Science.gov

Sample records for accounting functions specialized

  1. Materials for Training Specialized Accounting Clerks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKitrick, Max O.

    1974-01-01

    To prepare instructional materials for training specialized accounting clerks, teachers must visit offices and make task analyses of these jobs utilizing the systems approach. Described are models developed for training these types of accounting clerks: computer control clerks, coupon clerks, internal auditing clerks, and statement clerks. (SC)

  2. 17 CFR 17.01 - Identification of special accounts, volume threshold accounts, and omnibus accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accounts, volume threshold accounts, and omnibus accounts. 17.01 Section 17.01 Commodity and Securities..., CLEARING MEMBERS, AND FOREIGN BROKERS § 17.01 Identification of special accounts, volume threshold accounts... in § 17.02(b). (b) Identification of volume threshold accounts. Each clearing member shall...

  3. Special Issue: "Functional Dendrimers".

    PubMed

    Tomalia, Donald A

    2016-01-01

    This special issue entitled "Functional Dendrimers" focuses on the manipulation of at least six "critical nanoscale design parameters" (CNDPs) of dendrimers including: size, shape, surface chemistry, flexibility/rigidity, architecture and elemental composition. These CNDPs collectively define properties of all "functional dendrimers". This special issue contains many interesting examples describing the manipulation of certain dendrimer CNDPs to create new emerging properties and, in some cases, predictive nanoperiodic property patterns (i.e., dendritic effects). The systematic engineering of CNDPs provides a valuable strategy for optimizing functional dendrimer properties for use in specific applications. PMID:27517890

  4. 17 CFR 17.01 - Special account designation and identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or its designee. (b) Special account identification. The name, address, business phone, and for... organization of the person and the person's principal business or occupation; (iii) Account numbers and account... paragraphs (b)(2) or (b)(2)(iv) of this section; or (3) The account controller, if trading of the...

  5. 17 CFR 17.01 - Special account designation and identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or its designee. (b) Special account identification. The name, address, business phone, and for... organization of the person and the person's principal business or occupation; (iii) Account numbers and account... paragraphs (b)(2) or (b)(2)(iv) of this section; or (3) The account controller, if trading of the...

  6. 17 CFR 17.01 - Special account designation and identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special account designation and identification. 17.01 Section 17.01 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REPORTS BY REPORTING MARKETS, FUTURES COMMISSION MERCHANTS, CLEARING MEMBERS, AND FOREIGN BROKERS § 17.01 Special account designation...

  7. On computing special functions in marine engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, E.; Bogdan, M.

    2015-11-01

    Important modeling applications in marine engineering conduct us to a special class of solutions for difficult differential equations with variable coefficients. In order to be able to solve and implement such models (in wave theory, in acoustics, in hydrodynamics, in electromagnetic waves, but also in many other engineering fields), it is necessary to compute so called special functions: Bessel functions, modified Bessel functions, spherical Bessel functions, Hankel functions. The aim of this paper is to develop numerical solutions in Matlab for the above mentioned special functions. Taking into account the main properties for Bessel and modified Bessel functions, we shortly present analytically solutions (where possible) in the form of series. Especially it is studied the behavior of these special functions using Matlab facilities: numerical solutions and plotting. Finally, it will be compared the behavior of the special functions and point out other directions for investigating properties of Bessel and spherical Bessel functions. The asymptotic forms of Bessel functions and modified Bessel functions allow determination of important properties of these functions. The modified Bessel functions tend to look more like decaying and growing exponentials.

  8. 18 CFR 367.1340 - Account 134, Other special deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... special deposits. 367.1340 Section 367.1340 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1340 Account 134,...

  9. 18 CFR 367.1280 - Account 128, Other special funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... special funds. 367.1280 Section 367.1280 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Other Property and Investments § 367.1280 Account 128,...

  10. 18 CFR 367.1280 - Account 128, Other special funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... special funds. 367.1280 Section 367.1280 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Other Property and Investments § 367.1280 Account 128,...

  11. 18 CFR 367.1340 - Account 134, Other special deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... special deposits. 367.1340 Section 367.1340 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1340 Account 134,...

  12. 18 CFR 367.1340 - Account 134, Other special deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... special deposits. 367.1340 Section 367.1340 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1340 Account 134,...

  13. 18 CFR 367.1280 - Account 128, Other special funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... special funds. 367.1280 Section 367.1280 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Other Property and Investments § 367.1280 Account 128,...

  14. 18 CFR 367.1340 - Account 134, Other special deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... special deposits. 367.1340 Section 367.1340 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1340 Account 134,...

  15. 18 CFR 367.1280 - Account 128, Other special funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... special funds. 367.1280 Section 367.1280 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Other Property and Investments § 367.1280 Account 128,...

  16. 18 CFR 367.1280 - Account 128, Other special funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... special funds. 367.1280 Section 367.1280 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Other Property and Investments § 367.1280 Account 128,...

  17. 18 CFR 367.1340 - Account 134, Other special deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... special deposits. 367.1340 Section 367.1340 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1340 Account 134,...

  18. Methods of Verification, Accountability and Control of Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.E.

    1999-05-03

    This session demonstrates nondestructive assay (NDA) measurement, surveillance and analysis technology required to protect, control and account (MPC and A) for special nuclear materials (SNM) in sealed containers. These measurements, observations and analyses comprise state-of-the art, strengthened, SNM safeguards systems. Staff member specialists, actively involved in research, development, training and implementation worldwide, will present six NDA verification systems and two software tools for integration and analysis of facility MPC and A data.

  19. 28 CFR 0.41 - Special functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special functions. 0.41 Section 0.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division § 0.41 Special functions. The following functions are assigned to, and shall be conducted, handled, or supervised by, the Assistant...

  20. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  1. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  2. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  3. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  4. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  5. School Accountability Reforms and the Use of Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Jon Marius Vaag

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between Norwegian school reform implementation and the use of special education. After the introduction of the national reform programme called the "Kunnskapsloftet" ("Knowledge promotion") in 2006, the use of special education has increased dramatically in Norway. As part of the national reform, municipalities…

  6. Space shuttle configuration accounting functional design specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the requirements for an on-line automated system which must be capable of tracking the status of requirements and engineering changes and of providing accurate and timely records. The functional design specification provides the definition, description, and character length of the required data elements and the interrelationship of data elements to adequately track, display, and report the status of active configuration changes. As changes to the space shuttle program levels II and III configuration are proposed, evaluated, and dispositioned, it is the function of the configuration management office to maintain records regarding changes to the baseline and to track and report the status of those changes. The configuration accounting system will consist of a combination of computers, computer terminals, software, and procedures, all of which are designed to store, retrieve, display, and process information required to track proposed and proved engineering changes to maintain baseline documentation of the space shuttle program levels II and III.

  7. Teaching Special Decisions in a Lean Accounting Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskin, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Lean accounting has become increasingly important as more and more companies adopt the lean enterprise model or some variation of it. Cost and managerial accounting textbooks continue to use, almost exclusively, models based on standard overhead absorption, which if used in a lean environment will not accurately reflect the benefits from the…

  8. Special Educational Needs, Disability and School Accountability: An International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emma; Douglas, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Standards-based accountability approaches in education are increasingly being adopted in many industrialised countries. This tends to involve the scrutiny of student performance in national academic tests and then holding schools accountable for subsequent progress. International assessments such as Programme for International Student Assessment…

  9. 17 CFR 5.20 - Special calls for account and transaction information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...'s account in retail forex transactions. (c) Special calls for information on open transactions in... introducing brokers. Upon special call by the Commission for information relating to retail forex transactions... concerning accounts of traders owning or controlling such retail forex transaction positions, as may...

  10. 17 CFR 5.20 - Special calls for account and transaction information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...'s account in retail forex transactions. (c) Special calls for information on open transactions in... introducing brokers. Upon special call by the Commission for information relating to retail forex transactions... concerning accounts of traders owning or controlling such retail forex transaction positions, as may...

  11. 17 CFR 5.20 - Special calls for account and transaction information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...'s account in retail forex transactions. (c) Special calls for information on open transactions in... introducing brokers. Upon special call by the Commission for information relating to retail forex transactions... concerning accounts of traders owning or controlling such retail forex transaction positions, as may...

  12. 17 CFR 5.20 - Special calls for account and transaction information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...'s account in retail forex transactions. (c) Special calls for information on open transactions in... introducing brokers. Upon special call by the Commission for information relating to retail forex transactions... concerning accounts of traders owning or controlling such retail forex transaction positions, as may...

