventorying stockpiles of highly enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant.

  19. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 21: Radioactive Materials Disposal and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  20. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 25: Radioactive Material Handling Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  1. Molecular forensic science of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO{sub 2} (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO{sub 2+x}. Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxides materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, process history, or transport of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science required to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensics science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  2. US/Russian program in materials protection, control and accounting at the RRC Kurchatov Institute: 1997--1998

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhoruchkin, V.; Rumyantsev, A.; Shmelev, V.

    1998-12-31

    Six US Department of Energy Laboratories are carrying out a program of cooperation with the Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute to improve nuclear material protection, control and accounting (MPC and A) at Kurchatov. In 1997--1998 the primary thrust of this program has been directed to Building 106, which houses a number of test reactors and critical facilities. Substantial improvements in physical protection, upgrades in the physical inventory taking procedures, installation of equipment for the computerized materials accounting system, and installation of nuclear material portal monitors and neutron-based measurement equipment are being carried out at this facility. Software for the computerized accounting system, named KI-MACS, has been developed at Kurchatov and the system has been fully integrated with the bar code printing and reading equipment, electronic scales, and nondestructive assay equipment provided under this program. Additional 1997--1998 activities at Kurchatov include continuation of a tamper indicating device program, vulnerability assessments of several facilities, hosting of a Russian-American Workshop on Fissile Material Control and Accountability at Critical Facilities, and the development of accounting procedures for transfers of nuclear materials between material balance areas.

  3. The Infrastructure Necessary to Support a Sustainable Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Bachner, Katherine M.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-07-20

    The NNSA Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) program has been engaged for fifteen years in upgrading the security of nuclear materials in Russia. Part of the effort has been to establish the conditions necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of nuclear security. A sustainable program of nuclear security requires the creation of an indigenous infrastructure, starting with sustained high level government commitment. This includes organizational development, training, maintenance, regulations, inspections, and a strong nuclear security culture. The provision of modern physical protection, control, and accounting equipment to the Russian Federation alone is not sufficient. Comprehensive infrastructure projects support the Russian Federation's ability to maintain the risk reduction achieved through upgrades to the equipment. To illustrate the contributions to security, and challenges of implementation, this paper discusses the history and next steps for an indigenous Tamper Indication Device (TID) program, and a Radiation Portal Monitoring (RPM) program.

  4. Intense Photoneutron Sources For Nuclear Material Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, Tsahi; Shaw, Timothy; King, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Intense neutron sources are essential for cargo inspection for a broad range of threats from explosives, to contraband, to nuclear materials and especially SNM (Special Nuclear Materials). To be effective over a wide range of cargo materials, in particular for hydrogenous cargo such as food, and to offer practical inspection times, the neutron source must be very strong, typically >1010 neutrons per second. Unfortunately there are currently no reasonably compact and economical neutron generators with the required intensities. The insufficiency and inadequacy of intense neutron sources are especially conspicuous in the ≤2.5 MeV range (low voltage (d,D) generator). This energy range is needed if the strong signature of prompt fission neutrons (≈3 per fission) is to be detected and discerned from the numerous source neutrons. The photonuclear reactions of x-rays from commercial linacs in appropriate converters can provide ample intensities of neutrons. These converters have a very low (γ,n) energy threshold: 1.67 MeV for beryllium and 2.23 MeV for deuterium. The intense x-ray beams provided by commercial x-ray systems, more than compensate for the relatively low (γ,n) cross-sections which are in the milli-barn range. The choice of converter material, the geometrical shape, dimensions and location relative to the x-ray source, determine the efficiency of the neutron conversion. For electron accelerators with less than 10 MeV, the preferred converters, Be and D2O, are also very good neutron moderators. Thus, while increasing the converters' thickness leads to an increase in the overall neutron yield, this causes the softening of the neutron spectrum, which reduces the neutron penetration especially in hydrogenous cargos. Photoneutron sources can be optimized to meet specific needs such as maximum fission signals in various cargo materials of interest. Efficient photoneutron sources with different energy spectra were investigated. Conversion efficiency of more than

  5. Special Nuclear Material Portal Monitoring at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    DeAnn Long; Michael Murphy

    2008-07-01

    Prior to April 2007, acceptance and performance testing of the various Special Nuclear Material (SNM) monitoring devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed by the Radiological Health Instrumentation department. Calibration and performance testing on the PM-700 personnel portal monitor was performed, but there was no test program for the VM-250 vehicle portal monitor. The handheld SNM monitors, the TSA model 470B, were being calibrated annually, but there was no performance test program. In April of 2007, the Material Control and Accountability Manager volunteered to take over performance testing of all SNM portal monitors at NTS in order to strengthen the program and meet U.S. Department of Energy Order requirements. This paper will discuss the following activities associated with developing a performance testing program: changing the culture, learning the systems, developing and implementing procedures, troubleshooting and repair, validating the process, physical control of equipment, acquisition of new systems, and implementing the performance test program.

  6. Security robots for nuclear materials management

    SciTech Connect

    Deming, R.

    1986-01-01

    Robots have successfully invaded industry where they have replaced costly personnel performing their tasks cheaper and better in most cases. There may be a place for a unique class of robots, security robots, in nuclear materials management. Robots could be employed in the functions of general response, patrol and neutralizing dangerous situations. The last is perhaps most important. Ion Track Instruments of Burlington, Massachusetts has designed an excellent unit to protect life in hazardous situations. The unit can detect, disrupt or remove explosives. It can enter dangerous areas to reconnoiter the extent of danger. It can communicate with those in a dangerous area. It can fight fires or clean an area using a 2 1/2 inch, two man hose. If necessary, it can engage an adversary in a fire fight using a twelve gauge shot gun.

  7. Material protection control and accounting program activities at the electrochemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, S.

    1997-11-14

    The Electrochemical Plant (ECP) is the one of the Russian Federation`s four uranium enrichment plants and one of three sites in Russia blending high enriched uranium (HEU) into commercial grade low enriched uranium. ECP is located approximately 200 km east of Krasnoyarsk in the closed city of Zelenogorsk (formerly Krasnoyarsk- 45). DOE`s MPC&A program first met with ECP in September of 1996. The six national laboratories participating in DOE`s Material Protection Control and Accounting program are cooperating with ECP to enhance the capabilities of the physical protection, access control, and nuclear material control and accounting systems. The MPC&A work at ECP is expected to be completed during fiscal year 2001.

  8. Regional material flow accounting and environmental pressures: the Spanish case.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Sergio; Carpintero, Óscar; Lomas, Pedro L

    2015-02-17

    This paper explores potential contributions of regional material flow accounting to the characterization of environmental pressures. With this aim, patterns of material extraction, trade, consumption, and productivity for the Spanish regions were studied within the 1996-2010 period. The main methodological variation as compared to whole-country based approaches is the inclusion of interregional trade, which can be separately assessed from the international exchanges. Each region was additionally profiled regarding its commercial exchanges with the rest of the regions and the rest of the world and the related environmental pressures. Given its magnitude, interregional trade is a significant source of environmental pressure. Most of the exchanges occur across regions and different extractive and trading patterns also arise at this scale. These differences are particularly great for construction minerals, which in Spain represent the largest share of extracted and consumed materials but do not cover long distances, so their impact is visible mainly at the regional level. During the housing bubble, economic growth did not improve material productivity.

  9. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2015-12-01

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  10. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  11. 10 CFR 72.78 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material transaction reports. 72.78 Section 72.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE...

  12. 10 CFR 72.78 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material transaction reports. 72.78 Section 72.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE...

  13. 10 CFR 72.78 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material transaction reports. 72.78 Section 72.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE...

  14. 10 CFR 72.78 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material transaction reports. 72.78 Section 72.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE...

  15. 10 CFR 72.78 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material transaction reports. 72.78 Section 72.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE...

  16. Microbial Effects on Nuclear Waste Packaging Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J; Martin, S; Carrillo, C; Lian, T

    2005-07-22

    Microorganisms may enhance corrosion of components of planned engineered barriers within the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM). Corrosion could occur either directly, through processes collectively known as Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC), or indirectly, by adversely affecting the composition of water or brines that come into direct contact with engineered barrier surfaces. Microorganisms of potential concern (bacteria, archea, and fungi) include both those indigenous to Yucca Mountain and those that infiltrate during repository construction and after waste emplacement. Specific aims of the experimental program to evaluate the potential of microorganisms to affect damage to engineered barrier materials include the following: Indirect Effects--(1) Determine the limiting factors to microbial growth and activity presently in the YM environment. (2) Assess these limiting factors to aid in determining the conditions and time during repository evolution when MIC might become operant. (3) Evaluate present bacterial densities, the composition of the YM microbial community, and determining bacterial densities if limiting factors are overcome. During a major portion of the regulatory period, environmental conditions that are presently extant become reestablished. Therefore, these studies ascertain whether biomass is sufficient to cause MIC during this period and provide a baseline for determining the types of bacterial activities that may be expected. (4) Assess biogenic environmental effects, including pH, alterations to nitrate concentration in groundwater, the generation of organic acids, and metal dissolution. These factors have been shown to be those most relevant to corrosion of engineered barriers. Direct Effects--(1) Characterize and quantify microbiological effects on candidate containment materials. These studies were carried out in a number of different approaches, using whole YM microbiological communities, a subset of YM

  17. Accounting for nonlinear material characteristics in modeling ferroresonant transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisine, J. T.

    1985-04-01

    A mathematical model relating core material properties, including nonlinear magnetization characteristics, to the performance of ferroresonant transformers has been developed. In accomplishing this, other factors such as fabrication destruction factors, leakage flux, air gap characteristics, loading, and coil resistances and self-inductances are also accounted for. From a material manufacturer's view, knowing such information facilitates isolating sources of performance variations between units of similar design and is therefore highly desirable. The model predicts the primary induction necessary to establish a specified secondary induction and determines peak induction at other points in the magnetic circuit. A study comparing the model with a transformer indicated that each predicted peak induction was within ±5% of the corresponding measured peak induction. A generalized 4-node magnetic circuit having two shunt paths was chosen and modeled. Such a circuit is easily modified facilitating the analyses of numerous other core designs. A computer program designed to run on an HP-41 programmable calculator was also developed and is briefly described.

  18. Code System to Detect Recurring Loss of Special Nuclear Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    PICARD, R. R.

    2001-08-23

    Version 00 NRCPAGE is used in safeguards applications to detect a recurring loss of special nuclear material by frequent evaluation (sequential analysis) of accountability data. Standard sequential testing procedures are traditionally based on sequences of independent and normally distributed measurements. This same approach can be applied to materials balance (MB) data. Here, the term materials balance has a meaning similar to inventory difference and represents a materials loss indicator localized in time and space. However, distinct Mbs cannot be reasonably treated as statistically independent and may not always be reasonably treated as normally distributed. Furthermore, the covariance structure associated with a given MB sequence is not known and must be estimated. Nonindependence is treated by converting the MB sequence to the innovation sequence, sometimes called the ITMUF sequence or the sequence of MUF residuals, which are statistically independent and amenable to sequential test procedures. A one-sided page's test, effective for a wide range of recurring loss scenarios, is applied to the standardized innovation sequence. The program can be easily modified to suit particular needs; the models for the assumption of multivariate normality for MBs when computing the innovation sequence or the test procedure can be changed as can the input/output format, dimensioning, local error checking, and simulation work. Input files can be sequentially constructed using local text editors to update existing files. Output files can be read by graphics, report writer, or other stand-alone utility routines.

  19. Characterization of nuclear material by Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradela, C.; Alaerts, G.; Becker, B.; Heyse, J.; Kopecky, S.; Moens, A.; Mondelaers, W.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Wynants, R.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Koizumi, M.; Tsuchiya, H.

    2016-11-01

    The use of Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis for the characterization of nuclear materials is discussed. The method, which relies on resonance structures in neutron-induced reaction cross sections, can be applied as a non-destructive method to characterise complex nuclear materials such as melted fuel resulting from a severe nuclear accident. Results of a demonstration experiment at the GELINA facility reveal that accurate data can be obtained at a compact facility even in the case of strong overlapping resonances.

  20. New automated inventory/material accounting system (AIMAS) version for former Soviet Union countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzminski, Jozef; Ewing, Tom; Sakunov, Igor; Drapey, Sergey; Nations, Jim

    2009-01-01

    AIMAS (Automated Inventory/Material Accounting System) is a PC-based application for site-level nuclear material accountancy that was originally developed in the late 90's as a part of the U.S Department of Energy Assistance Program to Ukraine. Designed to be flexible and secure, plus place minimal demands on computing infrastructure, it was originally developed to run in early Windows operating system (OS) environments like W98 and W3.1. The development, support, and maintenance of AIMAS were transferred to Ukraine in 2002. Because it is highly flexible and can be configured to meet diverse end-user's needs, the software has been used at several facilities in Ukraine. Incorporating added functionality is planned to support nuclear installations in the Republic of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, as well. An improved 32-bit version of AIMAS has recently been developed to operate effectively on modern PCs running the latest Windows OS by AVIS, the Ukrainian developer. In the paper we discuss the status of AIMAS, plans for new functions, and describe the strategy for addressing a sustainable software life-cycle while meeting user requirements in multiple FSU countries.

  1. Materials for Children about Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiss, Harry

    President Reagan's Fiscal Year 1987 budget was an attempt to increase dramatically spending on national defense, on nuclear weapons, while cutting back on social programs. The increases for almost all nuclear weapons indicate the Administration of the United States saw its major responsibility as one of providing a strong military, one centered on…

  2. Nuclear Technology Series. Nuclear Materials Processing Technician. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary nuclear materials processing technician program is designed for use with courses 23-25 of thirty-five in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians and operators; and to assist planners,…

  3. Nuclear Forensic Science: Analysis of Nuclear Material Out of Regulatory Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Marks, Naomi; Knight, Kim; Cassata, William S.; Hutcheon, Ian D.

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear forensic science seeks to identify the origin of nuclear materials found outside regulatory control. It is increasingly recognized as an integral part of a robust nuclear security program. This review highlights areas of active, evolving research in nuclear forensics, with a focus on analytical techniques commonly employed in Earth and planetary sciences. Applications of nuclear forensics to uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) are discussed first. UOCs have become an attractive target for nuclear forensic researchers because of the richness in impurities compared to materials produced later in the fuel cycle. The development of chronometric methods for age dating nuclear materials is then discussed, with an emphasis on improvements in accuracy that have been gained from measurements of multiple radioisotopic systems. Finally, papers that report on casework are reviewed, to provide a window into current scientific practice.

  4. Nuclear Materials Stewardship Within the DOE Environmental Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bilyeu, J. D.; Kiess, T. E.; Gates, M. L.

    2002-02-26

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program has made significant progress in planning disposition of its excess nuclear materials and has recently completed several noteworthy studies. Since establishment in 1997, the EM Nuclear Material Stewardship Program has developed disposition plans for excess nuclear materials to support facility deactivation. All nuclear materials have been removed from the Miamisburg Environmental Management Project (Mound), and disposition planning is nearing completion for the Fernald Environmental Management Project and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Only a few issues remain for materials at the Hanford and Idaho sites. Recent trade studies include the Savannah River Site Canyons Nuclear Materials Identification Study, a Cesium/Strontium Management Alternatives Trade Study, a Liquid Technical Standards Trade Study, an Irradiated Beryllium Reflectors with Tritium study, a Special Performance Assessment Required Trade Study, a Neutron Source Trade Study, and development of discard criteria for uranium. A Small Sites Workshop was also held. Potential and planned future activities include updating the Plutonium-239 storage study, developing additional packaging standards, developing a Nuclear Material Disposition Handbook, determining how to recover or dispose of Pu-244 and U-233, and working with additional sites to define disposition plans for their nuclear materials.

  5. Nuclear Weapons Effects (Self-Teaching Materials).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    Developed by the Civil Defense Preparedness Agency, this autoinstructional text deals with nuclear weapons effects. The destructive effects of an atomic blast are first introduced, and then long-term radioactive consequences are stressed. (CP)

  6. Audit Report on "The Department's Management of Nuclear Materials Provided to Domestic Licensees"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    The objective if to determine whether the Department of Energy (Department) was adequately managing its nuclear materials provided to domestic licensees. The audit was performed from February 2007 to September 2008 at Department Headquarters in Washington, DC, and Germantown, MD; the Oak Ridge Office and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, TN. In addition, we visited or obtained data from 40 different non-Departmental facilities in various states. To accomplish the audit objective, we: (1) Reviewed Departmental and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for the control and accountability of nuclear materials; (2) Analyzed a Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS) report with ending inventory balances for Department-owned nuclear materials dated September 30, 2007, to determine the amount and types of nuclear materials located at non-Department domestic facilities; (3) Held discussions with Department and NRC personnel that used NMMSS information to determine their roles and responsibilities related to the control and accountability over nuclear materials; (4) Selected a judgmental sample of 40 non-Department domestic facilities; (5) Met with licensee officials and sent confirmations to determine whether their actual inventories of Department-owned nuclear materials were consistent with inventories reported in the NMMSS; and, (6) Analyzed historical information related to the 2004 NMMSS inventory rebaselining initiative to determine the quantity of Department-owned nuclear materials that were written off from the domestic licensees inventory balances. This performance audit was conducted in accordance with generally accepted Government auditing standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objective. We believe that the evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our

  7. Large area nuclear particle detectors using ET materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this SBIR Phase 1 feasibility effort was to demonstrate the usefulness of Quantex electron-trapping (ET) materials for spatial detection of nuclear particles over large areas. This demonstration entailed evaluating the prompt visible scintillation as nuclear particles impinged on films of ET materials, and subsequently detecting the nuclear particle impingement information pattern stored in the ET material, by means of the visible-wavelength luminescence produced by near-infrared interrogation. Readily useful levels of scintillation and luminescence outputs are demonstrated.

  8. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  9. Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) Reactor Materials: News for the Reactor Materials Crosscut, May 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Maloy, Stuart Andrew

    2016-09-26

    In this newsletter for Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) Reactor Materials, pages 1-3 cover highlights from the DOE-NE (Nuclear Energy) programs, pages 4-6 cover determining the stress-strain response of ion-irradiated metallic materials via spherical nanoindentation, and pages 7-8 cover theoretical approaches to understanding long-term materials behavior in light water reactors.

  10. 10 CFR 70.11 - Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 70.11 Section 70.11 Energy NUCLEAR... using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

  11. 10 CFR 70.11 - Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 70.11 Section 70.11 Energy NUCLEAR... using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

  12. 10 CFR 70.11 - Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 70.11 Section 70.11 Energy NUCLEAR... using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

  13. Material Control and Accounting Design Considerations for High-Temperature Gas Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Trond Bjornard; John Hockert

    2011-08-01

    The subject of this report is domestic safeguards and security by design (2SBD) for high-temperature gas reactors, focusing on material control and accountability (MC&A). The motivation for the report is to provide 2SBD support to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, which was launched by Congress in 2005. This introductory section will provide some background on the NGNP project and an overview of the 2SBD concept. The remaining chapters focus specifically on design aspects of the candidate high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) relevant to MC&A, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements, and proposed MC&A approaches for the two major HTGR reactor types: pebble bed and prismatic. Of the prismatic type, two candidates are under consideration: (1) GA's GT-MHR (Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor), and (2) the Modular High-Temperature Reactor (M-HTR), a derivative of Areva's Antares reactor. The future of the pebble-bed modular reactor (PBMR) for NGNP is uncertain, as the PBMR consortium partners (Westinghouse, PBMR [Pty] and The Shaw Group) were unable to agree on the path forward for NGNP during 2010. However, during the technology assessment of the conceptual design phase (Phase 1) of the NGNP project, AREVA provided design information and technology assessment of their pebble bed fueled plant design called the HTR-Module concept. AREVA does not intend to pursue this design for NGNP, preferring instead a modular reactor based on the prismatic Antares concept. Since MC&A relevant design information is available for both pebble concepts, the pebble-bed HTGRs considered in this report are: (1) Westinghouse PBMR; and (2) AREVA HTR-Module. The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) sponsors the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program (FCR&D), which contains an element specifically focused on the domestic (or state) aspects of SBD. This Material Protection, Control and Accountancy Technology (MPACT) program supports the present work summarized in

  14. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies in Heavy Fermion Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirer, Kent Robert

    29Si, 31P, and 115In nuclear magnetic resonance studies of heavy fermion materials URu2Si 2, CeRhIn5, and URu2Si2- xPx were conducted as a function of temperature, pressure, and, in the case of URu2Si2- xPx, doping. Knight shift measurements in these systems probe the hybridization between conduction and local f-electrons which is described by the heavy fermion coherence temperature, T*, and can be captured by a two fluid model. This model takes the dual nature of the local moments and the heavy electron fluid into account. In URu2Si2 in a pressure range from 0-9.1 kbar, spin-lattice-relaxation data were taken and suggest a partial suppression of the density of states below 30 K. The data are analyzed in terms of a two component spin-fermion model. The spin-lattice-relaxation behavior is then compared to other materials that demonstrate precursor fluctuations in a pseudogap regime above a ground state with long-range order. Nuclear magnetic resonance data in CeRhIn5 for both the In(1) and In(2) sites are also taken under hydrostatic pressure. The Knight shift data reveal a suppression of the hyperfine coupling to the In(1) site as a function of pressure, and the electric field gradient at the In(2) site exhibits a change of slope. These changes to these coupling constants reflect alterations to the electronic structure at the quantum critical point. Finally, we report 31P nuclear magnetic resonance measurements in single crystals of URu2Si2-xP x with x = 0.09, 0.33. In the case of the x = 0.09 doping, we find no evidence for a phase transition, though the material still exhibits heavy fermion coherence. In the x = 0.33 doping, we find that it undergoes an antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase transition. When we include the pure compound in our analysis, we find that the hyperfine couplings and coherence temperatures evolve with doping. We compare this evolution with the trends seen in other compounds.

