Science.gov

Sample records for accounting functions specialized

  1. Guidance: Disbursements of Funds From Special Accounts to CERCLA PRPs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Addresses the circumstances under which a PRP may receive special accounts funds; timing & amount of special account disbursements; special account disbursement priorities; disposition of special account funds after completion of response action.

  2. 18 CFR 367.1340 - Account 134, Other special deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1340 Account 134, Other... offset by current liabilities, must be charged to account 128, Other special funds (§ 367.1280)....

  3. 18 CFR 367.1340 - Account 134, Other special deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1340 Account 134, Other... offset by current liabilities, must be charged to account 128, Other special funds (§ 367.1280)....

  4. 18 CFR 367.1340 - Account 134, Other special deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1340 Account 134, Other... offset by current liabilities, must be charged to account 128, Other special funds (§ 367.1280)....

  5. 18 CFR 367.1340 - Account 134, Other special deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1340 Account 134, Other... offset by current liabilities, must be charged to account 128, Other special funds (§ 367.1280)....

  6. 18 CFR 367.1340 - Account 134, Other special deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1340 Account 134, Other... offset by current liabilities, must be charged to account 128, Other special funds (§ 367.1280)....

  7. 18 CFR 367.1280 - Account 128, Other special funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... special funds. (a) This account must include the amount of cash and book cost of investments that have... trading and available-for-sale types of security investments. A separate account with appropriate...

  8. 18 CFR 367.1280 - Account 128, Other special funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Other Property and Investments § 367.1280 Account 128, Other... special funds. 367.1280 Section 367.1280 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF...

  9. 17 CFR 17.01 - Special account designation and identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or its designee. (b) Special account identification. The name, address, business phone, and for... of the person as a commodity trading advisor or a securities investment advisor; (ii) The legal organization of the person and the person's principal business or occupation; (iii) Account numbers and...

  10. 17 CFR 17.01 - Special account designation and identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of the person as a commodity trading advisor or a securities investment advisor; (ii) The legal... commodity trading advisor or a securities investment advisor; (ii) (iii) If fewer than ten accounts are... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special account...

  11. 17 CFR 17.01 - Special account designation and identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of the person as a commodity trading advisor or a securities investment advisor; (ii) The legal... commodity trading advisor or a securities investment advisor; (ii) (iii) If fewer than ten accounts are... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special account...

  12. Report: Making Better Use of Stringfellow Superfund Special Accounts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #08-P-0196, July 9, 2008. By Fiscal Year 2010, EPA Region 9 could reclassify, or transfer to the Trust Fund, up to $47.8 million in special account funds for the Stringfellow Superfund site, located near Glen Avon, California.

  13. Mind the Gap: Accountability, Observation and Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Christina C.; Rivers, Susan E.; Bertoli, Michelle C.

    2017-01-01

    There is an absence of observation-based tools designed to evaluate teaching in special education classrooms. Evaluations derived from classroom observations are integral to the accountability process, adding value to understanding teaching and learning by providing a lens into the classroom that test scores cannot capture. The present paper…

  14. 17 CFR 247.723 - Exemptions for special accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts. 247.723 Section 247... Exemptions for special accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts... dealer. (e) De minimis exclusion. A bank may, in determining its compliance with the chiefly...

  15. 17 CFR 247.723 - Exemptions for special accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts. 247.723 Section 247... Exemptions for special accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts... dealer. (e) De minimis exclusion. A bank may, in determining its compliance with the chiefly...

  16. 17 CFR 247.723 - Exemptions for special accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts. 247.723 Section 247... Exemptions for special accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts... dealer. (e) De minimis exclusion. A bank may, in determining its compliance with the chiefly...

  17. 17 CFR 247.723 - Exemptions for special accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts. 247.723 Section 247... Exemptions for special accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts... dealer. (e) De minimis exclusion. A bank may, in determining its compliance with the chiefly...

  18. 17 CFR 247.723 - Exemptions for special accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts. 247.723 Section 247... Exemptions for special accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts... dealer. (e) De minimis exclusion. A bank may, in determining its compliance with the chiefly...

  19. 12 CFR 220.5 - Special memorandum account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... account (SMA) may be maintained in conjunction with a margin account. A single entry amount may be used to represent both a credit to the SMA and a debit to the margin account. A transfer between the two accounts... customer or on the customer's behalf or a transfer to any of the customer's other accounts from the...

  20. 12 CFR 220.5 - Special memorandum account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... account (SMA) may be maintained in conjunction with a margin account. A single entry amount may be used to represent both a credit to the SMA and a debit to the margin account. A transfer between the two accounts... customer or on the customer's behalf or a transfer to any of the customer's other accounts from the...

  1. 12 CFR 220.5 - Special memorandum account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... account (SMA) may be maintained in conjunction with a margin account. A single entry amount may be used to represent both a credit to the SMA and a debit to the margin account. A transfer between the two accounts... customer or on the customer's behalf or a transfer to any of the customer's other accounts from the...

  2. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  3. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  4. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  5. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  6. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  7. 77 FR 28407 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... fundamentals of an SNM control and accounting system, including criteria for the receipt, internal control... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear...-5028, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' In...

  8. 12 CFR 220.5 - Special memorandum account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... memorandum account (SMA) may be maintained in conjunction with a margin account. A single entry amount may be used to represent both a credit to the SMA and a debit to the margin account. A transfer between the... from the SMA reduces the single entry amount. (b) The SMA may contain the following entries:...

  9. 12 CFR 220.5 - Special memorandum account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... memorandum account (SMA) may be maintained in conjunction with a margin account. A single entry amount may be used to represent both a credit to the SMA and a debit to the margin account. A transfer between the... from the SMA reduces the single entry amount. (b) The SMA may contain the following entries:...

  10. School Accountability Reforms and the Use of Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Jon Marius Vaag

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between Norwegian school reform implementation and the use of special education. After the introduction of the national reform programme called the "Kunnskapsloftet" ("Knowledge promotion") in 2006, the use of special education has increased dramatically in Norway. As part of the national…

  11. Teaching Special Decisions in a Lean Accounting Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskin, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Lean accounting has become increasingly important as more and more companies adopt the lean enterprise model or some variation of it. Cost and managerial accounting textbooks continue to use, almost exclusively, models based on standard overhead absorption, which if used in a lean environment will not accurately reflect the benefits from the…

  12. Space shuttle configuration accounting functional design specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the requirements for an on-line automated system which must be capable of tracking the status of requirements and engineering changes and of providing accurate and timely records. The functional design specification provides the definition, description, and character length of the required data elements and the interrelationship of data elements to adequately track, display, and report the status of active configuration changes. As changes to the space shuttle program levels II and III configuration are proposed, evaluated, and dispositioned, it is the function of the configuration management office to maintain records regarding changes to the baseline and to track and report the status of those changes. The configuration accounting system will consist of a combination of computers, computer terminals, software, and procedures, all of which are designed to store, retrieve, display, and process information required to track proposed and proved engineering changes to maintain baseline documentation of the space shuttle program levels II and III.

  13. Specialized Skill Training for Enlisted Navy Personnel: A Historical Account.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    rDO-R17?3 632 SPECIALIZED SKILL TRAINING FOR ENLISTED NAVY PERSONNEL: 1/2 HISTORICAL RCCO..(U) CENTER FOR NAVAL ANALYSES ALEXANDRIA Y" NAVAL PLANNING...34 ’ .% .’ % r • . . .’ 4 4- ° .4 j. °- 4 . . 4"....% • % . - CRM 86-90 /April 1986 OT20I RESEARCH MEMORANDUM (N SPECIALIZED SKILL TRAINING (0 FOR ENLISTED NAVY ...Naval Operations (OP-01) 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 4401 Ford Avenue Navy Department . Alexandria

  14. 17 CFR 5.20 - Special calls for account and transaction information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...'s account in retail forex transactions. (c) Special calls for information on open transactions in... introducing brokers. Upon special call by the Commission for information relating to retail forex transactions... concerning accounts of traders owning or controlling such retail forex transaction positions, as may...

  15. 17 CFR 5.20 - Special calls for account and transaction information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...'s account in retail forex transactions. (c) Special calls for information on open transactions in... introducing brokers. Upon special call by the Commission for information relating to retail forex transactions... concerning accounts of traders owning or controlling such retail forex transaction positions, as may...

  16. 17 CFR 5.20 - Special calls for account and transaction information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...'s account in retail forex transactions. (c) Special calls for information on open transactions in... introducing brokers. Upon special call by the Commission for information relating to retail forex transactions... concerning accounts of traders owning or controlling such retail forex transaction positions, as may...

  17. 12 CFR 220.117 - Exception to 90-day rule in special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... follows: Customer purchased stock in a special cash account with a member firm on Day 1. On Day 3 customer sold the same stock at a profit. On Day 8 customer delivered his check for the cost of the purchase to... of a security in a customer's special cash account if any security has been purchased in that...

  18. 12 CFR 220.117 - Exception to 90-day rule in special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... follows: Customer purchased stock in a special cash account with a member firm on Day 1. On Day 3 customer sold the same stock at a profit. On Day 8 customer delivered his check for the cost of the purchase to... of a security in a customer's special cash account if any security has been purchased in that...

  19. Accreditation and Accountability: A CHEA Special Report. CHEA Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Higher Education Accreditation, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A good deal of national attention has been paid to accreditation and issues of accountability during the past year. The dominant topics have been student learning outcomes, institutional performance, and information to the public. From the Secretary of Education's Commission on the Future of Higher Education to reauthorization of the Higher…

  20. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides guidance on recordkeeping and reporting requirements with respect to material control and accounting. This guide applies to all...

  1. An Early Childhood Special Education Research Agenda in a Culture of Accountability for Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carta, Judith J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reacts to testimony on early childhood special education research before the President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education (EC 632 080). Noting the Commission's emphasis on accountability and results, it stresses the importance of being clear about desired outcomes, the need for sensitive and accurate ways of measuring…

  2. 28 CFR 0.41 - Special functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special functions. 0.41 Section 0.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division... Treasury or his delegates under the Federal Alcohol Administration Act, in courts of appeals...

  3. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  4. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  5. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  6. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  7. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  8. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  9. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  10. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  11. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  12. 12 CFR 725.7 - Special share accounts in federally chartered agent members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special share accounts in federally chartered agent members. 725.7 Section 725.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.7...

  13. Understanding Accountability from a Microanalysis of Power Dynamics in a Specialized STEM School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Tang Wee; Osborne, Margery

    2014-01-01

    The central thesis of this article is that conceptualizations of accountability systems need to be more encompassing to accommodate the current diversity of school choice. This article examines an emerging type of school that specializes in advanced STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) curriculum for gifted and academically…

  14. A Special Function Coprocessor for Level-2

    SciTech Connect

    Cutts, D.; Hoftun, J.H.; Nesic, D.; Johnson, C.R.; Zeller, R.T.

    1990-06-26

    The idea of supplementing Level-2 filtering nodes with additional processing power has been alive within D0 collaboration for some time now. The utility of additional processing power became increasingly recognized as the Level-2 filtering code matures. Here we will describe one scenario of augmenting Level-2 nodes with coprocessing power within the framework of the present D0 data acquisition system. Primary data reduction, consisting of repetitive but simple tasks, form the major part of the first order Level-2 filter, in terms of its time budget. Such computing tasks are well suited to the coprocessor environment. In what follows we will use the term Special Function Coprocessor (SFC) to denote this additional processor. 2 figs.

  15. Functional specialization of transcription elongation factors

    PubMed Central

    Belogurov, Georgiy A; Mooney, Rachel A; Svetlov, Vladimir; Landick, Robert; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2009-01-01

    Elongation factors NusG and RfaH evolved from a common ancestor and utilize the same binding site on RNA polymerase (RNAP) to modulate transcription. However, although NusG associates with RNAP transcribing most Escherichia coli genes, RfaH regulates just a few operons containing ops, a DNA sequence that mediates RfaH recruitment. Here, we describe the mechanism by which this specificity is maintained. We observe that RfaH action is indeed restricted to those several operons that are devoid of NusG in vivo. We also show that RfaH and NusG compete for their effects on transcript elongation and termination in vitro. Our data argue that RfaH recognizes its DNA target even in the presence of NusG. Once recruited, RfaH remains stably associated with RNAP, thereby precluding NusG binding. We envision a pathway by which a specialized regulator has evolved in the background of its ubiquitous paralogue. We propose that RfaH and NusG may have opposite regulatory functions: although NusG appears to function in concert with Rho, RfaH inhibits Rho action and activates the expression of poorly translated, frequently foreign genes. PMID:19096362

  16. 12 CFR 218.723 - Exemptions for special accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts. 218.723 Section 218.723 Banks and Banking... accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts. (a) Short-term... dealer. (e) De minimis exclusion. A bank may, in determining its compliance with the chiefly...

  17. 12 CFR 218.723 - Exemptions for special accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts. 218.723 Section 218.723 Banks and Banking... accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts. (a) Short-term... dealer. (e) De minimis exclusion. A bank may, in determining its compliance with the chiefly...

  18. 12 CFR 218.723 - Exemptions for special accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts. 218.723 Section 218.723 Banks and Banking... accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts. (a) Short-term... dealer. (e) De minimis exclusion. A bank may, in determining its compliance with the chiefly...

  19. 12 CFR 218.723 - Exemptions for special accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts. 218.723 Section 218.723 Banks and Banking... accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts. (a) Short-term... dealer. (e) De minimis exclusion. A bank may, in determining its compliance with the chiefly...

  20. 12 CFR 218.723 - Exemptions for special accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts. 218.723 Section 218.723 Banks and Banking... accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts. (a) Short-term... dealer. (e) De minimis exclusion. A bank may, in determining its compliance with the chiefly...

  1. 25 CFR 39.113 - What are the special accountability requirements for the gifted and talented program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the special accountability requirements for the gifted and talented program? 39.113 Section 39.113 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Talented Programs § 39.113 What are the special accountability requirements for the gifted and...

  2. Function Learning: An Exemplar Account of Extrapolation Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-29

    Function learning An exemplar account of extrapolation performance Peter J Kwantes DRDC Toronto Andrew Neal University of Queensland...Defence R&D Canada – Toronto Technical Report DRDC Toronto TR 2003-138 October 2003 Author Peter J Kwantes Approved by Dr. Lochlan Magee Head...architecture for representing knowledge of functional relationships in a virtual operator. Kwantes , P.J., Neal, A. 2003. Function learning. An

  3. Computer-based accountability system (Phase I) for special nuclear materials at Argonne-West

    SciTech Connect

    Ingermanson, R.S.; Proctor, A.E.

    1982-05-01

    An automated accountability system for special nuclear materials (SNM) is under development at Argonne National Laboratory-West. Phase I of the development effort has established the following basic features of the system: a unique file organization allows rapid updating or retrieval of the status of various SNM, based on batch numbers, storage location, serial number, or other attributes. Access to the program is controlled by an interactive user interface that can be easily understood by operators who have had no prior background in electronic data processing. Extensive use of structured programming techniques make the software package easy to understand and to modify for specific applications. All routines are written in FORTRAN.

  4. Adapting a Robot Hand to Specialized Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Keith H.

    1987-01-01

    Adaptor enables mechanical and electrical connections made easily between special-purpose end effector and arm of robot or remote mainpulator. Use in prosthetic devices also contemplatd. With adaptor, hand changed quickly from device designed to grasp objects of various sizes and shapes to device intended to do specific task efficiently.

  5. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  6. Functional specialization in rat occipital and temporal visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Vermaercke, Ben; Gerich, Florian J.; Ytebrouck, Ellen; Arckens, Lutgarde; Van den Bergh, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed a surprising degree of functional specialization in rodent visual cortex. Anatomically, suggestions have been made about the existence of hierarchical pathways with similarities to the ventral and dorsal pathways in primates. Here we aimed to characterize some important functional properties in part of the supposed “ventral” pathway in rats. We investigated the functional properties along a progression of five visual areas in awake rats, from primary visual cortex (V1) over lateromedial (LM), latero-intermediate (LI), and laterolateral (LL) areas up to the newly found lateral occipito-temporal cortex (TO). Response latency increased >20 ms from areas V1/LM/LI to areas LL and TO. Orientation and direction selectivity for the used grating patterns increased gradually from V1 to TO. Overall responsiveness and selectivity to shape stimuli decreased from V1 to TO and was increasingly dependent upon shape motion. Neural similarity for shapes could be accounted for by a simple computational model in V1, but not in the other areas. Across areas, we find a gradual change in which stimulus pairs are most discriminable. Finally, tolerance to position changes increased toward TO. These findings provide unique information about possible commonalities and differences between rodents and primates in hierarchical cortical processing. PMID:24990566

  7. Special surgical considerations for functional brain mapping.

    PubMed

    Kekhia, Hussein; Rigolo, Laura; Norton, Isaiah; Golby, Alexandra J

    2011-04-01

    The development of functional mapping techniques gives neurosurgeons many options for preoperative planning. Integrating functional and anatomic data can inform patient selection and surgical planning and makes functional mapping more accessible than when only invasive studies were available. However, the applications of functional mapping to neurosurgical patients are still evolving. Functional imaging remains complex and requires an understanding of the underlying physiologic and imaging characteristics. Neurosurgeons must be accustomed to interpreting highly processed data. Successful implementation of functional image-guided procedures requires efficient interactions between neurosurgeon, neurologist, radiologist, neuropsychologist, and others, but promises to enhance the care of patients.

  8. Functional Specialization and Flexibility in Human Association Cortex.

    PubMed

    Yeo, B T Thomas; Krienen, Fenna M; Eickhoff, Simon B; Yaakub, Siti N; Fox, Peter T; Buckner, Randy L; Asplund, Christopher L; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-10-01

    The association cortex supports cognitive functions enabling flexible behavior. Here, we explored the organization of human association cortex by mathematically formalizing the notion that a behavioral task engages multiple cognitive components, which are in turn supported by multiple overlapping brain regions. Application of the model to a large data set of neuroimaging experiments (N = 10 449) identified complex zones of frontal and parietal regions that ranged from being highly specialized to highly flexible. The network organization of the specialized and flexible regions was explored with an independent resting-state fMRI data set (N = 1000). Cortical regions specialized for the same components were strongly coupled, suggesting that components function as partially isolated networks. Functionally flexible regions participated in multiple components to different degrees. This heterogeneous selectivity was predicted by the connectivity between flexible and specialized regions. Functionally flexible regions might support binding or integrating specialized brain networks that, in turn, contribute to the ability to execute multiple and varied tasks.

  9. 12 CFR 220.118 - Time of payment for mutual fund shares purchased in a special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 220.4(c)(3). (b) Section 220.4(c)(2) provides as follows: In case a customer purchases a security... purchased in a special cash account. 220.118 Section 220.118 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... (REGULATION T) Interpretations § 220.118 Time of payment for mutual fund shares purchased in a special...

  10. 17 CFR 21.01 - Special calls for information on controlled accounts from futures commission merchants, clearing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special calls for information... CALLS § 21.01 Special calls for information on controlled accounts from futures commission merchants, clearing members and introducing brokers. Upon call by the Commission, each futures commission...

  11. SNMSP II: A system to fully automate special nuclear materials accountability reporting for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Pareto, V.; Venegas, R.

    1987-07-01

    The USNRC requires each licensee who is authorized to possess Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) to prepare and submit reports concerning SNM received, produced, possessed, transferred, consumed, disposed of, or lost. These SNM accountability reports, which need to be submitted twice a year, contain detailed information on the origin, quantity, and type of SNM for several locations. The amount of detail required makes these reports very time consuming and error prone when prepared manually. Yankee Atomic is developing an IBM PC-based computer code that fully automates the process of generating SNM accountability reports. The program, called SNMSP II, prints a number of summaries including facsimiles of the NRC/DOE-741, 742, 742C, and RW-859 reports in a format that can be submitted directly to the NRC/DOE. SNMSP II is menu-driven and is especially designed for people with little or no computer training. Input can be either from a mainframe-based corporate data base or manually through user-friendly screens. In addition, extensive quality assurance features are available to ensure the security and accuracy of the data. This paper discusses the major features of the code and describes its implementation at Yankee.

  12. Special Relativity via Modified Bessel Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavenda, B. H.

    2000-10-01

    The recursive formulas of modified Bessel functions give the relativistic expressions for energy and momentum. Modified Bessel functions are solutions to a continuous time, one-dimensional discrete jump process. The jump process is analyzed from two inertial frames with a relative constant velocity; the average distance of a particle along the chain corresponds to the distance between two observers in the two inertial frames. The recursion relations of modified Bessel functions are compared to the 'k calculus' which uses the radial Doppler effect to derive relativistic kinematics. The Doppler effect predicts that the frequency is a decreasing function of the velocity, and the Planck frequency, which increases with velocity, does not transform like the frequency of a clock. The Lorentz transformation can be interpreted as energy and momentum conservation relations through the addition formula for hyperbolic cosine and sine, respectively. The addition formula for the hyperbolic tangent gives the well-known relativistic formula for the addition of velocities. In the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic limits the distributions of the particle's position are Gaussian and Poisson, respectively.

  13. Evolution of functional specialization and division of labor.

    PubMed

    Rueffler, Claus; Hermisson, Joachim; Wagner, Günter P

    2012-02-07

    Division of labor among functionally specialized modules occurs at all levels of biological organization in both animals and plants. Well-known examples include the evolution of specialized enzymes after gene duplication, the evolution of specialized cell types, limb diversification in arthropods, and the evolution of specialized colony members in many taxa of marine invertebrates and social insects. Here, we identify conditions favoring the evolution of division of labor by means of a general mathematical model. Our starting point is the assumption that modules contribute to two different biological tasks and that the potential of modules to contribute to these tasks is traded off. Our results are phrased in terms of properties of performance functions that map the phenotype of modules to measures of performance. We show that division of labor is favored by three factors: positional effects that predispose modules for one of the tasks, accelerating performance functions, and synergistic interactions between modules. If modules can be lost or damaged, selection for robustness can counteract selection for functional specialization. To illustrate our theory we apply it to the evolution of specialized enzymes coded by duplicated genes.

  14. 12 CFR 220.118 - Time of payment for mutual fund shares purchased in a special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., the shares of the mutual fund (open-end investment company) are technically not issued at the time... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time of payment for mutual fund shares...) Interpretations § 220.118 Time of payment for mutual fund shares purchased in a special cash account. (a)...

  15. 12 CFR 220.118 - Time of payment for mutual fund shares purchased in a special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., the shares of the mutual fund (open-end investment company) are technically not issued at the time... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time of payment for mutual fund shares...) Interpretations § 220.118 Time of payment for mutual fund shares purchased in a special cash account. (a)...

  16. 12 CFR 220.118 - Time of payment for mutual fund shares purchased in a special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., the shares of the mutual fund (open-end investment company) are technically not issued at the time... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time of payment for mutual fund shares...) Interpretations § 220.118 Time of payment for mutual fund shares purchased in a special cash account. (a)...

  17. 17 CFR 5.20 - Special calls for account and transaction information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... concerning accounts of traders owning or controlling such retail forex transaction positions, as may be... financial interest of ten percent or more in each account; (5) The number of open retail forex...

  18. The Specialization of Function: Cognitive and Neural Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Bradford Z.; Cantlon, Jessica F.

    2014-01-01

    A unifying theme that cuts across all research areas and techniques in the cognitive and brain sciences is whether there is specialization of function at levels of processing that are ‘abstracted away’ from sensory inputs and motor outputs. Any theory that articulates claims about specialization of function in the mind/brain confronts the following types of interrelated questions, each of which carries with it certain theoretical commitments. What methods are appropriate for decomposing complex cognitive and neural processes into their constituent parts? How do cognitive processes map onto neural processes, and at what resolution are they related? What types of conclusions can be drawn about the structure of mind from dissociations observed at the neural level, and vice versa? The contributions that form this Special Issue of Cognitive Neuropsychology represent recent reflections on these and other issues from leading researchers in different areas of the cognitive and brain sciences. PMID:22185234

  19. Preface: Special Topic on Advances in Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Weitao

    2014-05-14

    This Special Topic Issue on the Advances in Density Functional Theory, published as a celebration of the fifty years of density functional theory, contains a retrospective article, a perspective article, and a collection of original research articles that showcase recent theoretical advances in the field. It provides a timely discussion reflecting a cross section of our understanding, and the theoretical and computational developments, which have significant implications in broad areas of sciences and engineering.

  20. New useful special function in quantum optics theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Fan, Hong-Yi

    2016-08-01

    By virtue of the operator Hermite polynomial method [Fan H Y and Zhan D H 2014 Chin. Phys. B 23 060301] we find a new special function which is useful in quantum optics theory, whose expansion involves both power-series and Hermite polynomials, i.e., By virtue of the operator Hermite polynomial method and the technique of integration within ordered product of operators (IWOP) we derive its generating function. The circumstance in which this new special function appears and is applicable is considered. Project supported by the Natural Science Fund of Education Department of Anhui Province, China (Grant No. KJ2016A590), the Talent Foundation of Hefei University, China (Grant No. 15RC11), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11247009 and 11574295).

  1. Colombian ocean waves and coasts modeled by special functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duque Tisnés, Simón

    2013-06-01

    Modeling the ocean bottom and surface of both Atlantic and Pacific Oceans near the Colombian coast is a subject of increasing attention due to the possibility of finding oil deposits that haven't been discovered, and as a way of monitoring the ocean limits of Colombia with other countries not only covering the possibility of naval intrusion but as a chance to detect submarine devices that are used by illegal groups for different unwished purposes. In the development of this topic it would be necessary to use Standard Hydrodynamic Equations to model the mathematical shape of ocean waves that will take differential equations forms. Those differential equations will be solved using computer algebra software and methods. The mentioned solutions will involve the use of Special Functions such as Bessel Functions, Whittaker, Heun, and so on. Using the Special Functions mentioned above, the obtained results will be simulated by numerical methods obtaining the typical patterns around the Colombian coasts (both surface and bottom). Using this simulation as a non-perturbed state, any change in the patter could be taken as an external perturbation caused by a strange body or device in an specific area or region modeled, building this simulation as an ocean radar or an unusual object finder. It's worth mentioning that the use of stronger or more rigorous methods and more advanced Special Functions would generate better theoretical results, building a more accurate simulation model that would lead to a finest detection.

  2. Regional specialization within the human striatum for diverse psychological functions

    PubMed Central

    Pauli, Wolfgang M.; O’Reilly, Randall C.; Wager, Tor D.

    2016-01-01

    Decades of animal and human neuroimaging research have identified distinct, but overlapping, striatal zones, which are interconnected with separable corticostriatal circuits, and are crucial for the organization of functional systems. Despite continuous efforts to subdivide the human striatum based on anatomical and resting-state functional connectivity, characterizing the different psychological processes related to each zone remains a work in progress. Using an unbiased, data-driven approach, we analyzed large-scale coactivation data from 5,809 human imaging studies. We (i) identified five distinct striatal zones that exhibited discrete patterns of coactivation with cortical brain regions across distinct psychological processes and (ii) identified the different psychological processes associated with each zone. We found that the reported pattern of cortical activation reliably predicted which striatal zone was most strongly activated. Critically, activation in each functional zone could be associated with distinct psychological processes directly, rather than inferred indirectly from psychological functions attributed to associated cortices. Consistent with well-established findings, we found an association of the ventral striatum (VS) with reward processing. Confirming less well-established findings, the VS and adjacent anterior caudate were associated with evaluating the value of rewards and actions, respectively. Furthermore, our results confirmed a sometimes overlooked specialization of the posterior caudate nucleus for executive functions, often considered the exclusive domain of frontoparietal cortical circuits. Our findings provide a precise functional map of regional specialization within the human striatum, both in terms of the differential cortical regions and psychological functions associated with each striatal zone. PMID:26831091

  3. Ethical Accountability and Routine Moral Stress in Special Educational Needs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellawell, Beate

    2015-01-01

    This small-scale interview study considers experiences, difficulties and dilemmas of local Special Educational Needs (SEN) professionals such as SEN caseworkers, and examines the neglected ethical dimensions of their role. It argues that fostering "ethical knowledge" (Campbell, 2003), rather than an increase in prescriptive guidance,…

  4. Providing a Helping Hand. Special Report on Standards, Assessment, Accountability, and Interventions. Report #3, Spring 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duttweiler, Patricia Cloud, Ed.

    This series of special reports argues that states must use their newly established, more rigorous standards to (1) provide teachers with the skills and knowledge required to teach to the higher academic standards and (2) provide students with additional opportunities to learn and to achieve the higher standards. This report presents a number of…

  5. Algebraic special functions and SO(3,2)

    SciTech Connect

    Celeghini, E.; Olmo, M.A. del

    2013-06-15

    A ladder structure of operators is presented for the associated Legendre polynomials and the sphericas harmonics. In both cases these operators belong to the irreducible representation of the Lie algebra so(3,2) with quadratic Casimir equals to −5/4. As both are also bases of square-integrable functions, the universal enveloping algebra of so(3,2) is thus shown to be homomorphic to the space of linear operators acting on the L{sup 2} functions defined on (−1,1)×Z and on the sphere S{sup 2}, respectively. The presence of a ladder structure is suggested to be the general condition to obtain a Lie algebra representation defining in this way the “algebraic special functions” that are proposed to be the connection between Lie algebras and square-integrable functions so that the space of linear operators on the L{sup 2} functions is homomorphic to the universal enveloping algebra. The passage to the group, by means of the exponential map, shows that the associated Legendre polynomials and the spherical harmonics support the corresponding unitary irreducible representation of the group SO(3,2). -- Highlights: •The algebraic ladder structure is constructed for the associated Legendre polynomials (ALP). •ALP and spherical harmonics support a unitary irreducible SO(3,2)-representation. •A ladder structure is the condition to get a Lie group representation defining “algebraic special functions”. •The “algebraic special functions” connect Lie algebras and L{sup 2} functions.

  6. Intersections of Accountability and Special Education: The Social Justice Implications of Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Villarreal, Felicia; Nichols, Sharon L.

    2016-01-01

    High-stakes testing accountability has wreaked havoc on America's public schools. Since the passage of NCLB in 2001, virtually every public school student has experienced the pressures of preparing for, practicing, and taking standardized state exams, the results of which have had significant consequences for their schools, teachers, and…

  7. 12 CFR 220.105 - Ninety-day rule in special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... dealer.” The limitation is that during the succeeding 90 days the customer may not purchase a security in... an account subject to the 90-day disqualification: A customer purchases registered security ABC in a... greater than the cost of security ABC. After both sale and purchase have been made, the customer...

  8. 12 CFR 220.105 - Ninety-day rule in special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or dealer.” The limitation is that during the succeeding 90 days the customer may not purchase a... makes an account subject to the 90-day disqualification: A customer purchases registered security ABC in... greater than the cost of security ABC. After both sale and purchase have been made, the customer...

  9. 12 CFR 220.105 - Ninety-day rule in special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... dealer.” The limitation is that during the succeeding 90 days the customer may not purchase a security in... an account subject to the 90-day disqualification: A customer purchases registered security ABC in a... greater than the cost of security ABC. After both sale and purchase have been made, the customer...

  10. 12 CFR 220.105 - Ninety-day rule in special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or dealer.” The limitation is that during the succeeding 90 days the customer may not purchase a... makes an account subject to the 90-day disqualification: A customer purchases registered security ABC in... greater than the cost of security ABC. After both sale and purchase have been made, the customer...

  11. 12 CFR 220.105 - Ninety-day rule in special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... dealer.” The limitation is that during the succeeding 90 days the customer may not purchase a security in... an account subject to the 90-day disqualification: A customer purchases registered security ABC in a... greater than the cost of security ABC. After both sale and purchase have been made, the customer...

  12. From Special Geometry to Black Hole Partition Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohaupt, Thomas

    These notes are based on lectures given at the Erwin-Schrödinger Institute in Vienna in 2006/2007 and at the 2007 School on Attractor Mechanism in Frascati. Lecture I reviews special geometry from the superconformal point of view. Lecture II discusses the black hole attractor mechanism, the underlying variational principle and black hole partition functions. Lecture III applies the formalism introduced in the previous lectures to large and small BPS black holes in N = 4 supergravity. Lecture IV is devoted to the microscopic description of these black holes in N = 4 string compactifications. The lecture notes include problems which allow the readers to develop some of the key ideas by themselves. Appendix A reviews special geometry from the mathematical point of view. Appendix B provides the necessary background in modular forms needed for understanding S-duality and string state counting.

  13. An Embodied Account of Early Executive-Function Development

    PubMed Central

    Gottwald, Janna M.; Achermann, Sheila; Marciszko, Carin; Lindskog, Marcus; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2016-01-01

    The importance of executive functioning for later life outcomes, along with its potential to be positively affected by intervention programs, motivates the need to find early markers of executive functioning. In this study, 18-month-olds performed three executive-function tasks—involving simple inhibition, working memory, and more complex inhibition—and a motion-capture task assessing prospective motor control during reaching. We demonstrated that prospective motor control, as measured by the peak velocity of the first movement unit, is related to infants’ performance on simple-inhibition and working memory tasks. The current study provides evidence that motor control and executive functioning are intertwined early in life, which suggests an embodied perspective on executive-functioning development. We argue that executive functions and prospective motor control develop from a common source and a single motive: to control action. This is the first demonstration that low-level movement planning is related to higher-order executive control early in life. PMID:27765900

  14. The intrinsic quasar luminosity function: Accounting for accretion disk anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Myers, A. D.; Brotherton, M. S.; Runnoe, J. C.; Green, R. F.

    2014-05-20

    Quasar luminosity functions are a fundamental probe of the growth and evolution of supermassive black holes. Measuring the intrinsic luminosity function is difficult in practice, due to a multitude of observational and systematic effects. As sample sizes increase and measurement errors drop, characterizing the systematic effects is becoming more important. It is well known that the continuum emission from the accretion disk of quasars is anisotropic—in part due to its disk-like structure—but current luminosity function calculations effectively assume isotropy over the range of unobscured lines of sight. Here, we provide the first steps in characterizing the effect of random quasar orientations and simple models of anisotropy on observed luminosity functions. We find that the effect of orientation is not insignificant and exceeds other potential corrections such as those from gravitational lensing of foreground structures. We argue that current observational constraints may overestimate the intrinsic luminosity function by as much as a factor of ∼2 on the bright end. This has implications for models of quasars and their role in the universe, such as quasars' contribution to cosmological backgrounds.

  15. Using special functions to model the propagation of airborne diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolaños, Daniela

    2014-06-01

    Some special functions of the mathematical physics are using to obtain a mathematical model of the propagation of airborne diseases. In particular we study the propagation of tuberculosis in closed rooms and we model the propagation using the error function and the Bessel function. In the model, infected individual emit pathogens to the environment and this infect others individuals who absorb it. The evolution in time of the concentration of pathogens in the environment is computed in terms of error functions. The evolution in time of the number of susceptible individuals is expressed by a differential equation that contains the error function and it is solved numerically for different parametric simulations. The evolution in time of the number of infected individuals is plotted for each numerical simulation. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of the pathogen around the source of infection is represented by the Bessel function K0. The spatial and temporal distribution of the number of infected individuals is computed and plotted for some numerical simulations. All computations were made using software Computer algebra, specifically Maple. It is expected that the analytical results that we obtained allow the design of treatment rooms and ventilation systems that reduce the risk of spread of tuberculosis.

  16. Accounting for a Functional Category: German "Drohen" "to Threaten"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heine, Bernd; Miyashita, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    In many languages there are words that behave like lexical verbs and on the one hand and like functional categories expressing distinctions of tense, aspect, modality, etc. on the other. The grammatical status of such words is frequently controversial; while some authors treat them as belonging to one and the same grammatical category, others…

  17. Functional specializations for music processing in the human newborn brain.

    PubMed

    Perani, Daniela; Saccuman, Maria Cristina; Scifo, Paola; Spada, Danilo; Andreolli, Guido; Rovelli, Rosanna; Baldoli, Cristina; Koelsch, Stefan

    2010-03-09

    In adults, specific neural systems with right-hemispheric weighting are necessary to process pitch, melody, and harmony as well as structure and meaning emerging from musical sequences. It is not known to what extent the specialization of these systems results from long-term exposure to music or from neurobiological constraints. One way to address this question is to examine how these systems function at birth, when auditory experience is minimal. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 1- to 3-day-old newborns while they heard excerpts of Western tonal music and altered versions of the same excerpts. Altered versions either included changes of the tonal key or were permanently dissonant. Music evoked predominantly right-hemispheric activations in primary and higher order auditory cortex. During presentation of the altered excerpts, hemodynamic responses were significantly reduced in the right auditory cortex, and activations emerged in the left inferior frontal cortex and limbic structures. These results demonstrate that the infant brain shows a hemispheric specialization in processing music as early as the first postnatal hours. Results also indicate that the neural architecture underlying music processing in newborns is sensitive to changes in tonal key as well as to differences in consonance and dissonance.

  18. Functional specialization of parallel motion detection circuits in the fly.

    PubMed

    Joesch, Maximilian; Weber, Franz; Eichner, Hubert; Borst, Alexander

    2013-01-16

    In the fly Drosophila melanogaster, photoreceptor input to motion vision is split into two parallel pathways as represented by first-order interneurons L1 and L2 (Rister et al., 2007; Joesch et al., 2010). However, how these pathways are functionally specialized remains controversial. One study (Eichner et al., 2011) proposed that the L1-pathway evaluates only sequences of brightness increments (ON-ON), while the L2-pathway processes exclusively brightness decrements (OFF-OFF). Another study (Clark et al., 2011) proposed that each of the two pathways evaluates both ON-ON and OFF-OFF sequences. To decide between these alternatives, we recorded from motion-sensitive neurons in flies in which the output from either L1 or L2 was genetically blocked. We found that blocking L1 abolishes ON-ON responses but leaves OFF-OFF responses intact. The opposite was true, when the output from L2 was blocked. We conclude that the L1 and L2 pathways are functionally specialized to detect ON-ON and OFF-OFF sequences, respectively.

  19. How special is the biochemical function of native proteins?

    PubMed

    Skolnick, Jeffrey; Gao, Mu; Zhou, Hongyi

    2016-01-01

    Native proteins perform an amazing variety of biochemical functions, including enzymatic catalysis, and can engage in protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions that are essential for life. A key question is how special are these functional properties of proteins. Are they extremely rare, or are they an intrinsic feature? Comparison to the properties of compact conformations of artificially generated compact protein structures selected for thermodynamic stability but not any type of function, the artificial (ART) protein library, demonstrates that a remarkable number of the properties of native-like proteins are recapitulated. These include the complete set of small molecule ligand-binding pockets and most protein-protein interfaces. ART structures are predicted to be capable of weakly binding metabolites and cover a significant fraction of metabolic pathways, with the most enriched pathways including ancient ones such as glycolysis. Native-like active sites are also found in ART proteins. A small fraction of ART proteins are predicted to have strong protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. Overall, it appears that biochemical function is an intrinsic feature of proteins which nature has significantly optimized during evolution. These studies raise questions as to the relative roles of specificity and promiscuity in the biochemical function and control of cells that need investigation.

  20. [Hemispheric functional specialization and anxiety. Focus on an evaluation procedure].

    PubMed

    Perier, N; Boulenger, J P; Eustache, F; Bisserbe, J C; Lebreuilly, J; Zarifian, E

    1992-01-01

    Observations of brain-lesioned patients and experimental psychology studies have shown that the influence of the specific functioning of the two hemispheres of the brain on the regulation of emotional behaviour appears to be unequal and suggests a functional specialization of the right hemisphere for the expression and comprehension of the affective components of behaviour. However, the extension of this hypothesis to include all emotional experiences remains controversial. The observed superiority of the left hemisphere in the perception of positive emotions and the predominance of the right hemisphere in the treatment of negative emotions would appear to favour a joint and complementary participation of both cerebral hemispheres in emotional experiences. In the case of affective disorders, and particularly in anxiety symptoms, the hypothesis of a dysfunctioning of the right hemisphere is similarly questioned: while all metabolic studies corroborate this hypothesis, experimental psychological studies suggest the existence of a preferential involvement of one or the other hemisphere in relation to individual differences such as the "trait" anxiety score. Moreover, the few studies which have been undertaken with healthy volunteers raise the problem of their extrapolation to pathological situations. In view of the potential interest in the neuropsychological evaluations of subjects with different forms of pathological anxiety, we have developed an experimented with two tests aimed at evaluating the differential activity of the two hemispheres of the brain. These two tests, constructed on a "mirror-image" model from the specifications of a functional hemispheric specialization, are supposed to involve cognitive strategies pinpointing preferentially one hemisphere or the other.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Special not different: general practitioners' accounts of their care of dying people.

    PubMed

    Field, D

    1998-05-01

    In modern Britain the majority of terminal care occurs in people's own homes and many dying people and their carers would prefer the death itself to occur in the home. The quality of terminal care in the home and the possibility of a home death depend to a great extent upon the care provided by GPs and community nurses. This paper reports on GPs' experiences of caring for dying people and their attitudes towards such work. It is based on unstructured interviews with 25 GPs who graduated from the 1979 entry cohort to the University of Leicester medical school. The respondents were recruited via a questionnaire following up previous research with this cohort on 'fear of death'. Although self-selecting, interviewees were not significantly different from those who did not volunteer for interview in any of the statistical analyses of the questionnaire data. There were a number of similarities in their accounts of their care of dying people. Common themes were that the care of dying people was important, rewarding and satisfying; that the GPs saw themselves as part of a team of carers, frequently as team co-ordinators; good working relationships with district nurses but less satisfactory relationships with hospitals and social workers; that patient and family were both recipients of care; and honesty in communication with dying people, albeit tempered. Three issues of contemporary relevance were: tensions over the role of hospice and specialist terminal care services; care of people with chronic terminal illnesses other than cancer; and the role of GPs in the social construction of bereavement.

  2. The anatomical and functional specialization of the fusiform gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Kevin S.; Zilles, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The fusiform gyrus (FG) is commonly included in anatomical atlases and is considered a key structure for functionally-specialized computations of high-level vision such as face perception, object recognition, and reading. However, it is not widely known that the FG has a contentious history. In this review, we first provide a historical analysis of the discovery of the FG and why certain features, such as the mid-fusiform sulcus, were discovered and then forgotten. We then discuss how observer-independent methods for identifying cytoarchitectonical boundaries of the cortex revolutionized our understanding of cytoarchitecture and the correspondence between those boundaries and cortical folding patterns of the FG. We further explain that the co-occurrence between cortical folding patterns and cytoarchitectonical boundaries are more common than classically thought and also, are functionally meaningful especially on the FG and probably in high-level visual cortex more generally. We conclude by proposing a series of alternatives for how the anatomical organization of the FG can accommodate seemingly different theoretical aspects of functional processing, such as domain specificity and perceptual expertise. PMID:26119921

  3. Multi-region hemispheric specialization differentiates human from nonhuman primate brain function.

    PubMed

    Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Phillips, Kimberley A; McKay, D Reese; Laird, Angela R; Kochunov, Peter; Davis, M Duff; Glahn, David C; Blangero, John; Duong, Timothy Q; Fox, Peter T

    2014-11-01

    The human behavioral repertoire greatly exceeds that of nonhuman primates. Anatomical specializations of the human brain include an enlarged neocortex and prefrontal cortex (Semendeferi et al. in Am J Phys Anthropol 114:224-241, 2001), but regional enlargements alone cannot account for these vast functional differences. Hemispheric specialization has long believed to be a major contributing factor to such distinctive human characteristics as motor dominance, attentional control and language. Yet structural cerebral asymmetries, documented in both humans and some nonhuman primate species, are relatively minor compared to behavioral lateralization. Identifying the mechanisms that underlie these functional differences remains a goal of considerable interest. Here, we investigate the intrinsic connectivity networks in four primate species (humans, chimpanzees, baboons, and capuchin monkeys) using resting-state fMRI to evaluate the intra- and inter- hemispheric coherences of spontaneous BOLD fluctuation. All three nonhuman primate species displayed lateralized functional networks that were strikingly similar to those observed in humans. However, only humans had multi-region lateralized networks, which provide fronto-parietal connectivity. Our results indicate that this pattern of within-hemisphere connectivity distinguishes humans from nonhuman primates.