  13. Accountability and Accreditation for Special Libraries: It Can Be Done!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glockner, Brigitte

    2004-01-01

    Health librarians are very familiar with the accreditation process in hospitals. In 2000 the first ALIA National Policy Congress recommended that accreditation of special libraries should be implemented. The proposed guidelines have been roughly based on the EQuIP Program of the Australian Council on Healthcare Standards. This program is…

  14. Unitary symmetry, combinatorics, and special functions

    SciTech Connect

    Louck, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    From 1967 to 1994, Larry Biedenham and I collaborated on 35 papers on various aspects of the general unitary group, especially its unitary irreducible representations and Wigner-Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. In our studies to unveil comprehensible structures in this subject, we discovered several nice results in special functions and combinatorics. The more important of these will be presented and their present status reviewed.

  15. Accreditation and Accountability: A CHEA Special Report. CHEA Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Higher Education Accreditation, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A good deal of national attention has been paid to accreditation and issues of accountability during the past year. The dominant topics have been student learning outcomes, institutional performance, and information to the public. From the Secretary of Education's Commission on the Future of Higher Education to reauthorization of the Higher…

  16. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  17. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  18. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  19. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  20. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  1. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  2. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  3. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  4. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  5. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  6. 48 CFR 32.411 - Agreement for special account at a financial institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Agreement for special account at a financial institution. 32.411 Section 32.411 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Advance Payments for Non-Commercial Items 32.411 Agreement for...

  7. 48 CFR 32.411 - Agreement for special account at a financial institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Agreement for special account at a financial institution. 32.411 Section 32.411 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Advance Payments for Non-Commercial Items 32.411 Agreement for...

  8. 48 CFR 32.411 - Agreement for special account at a financial institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Agreement for special account at a financial institution. 32.411 Section 32.411 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Advance Payments for Non-Commercial Items 32.411 Agreement for...

  9. 48 CFR 32.411 - Agreement for special account at a financial institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agreement for special account at a financial institution. 32.411 Section 32.411 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Advance Payments for Non-Commercial Items 32.411 Agreement for...

  10. Understanding Accountability from a Microanalysis of Power Dynamics in a Specialized STEM School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Tang Wee; Osborne, Margery

    2014-01-01

    The central thesis of this article is that conceptualizations of accountability systems need to be more encompassing to accommodate the current diversity of school choice. This article examines an emerging type of school that specializes in advanced STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) curriculum for gifted and academically…

  11. 77 FR 28407 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... January 1998 (63 FR 2426; January 15, 1998), because the underlying basis standard, ANSI N15.8-1974... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY:...

  12. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Information DG-5028, was published in the Federal Register on May 14, 2012 (77 FR 28407), for a 60-day public... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY:...

  13. Accountability for Early Childhood Education (Assessing Global Functioning).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the pacing of learning activity, knowledge of progress in student learning, teacher role, accountability in learning, feedback on knowledge of success, the global functioning assessment concept, and the mother surrogate. (RS)

  14. Adapting a Robot Hand to Specialized Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Keith H.

    1987-01-01

    Adaptor enables mechanical and electrical connections made easily between special-purpose end effector and arm of robot or remote mainpulator. Use in prosthetic devices also contemplatd. With adaptor, hand changed quickly from device designed to grasp objects of various sizes and shapes to device intended to do specific task efficiently.

  15. 17 CFR 21.01 - Special calls for information on controlled accounts from futures commission merchants, clearing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... on controlled accounts from futures commission merchants, clearing members and introducing brokers. 21.01 Section 21.01 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SPECIAL CALLS § 21.01 Special calls for information on controlled accounts from futures commission...

  16. 25 CFR 39.113 - What are the special accountability requirements for the gifted and talented program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the special accountability requirements for the... Talented Programs § 39.113 What are the special accountability requirements for the gifted and talented program? If a school identifies more than 13 percent of its student population as gifted and talented...

  17. 25 CFR 39.113 - What are the special accountability requirements for the gifted and talented program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the special accountability requirements for the... Talented Programs § 39.113 What are the special accountability requirements for the gifted and talented program? If a school identifies more than 13 percent of its student population as gifted and talented...

  18. 25 CFR 39.113 - What are the special accountability requirements for the gifted and talented program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the special accountability requirements for the... Talented Programs § 39.113 What are the special accountability requirements for the gifted and talented program? If a school identifies more than 13 percent of its student population as gifted and talented...

  19. 25 CFR 39.113 - What are the special accountability requirements for the gifted and talented program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What are the special accountability requirements for the... Talented Programs § 39.113 What are the special accountability requirements for the gifted and talented program? If a school identifies more than 13 percent of its student population as gifted and talented...

  20. 17 CFR 21.01 - Special calls for information on controlled accounts from futures commission merchants, clearing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special calls for information on controlled accounts from futures commission merchants, clearing members and introducing brokers. 21.01 Section 21.01 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SPECIAL CALLS § 21.01 Special calls for information...

  1. 17 CFR 21.01 - Special calls for information on controlled accounts from futures commission merchants, clearing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special calls for information on controlled accounts from futures commission merchants, clearing members and introducing brokers. 21.01 Section 21.01 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SPECIAL CALLS § 21.01 Special calls for information...

  2. Computer-based accountability system (Phase I) for special nuclear materials at Argonne-West

    SciTech Connect

    Ingermanson, R.S.; Proctor, A.E.

    1982-05-01

    An automated accountability system for special nuclear materials (SNM) is under development at Argonne National Laboratory-West. Phase I of the development effort has established the following basic features of the system: a unique file organization allows rapid updating or retrieval of the status of various SNM, based on batch numbers, storage location, serial number, or other attributes. Access to the program is controlled by an interactive user interface that can be easily understood by operators who have had no prior background in electronic data processing. Extensive use of structured programming techniques make the software package easy to understand and to modify for specific applications. All routines are written in FORTRAN.

  3. Special Education in Transition: Functional Assessment and Noncategorical Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Daniel J., Ed.; Tilly, W. David, III, Ed.; Grimes, Jeffrey P., Ed.

    This volume offers 12 readings which attempt to synthesize key ideas underlying a shift toward functional and noncategorical approaches to special education in light of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997. The chapters are: (1) "Origins of Categorical Special Education Services in Schools and a Rationale for Changing…

  4. Functional and Noncategorical Identification and Intervention in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Daniel J., Ed.; Tilly, W. David, III, Ed.; Grimes, Jeffrey P., Ed.

    This volume presents 12 papers that address the increasing shift toward functional and noncategorical approaches to special education. The papers are: (1) "Origins of Categorical Special Education Services in Schools and a Rationale for Changing Them" (Jim Ysseldyke and Doug Marston); (2) "Reform Trends and System Design Alternatives" (Dan Reschly…

  5. 17 CFR 247.723 - Exemptions for special accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the foreign branch held by or for the benefit of a U.S. person as defined in 17 CFR 230.902(k... the account is not a U.S. person as defined in 17 CFR 230.902(k). (3) Non-shell foreign branch. Solely... accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts. 247.723 Section...

  6. 12 CFR 218.723 - Exemptions for special accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign branch held by or for the benefit of a U.S. person as defined in 17 CFR 230.902(k) constitute less... not a U.S. person as defined in 17 CFR 230.902(k). (3) Non-shell foreign branch. Solely for purposes... accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts. 218.723 Section 218.723 Banks and...

  7. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Controversy surrounding the accountability movement is related to how the movement began in response to dissatisfaction with public schools. Opponents see it as one-sided, somewhat mean-spirited, and a threat to the professional status of teachers. Supporters argue that all other spheres of the workplace have accountability systems and that the…

  8. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  9. Functional continuous Runge-Kutta methods for special systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, A. S.; Olemskoy, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    We consider here numerical methods for systems of retarded functional differential equations of two equations in which the right-hand sides are cross-dependent of the unknown functions, i.e. the derivatives of unknowns don't depend on the same unknowns. It is shown that using the special structure of the system one can construct functional continuous methods of Runge-Kutta type with fewer stages than it is necessary in case of general Runge-Kutta functional continuous methods. Order conditions and example methods of orders three and four are presented. Test problems are solved, demonstrating the declared convergence order of the new methods.

  10. Preface: Special Topic on Advances in Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Weitao

    2014-05-14

    This Special Topic Issue on the Advances in Density Functional Theory, published as a celebration of the fifty years of density functional theory, contains a retrospective article, a perspective article, and a collection of original research articles that showcase recent theoretical advances in the field. It provides a timely discussion reflecting a cross section of our understanding, and the theoretical and computational developments, which have significant implications in broad areas of sciences and engineering.