  15. Materials Science of High-Level Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Vance, E. R.; Vernaz, Etienne Y.

    2009-01-09

    With the increasing demand for the development of more nuclear power comes the responsibility to address the technical challenges of immobilizing high-level nuclear wastes in stable solid forms for interim storage or disposition in geologic repositories. The immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been an active area of research and development for over 50 years. Borosilicate glasses and complex ceramic composites have been developed to meet many technical challenges and current needs, although regulatory issues, which vary widely from country to country, have yet to be resolved. Cooperative international programs to develop advanced proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies to close the nuclear fuel cycle and increase the efficiency of nuclear energy production might create new separation waste streams that could demand new concepts and materials for nuclear waste immobilization. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art understanding regarding the materials science of glasses and ceramics for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and excess nuclear materials and discusses approaches to address new waste streams.

  16. Nuclear forensics of special nuclear material at Los Alamos: three recent studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, Lav; Gallimore, David L; Garduon, Katherine; Keller, Russell C; Kuhn, Kevin J; Lujan, Elmer J; Martinez, Alexander; Myers, Steven C; Moore, Steve S; Porterfield, Donivan R; Schwartz, Daniel S; Spencer, Khalil J; Townsend, Lisa E; Xu, Ning

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear forensics of special nuclear materials is a highly specialized field because there are few analytical laboratories in the world that can safely handle nuclear materials, perform high accuracy and precision analysis using validated analytical methods. The goal of nuclear forensics is to establish an unambiguous link between illicitly trafficked nuclear material and its origin. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Materials Signatures Program has implemented a graded 'conduct of operations' type approach for determining the unique nuclear, chemical, and physical signatures needed to identify the manufacturing process, intended use, and origin of interdicted nuclear material. In our approach an analysis flow path was developed for determining key signatures necessary for attributing unknown materials to a source. This analysis flow path included both destructive (i.e., alpha spectrometry, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, TIMS, particle size distribution, density and particle fractionation) and non-destructive (i.e., gamma-ray spectrometry, optical microscopy, SEM, XRD, and x-ray fluorescence) characterization techniques. Analytical techniques and results from three recent cases characterized by this analysis flow path along with an evaluation of the usefulness of this approach will be discussed in this paper.

  17. Source Book of Educational Materials for Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp.; Lewis, Jeannine T., Comp.

    The contents of this sourcebook of educational materials are divided into the following sections: Anatomy and Physiology; Medical Terminology; Medical Ethics and Department Management; Patient Care and Medical Decision-Making; Basic Nuclear Medicine; Diagnostic in Vivo; Diagnostic in Vitro; Pediatric Nuclear Medicine; Radiation Detection and…

  18. Beryllium - A Unique Material in Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect

    T., A. Tomberlin

    2004-11-01

    Beryllium, due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section characteristics, has been used successfully as a neutron reflector for three generations of nuclear test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the largest test reactor in the world, has utilized five successive beryllium neutron reflectors and is scheduled for continued operation with a sixth beryllium reflector. A high radiation environment in a test reactor produces radiation damage and other changes in beryllium. These changes necessitate safety analysis of the beryllium, methods to predict performance, and appropriate surveillances. Other nuclear applications also utilize beryllium. Beryllium, given its unique atomic, physical, and chemical characteristics, is widely used as a “window” for x-rays and gamma rays. Beryllium, intimately mixed with high-energy alpha radiation emitters has been successfully used to produce neutron sources. This paper addresses operational experience and methodologies associated with the use of beryllium in nuclear test reactors and in “windows” for x-rays and gamma rays. Other nuclear applications utilizing beryllium are also discussed.

  19. A treaty to ban nuclear smuggling: The next step in nuclear material control?

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, B.M.; Smith, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    Since the demise of the Soviet Union, reports have continued to surface that weapons-usable nuclear material has been smuggled out of former Soviet territory into the hands of proliferant states. So far, few examples of nuclear smuggling have involved serious quantities of weapons-usable material, and much purported smuggling has involved attempted fraud rather than an effort to transfer fissile material. In no instance has an actual transfer to a potential proliferant state been verified.

  20. 18 CFR 367.1540 - Account 154, Materials and operating supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... include the book cost of materials recovered in connection with construction, maintenance or the..., Materials and operating supplies. (a) This account must include the cost of materials purchased primarily... materials consisting of large individual items must be included in this account at original cost,...

  1. Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Aas, Christopher A.; Lenhart, James E.; Bray, Olin H.; Witcher, Christina Jenkin

    2004-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was tasked with developing the Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS) with the sponsorship of NA-125.3 and the concurrence of DOE/NNSA field and area offices. The purpose of IIIMS was to modernize nuclear materials management information systems at the enterprise level. Projects over the course of several years attempted to spearhead this modernization. The scope of IIIMS was broken into broad enterprise-oriented materials management and materials forecasting. The IIIMS prototype was developed to allow multiple participating user groups to explore nuclear material requirements and needs in detail. The purpose of material forecasting was to determine nuclear material availability over a 10 to 15 year period in light of the dynamic nature of nuclear materials management. Formal DOE Directives (requirements) were needed to direct IIIMS efforts but were never issued and the project has been halted. When restarted, duplicating or re-engineering the activities from 1999 to 2003 is unnecessary, and in fact future initiatives can build on previous work. IIIMS requirements should be structured to provide high confidence that discrepancies are detected, and classified information is not divulged. Enterprise-wide materials management systems maintained by the military can be used as overall models to base IIIMS implementation concepts upon.

  2. Real-Time Characterization of Special Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, Sean; Candy, Jim; Chambers, Dave; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Snyderman, Neal

    2015-09-04

    When confronting an item that may contain nuclear material, it is urgently necessary to determine its characteristics. Our goal is to provide accurate information with high-con dence as rapidly as possible.

  3. ENHANCEMENT OF MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING PROGRAMS THROUGH THE CONDUCT OF GAP ANALYSIS AND THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPREHENSIVE MCA PROGRAM PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    Hasty, T

    2008-06-10

    An effective safeguards program for nuclear materials is dependent on the integration of activities in the traditional safeguards elements: physical protection, protective force, and material control and accounting (MC&A). The design and integration of these traditional safeguards elements must be based on a technical analysis performed in characterizing the vulnerabilities and related risks of the facility against a designed-basis threat. Each of these elements requires a near seamless integration with each other, as well as within a site's operations organization. One of the key objectives of an effective nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) program is to address the threat posed by an active or passive 'insider' who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt protracted or abrupt diversion or theft of special nuclear material (SNM). The function of material accountancy is to detect the loss or unauthorized removal of special nuclear material from the plant or facility in a timely manner. Detection is accomplished by means of measurements and transfer records of material movements and periodic inventories to verify that all material is accounted for. The function of material control is to assure the integrity of the nuclear material and the accountancy data. This paper focuses on the development and implementation of a detailed material control and accounting program plan that considers both regulatory compliance demands and performance standards. Consideration of both of these demands is necessary to reduce exposure to theft and diversion, to reduce regulatory jeopardy, and to minimize to the extent possible adverse impacts with site operations.

  4. System for detecting special nuclear materials

    DOEpatents

    Jandel, Marian; Rusev, Gencho Yordanov; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas

    2015-07-14

    The present disclosure includes a radiological material detector having a convertor material that emits one or more photons in response to a capture of a neutron emitted by a radiological material; a photon detector arranged around the convertor material and that produces an electrical signal in response to a receipt of a photon; and a processor connected to the photon detector, the processor configured to determine the presence of a radiological material in response to a predetermined signature of the electrical signal produced at the photon detector. One or more detectors described herein can be integrated into a detection system that is suited for use in port monitoring, treaty compliance, and radiological material management activities.

  5. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  6. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  7. A Uniform Framework of Global Nuclear Materials Management

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, S.A.; Mangan, D.L.; Sanders, T.L; Sellers, T.A.

    1999-04-20

    Global Nuclear Materials Management (GNMM) anticipates and supports a growing international recognition of the importance of uniform, effective management of civilian, excess defense, and nuclear weapons materials. We expect thereto be a continuing increase in both the number of international agreements and conventions on safety, security, and transparency of nuclear materials, and the number of U.S.-Russian agreements for the safety, protection, and transparency of weapons and excess defense materials. This inventory of agreements and conventions may soon expand into broad, mandatory, international programs that will include provisions for inspection, verification, and transparency, To meet such demand the community must build on the resources we have, including State agencies, the IAEA and regional organizations. By these measures we will meet the future expectations for monitoring and inspection of materials, maintenance of safety and security, and implementation of transparency measures.

  8. Integrated nuclear techniques to detect illicit materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper discusses the problem of detecting explosives in the context of an object being transported for illicit purposes. The author emphasizes that technologies developed for this particular application have payoffs in many related problem areas. The author discusses nuclear techniques which can be applied to this detection problem. These include: x-ray imaging; neutronic interrogation; inelastic neutron scattering; fieldable neutron generators. He discusses work which has been done on the applications of these technologies, including results for detection of narcotics. He also discusses efforts to integrate these techniques into complementary systems which offer improved performance.

  9. Glassy materials investigated for nuclear reactor applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, E. D.

    1968-01-01

    Studies determine the feasibility of preparing fuel-bearing glasses and glasses bearing neutron-absorbing materials for use as crystalline fuel and control rods for reactors. Properties investigated were devitrification resistance, urania solubility, and density.

  10. Teaching Controversial Materials: Teaching about the Nuclear Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    Describes difficulties encountered in presenting a college course on nuclear weapons and disarmament. Maintains that such courses must strive for a fuller historical account of the arms race, in addition to stressing the humanistic and ethical questions involved. Warns that controversy will arise and concludes that even blind anger is preferable…

  11. Authentication and Interpretation of Weight Data Collected from Accountability Scales at Global Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, Peter; Laughter, Mark D; Martyn, Rose; Richardson, Dave; Rowe, Nathan C; Pickett, Chris A; Younkin, James R; Shephard, Adam M

    2010-01-01

    Accountability scale data from the Global Nuclear Fuels (GNF) fuel fabrication facility in Wilmington, NC has been collected and analyzed as a part of the Cylinder Accountability and Tracking System (CATS) field trial in 2009. The purpose of the data collection was to demonstrate an authentication method for safeguards applications, and the use of load cell data in cylinder accountability. The scale data was acquired using a commercial off-the-shelf communication server with authentication and encryption capabilities. The authenticated weight data was then analyzed to determine facility operating activities. The data allowed for the determination of the number of full and empty cylinders weighed and the respective weights along with other operational activities. Data authentication concepts, practices and methods, the details of the GNF weight data authentication implementation and scale data interpretation results will be presented.

  12. Multi-Elemental Nuclear Analysis of soil reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Medeiros, I. M. M. Amaral; Menezes, M. À. B. C.

    2011-08-01

    The elements concentration in the soil reference material (IAEA/SOIL-7) was obtained using the parametric Neutron Activation Analysis technique in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (CNEN-SP). The results obtained were in good agreement with the respective nominal values from this reference material suggesting the viability of using this parametric procedure for environmental investigations.

  13. Accelerated Nuclear Energy Materials Development with Multiple Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Fluss, M J; Bench, G

    2009-08-19

    A fundamental issue in nuclear energy is the changes in material properties as a consequence of time, temperature, and neutron fluence. Usually, candidate materials for nuclear energy applications are tested in nuclear reactors to understand and model the changes that arise from a combination of atomic displacements, helium and hydrogen production, and other nuclear transmutations (e.g. fission and the production of fission products). Experiments may be carried out under neutron irradiation conditions in existing nuclear materials test reactors (at rates of 10 to 20 displacements per atom (DPA) per year or burn-up rates of a few percent per year for fertile fuels), but such an approach takes much too long for many high neutron fluence scenarios (300 DPA for example) expected in reactors of the next generation. Indeed it is reasonable to say that there are no neutron sources available today to accomplish sufficiently rapid accelerated aging let alone also provide the temperature and spectral characteristics of future fast spectrum nuclear energy systems (fusion and fission both). Consequently, materials research and development progress continues to be severely limited by this bottleneck.

  14. Nuclear materials detection using high-energy γ-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micklich, Bradley J.; Smith, Donald L.

    2005-12-01

    The FIGARO technique uses 6-7 MeV γ-rays produced in the 19F(p, αγ)16O reaction to detect materials used in nuclear weapons or associated with their production. These γ-rays induce neutron emission via the photoneutron and photofission processes in nuclear materials. Previous experiments have shown that FIGARO gives responses specific to nuclear materials with little or no response to common benign materials. The technique is also resistant to both photon and neutron shielding countermeasures. We present preliminary results from modeling studies of neutron detection rates with simulated air cargo and intermodal shipping containers. A general methodology to compare operating performance based on receiver-operator-characteristic curves is also discussed.

  15. Detecting fission from special nuclear material sources

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA

    2012-06-05

    A neutron detector system for discriminating fissile material from non-fissile material wherein a digital data acquisition unit collects data at high rate, and in real-time processes large volumes of data directly into information that a first responder can use to discriminate materials. The system comprises counting neutrons from the unknown source and detecting excess grouped neutrons to identify fission in the unknown source. The system includes a graphing component that displays the plot of the neutron distribution from the unknown source over a Poisson distribution and a plot of neutrons due to background or environmental sources. The system further includes a known neutron source placed in proximity to the unknown source to actively interrogate the unknown source in order to accentuate differences in neutron emission from the unknown source from Poisson distributions and/or environmental sources.

  16. Introduction to Special Edition (of the Journal of Nuclear Materials Management) on Reducing the Threat from Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2007-03-01

    Introductory article for special edition of the JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS MANAGEMENT outlining the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technical Division. In particular the International Nuclear and Radiological Security Standing Committee and its initial focus covering four topical areas--Radiological Threat Reduction, Nuclear Smuggling and Illicit Trafficking, Countering Nuclear Terrorism, and Radioligical Terrorism Consequence Management.

  17. Development of Curricula for Nuclear Radiation Protection, Nuclear Instrumentation, and Nuclear Materials Processing Technologies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Daniel M.

    A study was conducted to assist two-year postsecondary educational institutions in providing technical specialty courses for preparing nuclear technicians. As a result of project activities, curricula have been developed for five categories of nuclear technicians and operators: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and…

  18. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT): Modeling and Simulation Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Cipiti, Benjamin; Dunn, Timothy; Durbin, Samual; Durkee, Joe W.; England, Jeff; Jones, Robert; Ketusky, Edward; Li, Shelly; Lindgren, Eric; Meier, David; Miller, Michael; Osburn, Laura Ann; Pereira, Candido; Rauch, Eric Benton; Scaglione, John; Scherer, Carolynn P.; Sprinkle, James K.; Yoo, Tae-Sic

    2016-08-05

    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal. This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling. To aid in framing its long-term goal, during FY16, a modeling and simulation roadmap is being developed for three major areas of investigation: (1) radiation transport and sensors, (2) process and chemical models, and (3) shock physics and assessments. For each area, current modeling approaches are described, and gaps and needs are identified.

  19. Monte Carlo Simulation Study of a Differential Calorimeter Measuring the Nuclear Heating in Material Testing Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amharrak, H.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Lyoussi, A.; Carette, M.; Brun, J.; De Vita, C.; Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J.-F.; Guimbal, P.

    2016-02-01

    The nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs) are crucial for the study of nuclear materials and fuels under irradiation. The reference measurements of this nuclear heating are especially performed by a differential calorimeter including a graphite sample material. Then these measurements are used for other materials, other geometries, or other experimental conditions in order to predict the nuclear heating and thermal conditions induced in the irradiation devices. This paper will present new simulations with MCNP Monte-Carlo transport code to determine the gamma heating profile inside the calorimeter. The whole complex geometry of the sensor has been considered. We use as an input source in the model, the photon spectra calculated in various positions of CARMEN-1 irradiation program in OSIRIS reactor. After a description of the differential calorimeter device, the MCNP modeling used for the calculations of radial profile of nuclear heating inside the calorimeter elements will be introduced. The obtained results of different simulations will be detailed and discussed in this paper. The charged particle equilibrium inside the calorimeter elements will be studied. Then we will focus on parametric studies of the various components of the calorimeter. The influence of source type will be also took into account. Moreover the influence of the material used for the sample will be described.

  20. Cooperative efforts of the materials protection control and accounting program at the electrochemical plant (Krasnoyarsk-45) in Russia-011

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.

    1998-07-22

    The USDOE Material Protection Control and Accountability Program (MPC&A) has established a Project Team with the goal of providing the Russian Electrochemical Plant (ECP) with equipment and training to enable ECP to evaluate, develop, and implement a comprehensive plan and systems for physical protection, material controls, and accountancy upgrades. The MPC&A project will provide for improvements such as risk assessments, access control upgrades, computerized MC&A, communications systems upgrades, building perimeter surveillance and intrusion detection upgrades, vault upgrades, metal and nuclear material detection upgrades, along with mass measurement and non- destructive analysis (NDA) instrumentation. This paper outlines the overall objectives of the MPC&A project at the Electrochemical Plant.

  1. Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.

    SciTech Connect

    Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi; Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

    2003-09-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

  2. 10 CFR 75.22 - Accounting records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accounting records. 75.22 Section 75.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Material Accounting and Control for Facilities § 75.22 Accounting records. (a) The accounting records required by §...

  3. 10 CFR 75.22 - Accounting records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accounting records. 75.22 Section 75.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Material Accounting and Control for Facilities § 75.22 Accounting records. (a) The accounting records required by §...

  4. 10 CFR 75.22 - Accounting records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accounting records. 75.22 Section 75.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Material Accounting and Control for Facilities § 75.22 Accounting records. (a) The accounting records required by §...

  5. 10 CFR 75.22 - Accounting records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accounting records. 75.22 Section 75.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Material Accounting and Control for Facilities § 75.22 Accounting records. (a) The accounting records required by §...

  6. Graphite matrix materials for nuclear waste isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, W.C.

    1981-06-01

    At low temperatures, graphites are chemically inert to all but the strongest oxidizing agents. The raw materials from which artificial graphites are produced are plentiful and inexpensive. Morover, the physical properties of artificial graphites can be varied over a very wide range by the choice of raw materials and manufacturing processes. Manufacturing processes are reviewed herein, with primary emphasis on those processes which might be used to produce a graphite matrix for the waste forms. The approach, recommended herein, involves the low-temperature compaction of a finely ground powder produced from graphitized petroleum coke. The resultant compacts should have fairly good strength, low permeability to both liquids and gases, and anisotropic physical properties. In particular, the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficients and the thermal conductivity should be advantageous for this application. With two possible exceptions, the graphite matrix appears to be superior to the metal alloy matrices which have been recommended in prior studies. The two possible exceptions are the requirements on strength and permeability; both requirements will be strongly influenced by the containment design, including the choice of materials and the waste form, of the multibarrier package. Various methods for increasing the strength, and for decreasing the permeability of the matrix, are reviewed and discussed in the sections in Incorporation of Other Materials and Elimination of Porosity. However, it would be premature to recommend a particular process until the overall multi-barrier design is better defined. It is recommended that increased emphasis be placed on further development of the low-temperature compacted graphite matrix concept.

  7. Optoelectronic inventory system for special nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Sieradzki, F.H.

    1994-01-01

    In support of the Department of Energy`s Dismantlement Program, the Optoelectronics Characterization and Sensor Development Department 2231 at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico has developed an in situ nonintrusive Optoelectronic Inventory System (OIS) that has the potential for application wherever periodic inventory of selected material is desired. Using a network of fiber-optic links, the OIS retrieves and stores inventory signatures from data storage devices (which are permanently attached to material storage containers) while inherently providing electromagnetic pulse immunity and electrical noise isolation. Photovoltaic cells (located within the storage facility) convert laser diode optic power from a laser driver to electrical energy. When powered and triggered, the data storage devices sequentially output their digital inventory signatures through light-emitting diode/photo diode data links for retrieval and storage in a mobile data acquisition system. An item`s exact location is determined through fiber-optic network and software design. The OIS provides an on-demand method for obtaining acceptable inventory reports while eliminating the need for human presence inside the material storage facility. By using modularization and prefabricated construction with mature technologies and components, an OIS installation with virtually unlimited capacity can be tailored to the customer`s requirements.