  4. Perceptual learning modifies the functional specializations of visual cortical areas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nihong; Cai, Peng; Zhou, Tiangang; Thompson, Benjamin; Fang, Fang

    2016-05-17

    Training can improve performance of perceptual tasks. This phenomenon, known as perceptual learning, is strongest for the trained task and stimulus, leading to a widely accepted assumption that the associated neuronal plasticity is restricted to brain circuits that mediate performance of the trained task. Nevertheless, learning does transfer to other tasks and stimuli, implying the presence of more widespread plasticity. Here, we trained human subjects to discriminate the direction of coherent motion stimuli. The behavioral learning effect substantially transferred to noisy motion stimuli. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the transfer of learning. The TMS experiment revealed dissociable, causal contributions of V3A (one of the visual areas in the extrastriate visual cortex) and MT+ (middle temporal/medial superior temporal cortex) to coherent and noisy motion processing. Surprisingly, the contribution of MT+ to noisy motion processing was replaced by V3A after perceptual training. The fMRI experiment complemented and corroborated the TMS finding. Multivariate pattern analysis showed that, before training, among visual cortical areas, coherent and noisy motion was decoded most accurately in V3A and MT+, respectively. After training, both kinds of motion were decoded most accurately in V3A. Our findings demonstrate that the effects of perceptual learning extend far beyond the retuning of specific neural populations for the trained stimuli. Learning could dramatically modify the inherent functional specializations of visual cortical areas and dynamically reweight their contributions to perceptual decisions based on their representational qualities. These neural changes might serve as the neural substrate for the transfer of perceptual learning.

  5. Perceptual learning modifies the functional specializations of visual cortical areas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nihong; Cai, Peng; Zhou, Tiangang; Thompson, Benjamin; Fang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Training can improve performance of perceptual tasks. This phenomenon, known as perceptual learning, is strongest for the trained task and stimulus, leading to a widely accepted assumption that the associated neuronal plasticity is restricted to brain circuits that mediate performance of the trained task. Nevertheless, learning does transfer to other tasks and stimuli, implying the presence of more widespread plasticity. Here, we trained human subjects to discriminate the direction of coherent motion stimuli. The behavioral learning effect substantially transferred to noisy motion stimuli. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the transfer of learning. The TMS experiment revealed dissociable, causal contributions of V3A (one of the visual areas in the extrastriate visual cortex) and MT+ (middle temporal/medial superior temporal cortex) to coherent and noisy motion processing. Surprisingly, the contribution of MT+ to noisy motion processing was replaced by V3A after perceptual training. The fMRI experiment complemented and corroborated the TMS finding. Multivariate pattern analysis showed that, before training, among visual cortical areas, coherent and noisy motion was decoded most accurately in V3A and MT+, respectively. After training, both kinds of motion were decoded most accurately in V3A. Our findings demonstrate that the effects of perceptual learning extend far beyond the retuning of specific neural populations for the trained stimuli. Learning could dramatically modify the inherent functional specializations of visual cortical areas and dynamically reweight their contributions to perceptual decisions based on their representational qualities. These neural changes might serve as the neural substrate for the transfer of perceptual learning. PMID:27051066

  6. 17 CFR 21.02 - Special calls for information on open contracts in accounts carried or introduced by futures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special calls for information... Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SPECIAL CALLS § 21.02 Special calls for information..., members of reporting markets, introducing brokers, and foreign brokers. Upon special call by...

  7. Special functions associated with SU(3) Wigner-Clebsch-Gordan coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Louck, J.D.; Biedenharn, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Wigner-Clebsch-Gordan (WCG) coefficients of the unitary groups are a rich source of multivariable special functions. The general algebraic setting of these coefficients is reviewed and several special functions associated with the SU(3) WCG coefficients defined and their properties presented. 29 refs.

  8. Functional Curriculum for Elementary, Middle, and Secondary Age Students with Special Needs. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehman, Paul; Kregel, John

    2004-01-01

    The second edition of Functional Curriculum for Elementary, Middle, and Secondary Age Students with Special Needs has an expanded framework for a functional and longitudinal curriculum for children and adolescents with disabilities and other special needs. These is a stronger demand than ever to provide a curriculum with everyday usefulness and…

  9. Transparency & Accountability: An Evaluation of the VSA College Portrait Pilot. A Special Report from the National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment for the Voluntary System of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankowski, Natasha A.; Ikenberry, Stanley O.; Kinzie, Jillian; Kuh, George D.; Shenoy, Gloria F.; Baker, Gianina R.

    2012-01-01

    The Voluntary System of Accountability (VSA) is a vehicle for public four-year universities to report comparable information about the undergraduate student experience via the College Portrait, a common web reporting template. The National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment (NILOA) was asked by the VSA to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  10. "Pussy Cat, Pussy Cat, Where Have You Been?" An Account of Intensive Psychotherapy with a Seven-Year-Old Boy in a Special School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Kate

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives an account of the developments in the intensive psychotherapy of a seven-year-old boy with global development delay. It also describes the adaptations to technique and the changes in the setting that were required to support the work, which was undertaken in a special school. The importance of the regularity of sessions in helping…

  11. 17 CFR 21.02 - Special calls for information on open contracts in accounts carried or introduced by futures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... furnish to the Commission the following information concerning accounts of traders owning or controlling... controls the trading of each account; (e) The name and address of any person having a financial interest...

  12. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and maintain a measurement system which assures that all quantities in the material accounting records...) In each inventory period, control total material control and accounting measurement uncertainty so... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for...

  13. 45 CFR 302.20 - Separation of cash handling and accounting functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separation of cash handling and accounting functions. 302.20 Section 302.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.20 Separation of cash handling...

  14. 45 CFR 302.20 - Separation of cash handling and accounting functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Separation of cash handling and accounting functions. 302.20 Section 302.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.20 Separation of cash handling...

  15. Computational principles of syntax in the regions specialized for language: integrating theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Shinri; Fukui, Naoki; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of computational principles of syntax remains to be elucidated. One promising approach to this problem would be to construct formal and abstract linguistic models that parametrically predict the activation modulations in the regions specialized for linguistic processes. In this article, we review recent advances in theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging in the following respects. First, we introduce the two fundamental linguistic operations: Merge (which combines two words or phrases to form a larger structure) and Search (which searches and establishes a syntactic relation of two words or phrases). We also illustrate certain universal properties of human language, and present hypotheses regarding how sentence structures are processed in the brain. Hypothesis I is that the Degree of Merger (DoM), i.e., the maximum depth of merged subtrees within a given domain, is a key computational concept to properly measure the complexity of tree structures. Hypothesis II is that the basic frame of the syntactic structure of a given linguistic expression is determined essentially by functional elements, which trigger Merge and Search. We then present our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, demonstrating that the DoM is indeed a key syntactic factor that accounts for syntax-selective activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Hypothesis III is that the DoM domain changes dynamically in accordance with iterative Merge applications, the Search distances, and/or task requirements. We confirm that the DoM accounts for activations in various sentence types. Hypothesis III successfully explains activation differences between object- and subject-relative clauses, as well as activations during explicit syntactic judgment tasks. A future research on the computational principles of syntax will further deepen our understanding of uniquely human mental faculties. PMID:24385957

  16. Computational principles of syntax in the regions specialized for language: integrating theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Shinri; Fukui, Naoki; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2013-01-01

    The nature of computational principles of syntax remains to be elucidated. One promising approach to this problem would be to construct formal and abstract linguistic models that parametrically predict the activation modulations in the regions specialized for linguistic processes. In this article, we review recent advances in theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging in the following respects. First, we introduce the two fundamental linguistic operations: Merge (which combines two words or phrases to form a larger structure) and Search (which searches and establishes a syntactic relation of two words or phrases). We also illustrate certain universal properties of human language, and present hypotheses regarding how sentence structures are processed in the brain. Hypothesis I is that the Degree of Merger (DoM), i.e., the maximum depth of merged subtrees within a given domain, is a key computational concept to properly measure the complexity of tree structures. Hypothesis II is that the basic frame of the syntactic structure of a given linguistic expression is determined essentially by functional elements, which trigger Merge and Search. We then present our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, demonstrating that the DoM is indeed a key syntactic factor that accounts for syntax-selective activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Hypothesis III is that the DoM domain changes dynamically in accordance with iterative Merge applications, the Search distances, and/or task requirements. We confirm that the DoM accounts for activations in various sentence types. Hypothesis III successfully explains activation differences between object- and subject-relative clauses, as well as activations during explicit syntactic judgment tasks. A future research on the computational principles of syntax will further deepen our understanding of uniquely human mental faculties.

  17. Accounting for Special Revenue Sharing Grants. A Human Resource Management Course Monograph. No. 2 in a Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Sanford C.

    A training course to introduce students to the problems and accounting methods for Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) programs should consider four major areas. Within these areas certain objectives should be met: (1) to acquire background knowledge on manpower programs and typical fund accounting procedures, (2) to understand the…

  18. On topological field theory representation of higher analogs of classical special functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, Anton A.; Lebedev, Dimitri R.

    2011-09-01

    Looking for a quantum field theory model of Archimedean algebraic geometry a class of infinite-dimensional integral representations of classical special functions was introduced. Precisely the special functions such as Whittaker functions and Γ-function were identified with correlation functions in topological field theories on a two-dimensional disk. Mirror symmetry of the underlying topological field theory leads to a dual finite-dimensional integral representations reproducing classical integral representations for the corresponding special functions. The mirror symmetry interchanging infinite- and finite-dimensional integral representations provides an incarnation of the local Archimedean Langlands duality on the level of classical special functions. In this note we provide some directions to higher-dimensional generalizations of our previous results. In the first part we consider topological field theory representations of multiple local L-factors introduced by Kurokawa and expressed through multiple Barnes's Γ-functions. In the second part we are dealing with generalizations based on consideration of topological Yang-Mills theories on non-compact four-dimensional manifolds. Presumably, in analogy with the mirror duality in two-dimensions, S-dual description should be instrumental for deriving integral representations for a particular class of quantum field theory correlation functions and thus providing a new interesting class of special functions supplied with canonical integral representations.

  19. Sex Differences in the Association of Cerebral Hemispheric Specialization of Spatial Function with Conservation Task Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affleck, Glenn; Joyce, Patricia

    1979-01-01

    The association of locus of cerebral hemispheric specialization of spatial function with identity and equivalence conservation judgments was tested in a group of four- to six-year-old right-handed children (N=31). (Author/MP)

  20. A Density Functional That Accounts for Medium-Range Correlation Energies in Organic Chemistry (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-03

    previous functionals. A related example, in particular a case of DFT failing to account for stereoelectronic effects, was provided by Schreiner et...8, 3631. (4) Schreiner , P. R.; Fokin, A. A.; Pascal Jr., R. A.; de Meijere, A. Org. Lett. 2006, 8, 3635. (5) Perdew, J. P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof...M. Phys. Rev. Lett 1996, 77, 3865. (6) Staroverov, V. N.; Scuseria, G. E.; Tao , J.; Perdew, J. P. J. Chem. Phys. 2003, 119, 12129. (7) Becke, A

  1. Functional Specialization of Olfactory Glomeruli in a Moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, Bill S.; Ljungberg, Hakan; Hallberg, Eric; Lofstedt, Christer

    1992-05-01

    The specific function of the glomerular structures present in the antennal lobes or olfactory bulbs of organisms ranging from insects to humans has been obscure because of limitations in neuronal marking methods. By tracing individual neurons in the moth Agrotis segetum, it was determined that physiologically distinct types of pheromone receptor neurons project axons to different regions of the macroglomerular complex (MGC). Each glomerulus making up the MGC has a specific functional identity, initially processing information about one specific pheromone component. This indicates that, at least through the first stage of synapses, olfactory information moves through labeled lines.

  2. Specialized Color Function for Display of Signed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalb, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    This Mathematica script defines a color function to be used with Mathematica's plotting modules for differentiating data attaining both positive and negative values. Positive values are shown as shades of blue, and negative values are shown in red. The intensity of the color reflects the absolute value of the data value.

  3. Acceptability of Functional Behavioral Assessment Procedures to Special Educators and School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Robert E.; Bundock, Kaitlin; Kladis, Kristin; Hawken, Leanne S.

    2015-01-01

    This survey study assessed the acceptability of a variety of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures (i.e., functional assessment interviews, rating scales/questionnaires, systematic direct observations, functional analysis manipulations) to a national sample of 123 special educators and a state sample of 140 school psychologists.…

  4. Functional specialization of chordate CDK1 paralogs during oogenic meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Øvrebø, Jan Inge; Campsteijn, Coen; Kourtesis, Ioannis; Hausen, Harald; Raasholm, Martina; Thompson, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are central regulators of eukaryotic cell cycle progression. In contrast to interphase CDKs, the mitotic phase CDK1 is the only CDK capable of driving the entire cell cycle and it can do so from yeast to mammals. Interestingly, plants and the marine chordate, Oikopleura dioica, possess paralogs of the highly conserved CDK1 regulator. However, whereas in plants the 2 CDK1 paralogs replace interphase CDK functions, O. dioica has a full complement of interphase CDKs in addition to its 5 odCDK1 paralogs. Here we show specific sub-functionalization of odCDK1 paralogs during oogenesis. Differential spatiotemporal dynamics of the odCDK1a, d and e paralogs and the meiotic polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) and aurora kinase determine the subset of meiotic nuclei in prophase I arrest that will seed growing oocytes and complete meiosis. Whereas we find odCDK1e to be non-essential, knockdown of the odCDK1a paralog resulted in the spawning of non-viable oocytes of reduced size. Knockdown of odCDK1d also resulted in the spawning of non-viable oocytes. In this case, the oocytes were of normal size, but were unable to extrude polar bodies upon exposure to sperm, because they were unable to resume meiosis from prophase I arrest, a classical function of the sole CDK1 during meiosis in other organisms. Thus, we reveal specific sub-functionalization of CDK1 paralogs, during the meiotic oogenic program. PMID:25714331

  5. 12 CFR 220.118 - Time of payment for mutual fund shares purchased in a special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., the shares of the mutual fund (open-end investment company) are technically not issued at the time... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Time of payment for mutual fund shares... (REGULATION T) Interpretations § 220.118 Time of payment for mutual fund shares purchased in a special...

  6. Patterns of coordinated cortical remodeling during adolescence and their associations with functional specialization and evolutionary expansion.

    PubMed

    Sotiras, Aristeidis; Toledo, Jon B; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Davatzikos, Christos

    2017-03-13

    During adolescence, the human cortex undergoes substantial remodeling to support a rapid expansion of behavioral repertoire. Accurately quantifying these changes is a prerequisite for understanding normal brain development, as well as the neuropsychiatric disorders that emerge in this vulnerable period. Past accounts have demonstrated substantial regional heterogeneity in patterns of brain development, but frequently have been limited by small samples and analytics that do not evaluate complex multivariate imaging patterns. Capitalizing on recent advances in multivariate analysis methods, we used nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) to uncover coordinated patterns of cortical development in a sample of 934 youths ages 8-20, who completed structural neuroimaging as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort. Patterns of structural covariance (PSCs) derived by NMF were highly reproducible over a range of resolutions, and differed markedly from common gyral-based structural atlases. Moreover, PSCs were largely symmetric and showed correspondence to specific large-scale functional networks. The level of correspondence was ordered according to their functional role and position in the evolutionary hierarchy, being high in lower-order visual and somatomotor networks and diminishing in higher-order association cortex. Furthermore, PSCs showed divergent developmental associations, with PSCs in higher-order association cortex networks showing greater changes with age than primary somatomotor and visual networks. Critically, such developmental changes within PSCs were significantly associated with the degree of evolutionary cortical expansion. Together, our findings delineate a set of structural brain networks that undergo coordinated cortical thinning during adolescence, which is in part governed by evolutionary novelty and functional specialization.

  7. Functional genomics reveals that a compact terpene synthase gene family can account for terpene volatile production in apple.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J; Green, Sol A; Chen, Xiuyin; Bailleul, Estelle J D; Matich, Adam J; Wang, Mindy Y; Atkinson, Ross G

    2013-02-01

    Terpenes are specialized plant metabolites that act as attractants to pollinators and as defensive compounds against pathogens and herbivores, but they also play an important role in determining the quality of horticultural food products. We show that the genome of cultivated apple (Malus domestica) contains 55 putative terpene synthase (TPS) genes, of which only 10 are predicted to be functional. This low number of predicted functional TPS genes compared with other plant species was supported by the identification of only eight potentially functional TPS enzymes in apple 'Royal Gala' expressed sequence tag databases, including the previously characterized apple (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase. In planta functional characterization of these TPS enzymes showed that they could account for the majority of terpene volatiles produced in cv Royal Gala, including the sesquiterpenes germacrene-D and (E)-β-caryophyllene, the monoterpenes linalool and α-pinene, and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Relative expression analysis of the TPS genes indicated that floral and vegetative tissues were the primary sites of terpene production in cv Royal Gala. However, production of cv Royal Gala floral-specific terpenes and TPS genes was observed in the fruit of some heritage apple cultivars. Our results suggest that the apple TPS gene family has been shaped by a combination of ancestral and more recent genome-wide duplication events. The relatively small number of functional enzymes suggests that the remaining terpenes produced in floral and vegetative and fruit tissues are maintained under a positive selective pressure, while the small number of terpenes found in the fruit of modern cultivars may be related to commercial breeding strategies.

  8. Functional Genomics Reveals That a Compact Terpene Synthase Gene Family Can Account for Terpene Volatile Production in Apple1[W

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J.; Green, Sol A.; Chen, Xiuyin; Bailleul, Estelle J.D.; Matich, Adam J.; Wang, Mindy Y.; Atkinson, Ross G.

    2013-01-01

    Terpenes are specialized plant metabolites that act as attractants to pollinators and as defensive compounds against pathogens and herbivores, but they also play an important role in determining the quality of horticultural food products. We show that the genome of cultivated apple (Malus domestica) contains 55 putative terpene synthase (TPS) genes, of which only 10 are predicted to be functional. This low number of predicted functional TPS genes compared with other plant species was supported by the identification of only eight potentially functional TPS enzymes in apple ‘Royal Gala’ expressed sequence tag databases, including the previously characterized apple (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase. In planta functional characterization of these TPS enzymes showed that they could account for the majority of terpene volatiles produced in cv Royal Gala, including the sesquiterpenes germacrene-D and (E)-β-caryophyllene, the monoterpenes linalool and α-pinene, and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Relative expression analysis of the TPS genes indicated that floral and vegetative tissues were the primary sites of terpene production in cv Royal Gala. However, production of cv Royal Gala floral-specific terpenes and TPS genes was observed in the fruit of some heritage apple cultivars. Our results suggest that the apple TPS gene family has been shaped by a combination of ancestral and more recent genome-wide duplication events. The relatively small number of functional enzymes suggests that the remaining terpenes produced in floral and vegetative and fruit tissues are maintained under a positive selective pressure, while the small number of terpenes found in the fruit of modern cultivars may be related to commercial breeding strategies. PMID:23256150

  9. Mapping functional brain development: Building a social brain through interactive specialization.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark H; Grossmann, Tobias; Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin

    2009-01-01

    The authors review a viewpoint on human functional brain development, interactive specialization (IS), and its application to the emerging network of cortical regions referred to as the social brain. They advance the IS view in 2 new ways. First, they extend IS into a domain to which it has not previously been applied--the emergence of social cognition and mentalizing computations in the brain. Second, they extend the implications of the IS view from the emergence of specialized functions within a cortical region to a focus on how different cortical regions with complementary functions become orchestrated into networks during human postnatal development.

  10. Turkish Special Education Teachers' Implementation of Functional Analysis in Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbas, Dilek; Yucesoy, Serife; Turan, Yasemin; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2006-01-01

    Three Turkish special education teachers conducted a functional analysis to identify variables that might initiate or maintain the problem behaviors of three children with developmental disabilities. The analysis procedures were conducted in natural classroom settings. In Phase 1, following initial training in functional analysis procedures, the…

  11. Training Public School Special Educators to Implement Two Functional Analysis Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispoli, Mandy; Neely, Leslie; Healy, Olive; Gregori, Emily

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and efficiency of a training package to teach public school special educators to conduct functional analyses of challenging behavior. Six public school educators were divided into two cohorts of three and were taught two models of functional analysis of challenging behavior: traditional and…

  12. Do attachment patterns predict aggression in a context of social rejection? An executive functioning account.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuanxiao; Ma, Haijing; Chen, Xu; Ran, Guangming; Zhang, Xing

    2017-02-07

    People tend to respond to rejection and attack with aggression. The present research examined the modulation role of attachment patterns on provoked aggression following punishment and proposed an executive functioning account of attachment patterns' modulating influence based on the General Aggression Model. Attachment style was measured using the Experiences in Close Relationships inventory. Experiments 1a and b and 2 adopted a social rejection task and assessed subsequent unprovoked and provoked aggression with different attachment patterns. Moreover, Experiment 1b and 2 used a Stroop task to examine whether differences in provoked aggression by attachment patterns are due to the amount of executive functioning following social rejection, or after unprovoked punishment, or even before social rejection. Anxiously attached participants displayed significant more provoked aggression than securely and avoidantly attached participants in provoked aggression following unprovoked punishment in Experiments 1 and 2. Meanwhile, subsequent Stroop tests indicated anxiously attached participants experienced more executive functioning depletion after social rejection and unprovoked aggression. The present findings support the General Aggression Model and suggest that provoked aggression is predicted by attachment patterns in the context of social rejection; different provoked aggression may depend on the degree of executive functioning that individuals preserved in aggressive situations. The current study contributes to our understanding of the importance of the role of attachment patterns in modulating aggressive behavior accompanying unfair social encounters.

  13. Morphology predicts species' functional roles and their degree of specialization in plant–frugivore interactions

    PubMed Central

    Dehling, D. Matthias; Schaefer, H. Martin; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Schleuning, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Species' functional roles in key ecosystem processes such as predation, pollination or seed dispersal are determined by the resource use of consumer species. An interaction between resource and consumer species usually requires trait matching (e.g. a congruence in the morphologies of interaction partners). Species' morphology should therefore determine species' functional roles in ecological processes mediated by mutualistic or antagonistic interactions. We tested this assumption for Neotropical plant–bird mutualisms. We used a new analytical framework that assesses a species's functional role based on the analysis of the traits of its interaction partners in a multidimensional trait space. We employed this framework to test (i) whether there is correspondence between the morphology of bird species and their functional roles and (ii) whether morphologically specialized birds fulfil specialized functional roles. We found that morphological differences between bird species reflected their functional differences: (i) bird species with different morphologies foraged on distinct sets of plant species and (ii) morphologically distinct bird species fulfilled specialized functional roles. These findings encourage further assessments of species' functional roles through the analysis of their interaction partners, and the proposed analytical framework facilitates a wide range of novel analyses for network and community ecology. PMID:26817779

  14. The Functionality of Spontaneous Mimicry and Its Influences on Affiliation: An Implicit Socialization Account.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Liam C; Winkielman, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    There is a broad theoretical and empirical interest in spontaneous mimicry, or the automatic reproduction of a model's behavior. Evidence shows that people mimic models they like, and that mimicry enhances liking for the mimic. Yet, there is no satisfactory account of this phenomenon, especially in terms of its functional significance. While affiliation is often cited as the driver of mimicry, we argue that mimicry is primarily driven by a learning process that helps to produce the appropriate bodily and emotional responses to relevant social situations. Because the learning process and the resulting knowledge is implicit, it cannot easily be rejected, criticized, revised, and employed by the learner in a deliberative or deceptive manner. We argue that these characteristics will lead individuals to preferentially mimic ingroup members, whose implicit information is worth incorporating. Conversely, mimicry of the wrong person is costly because individuals will internalize "bad habits," including emotional reactions and mannerisms indicating wrong group membership. This pattern of mimicry, in turn, means that observed mimicry is an honest signal of group affiliation. We propose that the preferences of models for the mimic stems from this true signal value. Further, just like facial expressions, mimicry communicates a genuine disposition when it is truly spontaneous. Consequently, perceivers are attuned to relevant cues such as appropriate timing, fidelity, and selectivity. Our account, while assuming no previously unknown biological endowments, also explains greater mimicry of powerful people, and why affiliation can be signaled by mimicry of seemingly inconsequential behaviors.

  15. The Functionality of Spontaneous Mimicry and Its Influences on Affiliation: An Implicit Socialization Account

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, Liam C.; Winkielman, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    There is a broad theoretical and empirical interest in spontaneous mimicry, or the automatic reproduction of a model’s behavior. Evidence shows that people mimic models they like, and that mimicry enhances liking for the mimic. Yet, there is no satisfactory account of this phenomenon, especially in terms of its functional significance. While affiliation is often cited as the driver of mimicry, we argue that mimicry is primarily driven by a learning process that helps to produce the appropriate bodily and emotional responses to relevant social situations. Because the learning process and the resulting knowledge is implicit, it cannot easily be rejected, criticized, revised, and employed by the learner in a deliberative or deceptive manner. We argue that these characteristics will lead individuals to preferentially mimic ingroup members, whose implicit information is worth incorporating. Conversely, mimicry of the wrong person is costly because individuals will internalize “bad habits,” including emotional reactions and mannerisms indicating wrong group membership. This pattern of mimicry, in turn, means that observed mimicry is an honest signal of group affiliation. We propose that the preferences of models for the mimic stems from this true signal value. Further, just like facial expressions, mimicry communicates a genuine disposition when it is truly spontaneous. Consequently, perceivers are attuned to relevant cues such as appropriate timing, fidelity, and selectivity. Our account, while assuming no previously unknown biological endowments, also explains greater mimicry of powerful people, and why affiliation can be signaled by mimicry of seemingly inconsequential behaviors. PMID:27064398

  16. 78 FR 36084 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Function and Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... introductory material also stated the service test requirement was removed for airplanes of 6,000 pounds... Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing; Withdrawal AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... notice granting special conditions for the Cirrus Design Corporation model SF50 airplane. We...

  17. Mapping Functional Brain Development: Building a Social Brain through Interactive Specialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark H.; Grossmann, Tobias; Kadosh, Kathrin Cohen

    2009-01-01

    The authors review a viewpoint on human functional brain development, interactive specialization (IS), and its application to the emerging network of cortical regions referred to as the "social brain." They advance the IS view in 2 new ways. First, they extend IS into a domain to which it has not previously been applied--the emergence of social…

  18. Biodiversity, ecosystem functions and services in environmental risk assessment: introduction to the special issue.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Ralf B

    2012-01-15

    This Special Issue focuses on the questions if and how biodiversity, ecosystem functions and resulting services could be incorporated into the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA). Therefore, three articles provide a framework for the integration of ecosystem services into ERA of soils, sediments and pesticides. Further articles demonstrate ways how stakeholders can be integrated into an ecosystem service-based ERA for soils and describe how the current monitoring could be adapted to new assessment endpoints that are directly linked to ecosystem services. Case studies show that the current ERA may not be protective for biodiversity, ecosystem functions and resulting services and that both pesticides and salinity currently adversely affect ecosystem functions in the field. Moreover, ecological models can be used for prediction of new protection goals and could finally support their implementation into the ERA. Overall, the Special Issue stresses the urgent need to enhance current procedures of ERA if biodiversity, ecosystem functions and resulting services are to be protected.

  19. Why functions are not special dispositions: an improved classification of realizables for top-level ontologies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The concept of function is central to both biology and technology, but neither in philosophy nor in formal ontology is there a generally accepted theory of functions. In particular, there is no consensus how to include functions into a top-level ontology or whether to include them at all. Methods We first review current conceptions of functions in philosophy and formal ontology and evaluate them against a set of criteria. These evaluation criteria are derived from a synopsis of theoretical and practical requirements that have been suggested for formal accounts of functions. In a second step, we elucidate in particular the relation between functions and dispositions. Results We argue that functions should not be taken as a subtype of dispositions. The strongest reason for this is that any view that identifies functions with certain dispositions cannot account for malfunctioning, which is having a function but lacking the matching disposition. As a result, we suggest a cross-classification of realizables with dispositions supervening on the physical structure of their bearer, whereas both functions and roles also have some external grounding. While bearers can survive the gain, loss and change of roles, functions are rigid properties that are essentially connected to their particular bearers. Therefore, Function should not be regarded as a subtype of Disposition; rather, the classes of functions and dispositions are disjoint siblings of Realizable. PMID:25009736

  20. Accountability Overboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chieppo, Charles D.; Gass, James T.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that special interest groups opposed to charter schools and high-stakes testing have hijacked Massachusetts's once-independent board of education and stand poised to water down the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) tests and the accountability system they support. President Barack Obama and Massachusetts…

  1. Functional specializations of primary auditory afferents on the Mauthner cells: Interactions between membrane and synaptic properties

    PubMed Central

    Curti, Sebastian; Pereda, Alberto E.

    2009-01-01

    Primary auditory afferents are usually perceived as passive, timing-preserving, lines of communication. Contrasting this view, a special class of auditory afferents to teleost Mauthner cells, a command neuron that organizes tail-flip escape responses, undergoes potentiation of their mixed (electrical and chemical) synapses in response to high frequency cellular activity. This property is likely to represent a mechanism of input sensitization as these neurons provide the Mauthner cell with essential information for the initiation of an escape response. We review here the anatomical and physiological specializations of these identifiable auditory afferents. In particular, we discuss how their membrane and synaptic properties act in concert to more efficaciously activate the Mauthner cells. The striking functional specializations of these neurons suggest that primary auditory afferents might be capable of more sophisticated contributions to auditory processing than has been generally recognized. PMID:19941953

  2. Accounting for Finite Size of Ions in Nanofluidic Channels Using Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCallum, Christopher; Gillespie, Dirk; Pennathur, Sumita

    2016-11-01

    The physics of nanofluidic devices are dominated by ion-wall interactions within the electric double layer (EDL). A full understanding of the EDL allows for better exploitation of micro and nanofluidic devices for applications such as biologic separations, desalination, and energy conversion, Although continuum theory is generally used to study the fluidics within these channels, in very confined geometries, high surface charge channels, or significant solute concentration systems, continuum theories such as Poisson-Boltzmann cease to be valid because the finite size of ions is not considered. Density functional theory (DFT) provides an accurate and efficient method for predicting the concentration of ions and the electrostatic potential near a charged wall because it accounts for more complex electrostatic and hard-sphere correlations. This subsequently allows for a better model for ion flux, fluid flow, and current in electrokinetic systems at high surface charge, confined geometries, and concentrated systems. In this work, we present a theoretical approach utilizing DFT to predict unique flow phenomena in nanofluidic, electrokinetic systems. CBET-1402736 from the National Science Foundation.

  3. Specialized Functional Diversity and Interactions of the Na,K-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Matchkov, Vladimir V; Krivoi, Igor I

    2016-01-01

    Na,K-ATPase is a protein ubiquitously expressed in the plasma membrane of all animal cells and vitally essential for their functions. A specialized functional diversity of the Na,K-ATPase isozymes is provided by molecular heterogeneity, distinct subcellular localizations, and functional interactions with molecular environment. Studies over the last decades clearly demonstrated complex and isoform-specific reciprocal functional interactions between the Na,K-ATPase and neighboring proteins and lipids. These interactions are enabled by a spatially restricted ion homeostasis, direct protein-protein/lipid interactions, and protein kinase signaling pathways. In addition to its "classical" function in ion translocation, the Na,K-ATPase is now considered as one of the most important signaling molecules in neuronal, epithelial, skeletal, cardiac and vascular tissues. Accordingly, the Na,K-ATPase forms specialized sub-cellular multimolecular microdomains which act as receptors to circulating endogenous cardiotonic steroids (CTS) triggering a number of signaling pathways. Changes in these endogenous cardiotonic steroid levels and initiated signaling responses have significant adaptive values for tissues and whole organisms under numerous physiological and pathophysiological conditions. This review discusses recent progress in the studies of functional interactions between the Na,K-ATPase and molecular microenvironment, the Na,K-ATPase-dependent signaling pathways and their significance for diversity of cell function.

  4. Specialized Functional Diversity and Interactions of the Na,K-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Matchkov, Vladimir V.; Krivoi, Igor I.

    2016-01-01

    Na,K-ATPase is a protein ubiquitously expressed in the plasma membrane of all animal cells and vitally essential for their functions. A specialized functional diversity of the Na,K-ATPase isozymes is provided by molecular heterogeneity, distinct subcellular localizations, and functional interactions with molecular environment. Studies over the last decades clearly demonstrated complex and isoform-specific reciprocal functional interactions between the Na,K-ATPase and neighboring proteins and lipids. These interactions are enabled by a spatially restricted ion homeostasis, direct protein-protein/lipid interactions, and protein kinase signaling pathways. In addition to its “classical” function in ion translocation, the Na,K-ATPase is now considered as one of the most important signaling molecules in neuronal, epithelial, skeletal, cardiac and vascular tissues. Accordingly, the Na,K-ATPase forms specialized sub-cellular multimolecular microdomains which act as receptors to circulating endogenous cardiotonic steroids (CTS) triggering a number of signaling pathways. Changes in these endogenous cardiotonic steroid levels and initiated signaling responses have significant adaptive values for tissues and whole organisms under numerous physiological and pathophysiological conditions. This review discusses recent progress in the studies of functional interactions between the Na,K-ATPase and molecular microenvironment, the Na,K-ATPase-dependent signaling pathways and their significance for diversity of cell function. PMID:27252653

  5. Rayleigh radiance computations for satellite remote sensing: accounting for the effect of sensor spectral response function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Menghua

    2016-05-30

    To understand and assess the effect of the sensor spectral response function (SRF) on the accuracy of the top of the atmosphere (TOA) Rayleigh-scattering radiance computation, new TOA Rayleigh radiance lookup tables (LUTs) over global oceans and inland waters have been generated. The new Rayleigh LUTs include spectral coverage of 335-2555 nm, all possible solar-sensor geometries, and surface wind speeds of 0-30 m/s. Using the new Rayleigh LUTs, the sensor SRF effect on the accuracy of the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation has been evaluated for spectral bands of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS)-1, showing some important uncertainties for VIIRS-SNPP particularly for large solar- and/or sensor-zenith angles as well as for large Rayleigh optical thicknesses (i.e., short wavelengths) and bands with broad spectral bandwidths. To accurately account for the sensor SRF effect, a new correction algorithm has been developed for VIIRS spectral bands, which improves the TOA Rayleigh radiance accuracy to ~0.01% even for the large solar-zenith angles of 70°-80°, compared with the error of ~0.7% without applying the correction for the VIIRS-SNPP 410 nm band. The same methodology that accounts for the sensor SRF effect on the Rayleigh radiance computation can be used for other satellite sensors. In addition, with the new Rayleigh LUTs, the effect of surface atmospheric pressure variation on the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation can be calculated precisely, and no specific atmospheric pressure correction algorithm is needed. There are some other important applications and advantages to using the new Rayleigh LUTs for satellite remote sensing, including an efficient and accurate TOA Rayleigh radiance computation for hyperspectral satellite remote sensing, detector-based TOA Rayleigh radiance computation, Rayleigh radiance calculations for high altitude

  6. Do Executive Function and Impulsivity Predict Adolescent Health Behaviour after Accounting for Intelligence? Findings from the ALSPAC Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pechey, Rachel; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Deary, Ian J.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Executive function, impulsivity, and intelligence are correlated markers of cognitive resource that predict health-related behaviours. It is unknown whether executive function and impulsivity are unique predictors of these behaviours after accounting for intelligence. Methods Data from 6069 participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were analysed to investigate whether components of executive function (selective attention, attentional control, working memory, and response inhibition) and impulsivity (parent-rated) measured between ages 8 and 10, predicted having ever drunk alcohol, having ever smoked, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and overweight at age 13, after accounting for intelligence at age 8 and childhood socioeconomic characteristics. Results Higher intelligence predicted having drunk alcohol, not smoking, greater fruit and vegetable consumption, and not being overweight. After accounting for intelligence, impulsivity predicted alcohol use (odds ratio = 1.10; 99% confidence interval = 1.02, 1.19) and smoking (1.22; 1.11, 1.34). Working memory predicted not being overweight (0.90; 0.81, 0.99). Conclusions After accounting for intelligence, executive function predicts overweight status but not health-related behaviours in early adolescence, whilst impulsivity predicts the onset of alcohol and cigarette use, all with small effects. This suggests overlap between executive function and intelligence as predictors of health behaviour in this cohort, with trait impulsivity accounting for additional variance. PMID:27479488

  7. Functional diversification and specialization of cytosolic 70-kDa heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    McCallister, Chelsea; Siracusa, Matthew C; Shirazi, Farzaneh; Chalkia, Dimitra; Nikolaidis, Nikolas

    2015-03-20

    A fundamental question in molecular evolution is how protein functional differentiation alters the ability of cells and organisms to cope with stress and survive. To answer this question we used two paralogous Hsp70s from mouse and explored whether these highly similar cytosolic molecular chaperones, which apart their temporal expression have been considered functionally interchangeable, are differentiated with respect to their lipid-binding function. We demonstrate that the two proteins bind to diverse lipids with different affinities and therefore are functionally specialized. The observed lipid-binding patterns may be related with the ability of both Hsp70s to induce cell death by binding to a particular plasma-membrane lipid, and the potential of only one of them to promote cell survival by binding to a specific lysosomal-membrane lipid. These observations reveal that two seemingly identical proteins differentially modulate cellular adaptation and survival by having acquired specialized functions via sequence divergence. Therefore, this study provides an evolutionary paradigm, where promiscuity, specificity, sub- and neo-functionalization orchestrate one of the most conserved systems in nature, the cellular stress-response.

  8. Solutions with special functions for time fractional free convection flow of Brinkman-type fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Farhad; Aftab Alam Jan, Syed; Khan, Ilyas; Gohar, Madeha; Ahmad Sheikh, Nadeem

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to report the combined effect of heat and mass diffusion on time fractional free convectional incompressible flow of Brinkman-type fluid over an oscillating plate in the presence of first-order chemical reaction. The Laplace transform has been used to obtain the exact solutions for the fractional-order distributions. Exact expressions for temperature, concentration and velocity have been presented in terms of special functions. For instance, we presented temperature in terms of Wright function, concentration in the form of Fox- H function and velocity in terms of Mittag-Leffler and general Wright functions. The effects of various physical parameters on the fluid motion are sketched and discussed graphically. The present solutions have been reduced by taking one or more parameters approaching to zero and an excellent agreement is observed with the published work. The numerical results for skin-friction, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers have been shown in tabular form.

  9. Dendritic cell maturation: functional specialization through signaling specificity and transcriptional programming

    PubMed Central

    Dalod, Marc; Chelbi, Rabie; Malissen, Bernard; Lawrence, Toby

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are key regulators of both protective immune responses and tolerance to self-antigens. Soon after their discovery in lymphoid tissues by Steinman and Cohn, as cells with the unique ability to prime naïve antigen-specific T cells, it was realized that DC can exist in at least two distinctive states characterized by morphological, phenotypic and functional changes—this led to the description of DC maturation. It is now well appreciated that there are several subsets of DC in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues of mammals, and these cells show remarkable functional specialization and specificity in their roles in tolerance and immunity. This review will focus on the specific characteristics of DC subsets and how their functional specialization may be regulated by distinctive gene expression programs and signaling responses in both steady-state and in the context of inflammation. In particular, we will highlight the common and distinctive genes and signaling pathways that are associated with the functional maturation of DC subsets. PMID:24737868

  10. Understanding the impact of special health care needs on early school functioning: a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, M; Howell-Meurs, S; Kvalsvig, A; Goldfeld, S

    2015-01-01

    Children with special health care needs (SHCN) have or are at increased risk for a chronic condition that necessitates more health and related supports than their peers. While it is generally accepted that these children are at risk for school failure, the mechanisms through which SHCN impact on children's experiences (and therefore opportunities to intervene) at school are still relatively poorly understood. Based on the current literature, this paper provides a conceptual framework to guide further discussion of this issue in research, policy and practice. Evidence from the literature was reviewed and existing frameworks examined. We propose that SHCN impact on four interrelated domains of children's functioning: (1) body functions and structures; (2) activities of daily living; (3) social participation; and (4) educational participation. Children's functioning is further influenced by risk and protective factors that can be identified at the level of the child, family and service systems. Together, these processes contribute to shaping either positive or negative trajectories of school functioning. The mechanisms influencing school experiences for children with special health care needs are complex, with opportunities for positive interventions at a range of levels. The proposed conceptual model provides an accessible tool for guiding discussion of the support needs of this vulnerable population.

  11. Some algebraic, geometric, and system-theoretic properties of the Special Functions of mathematical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Robert

    1982-07-01

    It is known that many of the Special Functions of mathematical physics appear as matrix elements of Lie group representations. This paper is concerned with a beginning attack on the converse problem, i.e., finding conditions that a given function be a matrix element. The methods used are based on a combination of ideas from system theory, functional analysis, Lie theory, differential algebra, and linear ordinary differential equation theory. A key idea is to attach a symbol as an element of a commutative algebra. In favorable cases, this symbol defines a Riemann surface, and a meromorphic differential form on that surface. The topological and analytical invariants attached to this form play a key role in system theory. The Lie algebras of the groups appear as linear differential operators on this Riemann surface. Finally, it is shown how the Picard-Vessiot-Infeld-Hull theory of factorization of linear differential operators leads to realization of many Special Functions as matrix representations of group representations.

  12. Functional specializations in human cerebral cortex analyzed using the Visible Man surface-based atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drury, H. A.; Van Essen, D. C.

    1997-01-01

    We used surface-based representations to analyze functional specializations in the human cerebral cortex. A computerized reconstruction of the cortical surface of the Visible Man digital atlas was generated and transformed to the Talairach coordinate system. This surface was also flattened and used to establish a surface-based coordinate system that respects the topology of the cortical sheet. The linkage between two-dimensional and three-dimensional representations allows the locations of published neuroimaging activation foci to be stereotaxically projected onto the Visible Man cortical flat map. An analysis of two activation studies related to the hearing and reading of music and of words illustrates how this approach permits the systematic estimation of the degree of functional segregation and of potential functional overlap for different aspects of sensory processing.

  13. Water pulse migration through semi-infinite vertical unsaturated porous column with special relative-permeability functions: Exact solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayek, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    The paper presents certain exact solutions describing the vertical movement of a water pulse through a semi-infinite unsaturated porous column. The saturation-based form of the Richards' equation is used with special power law relative-permeability functions. Both capillary and gravity effects are taken into account. Three exact solutions are derived corresponding to three relative-permeability functions, linear, quadratic and cubic. The Richards' equation is nonlinear for the three cases. The solutions are obtained by applying a general similarity transformation. They are explicit in space and time variables and do not contain any approximation. They describe the evolution of the water saturation in the vertical column and they can be used to predict the post-infiltration movement of a finite quantity of water. Exact expressions of the masses of water leaving a given depth are also derived for the three cases. We analyze the effect of relative-permeability and capillary pressure. The proposed solutions are also useful for checking numerical schemes. One of the exact solutions is used to validate numerical solution obtained from an arbitrary initial condition. Results show that the numerical solution converges to the exact solution for large times.

  14. The emotional and behavioural functioning of siblings of children with special health care needs across childhood.

    PubMed

    Giallo, Rebecca; Roberts, Rachel; Emerson, Eric; Wood, Catherine; Gavidia-Payne, Susana

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the emotional and behavioural functioning of siblings of children with special health care needs identified in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Of the 106 siblings identified, 15-52% had emotional and behavioural difficulties in the at-risk or clinical range on the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) subscales when aged 4-5 (wave 1), 6-7 (wave 2), 8-9 (wave 3) and 10-11 years (wave 4). After controlling for differences in socio-economic position, siblings had significantly higher difficulties on all subscales than their peers without a brother or sister with a special health care need at most time points. Latent growth modelling revealed little change in emotional and behavioural symptoms for siblings across childhood, while behavioural symptoms decreased for their peers. These findings suggest that some siblings are at heightened risk of emotional and behavioural difficulties across childhood, underscoring the importance of assessing and promoting the wellbeing of all family members when providing services to children with special health care needs.

  15. "When Stones Falls": A Conceptual-Functional Account of Subject-Verb Agreement in Persian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharifian, Farzad; Lotfi, Ahmad R.