  11. Preface: Special topic on advances in density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weitao

    2014-05-14

    This Special Topic Issue on the Advances in Density Functional Theory, published as a celebration of the fifty years of density functional theory, contains a retrospective article, a perspective article, and a collection of original research articles that showcase recent theoretical advances in the field. It provides a timely discussion reflecting a cross section of our understanding, and the theoretical and computational developments, which have significant implications in broad areas of sciences and engineering. PMID:24832306

  12. New useful special function in quantum optics theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Fan, Hong-Yi

    2016-08-01

    By virtue of the operator Hermite polynomial method [Fan H Y and Zhan D H 2014 Chin. Phys. B 23 060301] we find a new special function which is useful in quantum optics theory, whose expansion involves both power-series and Hermite polynomials, i.e., By virtue of the operator Hermite polynomial method and the technique of integration within ordered product of operators (IWOP) we derive its generating function. The circumstance in which this new special function appears and is applicable is considered. Project supported by the Natural Science Fund of Education Department of Anhui Province, China (Grant No. KJ2016A590), the Talent Foundation of Hefei University, China (Grant No. 15RC11), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11247009 and 11574295).

  13. Accounting Students Are Unable to Recognize the Various Types of Accounting Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Gary B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss 258 undergraduate business majors' perceptions of the nature and uses of financial and managerial accounting. Perceptions were measured with Stapel Scales constructed on 11 descriptive statements. Findings indicated that students distinguish between financial and managerial accounting, but that they do not view the two as…

  14. Regional specialization within the human striatum for diverse psychological functions

    PubMed Central

    Pauli, Wolfgang M.; O’Reilly, Randall C.; Wager, Tor D.

    2016-01-01

    Decades of animal and human neuroimaging research have identified distinct, but overlapping, striatal zones, which are interconnected with separable corticostriatal circuits, and are crucial for the organization of functional systems. Despite continuous efforts to subdivide the human striatum based on anatomical and resting-state functional connectivity, characterizing the different psychological processes related to each zone remains a work in progress. Using an unbiased, data-driven approach, we analyzed large-scale coactivation data from 5,809 human imaging studies. We (i) identified five distinct striatal zones that exhibited discrete patterns of coactivation with cortical brain regions across distinct psychological processes and (ii) identified the different psychological processes associated with each zone. We found that the reported pattern of cortical activation reliably predicted which striatal zone was most strongly activated. Critically, activation in each functional zone could be associated with distinct psychological processes directly, rather than inferred indirectly from psychological functions attributed to associated cortices. Consistent with well-established findings, we found an association of the ventral striatum (VS) with reward processing. Confirming less well-established findings, the VS and adjacent anterior caudate were associated with evaluating the value of rewards and actions, respectively. Furthermore, our results confirmed a sometimes overlooked specialization of the posterior caudate nucleus for executive functions, often considered the exclusive domain of frontoparietal cortical circuits. Our findings provide a precise functional map of regional specialization within the human striatum, both in terms of the differential cortical regions and psychological functions associated with each striatal zone. PMID:26831091

  15. Regional specialization within the human striatum for diverse psychological functions.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Wolfgang M; O'Reilly, Randall C; Yarkoni, Tal; Wager, Tor D

    2016-02-16

    Decades of animal and human neuroimaging research have identified distinct, but overlapping, striatal zones, which are interconnected with separable corticostriatal circuits, and are crucial for the organization of functional systems. Despite continuous efforts to subdivide the human striatum based on anatomical and resting-state functional connectivity, characterizing the different psychological processes related to each zone remains a work in progress. Using an unbiased, data-driven approach, we analyzed large-scale coactivation data from 5,809 human imaging studies. We (i) identified five distinct striatal zones that exhibited discrete patterns of coactivation with cortical brain regions across distinct psychological processes and (ii) identified the different psychological processes associated with each zone. We found that the reported pattern of cortical activation reliably predicted which striatal zone was most strongly activated. Critically, activation in each functional zone could be associated with distinct psychological processes directly, rather than inferred indirectly from psychological functions attributed to associated cortices. Consistent with well-established findings, we found an association of the ventral striatum (VS) with reward processing. Confirming less well-established findings, the VS and adjacent anterior caudate were associated with evaluating the value of rewards and actions, respectively. Furthermore, our results confirmed a sometimes overlooked specialization of the posterior caudate nucleus for executive functions, often considered the exclusive domain of frontoparietal cortical circuits. Our findings provide a precise functional map of regional specialization within the human striatum, both in terms of the differential cortical regions and psychological functions associated with each striatal zone. PMID:26831091

  16. 17 CFR 21.02 - Special calls for information on open contracts in accounts carried or introduced by futures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special calls for information on open contracts in accounts carried or introduced by futures commission merchants, clearing members, members of reporting markets, introducing brokers, and foreign brokers. 21.02 Section 21.02 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY...

  17. 12 CFR 220.118 - Time of payment for mutual fund shares purchased in a special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... purchased in a special cash account. 220.118 Section 220.118 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CREDIT BY BROKERS AND DEALERS (REGULATION T... to liquidation for nonpayment is that described in § 220.4(c)(2) or that described in §...

  18. Crafting Coherence from Complex Policy Messages: Educators' Perceptions of Special Education and Standards-Based Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jennifer Lin; Bray, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    Federal special education and accountability policies requires that educators individualize instruction for students with disabilities, while simultaneously ensuring that the vast majority of these students meet age-based grade-level standards and assessment targets. In this paper, we examine this dynamic interplay between policies through…

  19. 25 CFR 39.113 - What are the special accountability requirements for the gifted and talented program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the special accountability requirements for the gifted and talented program? 39.113 Section 39.113 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Gifted and Talented Programs § 39.113 What are...

  20. 12 CFR 220.118 - Time of payment for mutual fund shares purchased in a special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time of payment for mutual fund shares...) Interpretations § 220.118 Time of payment for mutual fund shares purchased in a special cash account. (a) The..., the shares of the mutual fund (open-end investment company) are technically not issued at the...

  1. Algebraic special functions and SO(3,2)

    SciTech Connect

    Celeghini, E.; Olmo, M.A. del

    2013-06-15

    A ladder structure of operators is presented for the associated Legendre polynomials and the sphericas harmonics. In both cases these operators belong to the irreducible representation of the Lie algebra so(3,2) with quadratic Casimir equals to −5/4. As both are also bases of square-integrable functions, the universal enveloping algebra of so(3,2) is thus shown to be homomorphic to the space of linear operators acting on the L{sup 2} functions defined on (−1,1)×Z and on the sphere S{sup 2}, respectively. The presence of a ladder structure is suggested to be the general condition to obtain a Lie algebra representation defining in this way the “algebraic special functions” that are proposed to be the connection between Lie algebras and square-integrable functions so that the space of linear operators on the L{sup 2} functions is homomorphic to the universal enveloping algebra. The passage to the group, by means of the exponential map, shows that the associated Legendre polynomials and the spherical harmonics support the corresponding unitary irreducible representation of the group SO(3,2). -- Highlights: •The algebraic ladder structure is constructed for the associated Legendre polynomials (ALP). •ALP and spherical harmonics support a unitary irreducible SO(3,2)-representation. •A ladder structure is the condition to get a Lie group representation defining “algebraic special functions”. •The “algebraic special functions” connect Lie algebras and L{sup 2} functions.

  2. Some Thoughts on the History of Rural Special Education: A First Hand Account.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Belva C.; Schuster, John W.

    2001-01-01

    The history of rural special education delivery and teacher education in Appalachia over the last four decades is traced. Much progress has been made, but rural regions still have a shortage of special education teacher educators, certified personnel, employment opportunities for students with disabilities, and distance education capabilities. A…

  3. From Special Geometry to Black Hole Partition Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohaupt, Thomas

    These notes are based on lectures given at the Erwin-Schrödinger Institute in Vienna in 2006/2007 and at the 2007 School on Attractor Mechanism in Frascati. Lecture I reviews special geometry from the superconformal point of view. Lecture II discusses the black hole attractor mechanism, the underlying variational principle and black hole partition functions. Lecture III applies the formalism introduced in the previous lectures to large and small BPS black holes in N = 4 supergravity. Lecture IV is devoted to the microscopic description of these black holes in N = 4 string compactifications. The lecture notes include problems which allow the readers to develop some of the key ideas by themselves. Appendix A reviews special geometry from the mathematical point of view. Appendix B provides the necessary background in modular forms needed for understanding S-duality and string state counting.

  4. Using special functions to model the propagation of airborne diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolaños, Daniela

    2014-06-01

    Some special functions of the mathematical physics are using to obtain a mathematical model of the propagation of airborne diseases. In particular we study the propagation of tuberculosis in closed rooms and we model the propagation using the error function and the Bessel function. In the model, infected individual emit pathogens to the environment and this infect others individuals who absorb it. The evolution in time of the concentration of pathogens in the environment is computed in terms of error functions. The evolution in time of the number of susceptible individuals is expressed by a differential equation that contains the error function and it is solved numerically for different parametric simulations. The evolution in time of the number of infected individuals is plotted for each numerical simulation. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of the pathogen around the source of infection is represented by the Bessel function K0. The spatial and temporal distribution of the number of infected individuals is computed and plotted for some numerical simulations. All computations were made using software Computer algebra, specifically Maple. It is expected that the analytical results that we obtained allow the design of treatment rooms and ventilation systems that reduce the risk of spread of tuberculosis.