  8. Enviromental Development Plan: special nuclear materials production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This Environmental Development Plan includes the process steps and facilities necessary for the production of plutonium and tritium for Government needs and the production of some other radioactive materials that will be used for heat and radiation sources by domestic and international customers. The production reactors and the spent fuel processing plants and their effluents are discussed, but the defense wastes from them are treated in a separate EDP. The scope does not include transportation, decontamination and decommissioning, safeguards and security, or use of the SNM products.

  9. Report on {open_quotes}audit of internal controls over special nuclear materials{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy (Department) is responsible for safeguarding a significant amount of plutonium, uranium-233 and enriched uranium - collectively referred to as special nuclear materials - stored in the United States. The Department`s office of Nonproliferation and National Security has overall management cognizance for developing policies for safeguarding these materials, while other Headquarters program offices have {open_quotes}landlord{close_quotes} responsibilities for the sites where the materials are stored, and the Department`s operations and field offices provide onsite management of contractor operations. The Department`s management and operating contractors, under the direction of the Department, safeguard and account for the special nuclear material stored at Department sites.

  10. Rattling Nucleons: New Developments in Active Interrogation of Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Runkle; David L. Chichester; Scott J. Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Active interrogation is a vigorous area of research and development due to its promise of offering detection and characterization capabilities of special nuclear material in environments where passive detection fails. The primary value added by active methods is the capability to penetrate shielding - special nuclear material itself, incidental materials, or intentional shielding - and advocates hope that active interrogation will provide a solution to the problem of detecting shielded uranium, which is at present the greatest obstacle to interdiction efforts. The technique also provides a unique benefit for quantifying nuclear material in high background-radiation environments, an area important for nuclear material safeguards and material accountancy. Progress has been made in the field of active interrogation on several fronts, most notably in the arenas of source development, systems integration, and the integration and exploitation of multiple fission and non-fission signatures. But penetration of interrogating radiation often comes at a cost, not only in terms of finance and dose but also in terms of induced backgrounds, system complexity, and extended measurement times (including set up and acquisition). These costs make the calculus for deciding to implement active interrogation more subtle than may be apparent. The purpose of this review is thus to examine existing interrogation methods, compare and contrast their attributes and limitations, and identify missions where active interrogation may hold the most promise.

  11. Meta-material for nuclear particle detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, V.; Salvato, M.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I.; Cirillo, M.; Scherillo, A.; Schooneveld, E. M.; Vannozzi, A.; Celentano, G.; Pietropaolo, A.

    2017-02-01

    Superconducting strips coated with boron were engineered with a view to subnuclear particle detection. Combining the characteristics of boron as a generator of α-particles (as a consequence of neutron absorption) and the ability of superconducting strips to act as resistive switches, it is shown that fabricated Nb-boron and NbN-boron strips represent a promising basis for implementing neutron detection devices. In particular, the superconducting transition of boron-coated NbN strips generates voltage outputs of the order of a few volts thanks to the relatively higher normal state resitivity of NbN with respect to Nb. This result, combined with the relatively high transition temperature of NbN (of the order of 16 K for the bulk material), is an appealing prospect for future developments. The coated strips are meta-devices since their constituting material does not exist in nature and it is engineered to accomplish a specific task, i.e. generate an output voltage signal upon α-particle irradiation.

  12. ADDING REALISM TO NUCLEAR MATERIAL DISSOLVING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, B.

    2011-08-15

    Two new criticality modeling approaches have greatly increased the efficiency of dissolver operations in H-Canyon. The first new approach takes credit for the linear, physical distribution of the mass throughout the entire length of the fuel assembly. This distribution of mass is referred to as the linear density. Crediting the linear density of the fuel bundles results in using lower fissile concentrations, which allows higher masses to be charged to the dissolver. Also, this approach takes credit for the fact that only part of the fissile mass is wetted at a time. There are multiple assemblies stacked on top of each other in a bundle. On average, only 50-75% of the mass (the bottom two or three assemblies) is wetted at a time. This means that only 50-75% (depending on operating level) of the mass is moderated and is contributing to the reactivity of the system. The second new approach takes credit for the progression of the dissolving process. Previously, dissolving analysis looked at a snapshot in time where the same fissile material existed both in the wells and in the bulk solution at the same time. The second new approach models multiple consecutive phases that simulate the fissile material moving from a high concentration in the wells to a low concentration in the bulk solution. This approach is more realistic and allows higher fissile masses to be charged to the dissolver.

  13. Illicit trafficking of radiological & nuclear materials : modeling and analysis of trafficking trends and risks.

    SciTech Connect

    York, David L.; Love, Tracia L.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2005-01-01

    Concerns over the illicit trafficking of radiological and nuclear materials were focused originally on the lack of security and accountability of such material throughout the former Soviet states. This is primarily attributed to the frequency of events that have occurred involving the theft and trafficking of critical material components that could be used to construct a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or even a rudimentary nuclear device. However, with the continued expansion of nuclear technology and the deployment of a global nuclear fuel cycle these materials have become increasingly prevalent, affording a more diverse inventory of dangerous materials and dual-use items. To further complicate the matter, the list of nuclear consumers has grown to include: (1) Nation-states that have gone beyond the IAEA agreed framework and additional protocols concerning multiple nuclear fuel cycles and processes that reuse the fuel through reprocessing to exploit technologies previously confined to the more industrialized world; (2) Terrorist organizations seeking to acquire nuclear and radiological material due to the potential devastation and psychological effect of their use; (3) Organized crime, which has discovered a lucrative market in trafficking of illicit material to international actors and/or countries; and (4) Amateur smugglers trying to feed their families in a post-Soviet era. An initial look at trafficking trends of this type seems scattered and erratic, localized primarily to a select group of countries. This is not necessarily the case. The success with which other contraband has been smuggled throughout the world suggests that nuclear trafficking may be carried out with relative ease along the same routes by the same criminals or criminal organizations. Because of the inordinately high threat posed by terrorist or extremist groups acquiring the ingredients for unconventional weapons, it is necessary that illicit trafficking of these materials be better

  14. Effect of Nuclear Radiation on Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwanbeck, C. A.

    1965-01-01

    The tensile properties for 33 polycrystalline structural materials including aluminum, titanium, nickel and iron alloys were obtained at -256.5 C (30 deg R) after irradiation exposure at this temperature to 10(exp 17) nvt (E greater than 0.5 Mev), at -256.5 C without previous irradiation, and at approximately 27 C (540 deg R) without previous irradiation. The data were evaluated statistically to permit identification of cryogenic effects and nuclear-cryogenic effects. A number of conclusions were drawn regarding suitability of certain of the materials for use in nuclear-cryogenic applications and regarding the need for further investigation.

  15. 10 CFR Appendix M to Part 110 - Categorization of Nuclear Material d

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Categorization of Nuclear Material d M Appendix M to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. M Appendix M to Part 110—Categorization of Nuclear Material d Material Form...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix M to Part 110 - Categorization of Nuclear Material d

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Categorization of Nuclear Material d M Appendix M to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. M Appendix M to Part 110—Categorization of Nuclear Material d Material Form...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix M to Part 110 - Categorization of Nuclear Material d

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Categorization of Nuclear Material d M Appendix M to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. M Appendix M to Part 110—Categorization of Nuclear Material d Material Form...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix M to Part 110 - Categorization of Nuclear Material d

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Categorization of Nuclear Material d M Appendix M to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. M Appendix M to Part 110—Categorization of Nuclear Material d Material Form...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix M to Part 110 - Categorization of Nuclear Material d

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Categorization of Nuclear Material d M Appendix M to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. M Appendix M to Part 110—Categorization of Nuclear Material d Material Form...

  20. Materialism Moderates the Effect of Accounting for Time on Prosocial Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Li, Jibo; Chen, Yingying; Huang, Xiting

    2015-01-01

    Accounting for time is defined as putting a price on time. Researchers have demonstrated that accounting for time reduces the time individuals spend on others; however, its association with monetary donations has not been examined. We hypothesized that accounting for time will activate a utility mindset that would affect one's allocation of time and money. In Study 1, the mediating effect of utility mindsets on the relationship between accounting for time and prosocial behavior was examined. In Study 2, we examined the effect of accounting for time on time spent helping and donating money, and the moderating role of material values on the relationship between accounting for time and prosocial behavior. Results showed that accounting for time activated a mindset of utility maximization that, in turn, reduced participants' prosocial behavior; moreover, materialism moderated the effect of accounting for time on prosocial behavior.

  1. Advanced material accountancy glove box assay system for process material at PFPF.

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, H.; Fujiwara, S.; Takahashi, S.; Kuno, K.; Menlove, Howard O.; Wenz, T. R.

    2002-01-01

    The Material Accountancv Glove Box Assay System (MAGB) is a neutron coincidence counting system that has been developed under the akeement between Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in order to measure plutonium in the MOX transfer container in the glove box at Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) in Japan. The system was installed at PFPF in August 1989 and afterwards it has been using for verification ofplutonium in the transfer container by inspectorate during inspection Process equipment to improve its performance has been installed in the PFPF fabrication line. As a result the number of sample requiredfor inspection increased. Since MAGBs were only used, it was anticipated that the reduction of the time of sampling and movement time of nuclear materialfor verification would be difficult. Furthermore, the sample has to be taken from the transfer containers that contain a large amount of plutonium. Therefore, in order to reduce the time for sampling, time required for the transfer container to arrive at sampling point, and personal radiation exposure, the integrated MAGB system combined with High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy (HRGS), called M G B, was developed. This system was installed at PFPF in August 2000, and then, the functional test and the calibration were carried out in the presence of inspectorate. In the course of these activities, the data that is necessary for evaluating the system were fully acquired The system is now being in the process of evaluation whether it can be used as an attended safeguards system for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Japan Safeguards Office (JSGO).

  2. EVALUATING MC AND A EFFECTIVENESS TO VERIFY THE PRESENCE OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    P. G. DAWSON; J. A MORZINSKI; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    Traditional materials accounting is focused exclusively on the material balance area (MBA), and involves periodically closing a material balance based on accountability measurements conducted during a physical inventory. In contrast, the physical inventory for Los Alamos National Laboratory's near-real-time accounting system is established around processes and looks more like an item inventory. That is, the intent is not to measure material for accounting purposes, since materials have already been measured in the normal course of daily operations. A given unit process operates many times over the course of a material balance period. The product of a given unit process may move for processing within another unit process in the same MBA or may be transferred out of the MBA. Since few materials are unmeasured the physical inventory for a near-real-time process area looks more like an item inventory. Thus, the intent of the physical inventory is to locate the materials on the books and verify information about the materials contained in the books. Closing a materials balance for such an area is a matter of summing all the individual mass balances for the batches processed by all unit processes in the MBA. Additionally, performance parameters are established to measure the program's effectiveness. Program effectiveness for verifying the presence of nuclear material is required to be equal to or greater than a prescribed performance level, process measurements must be within established precision and accuracy values, physical inventory results meet or exceed performance requirements, and inventory differences are less than a target/goal quantity. This approach exceeds DOE established accounting and physical inventory program requirements. Hence, LANL is committed to this approach and to seeking opportunities for further improvement through integrated technologies. This paper will provide a detailed description of this evaluation process.

  3. Predictive aging results for cable materials in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.

    1990-11-01

    In this report, we provide a detailed discussion of methodology of predicting cable degradation versus dose rate, temperature, and exposure time and its application to data obtained on a number of additional nuclear power plant cable insulation (a hypalon, a silicon rubber and two ethylenetetrafluoroethylenes) and jacket (a hypalon) materials. We then show that the predicted, low-dose-rate results for our materials are in excellent agreement with long-term (7 to 9 years), low dose-rate results recently obtained for the same material types actually aged under nuclear power plant conditions. Based on a combination of the modelling and long-term results, we find indications of reasonably similar degradation responses among several different commercial formulations for each of the following generic'' materials: hypalon, ethylenetetrafluoroethylene, silicone rubber and PVC. If such generic'' behavior can be further substantiated through modelling and long-term results on additional formulations, predictions of cable life for other commercial materials of the same generic types would be greatly facilitated. Finally, to aid utilities in their cable life extension decisions, we utilize our modelling results to generate lifetime prediction curves for the materials modelled to data. These curves plot expected material lifetime versus dose rate and temperature down to the levels of interest to nuclear power plant aging. 18 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. ADVANCED CERAMIC MATERIALS FOR NEXT-GENERATION NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.

    2010-09-29

    proliferation), the worldwide community is working to develop and deploy new nuclear energy systems and advanced fuel cycles. These new nuclear systems address the key challenges and include: (1) extracting the full energy value of the nuclear fuel; (2) creating waste solutions with improved long term safety; (3) minimizing the potential for the misuse of the technology and materials for weapons; (4) continually improving the safety of nuclear energy systems; and (5) keeping the cost of energy affordable.

  5. Technology Readiness Levels for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Advanced Fuel Campaign (AFC).

  6. Survey of hazardous materials used in nuclear testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, E.A.; Fabryka-Martin, J.

    1991-02-01

    The use of hazardous'' materials in routine underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site has been reviewed. In addition the inventory of test yields, originally reported in 1976 has been updated. A trail down-hole inventory'' has been conducted for a selected test. The inorganic hazardous materials introduced during testing (with the exception of lead and the fissionable materials) produce an incremental change in the quantity of such materials already present in the geologic media surrounding the test points. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  7. Adhesion layer for etching of tracks in nuclear trackable materials

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Contolini, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    A method for forming nuclear tracks having a width on the order of 100-200 nm in nuclear trackable materials, such as polycarbonate (LEXAN) without causing delamination of the LEXAN. The method utilizes an adhesion film having a inert oxide which allows the track to be sufficiently widened to >200 nm without delamination of the nuclear trackable materials. The adhesion film may be composed of a metal such as Cr, Ni, Au, Pt, or Ti, or composed of a dielectric having a stable surface, such as silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), silicon nitride (SiN.sub.x), and aluminum oxide (AlO). The adhesion film can either be deposited on top of the gate metal layer, or if the properties of the adhesion film are adequate, it can be used as the gate layer. Deposition of the adhesion film is achieved by standard techniques, such as sputtering or evaporation.

  8. Pulsed Photofission Delayed Gamma Ray Detection for Nuclear Material Identification

    SciTech Connect

    John Kavouras; Xianfei Wen; Daren R. Norman; Dante R. Nakazawa; Haori Yang

    2012-11-01

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. High-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. After photofission reactions, delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the fission signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. Isotopic composition measurement methods based on delayed gamma ray spectroscopy will be the primary focus of this work.

  9. Long Duration Hot Hydrogen Exposure of Nuclear Thermal Rocket Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Foote, John P.; Hickman, Robert; Dobson, Chris; Clifton, Scooter

    2007-01-01

    An arc-heater driven hyper-thermal convective environments simulator was recently developed and commissioned for long duration hot hydrogen exposure of nuclear thermal rocket materials. This newly established non-nuclear testing capability uses a high-power, multi-gas, wall-stabilized constricted arc-heater to .produce high-temperature pressurized hydrogen flows representative of nuclear reactor core environments, excepting radiation effects, and is intended to serve as a low cost test facility for the purpose of investigating and characterizing candidate fuel/structural materials and improving associated processing/fabrication techniques. Design and engineering development efforts are fully summarized, and facility operating characteristics are reported as determined from a series of baseline performance mapping runs and long duration capability demonstration tests.

  10. First-principles modeling of materials for nuclear energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, Andrey I. Nikonov, Anton Yu.; Ponomareva, Alena V.; Abrikosov, Igor A.; Barannikova, Svetlana A.

    2014-11-14

    We discuss recent developments in the field of ab initio electronic structure theory and its use for studies of materials for nuclear energy applications. We review state-of-the-art simulation methods that allow for an efficient treatment of effects due to chemical and magnetic disorder, and illustrate their predictive power with examples of two materials systems, Fe-Cr-Ni alloys and Zr-Nb alloys.

  11. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    DOEpatents

    Cooley, Carl R.; Lerch, Ronald E.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical digestion for treatment of low level combustible nuclear solid waste material is provided and comprises reacting the solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230.degree.-300.degree.C and simultaneously and/or thereafter contacting the reacting mixture with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide. In a special embodiment spent ion exchange resins are converted by this chemical digestion to noncombustible gases and a low volume noncombustible residue.

  12. IMPACT OF NUCLEAR MATERIAL DISSOLUTION ON VESSEL CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.; Clifton, B.

    2012-10-01

    Different nuclear materials require different processing conditions. In order to maximize the dissolver vessel lifetime, corrosion testing was conducted for a range of chemistries and temperature used in fuel dissolution. Compositional ranges of elements regularly in the dissolver were evaluated for corrosion of 304L, the material of construction. Corrosion rates of AISI Type 304 stainless steel coupons, both welded and non-welded coupons, were calculated from measured weight losses and post-test concentrations of soluble Fe, Cr and Ni.

  13. Monitoring the Random Errors of Nuclear Material Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    1980-06-01

    Monitoring and controlling random errors is an important function of a measurement control program. This report describes the principal sources of random error in the common nuclear material measurement processes and the most important elements of a program for monitoring, evaluating and controlling the random error standard deviations of these processes.

  14. Storage of nuclear materials by encapsulation in fullerenes

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V.

    1994-01-01

    A method of encapsulating radioactive materials inside fullerenes for stable long-term storage. Fullerenes provide a safe and efficient means of disposing of nuclear waste which is extremely stable with respect to the environment. After encapsulation, a radioactive ion is essentially chemically isolated from its external environment.

  15. 10 CFR 70.11 - Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) the use or operation of nuclear reactors or other nuclear devices in a United States Government-owned... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 70.11 Section 70.11 Energy...

  16. 10 CFR 70.11 - Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) the use or operation of nuclear reactors or other nuclear devices in a United States Government-owned... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 70.11 Section 70.11 Energy...

  17. IMPROVED TECHNNOLOGY TO PREVENT ILLICIT TRAFFICKING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J H

    2005-07-20

    The proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons (collectively known as weapons of mass destruction, or WMD) and the potential acquisition and use of WMD against the world by terrorists are extremely serious threats to international security. These threats are complex and interrelated. There are myriad routes to weapons of mass destruction--many different starting materials, material sources, and production processes. There are many possible proliferators--threshold countries, rogue states, state-sponsored or transnational terrorists groups, domestic terrorists, and even international crime organizations. Motives for acquiring and using WMD are similarly wide ranging--from a desire to change the regional power balance, deny access to a strategic area, or alter international policy to extortion, revenge, or hate. Because of the complexity of this threat landscape, no single program, technology, or capability--no silver bullet--can solve the WMD proliferation and terrorism problem. An integrated program is needed that addresses the WMD proliferation and terrorism problem from end to end, from prevention to detection, reversal, and response, while avoiding surprise at all stages, with different activities directed specifically at different types of WMD and proliferators. Radiation detection technologies are an important tool in the prevention of proliferation. A variety of new developments have enabled enhanced performance in terms of energy resolution, spatial resolution, predictive modeling and simulation, active interrogation, and ease of operation and deployment in the field. The radiation properties of nuclear materials, particularly highly enriched uranium (HEU), make the detection of smuggled nuclear materials technically difficult. A number of efforts are under way to devise improved detector materials and instruments and to identify novel signatures that could be detected. Key applications of this work include monitoring for radioactive

  18. Enhancing the Material Control & Accounting Measurement System at the State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering named after A.I. Leypunsky

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, Carolynn P.; Bezhunov, Gennady M.; Bogdanov, Sergey A.; Gorbachev, Vyacheslav M.; Ryazanov, Boris G.; Talanov, Vladimir V.

    2012-07-11

    Nuclear material control and accounting (NMCA) system is improving under cooperation with USA national laboratories. Standard reference materials (RMs) and measurement techniques certified at IPPE level are required for: instrument calibration, verification measurements of parameters of items and materials, measurement error estimation, and quality control measurements. We present the main results for development of nuclear RMs for two uranium strata and the results for certification of three measurement techniques (MT) for U-235 mass fraction in uranium and U-235 mass in items. We present the results for developing measurement techniques for Pu-239 in PuO{sub 2}.

  19. 10 CFR 70.20 - General license to own special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license to own special nuclear material. 70.20 Section 70.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20 General license to own special nuclear material. A general license...

  20. 10 CFR 110.9 - List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority. 110.9 Section 110.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL General Provisions § 110.9 List of Nuclear Material under NRC export...

  1. 10 CFR 110.21 - General license for the export of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license for the export of special nuclear material. 110.21 Section 110.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.21 General license for the export of special nuclear material....

  2. 10 CFR 70.20a - General license to possess special nuclear material for transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license to possess special nuclear material for transport. 70.20a Section 70.20a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20a General license to possess special nuclear material...

  3. 10 CFR 70.20a - General license to possess special nuclear material for transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General license to possess special nuclear material for transport. 70.20a Section 70.20a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20a General license to possess special nuclear material...

  4. 10 CFR 110.9 - List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority. 110.9 Section 110.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL General Provisions § 110.9 List of Nuclear Material under NRC export...