    2007-01-01

    Most linguistic studies of subject-verb agreement have thus far attempted to account for this phenomenon in terms of either syntax or semantics. Kim (2004) [Kim, J., 2004. Hybrid agreement in English. Linguistics 42 (6), 1105-1128] proposes a "hybrid analysis", which allows for a morphosyntactic agreement and a semantic agreement within the same…

  16. Memory and Generativity in Very High Functioning Autism: A Firsthand Account, and an Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jill

    2007-01-01

    JS is a highly able person with Asperger syndrome whose language and intellectual abilities are, and always have been, superior. The first part of this short article consists of JS's analytical account of his atypical memory abilities, and the strategies he uses for memorizing and learning. JS has also described specific difficulties with creative…

  17. Peer Victimization and Social-Emotional Functioning: A Longitudinal Comparison of Students in General and Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; Pas, Elise T.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2015-01-01

    The present longitudinal study used a social-ecological framework to explore the extent to which peer victimization and aggression were associated with changes in concentration problems and emotion regulation among elementary students in general versus special education, while accounting for student demographics and school contextual factors. Data…

  18. Energy-efficient specialization of functional units in a Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Array

    SciTech Connect

    Van Essen, B; Panda, R; Wood, A; Ebeling, C; Hauck, S

    2010-12-01

    Functional units provide the backbone of any spatial accelerator by providing the computing resources. The desire for having rich and expensive functional units is in tension with producing a regular and energy-efficient computing fabric. This paper explores the design trade-off between complex, universal functional units and simpler, limited functional units. We show that a modest amount of specialization reduces the area-delay-energy product of an optimized architecture to 0.86x a baseline architecture. Furthermore, we provide a design guideline that allows an architect to customize the contents of the computing fabric just by examining the profile of benchmarks within the application domains. Functional units are the core of compute-intensive spatial accelerators. They perform the computation of interest with support from local storage and communication structures. Ideally, the functional units will provide rich functionality, supporting operations ranging from simple addition, to fused multiply-adds, to advanced transcendental functions and domain specific operations like add-compare-select. However, the total opportunity cost to support the more complex operations is a function of the cost of the hardware, the rate of occurrence of the operation in the application domain, and the inefficiency of emulating the operation with simpler operators. Examples of operations that are typically emulated in spatial accelerators are division and trigonometric functions, which can be solved using table-lookup based algorithms and the CORDIC algorithm. One reason to avoid having direct hardware support for complex operations in a tiled architecture like a Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Array (CGRA) is that the expensive hardware will typically need to be replicated in some or all of the architecture's tiles. Tiled architecture are designed such that their tiles are either homogeneous or heterogeneous. Homogeneous architectures are simpler to design but heterogeneous

  19. Families with special needs children: family health, functioning, and care burden.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    There are 11.2 million children with special health care needs in the United States or one in five households caring for a special needs child. A small group of children who need continuous medical, nursing, therapeutic services that enable them to survive is growing in numbers. This study examined physical health (physical functioning), mental health (emotional, social, and cognitive functioning; communication; and worry), family functioning (daily activities, family relationships), and care burden (caregiver employment, caregiving time, travel time, health-related out-of-pocket expenditures) of parent caregivers for medically complex, medical technology-dependent children. Data were collected once a month for 5 months on 84 parents recruited in South Florida using the Pediatric Quality of Life Family Impact Module. Physically, parents were tired when they woke up: too tired to do the things they liked to do and with little energy for chores or social activities. Mentally, they were frustrated, anxious, and angry; felt helpless and hopeless; had cognitive problems remembering and focusing on tasks; were worried about the child's medications, treatments, side effects; and were anxious about child's future and effect of the child's condition on other family members. Socially, they felt isolated and that people did not understand their family situation; they found it hard to talk with others including physicians and nurses. Average weekly hours of direct care was 33.0 (SD = 30.4 hours); average monthly out-of-pocket expenditures was $348.78 (SD = $623.34). It is essential to assess parents' physical and mental health and functioning and to provide interventions to improve health and functioning for both the parents and the children for whom they are caring.

  20. A dual-route account for access to grammatical gender: evidence from functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Heim, Stefan; Alter, Kai; Friederici, Angela D

    2005-12-01

    Research investigating the neural correlates of grammatical gender processing has provided contradictory evidence with respect to activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). A possible account for these discrepancies is a dual-route model proposing explicit vs implicit access to the gender information. In this event-related fMRI experiment, we investigated this issue by taking into account different processing strategies reported by the subjects. The participants performed two tasks, a gender judgement of German nouns and a non-lexical baseline task (spacing of consonant letter strings). Depending on the reported strategy (silent production of the definite determiner or direct access to the gender information), different patterns of activation in the left IFG were observed. Direct access to gender information yielded activation in the inferior tip of BA 44, whereas the verbalisation strategy elicited activation in the superior portion of BA 44, BA 45/47, and the fronto-median wall. These results speak in favour of a dual-route account for modelling the access to grammatical gender information during language comprehension.

  1. Human Dendritic Cell Functional Specialization in Steady-State and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Boltjes, Arjan; van Wijk, Femke

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) represent a heterogeneous population of antigen-presenting cells that are crucial in initiating and shaping immune responses. Although all DC are capable of antigen-uptake, processing, and presentation to T cells, DC subtypes differ in their origin, location, migration patterns, and specialized immunological roles. While in recent years, there have been rapid advances in understanding DC subset ontogeny, development, and function in mice, relatively little is known about the heterogeneity and functional specialization of human DC subsets, especially in tissues. In steady-state, DC progenitors deriving from the bone marrow give rise to lymphoid organ-resident DC and to migratory tissue DC that act as tissue sentinels. During inflammation additional DC and monocytes are recruited to the tissues where they are further activated and promote T helper cell subset polarization depending on the environment. In the current review, we will give an overview of the latest developments in human DC research both in steady-state and under inflammatory conditions. In this context, we review recent findings on DC subsets, DC-mediated cross-presentation, monocyte-DC relationships, inflammatory DC development, and DC-instructed T-cell polarization. Finally, we discuss the potential role of human DC in chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:24744755

  2. Functional specialization and generalization for grouping of stimuli based on colour and motion

    PubMed Central

    Zeki, Semir; Stutters, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to learn whether the principle of functional specialization that is evident at the level of the prestriate visual cortex extends to areas that are involved in grouping visual stimuli according to attribute, and specifically according to colour and motion. Subjects viewed, in an fMRI scanner, visual stimuli composed of moving dots, which could be either coloured or achromatic; in some stimuli the moving coloured dots were randomly distributed or moved in random directions; in others, some of the moving dots were grouped together according to colour or to direction of motion, with the number of groupings varying from 1 to 3. Increased activation was observed in area V4 in response to colour grouping and in V5 in response to motion grouping while both groupings led to activity in separate though contiguous compartments within the intraparietal cortex. The activity in all the above areas was parametrically related to the number of groupings, as was the prominent activity in Crus I of the cerebellum where the activity resulting from the two types of grouping overlapped. This suggests (a) that, the specialized visual areas of the prestriate cortex have functions beyond the processing of visual signals according to attribute, namely that of grouping signals according to colour (V4) or motion (V5); (b) that the functional separation evident in visual cortical areas devoted to motion and colour, respectively, is maintained at the level of parietal cortex, at least as far as grouping according to attribute is concerned; and (c) that, by contrast, this grouping-related functional segregation is not maintained at the level of the cerebellum. PMID:23415950

  3. Emergence and subsequent functional specialization of kindlins during evolution of cell adhesiveness.

    PubMed

    Meller, Julia; Rogozin, Igor B; Poliakov, Eugenia; Meller, Nahum; Bedanov-Pack, Mark; Plow, Edward F; Qin, Jun; Podrez, Eugene A; Byzova, Tatiana V

    2015-02-15

    Kindlins are integrin-interacting proteins essential for integrin-mediated cell adhesiveness. In this study, we focused on the evolutionary origin and functional specialization of kindlins as a part of the evolutionary adaptation of cell adhesive machinery. Database searches revealed that many members of the integrin machinery (including talin and integrins) existed before kindlin emergence in evolution. Among the analyzed species, all metazoan lineages—but none of the premetazoans—had at least one kindlin-encoding gene, whereas talin was present in several premetazoan lineages. Kindlin appears to originate from a duplication of the sequence encoding the N-terminal fragment of talin (the talin head domain) with a subsequent insertion of the PH domain of separate origin. Sequence analysis identified a member of the actin filament-associated protein 1 (AFAP1) superfamily as the most likely origin of the kindlin PH domain. The functional divergence between kindlin paralogues was assessed using the sequence swap (chimera) approach. Comparison of kindlin 2 (K2)/kindlin 3 (K3) chimeras revealed that the F2 subdomain, in particular its C-terminal part, is crucial for the differential functional properties of K2 and K3. The presence of this segment enables K2 but not K3 to localize to focal adhesions. Sequence analysis of the C-terminal part of the F2 subdomain of K3 suggests that insertion of a variable glycine-rich sequence in vertebrates contributed to the loss of constitutive K3 targeting to focal adhesions. Thus emergence and subsequent functional specialization of kindlins allowed multicellular organisms to develop additional tissue-specific adaptations of cell adhesiveness.

  4. Children's Elementary School Social Experience and Executive Functions Development: Introduction to a Special Section.

    PubMed

    van Lier, Pol A C; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2016-01-01

    Children's executive functions, encompassing inhibitory control, working memory and attention are vital for their self-regulation. With the transition to formal schooling, children need to learn to manage their emotions and behavior in a new and complex social environment that with age increases in the intensity of social interactions with peers and teachers. Stronger executive functions skills facilitate children's social development. In addition, new experiences in the social environments of school also may influence executive function development. The focus of this special section is on this potential impact of elementary school social experiences with peers and teacher on the development of children's executive functions. The collection of papers encompass various aspects of peer and teacher social environments, and cover broad as well as specific facets and measures of executive functions including neural responses. The collection of papers sample developmental periods that span preschool through mid-adolescence. In this introduction, we summarize and highlight the main findings of each of the papers, organized around social interactions with peers and interactions with teachers. We conclude our synopsis with implications for future research, and a specific focus on prevention and intervention.

  5. A survey. Financial accounting and internal control functions pursued by hospital boards.

    PubMed

    Gavin, T A

    1984-09-01

    Justification for a board committee's existence is its ability to devote time to issues judged to be important by the full board. This seems to have happened. Multiple committees pursue more functions than the other committee structures. Boards lacking an FA/IC committee pursue significantly fewer functions than their counterparts with committees. Substantial respondent agreement exists on those functions most and least frequently pursued, those perceived to be most and least important, and those perceived to be most and least effectively undertaken. Distinctions between committee structures and the full board, noted in the previous paragraph, hold true with respect to the importance of functions. All board structures identified reviewing the budget and comparing it to actual results as important. Committee structures are generally more inclined to address functions related to the work of the independent auditor and the effectiveness of the hospital's system and controls than are full board structures. Functions related to the internal auditor are pursued least frequently by all FA/IC board structures. The following suggestions are made to help boards pay adequate attention to and obtain objective information about the financial affairs of their hospitals. Those boards that do not have some form of an FA/IC committee should consider starting one. Evidence shows chief financial officers have been a moving force in establishing and strengthening such committees. Boards having a joint or single committee structure should consider upgrading their structure to either a single committee or multiple committees respectively. The complexity of the healthcare environment requires that more FA/IC functions be addressed by the board. The board or its FA/IC committee(s) should meet with their independent CPA's, fiscal intermediary auditors, and internal auditors. Where the hospital lacks an internal audit function a study should be undertaken to determine the feasibility of

  6. 45 CFR 302.20 - Separation of cash handling and accounting functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... functions have been delegated. (2) Employees of a court or law enforcement official performing under a cooperative agreement with the IV-D agency. (3) Employees of any private or governmental entity from which...

  7. Paternal effects on functional gender account for cryptic dioecy in a perennial plant.

    PubMed Central

    Verdú, Miguel; Montilla, Ana I.; Pannell, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Natural selection operates on the mating strategies of hermaphrodites through their functional gender, i.e. their relative success as male versus female parents. Because functional gender will tend to be strongly influenced by sex allocation, it is often estimated in plants by counting seeds and pollen grains. However, a plant's functional gender must also depend on the fate of the seeds and pollen grains it produces. We provide clear evidence of a paternal effect on the functional gender of a plant that is independent of the resources invested in pollen. In the Mediterranean tree Fraxinus ornus, males coexist with hermaphrodites that disperse viable pollen and that sire seeds; the population would thus appear to be functionally androdioecious. However, we found that seedlings sired by hermaphrodites grew significantly less well than those sired by males, suggesting that hermaphrodites may be functionally less male than they seem. The observed 1 : 1 sex ratios in F. ornus, which have hitherto been difficult to explain in the light of the seed-siring ability of hermaphrodites, support our interpretation that this species is cryptically dioecious. Our results underscore the importance of considering progeny quality when estimating gender, and caution against inferring androdioecy on the basis of a siring ability of hermaphrodites alone. PMID:15451691

  8. Problems of the theory of the consolidation solved in the special functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasibekov, Azhibek; Abzhapbarov, Azimkhan; Duisebayeva, Peruza; Polatbek, Aigul

    2016-08-01

    The soil, which deformation modulus is continuously increased with depth is called continuously heterogeneous. In this paper, this heterogeneity is presented in the form of: E =Em(α+β z ) m (α >0 ,Em>0 ,α +βz>0 ), wher Em, α, β, m are experimental parameters. On the basis of this dependence the consolidation problems of elastic and elastically creeping inhomogeneous soils are solved in relation to the restricted area of the consolidation. These solutions make it possible to calculate the values of the pore pressure, the amount of the main stresses and vertical displacements of upper surface points of the condensed inhomogeneous soil mass. In these solutions for highly compressed water-saturated clay soils is also taken into account that at the initial time the part of loading, instantly enclosed load q to the soil which is equal in value of the structural strength of the compression pstr, is immediately perceived by a matrix. In addition, Darcy's law is broken, i.e. the initial gradient of pressure is considered. The resulting calculation formulas are presented as a combination of Bessel functions of the first and second kinds. Taking into account that currently one can define any values of the Bessel functions, it is possible to calculate the pressure in the pore fluids and predict the speed of sediments of the compacting mass.

  9. Specialized sperm function tests in varicocele and the future of andrology laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Majzoub, Ahmad; Esteves, Sandro C; Gosálvez, Jaime; Agarwal, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele is a common medical condition entangled with many controversies. Though it is highly prevalent in men with infertility, still it marks its presence in males who do have normal fertility. Determining which patients are negatively affected by varicocele would enable clinicians to better select those men who benefitted the most from surgery. Since conventional semen analysis has been limited in its ability to evaluate the negative effects of varicocele on fertility, a multitude of specialized laboratory tests have emerged. In this review, we examine the role and significance of specialized sperm function tests with regards to varicocele. Among the various tests, analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation and measurements of oxidative stress markers provide an independent measure of fertility in men with varicocele. These diagnostic modalities have both diagnostic and prognostic information complementary to, but distinct from conventional sperm parameters. Test results can guide management and aid in monitoring intervention outcomes. Proteomics, metabolomics, and genomics are areas; though still developing, holding promise to revolutionize our understanding of reproductive physiology, including varicocele. PMID:26780873

  10. Local description of closed submodules of a special module of entire functions of exponential type

    SciTech Connect

    Krasichkov-Ternovskii, I F; Shishkin, A B

    2001-12-31

    Let {pi}{sub 1}(z),...,{pi}{sub q}(z) be a system of polynomials of the complex variable z. In connection with the problem of spectral synthesis for systems of differential operators {pi}{sub 1}(D),...,{pi}{sub q}(D), D=d/dz, the problem of the local description of closed submodules is considered for a special module of entire functions over the ring C[{pi}{sub 1},...,{pi}{sub q}]. It is shown that this problem can be reduced to the local description over the ring C[l], where l is the Luroth polynomial associated with the system {pi}{sub 1}(z),...,{pi}{sub q}(z)

  11. A functional account of verb use in the early stages of English multiword development.

    PubMed

    Cameron-Faulkner, Thea

    2012-09-01

    The present study investigates flexibility of verb use in the early stages of English multiword development, and its relationship with patterns attested in the input. The data is taken from a case study of a monolingual English-speaking boy aged 2 ; 5-2 ; 9 and his mother while engaged in daily activities in the home. Data were coded according to Halliday's (1975) functional system. The findings suggest that early multiword verb use is functionally restricted and closely tied to verb use in the input.

  12. Functional hemispheric specialization in processing phonemic and prosodic auditory changes in neonates.

    PubMed

    Arimitsu, Takeshi; Uchida-Ota, Mariko; Yagihashi, Tatsuhiko; Kojima, Shozo; Watanabe, Shigeru; Hokuto, Isamu; Ikeda, Kazushige; Takahashi, Takao; Minagawa-Kawai, Yasuyo

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the early cerebral base of speech perception by examining functional lateralization in neonates for processing segmental and suprasegmental features of speech. For this purpose, auditory evoked responses of full-term neonates to phonemic and prosodic contrasts were measured in their temporal area and part of the frontal and parietal areas using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Stimuli used here were phonemic contrast /itta/ and /itte/ and prosodic contrast of declarative and interrogative forms /itta/ and /itta?/. The results showed clear hemodynamic responses to both phonemic and prosodic changes in the temporal areas and part of the parietal and frontal regions. In particular, significantly higher hemoglobin (Hb) changes were observed for the prosodic change in the right temporal area than for that in the left one, whereas Hb responses to the vowel change were similarly elicited in bilateral temporal areas. However, Hb responses to the vowel contrast were asymmetrical in the parietal area (around supra marginal gyrus), with stronger activation in the left. These results suggest a specialized function of the right hemisphere in prosody processing, which is already present in neonates. The parietal activities during phonemic processing were discussed in relation to verbal-auditory short-term memory. On the basis of this study and previous studies on older infants, the developmental process of functional lateralization from birth to 2 years of age for vowel and prosody was summarized.

  13. Functional Hemispheric Specialization in Processing Phonemic and Prosodic Auditory Changes in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Arimitsu, Takeshi; Uchida-Ota, Mariko; Yagihashi, Tatsuhiko; Kojima, Shozo; Watanabe, Shigeru; Hokuto, Isamu; Ikeda, Kazushige; Takahashi, Takao; Minagawa-Kawai, Yasuyo

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the early cerebral base of speech perception by examining functional lateralization in neonates for processing segmental and suprasegmental features of speech. For this purpose, auditory evoked responses of full-term neonates to phonemic and prosodic contrasts were measured in their temporal area and part of the frontal and parietal areas using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Stimuli used here were phonemic contrast /itta/ and /itte/ and prosodic contrast of declarative and interrogative forms /itta/ and /itta?/. The results showed clear hemodynamic responses to both phonemic and prosodic changes in the temporal areas and part of the parietal and frontal regions. In particular, significantly higher hemoglobin (Hb) changes were observed for the prosodic change in the right temporal area than for that in the left one, whereas Hb responses to the vowel change were similarly elicited in bilateral temporal areas. However, Hb responses to the vowel contrast were asymmetrical in the parietal area (around supra marginal gyrus), with stronger activation in the left. These results suggest a specialized function of the right hemisphere in prosody processing, which is already present in neonates. The parietal activities during phonemic processing were discussed in relation to verbal-auditory short-term memory. On the basis of this study and previous studies on older infants, the developmental process of functional lateralization from birth to 2 years of age for vowel and prosody was summarized. PMID:21954386

  14. Multiple, correlated covariates associated with differential item functioning (DIF): Accounting for language DIF when education levels differ across languages.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Laura E; Crane, Paul K; Mehta, Kala M; Pedraza, Otto; Tang, Yuxiao; Manly, Jennifer J; Narasimhalu, Kaavya; Teresi, Jeanne; Jones, Richard N; Mungas, Dan

    2011-04-28

    Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when a test item has different statistical properties in subgroups, controlling for the underlying ability measured by the test. DIF assessment is necessary when evaluating measurement bias in tests used across different language groups. However, other factors such as educational attainment can differ across language groups, and DIF due to these other factors may also exist. How to conduct DIF analyses in the presence of multiple, correlated factors remains largely unexplored. This study assessed DIF related to Spanish versus English language in a 44-item object naming test. Data come from a community-based sample of 1,755 Spanish- and English-speaking older adults. We compared simultaneous accounting, a new strategy for handling differences in educational attainment across language groups, with existing methods. Compared to other methods, simultaneously accounting for language- and education-related DIF yielded salient differences in some object naming scores, particularly for Spanish speakers with at least 9 years of education. Accounting for factors that vary across language groups can be important when assessing language DIF. The use of simultaneous accounting will be relevant to other cross-cultural studies in cognition and in other fields, including health-related quality of life.

  15. pH-Regulated Mechanisms Account for Pigment-Type Differences in Epidermal Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Gunathilake, Roshan; Schurer, Nanna Y.; Shoo, Brenda A.; Celli, Anna; Hachem, Jean-Pierre; Crumrine, Debra; Sirimanna, Ganga; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Mauro, Theodora M.; Elias, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether pigment type determines differences in epidermal function, we studied stratum corneum (SC) pH, permeability barrier homeostasis, and SC integrity in three geographically disparate populations with pigment type I–II versus IV–V skin (Fitzpatrick I–VI scale). Type IV–V subjects showed: (i) lower surface pH (≈0.5 U); (ii) enhanced SC integrity (transepidermal water loss change with sequential tape strippings); and (iii) more rapid barrier recovery than type I–II subjects. Enhanced barrier function could be ascribed to increased epidermal lipid content, increased lamellar body production, and reduced acidity, leading to enhanced lipid processing. Compromised SC integrity in type I–II subjects could be ascribed to increased serine protease activity, resulting in accelerated desmoglein-1 (DSG-1)/corneodesmosome degradation. In contrast, DSG-1-positive CDs persisted in type IV–V subjects, but due to enhanced cathepsin-D activity, SC thickness did not increase. Adjustment of pH of type I–II SC to type IV–V levels improved epidermal function. Finally, dendrites from type IV–V melanocytes were more acidic than those from type I–II subjects, and they transfer more melanosomes to the SC, suggesting that melanosome secretion could contribute to the more acidic pH of type IV–V skin. These studies show marked pigment-type differences in epidermal structure and function that are pH driven. PMID:19177137

  16. Calibration function for the Orbitrap FTMS accounting for the space charge effect.

    PubMed

    Gorshkov, Mikhail V; Good, David M; Lyutvinskiy, Yaroslav; Yang, Hongqian; Zubarev, Roman A

    2010-11-01

    Ion storage in an electrostatic trap has been implemented with the introduction of the Orbitrap Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS), which demonstrates performance similar to high-field ion cyclotron resonance MS. High mass spectral characteristics resulted in rapid acceptance of the Orbitrap FTMS for Life Sciences applications. The basics of Orbitrap operation are well documented; however, like in any ion trap MS technology, its performance is limited by interactions between the ion clouds. These interactions result in ion cloud couplings, systematic errors in measured masses, interference between ion clouds of different size yet with close m/z ratios, etc. In this work, we have characterized the space-charge effect on the measured frequency for the Orbitrap FTMS, looking for the possibility to achieve sub-ppm levels of mass measurement accuracy (MMA) for peptides in a wide range of total ion population. As a result of this characterization, we proposed an m/z calibration law for the Orbitrap FTMS that accounts for the total ion population present in the trap during a data acquisition event. Using this law, we were able to achieve a zero-space charge MMA limit of 80 ppb for the commercial Orbitrap FTMS system and sub-ppm level of MMA over a wide range of total ion populations with the automatic gain control values varying from 10 to 10(7).

  17. 78 FR 46295 - Special Conditions: Eclipse, EA500, Certification of Autothrottle Functions Under Part 23

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 23 Special Conditions: Eclipse, EA500, Certification of... proposed special conditions. SUMMARY: This action proposes special conditions for the Eclipse EA500.... The Eclipse Model EA500 was certificated under part 23 by the FAA on September 30, 2006...

  18. Understanding of emotional experience in autism: insights from the personal accounts of high-functioning children with autism.

    PubMed

    Losh, Molly; Capps, Lisa

    2006-09-01

    In this study, the authors investigate emotional understanding in autism through a discourse analytic framework to provide a window into children's strategies for interpreting emotional versus nonemotional encounters and consider the implications for the mechanisms underlying emotional understanding in typical development. Accounts were analyzed for thematic content and discourse structure. Whereas high-functioning children with autism were able to discuss contextually appropriate accounts of simple emotions, their strategies for interpreting all types of emotional (but not nonemotional) experiences differed from those used by typically developing children. High-functioning children with autism were less inclined to organize their emotional accounts in personalized causal-explanatory frameworks and displayed a tendency to describe visually salient elements of experiences seldom observed among comparison children. Findings suggest that children with autism possess less coherent representations of emotional experiences and use alternative strategies for interpreting emotionally evocative encounters. Discussion focuses on the significance of these findings for informing the nature of emotional dysfunction in autism as well as implications for theories of emotional understanding in typical development.

  19. Observations of Social Competence of Children in Need of Special Support Based on Traditional Disability Categories versus a Functional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillvist, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background: Traditional disability categories may reveal little of the functional characteristics and social competence of a child. Objective: To compare the social competence of typically developing children, children with established disabilities and undiagnosed children identified by a functional approach to be in need of special support.…

  20. Advances in understanding ventromedial prefrontal function: the accountant joins the executive.

    PubMed

    Fellows, Lesley K

    2007-03-27

    Studies of the brain basis of decision-making and economic behavior are providing a new perspective on the organization and functions of human prefrontal cortex. This line of inquiry has focused particularly on the ventral and medial portions of prefrontal cortex, arguably the most enigmatic regions of the "enigmatic frontal lobes." This review highlights recent advances in the cognitive neuroscience of decision making and neuroeconomics and discusses how these findings can inform clinical thinking about frontal lobe dysfunction.

  1. Simulations of ion velocity distribution functions taking into account both elastic and charge exchange collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huihui; Sukhomlinov, Vladimir S.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Mustafaev, Alexander S.

    2017-02-01

    Based on accurate representation of the He+-He angular differential scattering cross sections consisting of both elastic and charge exchange collisions, we performed detailed numerical simulations of the ion velocity distribution functions (IVDF) by Monte Carlo collision method (MCC). The results of simulations are validated by comparison with the experimental data of the ion mobility and the transverse diffusion. The IVDF simulation study shows that due to significant effect of scattering in elastic collisions IVDF cannot be separated into product of two independent IVDFs in the transverse and parallel to the electric field directions.

  2. Children With Special Health Care Needs: Child Health and Functioning Outcomes and Health Care Service Use.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Carmen

    This study describes health, functioning, and health care service use by medically complex technology-dependent children according to condition severity (moderately disabled, severely disabled, and vegetative state). Data were collected monthly for 5 months using the Pediatric Quality of Life Generic Core Module 4.0 Parent-Proxy Report. Health care service use measured the number of routine and acute care office visits (including primary and specialty physicians), emergency department visits, hospitalizations, nursing health care services, special therapies, medications, medical technology devices (MTDs), and assistive devices. Child physical health was different across the condition severity groups. The average age of the children was 10.1 years (SD, 6.2); the average number of medications used was 5.5 (SD, 3.7); the average number of MTDs used was 4.2 (SD, 2.9); and the average number of assistive devices used was 4.3 (SD, 2.7). Severely disabled and vegetative children were similar in age (older) and had a similar number of medications, MTDs, and assistive devices (greater) than moderately disabled children. The advanced practice nurse care coordinator role is necessary for the health and functioning of medically complex, technology-dependent children.

  3. Developmental changes in mental arithmetic: evidence for increased functional specialization in the left inferior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Rivera, S M; Reiss, A L; Eckert, M A; Menon, V

    2005-11-01

    Arithmetic reasoning is arguably one of the most important cognitive skills a child must master. Here we examine neurodevelopmental changes in mental arithmetic. Subjects (ages 8-19 years) viewed arithmetic equations and were asked to judge whether the results were correct or incorrect. During two-operand addition or subtraction trials, for which accuracy was comparable across age, older subjects showed greater activation in the left parietal cortex, along the supramarginal gyrus and adjoining anterior intra-parietal sulcus as well as the left lateral occipital temporal cortex. These age-related changes were not associated with alterations in gray matter density, and provide novel evidence for increased functional maturation with age. By contrast, younger subjects showed greater activation in the prefrontal cortex, including the dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting that they require comparatively more working memory and attentional resources to achieve similar levels of mental arithmetic performance. Younger subjects also showed greater activation of the hippocampus and dorsal basal ganglia, reflecting the greater demands placed on both declarative and procedural memory systems. Our findings provide evidence for a process of increased functional specialization of the left inferior parietal cortex in mental arithmetic, a process that is accompanied by decreased dependence on memory and attentional resources with development.

  4. 'A Leg to Stand On' by Oliver Sacks: a unique autobiographical account of functional paralysis.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jon; Perthen, Jo; Carson, Alan J

    2012-09-01

    Oliver Sacks, the well known neurologist and writer, published his fourth book, 'A Leg to Stand On', in 1984 following an earlier essay 'The Leg' in 1982. The book described his recovery after a fall in a remote region of Norway in which he injured his leg. Following surgery to reattach his quadriceps muscle, he experienced an emotional period in which his leg no longer felt a part of his body, and he struggled to regain his ability to walk. Sacks attributed the experience to a neurologically determined disorder of body-image and bodyego induced by peripheral injury. In the first edition of his book Sacks explicitly rejected the diagnosis of 'hysterical paralysis' as it was then understood, although he approached this diagnosis more closely in subsequent revisions. In this article we propose that, in the light of better understanding of functional neurological symptoms, Sacks' experiences deserve to be reappraised as a unique insight in to a genuinely experienced functional/psychogenic leg paralysis following injury.

  5. A comprehensive account of spectral, Hartree Fock, and Density Functional Theory studies of 2-chlorobenzothiazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daswani, Ujla; Sharma, Pratibha; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Benzothiazole moiety is found to play an important role in medicinal chemistry with a wide range of pharmacological activities. Herein, a simple, benzothiazole derivative viz., 2-chlorobenzothiazole (2CBT) has been analyzed. The spectroscopic properties of the target compound were examined by FT-IR (4400-450 cm-1), FT-Raman (4000-50 cm-1), and NMR techniques. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO. Theoretical calculations were performed by ab initio Hartree Fock and Density Functional Theory (DFT)/B3LYP method using varied basis sets combination. The scaled B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) results precisely complements with the experimental findings. Electronic absorption spectra along with energy and oscillator strength were obtained by TDDFT method. Atomic charges have also been reported. Total density isosurface and total density mapped with electrostatic potential surface (MESP) has been shown.

  6. Autobiographical accounts of sensing in Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Elwin, Marie; Ek, Lena; Schröder, Agneta; Kjellin, Lars

    2012-10-01

    Sensory experiences in Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) were explored by qualitative content analysis of autobiographical texts by persons with AS/HFA. Predetermined categories of hyper- and hyposensitivity were applied to texts. Hypersensitivity consists of strong reactions and heightened apprehension in reaction to external stimuli, sometimes together with overfocused or unselective attention. It was common in vision, hearing, and touch. In contrast, hyposensitivity was frequent in reaction to internal and body stimuli such as interoception, proprioception, and pain. It consists of less registration, discrimination, and recognition of stimuli as well as cravings for specific stimuli. Awareness of the strong impact of sensitivity is essential for creating good environments and encounters in the context of psychiatric and other health care.

  7. [Enzymatic modification of the functional, nutritional and sensorial properties of soybeans for special feeding].

    PubMed

    Calderón de la Barca, A M; Wall Medrano, A; Jara Marini, M; González Córdova, A F; Ruíz Salazar, A

    2000-03-01

    Production of new protein-based products for special nutrition such as hypoallergenic infant formulas, fortified beverages and nutraceutics, require ideal ingredients. Protein ingredients were developed by enzymatic hydrolysis and methionine synthesis of soy protein. Hydrolysis was done at 4% (w/v) using porcine pancreatic enzymes (4% w/w), 50 degrees C, 6 h and pH 8. After drying powder was resuspended (20% w/v) and incubated with 7.6% (w/w) methionine methyl-ester, 1% (w/w) chymotrypsin and 3 M glycerol, 37 degrees C, 3 h and pH 7. Hydrolysates were fractionated by ultrafiltration (UF) before and after enrichment (E): FI > 10, 10 > FII > 3 and 3 > FIII > 1 kDa. Functional properties, amino acid content, anti-physiological factor activities and antigenicity were assayed for all the UF fractions and the soybean meal. Protein quality bioassay and sensorial test of an non-enriched fraction and an enriched fraction were performed. Functional properties were positively modified by hydrolysis and synthesis by using a minimum time and methionine added for the last reaction. After UF all the fractions under 10 kDa showed 100% solubility (pH 4 and 7), good clarity, acceptable foam capacity and negligible antigenicity and antiphysiological activities. Additionally, methionine enrichment enhanced their nutritional value, upgrading sulfur amino acid requirements for infants and adults. Because functionality and nutritional value FIII-E could be used for hypoallergenic infant formulas, FII-E for fortified soluble formulas and nutraceutics and FI-E for a semi-solid baby food.

  8. Lipid rafts in epithelial brush borders: atypical membrane microdomains with specialized functions.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H

    2003-10-31

    Epithelial cells that fulfil high-throughput digestive/absorptive functions, such as small intestinal enterocytes and kidney proximal tubule cells, are endowed with a dense apical brush border. It has long been recognized that the microvillar surface of the brush border is organized in cholesterol/sphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains commonly known as lipid rafts. More recent studies indicate that microvillar rafts, in particular those of enterocytes, have some unusual properties in comparison with rafts present on the surface of other cell types. Thus, microvillar rafts are stable rather than transient/dynamic, and their core components include glycolipids and the divalent lectin galectin-4, which together can be isolated as "superrafts", i.e., membrane microdomains resisting solubilization with Triton X-100 at physiological temperature. These glycolipid/lectin-based rafts serve as platforms for recruitment of GPI-linked and transmembrane digestive enzymes, most likely as an economizing effort to secure and prolong their digestive capability at the microvillar surface. However, in addition to microvilli, the brush border surface also consists of membrane invaginations between adjacent microvilli, which are the only part of the apical surface sterically accessible for membrane fusion/budding events. Many of these invaginations appear as pleiomorphic, deep apical tubules that extend up to 0.5-1 microm into the underlying terminal web region. Their sensitivity to methyl-beta-cyclodextrin suggests them to contain cholesterol-dependent lipid rafts of a different type from the glycolipid-based rafts at the microvillar surface. The brush border is thus an example of a complex membrane system that harbours at least two different types of lipid raft microdomains, each suited to fulfil specialized functions. This conclusion is in line with an emerging, more varied view of lipid rafts being pluripotent microdomains capable of adapting in size, shape, and content to

  9. Investigating Constituent Order Change with Elicited Pantomime: A Functional Account of SVO Emergence

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew L.; Ferreira, Victor S.; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most basic functions of human language is to convey who did what to whom. In the world’s languages, the order of these three constituents (subject (S), verb (V), and object (O)) is uneven, with SOV and SVO being most common. Recent experiments using experimentally-elicited pantomime provide a possible explanation for the prevalence of SOV, but extant explanations for the prevalence of SVO could benefit from further empirical support. Here, we test whether SVO might emerge because (a) SOV is not well suited for describing reversible events (a woman pushing a boy), and (b) pressures to be efficient and mention subjects before objects conspire to rule out many other alternatives. We tested this by asking participants to describe reversible and non-reversible events in pantomime, and instructed some participants to be consistent in the form of their gestures and to teach them to the experimenter. These manipulations led to the emergence of SVO in speakers of both English (SVO) and Turkish (SOV). PMID:24641486

  10. A threshold theory account of psychometric functions with response confidence under the balance condition.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yung-Fong; Doble, Christopher W

    2015-02-01

    The study of thresholds for discriminability has been of long-standing interest in psychophysics. While threshold theories embrace the concept of discrete-state thresholds, signal detection theory discounts such a concept. In this paper we concern ourselves with the concept of thresholds from the discrete-state modelling viewpoint. In doing so, we find it necessary to clarify some fundamental issues germane to the psychometric function (PF), which is customarily constructed using psychophysical methods with a binary-response format. We challenge this response format and argue that response confidence also plays an important role in the construction of PFs, and thus should have some impact on threshold estimation. We motivate the discussion by adopting a three-state threshold theory for response confidence proposed by Krantz (1969, Psychol. Rev., 76, 308-324), which is a modification of Luce's (1963, Psychol. Rev., 70, 61-79) low-threshold theory. In particular, we discuss the case in which the practice of averaging over order (or position) is enforced in data collection. Finally, we illustrate the fit of the Luce-Krantz model to data from a line-discrimination task with response confidence.

  11. Efficiently accounting for ion correlations in electrokinetic nanofluidic devices using density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Dirk; Khair, Aditya S; Bardhan, Jaydeep P; Pennathur, Sumita

    2011-07-15

    The electrokinetic behavior of nanofluidic devices is dominated by the electrical double layers at the device walls. Therefore, accurate, predictive models of double layers are essential for device design and optimization. In this paper, we demonstrate that density functional theory (DFT) of electrolytes is an accurate and computationally efficient method for computing finite ion size effects and the resulting ion-ion correlations that are neglected in classical double layer theories such as Poisson-Boltzmann. Because DFT is derived from liquid-theory thermodynamic principles, it is ideal for nanofluidic systems with small spatial dimensions, high surface charge densities, high ion concentrations, and/or large ions. Ion-ion correlations are expected to be important in these regimes, leading to nonlinear phenomena such as charge inversion, wherein more counterions adsorb at the wall than is necessary to neutralize its surface charge, leading to a second layer of co-ions. We show that DFT, unlike other theories that do not include ion-ion correlations, can predict charge inversion and other nonlinear phenomena that lead to qualitatively different current densities and ion velocities for both pressure-driven and electro-osmotic flows. We therefore propose that DFT can be a valuable modeling and design tool for nanofluidic devices as they become smaller and more highly charged.

  12. A method to account for outliers in the development of safety performance functions.

    PubMed

    El-Basyouny, Karim; Sayed, Tarek

    2010-07-01

    Accident data sets can include some unusual data points that are not typical of the rest of the data. The presence of these data points (usually termed outliers) can have a significant impact on the estimates of the parameters of safety performance functions (SPFs). Few studies have considered outliers analysis in the development of SPFs. In these studies, the practice has been to identify and then exclude outliers from further analysis. This paper introduces alternative mixture models based on the multivariate Poisson lognormal (MVPLN) regression. The proposed approach presents outlier resistance modeling techniques that provide robust safety inferences by down-weighting the outlying observations rather than rejecting them. The first proposed model is a scale-mixture model that is obtained by replacing the normal distribution in the Poisson-lognormal hierarchy by the Student t distribution, which has heavier tails. The second model is a two-component mixture (contaminated normal model) where it is assumed that most of the observations come from a basic distribution, whereas the remaining few outliers arise from an alternative distribution that has a larger variance. The results indicate that the estimates of the extra-Poisson variation parameters were considerably smaller under the mixture models leading to higher precision. Also, both mixture models have identified the same set of outliers. In terms of goodness-of-fit, both mixture models have outperformed the MVPLN. The outlier rejecting MVPLN model provided a superior fit in terms of a much smaller DIC and standard deviations for the parameter estimates. However, this approach tends to underestimate uncertainty by producing too small standard deviations for the parameter estimates, which may lead to incorrect conclusions. It is recommended that the proposed outlier resistance modeling techniques be used unless the exclusion of the outlying observations can be justified because of data related reasons (e

  13. Recovering functions defined on the unit sphere by integration on a special family of sub-spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Yehonatan

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this article is to derive a reconstruction formula for the recovery of C1 functions, defined on the unit sphere {{{S}}}^{n - 1} , given their integrals on a special family of n - 2 dimensional sub-spheres. For a fixed point overline{a} strictly inside {{{S}}}^{n - 1} , each sub-sphere in this special family is obtained by intersection of {{{S}}}^{n - 1} with a hyperplane passing through overline{a} . The case overline{a} = 0 results in an inversion formula for the special case of integration on great spheres (i.e., Funk transform). The limiting case where pin {{{S}}}^{n - 1} and overline{a}→ p results in an inversion formula for the special case of integration on spheres passing through a common point in {{{S}}}^{n - 1}.

  14. A model of freezing foods with liquid nitrogen using special functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Vega, Martín.

    2014-05-01

    A food freezing model is analyzed analytically. The model is based on the heat diffusion equation in the case of cylindrical shaped food frozen by liquid nitrogen; and assuming that the thermal conductivity of the cylindrical food is radially modulated. The model is solved using the Laplace transform method, the Bromwich theorem, and the residue theorem. The temperature profile in the cylindrical food is presented as an infinite series of special functions. All the required computations are performed with computer algebra software, specifically Maple. Using the numeric values of the thermal and geometric parameters for the cylindrical food, as well as the thermal parameters of the liquid nitrogen freezing system, the temporal evolution of the temperature in different regions in the interior of the cylindrical food is presented both analytically and graphically. The duration of the liquid nitrogen freezing process to achieve the specified effect on the cylindrical food is computed. The analytical results are expected to be of importance in food engineering and cooking engineering. As a future research line, the formulation and solution of freezing models with thermal memory is proposed.

  15. Functional specialization among insect chitinase family genes revealed by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qingsong; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Beeman, Richard W; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam

    2008-05-06

    The biological functions of individual members of the large family of chitinase-like proteins from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tc), were examined by using gene-specific RNAi. One chitinase, TcCHT5, was found to be required for pupal-adult molting only. A lethal phenotype was observed when the transcript level of TcCHT5 was down-regulated by injection of TcCHT5-specific dsRNA into larvae. The larvae had metamorphosed into pupae and then to pharate adults but did not complete adult eclosion. Specific knockdown of transcripts for another chitinase, TcCHT10, which has multiple catalytic domains, prevented embryo hatch, larval molting, pupation, and adult metamorphosis, indicating a vital role for TcCHT10 during each of these processes. A third chitinase-like protein, TcCHT7, was required for abdominal contraction and wing/elytra extension immediately after pupation but was dispensable for larval-larval molting, pupation, and adult eclosion. The wing/elytra abnormalities found in TcCHT7-silenced pupae were also manifest in the ensuing adults. A fourth chitinase-like protein, TcIDGF4, exhibited no chitinolytic activity but contributed to adult eclosion. No phenotypic effects were observed after knockdown of transcripts for several other chitinase-like proteins, including imaginal disk growth factor IDGF2. These data indicate functional specialization among insect chitinase family genes, primarily during the molting process, and provide a biological rationale for the presence of a large assortment of chitinase-like proteins.

  16. Trophic apparatus in cyprinodontiform fishes: functional specializations for picking and scraping behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, L Patricia; Gibb, Alice C; Ferry-Graham, Lara

    2009-06-01

    Cyprinodontiforms are a diverse and speciose order that includes topminnows, pupfishes, swordtails, mosquitofishes, guppies, and mollies. Sister group to the Beloniformes and Atheriniformes, Cyprinodontiformes contains approximately twice the number of species of these other two orders combined. Recent studies suggest that this group is well suited to capturing prey by "picking" small items from the water surface, water column, and the substrate. Because picking places unusual performance demands on the feeding apparatus, this mode of prey capture may rely upon novel morphological modifications not found in more widespread ram- or suction-based feeding mechanisms. To assess this evolutionary hypothesis, we describe the trophic anatomy of 16 cyprinodontiform species, selected to broadly represent the order as well as capture intrageneric variation. The group appears to have undergone gradual morphological changes to become increasingly specialized for picking and scraping behaviors. We also identify a suite of functional characters related to the acquisition of a novel and previously undescribed mechanism of premaxillary protrusion and retraction, including: modification of the "premaxillomandibular" ligament (which connects each side of the premaxilla to the ipsilateral mandible, or lower jaw), a novel architecture of the ligaments and bony elements that unite the premaxillae, maxillae and palatine bones, and novel insertions of the adductor muscles onto the jaws. These morphological changes to both the upper and lower jaws suggest an evolutionary trend within this group toward increased reliance on picking individual prey from the water column/substrate or for scraping encrusting material from the substrate. We propose that the suite of morphological characters described here enable a functional innovation, "picking," which leads to novel trophic habits.