  5. Painlevé equations--nonlinear special functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, Peter A.

    2003-04-01

    The six Painlevé equations (PI-PVI) were first discovered about a hundred years ago by Painlevé and his colleagues in an investigation of nonlinear second-order ordinary differential equations. Recently, there has been considerable interest in the Painlevé equations primarily due to the fact that they arise as reductions of the soliton equations which are solvable by inverse scattering. Consequently, the Painlevé equations can be regarded as completely integrable equations and possess solutions which can be expressed in terms of solutions of linear integral equations, despite being nonlinear equations. Although first discovered from strictly mathematical considerations, the Painlevé equations have arisen in a variety of important physical applications including statistical mechanics, plasma physics, nonlinear waves, quantum gravity, quantum field theory, general relativity, nonlinear optics and fibre optics. The Painlevé equations may be thought of a nonlinear analogues of the classical special functions. They possess hierarchies of rational solutions and one-parameter families of solutions expressible in terms of the classical special functions, for special values of the parameters. Further the Painlevé equations admit symmetries under affine Weyl groups which are related to the associated Bäcklund transformations. In this paper, I discuss some of the remarkable properties which the Painlevé equations possess including connection formulae, Bäcklund transformations associated discrete equations, and hierarchies of exact solutions. In particular, the second Painlevé equation PII is used to illustrate these properties and some of the applications of PII are also discussed.

  6. Functional specializations for music processing in the human newborn brain.

    PubMed

    Perani, Daniela; Saccuman, Maria Cristina; Scifo, Paola; Spada, Danilo; Andreolli, Guido; Rovelli, Rosanna; Baldoli, Cristina; Koelsch, Stefan

    2010-03-01

    In adults, specific neural systems with right-hemispheric weighting are necessary to process pitch, melody, and harmony as well as structure and meaning emerging from musical sequences. It is not known to what extent the specialization of these systems results from long-term exposure to music or from neurobiological constraints. One way to address this question is to examine how these systems function at birth, when auditory experience is minimal. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 1- to 3-day-old newborns while they heard excerpts of Western tonal music and altered versions of the same excerpts. Altered versions either included changes of the tonal key or were permanently dissonant. Music evoked predominantly right-hemispheric activations in primary and higher order auditory cortex. During presentation of the altered excerpts, hemodynamic responses were significantly reduced in the right auditory cortex, and activations emerged in the left inferior frontal cortex and limbic structures. These results demonstrate that the infant brain shows a hemispheric specialization in processing music as early as the first postnatal hours. Results also indicate that the neural architecture underlying music processing in newborns is sensitive to changes in tonal key as well as to differences in consonance and dissonance. PMID:20176953

  7. How special is the biochemical function of native proteins?

    PubMed Central

    Skolnick, Jeffrey; Gao, Mu; Zhou, Hongyi

    2016-01-01

    Native proteins perform an amazing variety of biochemical functions, including enzymatic catalysis, and can engage in protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions that are essential for life. A key question is how special are these functional properties of proteins. Are they extremely rare, or are they an intrinsic feature? Comparison to the properties of compact conformations of artificially generated compact protein structures selected for thermodynamic stability but not any type of function, the artificial (ART) protein library, demonstrates that a remarkable number of the properties of native-like proteins are recapitulated. These include the complete set of small molecule ligand-binding pockets and most protein-protein interfaces. ART structures are predicted to be capable of weakly binding metabolites and cover a significant fraction of metabolic pathways, with the most enriched pathways including ancient ones such as glycolysis. Native-like active sites are also found in ART proteins. A small fraction of ART proteins are predicted to have strong protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. Overall, it appears that biochemical function is an intrinsic feature of proteins which nature has significantly optimized during evolution. These studies raise questions as to the relative roles of specificity and promiscuity in the biochemical function and control of cells that need investigation. PMID:26962440

  8. Special Considerations for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Pediatric Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kotsoni, Eleni; Byrd, Dana; Casey, BJ

    2010-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) provides a non-invasive means of studying both typical and atypical brain development in vivo. However, the developmental and clinical status of the populations of interest impact how neuroimaging data should be collected, analyzed, and interpreted. In the present paper, we review methodological and theoretical issues relevant to developmental and clinical neuroimaging research and provide possible approaches for addressing each. These issues include accounting for differences in biological noise, neuroanatomy, motion, and task performance. Finally, we emphasize the importance of a converging methods approach in constraining and supporting interpretations of pediatric imaging results. PMID:16649204

  9. 12 CFR 725.7 - Special share accounts in federally chartered agent members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agent members. 725.7 Section 725.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.7 Special... credit union. (b) The amount which the Agent member requires each member natural person credit union...

  10. 12 CFR 725.7 - Special share accounts in federally chartered agent members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... agent members. 725.7 Section 725.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.7 Special... credit union. (b) The amount which the Agent member requires each member natural person credit union...

  11. 12 CFR 725.7 - Special share accounts in federally chartered agent members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agent members. 725.7 Section 725.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.7 Special... credit union. (b) The amount which the Agent member requires each member natural person credit union...

  12. 12 CFR 725.7 - Special share accounts in federally chartered agent members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... agent members. 725.7 Section 725.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.7 Special... credit union. (b) The amount which the Agent member requires each member natural person credit union...

  13. 12 CFR 725.7 - Special share accounts in federally chartered agent members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agent members. 725.7 Section 725.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.7 Special... credit union. (b) The amount which the Agent member requires each member natural person credit union...

  14. Ethical Accountability and Routine Moral Stress in Special Educational Needs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellawell, Beate

    2015-01-01

    This small-scale interview study considers experiences, difficulties and dilemmas of local Special Educational Needs (SEN) professionals such as SEN caseworkers, and examines the neglected ethical dimensions of their role. It argues that fostering "ethical knowledge" (Campbell, 2003), rather than an increase in prescriptive guidance,…

  15. 8 CFR 1241.14 - Continued detention of removable aliens on account of special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... dangerous. See 8 CFR 241.14. (1) Applicability. This section applies to the review of the continued... special review provisions under 8 CFR 241.13. (2) Jurisdiction. The immigration judges and the Board have... 8 CFR part 1292, at no expense to the Government; (ii) The Immigration Court shall provide...

  16. 8 CFR 1241.14 - Continued detention of removable aliens on account of special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... dangerous. See 8 CFR 241.14. (1) Applicability. This section applies to the review of the continued... special review provisions under 8 CFR 241.13. (2) Jurisdiction. The immigration judges and the Board have... 8 CFR part 1292, at no expense to the Government; (ii) The Immigration Court shall provide...

  17. 8 CFR 1241.14 - Continued detention of removable aliens on account of special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... dangerous. See 8 CFR 241.14. (1) Applicability. This section applies to the review of the continued... special review provisions under 8 CFR 241.13. (2) Jurisdiction. The immigration judges and the Board have... 8 CFR part 1292, at no expense to the Government; (ii) The Immigration Court shall provide...

  18. 8 CFR 1241.14 - Continued detention of removable aliens on account of special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... dangerous. See 8 CFR 241.14. (1) Applicability. This section applies to the review of the continued... special review provisions under 8 CFR 241.13. (2) Jurisdiction. The immigration judges and the Board have... 8 CFR part 1292, at no expense to the Government; (ii) The Immigration Court shall provide...

  19. 8 CFR 1241.14 - Continued detention of removable aliens on account of special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... dangerous. See 8 CFR 241.14. (1) Applicability. This section applies to the review of the continued... special review provisions under 8 CFR 241.13. (2) Jurisdiction. The immigration judges and the Board have... 8 CFR part 1292, at no expense to the Government; (ii) The Immigration Court shall provide...

  20. 12 CFR 220.105 - Ninety-day rule in special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... makes an account subject to the 90-day disqualification: A customer purchases registered security ABC in... greater than the cost of security ABC. After both sale and purchase have been made, the customer requests the broker to deliver security ABC to a different broker, to receive security XYZ from that broker...

  1. 12 CFR 220.105 - Ninety-day rule in special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... an account subject to the 90-day disqualification: A customer purchases registered security ABC in a... greater than the cost of security ABC. After both sale and purchase have been made, the customer requests the broker to deliver security ABC to a different broker, to receive security XYZ from that broker...

  2. 12 CFR 220.105 - Ninety-day rule in special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... an account subject to the 90-day disqualification: A customer purchases registered security ABC in a... greater than the cost of security ABC. After both sale and purchase have been made, the customer requests the broker to deliver security ABC to a different broker, to receive security XYZ from that broker...