  5. 10 CFR 110.9 - List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority. 110.9 Section 110.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL General Provisions § 110.9 List of Nuclear Material under NRC export...

  6. 10 CFR 70.41 - Authorized use of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authorized use of special nuclear material. 70.41 Section 70.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.41 Authorized use of...

  7. 10 CFR 110.21 - General license for the export of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General license for the export of special nuclear material. 110.21 Section 110.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.21 General license for the export of special nuclear material....

  8. 10 CFR 70.20a - General license to possess special nuclear material for transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General license to possess special nuclear material for transport. 70.20a Section 70.20a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20a General license to possess special nuclear material...

  9. 10 CFR 70.20 - General license to own special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General license to own special nuclear material. 70.20 Section 70.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20 General license to own special nuclear material. A general license...

  10. 10 CFR 110.21 - General license for the export of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General license for the export of special nuclear material. 110.21 Section 110.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.21 General license for the export of special nuclear material....

  11. 10 CFR 70.20 - General license to own special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General license to own special nuclear material. 70.20 Section 70.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20 General license to own special nuclear material. A general license...

  12. 10 CFR 70.20a - General license to possess special nuclear material for transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General license to possess special nuclear material for transport. 70.20a Section 70.20a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20a General license to possess special nuclear material...

  13. 10 CFR 70.20 - General license to own special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General license to own special nuclear material. 70.20 Section 70.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20 General license to own special nuclear material. A general license...

  14. 10 CFR 70.41 - Authorized use of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authorized use of special nuclear material. 70.41 Section 70.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.41 Authorized use of...

  15. 10 CFR 110.9 - List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority. 110.9 Section 110.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL General Provisions § 110.9 List of Nuclear Material under NRC export...

  16. 10 CFR 110.21 - General license for the export of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General license for the export of special nuclear material. 110.21 Section 110.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.21 General license for the export of special nuclear material....

  17. 10 CFR 110.21 - General license for the export of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General license for the export of special nuclear material. 110.21 Section 110.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.21 General license for the export of special nuclear material....

  18. 10 CFR 70.20a - General license to possess special nuclear material for transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General license to possess special nuclear material for transport. 70.20a Section 70.20a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20a General license to possess special nuclear material...

  19. 10 CFR 70.41 - Authorized use of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorized use of special nuclear material. 70.41 Section 70.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.41 Authorized use of...

  20. 10 CFR 70.20 - General license to own special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General license to own special nuclear material. 70.20 Section 70.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Licenses § 70.20 General license to own special nuclear material. A general license...

  1. 10 CFR 110.9 - List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false List of Nuclear Material under NRC export licensing authority. 110.9 Section 110.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL General Provisions § 110.9 List of Nuclear Material under NRC export...

  2. 10 CFR 70.41 - Authorized use of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorized use of special nuclear material. 70.41 Section 70.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.41 Authorized use of...

  3. 10 CFR 70.41 - Authorized use of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorized use of special nuclear material. 70.41 Section 70.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Acquisition, Use and Transfer of Special Nuclear Material, Creditors' Rights § 70.41 Authorized use of...

  4. Nuclear Material Processing at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Severynse, T.F.

    1998-07-01

    Plutonium production for national defense began at Savannah River in the mid-1950s, following construction of production reactors and separations facilities. Following the successful completion of its production mission, the site`s nuclear material processing facilities continue to operate to perform stabilization of excess materials and potentially support the disposition of these materials. A number of restoration and productivity improvement projects implemented in the 1980s, totaling nearly a billion dollars, have resulted in these facilities representing the most modern and only remaining operating large-scale processing facilities in the DOE Complex. Together with the Site`s extensive nuclear infrastructure, and integrated waste management system, SRS is the only DOE site with the capability and mission of ongoing processing operations.

  5. Nuclear materials 1993 annual report. Volume 8, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) describes activities conducted during 1993. The report is published in two parts. NUREG-1272, Vol. 8, No. 1, covers power reactors and presents an overview of the operating experience of the nuclear power industry from the NRC perspective, including comments about the trends of some key performance measures. The report also includes the principal findings and issues identified in AEOD studies over the past year and summarizes information from such sources as licensee event reports, diagnostic evaluations, and reports to the NRC`s Operations Center. NUREG-1272, Vol. 8, No. 2, covers nuclear materials and presents a review of the events and concerns during 1993 associated with the use of licensed material in nonreactor applications, such as personnel overexposures and medical misadministrations. Note that the subtitle of No. 2 has been changed from ``Nonreactors`` to ``Nuclear Materials.`` Both reports also contain a discussion of the Incident Investigation Team program and summarize both the Incident Investigation Team and Augmented Inspection Team reports. Each volume contains a list of the AEOD reports issued from 1980 through 1993.

  6. Applications of nuclear analytical methods to materials analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.; Hanson, A.L.; Kraner, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear analytical methods have now become important in the characterization of many types of materials and have been shown to be an extremely important extension of many more common methods. To illustrate the breadth of their use, some recent Brookhaven experiments are described that deal with the depth distribution of hydrogen in Nb-H alloys, the diffusion of Mo in graphite at high temperatures, and the measurement of Al and Si concentrations in zeolite catalysts. It is hoped that the presentation of these illustrative examples will serve as a stimulus and encouragement for the further application of nuclear analytical methods.

  7. US/Russian laboratory-to-laboratory program in materials protection, control and accounting at the RRC Kurchatov Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhoruchkin, V.; Roumiansev, A.; Shmelev, V.

    1996-06-01

    Six US DOE Laboratories are carrying out a program of cooperation with the Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute (RRC KI) to improve the capabilities and facilities in nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A). In 1995, the primary emphasis of this program was the implementation of improved physical protection at a demonstration building at RRC KI, and the upgrading of the computerized MC&A system, diagnostic instrumentation, and physical inventory procedures at a critical assembly within this building. Work continues in 1996 at the demonstration building but now also has begun at the two Kurchatov buildings which constitute the Central Storage Facility (CSF). At this facility, there will be upgrades in the physical inventory taking procedures, a test and evaluation of gamma-ray isotopic measurements, evaluations of nuclear material portal monitors and neutron-based measurement equipment as well as development of an improved computerized materials accounting system, implementation of bar code printing and reading equipment, development of tamper indicating device program, and substantial improvements in physical protection. Also, vulnerability assessments begun in 1995 are being extended to additional high priority facilities at Kurchatov.

  8. USED NUCLEAR MATERIALS AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE: ASSET OR WASTE?

    SciTech Connect

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-06-03

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable (“assets”) to worthless (“wastes”). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or – in the case of high level waste – awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site’s (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as “waste” include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national

  9. Selecting a radiation tolerant piezoelectric material for nuclear reactor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, D. A.; Reinhardt, B. T.; Tittmann, B. R.

    2013-01-01

    Bringing systems for online monitoring of nuclear reactors to fruition has been delayed by the lack of suitable ultrasonic sensors. Recent work has demonstrated the capability of an AlN sensor to perform ultrasonic evaluation in an actual nuclear reactor. Although the AlN demonstrated sustainability, no loss in signal amplitude and d33 up to a fast and thermal neutron fluence of 1.85×1018 n/cm2 and 5.8×1018 n/cm2 respectively, no formal process to selecting a suitable sensor material was made. It would be ideal to use first principles approaches to somehow reduce each candidate piezoelectric material to a simple ranking showing directly which materials one should expect to be most radiation tolerant. However, the complexity of the problem makes such a ranking impractical and one must appeal to experimental observations. This should not be of any surprise to one whom is familiar with material science as most material properties are obtained in this manner. Therefore, this work adopts a similar approach, the mechanisms affecting radiation tolerance are discussed and a good engineering sense is used for material qualification of the candidate piezoelectric materials.

  10. Selecting a radiation tolerant piezoelectric material for nuclear reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, D. A.; Reinhardt, B. T.; Tittmann, B. R.

    2013-01-25

    Bringing systems for online monitoring of nuclear reactors to fruition has been delayed by the lack of suitable ultrasonic sensors. Recent work has demonstrated the capability of an AlN sensor to perform ultrasonic evaluation in an actual nuclear reactor. Although the AlN demonstrated sustainability, no loss in signal amplitude and d{sub 33} up to a fast and thermal neutron fluence of 1.85 Multiplication-Sign 1018 n/cm{sup 2} and 5.8 Multiplication-Sign 1018 n/cm{sup 2} respectively, no formal process to selecting a suitable sensor material was made. It would be ideal to use first principles approaches to somehow reduce each candidate piezoelectric material to a simple ranking showing directly which materials one should expect to be most radiation tolerant. However, the complexity of the problem makes such a ranking impractical and one must appeal to experimental observations. This should not be of any surprise to one whom is familiar with material science as most material properties are obtained in this manner. Therefore, this work adopts a similar approach, the mechanisms affecting radiation tolerance are discussed and a good engineering sense is used for material qualification of the candidate piezoelectric materials.

  11. Access to Special Nuclear Material at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    R. Bean; J. Barrett; D. Gerts; B. Brush

    2010-07-01

    Access to special nuclear material (SNM) such as enriched uranium or plutonium is critical to the experimental validation of measurement techniques for nuclear nonproliferation applications. It is especially important that realistic quantities be available for measurements in the field. Security and safety requirements have made such access nearly impossible at many U.S. facilities. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been able to provide kilogram quantities of SNM for in situ measurements ranging from testing of equipment in laboratory facilities, to outdoor measurements simulating real conditions, to transfer of the SNM to the customer’s facility and back for measurements in the field. The INL will be working to make SNM more widely accessible for measurements by nuclear nonproliferation projects, including those with international researchers.

  12. Gamma-ray identification of nuclear weapon materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gosnell, T. B., LLNL; Hall, J. M.; Jam, C. L.; Knapp, D. A.; Koenig, Z. M.; Luke, S. J.; Pohl, B. A.; Schach von Wittenau, A.; Wolford, J. K.

    1997-02-03

    There has been an accelerating national interest in countering nuclear smuggling. This has caused a corresponding expansion of interest in the use of gamma-ray spectrometers for checkpoint monitoring, nuclear search, and within networks of nuclear and collateral sensors. All of these are fieldable instruments--ranging from large, fixed portal monitors to hand-held and remote monitoring equipment. For operational reasons, detectors with widely varying energy resolution and detection efficiency will be employed. In many instances, such instruments must be sensitive to weak signals, always capable of recognizing the gamma-ray signatures from nuclear weapons materials (NWM), often largely insensitive to spectral alteration by radiation transport through intervening materials, capable of real-time implementation, and able to discriminate against signals from commonly encountered legitimate gamma-ray sources, such as radiopharmaceuticals. Several decades of experience in classified programs have shown that all of these properties are not easily achieved and successful approaches were of limited scope--such as the detection of plutonium only. This project was originally planned as a two-year LDRD-ER. Since funding for 1997 was not sustained, this is a report of the first year's progress.

  13. IBA studies of helium mobility in nuclear materials revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocellier, P.; Agarwal, S.; Miro, S.; Vaubaillon, S.; Leprêtre, F.; Serruys, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to point out and to discuss some features extracted from the study of helium migration in nuclear materials performed during the last fifteen years using ion beam analysis (IBA) measurements. The first part of this paper is devoted to a brief description of the two main IBA methods used, i.e. deuteron induced nuclear reaction for 3He depth profiling and high-energy heavy-ion induced elastic recoil detection analysis for 4He measurement. In the second part, we provide an overview of the different studies carried out on model nuclear waste matrices and model nuclear reactor structure materials in order to illustrate and discuss specific results in terms of key influence parameters in relation with thermal or radiation activated migration of helium. Finally, we show that among the key parameters we have investigated as able to influence the height of the helium migration barrier, the following can be considered as pertinent: the experimental conditions used to introduce helium (implanted ion energy and implantation fluence), the grain size of the matrix, the lattice cell volume, the Young's modulus, the ionicity degree of the chemical bond between the transition metal atom M and the non-metal atom X, and the width of the band gap.

  14. 10 CFR 75.33 - Accounting reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accounting reports. 75.33 Section 75.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Reports § 75.33 Accounting reports. (a)(1) The accounting reports for each IAEA material balance area...

  15. 10 CFR 75.33 - Accounting reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accounting reports. 75.33 Section 75.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Reports § 75.33 Accounting reports. (a)(1) The accounting reports for each IAEA material balance area...

  16. 10 CFR 75.33 - Accounting reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accounting reports. 75.33 Section 75.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Reports § 75.33 Accounting reports. (a)(1) The accounting reports for each IAEA material balance area...

  17. 10 CFR 75.33 - Accounting reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accounting reports. 75.33 Section 75.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Reports § 75.33 Accounting reports. (a)(1) The accounting reports for each IAEA material balance area...

  18. 10 CFR 75.33 - Accounting reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting reports. 75.33 Section 75.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Reports § 75.33 Accounting reports. (a)(1) The accounting reports for each IAEA material balance area...

  19. Interpretational framework for forensic analyses of illicit nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Niemeyer, S.; Kammeraad, J.

    1996-10-01

    jThe interdiction of illicit special nuclear materials (SNM) causes many attribution questions to be asked, e.g. where was this material produced, where was legitimate control lost, how was it transported, etc. We have developed a general framework for evaluating forensic measurements that will be useful in answering attribution questions, and will present an initial prioritization of these measurements. Interpretation of the measurements requires the integration of inputs from a diverse set of experts who have knowledge of environmental signatures, radiochemical signatures, weapons production complex, production pathways for SNM, criminal forensics, law enforcement, and intelligence. Comparison databases and international cooperation are crucial for future application of forensic measurements to the nuclear smuggling problem.

  20. Piezoelectric material for use in a nuclear reactor core

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, D. A.; Reinhardt, Brian; Tittmann, B. R.

    2012-05-17

    In radiation environments ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation has great potential for improving reactor safety and furthering the understanding of radiation effects and materials. In both nuclear power plants and materials test reactors, elevated temperatures and high levels of radiation present challenges to ultrasonic NDE methodologies. The challenges are primarily due to the degradation of the ultrasonic sensors utilized. We present results from the operation of a ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer, composed of bulk single crystal AlN, in a nuclear reactor core for over 120 MWHrs. The transducer was coupled to an aluminum cylinder and operated in pulse echo mode throughout the irradiation. In addition to the pulse echo testing impedance data were obtained. Further, the piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33} was measured prior to irradiation and found to be 5.5 pC/N which is unchanged from as-grown samples, and in fact higher than the measured d{sub 33} for many as-grown samples.

  1. Materials for Active Engagement in Nuclear and Particle Physics Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loats, Jeff; Schwarz, Cindy; Krane, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Physics education researchers have developed a rich variety of research-based instructional strategies that now permeate many introductory courses. Carrying these active-engagement techniques to upper-division courses requires effort and is bolstered by experience. Instructors interested in these methods thus face a large investment of time to start from scratch. This NSF-TUES grant, aims to develop, test and disseminate active-engagement materials for nuclear and particle physics topics. We will present examples of these materials, including: a) Conceptual discussion questions for use with Peer Instruction; b) warm-up questions for use with Just in Time Teaching, c) ``Back of the Envelope'' estimation questions and small-group case studies that will incorporate use of nuclear and particle databases, as well as d) conceptual exam questions.

  2. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, E.C.; Fuhrman, P.W.

    2002-05-30

    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  3. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, Elizabeth Chilcote

    2002-05-01

    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  4. The world's nuclear future - built on material success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ion, Sue

    2010-07-01

    In our energy hungry world of the twenty-first century, the future of electricity generation must meet the twin challenges of security of supply and reduced carbon emissions. The expectations for nuclear power programmes to play a part in delivering success on both counts, grows ever higher. The nuclear industry is poised on a renaissance likely to dwarf the heady days of the 1960s and early 1970s. Global supply chain and project management challenges abound, now just as then. The science and engineering of materials will be key to the successful deployment and operation of a new generation of reactor systems and their associated fuel cycles. Understanding and predicting materials performance will be key to achieving life extension of existing assets and underpinning waste disposal options, as well as giving confidence to the designers, their financial backers and governments across the globe, that the next generation of reactors will deliver their full potential.

  5. Accounting for anatomical noise in search-capable model observers for planar nuclear imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Anando; Gifford, Howard C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Model observers intended to predict the diagnostic performance of human observers should account for the effects of both quantum and anatomical noise. We compared the abilities of several visual-search (VS) and scanning Hotelling-type models to account for anatomical noise in a localization receiver operating characteristic (LROC) study involving simulated nuclear medicine images. Our VS observer invoked a two-stage process of search and analysis. The images featured lesions in the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes. Lesion contrast and the geometric resolution and sensitivity of the imaging collimator were the study variables. A set of anthropomorphic mathematical phantoms was imaged with an analytic projector based on eight parallel-hole collimators with different sensitivity and resolution properties. The LROC study was conducted with human observers and the channelized nonprewhitening, channelized Hotelling (CH) and VS model observers. The CH observer was applied in a “background-known-statistically” protocol while the VS observer performed a quasi-background-known-exactly task. Both of these models were applied with and without internal noise in the decision variables. A perceptual search threshold was also tested with the VS observer. The model observers without inefficiencies failed to mimic the average performance trend for the humans. The CH and VS observers with internal noise matched the humans primarily at low collimator sensitivities. With both internal noise and the search threshold, the VS observer attained quantitative agreement with the human observers. Computational efficiency is an important advantage of the VS observer. PMID:26835503

  6. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-03-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commerical light water reactors during 1978 have been compiled and reported. Data on soild waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1978 release data are compared with previous years releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  7. Robotic control architecture development for automated nuclear material handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.D.; Hurd, R.; Couture, S.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is engaged in developing automated systems for handling materials for mixed waste treatment, nuclear pyrochemical processing, and weapon components disassembly. In support of these application areas there is an extensive robotic development program. This paper will describe the portion of this effort at LLNL devoted to control system architecture development, and review two applications currently being implemented which incorporate these technologies.

  8. Detection of Nuclear Weapons and Materials: Science, Technologies, Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-04

    What signatures show the presence of nuclear weapons and SNM? For purposes of this report, a signature is a property by which a substance (in...density Atomic number, abbreviated “Z,” is the number of protons in an atom’s nucleus. It is a property of individual atoms. In contrast, density is a...bulk property , expressed as mass per unit volume. In general, the densest materials are those of high Z. These properties may be used to detect

  9. Extreme Spectroscopy: In situ nuclear materials behavior from optical data

    SciTech Connect

    Guimbretiere, G.; Canizares, A.; Raimboux, N.; Omnee, R.; Duval, F.; Ammar, M.R.; Simon, P.; Desgranges, L.; Mohun, R.; Jegou, C.; Magnin, M.

    2015-07-01

    In the nuclear industry, materials are regularly exposed to high temperature or/and irradiation and a better knowledge and understanding of their behavior under such extreme conditions is a key-point for improvements and further developments. Nowadays, Raman spectroscopy begins to be well known as a promising technique in the post mortem and remote characterization of nuclear materials exposed to extreme conditions. On this topic, at ANIMMA 2013 conference, we have presented some results about its implementation in the study of model or real nuclear fuel. However, the strength of Raman spectroscopy as in situ characterization tool is mainly its ability to be implemented remotely through optical fibers. Aware of this, implementation of other optical techniques can be considered in order to gain information not only on the structural dynamics of materials but also on the electronic charge carrier populations. In this paper, we propose to present our last advances in Raman characterization of nuclear materials and enlarge to the in situ use of complementary optical spectroscopies. Emphasis will be made on the information that can be gained to the behavior of the model fuel depleted UO{sub 2} under extreme conditions of high temperature and ionic irradiation: - In Situ Raman identification of the radiolysis alteration products of UO{sub 2} in contact with water under ionic irradiation. - In Situ Raman recording of the damaged dynamic of UO{sub 2} under inert atmosphere. - In Situ Raman and photo-luminescence study of virgin and damaged UO2 at high temperature. - In Situ study of electronic charge carriers' behavior in U{sub x}Th{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} solid solutions by mean of Iono- and Thermo- luminescence under and post- ionic irradiation. (authors)

  10. Interactive image quantification tools in nuclear material forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B; Ruggiero, Christy; Hush, Don; Harvey, Neal; Kelly, Pat; Scoggins, Wayne; Tandon, Lav

    2011-01-03

    Morphological and microstructural features visible in microscopy images of nuclear materials can give information about the processing history of a nuclear material. Extraction of these attributes currently requires a subject matter expert in both microscopy and nuclear material production processes, and is a time consuming, and at least partially manual task, often involving multiple software applications. One of the primary goals of computer vision is to find ways to extract and encode domain knowledge associated with imagery so that parts of this process can be automated. In this paper we describe a user-in-the-loop approach to the problem which attempts to both improve the efficiency of domain experts during image quantification as well as capture their domain knowledge over time. This is accomplished through a sophisticated user-monitoring system that accumulates user-computer interactions as users exploit their imagery. We provide a detailed discussion of the interactive feature extraction and segmentation tools we have developed and describe our initial results in exploiting the recorded user-computer interactions to improve user productivity over time.