  17. Native Variants of the MRB1 Complex Exhibit Specialized Functions in Kinetoplastid RNA Editing.

    PubMed

    Madina, Bhaskara R; Kumar, Vikas; Mooers, Blaine H M; Cruz-Reyes, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation and survival of Trypanosoma brucei requires editing of mitochondrial mRNA by uridylate (U) insertion and deletion. Hundreds of small guide RNAs (gRNAs) direct the mRNA editing at over 3,000 sites. RNA editing is controlled during the life cycle but the regulation of substrate and stage specificity remains unknown. Editing progresses in the 3' to 5' direction along the pre-mRNA in blocks, each targeted by a unique gRNA. A critical editing factor is the mitochondrial RNA binding complex 1 (MRB1) that binds gRNA and transiently interacts with the catalytic RNA editing core complex (RECC). MRB1 is a large and dynamic complex that appears to be comprised of distinct but related subcomplexes (termed here MRBs). MRBs seem to share a 'core' complex of proteins but differ in the composition of the 'variable' proteins. Since some proteins associate transiently the MRBs remain imprecisely defined. MRB1 controls editing by unknown mechanisms, and the functional relevance of the different MRBs is unclear. We previously identified two distinct MRBs, and showed that they carry mRNAs that undergo editing. We proposed that editing takes place in the MRBs because MRBs stably associate with mRNA and gRNA but only transiently interact with RECC, which is RNA free. Here, we identify the first specialized functions in MRBs: 1) 3010-MRB is a major scaffold for RNA editing, and 2) REH2-MRB contains a critical trans-acting RNA helicase (REH2) that affects multiple steps of editing function in 3010-MRB. These trans effects of the REH2 include loading of unedited mRNA and editing in the first block and in subsequent blocks as editing progresses. REH2 binds its own MRB via RNA, and conserved domains in REH2 were critical for REH2 to associate with the RNA and protein components of its MRB. Importantly, REH2 associates with a ~30 kDa RNA-binding protein in a novel ~15S subcomplex in RNA-depleted mitochondria. We use these new results to update our model of MRB function and

  18. MATERIAL CONTROL ACCOUNTING INMM

    SciTech Connect

    Hasty, T.

    2009-06-14

    Since 1996, the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC - formerly known as K-26), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have been cooperating under the cooperative Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program between the Russian Federation and the U.S. Governments. Since MCC continues to operate a reactor for steam and electricity production for the site and city of Zheleznogorsk which results in production of the weapons grade plutonium, one of the goals of the MPC&A program is to support implementation of an expanded comprehensive nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) program. To date MCC has completed upgrades identified in the initial gap analysis and documented in the site MC&A Plan and is implementing additional upgrades identified during an update to the gap analysis. The scope of these upgrades includes implementation of MCC organization structure relating to MC&A, establishing material balance area structure for special nuclear materials (SNM) storage and bulk processing areas, and material control functions including SNM portal monitors at target locations. Material accounting function upgrades include enhancements in the conduct of physical inventories, limit of error inventory difference procedure enhancements, implementation of basic computerized accounting system for four SNM storage areas, implementation of measurement equipment for improved accountability reporting, and both new and revised site-level MC&A procedures. This paper will discuss the implementation of MC&A upgrades at MCC based on the requirements established in the comprehensive MC&A plan developed by the Mining and Chemical Combine as part of the MPC&A Program.

  19. Keeping Accountability Systems Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Martha

    2007-01-01

    The standards and accountability movement in education has undeniably transformed schooling throughout the United States. Even before President Bush signed the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act into law in January 2002, mandating annual public school testing in English and math for grades 3-8 and once in high school, most states had already…

  20. Visual Function and Ocular Status in Children with Disabilities in Special Schools of Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Satish; Jindal, Mahesh; Bhatti, SM

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Children with disabilities (other than visual impairment) are at a higher risk of visual impairment as compared to normal population. Majority of the ocular disorders, like refractive errors and strabismus, are easily treatable. As these children depend on their visual inputs for social and academic activities, an early detection and prompt treatment of even a minor visual problem is of utmost importance for them. Aim To assess the visual function and ocular status of children with disabilities other than visual impairment and to identify the preventable and treatable causes of visual impairment. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on children aged 3-16 years who were studying in special schools/ rehabilitation centers in Ludhiana. After prior permission, detailed ocular examination of all the children was done using standard examination techniques. Cycloplegic retinoscopy and refraction was also done and spectacles were prescribed. Children requiring further evaluation were referred to base hospital. Results A total of 404 children with disabilities (other than visual disabilities) studying in 7 rehabilitation centers/ special schools were enrolled. These included children with Cerebral palsy (12.1%), with Hearing impairment (35.3%), with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) (3.7%), with Autism (8.6%), with Down syndrome (12.8%) and with Mental retardation (27.2%). Ocular disorders were seen in 174(43%) children. The most common ocular disorders seen in these children were refractive errors (23%) and strabismus (18.1%). A total of 93(23%) children were prescribed spectacles and 37(9.2%) children were referred for further evaluation. Conclusion Ocular problems are common in children with other disabilities. Delay in the detection and treatment of these disorders compounds the already existing disability in these children. Lack of awareness and sensitization among the parents and teachers is a matter of great concern. Therefore

  1. Institutional Separation in Schools of Education: Understanding the Functions of Space in General and Special Education Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Kathryn S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this spatial study is to understand the function space play in a combined credential program in the US in helping or hindering the program's inclusive mission. The study examines how physical and social manifestations of general and special education are (re)organized in the new program. The data provides evidence for the pervasive…

  2. Functional specialization of cellulose synthase genes of prokaryotic origin in chordate larvaceans.

    PubMed

    Sagane, Yoshimasa; Zech, Karin; Bouquet, Jean-Marie; Schmid, Martina; Bal, Ugur; Thompson, Eric M

    2010-05-01

    Extracellular matrices play important, but poorly investigated, roles in morphogenesis. Extracellular cellulose is central to regulation of pattern formation in plants, but among metazoans only tunicates are capable of cellulose biosynthesis. Cellulose synthase (CesA) gene products are present in filter-feeding structures of all tunicates and also regulate metamorphosis in the ascidian Ciona. Ciona CesA is proposed to have been acquired by lateral gene transfer from a prokaryote. We identified two CesA genes in the sister-class larvacean Oikopleura dioica. Each has a mosaic structure of a glycoslyltransferase 2 domain upstream of a glycosyl hydrolase family 6 cellulase-like domain, a signature thus far unique to tunicates. Spatial-temporal expression analysis revealed that Od-CesA1 produces long cellulose fibrils along the larval tail, whereas Od-CesA2 is responsible for the cellulose scaffold of the post-metamorphic filter-feeding house. Knockdown of Od-CesA1 inhibited cellulose production in the extracellular matrix of the larval tail. Notochord cells either failed to align or were misaligned, the tail did not elongate properly and tailbud embryos also exhibited a failure to hatch. Knockdown of Od-CesA2 did not elicit any of these phenotypes and instead caused a mild delay in pre-house formation. Phylogenetic analyses including Od-CesAs indicate that a single lateral gene transfer event from a prokaryote at the base of the lineage conferred biosynthetic capacity in all tunicates. Ascidians possess one CesA gene, whereas duplicated larvacean genes have evolved distinct temporal and functional specializations. Extracellular cellulose microfibrils produced by the pre-metamorphic Od-CesA1 duplicate have a role in notochord and tail morphogenesis.

  3. The Contingency of Cocaine Administration Accounts for Structural and Functional Medial Prefrontal Deficits and Increased Adrenocortical Activation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rachel M.; Cosme, Caitlin V.; Glanz, Ryan M.; Miller, Mary C.; Romig-Martin, Sara A.; LaLumiere, Ryan T.

    2015-01-01

    The prelimbic region (PL) of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in the relapse of drug-seeking behavior. Optimal mPFC functioning relies on synaptic connections involving dendritic spines in pyramidal neurons, whereas prefrontal dysfunction resulting from elevated glucocorticoids, stress, aging, and mental illness are each linked to decreased apical dendritic branching and spine density in pyramidal neurons in these cortical fields. The fact that cocaine use induces activation of the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis raises the possibility that cocaine-related impairments in mPFC functioning may be manifested by similar changes in neuronal architecture in mPFC. Nevertheless, previous studies have generally identified increases, rather than decreases, in structural plasticity in mPFC after cocaine self-administration. Here, we use 3D imaging and analysis of dendritic spine morphometry to show that chronic cocaine self-administration leads to mild decreases of apical dendritic branching, prominent dendritic spine attrition in PL pyramidal neurons, and working memory deficits. Importantly, these impairments were largely accounted for in groups of rats that self-administered cocaine compared with yoked-cocaine- and saline-matched counterparts. Follow-up experiments failed to demonstrate any effects of either experimenter-administered cocaine or food self-administration on structural alterations in PL neurons. Finally, we verified that the cocaine self-administration group was distinguished by more protracted increases in adrenocortical activity compared with yoked-cocaine- and saline-matched controls. These studies suggest a mechanism whereby increased adrenocortical activity resulting from chronic cocaine self-administration may contribute to regressive prefrontal structural and functional plasticity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Stress, aging, and mental illness are each linked to decreased prefrontal plasticity. Here, we show that chronic

  4. VALVE FUNNEL SPRING PIN PRESS PERFORMANCE AND FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS EVALUATION FOR SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    WITHERSPOON JT

    2009-12-30

    This evaluation allows use of the valve funnel spring pin press and describes appropriate handling instructions for the tool. The engineering evaluation is required for operations and field use of special tools and equipment.

  5. Changes in collagen metabolism account for ventricular functional recovery following beta-blocker therapy in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Miho; Goda, Akiko; Komamura, Kazuo; Nakabo, Ayumi; Masaki, Mitsuru; Yoshida, Chikako; Hirotani, Shinichi; Lee-Kawabata, Masaaki; Tsujino, Takeshi; Mano, Toshiaki; Masuyama, Tohru

    2016-02-01

    While beta blockade improves left ventricular (LV) function in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), the mechanisms are not well known. This study aimed to examine whether changes in myocardial collagen metabolism account for LV functional recovery following beta-blocker therapy in 62 CHF patients with reduced ejection fraction (EF). LV function was echocardiographically measured at baseline and 1, 6, and 12 months after bisoprolol therapy along with serum markers of collagen metabolism including C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (CITP) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. Deceleration time of mitral early velocity (DcT) increased even in the early phase, but LVEF gradually improved throughout the study period. Heart rate (HR) was reduced from the early stage, and CITP gradually decreased. LVEF and DcT increased more so in patients with the larger decreases in CITP (r = -0.33, p < 0.05; r = -0.28, p < 0.05, respectively), and HR (r = -0.31, p < 0.05; r = -0.38, p < 0.05, respectively). In addition, there were greater decreases in CITP, MMP-2 and HR from baseline to 1, 6, or 12 months in patients with above-average improvement in LVEF than in those with below-average improvement in LVEF. Similar results were obtained in terms of DcT. There was no significant correlation between the changes in HR and CITP. In conclusion, improvement in LV systolic/diastolic function was greatest in patients with the larger inhibition of collagen degradation. Changes in myocardial collagen metabolism are closely related to LV functional recovery somewhat independently from HR reduction.

  6. The Ferrier Lecture 1995 Behind the Seen: The functional specialization of the brain in space and time

    PubMed Central

    Zeki, Semir

    2005-01-01

    The visual brain consists of many different visual areas, which are functionally specialized to process and perceive different attributes of the visual scene. However, the time taken to process different attributes varies; consequently, we see some attributes before others. It follows that there is a perceptual asynchrony and hierarchy in visual perception. Because perceiving an attribute is tantamount to becoming conscious of it, it follows that we become conscious of different attributes at different times. Visual consciousness is therefore distributed in time. Given that we become conscious of different visual attributes because of activity at different, functionally specialized, areas of the visual brain, it follows that visual consciousness is also distributed in space. Therefore, visual consciousness is not a single unified entity, but consists of many microconsciousnesses. PMID:16147515

  7. Determinants of Adult Functional Outcome in Adolescents Receiving Special Educational Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, H. R.; Johnstone, E. C.; McKirdy, J.; Owens, D. C.; Stanfield, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the role of IQ, autistic traits and challenging behaviours in affecting adult outcomes among adolescents who receive special educational assistance. Methods: A total of 58 participants were recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study. All received assessments of IQ, behavioural patterns (using the Childhood…

  8. Taking Development Seriously: Critique of the 2008 "JME" Special Issue on Moral Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, John C.; Moshman, David; Berkowitz, Marvin W.; Basinger, Karen S.; Grime, Rebecca L.

    2009-01-01

    This essay comments on articles comprising a "Journal of Moral Education" Special Issue (September, 2008, 37[3]). The issue was intended to honour the 50th anniversary of Lawrence Kohlberg's doctoral dissertation and his subsequent impact on the field of moral development and education. The articles were characterised by the Issue editor (Don…

  9. Hemispheric Specialization for Emotional Word Processing Is a Function of SSRI Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Amy; McDowall, John; Grimshaw, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    Vulnerability to depression and non-response to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are associated with specific neurophysiological characteristics including greater right hemisphere (RH) relative to left hemisphere (LH) activity. The present study investigated the relationship between hemispheric specialization and processing of…

  10. The cochlea of Tadarida brasiliensis: specialized functional organization in a generalized bat.

    PubMed

    Vater, M; Siefer, W

    1995-11-01

    Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana employs a broad-band sonar system at frequencies between 80 and 20 kHz and is characterized by non-specialized hearing capabilities. The cochlear frequency map was determined with extracellular horseradish peroxidase tracing in relation to quantitative morphological data obtained with light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These data reveal distinct species characteristic specializations clearly separate from the patterns observed in other bats with either broad-band or narrow-band sonar systems. The basilar membrane (BM) is coiled to 2.5 turns and about 12 mm long. Its thickness and width only change within the extreme basal and apical ends. The frequency range from about 30 to 80 kHz is represented in the lower basal turn with a typically mammalian mapping coefficient of about 3 mm/octave. This region exhibits morphological features correlated with non-specialized processing of high frequencies. (1) The BM is radially segmented by thickenings of pars tecta and pars pectinata. (2) The 3 rows of outer hair cells (OHCs) have similar morphology. Between 35 and 86% distance from base, frequencies between 30 and 12 kHz are represented with a slightly expanded mapping coefficient of about 6 mm/octave. In analogy to previous work, this cochlea region is termed acoustic fovea. It includes the frequency range of maximum sensitivity and sharpest tuning (21-27 kHz) but also frequencies below the sonar signals. The fovea is characterized by several morphological specializations. (1) The BM features a continuous radial thickening mainly composed of hyaline substance. (2) There is an increased number of layers of tension fibroblasts in the spiral ligament. (3) There are morphological differences in the arrangements of stereocilia bundles among the 3 rows of OHCs. The transitions between non-specialized and specialized cochlear regions occur gradually within a distance of about 600 microns. The gradients in stereocilia length of both

  11. Special Report on the "Department of Energy's Efforts to Meet Accountability and Performance Reporting Objectives of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) was to jumpstart the U.S. economy, create or save millions of jobs, spur technological advances in health and science, and invest in the Nation's energy future. The Department of Energy will receive an unprecedented $38 billion in Recovery Act funding to support a variety of science, energy, and environmental initiatives. The Recovery Act requires transparency and accountability over these funds. To this end, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) issued guidance requiring the Department to compile and report a wide variety of funding, accounting, and performance information. The Department plans to leverage existing information systems to develop accounting and performance information that will be used by program managers and ultimately reported to Recovery.gov, the government-wide source of Recovery Act information, and to OMB. The Department's iManage iPortal, a system that aggregates information from a number of corporate systems, will serve as the main reporting gateway for accounting information. In addition, the Department plans to implement a methodology or system that will permit it to monitor information reported directly to OMB by prime funding recipients. Furthermore, performance measures or metrics that outline expected outcomes are being developed, with results ultimately to be reported in a recently developed Department-wide system. Because of the significance of funds provided and their importance to strengthening the Nation's economy, we initiated this review to determine whether the Department had taken the steps necessary to ensure that Recovery Act funds can be appropriately tracked and are transparent to the public, and whether the benefits of the expenditures can be properly measured and reported clearly, accurately, and in a timely manner. Although not yet fully mature, we found that the Department's efforts to develop, refine, and apply the control structure

  12. Accounting Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prickett, Charlotte

    This curriculum guide describes the accounting curriculum in the following three areas: accounting clerk, bookkeeper, and nondegreed accountant. The competencies and tasks complement the Arizona validated listing in these areas. The guide lists 24 competencies for nondegreed accountants, 10 competencies for accounting clerks, and 11 competencies…

  13. The default-mode, ego-functions and free-energy: a neurobiological account of Freudian ideas

    PubMed Central

    Friston, K. J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the notion that Freudian constructs may have neurobiological substrates. Specifically, we propose that Freud’s descriptions of the primary and secondary processes are consistent with self-organized activity in hierarchical cortical systems and that his descriptions of the ego are consistent with the functions of the default-mode and its reciprocal exchanges with subordinate brain systems. This neurobiological account rests on a view of the brain as a hierarchical inference or Helmholtz machine. In this view, large-scale intrinsic networks occupy supraordinate levels of hierarchical brain systems that try to optimize their representation of the sensorium. This optimization has been formulated as minimizing a free-energy; a process that is formally similar to the treatment of energy in Freudian formulations. We substantiate this synthesis by showing that Freud’s descriptions of the primary process are consistent with the phenomenology and neurophysiology of rapid eye movement sleep, the early and acute psychotic state, the aura of temporal lobe epilepsy and hallucinogenic drug states. PMID:20194141

  14. Where do the Nuclear Materials Management functions fit in the Materials Control and Accountability (MC and A) plan

    SciTech Connect

    DeVer, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    Safeguards had its beginning in the early 1940s and has continued to grow through the stormy years in dealing with nuclear materials. MC and A Plans have been developed for each facility which includes requirements for containment, surveillance, internal controls, measurements, statistics, records and report systems, and inventory certification of its nuclear materials, in the context of how precisely the inventory is known at stated risk or confidence levels. The I and E Regulations, the newest document affecting the control system, are used for testing the current MC and A plan in place at each facility. Nuclear Materials Management activities also have reporting requirements that include: (1) Annual Forecast, (2) Materials Management Plan, (3) Quarterly Status Report, (4) Assessment Report, and (5) Scrap and Excess Material Management. Data used to generate reports for both functions come from the same data base and source documents at most facilities. The separation of sponsoring groups at the DOE for NM Accountability and NM Management can and does pose problems for contractors. In this paper, we will try to separate and identify these overlaps at the Facility and DOE level.

  15. Dorso-medial and ventro-lateral functional specialization of the human retrosplenial complex in spatial updating and orienting.

    PubMed

    Burles, Ford; Slone, Edward; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    The retrosplenial complex is a region within the posterior cingulate cortex implicated in spatial navigation. Here, we investigated the functional specialization of this large and anatomically heterogeneous region using fMRI and resting-state functional connectivity combined with a spatial task with distinct phases of spatial 'updating' (i.e., integrating and maintaining object locations in memory during spatial displacement) and 'orienting' (i.e., recalling unseen locations from current position in space). Both spatial 'updating' and 'orienting' produced bilateral activity in the retrosplenial complex, among other areas. However, spatial 'updating' produced slightly greater activity in ventro-lateral portions, of the retrosplenial complex, whereas spatial 'orienting' produced greater activity in a more dorsal and medial portion of it (both regions localized along the parieto-occipital fissure). At rest, both ventro-lateral and dorso-medial subregions of the retrosplenial complex were functionally connected to the hippocampus and parahippocampus, regions both involved in spatial orientation and navigation. However, the ventro-lateral subregion of the retrosplenial complex displayed more positive functional connectivity with ventral occipital and temporal object recognition regions, whereas the dorso-medial subregion activity was more correlated to dorsal activity and frontal activity, as well as negatively correlated with more ventral parietal structures. These findings provide evidence for a dorso-medial to ventro-lateral functional specialization within the human retrosplenial complex that may shed more light on the complex neural mechanisms underlying spatial orientation and navigation in humans.

  16. Resources, attitudes and culture: an understanding of the factors that influence the functioning of accountability mechanisms in primary health care settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background District level health system governance is recognised as an important but challenging element of health system development in low and middle-income countries. Accountability is a more recent focus in health system debates. Accountability mechanisms are governance tools that seek to regulate answerability between the health system and the community (external accountability) and/or between different levels of the health system (bureaucratic accountability). External accountability has attracted significant attention in recent years, but bureaucratic accountability mechanisms, and the interactions between the two forms of accountability, have been relatively neglected. This is an important gap given that webs of accountability relationships exist within every health system. There is a need to strike a balance between achieving accountability upwards within the health system (for example through information reporting arrangements) while at the same time allowing for the local level innovation that could improve quality of care and patient responsiveness. Methods Using a descriptive literature review, this paper examines the factors that influence the functioning of accountability mechanisms and relationships within the district health system, and draws out the implications for responsiveness to patients and communities. We also seek to understand the practices that might strengthen accountability in ways that improve responsiveness – of the health system to citizens’ needs and rights, and of providers to patients. Results The review highlights the ways in which bureaucratic accountability mechanisms often constrain the functioning of external accountability mechanisms. For example, meeting the expectations of relatively powerful managers further up the system may crowd out efforts to respond to citizens and patients. Organisational cultures characterized by supervision and management systems focused on compliance to centrally defined outputs and targets

  17. Projection of Young-Old and Old-Old with Functional Disability: Does Accounting for the Changing Educational Composition of the Elderly Population Make a Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Ansah, John P.; Malhotra, Rahul; Lew, Nicola; Chiu, Chi-Tsun; Chan, Angelique; Bayer, Steffen; Matchar, David B.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares projections, up to year 2040, of young-old (aged 60-79) and old-old (aged 80+) with functional disability in Singapore with and without accounting for the changing educational composition of the Singaporean elderly. Two multi-state population models, with and without accounting for educational composition respectively, were developed, parameterized with age-gender-(education)-specific transition probabilities (between active, functional disability and death states) estimated from two waves (2009 and 2011) of a nationally representative survey of community-dwelling Singaporeans aged ≥60 years (N=4,990). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis with the bootstrap method was used to obtain the 95% confidence interval of the transition probabilities. Not accounting for educational composition overestimated the young-old with functional disability by 65 percent and underestimated the old-old by 20 percent in 2040. Accounting for educational composition, the proportion of old-old with functional disability increased from 40.8 percent in 2000 to 64.4 percent by 2040; not accounting for educational composition, the proportion in 2040 was 49.4 percent. Since the health profiles, and hence care needs, of the old-old differ from those of the young-old, health care service utilization and expenditure and the demand for formal and informal caregiving will be affected, impacting health and long-term care policy. PMID:25974069

  18. Projection of young-old and old-old with functional disability: does accounting for the changing educational composition of the elderly population make a difference?

    PubMed

    Ansah, John P; Malhotra, Rahul; Lew, Nicola; Chiu, Chi-Tsun; Chan, Angelique; Bayer, Steffen; Matchar, David B

    2015-01-01

    This study compares projections, up to year 2040, of young-old (aged 60-79) and old-old (aged 80+) with functional disability in Singapore with and without accounting for the changing educational composition of the Singaporean elderly. Two multi-state population models, with and without accounting for educational composition respectively, were developed, parameterized with age-gender-(education)-specific transition probabilities (between active, functional disability and death states) estimated from two waves (2009 and 2011) of a nationally representative survey of community-dwelling Singaporeans aged ≥ 60 years (N=4,990). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis with the bootstrap method was used to obtain the 95% confidence interval of the transition probabilities. Not accounting for educational composition overestimated the young-old with functional disability by 65 percent and underestimated the old-old by 20 percent in 2040. Accounting for educational composition, the proportion of old-old with functional disability increased from 40.8 percent in 2000 to 64.4 percent by 2040; not accounting for educational composition, the proportion in 2040 was 49.4 percent. Since the health profiles, and hence care needs, of the old-old differ from those of the young-old, health care service utilization and expenditure and the demand for formal and informal caregiving will be affected, impacting health and long-term care policy.

  19. An integrative method for testing form–function linkages and reconstructed evolutionary pathways of masticatory specialization

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Z. Jack; Flynn, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Morphology serves as a ubiquitous proxy in macroevolutionary studies to identify potential adaptive processes and patterns. Inferences of functional significance of phenotypes or their evolution are overwhelmingly based on data from living taxa. Yet, correspondence between form and function has been tested in only a few model species, and those linkages are highly complex. The lack of explicit methodologies to integrate form and function analyses within a deep-time and phylogenetic context weakens inferences of adaptive morphological evolution, by invoking but not testing form–function linkages. Here, we provide a novel approach to test mechanical properties at reconstructed ancestral nodes/taxa and the strength and direction of evolutionary pathways in feeding biomechanics, in a case study of carnivorous mammals. Using biomechanical profile comparisons that provide functional signals for the separation of feeding morphologies, we demonstrate, using experimental optimization criteria on estimation of strength and direction of functional changes on a phylogeny, that convergence in mechanical properties and degree of evolutionary optimization can be decoupled. This integrative approach is broadly applicable to other clades, by using quantitative data and model-based tests to evaluate interpretations of function from morphology and functional explanations for observed macroevolutionary pathways. PMID:25994295

  20. Executive Function and Behavioral Problems in Students with Visual Impairments at Mainstream and Special Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyl, Vera; Hintermair, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, executive function of school-aged children with visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) is examined in the context of behavioral problems and communicative competence. Methods: Teachers assessed the executive function of a sample of 226 visually impaired students from mainstream schools and…

  1. Spatial Compartmentalization Specializes the Function of Aurora A and Aurora B.

    PubMed

    Li, Si; Deng, Zhaoxuan; Fu, Jingyan; Xu, Caiyue; Xin, Guangwei; Wu, Zhige; Luo, Jia; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Shuli; Zhang, Boyan; Zou, Fangdong; Jiang, Qing; Zhang, Chuanmao

    2015-07-10

    Aurora kinase A and B share great similarity in sequences, structures, and phosphorylation motif, yet they show different localizations and play distinct crucial roles. The factors that determine such differences are largely unknown. Here we targeted Aurora A to the localization of Aurora B and found that Aurora A phosphorylates the substrate of Aurora B and substitutes its function in spindle checkpoint. In return, the centrosome targeting of Aurora B substitutes the function of Aurora A in the mitotic entry. Expressing the chimera proteins of the Auroras with exchanged N termini in cells indicates that the divergent N termini are also important for their spatiotemporal localizations and functions. Collectively, we demonstrate that functional divergence of Aurora kinases is determined by spatial compartmentalization, and their divergent N termini also contribute to their spatial and functional differentiation.

  2. Spatial Compartmentalization Specializes the Function of Aurora A and Aurora B*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Si; Deng, Zhaoxuan; Fu, Jingyan; Xu, Caiyue; Xin, Guangwei; Wu, Zhige; Luo, Jia; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Shuli; Zhang, Boyan; Zou, Fangdong; Jiang, Qing; Zhang, Chuanmao

    2015-01-01

    Aurora kinase A and B share great similarity in sequences, structures, and phosphorylation motif, yet they show different localizations and play distinct crucial roles. The factors that determine such differences are largely unknown. Here we targeted Aurora A to the localization of Aurora B and found that Aurora A phosphorylates the substrate of Aurora B and substitutes its function in spindle checkpoint. In return, the centrosome targeting of Aurora B substitutes the function of Aurora A in the mitotic entry. Expressing the chimera proteins of the Auroras with exchanged N termini in cells indicates that the divergent N termini are also important for their spatiotemporal localizations and functions. Collectively, we demonstrate that functional divergence of Aurora kinases is determined by spatial compartmentalization, and their divergent N termini also contribute to their spatial and functional differentiation. PMID:25987563

  3. Lateralized sensitivity of motor memories to the kinematics of the opposite arm reveals functional specialization during bimanual actions.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Atsushi; Hirashima, Masaya; Nozaki, Daichi

    2014-07-02

    It is generally believed that the dominant arm exhibits greater functional advantages over the nondominant arm in every respect, including muscular strength and movement accuracy. Recent studies have proposed that this laterality is due to different underlying control strategies for each limb rather than different limb capabilities constraining performance. However, the functional role and mechanisms of these different control strategies have yet to be elucidated. Here, we report a specialized function of the nondominant arm that plays a significant role only during bimanual movements. Right-handed human participants performed bimanual reaching movements while only one arm was subjected to a force field. Consistent with our previous study, adaptation to the force field decreased gradually as the movement direction of the opposite arm deviated from the trained direction. We also observed that the decrement of the adaptation was significantly greater for the nondominant left arm. According to our previously proposed theory, this poorer generalization of the left arm originated from a difference in parameters characterizing motor memory; the nondominant arm's motor memory was more strongly influenced by the opposite arm's kinematics. Remarkably, a model incorporating this lateralized memory predicted that the nondominant arm would demonstrate greater adaptability to force fields associated with the opposite arm's movement. We confirmed this prediction experimentally and found that this advantage of the left arm disappeared in left-handed human participants. We concluded that the secondary supporting role often played by the nondominant arm in bimanual actions reflects its specialization rather than its inferiority.

  4. The Nuclear Receptor LXRα controls the functional specialization of splenic macrophages

    PubMed Central

    A-Gonzalez, Noelia; Guillen, Jose A.; Gallardo, Germán; Diaz, Mercedes; de la Rosa, Juan V.; Hernandez, Irene H.; Casanova-Acebes, Maria; Lopez, Felix; Tabraue, Carlos; Beceiro, Susana; Hong, Cynthia; Lara, Pedro C.; Andujar, Miguel; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru; Li, Senlin; Corbi, Angel L.; Tontonoz, Peter; Hidalgo, Andres; Castrillo, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are professional phagocytic cells that orchestrate innate immune responses and display remarkable phenotypic diversity at different anatomical locations. However, the mechanisms that control the heterogeneity of tissue macrophages are not well characterized. Here, we report that the nuclear receptor LXRα is essential for the differentiation of macrophages in the marginal zone (MZ) of the spleen. LXR deficient mice are defective in the generation of MZ and metallophilic macrophages, resulting in abnormal responses to blood-borne antigens. Myeloid specific expression of LXRα or adoptive transfer of wild-type monocytes rescues the MZ microenvironment in LXRα deficient mice. These results demonstrate that LXRα signaling in myeloid cells is crucial for the generation of splenic MZ macrophages and reveal an unprecedented role for a nuclear receptor in the generation of specialized macrophage subsets. PMID:23770640

  5. General and specialized brain correlates for analogical reasoning: A meta-analysis of functional imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Hobeika, Lucie; Diard-Detoeuf, Capucine; Garcin, Béatrice; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2016-05-01

    Reasoning by analogy allows us to link distinct domains of knowledge and to transfer solutions from one domain to another. Analogical reasoning has been studied using various tasks that have generally required the consideration of the relationships between objects and their integration to infer an analogy schema. However, these tasks varied in terms of the level and the nature of the relationships to consider (e.g., semantic, visuospatial). The aim of this study was to identify the cerebral network involved in analogical reasoning and its specialization based on the domains of information and task specificity. We conducted a coordinate-based meta-analysis of 27 experiments that used analogical reasoning tasks. The left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex was one of the regions most consistently activated across the studies. A comparison between semantic and visuospatial analogy tasks showed both domain-oriented regions in the inferior and middle frontal gyri and a domain-general region, the left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex, which was specialized for analogy tasks. A comparison of visuospatial analogy to matrix problem tasks revealed that these two relational reasoning tasks engage, at least in part, distinct right and left cerebral networks, particularly separate areas within the left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings highlight several cognitive and cerebral differences between relational reasoning tasks that can allow us to make predictions about the respective roles of distinct brain regions or networks. These results also provide new, testable anatomical hypotheses about reasoning disorders that are induced by brain damage. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1953-1969, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Functional diversification of cerato-platanins in Moniliophthora perniciosa as seen by differential expression and protein function specialization.

    PubMed

    de O Barsottini, Mario R; de Oliveira, Juliana F; Adamoski, Douglas; Teixeira, Paulo J P L; do Prado, Paula F V; Tiezzi, Henrique O; Sforça, Mauricio L; Cassago, Alexandre; Portugal, Rodrigo V; de Oliveira, Paulo S L; de M Zeri, Ana C; Dias, Sandra M G; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Ambrosio, Andre L B

    2013-11-01

    Cerato-platanins (CP) are small, cysteine-rich fungal-secreted proteins involved in the various stages of the host-fungus interaction process, acting as phytotoxins, elicitors, and allergens. We identified 12 CP genes (MpCP1 to MpCP12) in the genome of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao, and showed that they present distinct expression profiles throughout fungal development and infection. We determined the X-ray crystal structures of MpCP1, MpCP2, MpCP3, and MpCP5, representative of different branches of a phylogenetic tree and expressed at different stages of the disease. Structure-based biochemistry, in combination with nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry, allowed us to define specialized capabilities regarding self-assembling and the direct binding to chitin and N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) tetramers, a fungal cell wall building block, and to map a previously unknown binding region in MpCP5. Moreover, fibers of MpCP2 were shown to act as expansin and facilitate basidiospore germination whereas soluble MpCP5 blocked NAG6-induced defense response. The correlation between these roles, the fungus life cycle, and its tug-of-war interaction with cacao plants is discussed.

  7. General methodology to optimize damping functions to account for charge penetration effects in electrostatic calculations using multicentered multipolar expansions.

    PubMed

    Werneck, Araken S; Filho, Tarcísio M Rocha; Dardenne, Laurent E

    2008-01-17

    We developed a methodology to optimize exponential damping functions to account for charge penetration effects when computing molecular electrostatic properties using the multicentered multipolar expansion method (MME). This methodology is based in the optimization of a damping parameter set using a two-step fast local fitting procedure and the ab initio (Hartree-Fock/6-31G** and 6-31G**+) electrostatic potential calculated in a set of concentric grid of points as reference. The principal aspect of the methodology is a first local fitting step which generates a focused initial guess to improve the performance of a simplex method avoiding the use of multiple runs and the choice of initial guesses. Three different strategies for the determination of optimized damping parameters were tested in the following studies: (1) investigation of the error in the calculation of the electrostatic interaction energy for five hydrogen-bonded dimers at standard and nonstandard hydrogen-bonded geometries and at nonequilibrium geometries; (2) calculation of the electrostatic molecular properties (potential and electric field) for eight small molecular systems (methanol, ammonia, water, formamide, dichloromethane, acetone, dimethyl sulfoxide, and acetonitrile) and for the 20 amino acids. Our results show that the methodology performs well not only for small molecules but also for relatively larger molecular systems. The analysis of the distinct parameter sets associated with different optimization strategies show that (i) a specific parameter set is more suitable and more general for electrostatic interaction energy calculations, with an average absolute error of 0.46 kcal/mol at hydrogen-bond geometries; (ii) a second parameter set is more suitable for electrostatic potential and electric field calculations at and outside the van der Waals (vdW) envelope, with an average error decrease >72% at the vdW surface. A more general amino acid damping parameter set was constructed from the

  8. Model Accounting Program. Adopters Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaverton School District 48, OR.

    The accounting cluster demonstration project conducted at Aloha High School in the Beaverton, Oregon, school district developed a model curriculum for high school accounting. The curriculum is based on interviews with professionals in the accounting field and emphasizes the use of computers. It is suitable for use with special needs students as…

  9. Abnormal Functional Specialization within Medial Prefrontal Cortex in High-Functioning Autism: A Multi-Voxel Similarity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Sam J.; Meuwese, Julia D. I.; Towgood, Karren J.; Frith, Christopher D.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Multi-voxel pattern analyses have proved successful in "decoding" mental states from fMRI data, but have not been used to examine brain differences associated with atypical populations. We investigated a group of 16 (14 males) high-functioning participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 16 non-autistic control participants (12 males)…

  10. Randomly Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.; Geppert, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    The accountability debate tends to devolve into a battle between the pro-testing and anti-testing crowds. When it comes to the design of a school accountability system, the devil is truly in the details. A well-designed accountability plan may go a long way toward giving school personnel the kinds of signals they need to improve performance.…

  11. Functional specializations of the ventral intraparietal area for multisensory heading discrimination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aihua; Deangelis, Gregory C; Angelaki, Dora E

    2013-02-20

    The ventral intraparietal area (VIP) of the macaque brain is a multimodal cortical region with directionally selective responses to visual and vestibular stimuli. To explore how these signals contribute to self-motion perception, neural activity in VIP was monitored while macaques performed a fine heading discrimination task based on vestibular, visual, or multisensory cues. For neurons with congruent visual and vestibular heading tuning, discrimination thresholds improved during multisensory stimulation, suggesting that VIP (like the medial superior temporal area; MSTd) may contribute to the improved perceptual discrimination seen during cue combination. Unlike MSTd, however, few VIP neurons showed opposite visual/vestibular tuning over the range of headings relevant to behavior, and those few cells showed reduced sensitivity under cue combination. Our data suggest that the heading tuning of some VIP neurons may be locally remodeled to increase the proportion of cells with congruent tuning over the behaviorally relevant stimulus range. VIP neurons also showed much stronger trial-by-trial correlations with perceptual decisions (choice probabilities; CPs) than MSTd neurons. While this may suggest that VIP neurons are more strongly linked to heading perception, we also find that correlated noise is much stronger among pairs of VIP neurons, with noise correlations averaging 0.14 in VIP as compared with 0.04 in MSTd. Thus, the large CPs in VIP could be a consequence of strong interneuronal correlations. Together, our findings suggest that VIP neurons show specializations that may make them well equipped to play a role in multisensory integration for heading perception.

  12. Mass extinctions, biodiversity and mitochondrial function: are bats 'special' as reservoirs for emerging viruses?

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Fa; Walker, Peter J; Poon, Leo L M

    2011-12-01

    For the past 10-15 years, bats have attracted growing attention as reservoirs of emerging zoonotic viruses. This has been due to a combination of factors including the emergence of highly virulent zoonotic pathogens, such as Hendra, Nipah, SARS and Ebola viruses, and the high rate of detection of a large number of previously unknown viral sequences in bat specimens. As bats have ancient evolutionary origins and are the only flying mammals, it has been hypothesized that some of their unique biological features may have made them especially suitable hosts for different viruses. So the question 'Are bats different, special or exceptional?' has become a focal point in the field of virology, bat biology and virus-host co-evolution. In this brief review, we examine the topic in a relatively unconventional way, that is, our discussion will be based on both scientific discoveries and theoretical predictions. This approach was chosen partially because the data in this field are so limited that it is impossible to conduct a useful review based on published results only and also because we believe it is important to provoke original, speculative or even controversial ideas or theories in this important field of research.

  13. Response function theories that account for size distribution effects - A review. [mathematical models concerning composite propellant heterogeneity effects on combustion instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents theoretical models developed to account for the heterogeneity of composite propellants in expressing the pressure-coupled combustion response function. It is noted that the model of Lengelle and Williams (1968) furnishes a viable basis to explain the effects of heterogeneity.

  14. Interhemispheric transcallosal connectivity between the left and right planum temporale predicts musicianship, performance in temporal speech processing, and functional specialization.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Stefan; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is strong evidence showing that musicianship favours functional and structural changes of the left planum temporale (PT), and that these cortical reorganizations facilitate the discrimination of temporal speech cues. Based on the proposition of a division of labour between the left and right PT, here we postulated that the musicians' advantage in processing temporal speech cues and PT specialization origin, at least in part, from increased white matter connectivity between the two auditory-related cortices. In particular, we assume that increased transcallosal PT connectivity might promote functional specialization and asymmetry of homotopic brain regions. With this purpose in mind, we applied diffusion tensor imaging and compared axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the interhemispheric connection between the left and right PT in thirteen musicians and 13 nonmusicians. Furthermore, in the form of an addendum, we integrated cortical surface area values and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses of the left PT that were collected in the context of two previous studies conducted with the same sample of subjects. Our results indicate increased connectivity between the left and right PT in musicians compared to nonmusicians, as indexed by reduced mean RD. We did not find significant between-group differences in FA and AD. Most notably, RD was related to the performance in the phonetic categorization task, musical aptitudes, as well as to BOLD responses in the left PT. Hence, we provide first evidence for a relationship between PT connectivity, musicianship, and phonetic categorization.

  15. Hydrophobic Core Variations Provide a Structural Framework for Tyrosine Kinase Evolution and Functional Specialization

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Annie; Byrne, Dominic P.; Ferries, Samantha; Ruan, Zheng; Hanold, Laura E.; Katiyar, Samiksha; Kennedy, Eileen J.; Eyers, Patrick A.; Kannan, Natarajan

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are a group of closely related enzymes that have evolutionarily diverged from serine/threonine kinases (STKs) to regulate pathways associated with multi-cellularity. Evolutionary divergence of PTKs from STKs has occurred through accumulation of mutations in the active site as well as in the commonly conserved hydrophobic core. While the functional significance of active site variations is well understood, relatively little is known about how hydrophobic core variations contribute to PTK evolutionary divergence. Here, using a combination of statistical sequence comparisons, molecular dynamics simulations, mutational analysis and in vitro thermostability and kinase assays, we investigate the structural and functional significance of key PTK-specific variations in the kinase core. We find that the nature of residues and interactions in the hydrophobic core of PTKs is strikingly different from other protein kinases, and PTK-specific variations in the core contribute to functional divergence by altering the stability and dynamics of the kinase domain. In particular, a functionally critical STK-conserved histidine that stabilizes the regulatory spine in STKs is selectively mutated to an alanine, serine or glutamate in PTKs, and this loss-of-function mutation is accommodated, in part, through compensatory PTK-specific interactions in the core. In particular, a PTK-conserved phenylalanine in the I-helix appears to structurally and functionally compensate for the loss of STK-histidine by interacting with the regulatory spine, which has far-reaching effects on enzyme activity, inhibitor sensing, and stability. We propose that hydrophobic core variations provide a selective advantage during PTK evolution by increasing the conformational flexibility, and therefore the allosteric potential of the kinase domain. Our studies also suggest that Tyrosine Kinase Like kinases such as RAF are intermediates in PTK evolutionary divergence inasmuch as they

  16. Functional Specialization of Domains Tandemly Duplicated Witin 16S rRNA Methyltransferase RsmC

    SciTech Connect

    Sunita,S.; Purta, E.; Durawa, M.; Tkaczuk, K.; Swaathi, J.; Bujnicki, J.; Sivaraman, J.

    2007-01-01

    RNA methyltransferases (MTases) are important players in the biogenesis and regulation of the ribosome, the cellular machine for protein synthesis. RsmC is a MTase that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to G1207 of 16S rRNA. Mutations of G1207 have dominant lethal phenotypes in Escherichia coli, underscoring the significance of this modified nucleotide for ribosome function. Here we report the crystal structure of E. coli RsmC refined to 2.1 Angstroms resolution, which reveals two homologous domains tandemly duplicated within a single polypeptide. We characterized the function of the individual domains and identified key residues involved in binding of rRNA and SAM, and in catalysis. We also discovered that one of the domains is important for the folding of the other. Domain duplication and subfunctionalization by complementary degeneration of redundant functions (in particular substrate binding versus catalysis) has been reported for many enzymes, including those involved in RNA metabolism. Thus, RsmC can be regarded as a model system for functional streamlining of domains accompanied by the development of dependencies concerning folding and stability.

  17. Teaching Special Education Teachers How to Conduct Functional Analysis in Natural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbas, Dilek; Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Yucesoy, Serife

    2006-01-01

    Effects of a training program utilized to teach how to conduct functional analysis process to teachers of children with developmental disabilities was examined. Furthermore, teachers' opinions regarding this process were investigated. A multiple probe design across subjects with probe conditions was used. Teacher training was in two phases. In the…

  18. 78 FR 57470 - Special Conditions: Eclipse, EA500, Certification of Autothrottle Functions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... an update to the aircraft software to activate the previously installed autothrottle provisions in... Type Certificate (STC) to update the aircraft software for implementation of an autothrottle function on the EA500 aircraft. Included with the software upgrade is the activation of previously...

  19. Evaluating Implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health in Portugal's Special Education Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanches-Ferreira, Manuela; Simeonsson, Rune J.; Silveira-Maia, Mónica; Alves, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a national two-year project, commissioned by the Portuguese Ministry of Education, to investigate the implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) under Decree-Law 3/2008. The Decree-Law also introduced the principle that the documentation of students' functioning…

  20. Anxiety symptoms in young people with autism spectrum disorder attending special schools: Associations with gender, adaptive functioning and autism symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Magiati, Iliana; Ong, Clarissa; Lim, Xin Yi; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Ong, Amily Yi Lin; Patrycia, Ferninda; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Sung, Min; Poon, Kenneth K; Howlin, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Anxiety-related problems are among the most frequently reported mental health difficulties in autism spectrum disorder. As most research has focused on clinical samples or high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder, less is known about the factors associated with anxiety in community samples across the ability range. This cross-sectional study examined the association of gender, age, adaptive functioning and autism symptom severity with different caregiver-reported anxiety symptoms. Participants were caregivers of 241 children (6-18 years old) with autism spectrum disorder attending special schools in Singapore. Measures included the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale and assessments of overall emotional, behavioural and adaptive functioning. Caregivers reported more anxiety symptoms in total, but fewer social anxiety symptoms, than Spence Children's Anxiety Scale Australian/Dutch norms. There were no gender differences. Variance in total anxiety scores was best explained by severity of repetitive speech/stereotyped behaviour symptoms, followed by adaptive functioning. Severity of repetitive speech/behaviour symptoms was a significant predictor of separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, panic/agoraphobia and obsessive-compulsive subscale symptoms, but not of social phobia and physical injury fears. Adaptive functioning and chronological age predicted social phobia and generalized anxiety symptoms only. Severity of social/communication autism symptoms did not explain any anxiety symptoms, when the other variables were controlled for. Findings are discussed in relation to the existing literature. Limitations and possible implications for prevention, assessment and intervention are also discussed.