  3. 12 CFR 220.105 - Ninety-day rule in special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... an account subject to the 90-day disqualification: A customer purchases registered security ABC in a... greater than the cost of security ABC. After both sale and purchase have been made, the customer requests the broker to deliver security ABC to a different broker, to receive security XYZ from that broker...

  4. 12 CFR 220.105 - Ninety-day rule in special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... makes an account subject to the 90-day disqualification: A customer purchases registered security ABC in... greater than the cost of security ABC. After both sale and purchase have been made, the customer requests the broker to deliver security ABC to a different broker, to receive security XYZ from that broker...

  5. 48 CFR 32.411 - Agreement for special account at a financial institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Account This agreement is entered into this __ day of ______, 20__, between the United States of America... ____ corporation (the Contractor), and ____, a financial institution operating under the laws of ____, located at... Corporation (12 U.S.C. 1811), or a credit union insured by the National Credit Union Administration....

  6. The intrinsic quasar luminosity function: Accounting for accretion disk anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Myers, A. D.; Brotherton, M. S.; Runnoe, J. C.; Green, R. F.

    2014-05-20

    Quasar luminosity functions are a fundamental probe of the growth and evolution of supermassive black holes. Measuring the intrinsic luminosity function is difficult in practice, due to a multitude of observational and systematic effects. As sample sizes increase and measurement errors drop, characterizing the systematic effects is becoming more important. It is well known that the continuum emission from the accretion disk of quasars is anisotropic—in part due to its disk-like structure—but current luminosity function calculations effectively assume isotropy over the range of unobscured lines of sight. Here, we provide the first steps in characterizing the effect of random quasar orientations and simple models of anisotropy on observed luminosity functions. We find that the effect of orientation is not insignificant and exceeds other potential corrections such as those from gravitational lensing of foreground structures. We argue that current observational constraints may overestimate the intrinsic luminosity function by as much as a factor of ∼2 on the bright end. This has implications for models of quasars and their role in the universe, such as quasars' contribution to cosmological backgrounds.

  7. Accounting for a Functional Category: German "Drohen" "to Threaten"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heine, Bernd; Miyashita, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    In many languages there are words that behave like lexical verbs and on the one hand and like functional categories expressing distinctions of tense, aspect, modality, etc. on the other. The grammatical status of such words is frequently controversial; while some authors treat them as belonging to one and the same grammatical category, others…

  8. Recruiting specialized macrophages across the borders to restore brain functions

    PubMed Central

    Corraliza, Inés

    2014-01-01

    Although is well accepted that the central nervous system has an immune privilege protected by the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and maintained by the glia, it is also known that in homeostatic conditions, peripheral immune cells are able to penetrate to the deepest regions of brain without altering the structural integrity of the BBB. Nearly all neurological diseases, including degenerative, autoimmune or infectious ones, compromising brain functions, develop with a common pattern of inflammation in which macrophages and microglia activation have been regarded often as the “bad guys.” However, recognizing the huge heterogeneity of macrophage populations and also the different expression properties of microglia, there is increasing evidence of alternative conditions in which these cells, if primed and addressed in the correct direction, could be essential for reparative and regenerative functions. The main proposal of this review is to integrate studies about macrophage’s biology at the brain borders where the ultimate challenge is to penetrate through the BBB and contribute to change or even stop the course of disease. Thanks to the efforts made in the last century, this special wall is currently recognized as a highly regulated cooperative structure, in which their components form neurovascular units. This new scenario prompted us to review the precise cross-talk between the mind and body modes of immune response. PMID:25228859

  9. A cognitive neurobiological account of deception: evidence from functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Sean A; Hunter, Mike D; Farrow, Tom F D; Green, Russell D; Leung, David H; Hughes, Catherine J; Ganesan, Venkatasubramanian

    2004-01-01

    An organism may use misinformation, knowingly (through deception) or unknowingly (as in the case of camouflage), to gain advantage in a competitive environment. From an evolutionary perspective, greater tactical deception occurs among primates closer to humans, with larger neocortices. In humans, the onset of deceptive behaviours in childhood exhibits a developmental trajectory, which may be regarded as 'normal' in the majority and deficient among a minority with certain neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). In the human adult, deception and lying exhibit features consistent with their use of 'higher' or 'executive' brain systems. Accurate detection of deception in humans may be of particular importance in forensic practice, while an understanding of its cognitive neurobiology may have implications for models of 'theory of mind' and social cognition, and societal notions of responsibility, guilt and mitigation. In recent years, functional neuroimaging techniques (especially functional magnetic resonance imaging) have been used to study deception. Though few in number, and using very different experimental protocols, studies published in the peer-reviewed literature exhibit certain consistencies. Attempted deception is associated with activation of executive brain regions (particularly prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices), while truthful responding has not been shown to be associated with any areas of increased activation (relative to deception). Hence, truthful responding may comprise a relative 'baseline' in human cognition and communication. The subject who lies may necessarily engage 'higher' brain centres, consistent with a purpose or intention (to deceive). While the principle of executive control during deception remains plausible, its precise anatomy awaits elucidation. PMID:15590616

  10. Perceptual learning modifies the functional specializations of visual cortical areas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nihong; Cai, Peng; Zhou, Tiangang; Thompson, Benjamin; Fang, Fang

    2016-05-17

    Training can improve performance of perceptual tasks. This phenomenon, known as perceptual learning, is strongest for the trained task and stimulus, leading to a widely accepted assumption that the associated neuronal plasticity is restricted to brain circuits that mediate performance of the trained task. Nevertheless, learning does transfer to other tasks and stimuli, implying the presence of more widespread plasticity. Here, we trained human subjects to discriminate the direction of coherent motion stimuli. The behavioral learning effect substantially transferred to noisy motion stimuli. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the transfer of learning. The TMS experiment revealed dissociable, causal contributions of V3A (one of the visual areas in the extrastriate visual cortex) and MT+ (middle temporal/medial superior temporal cortex) to coherent and noisy motion processing. Surprisingly, the contribution of MT+ to noisy motion processing was replaced by V3A after perceptual training. The fMRI experiment complemented and corroborated the TMS finding. Multivariate pattern analysis showed that, before training, among visual cortical areas, coherent and noisy motion was decoded most accurately in V3A and MT+, respectively. After training, both kinds of motion were decoded most accurately in V3A. Our findings demonstrate that the effects of perceptual learning extend far beyond the retuning of specific neural populations for the trained stimuli. Learning could dramatically modify the inherent functional specializations of visual cortical areas and dynamically reweight their contributions to perceptual decisions based on their representational qualities. These neural changes might serve as the neural substrate for the transfer of perceptual learning. PMID:27051066

  11. The Special Relationship in the Development and Function of T Helper 17 and Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Matthias; Wang, Zuobai; Sparwasser, Tim

    2015-01-01

    T helper 17 (Th17) cells play an essential role in the clearance of extracellular pathogenic bacteria and fungi. However, this subset is critically involved in the pathology of many autoimmune diseases, e.g., psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, allergy, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel diseases in humans. Therefore, Th17 responses need to be tightly regulated in vivo to mediate effective host defenses against pathogens without causing excessive host tissue damage. Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in maintaining peripheral tolerance to self-antigens and in counteracting the inflammatory activity of effector T helper cell subsets. Although Th17 and Treg cells represent two CD4(+) T cell subsets with opposing principal functions, these cell types are functionally connected. In this review, we will first give an overview on the biology of Th17 cells and describe their development and in vivo function, followed by an account on the special developmental relationship between Th17 and Treg cells. We will describe the identification of Treg/Th17 intermediates and consider their lineage stability and function in vivo. Finally, we will discuss how Treg cells may regulate the Th17 cell response in the context of infection and inflammation, and elude on findings demonstrating that Treg cells can also have a prominent function in promoting the differentiation of Th17 cells. PMID:26615094

  12. Functions, Part 1-Functions and How We Use Them, Part 2-Some Special Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David C.; Cohen, Louis S.

    1970-01-01

    Part I reviews the mathematical definition of function, and then presents some practical uses of functions in such areas as substitution in a formula, equation solving, and curve fitting. Part II gives examples of functions that can be used to describe some real life situations. (RP)

  13. Specialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Pat

    Designed for middle school students, this award winning, six-day teaching unit helped students learn about the concepts of specialization, interdependence, efficiency, and profit. At the onset of the lesson the students were already familiar with the concepts of scarcity, goods, services, profits, supply, demand, and opportunity costs. The unit's…

  14. Functional Curriculum for Elementary, Middle, and Secondary Age Students with Special Needs. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehman, Paul; Kregel, John

    2004-01-01

    The second edition of Functional Curriculum for Elementary, Middle, and Secondary Age Students with Special Needs has an expanded framework for a functional and longitudinal curriculum for children and adolescents with disabilities and other special needs. These is a stronger demand than ever to provide a curriculum with everyday usefulness and…

  15. Special functions associated with SU(3) Wigner-Clebsch-Gordan coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Louck, J.D.; Biedenharn, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Wigner-Clebsch-Gordan (WCG) coefficients of the unitary groups are a rich source of multivariable special functions. The general algebraic setting of these coefficients is reviewed and several special functions associated with the SU(3) WCG coefficients defined and their properties presented. 29 refs.