  11. Interactive image quantification tools in nuclear material forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Reid; Ruggiero, Christy; Hush, Don; Harvey, Neal; Kelly, Patrick; Scoggins, Wayne; Tandon, Lav

    2011-03-01

    Morphological and microstructural features visible in microscopy images of nuclear materials can give information about the processing history of a nuclear material. Extraction of these attributes currently requires a subject matter expert in both microscopy and nuclear material production processes, and is a time consuming, and at least partially manual task, often involving multiple software applications. One of the primary goals of computer vision is to find ways to extract and encode domain knowledge associated with imagery so that parts of this process can be automated. In this paper we describe a user-in-the-loop approach to the problem which attempts to both improve the efficiency of domain experts during image quantification as well as capture their domain knowledge over time. This is accomplished through a sophisticated user-monitoring system that accumulates user-computer interactions as users exploit their imagery. We provide a detailed discussion of the interactive feature extraction and segmentation tools we have developed and describe our initial results in exploiting the recorded user-computer interactions to improve user productivity over time.

  12. Vulnerability Analysis Considerations for the Transportation of Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, Lary G.; Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    The vulnerability analysis methodology developed for fixed nuclear material sites has proven to be extremely effective in assessing associated transportation issues. The basic methods and techniques used are directly applicable to conducting a transportation vulnerability analysis. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that the same physical protection elements (detection, delay, and response) are present, although the response force plays a dominant role in preventing the theft or sabotage of material. Transportation systems are continuously exposed to the general public whereas the fixed site location by its very nature restricts general public access.

  13. X-ray backscatter imaging of nuclear materials

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Gunning, John E; Hollenbach, Daniel F; Ott, Larry J; Shedlock, Daniel

    2014-09-30

    The energy of an X-ray beam and critical depth are selected to detect structural discontinuities in a material having an atomic number Z of 57 or greater. The critical depth is selected by adjusting the geometry of a collimator that blocks backscattered radiation so that backscattered X-ray originating from a depth less than the critical depth is not detected. Structures of Lanthanides and Actinides, including nuclear fuel rod materials, can be inspected for structural discontinuities such as gaps, cracks, and chipping employing the backscattered X-ray.

  14. The Application of materials attractiveness in a graded approach to nuclear materials security

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.; Bathke, C.; Dalton, D.; Murphy, J.

    2013-07-01

    The threat from terrorist groups has recently received greater attention. In this paper, material quantity and material attractiveness are addressed through the lens of a minimum security strategy needed to prevent the construction of a nuclear explosive device (NED) by an adversary. Nuclear materials are placed into specific security categories (3 or 4 categories) , which define a number of security requirements to protect the material. Materials attractiveness can be divided into four attractiveness levels, High, Medium, Low, and Very Low that correspond to the utility of the material to the adversary and to a minimum security strategy that is necessary to adequately protect the nuclear material. We propose a graded approach to materials attractiveness that recognizes for instance substantial differences in attractiveness between pure reactor-grade Pu oxide (High attractiveness) and fresh MOX fuel (Low attractiveness). In either case, an adversary's acquisition of a Category I quantity of plutonium would be a major incident, but the acquisition of Pu oxide by the adversary would be substantially worse than the acquisition of fresh MOX fuel because of the substantial differences in the time and complexity required of the adversary to process the material and fashion it into a NED.

  15. Los Alamos National Laboratory standard nuclear material container

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Timothy A

    2009-01-01

    The shut down of United States (U.S.) nuclear-weapons production activities in the early 1990s left large quantities of nuclear materials throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex in forms not intended for long-term storage. In May 1994, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) issued Recommendation 94-1, which called for the stabilization and disposition of 'thousands of containers of plutonium-bearing liquids and solids' in the DOE complex, including LANL in the nuclear-weapons-manufacturing pipeline when manufacturing ended. This resulted in the development of the 3013 standard with container requirements for long term storage (up to 50 years). A follow on was the Criteria For Interim Storage of Plutonium Bearing Materials, Charles B. Curtis, in 1996 to address storage other than the 3013 standard for shorter time frames. In January 2000, the DNFSB issued Recommendation 2000-1, which stated the need for LANL to repackage 'about one ton of plutonium metal and oxide,' declared excess to Defense Program (DP) needs. The DNFSB recommended that LANL 'stabilize and seal within welded containers with an inert atmosphere the plutonium oxides ... which are not yet in states conforming to the long-term storage envisaged by DOE-STD-3013,' and that they '... enclose existing and newly-generated legacy plutonium metal in sealed containers with an inert atmosphere,' and 'remediate and/or safely store the various residues.' Recommendation 2000-1, while adding to the number of items needing remediation, also reiterated the need to address remaining items from 1994-1 in a timely fashion. Since timetables slipped, the DNFSB recommended that the Complex 'prioritize and schedule tasks according to the consideration of risks.' In March 2005, the DNFSB issued Recommendation 2005-1. This recommendation addresses the need for a consistent set of criteria across the DOE complex for the interim storage of nuclear material packaged outside an engineered barrier. The

  16. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  17. 10 CFR 11.15 - Application for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.15 Section 11.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements for Special Nuclear...

  18. 10 CFR 1.42 - Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and secure production of nuclear fuel used in commercial nuclear reactors; the safe storage... nuclear materials, including certification of transport containers and reactor spent fuel storage; and... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards....

  19. 10 CFR 1.42 - Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and secure production of nuclear fuel used in commercial nuclear reactors; the safe storage... nuclear materials, including certification of transport containers and reactor spent fuel storage; and... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards....

  20. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  1. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  2. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  3. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  4. Materials characterization center workshop on compositional and microstructural analysis of nuclear waste materials. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, J.L.; Strachan, D.M.; Shade, J.W.; Thomas, M.T.

    1981-06-01

    The purpose of the Workshop on Compositional and Microstructural Analysis of Nuclear Waste Materials, conducted November 11 and 12, 1980, was to critically examine and evaluate the various methods currently used to study non-radioactive, simulated, nuclear waste-form performance. Workshop participants recognized that most of the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) test data for inclusion in the Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook will result from application of appropriate analytical procedures to waste-package materials or to the products of performance tests. Therefore, the analytical methods must be reliable and of known accuracy and precision, and results must be directly comparable with those from other laboratories and from other nuclear waste materials. The 41 participants representing 18 laboratories in the United States and Canada were organized into three working groups: Analysis of Liquids and Solutions, Quantitative Analysis of Solids, and Phase and Microstructure Analysis. Each group identified the analytical methods favored by their respective laboratories, discussed areas needing attention, listed standards and reference materials currently used, and recommended means of verifying interlaboratory comparability of data. The major conclusions from this workshop are presented.

  5. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging.

    PubMed

    Rose, P B; Erickson, A S; Mayer, M; Nattress, J; Jovanovic, I

    2016-04-18

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as "searching for a needle in a haystack" because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material's areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.

  6. Nondestructive assay of special nuclear material for uranium fuel-fabrication facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.A. Jr.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    1997-08-01

    A high-quality materials accounting system and effective international inspections in uranium fuel-fabrication facilities depend heavily upon accurate nondestructive assay measurements of the facility`s nuclear materials. While item accounting can monitor a large portion of the facility inventory (fuel rods, assemblies, storage items), the contents of all such items and mass values for all bulk materials must be based on quantitative measurements. Weight measurements, combined with destructive analysis of process samples, can provide highly accurate quantitative information on well-characterized and uniform product materials. However, to cover the full range of process materials and to provide timely accountancy data on hard-to-measure items and rapid verification of previous measurements, radiation-based nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques play an important role. NDA for uranium fuel fabrication facilities relies on passive gamma spectroscopy for enrichment and U isotope mass values of medium-to-low-density samples and holdup deposits; it relies on active neutron techniques for U-235 mass values of high-density and heterogeneous samples. This paper will describe the basic radiation-based nondestructive assay techniques used to perform these measurements. The authors will also discuss the NDA measurement applications for international inspections of European fuel-fabrication facilities.

  7. Nuclear Material Detection by One-Short-Pulse-Laser-Driven Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Favalli, Andrea; Aymond, F.; Bridgewater, Jon S.; Croft, Stephen; Deppert, O.; Devlin, Matthew James; Falk, Katerina; Fernandez, Juan Carlos; Gautier, Donald Cort; Gonzales, Manuel A.; Goodsell, Alison Victoria; Guler, Nevzat; Hamilton, Christopher Eric; Hegelich, Bjorn Manuel; Henzlova, Daniela; Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov; Iliev, Metodi; Johnson, Randall Philip; Jung, Daniel; Kleinschmidt, Annika; Koehler, Katrina Elizabeth; Pomerantz, Ishay; Roth, Markus; Santi, Peter Angelo; Shimada, Tsutomu; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas; Wurden, Glen Anthony; Palaniyappan, Sasikumar; McCary, E.

    2015-01-28

    Covered in the PowerPoint presentation are the following areas: Motivation and requirements for active interrogation of nuclear material; laser-driven neutron source; neutron diagnostics; active interrogation of nuclear material; and, conclusions, remarks, and future works.

  8. Nuclear Materials Management U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO)

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse Schrieber

    2008-07-01

    In light of the changing Defense Complex mission, the high cost to storing and protecting nuclear materials, and in consideration of scarcity of resources, it is imperative that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owned nuclear materials are managed effectively. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Strategic Action Plan outlines the strategy for continuing to meet America’s nuclear security goals, meeting the overall mission challenges of DOE and NNSA as well as giving focus to local missions. The mission of the NNSA/NSO Nuclear Materials Management (NMM) Program is to ensure that nuclear material inventories are accurately assessed and reported, future material needs are adequately planned, and that existing Nevada Test Site (NTS) inventories are efficiently utilized, staged, or dispositioned. The NNSA/NSO understands that the NTS has unique characteristics to serve and benefit the nation with innovative solutions to the complex problems involving Special Nuclear Materials, hazardous materials, and multi-agency, integrated operations. The NNSA/NSO is defining infrastructure requirements for known future missions, developing footprint consolidation strategic action plans, and continuing in the path of facility modernization and improvements. The NNSA/NSO is striving for the NTS to be acknowledged as an ideal location towards mission expansion and growth. The NTS has the capability of providing isolated, large scale construction and development locations for nuclear power or alternate energy source facilities, expanded nuclear material storage sites, and for new development in “green” technology.

  9. Advanced ceramic materials for next-generation nuclear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, John

    2011-10-01

    The nuclear industry is at the eye of a 'perfect storm' with fuel oil and natural gas prices near record highs, worldwide energy demands increasing at an alarming rate, and increased concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have caused many to look negatively at long-term use of fossil fuels. This convergence of factors has led to a growing interest in revitalization of the nuclear power industry within the United States and across the globe. Many are surprised to learn that nuclear power provides approximately 20% of the electrical power in the US and approximately 16% of the world-wide electric power. With the above factors in mind, world-wide over 130 new reactor projects are being considered with approximately 25 new permit applications in the US. Materials have long played a very important role in the nuclear industry with applications throughout the entire fuel cycle; from fuel fabrication to waste stabilization. As the international community begins to look at advanced reactor systems and fuel cycles that minimize waste and increase proliferation resistance, materials will play an even larger role. Many of the advanced reactor concepts being evaluated operate at high-temperature requiring the use of durable, heat-resistant materials. Advanced metallic and ceramic fuels are being investigated for a variety of Generation IV reactor concepts. These include the traditional TRISO-coated particles, advanced alloy fuels for 'deep-burn' applications, as well as advanced inert-matrix fuels. In order to minimize wastes and legacy materials, a number of fuel reprocessing operations are being investigated. Advanced materials continue to provide a vital contribution in 'closing the fuel cycle' by stabilization of associated low-level and high-level wastes in highly durable cements, ceramics, and glasses. Beyond this fission energy application, fusion energy will demand advanced materials capable of withstanding the extreme environments of high

  10. Development of the RFID System for nuclear materials management.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.; Tsai, H.; Liu, Y. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is one of today's most rapidly growing technologies in the automatic data collection industry. Although commercial applications are already widespread, the use of this technology for managing nuclear materials is only in its infancy. Employing an RFID system has the potential to offer an immense payback: enhanced safety and security, reduced need for manned surveillance, real-time access to status and event history data, and overall cost-effectiveness. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Packaging and Transportation (EM-63), is developing an RFID system for nuclear materials management. The system consists of battery-powered RFID tags with onboard sensors and memories, a reader network, application software, a database server and web pages. The tags monitor and record critical parameters, including the status of seals, movement of objects, and environmental conditions of the nuclear material packages in real time. They also provide instant warnings or alarms when preset thresholds for the sensors are exceeded. The information collected by the readers is transmitted to a dedicated central database server that can be accessed by authorized users across the DOE complex via a secured network. The onboard memory of the tags allows the materials manifest and event history data to reside with the packages throughout their life cycles in storage, transportation, and disposal. Data security is currently based on Advanced Encryption Standard-256. The software provides easy-to-use graphical interfaces that allow access to all vital information once the security and privilege requirements are met. An innovative scheme has been developed for managing batteries in service for more than 10 years without needing to be changed. A miniature onboard dosimeter is being developed for applications that require radiation surveillance. A field

  11. The Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. program to support disposition of enriched uranium-bearing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schutt, Stephen M.; Jacob, Norman P.

    2007-07-01

    The disposition of surplus nuclear materials has become one of the most pressing issues of our time. Numerous agencies have invoked programs with the purpose of removing such materials from various international venues and disposing these materials in a manner that achieves non-proliferability. This paper describes the Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc (NFS) Nuclear Material Disposition Program, which to date has focused on a variety of Special Nuclear Material (SNM), in particular uranium of various enrichments. The major components of this program are discussed, with emphasis on recycle and return of material to the nuclear fuel cycle. (authors)

  12. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.N. Wright

    2005-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Project is envisioned to demonstrate the following: (1) A full-scale prototype VHTR by about 2021; (2) High-temperature Brayton Cycle electric power production at full scale with a focus on economic performance; (3) Nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen (with about 10% of the heat) with a focus on economic performance; and (4) By test, the exceptional safety capabilities of the advanced gas-cooled reactors. Further, the NGNP program will: (1) Obtain a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License to construct and operate the NGNP, this process will provide a basis for future performance based, risk-informed licensing; and (2) Support the development, testing, and prototyping of hydrogen infrastructures. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. The NGNP Materials R&D Program includes the following elements: (1) Developing a specific approach, program plan and other project management tools for

  13. Economic benefits of advanced materials in nuclear power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busby, J. T.

    2009-07-01

    A key obstacle to the commercial deployment of advanced fast reactors is the capital cost. There is a perception of higher capital cost for fast reactor systems than advanced light water reactors. However, cost estimates come with a large uncertainty since far fewer fast reactors have been built than light water reactor facilities. Furthermore, the large variability of industrial cost estimates complicates accurate comparisons. Reductions in capital cost can result from design simplifications, new technologies that allow reduced capital costs, and simulation techniques that help optimize system design. It is plausible that improved materials will provide opportunities for both simplified design and reduced capital cost. Advanced materials may also allow improved safety and longer component lifetimes. This work examines the potential impact of advanced materials on the capital investment cost of fast nuclear reactors.

  14. CORROSION OF LEAD SHIELDING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K; Kerry Dunn, K; Joseph Murphy, J

    2008-07-18

    Inspection of United States-Department of Energy (US-DOE) model 9975 nuclear materials shipping package revealed corrosion of the lead shielding that was induced by off-gas constituents from organic components in the package. Experiments were performed to determine the corrosion rate of lead when exposed to off-gas or degradation products of these organic materials. The results showed that the room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) sealant was the most corrosive organic species used in the construction of the packaging, followed by polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) glue. Fiberboard material, also used in the construction of the packaging induced corrosion to a much lesser extent than the PVAc glue and RTV sealant, and only in the presence of condensed water. The results indicated faster corrosion at temperatures higher than ambient and with condensed water. In light of these corrosion mechanisms, the lead shielding was sheathed in a stainless steel liner to mitigate against corrosion.

  15. CORROSION OF LEAD SHIELDING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K; Kerry Dunn, K

    2007-11-16

    Inspection of United States-Department of Energy (US-DOE) model 9975 nuclear materials shipping package revealed corrosion of the lead shielding induced by off-gas constituents from organic components in the package. Experiments were performed to determine the corrosion rate of lead when exposed to off-gas or degradation products of these organic materials. The results showed that the room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) sealant was the most corrosive organic species followed by the polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) glue. The fiberboard material induced corrosion to a much lesser extent than the PVAc glue and RTV, and only in the presence of condensed water. The results indicated faster corrosion at temperatures higher than ambient and with condensed water as expected. A corrosion rate of 0.05 mm/year measured for coupons exposed to the most aggressive conditions was recommended as a conservative estimate for use in package performance calculations.

  16. Detecting special nuclear material using muon-induced neutron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardincerri, Elena; Bacon, Jeffrey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Matthew Durham, J.; Fabritius, Joseph, II; Hecht, Adam; Milner, Edward C.; Miyadera, Haruo; Morris, Christopher L.; Perry, John; Poulson, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The penetrating ability of cosmic ray muons makes them an attractive probe for imaging dense materials. Here, we describe experimental results from a new technique that uses neutrons generated by cosmic-ray muons to identify the presence of special nuclear material (SNM). Neutrons emitted from SNM are used to tag muon-induced fission events in actinides and laminography is used to form images of the stopping material. This technique allows the imaging of SNM-bearing objects tagged using muon tracking detectors located above or to the side of the objects, and may have potential applications in warhead verification scenarios. During the experiment described here we did not attempt to distinguish the type or grade of the SNM.

  17. The Material Protection, Control and Accounting Sustainability Program Implementation at the Electrochemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sirotenko, Vladimir; Antonov, Eduard; Sirotenko, Alexei; Kukartsev, Alexander; Krivenko, Vladimir; Dabbs, Richard D.; Carroll, Michael F.; Garrett, Albert G.; Patrick, Scott W.; Ku, Esther M.

    2008-06-10

    Joint efforts by the Electrochemical Plant (ECP) in Zelenogorsk, Russia, and the United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (US DOE/NNSA) Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program to upgrade ECP security systems began in 1996. The commissioning of major MPC&A systems at ECP occurred in December 2004. Since that time, the US Project Team (USPT) and ECP personnel have focused jointly on the development and implementation of an enterprise-wide MPC&A Sustainability Program (SP) that address the seven essential MPC&A Program sustainability elements. This paper describes current operational experience at the ECP with the full implementation of the site SP utilizing an earned-value methodology. In support of this site program, ECP has established a Document Control Program (DCP) for sustainability-related documents; developed a robust master Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) that outlines all ECP MPC&A sustainability activities; and chartered an Enterprise-Wide Sustainability Working Group (ESWG) The earned value methodology uses ECP-completed (and USPT-verified) analyses to assess project performance on a quarterly basis. The MPC&A SP, presently operational through a contract between ECP and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), incorporates the seven essential MPC&A Program sustainability elements and governs all sustainability activities associated with MPC&A systems at ECP. The site SP is designed to ensure over the near term the upgraded MPC&A systems continuous operation at ECP as funding transitions from US-assisted to fully Russian supported and sustained.

  18. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28...

  19. 5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and nuclear materials couriers. 842.208 Section 842.208 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. (a... enforcement officer or nuclear materials courier totaling 25 years; or (2) After becoming age 50...

  20. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28...

  1. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28...

  2. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28...

  3. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28...

  4. Neutron interrogation system using high gamma ray signature to detect contraband special nuclear materials in cargo

    DOEpatents

    Slaughter, Dennis R.; Pohl, Bertram A.; Dougan, Arden D.; Bernstein, Adam; Prussin, Stanley G.; Norman, Eric B.

    2008-04-15

    A system for inspecting cargo for the presence of special nuclear material. The cargo is irradiated with neutrons. The neutrons produce fission products in the special nuclear material which generate gamma rays. The gamma rays are detecting indicating the presence of the special nuclear material.

  5. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Libby, R.A.; Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.; Davis, C.

    1995-08-01

    This document is appendices D-J for the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise: Issues and Lessons Learned. Included are discussions of the US IAEA Treaty, safeguard regulations for nuclear materials, issue sheets for the PUREX process, and the LANL follow up activity for reprocessing nuclear materials.

  6. 5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and nuclear materials couriers. 842.208 Section 842.208 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. (a... enforcement officer or nuclear materials courier totaling 25 years; or (2) After becoming age 50...

  7. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rose, P. B.; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, M.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I.

    2016-01-01

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material’s areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications. PMID:27087555

  8. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Rose, P. B.; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, M.; ...

    2016-04-18

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method frommore » being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material’s areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.« less

  9. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, P. B.; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, M.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I.

    2016-04-01

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material’s areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.

  10. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, P. B.; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, M.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I.

    2016-04-18

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material’s areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.

  11. Material handling for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Material Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pittman, P.; Roybal, J.; Durrer, R.; Gordon, D.