  1. Making Accountability Really Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Lauren B.

    2006-01-01

    Standards-based education has now reached a stage where it is possible to evaluate its overall effectiveness. Several earlier papers in the special issue of "Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice" on "Test Scores and State Accountability" (Volume 24, Number 4) examined specific state policies and their effects on schools…

  2. Accountability for Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Productivity gains in higher education won't be made just by improving cost effectiveness or even performance. They need to be documented, communicated, and integrated into a strategic agenda to increase attainment. This requires special attention to "accountability" for productivity, meaning public presentation and communication of evidence about…

  3. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (2) Credit balances must have sufficient digits to accommodate the design of the game. (3) Accounting data displayed to the player may be incremented or decremented using visual effects, but the internal..., during entertaining displays of game results. (2) Progressive prizes may be added to the player's...

  4. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (2) Credit balances must have sufficient digits to accommodate the design of the game. (3) Accounting data displayed to the player may be incremented or decremented using visual effects, but the internal..., during entertaining displays of game results. (2) Progressive prizes may be added to the player's...

  5. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.9 What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system... digits to accommodate the design of the game. (3) Accounting data displayed to the player may be... audit, configuration, recall and test modes; or (ii) Temporarily, during entertaining displays of...

  6. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.9 What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system... digits to accommodate the design of the game. (3) Accounting data displayed to the player may be... audit, configuration, recall and test modes; or (ii) Temporarily, during entertaining displays of...

  7. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.9 What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system... digits to accommodate the design of the game. (3) Accounting data displayed to the player may be... audit, configuration, recall and test modes; or (ii) Temporarily, during entertaining displays of...

  8. Are executive function and impulsivity antipodes? A conceptual reconstruction with special reference to addiction

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, Warren K.; Jarmolowicz, David P.; Mueller, E. Terry; Gatchalian, Kirstin M.; McClure, Samuel M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Although there is considerable interest in how either executive function (EF) or impulsivity relate to addiction, there is little apparent overlap between these research areas. Objectives The present paper aims to determine if components of these two constructs are conceptual antipodes—widely separated on a shared continuum. Methods EFs and impulsivities were compared and contrasted. Specifically, the definitions of the components of EF and impulsivity, the methods used to measure the various components, the populations of drug users that show deficits in these components, and the neural substrates of these components were compared and contrasted. Results Each component of impulsivity had an antipode in EF. EF, however, covered a wider range of phenomena, including compulsivity. Conclusions Impulsivity functions as an antipode of certain components of EF. Recognition of the relationship between EF and impulsivity may inform the scientific inquiry of behavioral problems such as addiction. Other theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:22441659

  9. Synopsis of wetland functions and values: bottomland hardwoods with special emphasis on eastern Texas and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkinson, D.L.; Schneller-McDonald, K.; Olson, R.W.; Auble, G.T.

    1987-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood wetlands are the natural cover type of many floodplain ecosystems in the southeastern United States. They are dynamic, productive systems that depend on intermittent flooding and moving water for maintenance of structure and function. Many of the diverse functions performed by bottomland hardwoods (e.g., flood control, sediment trapping, fish and wildlife habitat) are directly or indirectly valued by humans. Balanced decisions regarding bottomland hardwoods are often hindered by a limited ability to accurately specify the functions being performed by these systems and, furthermore, by an inability to evaluate these functions in economic terms. This report addresses these informational needs. It focuses on the bottomland hardwoods of eastern Texas and Oklahoma, serving as an introduction and entry to the literature. It is not intended to serve as a substitute for reference to the original literature. The first section of the report is a review of the major functions of bottomland hardwoods, grouped under the headings of hydrology, water quality, productivity, detritus, nutrients, and habitat. Although the hydrology of these areas is diverse and complex, especially with respect to groundwater, water storage at high flows can clearly function to attenuate peak flows, with possible reductions in downstream flooding damage. Water moving through a bottomland hardwood system carries with it various organic and inorganic constituents, including sediment, organic matter, nutrients, and pollutants. When waterborne materials are introduced to bottomland hardwoods (from river flooding or upland runoff), they may be retained, transformed, or transported. As a result, water quality may be significantly altered and improved. The fluctuating and flowing water regime of bottomland hardwoods is associated with generally high net primary productivity and rapid fluxes of organic matter and nutrients. These, in turn, support secondary productivity in the bottomland

  10. Class I Myosins Have Overlapping and Specialized Functions in Left-Right Asymmetric Development in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, Takashi; Sasamura, Takeshi; Inatomi, Momoko; Hozumi, Shunya; Nakamura, Mitsutoshi; Hatori, Ryo; Taniguchi, Kiichiro; Nakazawa, Naotaka; Suzuki, Emiko; Maeda, Reo; Yamakawa, Tomoko; Matsuno, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The class I myosin genes are conserved in diverse organisms, and their gene products are involved in actin dynamics, endocytosis, and signal transduction. Drosophila melanogaster has three class I myosin genes, Myosin 31DF (Myo31DF), Myosin 61F (Myo61F), and Myosin 95E (Myo95E). Myo31DF, Myo61F, and Myo95E belong to the Myosin ID, Myosin IC, and Myosin IB families, respectively. Previous loss-of-function analyses of Myo31DF and Myo61F revealed important roles in left–right (LR) asymmetric development and enterocyte maintenance, respectively. However, it was difficult to elucidate their roles in vivo, because of potential redundant activities. Here we generated class I myosin double and triple mutants to address this issue. We found that the triple mutant was viable and fertile, indicating that all three class I myosins were dispensable for survival. A loss-of-function analysis revealed further that Myo31DF and Myo61F, but not Myo95E, had redundant functions in promoting the dextral LR asymmetric development of the male genitalia. Myo61F overexpression is known to antagonize the dextral activity of Myo31DF in various Drosophila organs. Thus, the LR-reversing activity of overexpressed Myo61F may not reflect its physiological function. The endogenous activity of Myo61F in promoting dextral LR asymmetric development was observed in the male genitalia, but not the embryonic gut, another LR asymmetric organ. Thus, Myo61F and Myo31DF, but not Myo95E, play tissue-specific, redundant roles in LR asymmetric development. Our studies also revealed differential colocalization of the class I myosins with filamentous (F)-actin in the brush border of intestinal enterocytes. PMID:25659376

  11. Creating a standard models for the specialized GIS database and their functions in solving forecast tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapatov, Abish

    2015-04-01

    geological knowledge constitutes development of bank models of the analyzed geological structures within various ranges, ore-bearing features described by numerous prospecting indicators. Created standard models are entered into database of specialized GIS-technology. Models are used for solving forecasting tasks on the principle of comparing the formalized features of the standard with the forecast objects. Quantitative estimation is the similarity coefficient. Database is necessary in the planning methodology for conducting field research, and in subsurface resource management in the region.

  12. Differential item functioning in quality of life measure between children with and without special health care needs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, I-Chan; Leite, Walter L.; Shearer, Patricia; Seid, Michael; Revicki, Dennis A.; Shenkman, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Limited studies consider the effect of differential item functioning (DIF) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) comparisons between ill and health children. The objective is to assess DIF and compare HRQOL between children with special health care needs (CSHCN) and children without needs. Methods Data were collected from 1195 families of children enrolled in Florida’s public insurance programs. HRQOL was measured using physical, emotional, social, and school functioning of the PedsQL. We identified CSHCN using the CSHCN Screener and assessed DIF related to CSHCN using a multiple group-multiple indicator-multiple cause (MG-MIMIC) method. We assessed the impact of DIF by examining expected item/test scores and item/test information function. We tested the discrepancy between underlying HRQOL scores of both groups before and after DIF calibration (allowing parameters of DIF items to be different and DIF-free items to be the same across both groups). Results Two (25%) and 3 items (60%) of physical and school functioning, respectively, were identified with non-uniform DIF, and two items (40%) of social functioning were identified with uniform DIF. Expected item/test scores and item/test information function suggest the impact of DIF is minimal. Before DIF calibration, HRQOL in CSHCN was more impaired than children without needs (effect size −1.04, − 0.74, −0.96, and −0.98 for physical, emotional, social and school functioning, respectively). After DIF calibration, the discrepancy was increased slightly. Conclusions Although 30% of items in the PedsQL were identified with DIF related to CSHCN and children without needs, the impact of DIF is minimal. PMID:21914509

  13. Functional Specialization within the Supplementary Motor Area: A fNIRS Study of Bimanual Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Tony W.; Kurz, Max J.; Arpin, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Bimanual movements can be performed by flexing and extending the target effectors (e.g., hand muscles) in unison, or by flexing units on one side in unison with extension of the same units on the opposite side. The former movement patterns are generally referred to as in-phase or parallel, whereas the latter patterns are often termed anti-phase movements. It is well known that anti-phase patterns are unstable and tend to spontaneously transition to in-phase movements at higher repetition rates, but the mechanisms and brain regions involved are not fully understood. In the current study, we utilized functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to evaluate whether anterior/posterior subdivisions of the supplementary motor complex (SMA) have distinct functional roles in maintaining in-phase and anti-phase movement patterns. Twelve healthy adult participants completed a bimanual coordination task comprised of anti-phase and in-phase trials as 24-channel fNIRS data was recorded from dorsal-medial motor areas. We examined the relative concentrations of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin in the channels that were located over the anterior SMA (e.g., pre-SMA) and the SMA proper. Our most interesting results indicated that oxygenated hemoglobin responses were greater in the anterior SMA during performance of anti-phase compared to in-phase movements. In the SMA proper, oxygenated hemoglobin responses did not differ between the two movement patterns. These data suggest that the anterior SMA is critical to programming and maintaining the less stable anti-phase movement patterns, and supports the conceptual framework of an anterior-directed gradient of progressively more complex functionality in the SMA. PMID:23664948

  14. Transcriptional analysis of the mammalian heart with special reference to its endocrine function

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Monica Forero; de Bold, Adolfo J

    2009-01-01

    Background Pharmacological and gene ablation studies have demonstrated the crucial role of the endocrine function of the heart as mediated by the polypeptide hormones ANF and BNP in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. The importance of these studies lies on the fact that hypertension and chronic congestive heart failure are clinical entities that may be regarded as states of relative deficiency of ANF and BNP. These hormones are produced by the atrial muscle cells (cardiocytes), which display a dual secretory/muscle phenotype. In contrast, ventricular cardiocytes display mainly a muscle phenotype. Comparatively little information is available regarding the genetic background for this important phenotypic difference with particular reference to the endocrine function of the heart. We postulated that comparison of gene expression profiles between atrial and ventricular muscles would help identify gene transcripts that underlie the phenotypic differences associated with the endocrine function of the heart. Results Comparison of gene expression profiles in the rat heart revealed a total of 1415 differentially expressed genes between the atria and ventricles based on a 1.8 fold cut-off. The identification of numerous chamber specific transcripts, such as ANF for the atria and Irx4 for the ventricles among several others, support the soundness of the GeneChip data and demonstrates that the differences in gene expression profiles observed between the atrial and ventricular tissues were not spurious in nature. Pathway analysis revealed unique expression profiles in the atria for G protein signaling that included Gαo1, Gγ2 and Gγ3, AGS1, RGS2, and RGS6 and the related K+ channels GIRK1 and GIRK4. Transcripts involved in vesicle trafficking, hormone secretion as well as mechanosensors (e.g. the potassium channel TREK-1) were identified in relationship to the synthesis, storage and secretion of hormones. Conclusion The data developed in this investigation

  15. Metamorphosis of the excretory system of Paragonimus ohirai (Trematoda), with special reference to its functional significance.

    PubMed

    Orido, Y

    1987-12-01

    The fine structure of the excretory system was studied in metacercariae and juveniles of Paragonimus ohirai. The former were in vitro excysted, and the latter were collected from the abdominal cavity of a rat 24 hours postinfection. The terminal organs of the excretory system were composed of a flame cell and the first cell of a tubule. In the excysted metacercaria, there was no space between these cells to allow the passage of fluid. This suggests that the terminal organs of P. ohirai may be inactive in this stage. The excretory bladder was formed of epithelial cells which contained numerous lipid droplets and a large amount of glycogen in the cytoplasm. The bladder of the metacercaria seems to function as a storage area for nutrients and other materials. These characteristics of the metacercaria are considered to be related to the enclosed conditions created by encystment. Excretory organs had undergone cytomorphosis in the juveniles and appear to possess active excretory function. The periflagellar space in the terminal organs was formed, and lipids and concretions were excreted from a thin layer of the excretory epithelia into the lumen.

  16. Children's belief- and desire-reasoning in the temporoparietal junction: evidence for specialization from functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Lindsay C; Kovelman, Ioulia; Hu, Xiaosu; Wellman, Henry M

    2015-01-01

    Behaviorally, children's explicit theory of mind (ToM) proceeds in a progression of mental-state understandings: developmentally, children demonstrate accurate explicit desire-reasoning before accurate explicit belief-reasoning. Given its robust and cross-cultural nature, we hypothesize this progression may be paced in part by maturation/specialization of the brain. Neuroimaging research demonstrates that the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) becomes increasingly selective for ToM reasoning as children age, and as their ToM improves. But this research has narrowly focused on beliefs or on undifferentiated mental-states. A recent ERP study in children included a critical contrast to desire-reasoning, and demonstrated that right posterior potentials differentiated belief-reasoning from desire-reasoning. Taken together, the literature suggests that children's desire-belief progression may be paced by specialization of the right TPJ for belief-reasoning specifically, beyond desire-reasoning. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis directly by examining children's belief- and desire-reasoning using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in conjunction with structural magnetic resonance imaging to pinpoint brain activation in the right TPJ. Results showed greatest activation in the right TPJ for belief-reasoning, beyond desire-reasoning, and beyond non-mental reasoning (control). Findings replicate and critically extend prior ERP results, and provide clear evidence for a specific neural mechanism underlying children's progression from understanding desires to understanding beliefs.

  17. [Achilles tendon rupture--early functional and surgical options with special emphasis on rehabilitation issues].

    PubMed

    Knobloch, K; Thermann, H; Hüfner, T

    2007-03-01

    Achilles tendon ruptures are one end of a continuum starting with the healthy Achilles tendon via the thickened and painful tendinopathic Achilles tendon with neovascularisation to the complete tendon rupture. Often times chinolone antibiotics, cortisone therapy and valgus foot axis are associated risk factors. Incidence of Achilles tendon ruptures is estimated to be 10/100 000 per year with a mean age of 35-40 years. Physical activity is encountered in 75 % cases of Achilles tendon ruptures. Running is associated with Achilles tendinopathy as the predominant overuse injury in an analysis among 291 athletes with 10 million kilometers exposure. The Achilles tendinopathic rate was 0.016/1000 km differentiated in 0.008/1000 km mid-portion tendinopathy and 0.005/1000 km insertional tendinopathy. Achilles tendinopathy in running overuse injuries is followed by runner's knee (0.013/1000 km), shin splint (0.0104/1000 km) and plantar fasciitis (0.0054/1000 km). Dynamic ultrasound in 20 degrees plantar flexion is of utmost importance for therapeutic decision making. With an adaptation rate of 75 % or more of the ruptured tendon in 20 degrees plantar flexion and a high patient's compliance we perform an early functional conservative treatment regimen in Achilles tendon ruptures. In almost all other cases the percutaneous Achilles tendon repair is indicated, where nervus suralis lesions have to be appreciated. The vulnerable zone is 10-12 cm proximal to the calcaneus at the lateral border of the Achilles tendon with the sural nerve in close proximity with the tendon. Early functional rehabilitation is not associated with a higher risk of rerupture but with improved subjective assessments and should therefore be advocated.

  18. An exact explicit solution for one-dimensional, transient, nonlinear Richards' equation for modeling infiltration with special hydraulic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayek, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    This work develops a simple exact and explicit solution of the one-dimensional transient and nonlinear Richards' equation for soils in a special case of exponential water retention curve and power law hydraulic conductivity. The exact solution is obtained as traveling wave based on the approach proposed by Philip (1957, 1967) and adopted by Zlotnik et al. (2007). The obtained solution is novel, and it expresses explicitly the water content as function of the depth and time. It can be useful to model infiltration into semi-infinite soils with time-dependent boundary conditions and infiltration with constant boundary condition but space-dependent initial condition. A complete analytical inverse procedure based on the proposed analytical solution is presented which allows the estimation of hydraulic parameters. The proposed exact solution is also important for the verification of numerical schemes as well as for checking the implementation of time-dependent boundary conditions.

  19. Seismo-ionospheric transfer function: dependence on time, location and other special features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafyeva, E.; Rolland, L. M.; Lognonne, P.

    2010-12-01

    Large earthquakes are known to generate ionospheric disturbances, called coseismic ionosphere disturbances (CID). Vertical displacements of the ground induce pressure waves in the neutral atmosphere that propagate upward and grow in amplitude by several orders of magnitude as they reach ionospheric heights, since the atmospheric density decreases exponentially with height. Then, an ionospheric perturbation is formed via the collisions between neutral and charged particles. During favourable atmospheric and ionospheric conditions, a 0.1 mm/s ground displacement induced by the passage of Rayleigh surface waves generated by an earthquake of magnitude M8 at teleseismic distance, ionospheric layers can oscillate with velocities of about 10 m/s at around 150-200 km height. Those velocities are easily measurable by HF-Doppler sounder and significant Total Electron Content (TEC) variations (typically 0.1 TECU = 1x10^15 e-/m^3) can also be detected by GPS (Global Positioning System). However, before the emitted from the ground neutral waves reach the ionosphere they evolve due to a variety of effects provided by the propagation medium, i.e. the atmosphere. Therefore, one of the most interesting and important questions is the so-called transfer function for coseismic ionospheric disturbances that provides information on evolution and transformation of the “initial” neutral waves into the ultimate ionospheric response. This study analyzes the peculiarities of the transfer function for seismic waves in the ionosphere with respect to local time, geographical location, solar activity, etc. The variability of the solid Earth-atmosphere coupling is first investigated by estimating the amount of seismic energy injected in the atmosphere under variable atmospheric conditions. We model the atmospheric perturbation excited by an earthquake by summation of the Earth spheroidal normal modes computed for a 1D model of solid Earth surrounded by a realistic atmosphere. Further, through

  20. Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol to thiosulfate by rat tissues: a specialized function of the colonic mucosa.

    PubMed

    Furne, J; Springfield, J; Koenig, T; DeMaster, E; Levitt, M D

    2001-07-15

    Colonic bacteria release large quantities of the highly toxic thiols hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and methanethiol (CH(3)SH). These gases rapidly permeate the colonic mucosa, and tissue damage would be expected if the mucosa could not detoxify these compounds rapidly. We previously showed that rat cecal mucosa metabolizes these thiols via conversion to thiosulfate. The purpose of the present study in rats was to determine if this conversion of thiols to thiosulfate is (a) a generalized function of many tissues, or (b) a specialized function of the colonic mucosa. The tissues studied were mucosa from the cecum, right colon, mid-colon, ileum, and stomach; liver; muscle; erythrocytes; and plasma. The metabolic rate was determined by incubating homogenates of the various tissues with H(2)(35)S and CH(3)(35)SH and measuring the rate of incorporation of (35)S into thiosulfate and sulfate. The detoxification activity of H(2)S (expressed as nmol/mg per min) that resulted in thiosulfate production was at least eight times greater for cecal and right colonic mucosa than for the non-colonic tissues. Thiosulfate production from CH(3)SH was at least five times more rapid for cecal and right colonic mucosa than for the non-colonic tissues. We conclude that colonic mucosa possesses a specialized detoxification system that allows this tissue to rapidly metabolize H(2)S and CH(3)SH to thiosulfate. Presumably, this highly developed system protects the colon from what otherwise might be injurious concentrations of H(2)S and CH(3)SH. Defects in this detoxification pathway possibly could play a role in the pathogenesis of various forms of colitis.

  1. It Might Not Make a Big DIF: Improved Differential Test Functioning Statistics That Account for Sampling Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, R. Philip; Counsell, Alyssa; Flora, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Differential test functioning, or DTF, occurs when one or more items in a test demonstrate differential item functioning (DIF) and the aggregate of these effects are witnessed at the test level. In many applications, DTF can be more important than DIF when the overall effects of DIF at the test level can be quantified. However, optimal statistical…

  2. Secretagogin expression delineates functionally-specialized populations of striatal parvalbumin-containing interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Garas, Farid N; Shah, Rahul S; Kormann, Eszter; Doig, Natalie M; Vinciati, Federica; Nakamura, Kouichi C; Dorst, Matthijs C; Smith, Yoland; Magill, Peter J; Sharott, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Corticostriatal afferents can engage parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) interneurons to rapidly curtail the activity of striatal projection neurons (SPNs), thus shaping striatal output. Schemes of basal ganglia circuit dynamics generally consider striatal PV+ interneurons to be homogenous, despite considerable heterogeneity in both form and function. We demonstrate that the selective co-expression of another calcium-binding protein, secretagogin (Scgn), separates PV+ interneurons in rat and primate striatum into two topographically-, physiologically- and structurally-distinct cell populations. In rats, these two interneuron populations differed in their firing rates, patterns and relationships with cortical oscillations in vivo. Moreover, the axons of identified PV+/Scgn+ interneurons preferentially targeted the somata of SPNs of the so-called ‘direct pathway’, whereas PV+/Scgn- interneurons preferentially targeted ‘indirect pathway’ SPNs. These two populations of interneurons could therefore provide a substrate through which either of the striatal output pathways can be rapidly and selectively inhibited to subsequently mediate the expression of behavioral routines. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16088.001 PMID:27669410

  3. Fast calculation system specialized for head-related transfer function based on boundary element method.

    PubMed

    Otani, Makoto; Ise, Shiro

    2006-05-01

    Recently, development of a numerical calculation of the head-related transfer function (HRTF) has been conducted using a computer model of a human head and the boundary element method. The reciprocity theorem is incorporated into the computational process in order to shorten the computational time, which is otherwise very long. On the other hand, another fast HRTF calculation method for any source position, which is realized by calculating factors independent of the source position in advance, has been suggested by the authors. Using this algorithm, the HRTF for any source position can be obtained in a few seconds with a common PC. The resulting HRTFs are more precise and are calculated faster than those by using the reciprocity theorem. However, speeding the process up even further is required in order to respond to a head movement and rotation or to moving sources during binaural sound reproduction. In this paper, a faster calculation method by incorporating a time domain operation into the authors' previous algorithm is proposed. Additionally, the new formulation, which eliminates the extra computational time in the preprocess, is proposed. This method is shown to be faster than the previous ones, but there are some discrepancies at higher frequencies.

  4. Locating and computing in parallel all the simple roots of special functions using PVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plagianakos, V. P.; Nousis, N. K.; Vrahatis, M. N.

    2001-08-01

    An algorithm is proposed for locating and computing in parallel and with certainty all the simple roots of any twice continuously differentiable function in any specific interval. To compute with certainty all the roots, the proposed method is heavily based on the knowledge of the total number of roots within the given interval. To obtain this information we use results from topological degree theory and, in particular, the Kronecker-Picard approach. This theory gives a formula for the computation of the total number of roots of a system of equations within a given region, which can be computed in parallel. With this tool in hand, we construct a parallel procedure for the localization and isolation of all the roots by dividing the given region successively and applying the above formula to these subregions until the final domains contain at the most one root. The subregions with no roots are discarded, while for the rest a modification of the well-known bisection method is employed for the computation of the contained root. The new aspect of the present contribution is that the computation of the total number of zeros using the Kronecker-Picard integral as well as the localization and computation of all the roots is performed in parallel using the parallel virtual machine (PVM). PVM is an integrated set of software tools and libraries that emulates a general-purpose, flexible, heterogeneous concurrent computing framework on interconnected computers of varied architectures. The proposed algorithm has large granularity and low synchronization, and is robust. It has been implemented and tested and our experience is that it can massively compute with certainty all the roots in a certain interval. Performance information from massive computations related to a recently proposed conjecture due to Elbert (this issue, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 133 (2001) 65-83) is reported.

  5. Evaluation of Instructional Model Applied to Functional Math. Project on Effective Computer Instruction for Effective Special Education, Prince George's County Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouf, David B.; And Others

    This study evaluated an instructional model entitled "Integrating Computer Software into the Functional Mathematics Curriculum: A Diagnostic Approach," which was intended to prepare middle-school special education students for the Maryland Functional Mathematics Test. The model consisted of eight major components: pretests/posttests, diagnostic…

  6. Differential sensitivity of brainstem versus cortical astrocytes to changes in pH reveals functional regional specialization of astroglia.

    PubMed

    Kasymov, Vitaliy; Larina, Olga; Castaldo, Cinzia; Marina, Nephtali; Patrushev, Maxim; Kasparov, Sergey; Gourine, Alexander V

    2013-01-09

    Astrocytes might function as brain interoceptors capable of detecting different (chemo)sensory modalities and transmitting sensory information to the relevant neural networks controlling vital functions. For example, astrocytes that reside near the ventral surface of the brainstem (central respiratory chemosensitive area) respond to physiological decreases in pH with vigorous elevations in intracellular Ca(2+) and release of ATP. ATP transmits astroglial excitation to the brainstem respiratory network and contributes to adaptive changes in lung ventilation. Here we show that in terms of pH-sensitivity, ventral brainstem astrocytes are clearly distinct from astrocytes residing in the cerebral cortex. We monitored vesicular fusion in cultured rat brainstem astrocytes using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and found that ∼35% of them respond to acidification with an increased rate of exocytosis of ATP-containing vesicular compartments. These fusion events require intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and are independent of autocrine ATP actions. In contrast, the rate of vesicular fusion in cultured cortical astrocytes is not affected by changes in pH. Compared to cortical astrocytes, ventral brainstem astrocytes display higher levels of expression of genes encoding proteins associated with ATP vesicular transport and fusion, including vesicle-associated membrane protein-3 and vesicular nucleotide transporter. These results suggest that astrocytes residing in different parts of the rat brain are functionally specialized. In contrast to cortical astrocytes, astrocytes of the brainstem chemosensitive area(s) possess signaling properties that are functionally relevant-they are able to sense changes in pH and respond to acidification with enhanced vesicular release of ATP.

  7. Methods for in vitro functional analysis of iPSC derived cardiomyocytes - Special focus on analyzing the mechanical beating behavior.

    PubMed

    Laurila, Eeva; Ahola, Antti; Hyttinen, Jari; Aalto-Setälä, Katriina

    2016-07-01

    A rapidly increasing number of papers describing novel iPSC models for cardiac diseases are being published. To be able to understand the disease mechanisms in more detail, we should also take the full advantage of the various methods for analyzing these cell models. The traditionally and commonly used electrophysiological analysis methods have been recently accompanied by novel approaches for analyzing the mechanical beatingbehavior of the cardiomyocytes. In this review, we provide first a concise overview on the methodology for cardiomyocyte functional analysis and then concentrate on the video microscopy, which provides a promise for a new faster yet reliable method for cardiomyocyte functional analysis. We also show how analysis conditions may affect the results. Development of the methodology not only serves the basic research on the disease models, but could also provide the much needed efficient early phase screening method for cardiac safety toxicology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  8. Improvement of the circulatory function partially accounts for the neuroprotective action of the phytoestrogen genistein in experimental ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Cortina, Belén; Torregrosa, Germán; Castelló-Ruiz, María; Burguete, María C; Moscardó, Antonio; Latorre, Ana; Salom, Juan B; Vallés, Juana; Santos, María T; Alborch, Enrique

    2013-05-15

    We tested the hypothesis that the phytoestrogen genistein protects the brain against ischemic stroke by improving the circulatory function in terms of reduced production of thromboxane A2 and leukocyte-platelet aggregates, and of preserved vascular reactivity. Ischemia-reperfusion (90 min-3 days, intraluminal filament) was induced in male Wistar rats, and functional score and cerebral infarct volume were the end points examined. Genistein (10mg/kg/day) or vehicle (β-cyclodextrin) was administered at 30 min after ischemia or sham-operation. Production of thromboxane A2 and leukocyte-platelet aggregates, as well as reactivity of carotid artery to U-46619 (thromboxane A2 analogue) and to platelet releasate was measured. At 3 days post-ischemia, both improvement in the functional examination and reduction in the total infarct volume were shown in the ischemic genistein-treated group. Genistein significantly reverted both the increased thromboxane A2 concentration and the increased leukocyte-platelet aggregates production found in samples from the ischemic vehicle-treated group. Both U-46619 and platelet releasate elicited contractions of the carotid artery, which were significantly lower in the ischemic vehicle-treated group. Genistein significantly restored both the decreased U-46619- and the decreased platelet releasate-elicited contractile responses. In conclusion, genistein protects the brain against an ischemia-reperfusion challenge, at least in part, by its beneficial effects on the circulatory function.

  9. ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE IN CHILDREN: AN APPLICATION TO CONTINUOUS LUNG FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study is to estimate an unbiased exposure effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on children's continuous lung function. A majority of the evidence from health studies suggests that ETS exposure in early life contributes significantly to childhood ...

  10. Do Children's Executive Functions Account for Associations between Early Autonomy-Supportive Parenting and Achievement through High School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindman, Samantha W.; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the positive association between early autonomy-supportive parenting and children's subsequent achievement is mediated by children's executive functions. Using observations of mothers' parenting from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N…

  11. Beyond localized and distributed accounts of brain functions. Comment on “Understanding brain networks and brain organization” by Pessoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauda, Franco; Costa, Tommaso; Tamietto, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence in cognitive neuroscience lends support to the idea that network models of brain architecture provide a privileged access to the understanding of the relation between brain organization and cognitive processes [1]. The core perspective holds that cognitive processes depend on the interactions among distributed neuronal populations and brain structures, and that the impact of a given region on behavior largely depends on its pattern of anatomical and functional connectivity [2,3].

  12. Specializations in the lumbosacral vertebral canal and spinal cord of birds: evidence of a function as a sense organ which is involved in the control of walking.

    PubMed

    Necker, Reinhold

    2006-05-01

    Birds are bipedal animals with a center of gravity rostral to the insertion of the hindlimbs. This imposes special demands on keeping balance when moving on the ground. Recently, specializations in the lumbosacral region have been suggested to function as a sense organ of equilibrium which is involved in the control of walking. Morphological, electrophysiological, behavioral and embryological evidence for such a function is reviewed. Birds have two nearly independent kinds of locomotion and it is suggested that two different sense organs play an important role in their respective control: the vestibular organ during flight and the lumbosacral system during walking.

  13. Transport activity and presence of ClC-7/Ostm1 complex account for different cellular functions.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Stefanie; Jabs, Sabrina; Hohensee, Svea; Chan, Wing Lee; Kornak, Uwe; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2014-07-01

    Loss of the lysosomal ClC-7/Ostm1 2Cl(-)/H(+) exchanger causes lysosomal storage disease and osteopetrosis in humans and additionally changes fur colour in mice. Its conversion into a Cl(-) conductance in Clcn7(unc/unc) mice entails similarly severe lysosomal storage, but less severe osteopetrosis and no change in fur colour. To elucidate the basis for these phenotypical differences, we generated Clcn7(td/td) mice expressing an ion transport-deficient mutant. Their osteopetrosis was as severe as in Clcn7(-/-) mice, suggesting that the electric shunt provided by ClC-7(unc) can partially rescue osteoclast function. The normal coat colour of Clcn7(td/td) mice and their less severe neurodegeneration suggested that the ClC-7 protein, even when lacking measurable ion transport activity, is sufficient for hair pigmentation and that the conductance of ClC-7(unc) is harmful for neurons. Our in vivo structure-function analysis of ClC-7 reveals that both protein-protein interactions and ion transport must be considered in the pathogenesis of ClC-7-related diseases.

  14. Accounting Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication identifies 20 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of accounting specialist, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 20 units are as follows:…

  15. Painless Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. W.; And Others

    The computerized Painless Accountability System is a performance objective system from which instructional programs are developed. Three main simplified behavioral response levels characterize this system: (1) cognitive, (2) psychomotor, and (3) affective domains. Each of these objectives are classified by one of 16 descriptors. The second major…

  16. The structure and development of avian lumbosacral specializations of the vertebral canal and the spinal cord with special reference to a possible function as a sense organ of equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Necker, R

    2005-08-01

    The avian lumbosacral vertebral column and spinal cord show a number of specializations which have recently been interpreted as a sense organ of equilibrium. This sense organ is thought to support balanced walking on the ground. Although most of the peculiar structures have been described previously, there was a need to reevaluate the specializations with regard to the possible function as a sense organ. Specializations were studied in detail in the adult pigeon. The development of the system was studied both in the pigeon (semiprecocial at hatching) and in the chicken (precocial). Specializations in the vertebral canal consist of a considerable enlargement, which is not due to an increase in the size of the spinal nervous tissue, but to a large glycogen body embedded in a dorsal rhomboid sinus. The dorsal wall of the vertebral canal shows segmented bilateral dorsal grooves, which are covered by the meninges towards the lumen of the vertebral canal leaving openings in the midline and laterally. This results in a system of lumbosacral canals which look and may function similar to the semicircular canals in the inner ear. Laterally these canals open above ventrolateral protrusions or accessory lobes of the spinal cord which contain neurons. There are large subarachnoidal cerebrospinal fluid spaces, lateral and ventral to the accessory lobes. Movement of this fluid is thought to stimulate the lobes mechanically. As to the development of avian lumbosacral specializations, main attention was given to the organization of the lobes and the adjacent fluid spaces including the dorsal canals. In the pigeon the system is far from being adult-like at hatching but maturates rapidly after hatching. In the chicken the system looks already adult-like at hatching. The implications derived from the structural findings are discussed with regard to a possible function of the lumbosacral specializations as a sense organ of equilibrium. The adult-like organization in the newly hatched

  17. Study of dust particle charging in weakly ionized inert gases taking into account the nonlocality of the electron energy distribution function

    SciTech Connect

    Filippov, A. V. Dyatko, N. A.; Kostenko, A. S.

    2014-11-15

    The charging of dust particles in weakly ionized inert gases at atmospheric pressure has been investigated. The conditions under which the gas is ionized by an external source, a beam of fast electrons, are considered. The electron energy distribution function in argon, krypton, and xenon has been calculated for three rates of gas ionization by fast electrons: 10{sup 13}, 10{sup 14}, and 10{sup 15} cm{sup −1}. A model of dust particle charging with allowance for the nonlocal formation of the electron energy distribution function in the region of strong plasma quasi-neutrality violation around the dust particle is described. The nonlocality is taken into account in an approximation where the distribution function is a function of only the total electron energy. Comparative calculations of the dust particle charge with and without allowance for the nonlocality of the electron energy distribution function have been performed. Allowance for the nonlocality is shown to lead to a noticeable increase in the dust particle charge due to the influence of the group of hot electrons from the tail of the distribution function. It has been established that the screening constant virtually coincides with the smallest screening constant determined according to the asymptotic theory of screening with the electron transport and recombination coefficients in an unperturbed plasma.

  18. Green function approach for the ab initio calculation of the optical and magneto-optical properties of solids:  Accounting for dynamical many-body effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlov, A.; Chadov, S.; Ebert, H.

    2003-12-01

    An approach for the calculation of the optical and magneto-optical properties of solids based on the one-particle Green function is introduced in the framework of the linear muffin-tin orbital method. The approach keeps all advantages of the more accurate Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker scheme as the possibility to account for many-body effects in terms of the nonlocal energy dependent self-energy but is numerically much more efficient. Application of various proposed model self-energies for the calculation of the optical properties of bulk Ni and Fe demonstrates the great potential of the new scheme.

  19. Functional neuroanatomy of remote episodic, semantic and spatial memory: a unified account based on multiple trace theory

    PubMed Central

    Moscovitch, Morris; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Gilboa, Asaf; Addis, Donna Rose; Westmacott, Robyn; Grady, Cheryl; McAndrews, Mary Pat; Levine, Brian; Black, Sandra; Winocur, Gordon; Nadel, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    We review lesion and neuroimaging evidence on the role of the hippocampus, and other structures, in retention and retrieval of recent and remote memories. We examine episodic, semantic and spatial memory, and show that important distinctions exist among different types of these memories and the structures that mediate them. We argue that retention and retrieval of detailed, vivid autobiographical memories depend on the hippocampal system no matter how long ago they were acquired. Semantic memories, on the other hand, benefit from hippocampal contribution for some time before they can be retrieved independently of the hippocampus. Even semantic memories, however, can have episodic elements associated with them that continue to depend on the hippocampus. Likewise, we distinguish between experientially detailed spatial memories (akin to episodic memory) and more schematic memories (akin to semantic memory) that are sufficient for navigation but not for re-experiencing the environment in which they were acquired. Like their episodic and semantic counterparts, the former type of spatial memory is dependent on the hippocampus no matter how long ago it was acquired, whereas the latter can survive independently of the hippocampus and is represented in extra-hippocampal structures. In short, the evidence reviewed suggests strongly that the function of the hippocampus (and possibly that of related limbic structures) is to help encode, retain, and retrieve experiences, no matter how long ago the events comprising the experience occurred, and no matter whether the memories are episodic or spatial. We conclude that the evidence favours a multiple trace theory (MTT) of memory over two other models: (1) traditional consolidation models which posit that the hippocampus is a time-limited memory structure for all forms of memory; and (2) versions of cognitive map theory which posit that the hippocampus is needed for representing all forms of allocentric space in memory. PMID

  20. Educational Accounting Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Sam B.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" reviews the functions, procedures, and reports with which school business officials must be familiar in order to interpret and make decisions regarding the school district's financial position. Among the accounting functions discussed are financial management, internal auditing,…

  1. The long-term impacts of fisheries on epifaunal assemblage function and structure, in a Special Area of Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strain, E. M. A.; Allcock, A. L.; Goodwin, C. E.; Maggs, C. A.; Picton, B. E.; Roberts, D.

    2012-01-01

    Fisheries can have profound effects on epifaunal community function and structure. We analysed the results from five dive surveys (1975-1976, 1980, 1983, 2003 and 2007), taken in a Special Area of Conservation, Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland before and after a ten year period of increased trawling activity between 1985 and 1995. There were no detectable differences in the species richness or taxonomic distinctiveness before (1975-1983) and after (2003-2007) this period. However, there was a shift in the epifaunal assemblage between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. In general, the slow-moving, or sessile, erect, filter-feeders were replaced by highly mobile, swimming, scavengers and predators. There were declines in the frequency of the fished bivalve Aequipecten opercularis and the non-fished bivalves Modiolus modiolus and Chlamys varia and some erect sessile invertebrates between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. In contrast, there were increases in the frequency of the fished and reseeded bivalves Pecten maximus and Ostrea edulis, the fished crabs Cancer pagurus and Necora puber and the non-fished sea stars Asterias rubens, Crossaster papposus and Henricia oculata between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. We suggest that these shifts could be directly and indirectly attributed to the long-term impacts of trawl fishing gear, although increases in the supply of discarded bait and influxes of sediment may also have contributed to changes in the frequency of some taxa. These results suggest that despite their limitations, historical surveys and repeat sampling over long periods can help to elucidate the inferred patterns in the epifaunal community. The use of commercial fishing gear was banned from two areas in Strangford Lough in 2011, making it a model ecosystem for assessing the long-term recovery of the epifaunal community from the impacts of mobile and pot fishing gear.

  2. Special Days, Special Ways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Jacqueline

    2001-01-01

    Presents unique ways to create special rituals that recognize individual students' achievements and milestones. Ideas include throwing a send-off party for a student who is moving; holding monthly birthday luncheons; choosing an ambassador to accompany new students around school; and making a lost tooth container that students can use to safely…

  3. Functional links between Snail-1 and Cx43 account for the recruitment of Cx43-positive cells into the invasive front of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ryszawy, Damian; Sarna, Michał; Rak, Monika; Szpak, Katarzyna; Kędracka-Krok, Sylwia; Michalik, Marta; Siedlar, Maciej; Zuba-Surma, Ewa; Burda, Kvetoslava; Korohoda, Włodzimierz; Madeja, Zbigniew; Czyż, Jarosław

    2014-09-01

    Suppressive function of connexin(Cx)43 in carcinogenesis was recently contested by reports that showed a multifaceted function of Cx43 in cancer progression. These studies did not attempt to model the dynamics of intratumoral heterogeneity involved in the metastatic cascade. An unorthodox look at the phenotypic heterogeneity of prostate cancer cells in vitro enabled us to identify links between Cx43 functions and Snail-1-regulated functional speciation of invasive cells. Incomplete Snail-1-dependent phenotypic shifts accounted for the formation of phenotypically stable subclones of AT-2 cells. These subclones showed diverse predilection for invasive behavior. High Snail-1 and Cx43 levels accompanied high motility and nanomechanical elasticity of the fibroblastoid AT-2_Fi2 subclone, which determined its considerable invasiveness. Transforming growth factor-β and ectopic Snail-1 overexpression induced invasiveness and Cx43 expression in epithelioid AT-2 subclones and DU-145 cells. Functional links between Snail-1 function and Cx43 expression were confirmed by Cx43 downregulation and phenotypic shifts in AT-2_Fi2, DU-145 and MAT-LyLu cells upon Snail-1 silencing. Corresponding morphological changes and Snail-1 downregulation were seen upon Cx43 silencing in AT-2_Fi2 cells. This indicates that feedback loops between both proteins regulate cell invasive behavior. We demonstrate that Cx43 may differentially predispose prostate cancer cells for invasion in a coupling-dependent and coupling-independent manner. When extrapolated to in vivo conditions, these data show the complexity of Cx43 functions during the metastatic cascade of prostate cancer. They may explain how Cx43 confers a selective advantage during cooperative invasion of clonally evolving, invasive prostate cancer cell subpopulations.

  4. Mississippi Special Olympics: Special Events Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinze, Toni; Cooper, Walter E.

    Provided in the manual are organizational guidelines and suggested activities for a Special Evants segment of the Mississippi Special Olympics Program to encourage participation by low motor functioning, multihandicapped, mentally retarded persons. Information is provided concerning objectives, organizational set-up, guidelines, communication…

  5. Tubulin evolution in insects: gene duplication and subfunctionalization provide specialized isoforms in a functionally constrained gene family

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    -associated proteins. CTT residues overwhelming comprise the co-evolving residues between Drosophila alpha 2 and beta 3 tubulin proteins, indicating CTT specializations can be mediated at the level of the tubulin dimer. Gene duplications post-dating separation of the insect orders are unevenly distributed, most often appearing in major alpha 1 and minor beta 2 clades. More than 40 introns are found in tubulins. Their distribution among tubulins reveals that insertion and deletion events are common, surprising given their potential for disrupting tubulin coding sequence. Compensatory evolution is found in Drosophila beta 2 tubulin cis-regulation, and reveals selective pressures acting to maintain testis expression without the use of previously identified testis cis-regulatory elements. Conclusion Tubulins have stringent structure/function relationships, indicated by strong purifying selection, the loss of many gene duplication products, alpha-beta co-evolution in the tubulin dimer, and compensatory evolution in beta 2 tubulin cis-regulation. They evolve through gene duplication, subfunctionalization in expression domain and divergence of duplication products, largely in CTT residues that mediate interactions with other proteins. This has resulted in the tissue-specific minor insect isoforms, and in particular the highly diverse α3, α4, and β2 reproductive tissue-specific tubulin isoforms, illustrating that even a highly conserved protein family can participate in the adaptive process and respond to sexual selection. PMID:20423510

  6. Assessment of dentally related functional competency for older adults with cognitive impairment--a survey for special-care dental professionals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Clark, Jennifer J J

    2013-01-01

    This survey was to study whether and how dental professional assess dental-related function in older adults with cognitive impairment (OACI). An invitation was sent to 525 special-care dental professionals, followed by a reminder in 2 weeks. Thirteen percent of the targeted participants completed the survey. Among them, 88% completed a hospital dentistry, geriatric dentistry, or other postgraduate training program. Nearly 70% of the respondents considered somewhat to very difficult to assess dentally related function; 45% did not ever or did not regularly assess dental-related function for OACI. Dental-related functional assessments were often based on a subjective, unstructured approach. Only 6% of the respondents routinely used standard instruments to assess the patients' function. These results indicate that an objective functional assessment based on a standardized instrument has not been routinely incorporated into dental care for OACI, raising concerns for quality of care in this vulnerable population.