  16. Computational principles of syntax in the regions specialized for language: integrating theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Shinri; Fukui, Naoki; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of computational principles of syntax remains to be elucidated. One promising approach to this problem would be to construct formal and abstract linguistic models that parametrically predict the activation modulations in the regions specialized for linguistic processes. In this article, we review recent advances in theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging in the following respects. First, we introduce the two fundamental linguistic operations: Merge (which combines two words or phrases to form a larger structure) and Search (which searches and establishes a syntactic relation of two words or phrases). We also illustrate certain universal properties of human language, and present hypotheses regarding how sentence structures are processed in the brain. Hypothesis I is that the Degree of Merger (DoM), i.e., the maximum depth of merged subtrees within a given domain, is a key computational concept to properly measure the complexity of tree structures. Hypothesis II is that the basic frame of the syntactic structure of a given linguistic expression is determined essentially by functional elements, which trigger Merge and Search. We then present our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, demonstrating that the DoM is indeed a key syntactic factor that accounts for syntax-selective activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Hypothesis III is that the DoM domain changes dynamically in accordance with iterative Merge applications, the Search distances, and/or task requirements. We confirm that the DoM accounts for activations in various sentence types. Hypothesis III successfully explains activation differences between object- and subject-relative clauses, as well as activations during explicit syntactic judgment tasks. A future research on the computational principles of syntax will further deepen our understanding of uniquely human mental faculties. PMID:24385957

  17. Generalized Lamé functions. II. Hyperbolic and trigonometric specializations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruijsenaars, S. N. M.

    1999-03-01

    In Part I [J. Math. Phys. 40, 1595 (1999)] we studied eigenfunctions of the quantum dynamics that defines the two-particle relativistic Calogero-Moser system with elliptic interaction. In the present paper we consider the same system with hyperbolic and trigonometric interactions. In these special regimes the eigenfunctions are shown to admit an elementary representation that is far more explicit than the "zero representation" of Part I. In particular, the new representation can be exploited to prove that the hyperbolic eigenfunctions can be chosen to be symmetric under interchanging position and momentum variables (self-duality). In the trigonometric case duality properties are derived, too, and several orthogonality and completeness results are obtained.

  18. Sex Differences in the Association of Cerebral Hemispheric Specialization of Spatial Function with Conservation Task Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affleck, Glenn; Joyce, Patricia

    1979-01-01

    The association of locus of cerebral hemispheric specialization of spatial function with identity and equivalence conservation judgments was tested in a group of four- to six-year-old right-handed children (N=31). (Author/MP)

  19. Specialized Color Function for Display of Signed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalb, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    This Mathematica script defines a color function to be used with Mathematica's plotting modules for differentiating data attaining both positive and negative values. Positive values are shown as shades of blue, and negative values are shown in red. The intensity of the color reflects the absolute value of the data value.

  20. Introduction to Special Issue: Functional Behavior Assessment in Natural Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck-Peterson, Stephanie M.

    2002-01-01

    This introductory article discusses the requirement under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act that practitioners being using functional behavioral assessment (FBA) to develop positive behavioral interventions for children with problem behavior and identified disabilities. The definition of FBA is summarized, along with following…

  1. "Pussy Cat, Pussy Cat, Where Have You Been?" An Account of Intensive Psychotherapy with a Seven-Year-Old Boy in a Special School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Kate

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives an account of the developments in the intensive psychotherapy of a seven-year-old boy with global development delay. It also describes the adaptations to technique and the changes in the setting that were required to support the work, which was undertaken in a special school. The importance of the regularity of sessions in helping…

  2. Acceptability of Functional Behavioral Assessment Procedures to Special Educators and School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Robert E.; Bundock, Kaitlin; Kladis, Kristin; Hawken, Leanne S.

    2015-01-01

    This survey study assessed the acceptability of a variety of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures (i.e., functional assessment interviews, rating scales/questionnaires, systematic direct observations, functional analysis manipulations) to a national sample of 123 special educators and a state sample of 140 school psychologists.…

  3. 45 CFR 302.20 - Separation of cash handling and accounting functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separation of cash handling and accounting functions. 302.20 Section 302.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.20 Separation of cash handling...

  4. 45 CFR 302.20 - Separation of cash handling and accounting functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Separation of cash handling and accounting functions. 302.20 Section 302.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.20 Separation of cash handling...

  5. A Management Study of the MCPS Accounting System and Certain Related Financial Services Functions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young (Arthur) and Co., Washington, DC.

    Several years ago, Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) began a Management Operations Review and Evaluation (MORE) of the entire school system, excluding school-based instruction. This MORE study is an evaluation of MCPS's current accounting system and certain related financial services functions within the Department of Financial Services. In…

  6. 45 CFR 302.20 - Separation of cash handling and accounting functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of cash handling and accounting functions. 302.20 Section 302.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND...

  7. Proposal and Evaluation of Functionally Specialized CMA-ES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Youhei; Sakuma, Jun; Ono, Isao; Kobayashi, Shigenobu

    This paper aims the design of efficient and effective optimization algorithms for function optimization. For that purpose we present a new framework of the derandomized evolution strategy with covariance matrix adaptation, which combines the hybrid step size adaptation that is proposed in this paper as a robust alternate to the cumulative step size adaptation and normalization mechanism of covariance matrix. Experiment is conducted on 8 classical unimodal and multimodal test functions and the performance of the proposed strategy is compared with that of the standard strategy. Results show that the proposed strategy beats the standard strategy when the population size becomes larger than the default one, while the performance of proposed strategy is as well or better than that of the standard strategy under the default population size.

  8. Functional specialization of chordate CDK1 paralogs during oogenic meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Øvrebø, Jan Inge; Campsteijn, Coen; Kourtesis, Ioannis; Hausen, Harald; Raasholm, Martina; Thompson, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are central regulators of eukaryotic cell cycle progression. In contrast to interphase CDKs, the mitotic phase CDK1 is the only CDK capable of driving the entire cell cycle and it can do so from yeast to mammals. Interestingly, plants and the marine chordate, Oikopleura dioica, possess paralogs of the highly conserved CDK1 regulator. However, whereas in plants the 2 CDK1 paralogs replace interphase CDK functions, O. dioica has a full complement of interphase CDKs in addition to its 5 odCDK1 paralogs. Here we show specific sub-functionalization of odCDK1 paralogs during oogenesis. Differential spatiotemporal dynamics of the odCDK1a, d and e paralogs and the meiotic polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) and aurora kinase determine the subset of meiotic nuclei in prophase I arrest that will seed growing oocytes and complete meiosis. Whereas we find odCDK1e to be non-essential, knockdown of the odCDK1a paralog resulted in the spawning of non-viable oocytes of reduced size. Knockdown of odCDK1d also resulted in the spawning of non-viable oocytes. In this case, the oocytes were of normal size, but were unable to extrude polar bodies upon exposure to sperm, because they were unable to resume meiosis from prophase I arrest, a classical function of the sole CDK1 during meiosis in other organisms. Thus, we reveal specific sub-functionalization of CDK1 paralogs, during the meiotic oogenic program. PMID:25714331

  9. Functional specialization of chordate CDK1 paralogs during oogenic meiosis.

    PubMed

    Øvrebø, Jan Inge; Campsteijn, Coen; Kourtesis, Ioannis; Hausen, Harald; Raasholm, Martina; Thompson, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are central regulators of eukaryotic cell cycle progression. In contrast to interphase CDKs, the mitotic phase CDK1 is the only CDK capable of driving the entire cell cycle and it can do so from yeast to mammals. Interestingly, plants and the marine chordate, Oikopleura dioica, possess paralogs of the highly conserved CDK1 regulator. However, whereas in plants the 2 CDK1 paralogs replace interphase CDK functions, O. dioica has a full complement of interphase CDKs in addition to its 5 odCDK1 paralogs. Here we show specific sub-functionalization of odCDK1 paralogs during oogenesis. Differential spatiotemporal dynamics of the odCDK1a, d and e paralogs and the meiotic polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) and aurora kinase determine the subset of meiotic nuclei in prophase I arrest that will seed growing oocytes and complete meiosis. Whereas we find odCDK1e to be non-essential, knockdown of the odCDK1a paralog resulted in the spawning of non-viable oocytes of reduced size. Knockdown of odCDK1d also resulted in the spawning of non-viable oocytes. In this case, the oocytes were of normal size, but were unable to extrude polar bodies upon exposure to sperm, because they were unable to resume meiosis from prophase I arrest, a classical function of the sole CDK1 during meiosis in other organisms. Thus, we reveal specific sub-functionalization of CDK1 paralogs, during the meiotic oogenic program. PMID:25714331

  10. Transparency & Accountability: An Evaluation of the VSA College Portrait Pilot. A Special Report from the National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment for the Voluntary System of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankowski, Natasha A.; Ikenberry, Stanley O.; Kinzie, Jillian; Kuh, George D.; Shenoy, Gloria F.; Baker, Gianina R.