    1999-04-01

    This paper will present the design and application of material handling and automation systems currently being developed for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Nuclear Material Storage Facility (NMSF) renovation project. The NMSF is a long-term storage facility for nuclear material in various forms. The material is stored within tubes in a rack called a basket. The material handling equipment range from simple lift assist devices to more sophisticated fully automated robots, and are split into three basic systems: a Vault Automation System, an NDA automation System, and a Drum handling System. The Vault Automation system provides a mechanism to handle a basket of material cans and to load/unload storage tubes within the material vault. In addition, another robot is provided to load/unload material cans within the baskets. The NDA Automation System provides a mechanism to move material within the small canister NDA laboratory and to load/unload the NDA instruments. The Drum Handling System consists of a series of off the shelf components used to assist in lifting heavy objects such as pallets of material or drums and barrels.

  12. Nuclear Materials Characterization in the Materials and Fuels Complex Analytical Hot Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Rodriquez

    2009-03-01

    As energy prices skyrocket and interest in alternative, clean energy sources builds, interest in nuclear energy has increased. This increased interest in nuclear energy has been termed the “Nuclear Renaissance”. The performance of nuclear fuels, fuels and reactor materials and waste products are becoming a more important issue as the potential for designing new nuclear reactors is more immediate. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Analytical Laboratory Hot Cells (ALHC) are rising to the challenge of characterizing new reactor materials, byproducts and performance. The ALHC is a facility located near Idaho Falls, Idaho at the INL Site. It was built in 1958 as part of the former Argonne National Laboratory West Complex to support the operation of the second Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). It is part of a larger analytical laboratory structure that includes wet chemistry, instrumentation and radiochemistry laboratories. The purpose of the ALHC is to perform analytical chemistry work on highly radioactive materials. The primary work in the ALHC has traditionally been dissolution of nuclear materials so that less radioactive subsamples (aliquots) could be transferred to other sections of the laboratory for analysis. Over the last 50 years though, the capabilities within the ALHC have also become independent of other laboratory sections in a number of ways. While dissolution, digestion and subdividing samples are still a vitally important role, the ALHC has stand alone capabilities in the area of immersion density, gamma scanning and combustion gas analysis. Recent use of the ALHC for immersion density shows that extremely fine and delicate operations can be performed with the master-slave manipulators by qualified operators. Twenty milligram samples were tested for immersion density to determine the expansion of uranium dioxide after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. The data collected confirmed modeling analysis with very

  13. Theoretical determination of the strength characteristics of multilayer materials intended for nuclear and thermonuclear engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitkovskii, I. V.; Leshukov, A. Yu.; Romashin, S. N.; Shorkin, V. S.

    2015-12-01

    A method is developed to estimate the integrity of multilayer structures. This method is based on the version of the theory of adhesion and cohesion interactions of structure elements that only takes into account their thermomechanical properties. The structures to be studied are the material of the multilayer wall of the liquid-metal thermonuclear reactor blanket and a heat-resistant magnet wire with a bimetallic conductor, which is the base of the windings of the magnetohydrodynamic machines and electric motors intended for operation at high temperatures under ionizing radiation in, e.g., the machines and facilities in nuclear and thermonuclear reactors.

  14. Electron momentum spectroscopy of dimethyl ether taking account of nuclear dynamics in the electronic ground state.

    PubMed

    Morini, Filippo; Watanabe, Noboru; Kojima, Masataka; Deleuze, Michael Simon; Takahashi, Masahiko

    2015-10-07

    The influence of nuclear dynamics in the electronic ground state on the (e,2e) momentum profiles of dimethyl ether has been analyzed using the harmonic analytical quantum mechanical and Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics approaches. In spite of fundamental methodological differences, results obtained with both approaches consistently demonstrate that molecular vibrations in the electronic ground state have a most appreciable influence on the momentum profiles associated to the 2b1, 6a1, 4b2, and 1a2 orbitals. Taking this influence into account considerably improves the agreement between theoretical and newly obtained experimental momentum profiles, with improved statistical accuracy. Both approaches point out in particular the most appreciable role which is played by a few specific molecular vibrations of A1, B1, and B2 symmetries, which correspond to C-H stretching and H-C-H bending modes. In line with the Herzberg-Teller principle, the influence of these molecular vibrations on the computed momentum profiles can be unraveled from considerations on the symmetry characteristics of orbitals and their energy spacing.

  15. Electron momentum spectroscopy of dimethyl ether taking account of nuclear dynamics in the electronic ground state

    SciTech Connect

    Morini, Filippo; Deleuze, Michael Simon; Watanabe, Noboru; Kojima, Masataka; Takahashi, Masahiko

    2015-10-07

    The influence of nuclear dynamics in the electronic ground state on the (e,2e) momentum profiles of dimethyl ether has been analyzed using the harmonic analytical quantum mechanical and Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics approaches. In spite of fundamental methodological differences, results obtained with both approaches consistently demonstrate that molecular vibrations in the electronic ground state have a most appreciable influence on the momentum profiles associated to the 2b{sub 1}, 6a{sub 1}, 4b{sub 2}, and 1a{sub 2} orbitals. Taking this influence into account considerably improves the agreement between theoretical and newly obtained experimental momentum profiles, with improved statistical accuracy. Both approaches point out in particular the most appreciable role which is played by a few specific molecular vibrations of A{sub 1}, B{sub 1}, and B{sub 2} symmetries, which correspond to C–H stretching and H–C–H bending modes. In line with the Herzberg-Teller principle, the influence of these molecular vibrations on the computed momentum profiles can be unraveled from considerations on the symmetry characteristics of orbitals and their energy spacing.

  16. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission accountability report, fiscal year 1995. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is one of six Federal agencies participating in a pilot project to streamline financial management reporting. The goal of this pilot is to consolidate performance-related reporting into a single accountability report. The project, which is being carried out under the guidance of the Chief Financial Officers Council, was undertaken in accordance with the Government Management Reform Act (GMRA) of 1994. The GMRA permits the streamlining of financial management reports in consultation with the appropriate Congressional Committees through a liaison in the US Office of Management and Budget (OMB). The results of the pilot project will determine the method to be used for reporting financial management information for fiscal year (FY) 1996. This report consolidates the information previously reported in the following documents: (1) the NRC`s annual financial statement required by the Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990; (2) the Chairman`s annual report to the President and the Congress, required by the Federal Managers` Financial Integrity Act of 1982; (3) the Chairman`s semiannual report to the Congress on management decisions and final actions on Office of Inspector General audit recommendations, required by the Inspector General Act of 1978, as amended. This report also includes performance measures, as required by the Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990.

  17. Computation of free-molecular flow in nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casella, Andrew M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2009-11-01

    Generally, the transport of gases and vapors in nuclear materials is adequately described by the diffusion equation with an effective diffusion coefficient. There are instances however, in which the flow pathway can be so restrictive that the diffusion description has limitations. In general, molecular transport is governed by intermolecular forces and collisions (interactions between multiple gas/vapor molecules) and by molecule-surface interactions. However, if nano-scale pathways exist within these materials, as has been suggested, then molecular transport can be characterized as being in the free-molecular flow regime where intermolecular interactions can be ignored and flow is determined entirely by molecule-surface collisions. Our purpose in this investigation is to focus on free-molecular transport in fine capillaries of a range of shapes and to explore the effect of geometry on this transport. We have employed Monte Carlo techniques in our calculations, and for simple geometries we have benchmarked our results against some analytical and previously available results. We have used Mathematica ® which has exceptional built-in symbolic and graphical capabilities, permitting easy handling of complicated geometries and good visualization of the results. Our computations provide insights into the role of geometry in molecular transport in nuclear materials with narrow pathways for flows, and also will be useful in guiding computations that include intermolecular collisions and more realistic gas-surface collision operators.

  18. Guidance Tools for Use in Nuclear Material Management Decisions Making

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G. V.; Baker, D. J.; Sorenson, K. B.; Boeke, S. G.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the results of Recommendation 14 of the Integrated Nuclear Materials Management Plan (INMMP) which was the product of a management initiative at the highest levels of the Department of Energy responding to a congressional directive to accelerate the work of achieving integration and cutting long-term costs associated with the management of nuclear materials, with the principal focus on excess materials. The INMMP provided direction to ''Develop policy-level decision support tools to support long-term planning and decision making.'' To accomplish this goal a team from the Savannah River Site, Sandia National Laboratories, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and the U.S. Department of Energy experienced in the decision-making process developed a Guidebook to Decision-Making Methods. The goal of the team organized to implement Recommendation 14 was to instill transparency, consistency, rigor, and discipline in the DOE decision process. The guidebook introduces a process and a selection of proven methods for disciplined decision-making so that the results are clearer, more transparent, and easier for reviewers to understand and accept. It was written to set a standard for a consistent decision process.

  19. Vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials

    DOEpatents

    Musket, Ronald G.; Porter, John D.; Yoshiyama, James M.; Contolini, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    A process involving vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials for creating high aspect ratio (i.e., length much greater than diameter), isolated cylindrical holes in dielectric materials that have been exposed to high-energy atomic particles. The process includes cleaning the surface of the tracked material and exposing the cleaned surface to a vapor of a suitable etchant. Independent control of the temperatures of the vapor and the tracked materials provide the means to vary separately the etch rates for the latent track region and the non-tracked material. As a rule, the tracked regions etch at a greater rate than the non-tracked regions. In addition, the vapor-etched holes can be enlarged and smoothed by subsequent dipping in a liquid etchant. The 20-1000 nm diameter holes resulting from the vapor etching process can be useful as molds for electroplating nanometer-sized filaments, etching gate cavities for deposition of nano-cones, developing high-aspect ratio holes in trackable resists, and as filters for a variety of molecular-sized particles in virtually any liquid or gas by selecting the dielectric material that is compatible with the liquid or gas of interest.

  20. Tags and seals for controling nuclear materials, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Staehle, G; Talaber, C; Stull, S; Moulthrop, P

    1993-12-31

    This issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies summarizes demonstrations and addresses related topics. The first article, ``Basic Nuclear Material Control and Accountability Concepts as Might be Applied to the Uranium from the US-Russian HEU Purchase,`` describes safeguards sybsystems necessary for effective nuclear material safeguards. It also presents a general discussion on HEU-to-low-enrichment uranium (LEU) commingling processes and suggests applicable key measurement points. The second article, ``A Framework for Evaluating Tamper-Indicating-Device Technologies (TIDs),`` describes their uses, proper selection, and evaluation. The final three articles discuss the tags and seals applications and general characteristics of several nuclear material containers: the Type 30B uranium hexafluoride container, the AT-400R container, and the DOT Specification 6M container for SNM. Finally, the Appendix displays short descriptions and illustrations of seven tags and seals, including: the E-cup and wire seal, the python seal, the secure loop inspectable tag/seal (SLITS), bolt-and-loop type electronic identification devices, and the shrink-wrap seal.

  1. Safety assessment of a robotic system handling nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Atcitty, C.B.; Robinson, D.G.

    1996-02-01

    This paper outlines the use of a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, The Weigh and Leak Check System, is to replace a manual process at the Department of Energy facility at Pantex by which nuclear material is inspected for weight and leakage. Failure Modes and Effects Analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the system had been meet. These analyses showed that the risks to people and the internal and external environment were acceptable.

  2. DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL TEST PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    HOWARD, BOYD

    2006-02-02

    The purpose of this document is to provide a brief introduction to digital radiography (DR), and a description of the DR configuration that was used to radiographically image the Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Test Packages before and after function tests that have been conducted. Also included are (1) Attachment 1, a comprehensive index that describes at which phase of the certification process that digital radiographic images were acquired, (2) digital radiographic images of each of the six packages at various stages of the certification process, and (3) Attachment 2, imaging instructions, that specify the setup procedures and detailed parameters of the DR imaging methodology that were used.

  3. Detection of Nuclear Weapons and Materials: Science, Technologies, Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-04

    like gamma rays. What signatures show the presence of nuclear weapons and SNM? For purposes of this report, a signature is a property by which a...number and density Atomic number, abbreviated “Z,” is the number of protons in an atom’s nucleus. It is a property of individual atoms. In contrast...density is a bulk property , expressed as mass per unit volume. In general, the densest materials are those of high Z. These properties may be used

  4. XAFS studies of radiation damage in nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive, Daniel Thomas

    The growing demand for nuclear energy places a high importance on the development of new materials capable of withstanding higher temperatures and harsher irradiation conditions than those used in existing reactors. By supporting the development of next generation reactors it also becomes possible to close the nuclear fuel cycle, greatly reducing the amount of waste sent for disposal in deep geologic repositories, where its interaction with the environment is also a matter of interest. In this thesis, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy is used to investigate the local atomic structure of systems of interest to nuclear energy. First, two XAFS studies on environmental materials are presented. Granular activated carbon (GAC) was treated with iron to improve its water remediation properties, specifically with respect to arsenic. XAFS was used to determine the nature of iron coating on the GAC surface, and the method of arsenic bonding to the treated surface. Next, a neodymium precipitate from solubility studies carried out for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was analyzed. Neodymium was used as an analog for plutonium in brine solutions. XAFS fitting indicated that the neodymium substituted for calcium in a gypsum lattice, providing information useful for future geochemical modeling. XAFS was also used to study radiation damage in materials. A candidate material for advanced reactor structural materials, modified 9Cr--1Mo, was irradiated to 1, 4, and 10 displacements per atom (dpa). XAFS analyses were performed on the Fe, Mo, and Nb K-edges. Irradiation caused a reduction in coordination for all three elements, but the exact behavior was element specific. Damage around Fe atoms was linear with dose, while damage around Mo atoms saturated at or before 1 dpa. XAFS was shown to provide a useful atomic level description of radiation damage for a complex alloy system. Finally, zirconium carbide and zirconium nitride, candidate materials for advanced

  5. Barcode Automation (BCAuto) for Los Alamos Material Control and Accountability System

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Benny J; Chang, Hee Jin

    2012-06-04

    The plutonium facility is actively processing material on a daily basis at LANL (4000-5000 transactions/month): (1) Physical operations, material transformations, material mixing, splitting, etc.; and (2) Electronic manipulations resulting primarily from updated NDA measurements. Improvements in efficiency and effectiveness are essential due to impacts of recent Voluntary Separation Program and the need to meet mission requirements with fewer personnel. New storage requirements (DOE M 441.1-1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual) to protect worker safety require tracking of material and its corresponding container over long periods of time. Material at Risk tracking is essential to protect public safety and to ensure continuous operations to meet national security mission needs.

  6. R&D for Better Nuclear Security: Radiation Detector Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kammeraad, J E

    2009-04-02

    I am going to talk about the need for better materials for radiation detectors. I believe that government investment in this area can enable transformational technology change that could impact domestic nuclear security and also national nuclear security in some very positive and powerful ways. I'm not going to give you a lecture on how radiation detectors work, but I am going to tell you a bit about today's off-the-shelf technology and why it is not sufficient, what we need, and what security benefit you could get from improvements. I think we're at a critical point in time for some very impactful investments. In particular I'm going to focus on the use of gamma-ray radiation detectors at ports of entry. Not long before DHS was formed, Congress decreed that counter measures against the delivery of radiological and nuclear threats would be put in place at US ports of entry, under the authority of US Customs (later Customs and Border Protection in DHS). This included the screening of all cars and trucks passing through a port of entry. Existing off-the-shelf radiation detectors had to be selected for this purpose. Plans were made to make the most of the available technologies, but there are some inherent limitations of these detectors, plus the operational setting can bring out other limitations.

  7. Aviation security cargo inspection queuing simulation model for material flow and accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Olama, Mohammed M; Allgood, Glenn O; Rose, Terri A; Brumback, Daryl L

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in 2010, the U.S. will require that all cargo loaded in passenger aircraft be inspected. This will require more efficient processing of cargo and will have a significant impact on the inspection protocols and business practices of government agencies and the airlines. In this paper, we develop an aviation security cargo inspection queuing simulation model for material flow and accountability that will allow cargo managers to conduct impact studies of current and proposed business practices as they relate to inspection procedures, material flow, and accountability.

  8. Nuclear and materials aspects of the thorium fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Sundaram, C. V.

    1981-09-01

    This paper is an attempt to assess and review the materials aspects of the thorium fuel cycle. It starts with an examination of the nuclear aspects of the thorium fuel cycle, meant as an introduction for materials scientists and engineers who may not normally be familiar with the concepts and terms involved. After defining and describing the thorium and uranium fuel cycles, the reasons for the resurgence of interest in the thorium fuel cycle and the technical and economic considerations that support its early adoption are examined. The reactor physics and fissile economics aspects of the thorium and uranium cycles are then compared. The specific reactor types suitable for the adoption of the thorium cycle are briefly examined and described. Subsequent sections of the paper are devoted to a detailed discussion of the materials aspects of the thorium fuel cycle. Available information on fabrication, refabrication and irradiation performance of thorium-based fuels for light water reactors, heavy water reactors, high temperature gas-cooled reactors, molten salt breeder reactors and fast breeder reactors is critically reviewed and analysed. Materials problems related to cladding and structural materials are also discussed whenever these are unique to the thorium cycle.

  9. Detecting Defects in Aircraft Materials by Nuclear Technique (pas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Emad. A.

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is one of the nuclear techniques used in material science. The present measurements are used to study the behavior of defect concentration in one of the most important materials aluminum alloys which is the 7075 alloy. It has been shown that positrons can become trapped at imperfect locations in solids and their mean lifetime can be influenced by changes in the concentration of such defects. No changes have been observed in the mean lifetime values after the saturation of defect concentration. The mean lifetime and trapping rates are studied for samples deformed up to 58.3%. The concentration of defect range vary from 1015 to 1018cm-3 at the thickness reduction from 2.3 to 58.3%. The dislocation density varies from 108 to 1011cm/cm3.

  10. Detecting Defects in Aircraft Materials by Nuclear Technique (pas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Emad. A.

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is one of the nuclear techniques used in material science. The present measurements are used to study the behavior of defect concentration in one of the most important materials — aluminum alloy — which is a 7075 alloy. It has been shown that positrons can become trapped in imperfect locations in solids and their mean lifetime can be influenced by changes in the concentration of such defects. No changes have been observed in the mean lifetime values after the saturation of defect concentration. The mean lifetime and trapping rates were studied for samples deformed up to 58.3%. The concentration of defect range varies (from 1015 to 1018 cm-3) at the thickness reduction, (from 2.3 to 58.3%). The range of the dislocation density varies (from 108 to 1011 cm/cm3).

  11. Special Nuclear Material Gamma-Ray Signatures for Reachback Analysts

    SciTech Connect

    Karpius, Peter Joseph; Myers, Steven Charles

    2016-08-29

    These are slides on special nuclear material gamma-ray signatures for reachback analysts for an LSS Spectroscopy course. The closing thoughts for this presentation are the following: SNM materials have definite spectral signatures that should be readily recognizable to analysts in both bare and shielded configurations. One can estimate burnup of plutonium using certain pairs of peaks that are a few keV apart. In most cases, one cannot reliably estimate uranium enrichment in an analogous way to the estimation of plutonium burnup. The origin of the most intense peaks from some SNM items may be indirect and from ‘associated nuclides.' Indirect SNM signatures sometimes have commonalities with the natural gamma-ray background.

  12. Illicit Trafficking in Radiological and Nuclear Materials. Lack of Regulations and Attainable Disposal for Radioactive Materials Make Them More Vulnerable than Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, G.I.; Severe, W.R.; Leonard, L.

    2007-07-01

    Illicit trafficking in nuclear and radioactive materials is far from a new issue. Reports of nuclear materials offered for sale as well as mythical materials such as red mercury date back to the 1960's. While such reports were primarily scams, it illustrates the fact that from an early date there were criminal elements willing to sell nuclear materials, albeit mythical ones, to turn a quick profit. In that same time frame, information related to lost and abandoned radioactive sources began to be reported. Unlike reports on nuclear material of that era, these reports on abandoned sources were based in fact - occasionally associated with resulting injury and death. With the collapse of the Former Soviet Union, illicit trafficking turned from a relatively unnoticed issue to one of global concern. Reports of unsecured nuclear and radiological material in the states of the Former Soviet Union, along with actual seizures of such material in transit, gave the clear message that illicit trafficking was now a real and urgent problem. In 1995, the IAEA established an Illicit Trafficking Data Base to keep track of confirmed instances. Illicit Trafficking is deemed to include not only radioactive materials that have been offered for sale or crossed international boarders, but also such materials that are no longer under appropriate regulatory control. As an outcome of 9/11, the United States took a closer look at illicit nuclear trafficking as well as a reassessment of the safety and security of nuclear and other radioactive materials both in the United States and Globally. This reassessment launched heightened controls and security domestically and increased our efforts internationally to prevent illicit nuclear trafficking. This reassessment also brought about the Global Threat Reduction Initiative which aims to further reduce the threats of weapons usable nuclear materials as well those of radioactive sealed sources. This paper will focus on the issues related to a subset

  13. Rapid response sensor for analyzing Special Nuclear Material

    DOE PAGES

    Mitra, S. S.; Doron, O.; Chen, A. X.; ...