  7. Assessment of Dentally-related Functional Competency for Older Adults with Cognitive Impairment – A Survey for Special-care Dental Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Clark, Jennifer JJ

    2013-01-01

    This survey was to study whether and how dental professional assess dental-related function in older adults with cognitive impairment (OACI). An invitation was sent to 525 special-care dental professionals, followed by a reminder in 2 weeks. Thirteen percent of the targeted participants completed the survey. Among them, 88% completed a hospital dentistry, geriatric dentistry or other post-graduate training program. Nearly 70% of the respondents considered somewhat to very difficult to assess dentally-related function; 45% did not ever or did not regularly assess dental-related function for OACI. Dental-related functional assessments were often based on a subjective, unstructured approach. Only 6% of the respondents routinely used standard instruments to assess the patients' function. These results indicate that an objective functional assessment based on a standardized instrument has not been routinely incorporated into dental care for OACI, raising concerns for quality of care in this vulnerable population. PMID:23451924

  8. Accounting for uncertainty in the historical response rate of the standard treatment in single-arm two-stage designs based on Bayesian power functions.

    PubMed

    Matano, Francesca; Sambucini, Valeria

    2016-11-01

    In phase II single-arm studies, the response rate of the experimental treatment is typically compared with a fixed target value that should ideally represent the true response rate for the standard of care therapy. Generally, this target value is estimated through previous data, but the inherent variability in the historical response rate is not taken into account. In this paper, we present a Bayesian procedure to construct single-arm two-stage designs that allows to incorporate uncertainty in the response rate of the standard treatment. In both stages, the sample size determination criterion is based on the concepts of conditional and predictive Bayesian power functions. Different kinds of prior distributions, which play different roles in the designs, are introduced, and some guidelines for their elicitation are described. Finally, some numerical results about the performance of the designs are provided and a real data example is illustrated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. NsrR from Streptomyces coelicolor Is a Nitric Oxide-sensing [4Fe-4S] Cluster Protein with a Specialized Regulatory Function*

    PubMed Central

    Crack, Jason C.; Munnoch, John; Dodd, Erin L.; Knowles, Felicity; Al Bassam, Mahmoud M.; Kamali, Saeed; Holland, Ashley A.; Cramer, Stephen P.; Hamilton, Chris J.; Johnson, Michael K.; Thomson, Andrew J.; Hutchings, Matthew I.; Le Brun, Nick E.

    2015-01-01

    The Rrf2 family transcription factor NsrR controls expression of genes in a wide range of bacteria in response to nitric oxide (NO). The precise form of the NO-sensing module of NsrR is the subject of controversy because NsrR proteins containing either [2Fe-2S] or [4Fe-4S] clusters have been observed previously. Optical, Mössbauer, resonance Raman spectroscopies and native mass spectrometry demonstrate that Streptomyces coelicolor NsrR (ScNsrR), previously reported to contain a [2Fe-2S] cluster, can be isolated containing a [4Fe-4S] cluster. ChIP-seq experiments indicated that the ScNsrR regulon is small, consisting of only hmpA1, hmpA2, and nsrR itself. The hmpA genes encode NO-detoxifying flavohemoglobins, indicating that ScNsrR has a specialized regulatory function focused on NO detoxification and is not a global regulator like some NsrR orthologues. EMSAs and DNase I footprinting showed that the [4Fe-4S] form of ScNsrR binds specifically and tightly to an 11-bp inverted repeat sequence in the promoter regions of the identified target genes and that DNA binding is abolished following reaction with NO. Resonance Raman data were consistent with cluster coordination by three Cys residues and one oxygen-containing residue, and analysis of ScNsrR variants suggested that highly conserved Glu-85 may be the fourth ligand. Finally, we demonstrate that some low molecular weight thiols, but importantly not physiologically relevant thiols, such as cysteine and an analogue of mycothiol, bind weakly to the [4Fe-4S] cluster, and exposure of this bound form to O2 results in cluster conversion to the [2Fe-2S] form, which does not bind to DNA. These data help to account for the observation of [2Fe-2S] forms of NsrR. PMID:25771538

  10. The Antithesis of Inclusion? The Emergence and Functioning of ADHD Special Education Classes in the Swedish School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmqvist, Johan; Nilholm, Claes

    2016-01-01

    The neuropsychiatric paradigm has substantial impact on schools. The increase in the number of pupils being diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an expression of the medicalisation of deviance. There is also an increase in educational classes specially designed to meet the needs of children with ADHD. This is contrary…

  11. Faculty Perspectives on International Accounting Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, L. Murphy; Salter, Stephen B.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 63 professors specializing in international accounting identified the following topics as most important to incorporate into the curriculum: (1) foreign currency translation; (2) international accounting standards; (3) comparative standards and harmonizing of accounting standards; (4) reporting and disclosure problems of multinational…

  12. Making Accommodations Work for Students in the Special Education Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSciver, James H.; Conover, Virginia A.

    2009-01-01

    With the pressure of No Child Left Behind and state-ordered accountability initiatives building, local educators' angst with the challenges of documenting improvement on the part of special education students, as a function of their performance on high stakes content assessments, continues to grow. One major tool used to identify academic needs…

  13. Special Care Units and Traditional Care in Dementia: Relationship with Behavior, Cognition, Functional Status and Quality of Life – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Jeroen S.; Berg, Ina J.; Scherder, Erik J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Special care facilities for patients with dementia gain increasing attention. However, an overview of studies examining the differences between care facilities with respect to their effects on behavior, cognition, functional status and quality of life is lacking. Results Our literature search resulted in 32 studies published until October 2012. Overall, patients with dementia who lived at special care units (SCUs) showed a significantly more challenging behavior, more agitation/aggression, more depression and anxiety, more cases of global cognitive impairment and a better psychosocial functioning. There was a tendency towards a better functional status in specialized care facilities, and a better quality of life was found in favor of the SCU group compared to the traditional nursing home (n-SCU) group. Longitudinal studies showed an increased number of neuropsychiatric cases, more patients displaying deteriorating behavior and resistance to care as well as less decline in activities of daily living (ADL) in the SCU group compared to the n-SCU group. Patients in small-scale, homelike SCUs showed more agitation and less ADL decline compared to SCU patients. Conclusion This review shows that the patient characteristics in SCU and n-SCU settings and, to a minor extent, in SCU and small-scale, homelike SCU settings are different. Over time, there are differences between n-SCU, SCU and small-scale, homelike SCU facilities for some variables. PMID:24403908

  14. A systematic catalogue of butterflies of the former Soviet Union (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lituania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan) with special account to their type specimens (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea, Papilionoidea).

    PubMed

    Korb, Stanislav K; Bolshakov, Lavr V

    2016-09-01

    A catalogue of butterflies of Russia and adjacent countries is given, with special account to the name-bearing types depository. This catalogue contains data about 86 species (3 of them are questionable) of Hesperiidae (22 genera); 47 species of Papilionidae (14 genera); 89 species of Pieridae (5 of them are questionable)  (15 genera); 1 species (1 genus) of Libytheinae(dae); 2 species of Danainae(dae) (2 genera); 160 species of Nymphalinae(dae) (1 of them is questionable) (23 genera); 259 species of Satyrinae(dae) (14 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Oeneis and Pseudochazara) (34 genera); 3 species of Riodinidae (2 genera); 318 species of Lycaenidae (11 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Neolycaena and Plebeius) (57 genera). In total: 965 species of butterflies, 174 genera, by countries: Armenia-244, Azerbaijan-225, Belarus-107, Estonia-113, Georgia-211, Kyrgyzstan-316, Kazakhstan-344, Latvia-115, Lituania-126, Moldova-87, Russia-522, Tajikistan-295, Turkmenistan-159, Ukraine-192, Uzbekistan-241. Detailed distribution and subspecific structure (if present) for every species is provided. Lectotypes of the following species-group taxa are designated: Hesperia poggei Lederer, 1858, Parnassius felderi Bremer, 1861, P. eversmanni Eversmann, 1851, P. boedromius Püngeler, 1901, Limenitis moltrechti Kardakov, 1928, L. sydyi Kindermann, 1853, L. amphyssa Ménétriès, 1859, L. doerriesi Staudinger, 1892, L. helmanni duplicata Staudinger, 1892, L. homeyeri Tancré, 1881, Argynnis penelope Staudinger, 1891, A. thore borealis Staudinger, 1861, Vanessa io geisha Stichel, [1908], Melitaea maturna staudingeri Wnukowsky, 1929 (=uralensis Staudinger, 1871), M. didymina Staudinger, 1895, Papilio fascelis Esper, 1783, Thecla quercivora Staudinger, 1887, Lycaena orion var. ornata Staudinger, 1892. The following nomenclatural acts are established: Neolycaena submontana baitenovi (Zhdanko, 2011), comb. et stat.n. The following new synonymy is provided: Hesperia

  15. A computational functional genomics based self-limiting self-concentration mechanism of cell specialization as a biological role of jumping genes.

    PubMed

    Lötsch, Jörn; Ultsch, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    Specialization is ubiquitous in biological systems and its manifold mechanisms are active research topics. Although clearly adaptive, the way in which specialization of cells is realized remains incompletely understood as it requires the reshaping of a cell's genome to favor particular biological processes in the competition on a cell's functional capacity. Here, a self-specialization mechanism is identified as a possible biological role of jumping genes, in particular LINE-1 retrotransposition. The mechanism is self-limiting and consistent with its evolutionary preservation despite its likely gene-breaking effects. The scenario we studied was the need for a cell to process a longer exposition to an extraordinary situation, for example continuous exposure to the nociceptive input or the intake of addictive drugs. Both situations may evolve toward chronification. The mechanism involves competition within a gene set in which a subset of genes cooperating in particular biological processes. The subset carries a piece of information, consisting of the LINE-1 sequence, about the destruction of their functional competitor genes which are not involved in that process. During gene transcription, an active copy of LINE-1 is co-transcribed. At a certain low probability, a subsequently transcribed and thus actually exposed gene can be rendered nonfunctional by LINE-1 retrotransposition in a relevant gene part. As retrotransposition needs time it is unlikely that LINE-1 retrotranspose into its own carrier gene. This reshapes the cell genome toward self-specializing of those biological processes that are carried out with a high number of LINE-1 containing genes. Self-termination of the mechanism is achieved by allowing LINE-1 to also occasionally jump into the coding region of itself, thus destroying the information about competitor destruction by successively decreasing the number of LINE-1 until the mechanism ceases. Employing a computational functional genomics approach, we

  16. Using a Modified Pyramidal Training Model to Teach Special Education Teachers to Conduct Trial-Based Functional Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunnavatana, S. Shanun; Bloom, Sarah E.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Lignugaris/Kraft, Benjamin; Dayton, Elizabeth; Harris, Shannon K.

    2013-01-01

    Functional behavioral assessments are commonly used in school settings to assess and develop interventions for problem behavior. The trial-based functional analysis is an approach that teachers can use in their classrooms to identify the function of problem behavior. The current study evaluates the effectiveness of a modified pyramidal training…

  17. Assessing the Link between Executive Functions and Aggressive Behaviours of Children Who Are Deaf: Impact of Early Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipal, Rafet Firat; Bayhan, Pinar

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Relation between constructing complex mental structures and language skills cause delays in development of executive functions of deaf children. When the importance of language skills in development of executive functions and frequency of aggressive behaviours of deaf children are considered, investigation of executive functions of…

  18. Special conference of the American Association for Cancer Research on molecular imaging in cancer: linking biology, function, and clinical applications in vivo.

    PubMed

    Luker, Gary D

    2002-04-01

    The AACR Special Conference on Molecular Imaging in Cancer: Linking Biology, Function, and Clinical Applications In Vivo, was held January 23-27, 2002, at the Contemporary Hotel, Walt Disney World, Orlando, FL. Co-Chairs David Piwnica-Worms, Patricia Price and Thomas Meade brought together researchers with diverse expertise in molecular biology, gene therapy, chemistry, engineering, pharmacology, and imaging to accelerate progress in developing and applying technologies for imaging specific cellular and molecular signals in living animals and humans. The format of the conference was the presentation of research that focused on basic and translational biology of cancer and current state-of-the-art techniques for molecular imaging in animal models and humans. This report summarizes the special conference on molecular imaging, highlighting the interfaces of molecular biology with animal models, instrumentation, chemistry, and pharmacology that are essential to convert the dreams and promise of molecular imaging into improved understanding, diagnosis, and management of cancer.

  19. The Roles of Whole-Genome and Small-Scale Duplications in the Functional Specialization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genes

    PubMed Central

    Fares, Mario A.; Keane, Orla M.; Toft, Christina; Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Jones, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have long been enthralled with the idea that gene duplication can generate novel functions, crediting this process with great evolutionary importance. Empirical data shows that whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are more likely to be retained than small-scale duplications (SSDs), though their relative contribution to the functional fate of duplicates remains unexplored. Using the map of genetic interactions and the re-sequencing of 27 Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomes evolving for 2,200 generations we show that SSD-duplicates lead to neo-functionalization while WGD-duplicates partition ancestral functions. This conclusion is supported by: (a) SSD-duplicates establish more genetic interactions than singletons and WGD-duplicates; (b) SSD-duplicates copies share more interaction-partners than WGD-duplicates copies; (c) WGD-duplicates interaction partners are more functionally related than SSD-duplicates partners; (d) SSD-duplicates gene copies are more functionally divergent from one another, while keeping more overlapping functions, and diverge in their sub-cellular locations more than WGD-duplicates copies; and (e) SSD-duplicates complement their functions to a greater extent than WGD–duplicates. We propose a novel model that uncovers the complexity of evolution after gene duplication. PMID:23300483

  20. The effect of exercise intervention on frail elderly in need of care: half-day program in a senior day-care service facility specializing in functional training

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Ryota; Miura, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the long-term effect of a half-day exercise intervention program on health-related quality of life, life function, and physical function in frail elderly in need of care. The program was conducted at a senior day-care facility specializing in functional training. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included 41 elderly in need of care who had visited the service facility for at least 1 year. Physical function and life function were evaluated at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Quality of life was evaluated with the Short Form-36 at baseline and 12 months. [Results] Improvements in balance, walking speed and endurance, complex performance abilities, self-efficacy during the activities, and the level and sphere of activity were observed at 6 months and maintained up to 12 months. Moreover, improvements in agility, activities of daily living, life function, and quality of life were also observed at 12 months. Improvements in muscle strength, walking ability, self-efficacy over an action, and activities of daily living were related to the improvement in quality of life. [Conclusion] The use of individualized exercise programs developed by physiotherapists led to improvements in activities of daily living and quality of life among elderly in need of care. PMID:27512243

  1. Counselors' Accounts of Their Clients' Spiritual Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Janice Miner

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a special section within this issue of Counseling and Values that focuses on counselors' accounts of their clients' transpersonal experiences. The eight articles in this special section discuss ten types of transpersonal experiences. Clients range in age from early 20s to early 80s. Experiences occurred in various settings and were…

  2. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals Functional Specialization along the Intestinal Tract of a Carnivorous Teleostean Fish (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    PubMed Central

    Calduch-Giner, Josep A.; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    High-quality sequencing reads from the intestine of European sea bass were assembled, annotated by similarity against protein reference databases and combined with nucleotide sequences from public and private databases. After redundancy filtering, 24,906 non-redundant annotated sequences encoding 15,367 different gene descriptions were obtained. These annotated sequences were used to design a custom, high-density oligo-microarray (8 × 15 K) for the transcriptomic profiling of anterior (AI), middle (MI), and posterior (PI) intestinal segments. Similar molecular signatures were found for AI and MI segments, which were combined in a single group (AI-MI) whereas the PI outstood separately, with more than 1900 differentially expressed genes with a fold-change cutoff of 2. Functional analysis revealed that molecular and cellular functions related to feed digestion and nutrient absorption and transport were over-represented in AI-MI segments. By contrast, the initiation and establishment of immune defense mechanisms became especially relevant in PI, although the microarray expression profiling validated by qPCR indicated that these functional changes are gradual from anterior to posterior intestinal segments. This functional divergence occurred in association with spatial transcriptional changes in nutrient transporters and the mucosal chemosensing system via G protein-coupled receptors. These findings contribute to identify key indicators of gut functions and to compare different fish feeding strategies and immune defense mechanisms acquired along the evolution of teleosts. PMID:27610085

  3. Executive functions and behavioral problems in deaf and hard-of-hearing students at general and special schools.

    PubMed

    Hintermair, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    In this study, behavioral problems of deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) school-aged children are discussed in the context of executive functioning and communicative competence. Teachers assessed the executive functions of a sample of 214 D/HH students from general schools and schools for the deaf, using a German version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF-D). This was complemented by a questionnaire that measured communicative competence and behavioral problems (German version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; SDQ-D). The results in nearly all the scales show a significantly higher problem rate for executive functions in the group of D/HH students compared with a normative sample of hearing children. In the D/HH group, students at general schools had better scores on most scales than students at schools for the deaf. Regression analysis reveals the importance of executive functions and communicative competence for behavioral problems. The relevance of the findings for pedagogical work is discussed. A specific focus on competencies such as self-efficacy or self-control in educational concepts for D/HH students seems to be necessary in addition to extending language competencies.

  4. Use of rapid cytochemical staining to characterize fish blood granulocytes in species of special concern and determine potential for function testing.

    PubMed

    Palić, Dušan; Beck, Linda S; Palić, Jelena; Andreasen, Claire B

    2011-02-01

    Studies of innate immunity in fish species of special concern are essential for better understanding of their health status during hatchery rearing conditions. The cytochemical and morphological characterizations of blood granulocytes have been used to provide information about phylogenetic differences and determine the potential use of neutrophil function assays. Rapid, simple, cytochemical staining kits used routinely for staining mammalian granulocytes have been used to characterize granulocytes from blood of four fish species: Arctic grayling, cutthroat trout, June sucker, and shovelnose sturgeon. Blood smears were stained with Peroxidase 391 (myeloperoxidase, MPO), alkaline phosphatase (AP), Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) and Diff-quick stain; examined using bright field and differential interference contrast microscopy. Granulocytes on blood smears were evaluated based on the cell morphology, and presence or absence of the specific chromogen. Presence of lymphocytes, monocytes, platelets/thrombocytes and granulocytes was determined in all fish species. Arctic grayling, June sucker, and cutthroat trout had MPO positive granulocytes, while shovelnose sturgeon heterophils had positive reaction for leukocyte AP, but not MPO. Presence of MPO indicated potential to measure oxidative burst and degranulation of neutrophil primary granules in Arctic grayling, cutthroat trout and June sucker. Absence of MPO in shovelnose sturgeon suggested use of different enzyme marker (AP) in degranulation assay for this species. Standardization of cytochemical techniques allowed for rapid screening of leukocyte types, reducing the number of fish, time and effort to select adequate neutrophil function assays to be used in studies of health status in species of special concern.

  5. Anxiety Symptoms in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder Attending Special Schools: Associations with Gender, Adaptive Functioning and Autism Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magiati, Iliana; Ong, Clarissa; Lim, Xin Yi; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Ong, Amily Yi Lin; Patrycia, Ferninda; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Sung, Min; Poon, Kenneth K.; Howlin, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety-related problems are among the most frequently reported mental health difficulties in autism spectrum disorder. As most research has focused on clinical samples or high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder, less is known about the factors associated with anxiety in community samples across the ability range. This…

  6. Association of tissue lineage and gene expression: conservatively and differentially expressed genes define common and special functions of tissues

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo is formed, develops, and establishes developmental hierarchies of tissues. The recent advance in microarray technology made it possible to investigate the tissue specific patterns of gene expression and their relationship with tissue lineages. This study is focused on how tissue specific functions, tissue lineage, and cell differentiation are correlated, which is essential to understand embryonic development and organism complexity. Results We performed individual gene and gene set based analysis on multiple tissue expression data, in association with the classic topology of mammalian fate maps of embryogenesis. For each sub-group of tissues on the fate map, conservatively, differentially and correlatively expressed genes or gene sets were identified. Tissue distance was found to correlate with gene expression divergence. Tissues of the ectoderm or mesoderm origins from the same segments on the fate map shared more similar expression pattern than those from different origins. Conservatively expressed genes or gene sets define common functions in a tissue group and are related to tissue specific diseases, which is supported by results from Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis. Gene expression divergence is larger in certain human tissues than in the mouse homologous tissues. Conclusion The results from tissue lineage and gene expression analysis indicate that common function features of neighbor tissue groups were defined by the conservatively expressed genes and were related to tissue specific diseases, and differentially expressed genes contribute to the functional divergence of tissues. The difference of gene expression divergence in human and mouse homologous tissues reflected the organism complexity, i.e. distinct neural development levels and different body sizes. PMID:21172044

  7. The Juxtacanalicular Region of Ocular Trabecular Meshwork: A Tissue with a Unique Extracellular Matrix and Specialized Function.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kate E; Acott, Ted S

    2013-06-01

    The trabecular meshwork (TM) is a filter-like tissue located in the anterior segment of the eye. It is composed of a series of fenestrated beams through which aqueous humor flows to exit the anterior chamber via Schlemm's canal. The primary function of the TM is to regulate the flow of aqueous humor in order to establish intraocular pressure (IOP). Dysregulated aqueous humor outflow causes elevated IOP, which is a primary risk factor for glaucoma. The region of the TM implicated in establishing IOP lies adjacent to Schlemm's canal and is called the juxtacanalicular tissue (JCT) or cribriform region. Recent advanced light microscopy studies suggest that the JCT can be subdivided into inner and outer zones based on the localization of certain extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. By comparing the ECM of the JCT to other connectives tissues and disease processes, this review outlines the evidence for two new concepts in TM biology: (1) continuous maintenance ECM remodeling, which may be critical in order to preserve open aqueous humor flow channels by releasing trapped debris and associated ECM fragments from the outflow pathways; (2) the JCT ECM as a barrier to functionally isolate the aqueous outflow channels. The ECM surrounding the outflow channels in the JCT may function to sequester small active regulatory molecules and prevent them from aberrantly modulating outflow resistance. These adaptations point to a distinctive tissue that has evolved transient ECM remodeling processes in order to regulate aqueous humor outflow and maintain rigorous control of IOP.

  8. Accounting Fundamentals for Non-Accountants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this module is to provide an introduction and overview of accounting fundamentals for non-accountants. The module also covers important topics such as communication, internal controls, documentation and recordkeeping.

  9. Specialized Science

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C.

    2014-01-01

    As the body of scientific knowledge in a discipline increases, there is pressure for specialization. Fields spawn subfields that then become entities in themselves that promote further specialization. The process by which scientists join specialized groups has remarkable similarities to the guild system of the middle ages. The advantages of specialization of science include efficiency, the establishment of normative standards, and the potential for greater rigor in experimental research. However, specialization also carries risks of monopoly, monotony, and isolation. The current tendency to judge scientific work by the impact factor of the journal in which it is published may have roots in overspecialization, as scientists are less able to critically evaluate work outside their field than before. Scientists in particular define themselves through group identity and adopt practices that conform to the expectations and dynamics of such groups. As part of our continuing analysis of issues confronting contemporary science, we analyze the emergence and consequences of specialization in science, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and suggest that specialization carries significant costs. We propose measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of scientific specialism. PMID:24421049

  10. Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Ray, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on special needs instruction and technology: (1) "Hawaii Special Education Teacher Induction" (Kalena Oliva and Quinn Avery); (2) "The Impact of Group v Individual Use of Hypermedia-Based Instruction" (Lewis R. Johnson, Louis P. Semrau, and Gail E. Fitzgerald); (3) "Assistive…

  11. Response Essay: Special Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Paid

    2000-01-01

    This commentary reflects on findings from previous articles that reviewed trends in special education research in the United States, Norway, Botswana, Ecuador, Australia, and Turkey. It discusses the function, funding, and subject matter of special education research, on research on the education of special education teachers, and on research…

  12. Accounting: Accountants Need Verbal Skill Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Bruce L.

    1978-01-01

    Verbal skills training is one aspect of accounting education not usually included in secondary and postsecondary accounting courses. The author discusses the need for verbal competency and methods of incorporating it into accounting courses, particularly a variation of the Keller plan of individualized instruction. (MF)

  13. Special nerve functions and colour discrimination in workers with long term low level exposure to carbon disulphide.

    PubMed Central

    Ruijten, M W; Sallé, H J; Verberk, M M; Muijser, H

    1990-01-01

    Certain functions of the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems, and colour discrimination were examined in 45 workers (mean age 49; mean exposure to carbon disulphide (CS2) 20 years) and 37 controls (mean age 48). Conduction velocity and refractory period of the peroneal and sural nerves were determined. The conduction velocity of the slower fibres of the peroneal nerve was measured by means of an improved method that makes use of the refractory period. Function of autonomic nerves was assessed by measuring the variation in heart rate during rest, during deep breathing, and during isometric muscle contraction. Colour discrimination was evaluated by the Lanthony desaturated test. Individual cumulative exposure to CS2 was calculated on the basis of exposure in the past and individual job history. Mean cumulative exposure was 165 ppm-years. The peroneal nerves of exposed workers showed a decrease (-1.0 m/s) in conduction velocity of the slow fibres and a prolongation (0.1 ms) of the refractory period (mean 1.6 ms) compared with controls. These effects were related to cumulative exposure. No impairment of function of the sural nerve or of colour discrimination was found. The muscle heart reflex was decreased in the exposed group, but this was not related to cumulative exposure. This study has established more firmly that a decrease in conduction velocity of slow motor fibres occurs at low levels of exposure to CS2. Extrapolation of the results suggests that small effects may occur after 40 years of exposure to concentrations below the present threshold limit value (10 ppm). PMID:2207029

  14. Large scale interaction analysis predicts that the Gerbera hybrida floral E function is provided both by general and specialized proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The ornamental plant Gerbera hybrida bears complex inflorescences with morphologically distinct floral morphs that are specific to the sunflower family Asteraceae. We have previously characterized several MADS box genes that regulate floral development in Gerbera. To study further their behavior in higher order complex formation according to the quartet model, we performed yeast two- and three-hybrid analysis with fourteen Gerbera MADS domain proteins to analyze their protein-protein interaction potential. Results The exhaustive pairwise interaction analysis showed significant differences in the interaction capacity of different Gerbera MADS domain proteins compared to other model plants. Of particular interest in these assays was the behavior of SEP-like proteins, known as GRCDs in Gerbera. The previously described GRCD1 and GRCD2 proteins, which are specific regulators involved in stamen and carpel development, respectively, showed very limited pairwise interactions, whereas the related GRCD4 and GRCD5 factors displayed hub-like positions in the interaction map. We propose GRCD4 and GRCD5 to provide a redundant and general E function in Gerbera, comparable to the SEP proteins in Arabidopsis. Based on the pairwise interaction data, combinations of MADS domain proteins were further subjected to yeast three-hybrid assays. Gerbera B function proteins showed active behavior in ternary complexes. All Gerbera SEP-like proteins with the exception of GRCD1 were excellent partners for B function proteins, further implicating the unique role of GRCD1 as a whorl- and flower-type specific C function partner. Conclusions Gerbera MADS domain proteins exhibit both conserved and derived behavior in higher order protein complex formation. This protein-protein interaction data can be used to classify and compare Gerbera MADS domain proteins to those of Arabidopsis and Petunia. Combined with our reverse genetic studies of Gerbera, these results reinforce the roles of

  15. Insight into the immunobiology of human skin and functional specialization of skin dendritic cell subsets to innovate intradermal vaccination design.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, M B M; Haniffa, M; Collin, M P

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are the key initiators and regulators of any immune response which determine the outcome of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses. Multiple distinct DC subsets can be distinguished by location, phenotype, and function in the homeostatic and inflamed human skin. The function of steady-state cutaneous DCs or recruited inflammatory DCs is influenced by the surrounding cellular and extracellular skin microenvironment. The skin is an attractive site for vaccination given the extended local network of DCs and the easy access to the skin-draining lymph nodes to generate effector T cells and immunoglobulin-producing B cells for long-term protective immunity. In the context of intradermal vaccination we describe in this review the skin-associated immune system, the characteristics of the different skin DC subsets, the mechanism of antigen uptake and presentation, and how the properties of DCs can be manipulated. This knowledge is critical for the development of intradermal vaccine strategies and supports the concept of intradermal vaccination as a superior route to the conventional intramuscular or subcutaneous methods.

  16. Impact of low molecular weight phthalates in inducing reproductive malfunctions in male mice: Special emphasis on Sertoli cell functions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Narender; Srivastava, Swati; Roy, Partha

    2015-05-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in a variety of products. Since they have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), effect of phthalates on human health is a major concern. In this study, we evaluated individual as well as combined mixture effects of three low molecular weight phthalates on the reproductive system of male mice, specifically on the Sertoli cell structure and function. In order to analyze the blood testes barrier (BTB) dynamics, primary culture of Sertoli cells from 3-weeks old male mice was used for mimicking typical tight junction structures. Male mice were exposed to long-term (45 days) and combined mixture of three phthalates, diethyl phthalate (DEP), diphenyl phthalate (DPP), and dimethyl isophthalate (DMIP) between pre-pubertal to adult stage. Our data showed significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the rates of transcription of certain prominent Sertoli cell specific genes like transferrin, testin and occludin. Moreover, we also observed significant decreases in the expression of proteins like 3β-HSD, connexin-43 and occludin in testicular lysates of treated animals (p < 0.05). The transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed that the test compounds significantly altered the structural integrity of Sertoli cells. The significant changes of Sertoli cell tight junction structure by test compounds were associated with phosphorylation of ERK. Taken together, our study suggests that low molecular weight phthalates may affect male fertility by altering both structural and functional integrity of Sertoli cells in testes.

  17. A process-based model of conifer forest structure and function with special emphasis on leaf lifespan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Colin P.; Beerling, David J.

    2002-12-01

    We describe the University of Sheffield Conifer Model (USCM), a process-based approach for simulating conifer forest carbon, nitrogen, and water fluxes by up-scaling widely applicable relationships between leaf lifespan and function. The USCM is designed to predict and analyze the biogeochemistry and biophysics of conifer forests that dominated the ice-free high-latitude regions under the high pCO2 "greenhouse" world 290-50 Myr ago. It will be of use in future research investigating controls on the contrasting distribution of ancient evergreen and deciduous forests between hemispheres, and their differential feedbacks on polar climate through the exchange of energy and materials with the atmosphere. Emphasis is placed on leaf lifespan because this trait can be determined from the anatomical characteristics of fossil conifer woods and influences a range of ecosystem processes. Extensive testing of simulated net primary production and partitioning, leaf area index, evapotranspiration, nitrogen uptake, and land surface energy partitioning showed close agreement with observations from sites across a wide climatic gradient. This indicates the generic utility of our model, and adequate representation of the key processes involved in forest function using only information on leaf lifespan, climate, and soils.

  18. Functional specialization and convergence in the occipito-temporal cortex supporting haptic and visual identification of human faces and body parts: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Ryo; Johnsrude, Ingrid S; Kochiyama, Takanori; Lederman, Susan J

    2009-10-01

    Humans can recognize common objects by touch extremely well whenever vision is unavailable. Despite its importance to a thorough understanding of human object recognition, the neuroscientific study of this topic has been relatively neglected. To date, the few published studies have addressed the haptic recognition of nonbiological objects. We now focus on haptic recognition of the human body, a particularly salient object category for touch. Neuroimaging studies demonstrate that regions of the occipito-temporal cortex are specialized for visual perception of faces (fusiform face area, FFA) and other body parts (extrastriate body area, EBA). Are the same category-sensitive regions activated when these components of the body are recognized haptically? Here, we use fMRI to compare brain organization for haptic and visual recognition of human body parts. Sixteen subjects identified exemplars of faces, hands, feet, and nonbiological control objects using vision and haptics separately. We identified two discrete regions within the fusiform gyrus (FFA and the haptic face region) that were each sensitive to both haptically and visually presented faces; however, these two regions differed significantly in their response patterns. Similarly, two regions within the lateral occipito-temporal area (EBA and the haptic body region) were each sensitive to body parts in both modalities, although the response patterns differed. Thus, although the fusiform gyrus and the lateral occipito-temporal cortex appear to exhibit modality-independent, category-sensitive activity, our results also indicate a degree of functional specialization related to sensory modality within these structures.

  19. Theory of mind performance in children correlates with functional specialization of a brain region for thinking about thoughts.

    PubMed

    Gweon, Hyowon; Dodell-Feder, David; Bedny, Marina; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-11-01

    Thinking about other people's thoughts recruits a specific group of brain regions, including the temporo-parietal junctions (TPJ), precuneus (PC), and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). The same brain regions were recruited when children (N=20, 5-11 years) and adults (N=8) listened to descriptions of characters' mental states, compared to descriptions of physical events. Between ages 5 and 11 years, responses in the bilateral TPJ became increasingly specific to stories describing mental states as opposed to people's appearance and social relationships. Functional activity in the right TPJ was related to children's performance on a high level theory of mind task. These findings provide insights into the origin of neural mechanisms of theory of mind, and how behavioral and neural changes can be related in development.

  20. A Special Golden Curve in Human Upper Limbs' Length Proportion: A Functional Partition Which Is Different from Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Ma, Jie; Jin, Dan; Yu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between upper limbs' three functional partitions and the golden curve. Materials and Methods. We measured 30 subjects' right or left upper limb data and investigate the relationship between them and the golden curve by use of SPSS version 20.0 statistical software (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois), one-sample t-test. Results. There are four points on human's upper limbs which have no difference with the four points on the golden curve. And there is one point of which the difference is obvious. But we still could draw the conclusion that human upper limbs are accordant with the golden curve. Conclusion. Human upper limbs are accordant with the golden curve.

  1. [In vitro study of endothelial tolerance of 10 culture media with special reference to the pump and barrier function].

    PubMed

    Kloss, A; Böhnke, M

    1991-01-01

    We investigated ten commercially available tissue culture media in a series of perfusion experiments. Porcine cornea were perfused in groups of 10-15 with the media M 199 Earle, MEM Earle, MEM Hank, DMEM, RPMI 1640, Ham's F-12, BM-86 Wissler. Perfusions were done with and without the addition of 2% fetal calf serum. As a control, BSS PLUS (R) was used. We compared the change in corneal thickness in a 6-h perfusion interval. The corneal endothelium was present after all perfusion experiments. Evaluation of the changes in corneal thickness showed that culture media rich in bicarbonate support the endothelial pumping function. The presence of fetal calf serum had no influence on corneal thickness. The absence of glutathione in the culture media did not result in increased corneal thickness. Medium 199 with Earle salt, BSS Plus, DMEM, RPMI 1640 and Ham's F-12 gave the best results and may be considered possible intraocular irrigation solutions.

  2. A Special Golden Curve in Human Upper Limbs' Length Proportion: A Functional Partition Which Is Different from Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between upper limbs' three functional partitions and the golden curve. Materials and Methods. We measured 30 subjects' right or left upper limb data and investigate the relationship between them and the golden curve by use of SPSS version 20.0 statistical software (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois), one-sample t-test. Results. There are four points on human's upper limbs which have no difference with the four points on the golden curve. And there is one point of which the difference is obvious. But we still could draw the conclusion that human upper limbs are accordant with the golden curve. Conclusion. Human upper limbs are accordant with the golden curve. PMID:28232941

  3. Membrane transporters for the special amino acid glutamine: Structure/function relationships and relevance to human health.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochini, Lorena; Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Galluccio, Michele; Indiveri, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    Glutamine together with glucose is essential for body’s homeostasis. It is the most abundant amino acid and is involved in many biosynthetic, regulatory and energy production processes. Several membrane transporters which differ in transport modes, ensure glutamine homeostasis by coordinating its absorption, reabsorption and delivery to tissues. These transporters belong to different protein families, are redundant and ubiquitous. Their classification, originally based on functional properties, has recently been associated with the SLC nomenclature. Function of glutamine transporters is studied in cells over-expressing the transporters or, more recently in proteoliposomes harboring the proteins extracted from animal tissues or over-expressed in microorganisms. The role of the glutamine transporters is linked to their transport modes and coupling with Na+ and H+. Most transporters share specificity for other neutral or cationic amino acids. Na+-dependent co-transporters efficiently accumulate glutamine while antiporters regulate the pools of glutamine and other amino acids. The most acknowledged glutamine transporters belong to the SLC1, 6, 7 and 38 families. The members involved in the homeostasis are the co-transporters B0AT1 and the SNAT members 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7; the antiporters ASCT2, LAT1 and 2. The last two are associated to the ancillary CD98 protein. Some information on regulation of the glutamine transporters exist, which, however, need to be deepened. No information at all is available on structures, besides some homology models obtained using similar bacterial transporters as templates. Some models of rat and human glutamine transporters highlight very similar structures between the orthologues. Moreover the presence of glycosylation and/or phosphorylation sites located at the extracellular or intracellular faces has been predicted. ASCT2 and LAT1 are over-expressed in several cancers, thus representing potential targets for pharmacological intervention.

  4. Membrane transporters for the special amino acid glutamine: structure/function relationships and relevance to human health

    PubMed Central

    Pochini, Lorena; Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Galluccio, Michele; Indiveri, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Glutamine together with glucose is essential for body's homeostasis. It is the most abundant amino acid and is involved in many biosynthetic, regulatory and energy production processes. Several membrane transporters which differ in transport modes, ensure glutamine homeostasis by coordinating its absorption, reabsorption and delivery to tissues. These transporters belong to different protein families, are redundant and ubiquitous. Their classification, originally based on functional properties, has recently been associated with the SLC nomenclature. Function of glutamine transporters is studied in cells over-expressing the transporters or, more recently in proteoliposomes harboring the proteins extracted from animal tissues or over-expressed in microorganisms. The role of the glutamine transporters is linked to their transport modes and coupling with Na+ and H+. Most transporters share specificity for other neutral or cationic amino acids. Na+-dependent co-transporters efficiently accumulate glutamine while antiporters regulate the pools of glutamine and other amino acids. The most acknowledged glutamine transporters belong to the SLC1, 6, 7, and 38 families. The members involved in the homeostasis are the co-transporters B0AT1 and the SNAT members 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7; the antiporters ASCT2, LAT1 and 2. The last two are associated to the ancillary CD98 protein. Some information on regulation of the glutamine transporters exist, which, however, need to be deepened. No information at all is available on structures, besides some homology models obtained using similar bacterial transporters as templates. Some models of rat and human glutamine transporters highlight very similar structures between the orthologs. Moreover the presence of glycosylation and/or phosphorylation sites located at the extracellular or intracellular faces has been predicted. ASCT2 and LAT1 are over-expressed in several cancers, thus representing potential targets for pharmacological intervention

  5. Depth-stratified functional and taxonomic niche specialization in the ‘core' and ‘flexible' Pacific Ocean Virome

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, Bonnie L; Brum, Jennifer R; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2015-01-01

    Microbes drive myriad ecosystem processes, and their viruses modulate microbial-driven processes through mortality, horizontal gene transfer, and metabolic reprogramming by viral-encoded auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs). However, our knowledge of viral roles in the oceans is primarily limited to surface waters. Here we assess the depth distribution of protein clusters (PCs) in the first large-scale quantitative viral metagenomic data set that spans much of the pelagic depth continuum (the Pacific Ocean Virome; POV). This established ‘core' (180 PCs; one-third new to science) and ‘flexible' (423K PCs) community gene sets, including niche-defining genes in the latter (385 and 170 PCs are exclusive and core to the photic and aphotic zones, respectively). Taxonomic annotation suggested that tailed phages are ubiquitous, but not abundant (<5% of PCs) and revealed depth-related taxonomic patterns. Functional annotation, coupled with extensive analyses to document non-viral DNA contamination, uncovered 32 new AMGs (9 core, 20 photic and 3 aphotic) that introduce ways in which viruses manipulate infected host metabolism, and parallel depth-stratified host adaptations (for example, photic zone genes for iron–sulphur cluster modulation for phage production, and aphotic zone genes for high-pressure deep-sea survival). Finally, significant vertical flux of photic zone viruses to the deep sea was detected, which is critical for interpreting depth-related patterns in nature. Beyond the ecological advances outlined here, this catalog of viral core, flexible and niche-defining genes provides a resource for future investigation into the organization, function and evolution of microbial molecular networks to mechanistically understand and model viral roles in the biosphere. PMID:25093636

  6. 7 CFR 761.53 - Interest bearing accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interest bearing accounts. 761.53 Section 761.53... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Supervised Bank Accounts § 761.53 Interest bearing accounts. (a) A supervised bank account, if possible, will be established as an interest bearing...

  7. 7 CFR 761.53 - Interest bearing accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest bearing accounts. 761.53 Section 761.53... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Supervised Bank Accounts § 761.53 Interest bearing accounts. (a) A supervised bank account, if possible, will be established as an interest bearing...

  8. Existence of CD8α-like dendritic cells with a conserved functional specialization and a common molecular signature in distant mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Vanessa; Urien, Céline; Guiton, Rachel; Alexandre, Yannick; Vu Manh, Thien-Phong; Andrieu, Thibault; Crozat, Karine; Jouneau, Luc; Bertho, Nicolas; Epardaud, Mathieu; Hope, Jayne; Savina, Ariel; Amigorena, Sebastian; Bonneau, Michel; Dalod, Marc; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2010-09-15

    The mouse lymphoid organ-resident CD8alpha(+) dendritic cell (DC) subset is specialized in Ag presentation to CD8(+) T cells. Recent evidence shows that mouse nonlymphoid tissue CD103(+) DCs and human blood DC Ag 3(+) DCs share similarities with CD8alpha(+) DCs. We address here whether the organization of DC subsets is conserved across mammals in terms of gene expression signatures, phenotypic characteristics, and functional specialization, independently of the tissue of origin. We study the DC subsets that migrate from the skin in the ovine species that, like all domestic animals, belongs to the Laurasiatheria, a distinct phylogenetic clade from the supraprimates (human/mouse). We demonstrate that the minor sheep CD26(+) skin lymph DC subset shares significant transcriptomic similarities with mouse CD8alpha(+) and human blood DC Ag 3(+) DCs. This allowed the identification of a common set of phenotypic characteristics for CD8alpha-like DCs in the three mammalian species (i.e., SIRP(lo), CADM1(hi), CLEC9A(hi), CD205(hi), XCR1(hi)). Compared to CD26(-) DCs, the sheep CD26(+) DCs show 1) potent stimulation of allogeneic naive CD8(+) T cells with high selective induction of the Ifngamma and Il22 genes; 2) dominant efficacy in activating specific CD8(+) T cells against exogenous soluble Ag; and 3) selective expression of functional pathways associated with high capacity for Ag cross-presentation. Our results unravel a unifying definition of the CD8alpha(+)-like DCs across mammalian species and identify molecular candidates that could be used for the design of vaccines applying to mammals in general.

  9. Functional brain imaging: what has it brought to our understanding of neuropathic pain? A special focus on allodynic pain mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Peyron, Roland

    2016-02-01

    Brain responses to nociception are well identified. The same is not true for allodynic pain, a strong painful sensation in response to touch or innocuous cold stimuli that may be experienced by patients with neuropathic pain. Brain (or spinal cord) reorganization that may explain this paradoxical perception still remains largely unknown. Allodynic pain is associated with abnormally increased activity in SII and in the anterior insular cortex, contralateral and/or ipsilateral to allodynia. Because a bilateral increase in activity has been repeatedly reported in these areas in nociceptive conditions, the observed activation during allodynia can explain that a physiologically nonpainful stimulus could be perceived by the damaged nervous system as a painful one. Both secondary somatosensory and insular cortices receive input from the thalamus, which is a major relay of sensory and spinothalamic pathways, the involvement of which is known to be crucial for the development of neuropathic pain. Both thalamic function and structure have been reported to be abnormal or impaired in neuropathic pain conditions including in the basal state, possibly explaining the spontaneous component of neuropathic pain. A further indication as to how the brain can create neuropathic pain response in SII and insular cortices stems from examples of diseases, including single-case reports in whom a focal brain lesion leads to central pain disappearance. Additional studies are required to certify the contribution of these areas to the disease processes, to disentangle abnormalities respectively related to pain and to deafferentation, and, in the future, to guide targeting of stimulation studies.