    2012-01-01

    The Voluntary System of Accountability (VSA) is a vehicle for public four-year universities to report comparable information about the undergraduate student experience via the College Portrait, a common web reporting template. The National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment (NILOA) was asked by the VSA to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  11. 17 CFR 21.02 - Special calls for information on open contracts in accounts carried or introduced by futures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... on open contracts in accounts carried or introduced by futures commission merchants, clearing members... on open contracts in accounts carried or introduced by futures commission merchants, clearing members... ten percent or more in each account; (f) The number of open futures or option positions introduced...

  12. 17 CFR 21.02 - Special calls for information on open contracts in accounts carried or introduced by futures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... on open contracts in accounts carried or introduced by futures commission merchants, clearing members... on open contracts in accounts carried or introduced by futures commission merchants, clearing members... ten percent or more in each account; (f) The number of open futures or option positions introduced...

  13. 49 CFR 1242.78 - Employees performing clerical and accounting functions, and loss and damage claims processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... functions, and loss and damage claims processing (accounts XX-55-76 and XX-55-78). 1242.78 Section 1242.78... Employees performing clerical and accounting functions, and loss and damage claims processing (accounts XX-55-76 and XX-55-78). If the sum of the direct freight and the direct passenger expenses is more...

  14. Muscle microvasculature's structural and functional specializations facilitate muscle metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kusters, Yvo H A M; Barrett, Eugene J

    2016-03-15

    We review the evolving findings from studies that examine the relationship between the structural and functional properties of skeletal muscle's vasculature and muscle metabolism. Unique aspects of the organization of the muscle microvasculature are highlighted. We discuss the role of vasomotion at the microscopic level and of flowmotion at the tissue level as modulators of perfusion distribution in muscle. We then consider in some detail how insulin and exercise each modulate muscle perfusion at both the microvascular and whole tissue level. The central role of the vascular endothelial cell in modulating both perfusion and transendothelial insulin and nutrient transport is also reviewed. The relationship between muscle metabolic insulin resistance and the vascular action of insulin in muscle continues to indicate an important role for the microvasculature as a target for insulin action and that impairing insulin's microvascular action significantly affects body glucose metabolism. PMID:26714849

  15. Progressive and Regressive Developmental Changes in Neural Substrates for Face Processing: Testing Specific Predictions of the Interactive Specialization Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Jane E.; Gathers, Ann D.; Bhatt, Ramesh S.

    2011-01-01

    Face processing undergoes a fairly protracted developmental time course but the neural underpinnings are not well understood. Prior fMRI studies have only examined progressive changes (i.e. increases in specialization in certain regions with age), which would be predicted by both the Interactive Specialization (IS) and maturational theories of…

  16. Accounting for Special Revenue Sharing Grants. A Human Resource Management Course Monograph. No. 2 in a Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Sanford C.

    A training course to introduce students to the problems and accounting methods for Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) programs should consider four major areas. Within these areas certain objectives should be met: (1) to acquire background knowledge on manpower programs and typical fund accounting procedures, (2) to understand the…

  17. Factors accounting for psychosocial functioning in patients with low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Steuden, Stanisława; Kuryłowicz, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a chronic disorder which exerts a profound impact on various spheres of psychosocial functioning, including emotional distress, functional limitations and decrements in social contacts. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between the indices of psychosocial functioning in patients with chronic LBP and a range of psychological factors. Specifically, the study aimed at exploring the relative participation of personality, social support, disease-related cognitive appraisals and coping styles in accounting for the differences in psychosocial functioning of patients with LBP. One-hundred-twenty patients with LBP took part in the study and completed a battery of psychological questionnaires: NEO–Five Factors Inventory, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Disease-Related Social Support Scale, Disease-Related Appraisals Scale and Psychosocial Functioning Questionnaire (PFQ). The PFQ dimensions were used as dependent variables in a series of stepwise regression analysis models with the scores from other questionnaires entered as independent variables. A cognitive appraisal of the disease in terms of an obstacle was strongly related to all domains of functioning; however, other appraisals (threat, challenge, harm, profit and overall disease importance) were uniquely associated with particular domains of functioning. Deprivation of social support was a significant predictor of distress experienced in interpersonal context and of sense of being disabled. Among basic personality traits, agreeableness was negatively associated with distress in interpersonal context, and conscientiousness was positively related to acceptance of life with the disease. Problem-focus coping was linked to higher acceptance of life with the disease. Among sociodemographic variables, older age and lower educational level were related to greater subjective feelings of being disabled. Pain severity was found unrelated to any of psychosocial functioning

  18. Fisher information of special functions and second-order differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yáñez, R. J.; Sánchez-Moreno, P.; Zarzo, A.; Dehesa, J. S.

    2008-08-01

    We investigate a basic question of analytic information theory, namely, the evaluation of the Fisher information and the relative Fisher information with respect to a non-negative function, for the probability distributions obtained by squaring the special functions of mathematical physics which are solutions of second-order differential equations. We obtain explicit expressions for these information-theoretic properties via the expectation values of the coefficients of the differential equation. We illustrate our approach for various nonrelativistic D-dimensional wavefunctions and some special functions of physicomathematical interest. Emphasis is made in the Nikiforov-Uvarov hypergeometric-type functions, which include and generalize the Hermite functions and the Gauss and Kummer hypergeometric functions, among others.

  19. 12 CFR 220.118 - Time of payment for mutual fund shares purchased in a special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... mutual fund shares in a “special cash account” under the provisions of this part 220, the 7-day period... security within 7 days after the date on which the security is so purchased, the creditor shall, except as... to the transaction under subparagraph (2) of this paragraph shall be 7 days after the date on...

  20. 12 CFR 220.118 - Time of payment for mutual fund shares purchased in a special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shares in a “special cash account” under the provisions of this part 220, the 7-day period with respect... 7 days after the date on which the security is so purchased, the creditor shall, except as provided... to the transaction under subparagraph (2) of this paragraph shall be 7 days after the date on...

  1. 12 CFR 220.118 - Time of payment for mutual fund shares purchased in a special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... mutual fund shares in a “special cash account” under the provisions of this part 220, the 7-day period... security within 7 days after the date on which the security is so purchased, the creditor shall, except as... to the transaction under subparagraph (2) of this paragraph shall be 7 days after the date on...

  2. Functional genomics reveals that a compact terpene synthase gene family can account for terpene volatile production in apple.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J; Green, Sol A; Chen, Xiuyin; Bailleul, Estelle J D; Matich, Adam J; Wang, Mindy Y; Atkinson, Ross G

    2013-02-01

    Terpenes are specialized plant metabolites that act as attractants to pollinators and as defensive compounds against pathogens and herbivores, but they also play an important role in determining the quality of horticultural food products. We show that the genome of cultivated apple (Malus domestica) contains 55 putative terpene synthase (TPS) genes, of which only 10 are predicted to be functional. This low number of predicted functional TPS genes compared with other plant species was supported by the identification of only eight potentially functional TPS enzymes in apple 'Royal Gala' expressed sequence tag databases, including the previously characterized apple (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase. In planta functional characterization of these TPS enzymes showed that they could account for the majority of terpene volatiles produced in cv Royal Gala, including the sesquiterpenes germacrene-D and (E)-β-caryophyllene, the monoterpenes linalool and α-pinene, and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Relative expression analysis of the TPS genes indicated that floral and vegetative tissues were the primary sites of terpene production in cv Royal Gala. However, production of cv Royal Gala floral-specific terpenes and TPS genes was observed in the fruit of some heritage apple cultivars. Our results suggest that the apple TPS gene family has been shaped by a combination of ancestral and more recent genome-wide duplication events. The relatively small number of functional enzymes suggests that the remaining terpenes produced in floral and vegetative and fruit tissues are maintained under a positive selective pressure, while the small number of terpenes found in the fruit of modern cultivars may be related to commercial breeding strategies. PMID:23256150

  3. Functional Genomics Reveals That a Compact Terpene Synthase Gene Family Can Account for Terpene Volatile Production in Apple1[W

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J.; Green, Sol A.; Chen, Xiuyin; Bailleul, Estelle J.D.; Matich, Adam J.; Wang, Mindy Y.; Atkinson, Ross G.