    2015-06-18

    Rapid in-situ analytical techniques are attractive for characterizing Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Present techniques are time consuming, and require sample dissolution. Proof-of-principal studies are performed to demonstrate the utility of employing low energy neutrons from a portable pulsed neutron generator for non-destructive isotopic analysis of nuclear material. In particular, time-sequenced data acquisition, operating synchronously with the pulsing of a neutron generator, partitions the characteristic elemental prompt gamma-rays according to the type of the reaction; inelastic neutron scattering reactions during the ON state and thermal neutron capture reactions during the OFF state of the generator. Thus, the key challenge is isolatingmore » these signature gamma- rays from the prompt fission and β-delayed gamma-rays that are also produced during the neutron interrogation. A commercial digital multi-channel analyzer has been specially customized to enable time-resolved gamma-ray spectral data to be acquired in multiple user-defined time bins within each of the ON/OFF gate periods of the neutron generator. Preliminary results on new signatures from depleted uranium as well as modeling and benchmarking of the concept are presented, however this approach should should be applicable for virtually all forms of SNM.« less

  14. Rapid Response Sensor for Analyzing Special Nuclear Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, S. S.; Doron, O.; Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.

    Rapid in-situ analytical techniques are attractive for characterizing Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Present techniques are time consuming, and require sample dissolution. Proof-of-principal studies are performed to demonstrate the utility of employing low energy neutrons from a portable pulsed neutron generator for non-destructive isotopic analysis of nuclear material. In particular, time-sequenced data acquisition, operating synchronously with the pulsing of a neutron generator, partitions the characteristic elemental prompt gamma-rays according to the type of the reaction; inelastic neutron scattering reactions during the ON state and thermal neutron capture reactions during the OFF state of the generator. The key challenge is isolating these signature gamma- rays from the prompt fission and β-delayed gamma-rays that are also produced during the neutron interrogation. A commercial digital multi-channel analyzer has been specially customized to enable time-resolved gamma-ray spectral data to be acquired in multiple user-defined time bins within each of the ON/OFF gate periods of the neutron generator. Preliminary results on new signatures from depleted uranium as well as modeling and benchmarking of the concept are presented, but this approach should should be applicable for virtually all forms of SNM

  15. THIEF: An interactive simulation of nuclear materials safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Stanbro, W. D.

    1990-01-01

    The safeguards community is facing an era in which it will be called upon to tighten protection of nuclear material. At the same time, it is probable that safeguards will face more competition for available resources from other activities such as environmental cleanup. To exist in this era, it will be necessary to understand and coordinate all aspects of the safeguards system. Because of the complexity of the interactions involved, this process puts a severe burden on designers and operators of safeguards systems. This paper presents a simulation tool developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to allow users to examine the interactions among safeguards elements as they apply to combating the insider threat. The tool consists of a microcomputer-based simulation in which the user takes the role of the insider trying to remove nuclear material from a facility. The safeguards system is run by the computer and consists of both physical protection and MC A computer elements. All data elements describing a scenario can be altered by the user. The program can aid in training, as well as in developing threat scenarios. 4 refs.

  16. Rapid response sensor for analyzing Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S. S.; Doron, O.; Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.

    2015-06-18

    Rapid in-situ analytical techniques are attractive for characterizing Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Present techniques are time consuming, and require sample dissolution. Proof-of-principal studies are performed to demonstrate the utility of employing low energy neutrons from a portable pulsed neutron generator for non-destructive isotopic analysis of nuclear material. In particular, time-sequenced data acquisition, operating synchronously with the pulsing of a neutron generator, partitions the characteristic elemental prompt gamma-rays according to the type of the reaction; inelastic neutron scattering reactions during the ON state and thermal neutron capture reactions during the OFF state of the generator. Thus, the key challenge is isolating these signature gamma- rays from the prompt fission and β-delayed gamma-rays that are also produced during the neutron interrogation. A commercial digital multi-channel analyzer has been specially customized to enable time-resolved gamma-ray spectral data to be acquired in multiple user-defined time bins within each of the ON/OFF gate periods of the neutron generator. Preliminary results on new signatures from depleted uranium as well as modeling and benchmarking of the concept are presented, however this approach should should be applicable for virtually all forms of SNM.

  17. Material hardship and 529 college savings plan participation: the mitigating effects of Child Development Accounts.

    PubMed

    Wikoff, Nora; Huang, Jin; Kim, Youngmi; Sherraden, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Experience of material hardship can adversely affect a family's ability to make long-term investments in children's development. We examine whether material hardship is associated with one indicator of such investments: participation in a tax-advantaged college savings plan (529 plan). Data for this study come from the SEED for Oklahoma Kids (SEED OK) experiment, an intervention that offers Child Development Accounts with financial incentives to encourage the accumulation of college savings for children from the time of their birth. Results show that material hardship is negatively associated with 529-plan participation, and this association varies by treatment status. At all levels of material hardship, treatment-group mothers are more likely to hold accounts than control-group mothers. These findings suggest that CDAs can be a useful policy tool to support families' financial preparation for college.

  18. Materials Selection Criteria for Nuclear Power Applications: A Decision Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Prieto, Álvaro; Camacho, Ana María; Sebastián, Miguel Ángel

    2016-02-01

    An innovative methodology based on stringency levels is proposed in this paper and improves the current selection method for structural materials used in demanding industrial applications. This paper describes a new approach for quantifying the stringency of materials requirements based on a novel deterministic algorithm to prevent potential failures. We have applied the new methodology to different standardized specifications used in pressure vessels design, such as SA-533 Grade B Cl.1, SA-508 Cl.3 (issued by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers), DIN 20MnMoNi55 (issued by the German Institute of Standardization) and 16MND5 (issued by the French Nuclear Commission) specifications and determine the influence of design code selection. This study is based on key scientific publications on the influence of chemical composition on the mechanical behavior of materials, which were not considered when the technological requirements were established in the aforementioned specifications. For this purpose, a new method to quantify the efficacy of each standard has been developed using a deterministic algorithm. The process of assigning relative weights was performed by consulting a panel of experts in materials selection for reactor pressure vessels to provide a more objective methodology; thus, the resulting mathematical calculations for quantitative analysis are greatly simplified. The final results show that steel DIN 20MnMoNi55 is the best material option. Additionally, more recently developed materials such as DIN 20MnMoNi55, 16MND5 and SA-508 Cl.3 exhibit mechanical requirements more stringent than SA-533 Grade B Cl.1. The methodology presented in this paper can be used as a decision tool in selection of materials for a wide range of applications.

  19. 10 CFR 1017.16 - Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on documents or material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on...) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Review of a Document or Material for Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.16 Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings...

  20. 10 CFR 1017.16 - Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on documents or material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on...) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Review of a Document or Material for Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.16 Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings...

  1. 10 CFR 1017.16 - Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on documents or material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on...) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Review of a Document or Material for Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.16 Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings...

  2. 10 CFR 1017.16 - Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on documents or material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on...) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Review of a Document or Material for Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.16 Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings...

  3. 10 CFR 1017.16 - Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on documents or material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings on...) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Review of a Document or Material for Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.16 Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information markings...

  4. The Science of Nuclear Materials Detection using gamma-ray beams: Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohgaki, Hideaki

    2014-09-01

    An atomic nucleus is excited by absorption of incident photons with an energy the same as the excitation energy of the level, and subsequently a gamma-ray is emitted as it de-excites. This phenomenon is called Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence and mostly used for studies on Nuclear Physics field. By measuring the NRF gamma-rays, we can identify nuclear species in any materials because the energies of the NRF gamma-rays uniquely depend on the nuclear species. For example, 235U has an excitation level at 1733 keV. If we irradiate a material including 235U with a gamma-ray tuned at this excitation level, the material absorbs the gamma-ray and re-emits another gamma-ray immediately to move back towards the ground state. Therefore we can detect the 235U by measuring the re-emitted (NRF) gamma-rays. Several inspection methods using gamma-rays, which can penetrate a thick shielding have been proposed and examined. Bertozzi and Ledoux have proposed an application of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) by using bremsstrahlung radiations. However the signal-to-noise (SN) ratio of the NRF measurement with the bremsstrahlung radiation is, in general, low. Only a part of the incident photons makes NRF with a narrow resonant band (meV-eV) whereas most of incident radiation is scattered by atomic processes in which the reaction rate is higher than that of NRF by several orders of magnitudes and causes a background. Thus, the NRF with a gamma-ray quasi-monochromatic radiation beam is proposed. The monochromatic gamma-rays are generated by using laser Compton scattering (LCS) of electrons and intense laser photons by putting a collimator to restrict the gamma-ray divergence downstream. The LCS gamma-ray, which is energy-tunable and monochromatic, is an optimum apparatus for NRF measurements We have been conducted NRF experiment for nuclear research, especially with high linear polarized gamma-ray generated by LCS, to survey the distribution of M1 strength in MeV region in LCS

  5. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Material Verification in Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.

    2011-10-01

    Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) is a well-established physical process that provides an isotope-specific signature that can be exploited for isotopic detection and characterization of samples. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been investigating possible applications of NRF for national security. Of the investigated applications, the verification of material in the dismantlement process is the most promising. Through a combination of benchmarking measurements and radiation transport modeling, we have shown that NRF techniques with existing bremsstrahlung photon sources and a modest detection system can be used to detect highly enriched uranium in the quantities and time limits relevant to the dismantlement process. Issues such as orientation, placement and material geometry do not significantly impact the sensitivity of the technique. We have also investigated how shielding of the uranium would be observed through non-NRF processes to enable the accurate assay of the material. This paper will discuss our findings on how NRF and photon-interrogation techniques may be applied to the material verification in the dismantlement process.

  6. Fabrication of High Temperature Cermet Materials for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, Robert; Panda, Binayak; Shah, Sandeep

    2005-01-01

    Processing techniques are being developed to fabricate refractory metal and ceramic cermet materials for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). Significant advances have been made in the area of high-temperature cermet fuel processing since RoverNERVA. Cermet materials offer several advantages such as retention of fission products and fuels, thermal shock resistance, hydrogen compatibility, high conductivity, and high strength. Recent NASA h d e d research has demonstrated the net shape fabrication of W-Re-HfC and other refractory metal and ceramic components that are similar to UN/W-Re cermet fuels. This effort is focused on basic research and characterization to identify the most promising compositions and processing techniques. A particular emphasis is being placed on low cost processes to fabricate near net shape parts of practical size. Several processing methods including Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) and conventional PM processes are being evaluated to fabricate material property samples and components. Surrogate W-Re/ZrN cermet fuel materials are being used to develop processing techniques for both coated and uncoated ceramic particles. After process optimization, depleted uranium-based cermets will be fabricated and tested to evaluate mechanical, thermal, and hot H2 erosion properties. This paper provides details on the current results of the project.

  7. Student Readership of Supplemental, In-Chapter Material in Introductory Accounting Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toerner, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the author explored the extent to which students read the supplemental, in-chapter material contained in introductory accounting textbooks. A total of 668 students enrolled in 2002 spring and fall semesters at 3 universities in the southern United States participated in the study. The results showed that the participants considered…

  8. 10 CFR 150.17 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports. 150.17 Section 150.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.17 Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports....

  9. 10 CFR 76.117 - Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III. 76.117 Section 76.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.117 Special nuclear material of low...

  10. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-4 - Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Nuclear Regulatory...-Special Types of Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-4 Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials. (a) General. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has exclusive...

  11. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of...

  12. 10 CFR 50.101 - Retaking possession of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retaking possession of special nuclear material. 50.101 Section 50.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... Operations by the Commission § 50.101 Retaking possession of special nuclear material. Upon revocation of...

  13. 10 CFR 150.16 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports. 150.16 Section 150.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.16 Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports....

  14. 10 CFR 150.16 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports. 150.16 Section 150.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.16 Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports....

  15. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of...

  16. 10 CFR 76.117 - Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III. 76.117 Section 76.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.117 Special nuclear material of low...

  17. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-4 - Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Nuclear Regulatory...-Special Types of Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-4 Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials. (a) General. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has exclusive...

  18. 10 CFR 50.101 - Retaking possession of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retaking possession of special nuclear material. 50.101 Section 50.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... Operations by the Commission § 50.101 Retaking possession of special nuclear material. Upon revocation of...

  19. 10 CFR 150.21 - Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. 150.21 Section 150.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. Except as specifically approved by the Commission...

  20. 10 CFR 76.117 - Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III. 76.117 Section 76.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.117 Special nuclear material of low...

  1. 10 CFR 150.16 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports. 150.16 Section 150.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.16 Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports....

  2. 10 CFR 150.21 - Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. 150.21 Section 150.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. Except as specifically approved by the Commission...

  3. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-4 - Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nuclear Regulatory...-Special Types of Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-4 Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials. (a) General. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has exclusive...

  4. 10 CFR 76.117 - Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III. 76.117 Section 76.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.117 Special nuclear material of low...

  5. 10 CFR 11.16 - Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.16 Section 11.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements...

  6. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of...

  7. 10 CFR 11.16 - Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.16 Section 11.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements...

  8. 10 CFR 150.16 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports. 150.16 Section 150.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.16 Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports....

  9. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of...

  10. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of...

  11. 10 CFR 50.101 - Retaking possession of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retaking possession of special nuclear material. 50.101 Section 50.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... Operations by the Commission § 50.101 Retaking possession of special nuclear material. Upon revocation of...

  12. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-4 - Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Nuclear Regulatory...-Special Types of Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-4 Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials. (a) General. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has exclusive...

  13. 10 CFR 150.21 - Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. 150.21 Section 150.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Transportation of special nuclear material by aircraft. Except as specifically approved by the Commission...

  14. 10 CFR 11.16 - Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.16 Section 11.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements...

  15. 10 CFR 76.117 - Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special nuclear material of low strategic significance-Category III. 76.117 Section 76.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.117 Special nuclear material of low...

  16. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-4 - Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Nuclear Regulatory...-Special Types of Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-4 Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials. (a) General. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has exclusive...

  17. 10 CFR 150.17 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports. 150.17 Section 150.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.17 Submission to Commission of nuclear material status reports....

  18. 10 CFR 50.101 - Retaking possession of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retaking possession of special nuclear material. 50.101 Section 50.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... Operations by the Commission § 50.101 Retaking possession of special nuclear material. Upon revocation of...

  19. 10 CFR 150.16 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports. 150.16 Section 150.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED... Authority in Agreement States § 150.16 Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports....

  20. 10 CFR 50.101 - Retaking possession of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retaking possession of special nuclear material. 50.101 Section 50.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... Operations by the Commission § 50.101 Retaking possession of special nuclear material. Upon revocation of...

  1. 10 CFR 11.16 - Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cancellation of request for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.16 Section 11.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements...

  2. DOE nuclear material packaging manual: storage container requirements for plutonium oxide materials

    SciTech Connect

    Veirs, D Kirk

    2009-01-01

    Loss of containment of nuclear material stored in containers such as food-pack cans, paint cans, or taped slip lid cans has generated concern about packaging requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials in working facilities such as the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In response, DOE has recently issued DOE M 441.1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual' with encouragement from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. A unique feature compared to transportation containers is the allowance of filters to vent flammable gases during storage. Defining commonly used concepts such as maximum allowable working pressure and He leak rate criteria become problematic when considering vented containers. Los Alamos has developed a set of container requirements that are in compliance with 441.1 based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide. The pre and post drop-test He leak rates depend upon container size as well as the material contents. For containers that are routinely handled, ease of handling and weight are a major consideration. Relatively thin-walled containers with flat bottoms are desired yet they cannot be He leak tested at a differential pressure of one atmosphere due to the potential for plastic deformation of the flat bottom during testing. The He leak rates and He leak testing configuration for containers designed for plutonium bearing materials will be presented. The approach to meeting the other manual requirements such as corrosion and thermal degradation resistance will be addressed. The information presented can be used by other sites to evaluate if their conditions are bounded by LANL requirements when considering procurement of 441.1 compliant containers.

  3. 75 FR 2163 - Constellation Energy; Notice of Docketing of Special Nuclear Material License SNM-2505 Amendment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... COMMISSION Constellation Energy; Notice of Docketing of Special Nuclear Material License SNM-2505 Amendment Application for the Calvert Cliffs Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., Project Manager, Licensing Branch, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation, Office of...

  4. Characterization of nuclear transmutations in materials irradiated test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents a comparison of nuclear transmutation rates for candidate fusion first wall/blanket structural materials in available, fission test reactors with those produced in a typical fusion spectrum. The materials analyzed in this study include a vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti), a reduced activation martensitic steel (Fe-9Cr-2WVTa), a high conductivity copper alloy (Cu-Cr-Zr), and the SiC compound. The fission irradiation facilities considered include the EBR-II fast reactor, and two high flux mixed spectrum reactors, HFIR (High Flux Irradiation Reactor) and SM-3 (Russian reactor). The transmutation and dpa rates that occur in these test reactors are compared with the calculated transmutation and dpa rates characteristic of a D-T fusion first wall spectrum. In general, past work has shown that the displacement damage produced in these fission reactors can be correlated to displacement damage in a fusion spectrum; however, the generation of helium and hydrogen through threshold reactions [(n,x,{alpha}) and (n,xp)] are much higher in a fusion spectrum. As shown in this study, the compositional changes for several candidate structural materials exposed to a fast fission reactor spectrum are very low, similar to those for a characteristic fusion spectrum. However, the relatively high thermalized spectrum of a mixed spectrum reactor produces transmutation rates quite different from the ones predicted for a fusion reactor, resulting in substantial differences in the final composition of several candidate alloys after relatively short irradiation time.

  5. System design for safe robotic handling of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Wapman, W.; Fahrenholtz, J.; Kimberly, H.; Kuhlmann, J.

    1996-03-01

    Robotic systems are being developed by the Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center at Sandia National Laboratories to perform automated handling tasks with radioactive nuclear materials. These systems will reduce the occupational radiation exposure to workers by automating operations which are currently performed manually. Because the robotic systems will handle material that is both hazardous and valuable, the safety of the operations is of utmost importance; assurance must be given that personnel will not be harmed and that the materials and environment will be protected. These safety requirements are met by designing safety features into the system using a layered approach. Several levels of mechanical, electrical and software safety prevent unsafe conditions from generating a hazard, and bring the system to a safe state should an unexpected situation arise. The system safety features include the use of industrial robot standards, commercial robot systems, commercial and custom tooling, mechanical safety interlocks, advanced sensor systems, control and configuration checks, and redundant control schemes. The effectiveness of the safety features in satisfying the safety requirements is verified using a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis. This technique can point out areas of weakness in the safety design as well as areas where unnecessary redundancy may reduce the system reliability.

  6. Nuclear waste package materials testing report: basaltic and tuffaceous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.J.; Coles, D.G.; Hodges, F.N.; McVay, G.L.; Westerman, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in underground repositories in the continental United States requires the development of a waste package that will contain radionuclides for a time period commensurate with performance criteria, which may be up to 1000 years. This report addresses materials testing in support of a waste package for a basalt (Hanford, Washington) or a tuff (Nevada Test Site) repository. The materials investigated in this testing effort were: sodium and calcium bentonites and mixtures with sand or basalt as a backfill; iron and titanium-based alloys as structural barriers; and borosilicate waste glass PNL 76-68 as a waste form. The testing also incorporated site-specific rock media and ground waters: Reference Umtanum Entablature-1 basalt and reference basalt ground water, Bullfrog tuff and NTS J-13 well water. The results of the testing are discussed in four major categories: Backfill Materials: emphasizing water migration, radionuclide migration, physical property and long-term stability studies. Structural Barriers: emphasizing uniform corrosion, irradiation-corrosion, and environmental-mechanical testing. Waste Form Release Characteristics: emphasizing ground water, sample surface area/solution volume ratio, and gamma radiolysis effects. Component Compatibility: emphasizing solution/rock, glass/rock, glass/structural barrier, and glass/backfill interaction tests. This area also includes sensitivity testing to determine primary parameters to be studied, and the results of systems tests where more than two waste package components were combined during a single test.

  7. Preventing the importation of illicit nuclear materials in shipping containers.

    PubMed

    Wein, Lawrence M; Wilkins, Alex H; Baveja, Manas; Flynn, Stephen E

    2006-10-01

    We develop a mathematical model to find the optimal inspection strategy for detecting a nuclear weapon (or nuclear material to make a weapon) from being smuggled into the United States in a shipping container, subject to constraints of port congestion and an overall budget. We consider an 11-layer security system consisting of shipper certification, container seals, and a targeting software system, followed by passive (neutron and gamma), active (gamma radiography), and manual testing at overseas and domestic ports. Currently implemented policies achieve a low detection probability, and improved security requires passive and active testing of trusted containers and manually opening containers that cannot be penetrated by radiography. The annual cost of achieving a high detection probability of a plutonium weapon using existing equipment in traditional ways is roughly several billion dollars if testing is done domestically, and is approximately five times higher if testing is performed overseas. Our results suggest that employing high-energy x-ray radiography and elongating the passive neutron tests at overseas ports may provide significant cost savings, and several developing technologies, radiation sensors inside containers and tamper-resistant electronic seals, should be pursued aggressively. Further effort is critically needed to develop a practical neutron interrogation scheme that reliably detects moderately shielded, highly enriched uranium.