  10. Comparative Functional Genomics of Lactobacillus spp. Reveals Possible Mechanisms for Specialization of Vaginal Lactobacilli to Their Environment

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Haruo; Hickey, Roxana J.; Forney, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacilli are found in a wide variety of habitats. Four species, Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri, L. iners, and L. jensenii, are common and abundant in the human vagina and absent from other habitats. These may be adapted to the vagina and possess characteristics enabling them to thrive in that environment. Furthermore, stable codominance of multiple Lactobacillus species in a single community is infrequently observed. Thus, it is possible that individual vaginal Lactobacillus species possess unique characteristics that confer to them host-specific competitive advantages. We performed comparative functional genomic analyses of representatives of 25 species of Lactobacillus, searching for habitat-specific traits in the genomes of the vaginal lactobacilli. We found that the genomes of the vaginal species were significantly smaller and had significantly lower GC content than those of the nonvaginal species. No protein families were found to be specific to the vaginal species analyzed, but some were either over- or underrepresented relative to nonvaginal species. We also found that within the vaginal species, each genome coded for species-specific protein families. Our results suggest that even though the vaginal species show no general signatures of adaptation to the vaginal environment, each species has specific and perhaps unique ways of interacting with its environment, be it the host or other microbes in the community. These findings will serve as a foundation for further exploring the role of lactobacilli in the ecological dynamics of vaginal microbial communities and their ultimate impact on host health. PMID:24488312

  11. Special function of nestin(+) neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuhong; Guo, Kaihua; Li, Dongpei; Yuan, Qunfang; Yao, Zhibin

    2014-02-01

    Nestin(+) neurons have been shown to express choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats. This study explored the projection of nestin(+) neurons to the olfactory bulb and the time course of nestin(+) neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca in adult rats during injury recovery after olfactory nerve transection. This study observed that all nestin(+) neurons were double-labeled with ChAT in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca. Approximately 53.6% of nestin(+) neurons were projected to the olfactory bulb and co-labeled with fast blue. A large number of nestin(+) neurons were not present in each region of the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca. Nestin(+) neurons in the medial septum and vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca showed obvious compensatory function. The number of nestin(+) neurons decreased to a minimum later than nestin(-)/ChAT(+) neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca. The results suggest that nestin(+) cholinergic neurons may have a closer connection to olfactory bulb neurons. Nestin(+) cholinergic neurons may have a stronger tolerance to injury than Nestin(-)/ChAT(+) neurons. The difference between nestin(+) and nestin(-)/ChAT(+) neurons during the recovery process requires further investigations.

  12. Comparative functional genomics of Lactobacillus spp. reveals possible mechanisms for specialization of vaginal lactobacilli to their environment.

    PubMed

    Mendes-Soares, Helena; Suzuki, Haruo; Hickey, Roxana J; Forney, Larry J

    2014-04-01

    Lactobacilli are found in a wide variety of habitats. Four species, Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri, L. iners, and L. jensenii, are common and abundant in the human vagina and absent from other habitats. These may be adapted to the vagina and possess characteristics enabling them to thrive in that environment. Furthermore, stable codominance of multiple Lactobacillus species in a single community is infrequently observed. Thus, it is possible that individual vaginal Lactobacillus species possess unique characteristics that confer to them host-specific competitive advantages. We performed comparative functional genomic analyses of representatives of 25 species of Lactobacillus, searching for habitat-specific traits in the genomes of the vaginal lactobacilli. We found that the genomes of the vaginal species were significantly smaller and had significantly lower GC content than those of the nonvaginal species. No protein families were found to be specific to the vaginal species analyzed, but some were either over- or underrepresented relative to nonvaginal species. We also found that within the vaginal species, each genome coded for species-specific protein families. Our results suggest that even though the vaginal species show no general signatures of adaptation to the vaginal environment, each species has specific and perhaps unique ways of interacting with its environment, be it the host or other microbes in the community. These findings will serve as a foundation for further exploring the role of lactobacilli in the ecological dynamics of vaginal microbial communities and their ultimate impact on host health.

  13. Voltage-sensitive dye imaging during functional development of the embryonic nervous system: a brief review with special thanks to Professor Larry Cohen.

    PubMed

    Momose-Sato, Yoko; Sato, Katsushige

    2015-04-01

    Investigating the developmental organization of the embryonic nervous system is one of the major challenges in the field of neuroscience. Despite their significance, functional studies on the vertebrate embryonic central nervous system (CNS) have been hampered by the technical limitations associated with conventional electrophysiological methods. The advent of optical techniques using voltage-sensitive dyes, which were developed by Dr. Cohen and his colleagues, has enabled electrical activity in living cells to be monitored noninvasively and also facilitated the simultaneous recording of neural responses from multiple regions. Using optical recording techniques, it is now possible to follow the functional organization of the embryonic CNS and image the spatiotemporal dynamics involved in the formation of this neural network. We herein briefly reviewed optical studies on the embryonic CNS with a special emphasis on methodological considerations and the study of neuronal circuit formation, which demonstrates the utility of fast voltage-sensitive dye imaging as a powerful tool for elucidating the functional organization of the embryonic CNS.

  14. Special Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavendel, Giuliana

    1977-01-01

    Discusses problems involved in maintaining special scientific or engineering libraries, including budget problems, remote storage locations, rental computer retrieval systems, protecting trade secrets, and establishing a magnetic tape library. (MLH)

  15. 49 CFR 1242.04 - Special tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special tests. 1242.04 Section 1242.04... BETWEEN FREIGHT SERVICE AND PASSENGER SERVICE FOR RAILROADS 1 General § 1242.04 Special tests. When the separation of common expense accounts between freight and passenger services is based upon special tests...

  16. 49 CFR 1242.04 - Special tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special tests. 1242.04 Section 1242.04... BETWEEN FREIGHT SERVICE AND PASSENGER SERVICE FOR RAILROADS 1 General § 1242.04 Special tests. When the separation of common expense accounts between freight and passenger services is based upon special tests...

  17. The Use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Version for Children and Youth (ICF-CY), in Portuguese Special Education Assessment and Eligibility Procedures: The Professionals' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanches-Ferreira, Manuela; Silveira-Maia, Mónica; Alves, Sílvia

    2014-01-01

    Portugal was the first country decreeing the mandatory use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Child and Youth (ICF-CY) framework for guiding special education assessment process and to base eligibility decision-making on students' functioning profiles--in contrast with traditional approaches centred on…

  18. Density-functional approaches to non-bonding interactions: a comparison of dispersion corrections (DFT-D), exchange-hole dipole moment (XDM) theory, and specialized functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Lori A; Sherrill, David; Vazquez-Mayagoitia, Alvaro; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2011-01-01

    A systematic study of techniques for treating non-covalent interactions within the computationally efficient density functional theory (DFT) framework is presented through comparison to benchmark-quality evaluations of binding strength com- piled for molecular complexes of diverse size and nature. In particular, the effi- cacy of functionals deliberately crafted to encompass long-range forces, a posteri- ori DFT+dispersion corrections (DFT-D2 and DFT-D3), and exchange-hole dipole moment (XDM) theory is assessed against a large collection (469 energy points) of reference interaction energies at the CCSD(T) level of theory extrapolated to the estimated complete basis set limit. The established S22 and JSCH test sets of minimum-energy structures, as well as collections of dispersion-bound (NBC10) and hydrogen-bonded (HBC6) dissociation curves and a pairwise decomposition of a protein-ligand reaction site (HSG), comprise the chemical systems for this work. From evaluations of accuracy, consistency, and efficiency for PBE-D, BP86-D, B97-D, PBE0-D, B3LYP-D, B970-D, M05-2X, M06-2X, B97X-D, B2PLYP-D, XYG3, and B3LYP-XDM methodologies, it is concluded that distinct, often contrasting, groups of these elicit the best performance within the accessible double- or robust triple- basis set regimes and among hydrogen-bonded or dispersion-dominated complexes. For overall results, M05-2X, B97-D3, and B970-D2 yield superior values in conjunc- tion with aug-cc-pVDZ, for a mean absolute deviation of 0.41 0.49 kcal/mol, and B3LYP-D3, B97-D3, B97X-D, and B2PLYP-D3 dominate with aug-cc-pVTZ, af- fording, together with XYG3/6-311+G(3df,2p), a mean absolute deviation of 0.33 0.38 kcal/mol.

  19. 28 CFR 600.7 - Conduct and accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conduct and accountability. 600.7 Section 600.7 Judicial Administration OFFICES OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL POWERS OF SPECIAL COUNSEL § 600.7 Conduct and accountability. (a) A Special Counsel shall comply with the...

  20. Specialization of the posterior temporal lobes for audio-motor processing - evidence from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of skilled drummers.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chen-Gia; Fan, Li-Ying; Lee, Shu-Hui; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Chou, Tai-Li

    2012-02-01

    Sounds of hammering or clapping can evoke simulation of the arm movements that have been previously associated with those sounds. This audio-motor transformation also occurs at the sequential level and plays a role in speech and music processing. The present study aimed to demonstrate how the activation pattern of the sensorimotor network was modulated by the sequential nature of the auditory input and effector. Fifteen skilled drum set players participated in our functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Prior to the scan, these drummers practiced six drumming grooves. During the scan, there were four rehearsal conditions: covertly playing the drum set under the guidance of its randomly-presented isolated stroke sounds, covertly playing the drum set along with the sounds of learned percussion music, covertly reciting the syllable representation along with this music, and covertly reciting along with the syllable representation of this music. We found greater activity in the bilateral posterior middle temporal gyri for active listening to isolated drum strokes than for active listening to learned drum music. These regions might mediate the one-to-one mappings from sounds to limb movements. Compared with subvocal rehearsals along with learned drum music, covert rehearsals of limb movements along with the same music additionally activated a lateral subregion of the left posterior planum temporale. Our results illustrate a functional specialization of the posterior temporal lobes for audio-motor processing.

  1. International Accounting and the Accounting Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laribee, Stephen F.

    The American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) has been instrumental in internationalizing the accounting curriculum by means of accreditation requirements and standards. Colleges and universities have met the AACSB requirements either by providing separate international accounting courses or by integrating international topics…

  2. A Harmonious Accounting Duo?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schapperle, Robert F.; Hardiman, Patrick F.

    1992-01-01

    Accountants have urged "harmonization" of standards between the Governmental Accounting Standards Board and the Financial Accounting Standards Board, recommending similar reporting of like transactions. However, varying display of similar accounting events does not necessarily indicate disharmony. The potential for problems because of…

  3. Custom accounts receivable modeling.

    PubMed

    Veazie, J

    1994-04-01

    In hospital and clinic management, accounts are valued as units and handled equally--a $20 account receives the same minimum number of statements as a $20,000 account. Quite often, the sheer number of accounts a hospital or clinic has to handle forces executives to manage accounts by default and failure--accounts mature on an aging track and, if left unpaid by patients, eventually are sent to collections personnel. Of the bad-debt accounts placed with collections agencies, many are misclassified as charity or hardship cases, while others could be collected by hospital or clinic staff with a limited amount of additional effort.

  4. Special Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Peter R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes six special reports: "Libraries and the National Information Infrastructure" (Peter R. Young and Jane Williams); "Library Cooperation and Networking" (JoAn Segal); "Mexican Information Resources in Electronic Format" (Shirley Ainsworth); "The International Role of U.S. Librarians" (Hannelore B.…

  5. Special Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiant, Sarah K.; Lynch, Clifford; Nevins, Kate; Juergens, Bonnie

    1998-01-01

    Contains three special reports: developments in copyright law, 1997 (World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) legislation, Ashcroft Bill, No Electronic Theft Act, database protection, Conference on Fair Use (CONFU), judicial decisions, principles for licensing electronic resources, and Uniform Commercial Code Article 2B); Internet2 and the…

  6. Special Advocate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Weele, Maribeth

    1992-01-01

    Thomas Hehir, special education chief of Chicago Public Schools, is evangelist of integrating children with disabilities into regular classrooms. By completely reorganizing department viewed as political patronage dumping ground, Hehir has made remarkable progress in handling large number of children awaiting evaluation and placement in special…

  7. Special Feature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Gary B., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The nine articles of this special section focus on the role of evaluation in the reform of the mental health system in Washington. The reform process is described from its inception through its design to the dissemination and utilization of evaluation results. The final article considers implications for statewide evaluations. (SLD)

  8. Automated attendance accounting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automated accounting system useful for applying data to a computer from any or all of a multiplicity of data terminals is disclosed. The system essentially includes a preselected number of data terminals which are each adapted to convert data words of decimal form to another form, i.e., binary, usable with the computer. Each data terminal may take the form of a keyboard unit having a number of depressable buttons or switches corresponding to selected data digits and/or function digits. A bank of data buffers, one of which is associated with each data terminal, is provided as a temporary storage. Data from the terminals is applied to the data buffers on a digit by digit basis for transfer via a multiplexer to the computer.

  9. Special Education: Does It Fit with Standards-Based Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kysilko, David, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue focuses on how special education fits into standards-based reform and contains the following featured articles: (1) A New Vision for Special Education Accountability (Martha L. Thurlow and Jane L. Krentz) charts the change in special education accountability as it moves from the old focus on Individualized Education Program teams; (2)…

  10. Utilizing a Micro in the Accounting Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, L. Craig

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses how to select microcomputer software for an accounting program and what types of instructional modes to use. The following modes are examined: problem solving, decision making, automated accounting functions, learning new accounting concepts, reinforcing concepts already learned, developing independent learning skills, and…

  11. Towards a Convergent Account of Pragmatic Language Deficits in Children with High-Functioning Autism: Depicting the Phenotype Using the Pragmatic Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Yan Grace; Yeung, Siu Sze Susanna

    2012-01-01

    Despite its prominence, pragmatic characteristic associated with autism is under-explored and thus was not well defined. The present study attempted to depict a relatively comprehensive profile of language pragmatics in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) using the Pragmatic Rating Scale (PRS). Pragmatic behaviors of 26 HFA children were…

  12. Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics: a special issue in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics: a special issue in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowker, Fay; Elizalde, Emilio; Kirsten, Klaus

    2012-09-01

    probably the reason that his paper did not receive the same recognition as the one by Hawking [12], where zeta function regularization was mentioned in the title and where it was actually applied to examples in the article. Of course, Stuart's and Raymond's paper hit the pulse of the time in that after Stephen Hawking's announcement about Hawking radiation [13], the quantum field theory in curved space-time frenzy began. He had been interested in that subject for a while, the most important influence being de Witt's Les Houches lectures and also Chris Isham, who introduced him to Dennis Sciama's Oxford group, including Philip Candelas and Derek Raine, in 1973. The project about de Sitter space got somewhat delayed by work on path integrals and the ordering problem until Ray Critchley came by looking for a PhD topic. Several more of his best known papers are in the context of quantum field theory in curved spacetime. In the article [14], conformal transformations play a fundamental role. They are used to transform static manifolds to ultra-static ones where a high-temperature expansion of the effective action can be done. The result has since been rediscovered many times for special cases. In the process they also showed results about the conformal transformation of heat kernel coefficients claimed later on by mathematicians. The paper by Kennedy, Critchley and Dowker [15] belongs in the same context. Deutsch and Candelas had shown the occurrence of non-integrable singularities near boundaries of the Casimir energy densities, which made it impossible to obtain global energies by naively integrating local quantities. To resolve that problem, the needed surface counterterms for an arbitrarily shaped smooth boundary in curved space were computed. How does the paper [16] fit into the general scheme? The seed to considering this topic was probably planted when Yakir Aharonov was visiting Birmingham in 1958. In the Aharonov-Bohm effect we have an electromagnetic field with finite

  13. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to Describe Children Referred to Special Care or Paediatric Dental Services

    PubMed Central

    Faulks, Denise; Norderyd, Johanna; Molina, Gustavo; Macgiolla Phadraig, Caoimhin; Scagnet, Gabriela; Eschevins, Caroline; Hennequin, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Children in dentistry are traditionally described in terms of medical diagnosis and prevalence of oral disease. This approach gives little information regarding a child’s capacity to maintain oral health or regarding the social determinants of oral health. The biopsychosocial approach, embodied in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Child and Youth version (ICF-CY) (WHO), provides a wider picture of a child’s real-life experience, but practical tools for the application of this model are lacking. This article describes the preliminary empirical study necessary for development of such a tool - an ICF-CY Core Set for Oral Health. An ICF-CY questionnaire was used to identify the medical, functional, social and environmental context of 218 children and adolescents referred to special care or paediatric dental services in France, Sweden, Argentina and Ireland (mean age 8 years ±3.6yrs). International Classification of Disease (ICD-10) diagnoses included disorders of the nervous system (26.1%), Down syndrome (22.0%), mental retardation (17.0%), autistic disorders (16.1%), and dental anxiety alone (11.0%). The most frequently impaired items in the ICF Body functions domain were ‘Intellectual functions’, ‘High-level cognitive functions’, and ‘Attention functions’. In the Activities and Participation domain, participation restriction was frequently reported for 25 items including ‘Handling stress’, ‘Caring for body parts’, ‘Looking after one’s health’ and ‘Speaking’. In the Environment domain, facilitating items included ‘Support of friends’, ‘Attitude of friends’ and ‘Support of immediate family’. One item was reported as an environmental barrier – ‘Societal attitudes’. The ICF-CY can be used to highlight common profiles of functioning, activities, participation and environment shared by children in relation to oral health, despite widely differing medical, social and geographical

  14. Designing for Pupils with Special Educational Needs: Special Schools. Building Bulletin 77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    The legal requirement that special needs students have access to a balanced and broadly based curriculum carries implications for accommodation in special schools. This document offers advice and guidance on the provision of accommodation which takes account of the special educational needs of the pupils, and also explains those factors relating…

  15. 4 CFR 28.13 - Special procedure for Workforce Restructuring Action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....13 Section 28.13 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL APPEALS BOARD; PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO CLAIMS CONCERNING EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES AT THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Procedures § 28.13 Special procedure for Workforce...

  16. LMAL Accounting Office 1936

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1936-01-01

    Accounting Office: The Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory's accounting office, 1936, with photographs of the Wright brothers on the wall. Although the Lab was named after Samuel P. Langley, most of the NACA staff held the Wrights as their heroes.

  17. 14 CFR 1274.919 - Cost principles and accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost principles and accounting standards... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.919 Cost principles and accounting standards. Cost Principles and Accounting Standards July 2002 The expenditure...

  18. Intelligent Accountability in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Onora

    2013-01-01

    Systems of accountability are "second order" ways of using evidence of the standard to which "first order" tasks are carried out for a great variety of purposes. However, more accountability is not always better, and processes of holding to account can impose high costs without securing substantial benefits. At their worst,…

  19. Accounting Education in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Karen F.; Reed, Ronald O.; Greiman, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Almost on a daily basis new accounting rules and laws are put into use, creating information that must be known and learned by the accounting faculty and then introduced to and understood by the accounting student. Even with the 150 hours of education now required for CPA licensure, it is impossible to teach and learn all there is to learn. Over…

  20. Automated Accounting. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Duane R.

    This curriculum guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting College Edition Version 2.0 software in their accounting programs. The module consists of four units containing assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting. The first…

  1. Accounting & Computing Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avani, Nathan T.; And Others

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching a competency-based accounting and computing course that is designed to prepare students for employability in the following occupational areas: inventory control clerk, invoice clerk, payroll clerk, traffic clerk, general ledger bookkeeper, accounting clerk, account information clerk,…

  2. The Accounting Capstone Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Henry; Norris, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Capstone courses in accounting programs bring students experiences integrating across the curriculum (University of Washington, 2005) and offer unique (Sanyal, 2003) and transformative experiences (Sill, Harward, & Cooper, 2009). Students take many accounting courses without preparing complete sets of financial statements. Accountants not only…

  3. Special generalized densities and propagators: A geometric account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canarutto, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Starting from a short review of spaces of generalized sections of vector bundles, we give a concise systematic description, in precise geometric terms, of Leray densities, principal value densities, propagators and elementary solutions of field equations in flat spacetime. We then sketch a partly original geometric presentation of free quantum fields and show how propagators arise from their graded commutators in the boson and fermion cases.

  4. Performance Contracting: A Road to Accountability? NCSPS Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendixsen, Marian F.

    This report describes the national Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) performance contracting experiment and three of its local programs. It also briefly outlines one state-level development in performance contracting. In the OEO experiment, 20 school districts were selected to represent diverse geographic settings; the common elements of the…

  5. The New Oregon Trail: Accountability for Results. Special Report #7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anne; Dunkle, Margaret

    This report was designed to help policy makers and concerned citizens understand the context, culture, and history that set the stage for Oregon's efforts to reform state government, including those areas of government that affect education. This text offers a "snapshot" of what Oregon is doing to improve results, such as setting…

  6. Process Accountability in Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooler, Dennis D.; Grotelueschen, Arden

    This paper urges the curriculum developer to assume the accountability for his decisions necessitated by the actual ways our society functions. The curriculum developer is encouraged to recognize that he is a salesman with a commodity (the curriculum). He is urged to realize that if he cannot market the package to the customers (the various…

  7. Library Labor Cost Accounting System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Bois, Dan

    The Library Labor Cost Accounting System will provide visibility on current costs of manually processing library materials, at each campus as well as system-wide. The scope of the study includes the following: (1) 100 individual activities, grouped into 14 functional areas, e.g., Ordering, Receiving; and into 3 major operations: Acquisitions,…

  8. Accounting: "Balancing Out" the Accounting Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Coleen

    1979-01-01

    The vocational accounting laboratory is a viable, meaningful educational experience for high school seniors, due to the uniqueness of its educational approach and the direct involvement of the professional and business community. A balance of experiences is provided to match individual needs and goals of students. (CT)

  9. Function of AP2/ERF Transcription Factors Involved in the Regulation of Specialized Metabolism in Ophiorrhiza pumila Revealed by Transcriptomics and Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Udomsom, Nirin; Rai, Amit; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Okuyama, Jun; Imai, Ryosuke; Mori, Tetsuya; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Saito, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Mami

    2016-01-01

    The hairy roots (HR) of Ophiorrhiza pumila produce camptothecin (CPT), a monoterpenoid indole alkaloid used as a precursor in the synthesis of chemotherapeutic drugs. O. pumila HR culture is considered as a promising alternative source of CPT, however, the knowledge about the biosynthetic pathway and regulatory mechanism is still limited. In this study, five genes that encode AP2/ERF transcription factors, namely OpERF1–OpERF5, were isolated from HR of O. pumila. Phylogenetic analysis of AP2/ERF protein sequences suggested the close evolutionary relationship of OpERF1 with stress-responsive ERF factors in Arabidopsis and of OpERF2 with ERF factors reported to regulate alkaloid production, such as ORCA3 in Catharanthus roseus, NIC2 locus ERF in tobacco, and JRE4 in tomato. We generated the transgenic HR lines of O. pumila, ERF1i and ERF2i, in which the expression of OpERF1 and OpERF2, respectively, was suppressed using RNA interference technique. The transcriptome and metabolome of these suppressed HR were analyzed for functional characterization of OpERF1 and OpERF2. Although significant changes were not observed in the metabolome, including CPT and related compounds, the suppression of OpERF2 resulted in reduced expression of genes in the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate and secologanin-strictosidine pathways, which supply a precursor, strictosidine, for CPT biosynthesis. Furthermore, while it was not conclusive for OpERF1, enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes in the suppressed HR showed that the gene ontology terms for oxidation-reduction, presumably involved in secondary metabolite pathways, were enriched in the ERF2i downregulated gene set. These results suggest a positive role of OpERF2 in regulating specialized metabolism in O. pumila. PMID:28018397

  10. Data for Improvement, Data for Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary on the special issue on data use highlights the distinctions between data systems intended to improve the performance of school staff and those intended to hold schools and districts accountable for outcomes. It advises researchers to be alert to the differences in the policy logics connected with each approach.

  11. Water Accounting from Ungauged Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G.; Savenije, H.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity is increasing globally. This requires a more accurate management of the water resources at river basin scale and understanding of withdrawals and return flows; both naturally and man-induced. Many basins and their tributaries are, however, ungauged or poorly gauged. This hampers sound planning and monitoring processes. While certain countries have developed clear guidelines and policies on data observatories and data sharing, other countries and their basin organization still have to start on developing data democracies. Water accounting quantifies flows, fluxes, stocks and consumptive use pertaining to every land use class in a river basin. The objective is to derive a knowledge base with certain minimum information that facilitates decision making. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) is a new method for water resources assessment reporting (www.wateraccounting.org). While the PUB framework has yielded several deterministic models for flow prediction, WA+ utilizes remote sensing data of rainfall, evaporation (including soil, water, vegetation and interception evaporation), soil moisture, water levels, land use and biomass production. Examples will be demonstrated that show how remote sensing and hydrological models can be smartly integrated for generating all the required input data into WA+. A standard water accounting system for all basins in the world - with a special emphasis on data scarce regions - is under development. First results of using remote sensing measurements and hydrological modeling as an alternative to expensive field data sets, will be presented and discussed.

  12. Development and applications of the LFDFT: the non-empirical account of ligand field and the simulation of the f-d transitions by density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Ramanantoanina, Harry; Sahnoun, Mohammed; Barbiero, Andrea; Ferbinteanu, Marilena; Cimpoesu, Fanica

    2015-07-28

    Ligand field density functional theory (LFDFT) is a methodology consisting of non-standard handling of DFT calculations and post-computation analysis, emulating the ligand field parameters in a non-empirical way. Recently, the procedure was extended for two-open-shell systems, with relevance for inter-shell transitions in lanthanides, of utmost importance in understanding the optical and magnetic properties of rare-earth materials. Here, we expand the model to the calculation of intensities of f → d transitions, enabling the simulation of spectral profiles. We focus on Eu(2+)-based systems: this lanthanide ion undergoes many dipole-allowed transitions from the initial 4f(7)((8)S7/2) state to the final 4f(6)5d(1) ones, considering the free ion and doped materials. The relativistic calculations showed a good agreement with experimental data for a gaseous Eu(2+) ion, producing reliable Slater-Condon and spin-orbit coupling parameters. The Eu(2+) ion-doped fluorite-type lattices, CaF2:Eu(2+) and SrCl2:Eu(2+), in sites with octahedral symmetry, are studied in detail. The related Slater-Condon and spin-orbit coupling parameters from the doped materials are compared to those for the free ion, revealing small changes for the 4f shell side and relatively important shifts for those associated with the 5d shell. The ligand field scheme, in Wybourne parameterization, shows a good agreement with the phenomenological interpretation of the experiment. The non-empirical computed parameters are used to calculate the energy and intensity of the 4f(7)-4f(6)5d(1) transitions, rendering a realistic convoluted spectrum.

  13. Emerging accounting trends accounting for leases.

    PubMed

    Valletta, Robert; Huggins, Brian

    2010-12-01

    A new model for lease accounting can have a significant impact on hospitals and healthcare organizations. The new approach proposes a "right-of-use" model that involves complex estimates and significant administrative burden. Hospitals and health systems that draw heavily on lease arrangements should start preparing for the new approach now even though guidance and a final rule are not expected until mid-2011. This article highlights a number of considerations from the lessee point of view.

  14. Special Education for a New Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzman, Lauren I., Ed.; Gandhi, Allison Gruner, Ed.; Harbour, Wendy S., Ed.; LaRock, J. D., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Special Education for a New Century" pays particularly close attention to how inclusive education practices can best be promoted in the era of standards-based accountability. An updated version of the best-selling "Special Education at the Century's End", this new volume combines cutting-edge research and theory about students…

  15. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  16. Leadership for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    2001-01-01

    This document explores issues of leadership for accountability and reviews five resources on the subject. These include: (1) "Accountability by Carrots and Sticks: Will Incentives and Sanctions Motivate Students, Teachers, and Administrators for Peak Performance?" (Larry Lashway); (2) "Organizing Schools for Teacher Learning"…

  17. The Choreography of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2006-01-01

    The prevailing performance discourse in education claims school improvements can be achieved through transparent accountability procedures. The article identifies how teachers generate performances of their work in order to satisfy accountability demands. By identifying sources of teachers' knowledge that produce choreographed performances, I…

  18. Cluster Guide. Accounting Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaverton School District 48, OR.

    Based on a recent task inventory of key occupations in the accounting cluster taken in the Portland, Oregon, area, this curriculum guide is intended to assist administrators and teachers in the design and implementation of high school accounting cluster programs. The guide is divided into four major sections: program organization and…

  19. The Accountability Illusion: Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  20. The Accountability Illusion: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  1. The Accountability Illusion: Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  2. The Accountability Illusion: Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  3. The Accountability Illusion: Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  4. The Evolution of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Campus 2020: Thinking ahead is a policy in British Columbia (BC), Canada, that attempted to hold universities accountable to performance. Within, I demonstrate how this Canadian articulation of educational accountability intended to develop "governmentality constellations" to control the university and regulate its knowledge output. This…

  5. The Coming Accounting Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Tim V.

    2007-01-01

    The accounting profession is facing a potential crisis not only from the overall shortage of accounting faculty driven by smaller numbers of new faculty entering the profession as many existing faculty retire but also from changes that have been less well documented. This includes: (1) changes in attitude towards the roles of teaching, service and…

  6. Accountability in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chippendale, P. R., Ed.; Wilkes, Paula V., Ed.

    This collection of papers delivered at a conference on accountability held at Darling Downs Institute of Advanced Education in Australia examines the meaning of accountability in education for teachers, lecturers, government, parents, administrators, education authorities, and the society at large. In Part 1, W. G. Walker attempts to answer the…

  7. The Accountability Illusion: Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  8. Graded specialization within and between the anterior temporal lobes

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Grace E.; Hoffman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Considerable evidence from different methodologies has identified the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) as key regions for the representation of semantic knowledge. Research interest is now shifting to investigate the roles of different ATL subregions in semantic representation, with particular emphasis on the functions of the left versus right ATLs. In this review, we provide evidence for graded specializations both between and within the ATLs. We argue (1) that multimodal, pan‐category semantic representations are supported jointly by both left and right ATLs, yet (2) that the ATLs are not homogeneous in their function. Instead, subtle functional gradations both between and within the ATLs emerge as a consequence of differential connectivity with primary sensory/motor/limbic regions. This graded specialization account of semantic representation provides a compromise between theories that posit no differences between the functions of the left and right ATLs and those that posit that the left and right ATLs are entirely segregated in function. Evidence for this graded account comes from converging sources, and its benefits have been exemplified in formal computational models. We propose that this graded principle is not only a defining feature of the ATLs but is also a more general neurocomputational principle found throughout the temporal lobes. PMID:26502375

  9. 77 FR 43542 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards Pension Harmonization Rule AGENCY: Cost Accounting... correcting amendments. SUMMARY: The Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting...

  10. Racial Inequity in Special Education Undefined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losen, Daniel J., Ed.; Orfield, Gary, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    An illuminating account of a widespread problem that has received little attention, "Racial Inequity in Education" sets the stage for a more fruitful discussion about special education and racial justice. An illuminating account of a widespread problem that has received little attention, "Racial Inequity in Education" sets the…

  11. The Structural and Functional Model of Development of Profession-Oriented and Specialized Competences of Students at Vocational and Pedagogical Higher Educational Establishments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzanov, Boris N.; Tarasyuk, Olga V.; Bashkova, Svetlana A.; Ustakova, Daria A.; Sotskova, Svetlana I.

    2016-01-01

    The topicality of the problem under study is based on requirements of the society and the shortage of teachers of vocational education on the labour market, aimed at successful vocational and pedagogical activities by means of the needed level of development of profession-oriented and specialized competences through self-development and…

  12. Associations between social network characteristics, cognitive function, and quality of life among residents in a dementia special care unit: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Katherine M; Pachucki, Mark C

    2016-02-09

    Social integration has a significant influence on physical and mental health. Older adults experience an increased risk of social isolation as their social networks contract. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between dementia special care unit residents' overall well-being and cognition with structural aspects of their coresident relationships.

  13. Streamlining the accounts payable function with EDI.

    PubMed

    Huntley, G; Shride, T; McLure, M L; Moynihan, J J

    1997-01-01

    Kaiser Permanente of Southern California is expanding its use of EDI as a way to enhance the efficiency of its procurement effort and reduce administrative costs. Based on the results of surveys of key suppliers, Kaiser executives identified four EDI-based process improvements: 1) using the X12 832 standard to reconcile contracting data, which can eliminate up to 33 percent of mismatches among purchase orders, invoices, and receiving documents; 2) using procurement cards for many purchases, which can eliminate 20 percent of all invoices and related check payments; 3) using the X12 810 standard to obtain electronic invoices from Kaiser's largest suppliers; and 4) implementing the X12 820 standard, which lowers both supplier and claims payment costs.

  14. Human Resource Accounting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    I AD-RI54 787 HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 1/2 F MONTEREY CR J C MARTINS DEC 84 1UNCLASSIFIED /G 5/9 NL -~~ .. 2. . L...Monterey, California JUN1im THESISG HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING by Joaquim C. Martins LLJ.. December 1984 Thesis Advisor: R.A. McGonigal Approved for...REPORT & PECRI00 COVERED Master’s Thesis; Human Resource Accounting Dcme 94- ’ 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTOR(*) . CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER

  15. Joint genome-wide prediction in several populations accounting for randomness of genotypes: A hierarchical Bayes approach. I: Multivariate Gaussian priors for marker effects and derivation of the joint probability mass function of genotypes.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carlos Alberto; Khare, Kshitij; Banerjee, Arunava; Elzo, Mauricio A

    2016-12-31

    It is important to consider heterogeneity of marker effects and allelic frequencies in across population genome-wide prediction studies. Moreover, all regression models used in genome-wide prediction overlook randomness of genotypes. In this study, a family of hierarchical Bayesian models to perform across population genome-wide prediction modeling genotypes as random variables and allowing population-specific effects for each marker was developed. Models shared a common structure and differed in the priors used and the assumption about residual variances (homogeneous or heterogeneous). Randomness of genotypes was accounted for by deriving the joint probability mass function of marker genotypes conditional on allelic frequencies and pedigree information. As a consequence, these models incorporated kinship and genotypic information that not only permitted to account for heterogeneity of allelic frequencies, but also to include individuals with missing genotypes at some or all loci without the need for previous imputation. This was possible because the non-observed fraction of the design matrix was treated as an unknown model parameter. For each model, a simpler version ignoring population structure, but still accounting for randomness of genotypes was proposed. Implementation of these models and computation of some criteria for model comparison were illustrated using two simulated datasets. Theoretical and computational issues along with possible applications, extensions and refinements were discussed. Some features of the models developed in this study make them promising for genome-wide prediction, the use of information contained in the probability distribution of genotypes is perhaps the most appealing. Further studies to assess the performance of the models proposed here and also to compare them with conventional models used in genome-wide prediction are needed.

  16. Ideas for the Accounting Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerby, Debra; Romine, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Innovative ideas for accounting education include having students study accounting across historical periods, using businesses for student research, exploring nontraditional accounting careers, and collaborating with professional associations. (SK)

  17. Readability of Accounting Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razek, Joseph R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This article describes the results of a survey of the readability of most of the intermediate and advanced accounting textbooks currently in use at colleges and universities throughout the United States. (CT)

  18. Accounting Equals Applied Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sondra

    1997-01-01

    Argues that students should be given mathematics credits for completing accounting classes. Demonstrates that, although the terminology is different, the mathematical concepts are the same as those used in an introductory algebra class. (JOW)

  19. 18 CFR 367.1840 - Account 184, Clearing accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1840 Account 184, Clearing accounts. This account must include undistributed balances in clearing accounts at the date of the balance sheet... accounts. 367.1840 Section 367.1840 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  20. Shift in power to hospital accountants.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, L G; Rayburn, J M

    1996-01-01

    With the introduction of the Prospective Payment System, hospital accountants' role changed from reimbursement maximizers to an important role in decision making. Faced with increased competition, many hospitals are installing financial controls. Many hospitals are engaging in promotion and health awareness campaigns and expanding their services to stabilize income and reduce the effects of a changing environment. Thus, hospitals operate in a more competitive environment with much uncertainty. When faced with uncertainty, organizations often believe that they must convince society that their existence is legitimate. Increasing specialization and organizational complexity in healthcare professions have made the expert important. Experts, such as the role assumed by hospital accountants, maintain power because the organization depends on them for their special skills and information. Scarce resources coupled with uncertainty move hospital accountants as experts into the power equation in the changing control of the U.S. healthcare system. Since accountants often serve as monitors of scarce resources, information about the resource allocation directly affects the distribution of power. This places hospital accountants in a critical role of assisting their institutions in adapting to a new environment.

  1. Abnormal Functional Lateralization and Activity of Language Brain Areas in Typical Specific Language Impairment (Developmental Dysphasia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guibert, Clement; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Treguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting…

  2. Accounting for the environment.

    PubMed

    Lutz, E; Munasinghe, M

    1991-03-01

    Environmental awareness in the 1980s has led to efforts to improve the current UN System of National Accounts (SNA) for better measurement of the value of environmental resources when estimating income. National governments, the UN, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank are interested in solving this issue. The World Bank relies heavily on national aggregates in income accounts compiled by means of the SNA that was published in 1968 and stressed gross domestic product (GDP). GDP measures mainly market activity, but it takes does not consider the consumption of natural capital, and indirectly inhibits sustained development. The deficiencies of the current method of accounting are inconsistent treatment of manmade and natural capital, the omission of natural resources and their depletion from balance sheets, and pollution cleanup costs from national income. In the calculation of GDP pollution is overlooked, and beneficial environmental inputs are valued at zero. The calculation of environmentally adjusted net domestic product (EDP) and environmentally adjusted net income (ENI) would lower income and growth rate, as the World Resources Institute found with respect to Indonesia for 1971-84. When depreciation for oil, timber, and top soil was included the net domestic product (NDP) was only 4% compared with a 7.1% GDP. The World Bank has advocated environmental accounting since 1983 in SNA revisions. The 1989 revised Blue Book of the SNA takes environment concerns into account. Relevant research is under way in Mexico and Papua New Guinea using the UN Statistical Office framework as a system for environmentally adjusted economic accounts that computes EDP and ENI and integrates environmental data with national accounts while preserving SNA concepts.

  3. Accounting and the Use of the Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Donald D.

    1969-01-01

    The nature, scope, and potential of electronic data processing are discussed as significant factors in the changing function and role of accountants. Decision making, not bookkeeping, is emerging as a realm of professional activity. (CH)

  4. 47 CFR 32.5083 - Special access revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special access revenue. 32.5083 Section 32.5083 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Revenue Accounts § 32.5083 Special access...

  5. 47 CFR 32.5083 - Special access revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special access revenue. 32.5083 Section 32.5083 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Revenue Accounts § 32.5083 Special access...

  6. 47 CFR 32.5083 - Special access revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special access revenue. 32.5083 Section 32.5083 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Revenue Accounts § 32.5083 Special access...

  7. 47 CFR 32.5083 - Special access revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special access revenue. 32.5083 Section 32.5083 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Revenue Accounts § 32.5083 Special access...

  8. 47 CFR 32.5083 - Special access revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special access revenue. 32.5083 Section 32.5083 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Revenue Accounts § 32.5083 Special access...

  9. [Prospective study of the long-term effectiveness of inpatient rehabilitation of patients with chronic cervicobrachial syndromes and the effect of prescribing special functional pillows].

    PubMed

    Gutenbrunner, C; Gundermann, G; Hager, G; Hager, V; Gehrke, A

    1999-08-01

    In order to investigate the long-term effect of clinical rehabilitation measures as well as the additional effect of prescription of a special pillow in patients suffering from chronic cervicobrachialgia a total of 149 patients was investigated. All patients suffered from chronic cervicobrachialgia and were admitted for rehabilitative treatment in the orthopaedic Elfenmaar-Klinik of Bad Bertrich. For a four-week period the patients were treated with physical therapy including gymnastics, electrotherapy, thermotherapy, and massage. Additionally they underwent a health-promoting programme specially designed for patients with spondylopathia. The patients were randomly divided into two groups, one receiving a special pillow (Curavario, Pala-Medic-Company) for the use during and after the rehabilitative treatment (n = 76 or n = 73, respectively). For two weeks before the treatment, during the four-week treatment period and for two weeks after the treatment the patients had to fill in a questionnaire, comprising among others six questions on the intensity of their cervicobrachialgic symptoms (pain-intensity [local pain, radiation of pain], muscular tenseness, paraesthesia and sleep disorders [caused by pain or paraesthesia]). Three, six, and nine month after the treatment period the patients received a similar questionnaire. Immediately after the treatment period a significant reduction of mean pain intensity and muscle tenseness (p < 0.001; Rep.-Mes.-ANOVA) was found. At the same time significantly lower frequencies of pain radiation and sleep disorders caused by pain or paraesthesia (p < 0.001; chi-square-test) were found. During the following nine months the intensity of the symptoms slightly re-increased, however, all parameters were still reduced nine months after treatment compared to the values before treatment (p < 0.01). Before and during the treatment no difference between the two groups could be detected, however, the follow-up showed significantly lower

  10. 34 CFR 303.346 - Responsibility and accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibility and accountability. 303.346 Section 303.346 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL... Services Individualized Family Service Plans (ifsps) § 303.346 Responsibility and accountability....

  11. 7 CFR 762.143 - Servicing distressed accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Servicing distressed accounts. 762.143 Section 762.143 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.143 Servicing distressed accounts. (a) A borrower...

  12. 23 CFR 660.117 - Funding, records and accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Funding, records and accounting. 660.117 Section 660.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Forest Highways § 660.117 Funding, records and accounting. (a)...

  13. 23 CFR 660.117 - Funding, records and accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Funding, records and accounting. 660.117 Section 660.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Forest Highways § 660.117 Funding, records and accounting. (a)...

  14. 23 CFR 660.117 - Funding, records and accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Funding, records and accounting. 660.117 Section 660.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Forest Highways § 660.117 Funding, records and accounting. (a)...

  15. 23 CFR 660.117 - Funding, records and accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Funding, records and accounting. 660.117 Section 660.117... SPECIAL PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Forest Highways § 660.117 Funding, records and accounting. (a) The... cooperator may participate in the cost of project development and construction, but participation shall...

  16. 7 CFR 3550.202 - Past due accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Past due accounts. 3550.202 Section 3550.202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Special Servicing § 3550.202 Past due accounts....

  17. 7 CFR 3550.202 - Past due accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Past due accounts. 3550.202 Section 3550.202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Special Servicing § 3550.202 Past due accounts....

  18. 78 FR 67225 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 40, 70, 72, 74, and 150 RIN 3150-AI61 Amendments to Material Control and Accounting... Commission (NRC) is proposing to amend its regulations for material control and accounting (MC&A) of special... would requirements be added to designate material balance areas, item control areas, and custodians?...

  19. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited availability of data and, moreover, the different scopes of the accounting lead to many ways of quantifying emissions and producing the accounts. The importance of transparency in GHG accounting is emphasised regarding waste type, waste composition, time period considered, GHGs included, global warming potential (GWP) assigned to the GHGs, counting of biogenic carbon dioxide, choice of system boundaries, interactions with the energy system, and generic emissions factors. In order to enhance transparency and consistency, a format called the upstream-operating-downstream framework (UOD) is proposed for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities.

  20. Thinking about Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Accountability is a key component of healthcare reforms, in Canada and internationally, but there is increasing recognition that one size does not fit all. A more nuanced understanding begins with clarifying what is meant by accountability, including specifying for what, by whom, to whom and how. These papers arise from a Partnership for Health System Improvement (PHSI), funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), on approaches to accountability that examined accountability across multiple healthcare subsectors in Ontario. The partnership features collaboration among an interdisciplinary team, working with senior policy makers, to clarify what is known about best practices to achieve accountability under various circumstances. This paper presents our conceptual framework. It examines potential approaches (policy instruments) and postulates that their outcomes may vary by subsector depending upon (a) the policy goals being pursued, (b) governance/ownership structures and relationships and (c) the types of goods and services being delivered, and their production characteristics (e.g., contestability, measurability and complexity). PMID:25305385

  1. The Effect of Parent-Child Function on Physical Activity and Television Viewing among Adolescents with and without Special Healthcare Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Beth M.; Mandic, Carmen Gomez; Carle, Adam C.; Robert, Stephanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, the association between parent-child function and physical activity and television viewing was investigated among a national sample of adolescents in the United States. Parent-child function was measured using the National Survey of Children's Health "Family Function" survey items and…

  2. Communication: A combined periodic density functional and incremental wave-function-based approach for the dispersion-accounting time-resolved dynamics of {sup 4}He nanodroplets on surfaces: {sup 4}He/graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-Castells, María Pilar de; Stoll, Hermann; Civalleri, Bartolomeo; Causà, Mauro; Voloshina, Elena; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O.; Pi, Martí

    2014-10-21

    In this work we propose a general strategy to calculate accurate He–surface interaction potentials. It extends the dispersionless density functional approach recently developed by Pernal et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 263201 (2009)] to adsorbate-surface interactions by including periodic boundary conditions. We also introduce a scheme to parametrize the dispersion interaction by calculating two- and three-body dispersion terms at coupled cluster singles and doubles and perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) level via the method of increments [H. Stoll, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8449 (1992)]. The performance of the composite approach is tested on {sup 4}He/graphene by determining the energies of the low-lying selective adsorption states, finding an excellent agreement with the best available theoretical data. Second, the capability of the approach to describe dispersionless correlation effects realistically is used to extract dispersion effects in time-dependent density functional simulations on the collision of {sup 4}He droplets with a single graphene sheet. It is found that dispersion effects play a key role in the fast spreading of the {sup 4}He nanodroplet, the evaporation-like process of helium atoms, and the formation of solid-like helium structures. These characteristics are expected to be quite general and highly relevant to explain experimental measurements with the newly developed helium droplet mediated deposition technique.

  3. Communication: A combined periodic density functional and incremental wave-function-based approach for the dispersion-accounting time-resolved dynamics of ⁴He nanodroplets on surfaces: ⁴He/graphene.

    PubMed

    de Lara-Castells, María Pilar; Stoll, Hermann; Civalleri, Bartolomeo; Causà, Mauro; Voloshina, Elena; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O; Pi, Martí

    2014-10-21

    In this work we propose a general strategy to calculate accurate He-surface interaction potentials. It extends the dispersionless density functional approach recently developed by Pernal et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 263201 (2009)] to adsorbate-surface interactions by including periodic boundary conditions. We also introduce a scheme to parametrize the dispersion interaction by calculating two- and three-body dispersion terms at coupled cluster singles and doubles and perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) level via the method of increments [H. Stoll, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8449 (1992)]. The performance of the composite approach is tested on (4)He/graphene by determining the energies of the low-lying selective adsorption states, finding an excellent agreement with the best available theoretical data. Second, the capability of the approach to describe dispersionless correlation effects realistically is used to extract dispersion effects in time-dependent density functional simulations on the collision of (4)He droplets with a single graphene sheet. It is found that dispersion effects play a key role in the fast spreading of the (4)He nanodroplet, the evaporation-like process of helium atoms, and the formation of solid-like helium structures. These characteristics are expected to be quite general and highly relevant to explain experimental measurements with the newly developed helium droplet mediated deposition technique.

  4. Viewpoints on Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Innovators Press, Tucson, AZ.

    This booklet contains five papers which examine the activities, successes, and pitfalls encountered by educators who are introducing accountability techniques into instructional programs where they did not exist in the past. The papers are based on actual programs and offer possible solutions in the areas considered, which are 1) performance…

  5. Accountability Update, March 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    This report provides the Washington State legislature, the Governor, and other interested parties with an update on the accountability performance of each of the state's public baccalaureate institutions (Central Washington University, Eastern Washington University, Evergreen State College, Washington State University, Western Washington…

  6. Professional Capital as Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael; Rincón-Gallardo, Santiago; Hargreaves, Andy

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to clarify and spells out the responsibilities of policy makers to create the conditions for an effective accountability system that produces substantial improvements in student learning, strengthens the teaching profession, and provides transparency of results to the public. The authors point out that U.S. policy makers will need…

  7. Legal responsibility and accountability.

    PubMed

    Cox, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Shifting boundaries in healthcare roles have led to anxiety among some nurses about their legal responsibilities and accountabilities. This is partly because of a lack of education about legal principles that underpin healthcare delivery. This article explains the law in terms of standards of care, duty of care, vicarious liability and indemnity insurance.

  8. Democracy, Accountability, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Meira

    2011-01-01

    Educational standards, assessments, and accountability systems are of immense political moment around the world. But there is no developed theory exploring the role that these systems should play within a democratic polity in particular. On the one hand, well-designed standards are public goods, supported by assessment and accountability…

  9. Community Accountability Conferencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsborne, Margaret

    Community Accountability Conferencing (CAC) was first introduced in Queensland, Australia schools in early 1994 after a serious assault in the school community. Some family members, students, and staff were dissatisfied with the solution of suspending the offenders. Seeking an alternative, comprehensive intervention strategy, the school community…

  10. Planning for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuneo, Tim; Bell, Shareen; Welsh-Gray, Carol

    1999-01-01

    Through its Challenge 2000 program, Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network's 21st Century Education Initiative has been working with K-12 schools to improve student performance in literature, math, and science. Clearly stated standards, appropriate assessments, formal monitoring, critical friends, and systemwide accountability are keys to success.…

  11. Institutional Accountability Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    This document discusses Santa Fe Community College's (SFCC) (Florida) five accountability measures. The type of data available provided on these measures is as follows: (1) District High School Enrollment Report and Retention and Success Rate Report; (2) Associate of Arts Degree Transfer Performance in the State University System; (3) Licensure…

  12. Fiscal Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Housing and Community Development, Sacramento. Indian Assistance Program.

    Written in simple, easy to understand form, the manual provides a vehicle for the untrained person in bookkeeping to control funds received from grants for Indian Tribal Councils and Indian organizations. The method used to control grants (federal, state, or private) is fund accounting, designed to organize rendering services on a non-profit…

  13. Curtail Accountability, Cultivate Attainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wraga, William G.

    2011-01-01

    The current test-driven accountability movement, codified in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 ([NCLB] 2002), was a misguided idea that will have the effect not of improving the education of children and youth, but of indicting the public school system of the United States. To improve education in the United States, politicians, policy makers,…

  14. Higher Education Accountability Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Washington state's public four-year universities and college have submitted their 2003-05 accountability plans to the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB). The state operating budget directs the Board to review these plans and set biennial performance targets for each institution. For 2003-05, the four-year institutions are reporting on a…

  15. Accounting 202, 302.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide consists of guidelines for conducting two secondary-level introductory accounting courses. Intended for vocational business education students, the courses are designed to introduce financial principles and practices important to personal and business life, to promote development of clerical and bookkeeping skills sufficient…

  16. Student Attendance Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitas, Joseph M.

    In response to state legislation authorizing procedures for changes in academic calendars and measurement of student workload in California community colleges, this manual from the Chancellor's Office provides guidelines for student attendance accounting. Chapter 1 explains general items such as the academic calendar, admissions policies, student…

  17. Full Accounting for Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Marie-Louise

    1988-01-01

    Given the curriculum's importance in the educational process, curriculum evaluation should be considered as essential as a district financial audit. When Fenwick English conducted a 1979 curriculum audit of Columbus, Ohio, schools, the accounting firm encountered numerous problems concerning development, review, and management practices. Planning…

  18. Excel in the Accounting Curriculum: Perceptions from Accounting Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandran Rackliffe, Usha; Ragland, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Public accounting firms emphasize the importance of accounting graduates being proficient in Excel. Since many accounting graduates often aspire to work in public accounting, a question arises as to whether there should be an emphasis on Excel in accounting education. The purpose of this paper is to specifically look at this issue by examining…

  19. A Pariah Profession? Some Student Perceptions of Accounting and Accountancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Roy; Murphy, Vivienne

    1995-01-01

    Existing literature and a survey of 106 undergraduate accounting students in the United Kingdom were analyzed for perceptions of the accounting profession and the academic discipline of accounting. Results suggest that among accounting and nonaccounting students alike, there exist coexisting perceptions of accounting as having high status and low…

  20. 18 CFR 367.1420 - Account 142, Customer accounts receivable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 142, Customer... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1420 Account 142, Customer accounts receivable. (a) This account must include amounts due from customers for service, and...

  1. Towards a Comparative and International History of School Testing and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Sherman; Ydesen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The speed and extent of modern school accountability have obscured the history of testing and accountability. This brief introduction identifies central themes of historical research into educational accountability and recurring traits associated with accountability practices. We hope our colleagues and this special issue will also help to…

  2. 17 CFR 140.24 - Control and accountability procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control and accountability... ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES OF THE COMMISSION Functions § 140.24 Control and accountability... accountability for such information at all times and for locking classified information in approved...

  3. Computerized accounting methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of the research performed under the Task Order on computerized accounting methods in a period from 03 August to 31 December 1994. Computerized nuclear material accounting methods are analyzed and evaluated. Selected methods are implemented in a hardware-software complex developed as a prototype of the local network-based CONMIT system. This complex has been put into trial operation for test and evaluation of the selected methods at two selected ``Kurchatov Institute`` Russian Research Center (``KI`` RRC) nuclear facilities. Trial operation is carried out since the beginning of Initial Physical Inventory Taking in these facilities that was performed in November 1994. Operation of CONMIT prototype system was demonstrated in the middle of December 1994. Results of evaluation of CONMIT prototype system features and functioning under real operating conditions are considered. Conclusions are formulated on the ways of further development of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. The most important conclusion is a need to strengthen computer and information security features supported by the operating environment. Security provisions as well as other LANL Client/Server System approaches being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory are recommended for selection of software and hardware components to be integrated into production version of CONMIT system for KI RRC.

  4. [Heterogeneity and polymorphism of functionally specialized blood proteins in migratory fish: case study of the North Caspian population of the Russian sturgeon during sea and river periods of life. 1. Albumins].

    PubMed

    Luk'ianenko, V I; Khabarov, M V; Luk'ianenko, V V

    2002-01-01

    A comparative study of the levels of heterogeneity and polymorphism of albumins, the most important functionally specialized blood proteins, has been carried out. The albumin system of Russian sturgeon undergoes distinct changes while the fish change habitat during the spawning migration from sea to river. They are expressed as an increased level of heterogeneity, an increased content of serum albumins in fish during the river period of life as compared to the sea period, and an increased share of a slow component of albuminograms. These changes suggest a significant role of the blood albumin system in adaptation of the Caspian sturgeon migratory species to fresh water life conditions.

  5. First-Person Accounts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gribs, H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Personal accounts describe the lives of 2 individuals with deaf-blindness, one an 87-year-old woman who was deaf from birth and became totally blind over a 50-year period and the other of a woman who became deaf-blind as a result of a fever at the age of 7. Managing activities of daily life and experiencing sensory hallucinations are among topics…

  6. Managing global accounts.

    PubMed

    Yip, George S; Bink, Audrey J M

    2007-09-01

    Global account management--which treats a multinational customer's operations as one integrated account, with coherent terms for pricing, product specifications, and service--has proliferated over the past decade. Yet according to the authors' research, only about a third of the suppliers that have offered GAM are pleased with the results. The unhappy majority may be suffering from confusion about when, how, and to whom to provide it. Yip, the director of research and innovation at Capgemini, and Bink, the head of marketing communications at Uxbridge College, have found that GAM can improve customer satisfaction by 20% or more and can raise both profits and revenues by at least 15% within just a few years of its introduction. They provide guidelines to help companies achieve similar results. The first steps are determining whether your products or services are appropriate for GAM, whether your customers want such a program, whether those customers are crucial to your strategy, and how GAM might affect your competitive advantage. If moving forward makes sense, the authors' exhibit, "A Scorecard for Selecting Global Accounts," can help you target the right customers. The final step is deciding which of three basic forms to offer: coordination GAM (in which national operations remain relatively strong), control GAM (in which the global operation and the national operations are fairly balanced), and separate GAM (in which a new business unit has total responsibility for global accounts). Given the difficulty and expense of providing multiple varieties, the vast majority of companies should initially customize just one---and they should be careful not to start with a choice that is too ambitious for either themselves or their customers to handle.

  7. Accounting for Every Kilowatt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Equation 1. One estimate of the energy density of diesel fuel (ρdiesel) coupled with the efficiency (η) of a 60-kilowatt generator op- erating at...are going. Reduc- ing demand without reducing our capability requires appliance -level feedback, which current smart-meter technology does not...event. Accountability Soldiers need appliance -level feedback to reduce electrical consumption. Specifically, they need to know what loads are currently

  8. Integrated Cost Accounting System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-27

    few other companies. Harvard Business Review contained articles explaining the ideas behind the new costing methods and examples of applications...technical report. Peter Drucker in an article in Harvard Business Review ’carefully explains that accounting must change in response to the changes in...Kaplan in a Harvard Business Review article develop the idea of four levels of activities: facility sustaining activities; product-sustaining activities

  9. Hospitals' Internal Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K.; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387

  10. Inflation Accounting Methods and their Effectiveness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    accounting and current cost accounting are explained as the major inflation accounting methods. Inflation accounting standards announced in the United...inflation accounting, constant purchasing power accounting, constant dollar accounting, current cost accounting , current value.

  11. 7 CFR 1700.32 - Program Accounting and Regulatory Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator with respect to management, information systems, budgets, and other such matters. (a) The... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.32 Program... accountants. The Technical Accounting and Auditing Staff monitors industry developments, including...

  12. Optimal wavelengths obtained from laws analogous to the Wien's law for monospectral and bispectral methods, and general methodology for multispectral temperature measurements taking into account global transfer function including non-uniform emissivity of surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodiet, Christophe; Remy, Benjamin; Degiovanni, Alain

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, it is shown how to select the optimal wavelengths minimizing the relative error and the standard deviation of the temperature. Furthermore, it is shown that the optimal wavelengths in mono-spectral and bi-spectral methods (for a Planck's law) can be determined by laws analogous to the displacement Wien's law. The simplicity of these laws can thus allow real-time selection of optimal wavelengths for a control/optimization of industrial processes, for example. A more general methodology to obtain the optimal wavelengths selection in a multi-spectral method (taking into account the spectral variations of the global transfer function including the emissivity variations) for temperature measurement of surfaces exhibiting non-uniform emissivity, is also presented. This latter can then find an interest in glass furnaces temperature measurement with spatiotemporal non-uniformities of emissivity, the control of biomass pyrolysis, the surface temperature measurement of buildings or heating devices, for example. The goal consists of minimizing the standard deviation of the estimated temperature (optimal design experiment). For the multi-spectral method, two cases will be treated: optimal global and optimal constrained wavelengths selection (to the spectral range of the detector, for example). The estimated temperature results obtained by different models and for different number of parameters and wavelengths are compared. These different points are treated from theoretical, numerical and experimental points of view.

  13. A problem-solving task specialized for functional neuroimaging: validation of the Scarborough adaptation of the Tower of London (S-TOL) using near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ruocco, Anthony C.; Rodrigo, Achala H.; Lam, Jaeger; Di Domenico, Stefano I.; Graves, Bryanna; Ayaz, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Problem-solving is an executive function subserved by a network of neural structures of which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is central. Whereas several studies have evaluated the role of the DLPFC in problem-solving, few standardized tasks have been developed specifically for use with functional neuroimaging. The current study adapted a measure with established validity for the assessment of problem-solving abilities to design a test more suitable for functional neuroimaging protocols. The Scarborough adaptation of the Tower of London (S-TOL) was administered to 38 healthy adults while hemodynamic oxygenation of the PFC was measured using 16-channel continuous-wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Compared to a baseline condition, problems that required two or three steps to achieve a goal configuration were associated with higher activation in the left DLPFC and deactivation in the medial PFC. Individuals scoring higher in trait deliberation showed consistently higher activation in the left DLPFC regardless of task difficulty, whereas individuals lower in this trait displayed less activation when solving simple problems. Based on these results, the S-TOL may serve as a standardized task to evaluate problem-solving abilities in functional neuroimaging studies. PMID:24734017

  14. A problem-solving task specialized for functional neuroimaging: validation of the Scarborough adaptation of the Tower of London (S-TOL) using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Anthony C; Rodrigo, Achala H; Lam, Jaeger; Di Domenico, Stefano I; Graves, Bryanna; Ayaz, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Problem-solving is an executive function subserved by a network of neural structures of which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is central. Whereas several studies have evaluated the role of the DLPFC in problem-solving, few standardized tasks have been developed specifically for use with functional neuroimaging. The current study adapted a measure with established validity for the assessment of problem-solving abilities to design a test more suitable for functional neuroimaging protocols. The Scarborough adaptation of the Tower of London (S-TOL) was administered to 38 healthy adults while hemodynamic oxygenation of the PFC was measured using 16-channel continuous-wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Compared to a baseline condition, problems that required two or three steps to achieve a goal configuration were associated with higher activation in the left DLPFC and deactivation in the medial PFC. Individuals scoring higher in trait deliberation showed consistently higher activation in the left DLPFC regardless of task difficulty, whereas individuals lower in this trait displayed less activation when solving simple problems. Based on these results, the S-TOL may serve as a standardized task to evaluate problem-solving abilities in functional neuroimaging studies.

  15. The Integration of Behavioral Accounting in Undergraduate Accounting Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Phillip G.; Cao, Le Thi

    1986-01-01

    The study reported here is part of a continuing project with the goal of determining the place of behavioral accounting in the accounting curricula. While the first two studies focused on the graduate accounting curricula and the practitioners' opinions on the subject, this study concentrates on the behavioral accounting content of undergraduate…

  16. New Frontiers: Training Forensic Accountants within the Accounting Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswamy, Vinita

    2007-01-01

    Accountants have recently been subject to very unpleasant publicity following the collapse of Enron and other major companies. There has been a plethora of accounting failures and accounting restatements of falsified earnings, with litigations and prosecutions taking place every day. As the FASB struggles to tighten the loopholes in accounting,…

  17. A table of integrals of the error function. II - Additions and corrections.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, M.; Ng, E. W.

    1971-01-01

    Integrals of products of error functions with other functions are presented, taking into account a combination of the error function with powers, a combination of the error function with exponentials and powers, a combination of the error function with exponentials of more complicated arguments, definite integrals from Laplace transforms, and a combination of the error function with trigonometric functions. Other integrals considered include a combination of the error function with logarithms and powers, a combination of two error functions, and a combination of the error function with other special functions.

  18. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    PubMed

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.

  19. Performance and Accountability Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Fiscal Year 2002 Performance and Accountability Report is presented. Over the past year, significant changes have been implemented to greatly improve NASA's management while continuing to break new ground in science and technology. Excellent progress has been made in implementing the President's Management Agenda. NASA is leading the government in its implementation of the five government-wide initiatives. NASA received an unqualified audit opinion on FY 2002 financial statements. The vast majority of performance goals have been achieved, furthering each area of NASA's mission. The contents include: 1) NASA Vision and Mission; 2) Management's Discussion and Analysis; 3) Performance; and 4) Financial.

  20. 7 CFR 1770.15 - Supplementary accounts required of all borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Cash Receipts Book. 1120.21 Special Cash Deposits This account shall include all cash on special... account shall include the original cost of an ownership interest in satellites (including land-side spares... to the period of time used for computing book depreciation on the property with respect to which...

  1. 7 CFR 1770.15 - Supplementary accounts required of all borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Cash Receipts Book. 1120.21 Special Cash Deposits This account shall include all cash on special... account shall include the original cost of an ownership interest in satellites (including land-side spares... to the period of time used for computing book depreciation on the property with respect to which...

  2. 7 CFR 1770.15 - Supplementary accounts required of all borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Cash Receipts Book. 1120.21 Special Cash Deposits This account shall include all cash on special... account shall include the original cost of an ownership interest in satellites (including land-side spares... to the period of time used for computing book depreciation on the property with respect to which...

  3. 7 CFR 1770.15 - Supplementary accounts required of all borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Cash Receipts Book. 1120.21 Special Cash Deposits This account shall include all cash on special... account shall include the original cost of an ownership interest in satellites (including land-side spares... to the period of time used for computing book depreciation on the property with respect to which...

  4. Specialized ommatidia of the polarization-sensitive dorsal rim area in the eye of monarch butterflies have non-functional reflecting tapeta.

    PubMed

    Labhart, Thomas; Baumann, Franziska; Bernard, Gary D

    2009-12-01

    Many insects exploit sky light polarization for navigation or cruising-course control. The detection of polarized sky light is mediated by the ommatidia of a small specialized part of the compound eye: the dorsal rim area (DRA). We describe the morphology and fine structure of the DRA in monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus). The DRA consists of approximately 100 ommatidia forming a narrow ribbon along the dorsal eye margin. Each ommatidium contains two types of photoreceptor with mutually orthogonal microvilli orientations occurring in a 2:6 ratio. Within each rhabdomere, the microvilli are well aligned. Rhabdom structure and orientation remain constant at all retinal levels, but the rhabdom profiles, as seen in tangential sections through the DRA, change their orientations in a fan-like fashion from the frontal to the caudal end of the DRA. Whereas these properties (two microvillar orientations per rhabdom, microvillar alignment along rhabdomeres, ommatidial fan array) are typical for insect DRAs in general, we also report and discuss here a novel feature. The ommatidia of monarch butterflies are equipped with reflecting tapeta, which are directly connected to the proximal ends of the rhabdoms. Although tapeta are also present in the DRA, they are separated from the rhabdoms by a space of approximately 55 mum effectively inactivating them. This reduces self-screening effects, keeping polarization sensitivity of all photoreceptors of the DRA ommatidia both high and approximately equal.

  5. Examining the nootropic effects of a special extract of Bacopa monniera on human cognitive functioning: 90 day double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Stough, Con; Downey, Luke A; Lloyd, Jenny; Silber, Beata; Redman, Stephanie; Hutchison, Chris; Wesnes, Keith; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2008-12-01

    While Ayurvedic medicine has touted the cognitive enhancing effects of Bacopa monniera for centuries, there is a need for double-blind placebo-controlled investigations. One hundred and seven healthy participants were recruited for this double-blind placebo-controlled independent group design investigation. Sixty-two participants completed the study with 80% treatment compliance. Neuropsychological testing using the Cognitive Drug Research cognitive assessment system was conducted at baseline and after 90 days of treatment with a special extract of Bacopa monniera (2 x 150 mg KeenMind) or placebo. The Bacopa monniera product significantly improved performance on the 'Working Memory' factor, more specifically spatial working memory accuracy. The number of false-positives recorded in the Rapid visual information processing task was also reduced for the Bacopa monniera group following the treatment period. The current study provides support for the two other published studies reporting cognitive enhancing effects in healthy humans after a 90 day administration of the Bacopa monniera extract. Further studies are required to ascertain the effective dosage range, the time required to attain therapeutic levels and the effects over a longer term of administration.

  6. A Coordinate-Based Meta-Analysis of Overlaps in Regional Specialization and Functional Connectivity across Subjective Value and Default Mode Networks

    PubMed Central

    Acikalin, M. Yavuz; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has provided qualitative evidence for overlap in a number of brain regions across the subjective value network (SVN) and the default mode network (DMN). In order to quantitatively assess this overlap, we conducted a series of coordinate-based meta-analyses (CBMA) of results from 466 functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments on task-negative or subjective value-related activations in the human brain. In these analyses, we first identified significant overlaps and dissociations across activation foci related to SVN and DMN. Second, we investigated whether these overlapping subregions also showed similar patterns of functional connectivity, suggesting a shared functional subnetwork. We find considerable overlap between SVN and DMN in subregions of central ventromedial prefrontal cortex (cVMPFC) and dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (dPCC). Further, our findings show that similar patterns of bidirectional functional connectivity between cVMPFC and dPCC are present in both networks. We discuss ways in which our understanding of how subjective value (SV) is computed and represented in the brain can be synthesized with what we know about the DMN, mind-wandering, and self-referential processing in light of our findings. PMID:28154520

  7. Tissue Engineering Special Feature: A macroporous hydrogel for the coculture of neural progenitor and endothelial cells to form functional vascular networks in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Millicent C.; Bertram, James P.; Royce Hynes, Sara; Michaud, Michael; Li, Qi; Young, Michael; Segal, Steven S.; Madri, Joseph A.; Lavik, Erin B.

    2006-02-01

    A microvascular network is critical for the survival and function of most tissues. We have investigated the potential of neural progenitor cells to augment the formation and stabilization of microvascular networks in a previously uncharacterized three-dimensional macroporous hydrogel and the ability of this engineered system to develop a functional microcirculation in vivo. The hydrogel is synthesized by cross-linking polyethylene glycol with polylysine around a salt-leached polylactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold that is degraded in a sodium hydroxide solution. An open macroporous network is formed that supports the efficient formation of tubular structures by brain endothelial cells. After subcutaneous implantation of hydrogel cocultures in mice, blood flow in new microvessels was apparent at 2 weeks with perfused networks established on the surface of implants at 6 weeks. Compared to endothelial cells cultured alone, cocultures of endothelial cells and neural progenitor cells had a significantly greater density of tubular structures positive for platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 at the 6-week time point. In implant cross sections, the presence of red blood cells in vessel lumens confirmed a functional microcirculation. These findings indicate that neural progenitor cells promote the formation of endothelial cell tubes in coculture and the development of a functional microcirculation in vivo. We demonstrate a previously undescribed strategy for creating stable microvascular networks to support engineered tissues of desired parenchymal cell origin. microvasculature | neural stem cells | polymer | scaffold

  8. The Mediating Effects of Work-Related Stress on Mentoring Functions and Job Attitude: A Comparison of General and Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabenhorst, Greg A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study is designed to investigate the mediating effects of work-related stress on the relationship between mentoring functions (i.e., career support, psychosocial support, and role modeling) and measures of job attitude (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment). Mentoring is widely used as a means of assisting in the new…

  9. Influence of a Specialized Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed Extract (Libifem), on Testosterone, Estradiol and Sexual Function in Healthy Menstruating Women, a Randomised Placebo Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Rao, Amanda; Steels, Elizabeth; Beccaria, Gavin; Inder, Warrick J; Vitetta, Luis

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seed extract on sex hormones and sexual function in healthy menstruating women who reported low sexual drive. This short term, single site, double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 80 women, aged 20 to 49 years. Participants were randomised to either an oral dose of a standardised T. foenum-graecum seed extract (libifem) at a dose of 600 mg/day or placebo over two menstrual cycles. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, progesterone, androstenedione, total and free testosterone, estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, sex hormone binding globulin and cholesterol were measured at baseline and 8 weeks. The individual aspects of sexual function were measured using the Derogatis interview for sexual functioning and female sexual function index self-administered questionnaires. Stress, fatigue and quality of the relationship with partner were also measured using the PSS (Perceived Stress Scale), MFI-20 (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory) and DAS (Dyadic Adjustment Scale) quality of life measures, respectively. There was a significant increase in free testosterone and E2 in the active group as well as sexual desire and arousal compared with the placebo group. The results indicate that this extract of T. foenum-graecum may be a useful treatment for increasing sexual arousal and desire in women.

  10. SPECIAL CLASSES FOR STUDENTS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOWELL, G.L.

    A SPECIAL 3-YEAR TRAINING PROGRAM IN FARM POWER AND MACHINERY WAS DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE FOR DIFFERENT LEVELS OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT AND TO HELP MEET THE NEED FOR SKILLED WORKERS IN THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA AREA. CHANGES IN THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT OF STUDENTS TRANSFERRED FROM REGULAR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE CLASSES TO THE SPECIAL CLASSES PROVIDE A MORE…

  11. Automated Accounting. Payroll. Instructor Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Duane R.

    This teacher's guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting Payroll Version 3.0 edition software in their accounting programs. The module contains assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting--payroll. Basic accounting skills are…

  12. Where Are the Accounting Professors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Jui-Chin; Sun, Huey-Lian

    2008-01-01

    Accounting education is facing a crisis of shortage of accounting faculty. This study discusses the reasons behind the shortage and offers suggestions to increase the supply of accounting faculty. Our suggestions are as followings. First, educators should begin promoting accounting academia as one of the career choices to undergraduate and…

  13. Revamping High School Accounting Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittner, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Provides ideas for updating accounting courses: convert to semester length; focus on financial reporting/analysis, financial statements, the accounting cycle; turn textbook exercises into practice sets for the accounting cycle; teach about corporate accounting; and address individual line items on financial statements. (SK)

  14. Taking It All into Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driver, Melissa K.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating special education teachers is an especially salient topic for secondary principals because special educators in middle and high schools often collaborate with numerous content-area teachers and have varying degrees of direct instructional impact. The author's experiences as a secondary special educator and as a supervisor responsible…

  15. Measurement of the roughness surface of the specials papers using the normalized autocorrelation function of the fields of the texture of speckle pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, Abdiel O.; Pladellorens, Josep

    2013-11-01

    We present a new method of measure of the roughness based on the analysis of the texture of speckle pattern on the surface. Images of speckle pattern over the surface are captured by means of a simple configuration using a laser, beam expander, and a camera charge coupled device (CCD). Using the properties of the normalized covariance function that we obtained from the image of the speckle through the inverse Fourier transform, we relate the values of the normalized covariance function. We compare the results obtained with a confocal microscope and co-occurrence matrices method. This method can be considered as a noncontact surface profiling method that is easy to implement and can be used during the manufacturing process.

  16. EVALUATION OF RECOVERABLE FUNCTIONAL LIPID COMPONENTS OF SEVERAL BROWN SEAWEEDS (PHAEOPHYTA) FROM JAPAN WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO FUCOXANTHIN AND FUCOSTEROL CONTENTS(1).

    PubMed

    Terasaki, Masaru; Hirose, Atsushi; Narayan, Bhaskar; Baba, Yuta; Kawagoe, Chikara; Yasui, Hajime; Saga, Naotsune; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2009-08-01

    Fucoxanthin (Fx) and fucosterol (Fs) are characteristic lipid components of brown seaweeds that afford several health benefits to humans. This article describes the quantitative evaluation of lipids of 15 species of brown seaweeds with specific reference to Fx, Fs, and functional long-chain omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In addition, fatty-acid composition of selected species was also accomplished in the study. Major omega-3 PUFAs in the brown seaweeds analyzed were α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), octadecatetraenoic acid (18:4n-3), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3). Both Fx (mg · g(-1) dry weight [dwt]) and Fs (mg · g(-1) dwt) were determined to be relatively abundant in Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh (Fx, 3.7 ± 1.6; Fs, 13.4 ± 4.4) and Cystoseira hakodatensis (Yendo) Fensholt (Fx, 2.4 ± 0.9; Fs, 8.9 ± 2.0), as compared with other brown seaweed species. Studies related to seasonal variation in Fx, Fs, and total lipids of six brown algae [S. horneri, C. hakodatensis, Sargassum fusiforme (Harv.) Setch., Sargassum thunbergii (Mertens ex Roth) Kuntze, Analipus japonicus (Harv.) M. J. Wynne, and Melanosiphon intestinalis (D. A. Saunders) M. J. Wynne] indicated that these functional lipid components reached maximum during the period between January and March. The functional lipid components present in these seaweeds have the potential for application as nutraceuticals and novel functional ingredients after their recovery.

  17. Pain: A Statistical Account

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Michael A.; Moseley, G. Lorimer

    2017-01-01

    Perception is seen as a process that utilises partial and noisy information to construct a coherent understanding of the world. Here we argue that the experience of pain is no different; it is based on incomplete, multimodal information, which is used to estimate potential bodily threat. We outline a Bayesian inference model, incorporating the key components of cue combination, causal inference, and temporal integration, which highlights the statistical problems in everyday perception. It is from this platform that we are able to review the pain literature, providing evidence from experimental, acute, and persistent phenomena to demonstrate the advantages of adopting a statistical account in pain. Our probabilistic conceptualisation suggests a principles-based view of pain, explaining a broad range of experimental and clinical findings and making testable predictions. PMID:28081134

  18. Financial accounting for radiology executives.

    PubMed

    Seidmann, Abraham; Mehta, Tushar

    2005-03-01

    The authors review the role of financial accounting information from the perspective of a radiology executive. They begin by introducing the role of pro forma statements. They discuss the fundamental concepts of accounting, including the matching principle and accrual accounting. The authors then explore the use of financial accounting information in making investment decisions in diagnostic medical imaging. The paper focuses on critically evaluating the benefits and limitations of financial accounting for decision making in a radiology practice.

  19. Modelling the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center. VI. Use of density-functional theory to determine the nature of the vibronic coupling between the four lowest-energy electronic states of the special-pair radical cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Shapley, Warwick A.; Rendell, Alistair P.; Hush, Noel S.

    2003-08-01

    It is now over ten years since the first FTIR spectra were recorded of the radical cation of the special-pair, a dimer of bacteriochlorophyll molecules that forms the primary electron donor responsible for primary charge separation in bacterial photosynthesis. While spectra of this type promise to reveal much concerning the role of the special pair electron donor in photosynthesis, attempts to model and interpret them have been limited by poor knowledge of the vibrationally specific aspects of the electron-phonon coupling and have thus been restricted to crude model calculations only. We develop techniques through which density-functional theory can be employed to evaluate most of the unknown properties. This includes symmetric-mode displacements, antisymmetric-mode vibronic coupling constants, and interstate electronic couplings evaluated for interactions between the four lowest-energy states of the special-pair cation radical: the ground state, the primary hole-transfer state, and states involving these two combined with SHOMO to HOMO transitions. Geometry optimizations are performed for all four states of the dimer while vibrational analyses are obtained for the first two; vibronic coupling constants are extracted from analysis of stolen infrared transition moments using Herzberg-Teller theory. Quantitatively, these results are employed in the subsequent paper in this series to simulate the observed spectra. Qualitatively, these results indicate that: (1) vibronic coupling occurs through a large number of antisymmetric modes of the dimer rather than through a small number of strongly active modes, (2) the role of symmetric vibrational motions of the dimer is only minor, (3) that the active symmetric modes are significant in number and low in frequency, (4) that vibronic coupling between the hole-transfer state and the SHOMO to HOMO state is relatively weak and influences spectra only near resonance, and (5) that the calculated electronic couplings are

  20. Cluster Algorithm Special Purpose Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talapov, A. L.; Shchur, L. N.; Andreichenko, V. B.; Dotsenko, Vl. S.

    We describe a Special Purpose Processor, realizing the Wolff algorithm in hardware, which is fast enough to study the critical behaviour of 2D Ising-like systems containing more than one million spins. The processor has been checked to produce correct results for a pure Ising model and for Ising model with random bonds. Its data also agree with the Nishimori exact results for spin glass. Only minor changes of the SPP design are necessary to increase the dimensionality and to take into account more complex systems such as Potts models.

  1. Evaluation of excitation functions of proton and deuteron induced reactions on enriched tellurium isotopes with special relevance to the production of iodine-124.

    PubMed

    Aslam, M N; Sudár, S; Hussain, M; Malik, A A; Shah, H A; Qaim, S M

    2010-09-01

    Cross-section data for the production of medically important radionuclide (124)I via five proton and deuteron induced reactions on enriched tellurium isotopes were evaluated. The nuclear model codes, STAPRE, EMPIRE and TALYS, were used for consistency checks of the experimental data. Recommended excitation functions were derived using a well-defined statistical procedure. Therefrom integral yields were calculated. The various production routes of (124)I were compared. Presently the (124)Te(p,n)(124)I reaction is the method of choice; however, the (125)Te(p,2n)(124)I reaction also appears to have great potential.

  2. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  3. Sustainable competitive advantage for accountable care organizations.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Michael Alex

    2014-01-01

    In the current period of health industry reform, accountable care organizations (ACOs) have emerged as a new model for the delivery of high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. However, few ACOs operate in direct competition with one another, and the accountable care business model has yet to present a means of continually developing new marginal value for patients and network partners. With value-based purchasing and patient consumerism strengthening as market forces, ACOs must build organizational sustainability and competitive advantage to meet the value demands set by customers and competitors. This essay proposes a strategy, adapted from the disciplines of agile software development and Lean product development, through which ACOs can engage internal and external customers in the development of new products that will provide sustainability and competitive advantage to the organization by decreasing waste in development, promoting specialized knowledge, and closely targeting customer value.

  4. Special Education in Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrnjica, Sulejman

    1990-01-01

    This article describes Yugoslavia's education system, health and welfare services for children with disabilities, the nature and organization of special education services, the integration of disabled children in ordinary schools, models for training special educators, and problems. (DB)

  5. 26 CFR 1.985-4 - Method of accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Method of accounting. 1.985-4 Section 1.985-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Export Trade Corporations § 1.985-4 Method of accounting. (a) Adoption of... accounting. The functional currency shall be used for the year of adoption (or election) and for...

  6. 26 CFR 1.985-4 - Method of accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of accounting. 1.985-4 Section 1.985-4...) INCOME TAXES Export Trade Corporations § 1.985-4 Method of accounting. (a) Adoption of election. The adoption of, or the election to use, a functional currency shall be treated as a method of accounting....

  7. Carrier account utilization at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathis, W. E.; Langmead, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    The system in use at Goddard Space Flight Center for the utilization of the Common Use Service Carrier Account and the R&D Inventory Carrier Account technique for budgeting, accounting, financial control, and management reporting, both for the individual functional area and on a Center-wide basis, is documented.

  8. Rupture process of the main shock of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake with special reference to damaging ground motions: waveform inversion with empirical Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozu, Atsushi; Nagasaka, Yosuke

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the rupture process of the main shock of the Kumamoto earthquake, particularly the generation of strong ground motions in the frequency range relevant to structural damage, was investigated based on the inversion of strong ground motions. Strong-motion records in the near-source region were mainly utilized because the authors were interested in the generation mechanism of damaging ground motions in the near-source region. Empirical Green's functions (EGFs) were applied to avoid uncertainty in the subsurface structure model. Four cases of inversions with different combinations of small events were used to investigate the dependence of the inversion results on the selection of the small events. It was found that the dependence of the final slip distribution and peak slip velocity distribution on the selection of the EGF events is small. The results clearly indicate that a region of significantly large slip and slip velocity existed approximately 15 km northeast of the hypocenter. However, no "asperity" was observed between the hypocenter and Mashiki. Thus, it is not appropriate to conclude that the large-amplitude pulse-like ground motion in Mashiki was generated by the forward-directivity effect associated with the rupture of an asperity. As far as the source effect is concerned, the ground motion in Mashiki cannot be interpreted as the worst case scenario. On the other hand, the rupture of the "asperity" 15 km northeast of the hypocenter should have caused significantly large ground motions in regions close to the asperity. The significant damage of highway bridges in the region can potentially be attributed to the rupture of the asperity. The result of this study was compared with an inversion result obtained from numerical Green's functions for a layered half-space. The two results share the main features in spite of the difference of the Green's functions and stations used. Therefore, it can be concluded that these two source models capture the

  9. NASA Accountability Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    NASA is piloting fiscal year (FY) 1997 Accountability Reports, which streamline and upgrade reporting to Congress and the public. The document presents statements by the NASA administrator, and the Chief Financial Officer, followed by an overview of NASA's organizational structure and the planning and budgeting process. The performance of NASA in four strategic enterprises is reviewed: (1) Space Science, (2) Mission to Planet Earth, (3) Human Exploration and Development of Space, and (4) Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology. Those areas which support the strategic enterprises are also reviewed in a section called Crosscutting Processes. For each of the four enterprises, there is discussion about the long term goals, the short term objectives and the accomplishments during FY 1997. The Crosscutting Processes section reviews issues and accomplishments relating to human resources, procurement, information technology, physical resources, financial management, small and disadvantaged businesses, and policy and plans. Following the discussion about the individual areas is Management's Discussion and Analysis, about NASA's financial statements. This is followed by a report by an independent commercial auditor and the financial statements.

  10. Spills, drills, and accountability

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    NRDC seeks preventive approaches to oil pollution on U.S. coasts. The recent oil spills in Spain and Scotland have highlighted a fact too easy to forget in a society that uses petroleum every minute of every day: oil is profoundly toxic. One tiny drop on a bald eagle`s egg has been known to kill the embryo inside. Every activity involving oil-drilling for it, piping it, shipping it-poses risks that must be taken with utmost caution. Moreover, oil production is highly polluting. It emits substantial air pollution, such as nitrogen oxides that can form smog and acid rain. The wells bring up great quantities of toxic waste: solids, liquids and sludges often contaminated by oil, toxic metals, or even radioactivity. This article examines the following topics focusing on oil pollution control and prevention in coastal regions of the USA: alternate energy sources and accountability of pollutor; ban on offshore drilling as exemplified by the energy policy act; tanker free zones; accurate damage evaluations. Policy of the National Resource Defence Council is articulated.

  11. Evaluation of excitation functions of 3He- and α-particle induced reactions on antimony isotopes with special relevance to the production of iodine-124.

    PubMed

    Aslam, M N; Sudár, S; Hussain, M; Malik, A A; Qaim, S M

    2011-01-01

    Cross section data were evaluated for the production of the medically important positron emitter (124)I (T(1/2)=4.18d) via (3)He- and α-particle induced reactions on Sb isotopes. The consistency in the measured data available in the literature was checked against the cross section calculations of three nuclear model codes (i.e. STAPRE, EMPIRE and TALYS). The recommended excitation functions obtained by a statistical procedure were used to derive the integral yields. An assessment of the (124)I yields and associated radioisotopic impurities suggests that the (123)Sb(α,3n)(124)I process over the energy range of E(α)=45 → 32 MeV could be of potential interest for the production of (124)I.

  12. Accounting: The Integration of Computers into the Accounting Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Dorothy Lee

    1980-01-01

    Since computers are universally accepted in business today, the accounting classroom is the appropriate place to teach their use. A California high school accounting committee's recommendation led to the school's development of a computer processing program within the accounting department. The program's curriculum is described. (CT)

  13. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... payable. This account must include all amounts payable by the service company within one year that are not... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 232, Accounts payable. 367.2320 Section 367.2320 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  14. 18 CFR 367.1430 - Account 143, Other accounts receivable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1430 Account 143, Other... accounts receivable. 367.1430 Section 367.1430 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF...

  15. 76 FR 53378 - Cost Accounting Standards: Accounting for Insurance Costs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... the measurement and allocation of the cost of infrequent and difficult to predict events. The FAR at... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Accounting for Insurance Costs AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board (Board), Office of Federal Procurement Policy...

  16. Accounting Issues: An Essay Series. Part II--Accounts Receivable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judith A.

    2007-01-01

    This is the second in a series of articles designed to help academics refocus the introductory accounting course on the theoretical underpinnings of accounting. Intended as a supplement for the principles course, this article connects the asset Accounts Receivable to the essential theoretical constructs, discusses the inherent tradeoffs and…

  17. Solving Accounting Problems: Differences between Accounting Experts and Novices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, P. Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Performance of 90 accounting experts (faculty and practitioners) and 60 novices (senior accounting majors) was compared. Experts applied more accounting principles to solving problems. There were no differences in types of principles applied and no correlation between (1) principles applied and number of breadth comments or (2) importance placed…

  18. Physician accountability, patient safety and patient compensation.

    PubMed

    Gray, John E

    2006-01-01

    In Canada, the response to adverse medical events follows one or more of three main paths: patient safety, physician accountability and patient compensation. While their goals differ, each of these responses serves a valuable function. There are however competing imperatives inherent in each response, particularly in terms of information disclosure: Effective patient safety depends on the full and protected disclosure of all information relevant to an adverse event and requires a "no blame" environment. While natural justice demands that a physician be held accountable for his actions, the doctor should be accorded the right of due process and be judged against an established standard of care. This is necessarily a fault-finding activity. Patient compensation meets both accountability demands and the social justice imperatives of supporting a patient injured through physician negligence. The most effective approach is one that achieves balance between competing imperatives. With clear information disclosure rules, patient safety, physician accountability and patient compensation can operate synergistically.

  19. Accounting for the costs of quality.

    PubMed

    Suver, J D; Neumann, B R; Boles, K E

    1992-09-01

    Total quality management (TQM) represents a paradigm shift in the organizational values that shape every aspect of a healthcare provider's activities. The TQM approach to quality management subscribes to the theory that it is not the work of employees of an organization that leads to poor quality; rather, it is the poor design of systems and procedures. In a book recently published by HFMA, Management Accounting for Healthcare Organizations, third edition, authors Suver, Neumann and Boles point out that the changes in behavioral focus and organizational climate brought about by TQM will have a major impact on management accounting function in healthcare organizations. TQM will require new methods of accounting that will enable the effects of declining quality to be recognized and evaluated. It also will require new types of management accounting reports that will identify opportunities for quality improvement and will monitor the effectiveness of quality management endeavors. The following article has been adapted from the book cited above.

  20. Assessing Special Educational Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfendale, Sheila, Ed.

    This essays in this book contain valuable and up-to-date information about current issues and developments in assessing special educational needs. The context of the book is the mainstream setting in the United Kingdom. The aim of these chapters is to consider special needs in inclusive education, consistent with British special needs legislation.…