  8. Global threat reduction initiative Russian nuclear material removal progress

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, Kelly

    2008-07-15

    In December 1999 representatives from the United States, the Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started discussing a program to return to Russia Soviet- or Russian-supplied highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel stored at the Russian-designed research reactors outside Russia. Trilateral discussions among the United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have identified more than 20 research reactors in 17 countries that have Soviet- or Russian-supplied HEU fuel. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program is an important aspect of the U.S. Government's commitment to cooperate with the other nations to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons and weapons-usable proliferation-attractive nuclear materials. To date, 496 kilograms of Russian-origin HEU have been shipped to Russia from Serbia, Latvia, Libya, Uzbekistan, Romania, Bulgaria, Poland, Germany, and the Czech Republic. The pilot spent fuel shipment from Uzbekistan to Russia was completed in April 2006. (author)

  9. Proactive Management of Materials Degradation for Nuclear Power Plant Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Taylor, Theodore T.; Doctor, Steven R.; Hull, Amy; Malik, Shah

    2008-09-01

    There are approximately 440 operating reactors in the global nuclear power plant (NPP) fleet, and these have an average age greater than 20 years. These NPPs had design lives of 30 or 40 years. The United States is currently implementing license extensions of 20 years on many plants and consideration is now being given to the concept of “life-beyond-60,” a further period of license extension from 60 to 80 years, and potentially longer. In almost all countries with NPPs, authorities are looking at some form of license renewal program. There is a growing urgency as a number of plants face either approvals for license extension or shut down, which will require deployment of new power plants. In support of NPP license extension over the past decade, various national and international programs have been initiated. This paper reports part of the work performed in support of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) Proactive Management of Materials Degradation (PMMD) program. The paper concisely explains the basic principles of PMMD, its relationship to advanced diagnostics and prognostics and provides an assessment of some the technical gaps in PMMD and prognostics that need to be addressed.

  10. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    R.B. Rebak

    2006-08-28

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  11. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2006-06-01

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  12. Environmental Degradation of Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories Engineered Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2006-12-24

    Several countries are considering geological repositories for the storage of nuclear waste. Most of the environments for these repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, copper, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  13. Radiation effects on organic materials in nuclear plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, M B; Davis, M V

    1981-11-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify information useful in determining the lowest level at which radiation causes damage to nuclear plant equipment. Information was sought concerning synergistic effects of radiation and other environmental stresses. Organic polymers are often identified as the weak elements in equipment. Data on radiation effects are summarized for 50 generic name plastics and 16 elastomers. Coatings, lubricants, and adhesives are treated as separate groups. Inorganics and metallics are considered briefly. With a few noted exceptions, these are more radiation resistant than organic materials. Some semiconductor devices and electronic assemblies are extremely sensitive to radiation. Any damage threshold including these would be too low to be of practical value. With that exception, equipment exposed to less than 10/sup 4/ rads should not be significantly affected. Equipment containing no Teflon should not be significantly affected by 10/sup 5/ rads. Data concerning synergistic effects and radiation sensitization are discussed. The authors suggest correlations between the two effects.

  14. Ultra Wide Band RFID Neutron Tags for Nuclear Materials Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F; Wang, T

    2010-01-27

    Recent advancements in the ultra-wide band Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and solid state pillar type neutron detectors have enabled us to move forward in combining both technologies for advanced neutron monitoring. The LLNL RFID tag is totally passive and will operate indefinitely without the need for batteries. The tag is compact, can be directly mounted on metal, and has high performance in dense and cluttered environments. The LLNL coin-sized pillar solid state neutron detector has achieved a thermal neutron detection efficiency of 20% and neutron/gamma discrimination of 1E5. These performance values are comparable to a fieldable {sup 3}He based detector. In this paper we will discuss features about the two technologies and some potential applications for the advanced safeguarding of nuclear materials.

  15. Nuclear Material Monitoring System (NMMS) for security screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun Kim, Kwang; Hong Chang, Ji; Hyun Jung, Young

    2011-08-01

    As a Nuclear Material Monitoring System (NMMS), two large-volume plastic detectors and a NaI detector for gamma-ray sources and two He-3 tubes for neutron sources were integrated in a mobile box that can be mounted on a vehicle. Custom-made preamplifiers, shapers, and a MCA (Multi-Channel Analyzer) for each detector were conceived of and built on a compact circuit board to collect and integrate different types of data from each detector. The collected data, counts rates and spectra of the detected radiation, were continually monitored and plotted on several user-friendly display windows on a laptop computer. The system performance in the vehicle-mounted condition was tested for Co-60, Cs-137, and Cf-252 sources at various distances and speeds.

  16. A sensor-based automation system for handling nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Kimberly, H.; Wapman, W.; Darras, D.

    1997-03-01

    An automated system is being developed for handling large payloads of radioactive nuclear materials in an analytical laboratory. The automation system performs unpacking and repacking of payloads from shipping and storage containers, and delivery of the payloads to the stations in the laboratory. The system uses machine vision and force/torque sensing to provide sensor-based control of the automation system in order to enhance system safety, flexibility, and robustness, and achieve easy remote operation. The automation system also controls the operation of the laboratory measurement systems and the coordination of them with the robotic system. Particular attention has been given to system design features and analytical methods that provide an enhanced level of operational safety. Independent mechanical gripper interlock and tool release mechanisms were designed to prevent payload mishandling. An extensive Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the automation system was developed as a safety design analysis tool.

  17. 10 CFR 73.6 - Exemptions for certain quantities and kinds of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 73.6 Section 73.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION... special nuclear material. A licensee is exempt from the requirements of 10 CFR part 26 and §§ 73.20, 73.25, 73.26, 73.27, 73.45, 73.46, 73.70 and 73.72 with respect to the following special nuclear...

  18. 10 CFR 73.6 - Exemptions for certain quantities and kinds of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 73.6 Section 73.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION... special nuclear material. A licensee is exempt from the requirements of 10 CFR part 26 and §§ 73.20, 73.25, 73.26, 73.27, 73.45, 73.46, 73.70 and 73.72 with respect to the following special nuclear...

  19. 10 CFR 73.6 - Exemptions for certain quantities and kinds of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 73.6 Section 73.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION... special nuclear material. A licensee is exempt from the requirements of 10 CFR part 26 and §§ 73.20, 73.25, 73.26, 73.27, 73.45, 73.46, 73.70 and 73.72 with respect to the following special nuclear...

  20. 10 CFR 73.6 - Exemptions for certain quantities and kinds of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 73.6 Section 73.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION... special nuclear material. A licensee is exempt from the requirements of 10 CFR part 26 and §§ 73.20, 73.25, 73.26, 73.27, 73.45, 73.46, 73.70 and 73.72 with respect to the following special nuclear...

  1. 10 CFR 73.6 - Exemptions for certain quantities and kinds of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 73.6 Section 73.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION... special nuclear material. A licensee is exempt from the requirements of 10 CFR part 26 and §§ 73.20, 73.25, 73.26, 73.27, 73.45, 73.46, 73.70 and 73.72 with respect to the following special nuclear...

  2. In-Place Filter Tester Instrument for Nuclear Material Containers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Austin D; Moore, Murray E; Runnels, Joel T; Reeves, Kirk

    2016-05-01

    A portable instrument was developed to determine filter clogging and container leakage of in-place nuclear material storage canisters. This paper describes the development of an in-place filter tester for determining the "as found" condition of unopened canisters. The U.S. Department of Energy uses several thousand canisters for nuclear material storage, and air filters in the canister lids allow gases to escape while maintaining an equilibrated pressure without release of radioactive contamination. Diagnosing the filter condition and canister integrity is important for ensuring worker and public safety. Customized canister interfaces were developed for suction clamping (during tests) to two of the canister types in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Experimental leakage scenarios included: O-rings fouled with dust, cracked O-rings, and loose canister lids. The prototype tester has a measurement range for air leakage rates from 8.2 × 10 mL s up to 3.0 × 10 mL s. This is sufficient to measure a leak rate of 3.4 × 10 mL s, which is the Los Alamos helium leak criterion for post-drop tested canisters. The In-Place-Filter-Tester cannot measure to the lower value of the helium leak criterion for pre-drop tested canisters (1.0 × 10 mL s). However, helium leak testing requires canister disassembly, while the new in-place filter tester is able to assess the assembled condition of as-found and in-situ canisters.

  3. 76 FR 77855 - Criteria for Identifying Material Licensees for the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Agency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... for those nuclear material licensees, including fuel cycle facilities, with significant safety or... identifies nuclear material licensees, including fuel cycle and Agreement State licensees, for AARM..., one additional element (i.e., criterion), has been added that focuses on those material...

  4. A gamma-ray verification system for special nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Lanier, R.G.; Prindle, A.L.; Friensehner, A.V.; Buckley, W.M.

    1994-07-01

    The Safeguards Technology Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a gamma-ray screening system for use by the Materials Management Section of the Engineering Sciences Division at LLNL for verifying the presence or absence of special nuclear material (SNM) in a sample. This system facilitates the measurements required under the ``5610`` series of US Department of Energy orders. MMGAM is an intelligent, menu driven software application that runs on a personal computer and requires a precalibrated multi-channel analyzer and HPGe detector. It provides a very quick and easy-to-use means of determining the presence of SNM in a sample. After guiding the operator through a menu driven set-up procedure, the system provides an on-screen GO/NO-GO indication after determining the system calibration status. This system represents advances over earlier used systems in the areas of ease-of use, operator training requirements, and quality assurance. The system records the gamma radiation from a sample using a sequence of measurements involving a background measurement followed immediately by a measurement of the unknown sample. Both spectra are stored and available for analysis or output. In the current application, the presence of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 208}Tl isotopes are indicated by extracting, from the stored spectra, four energy ``windows`` preset around gamma-ray lines characteristic of the radioactive decay of these nuclides. The system is easily extendible to more complicated problems.

  5. A New Light Weight Structural Material for Nuclear Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Rabiei, Afsaneh

    2016-01-14

    Radiation shielding materials are commonly used in nuclear facilities to attenuate the background ionization radiations to a minimum level for creating a safer workplace, meeting regulatory requirements and maintaining high quality performance. The conventional radiation shielding materials have a number of drawbacks: heavy concrete contains a high amount of elements that are not desirable for an effective shielding such as oxygen, silicon, and calcium; a well known limitation of lead is its low machinability and toxicity, which is causing a major environmental concern. Therefore, an effective and environmentally friendly shielding material with increased attenuation and low mass density is desirable. Close-cell composite metal foams (CMFs) and open-cell Al foam with fillers are light-weight candidate materials that we have studied in this project. Close-cell CMFs possess several suitable properties that are unattainable by conventional radiation shielding materials such as low density and high strength for structural applications, high surface area to volume ratio for excellent thermal isolation with an extraordinary energy absorption capability. Open-cell foam is made up of a network of interconnected solid struts, which allows gas or fluid media to pass through it. This unique structure provided a further motive to investigate its application as radiation shields by infiltrating original empty pores with high hydrogen or boron compounds, which are well known for their excellent neutron shielding capability. The resulting open-cell foam with fillers will not only exhibit light weight and high specific surface area, but also possess excellent radiation shielding capability and good processability. In this study, all the foams were investigated for their radiation shielding efficiency in terms of X-ray, gamma ray and neutron. X-ray transmission measurements were carried out on a high-resolution microcomputed tomography (microCT) system. Gamma-emitting sources: 3.0m

  6. 4π FOV compact Compton camera for nuclear material investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonho; Lee, Taewoong

    2011-10-01

    A compact Compton camera with a 4π field of view (FOV) was manufactured using the design parameters optimized with the effective choice of gamma-ray interaction order determined from a Monte Carlo simulation. The camera consisted of six CsI(Na) planar scintillators with a pixelized structure that was coupled to position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (H8500) consisting of multiple anodes connected to custom-made circuits. The size of the scintillator and each pixel was 4.4×4.4×0.5 and 0.2×0.2×0.5 cm, respectively. The total size of each detection module was only 5×5×6 cm and the distance between the detector modules was approximately 10 cm to maximize the camera performance, as calculated by the simulation. Therefore, the camera is quite portable for examining nuclear materials in areas, such as harbors or nuclear power plants. The non-uniformity of the multi-anode PMTs was corrected using a novel readout circuit. Amplitude information of the signals from the electronics attached to the scintillator-coupled multi-anode PMTs was collected using a data acquisition board (cDAQ-9178), and the timing information was sent to a FPGA (SPARTAN3E). The FPGA picked the rising edges of the timing signals, and compared the edges of the signals from six detection modules to select the coincident signal from a Compton pair only. The output of the FPGA triggered the DAQ board to send the effective Compton events to a computer. The Compton image was reconstructed, and the performance of the 4π FOV Compact camera was examined.

  7. Anomalies in Proposed Regulations for the Release of Redundant Material from Nuclear and Non-nuclear Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, S.

    2002-02-26

    Now that increasing numbers of nuclear power stations are reaching the end of their commercially useful lives, the management of the large quantities of very low level radioactive material that arises during their decommissioning has become a major subject of discussion, with very significant economic implications. Much of this material can, in an environmentally advantageous manner, be recycled for reuse without radiological restrictions. Much larger quantities--2-3 orders of magnitude larger--of material, radiologically similar to the candidate material for recycling from the nuclear industry, arise in non-nuclear industries like coal, fertilizer, oil and gas, mining, etc. In such industries, naturally occurring radioactivity is artificially concentrated in products, by-products or waste to form TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material). It is only in the last decade that the international community has become aware of the prevalence of T ENORM, specially the activity levels and quantities arising in so many nonnuclear industries. The first reaction of international organizations seems to have been to propose ''double'' standards for the nuclear and non-nuclear industries, with very stringent release criteria for radioactive material from the regulated nuclear industry and up to a hundred times more liberal criteria for the release/exemption of TENORM from the as yet unregulated non-nuclear industries. There are, however, many significant strategic issues that need to be discussed and resolved. An interesting development, for both the nuclear and non-nuclear industries, is the increased scientific scrutiny that the populations of naturally high background dose level areas of the world are being subject to. Preliminary biological studies have indicated that the inhabitants of such areas, exposed to many times the permitted occupational doses for nuclear workers, have not shown any differences in cancer mortality, life expectancy

  8. 10 CFR 76.113 - Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material-Category I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material-Category I. 76.113 Section 76.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.113 Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear...

  9. The Science of Nuclear Materials: A Modular, Laboratory-based Curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, C.L.; Feldman, G.; Briscoe, W.J.

    2014-06-15

    The development of a curriculum for nuclear materials courses targeting students pursuing Master of Arts degrees at The George Washington University is described. The courses include basic concepts such as radiation and radioactivity as well as more complex topics such the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear weapons, radiation detection and technological aspects of non-proliferation.

  10. The Science of Nuclear Materials: A Modular, Laboratory-based Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, C. L.; Feldman, G.; Briscoe, W. J.

    2014-06-01

    The development of a curriculum for nuclear materials courses targeting students pursuing Master of Arts degrees at The George Washington University is described. The courses include basic concepts such as radiation and radioactivity as well as more complex topics such the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear weapons, radiation detection and technological aspects of non-proliferation.

  11. 10 CFR 76.113 - Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material-Category I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material-Category I. 76.113 Section 76.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.113 Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear...

  12. 10 CFR 76.113 - Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material-Category I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material-Category I. 76.113 Section 76.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.113 Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear...

  13. 10 CFR 76.113 - Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material-Category I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material-Category I. 76.113 Section 76.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.113 Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear...

  14. 10 CFR 76.113 - Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material-Category I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material-Category I. 76.113 Section 76.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.113 Formula quantities of strategic special nuclear...

  15. Standard format and content acceptance criteria for the Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) Reform Amendment: 10 CFR Part 74, Subpart E. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In 1987 the NRC revised the material control and accounting requirements for NRC licensees authorized to possess and use a formula quantity (i.e., 5 formula kilograms or more) of strategic special nuclear material. Those revisions issued as 10 CFR 74.51-59 require timely monitoring of in-process inventory and discrete items to detect anomalies potentially indicative of material losses. Timely detection and enhanced loss localization capabilities are beneficial to alarm resolution and also for material recovery in the event of an actual loss. NUREG-1280 was issued in 1987 to present criteria that could be used by applicants, licensees, and NRC license reviewers in the initial preparation and subsequent review of fundamental nuclear material control (FNMC) plans submitted in response to the Reform Amendment. This document is also intended for both licensees and license reviewers with respect to FNMC plan revisions. General performance objectives, system capabilities, process monitoring, item monitoring, alarm resolution, quality assurance, and accounting are addressed. This revision to NUREG-1280 is an expansion of the initial edition, which clarifies and expands upon several topics and addresses issues identified under Reform Amendment implementation experience.

  16. Radiation effects in nuclear waste materials. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W.J.; Corrales, L.R.

    1997-06-01

    'The objective of this multidisciplinary, multi-institutional research effort is to develop a fundamental understanding at the atomic, microscopic, and macroscopic levels of radiation effects in glass and ceramics. This research will provide the underpinning science and models for evaluation and performance assessments of glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposal of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scrap, and excess weapons plutonium. Studies will focus on the effects of ionization and elastic collision interactions on defect production, defect interactions, diffusion, solid-state phase transformations, and gas accumulation using actinide-containing materials, gamma irradiation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of a-decay and p-decay on nuclear waste glasses and ceramics. This program will exploit a variety of structural, optical, and spectroscopic probes to characterize the nature and behavior of the defects, defect aggregates, and phase transforma-tions. Computer simulation techniques will be used to determine defect production, calculate defect stability, defect energies, damage processes within an a-recoil cascade, and defect/gas diffusion and interactions. A number of irradiation facilities and capabilities will be used, including user facilities at several national laboratories, to study the effects of irradiation under different conditions.'

  17. Application of Telepresence Technologies to Nuclear Material Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, M.C.; Rome, J.A.

    1999-09-20

    Implementation of remote monitoring systems has become a priority area for the International Atomic Energy Agency and other international inspection regimes. For the past three years, DOE2000 has been the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) initiative to develop innovative applications to exploit the capabilities of broadband networks and media integration. The aim is to enhance scientific collaboration by merging computing and communications technologies. These Internet-based telepresence technologies could be easily extended to provide remote monitoring and control for confidence building and transparency systems at nuclear facilities around the world. One of the original DOE2000 projects, the Materials Microcharacterization Collaboratory is an interactive virtual laboratory, linking seven DOE user facilities located across the US. At these facilities, external collaborators have access to scientists, data, and instrumentation, all of which are available to varying degrees using the Internet. Remote operation of the instruments varies between passive (observational) to active (direct control), in many cases requiring no software at the remote site beyond a Web browser. Live video streams are continuously available on the Web so that participants can see what is happening at a particular location. An X.509 certificate system provides strong authentication, The hardware and software are commercially available and are easily adaptable to safeguards applications.

  18. Top reviewers for the Journal of Nuclear Materials 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Was, Gary

    2017-01-01

    The Journal of Nuclear Materials achieves its scientific excellence through several familiar editorial activities. Manuscripts are submitted by authors describing their research methods and results, a constructive refereeing process is generously provided by peer reviewers, and the many steps and decisions of the editorial process are carried out by the Editors with assistance from the Advisory Editorial Board. With the exception of peer reviewers, the names of the people within these groups are published in the pages of the Journal. Thereby they receive recognition in the community for their work. However, all of us Journal constituents owe a large debt of gratitude to reviewers. They dedicate time, energy and remarkable depth of expertise to evaluate submitted manuscripts. As a result of their work most manuscripts are substantively improved. We also recognize the fact that many times the underlying research itself is advanced by the recommendations of our reviewers. Because the Journal maintains a strict policy of anonymous peer review, we do not make known the names of reviewers in association with particular manuscripts. Within this constraint the Editors and Publisher wish to find ways to recognize our reviewers. We recently instituted a top reviewer honor for a single individual, awarded at the NuMat conference (http://www.nuclearmaterialsconference.com).

  19. Special Nuclear Material Detection with a Water Cherenkov based Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Sweany, M; Bernstein, A; Bowden, N; Dazeley, S; Svoboda, R

    2008-11-10

    Fission events from Special Nuclear Material (SNM), such as highly enriched uranium or plutonium, produce a number of neutrons and high energy gamma-rays. Assuming the neutron multiplicity is approximately Poissonian with an average of 2 to 3, the observation of time correlations between these particles from a cargo container would constitute a robust signature of the presence of SNM inside. However, in order to be sensitive to the multiplicity, one would require a high total efficiency. There are two approaches to maximize the total efficiency; maximizing the detector efficiency or maximizing the detector solid angle coverage. The advanced detector group at LLNL is investigating one way to maximize the detector size. We are designing and building a water Cerenkov based gamma and neutron detector for the purpose of developing an efficient and cost effective way to deploy a large solid angle car wash style detector. We report on our progress in constructing a larger detector and also present preliminary results from our prototype detector that indicates detection of neutrons.

  20. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... nuclear power reactors to meet the requirements that radioactive material in effluents released...