    2013-01-01

    Terpenes are specialized plant metabolites that act as attractants to pollinators and as defensive compounds against pathogens and herbivores, but they also play an important role in determining the quality of horticultural food products. We show that the genome of cultivated apple (Malus domestica) contains 55 putative terpene synthase (TPS) genes, of which only 10 are predicted to be functional. This low number of predicted functional TPS genes compared with other plant species was supported by the identification of only eight potentially functional TPS enzymes in apple ‘Royal Gala’ expressed sequence tag databases, including the previously characterized apple (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase. In planta functional characterization of these TPS enzymes showed that they could account for the majority of terpene volatiles produced in cv Royal Gala, including the sesquiterpenes germacrene-D and (E)-β-caryophyllene, the monoterpenes linalool and α-pinene, and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Relative expression analysis of the TPS genes indicated that floral and vegetative tissues were the primary sites of terpene production in cv Royal Gala. However, production of cv Royal Gala floral-specific terpenes and TPS genes was observed in the fruit of some heritage apple cultivars. Our results suggest that the apple TPS gene family has been shaped by a combination of ancestral and more recent genome-wide duplication events. The relatively small number of functional enzymes suggests that the remaining terpenes produced in floral and vegetative and fruit tissues are maintained under a positive selective pressure, while the small number of terpenes found in the fruit of modern cultivars may be related to commercial breeding strategies. PMID:23256150

  4. Morphology predicts species' functional roles and their degree of specialization in plant-frugivore interactions.

    PubMed

    Dehling, D Matthias; Jordano, Pedro; Schaefer, H Martin; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Schleuning, Matthias

    2016-01-27

    Species' functional roles in key ecosystem processes such as predation, pollination or seed dispersal are determined by the resource use of consumer species. An interaction between resource and consumer species usually requires trait matching (e.g. a congruence in the morphologies of interaction partners). Species' morphology should therefore determine species' functional roles in ecological processes mediated by mutualistic or antagonistic interactions. We tested this assumption for Neotropical plant-bird mutualisms. We used a new analytical framework that assesses a species's functional role based on the analysis of the traits of its interaction partners in a multidimensional trait space. We employed this framework to test (i) whether there is correspondence between the morphology of bird species and their functional roles and (ii) whether morphologically specialized birds fulfil specialized functional roles. We found that morphological differences between bird species reflected their functional differences: (i) bird species with different morphologies foraged on distinct sets of plant species and (ii) morphologically distinct bird species fulfilled specialized functional roles. These findings encourage further assessments of species' functional roles through the analysis of their interaction partners, and the proposed analytical framework facilitates a wide range of novel analyses for network and community ecology. PMID:26817779

  5. Vestibular-Based Functions and Behavior Problems of Children in Special Education and Regular Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servello, Michael B.

    1982-01-01

    Examination of vestibular-based functions and their relationship to behavior problems of 101 kindergarten through fourth grade children enrolled in special education and regular classes found low to moderate significant correlations between vestibular system dysfunction and behavior problems of subjects. (Author/PN)

  6. State Special Education Laws for Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive search identified 31 state statutes and regulations specific to functional behavioral assessments (FBA) and behavior intervention plans (BIP) in the special education context. A systematic tabulation of the state law provisions that exceed the rather narrow foundation requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act…

  7. Mapping Functional Brain Development: Building a Social Brain through Interactive Specialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark H.; Grossmann, Tobias; Kadosh, Kathrin Cohen

    2009-01-01

    The authors review a viewpoint on human functional brain development, interactive specialization (IS), and its application to the emerging network of cortical regions referred to as the "social brain." They advance the IS view in 2 new ways. First, they extend IS into a domain to which it has not previously been applied--the emergence of social…

  8. Why functions are not special dispositions: an improved classification of realizables for top-level ontologies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The concept of function is central to both biology and technology, but neither in philosophy nor in formal ontology is there a generally accepted theory of functions. In particular, there is no consensus how to include functions into a top-level ontology or whether to include them at all. Methods We first review current conceptions of functions in philosophy and formal ontology and evaluate them against a set of criteria. These evaluation criteria are derived from a synopsis of theoretical and practical requirements that have been suggested for formal accounts of functions. In a second step, we elucidate in particular the relation between functions and dispositions. Results We argue that functions should not be taken as a subtype of dispositions. The strongest reason for this is that any view that identifies functions with certain dispositions cannot account for malfunctioning, which is having a function but lacking the matching disposition. As a result, we suggest a cross-classification of realizables with dispositions supervening on the physical structure of their bearer, whereas both functions and roles also have some external grounding. While bearers can survive the gain, loss and change of roles, functions are rigid properties that are essentially connected to their particular bearers. Therefore, Function should not be regarded as a subtype of Disposition; rather, the classes of functions and dispositions are disjoint siblings of Realizable. PMID:25009736

  9. Numerical methods for the calculation of special functions of wave catastrophes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipatov, E. B.; Lukin, D. S.; Palkin, E. A.

    1985-02-01

    The paper investigates the properties of special functions which are used for the asymptotic description of the structure of wave fields near various types of focusings. These functions are realized in software packages for the BESM-6 computer using FORTRAN. The canonical equations and basic properties of these functions are examined along with the development of numerical algorithms for their computation. These functions may be applied in the study of various types of wave problems, including: (1) radio wave propagation in the ionosphere and ionospheric waveguide channels; (2) the fine structure of sound fields in an acoustic duct; and (3) the focusing of laser radiation reflected from a rough surface.

  10. Rabbit-Specific Ventricular Model of Cardiac Electrophysiological Function including Specialized Conduction System

    PubMed Central

    Bordas, R.; Gillow, K.; Lou, Q.; Efimov, I. R.; Gavaghan, D.; Kohl, P.; Grau, V.; Rodriguez, B.

    2011-01-01

    The function of the ventricular specialized conduction system in the heart is to ensure the coordinated electrical activation of the ventricles. It is therefore critical to the overall function of the heart, and has also been implicated as an important player in various diseases, including lethal ventricular arrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation and drug-induced torsades de pointes. However, current ventricular models of electrophysiology usually ignore, or include highly simplified representations of the specialized conduction system. Here, we describe the development of a image-based, species-consistent, anatomically-detailed model of rabbit ventricular electrophysiology that incorporates a detailed description of the free-running part of the specialized conduction system. Techniques used for the construction of the geometrical model of the specialized conduction system from a magnetic resonance dataset and integration of the system model into a ventricular anatomical model, developed from the same dataset, are described. Computer simulations of rabbit ventricular electrophysiology are conducted using the novel anatomical model and rabbit-specific membrane kinetics to investigate the importance of the components and properties of the conduction system in determining ventricular function under physiological conditions. Simulation results are compared to panoramic optical mapping experiments for model validation and results interpretation. Full access is provided to the anatomical models developed in this study. PMID:21672547

  11. Functional specializations of primary auditory afferents on the Mauthner cells: interactions between membrane and synaptic properties.

    PubMed

    Curti, Sebastian; Pereda, Alberto E

    2010-01-01

    Primary auditory afferents are usually perceived as passive, timing-preserving, lines of communication. Contrasting this view, a special class of auditory afferents to teleost Mauthner cells, a command neuron that organizes tail-flip escape responses, undergoes potentiation of their mixed (electrical and chemical) synapses in response to high frequency cellular activity. This property is likely to represent a mechanism of input sensitization as these neurons provide the Mauthner cell with essential information for the initiation of an escape response. We review here the anatomical and physiological specializations of these identifiable auditory afferents. In particular, we discuss how their membrane and synaptic properties act in concert to more efficaciously activate the Mauthner cells. The striking functional specializations of these neurons suggest that primary auditory afferents might be capable of more sophisticated contributions to auditory processing than has been generally recognized. PMID:19941953

  12. Specialized Functional Diversity and Interactions of the Na,K-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Matchkov, Vladimir V.; Krivoi, Igor I.

    2016-01-01

    Na,K-ATPase is a protein ubiquitously expressed in the plasma membrane of all animal cells and vitally essential for their functions. A specialized functional diversity of the Na,K-ATPase isozymes is provided by molecular heterogeneity, distinct subcellular localizations, and functional interactions with molecular environment. Studies over the last decades clearly demonstrated complex and isoform-specific reciprocal functional interactions between the Na,K-ATPase and neighboring proteins and lipids. These interactions are enabled by a spatially restricted ion homeostasis, direct protein-protein/lipid interactions, and protein kinase signaling pathways. In addition to its “classical” function in ion translocation, the Na,K-ATPase is now considered as one of the most important signaling molecules in neuronal, epithelial, skeletal, cardiac and vascular tissues. Accordingly, the Na,K-ATPase forms specialized sub-cellular multimolecular microdomains which act as receptors to circulating endogenous cardiotonic steroids (CTS) triggering a number of signaling pathways. Changes in these endogenous cardiotonic steroid levels and initiated signaling responses have significant adaptive values for tissues and whole organisms under numerous physiological and pathophysiological conditions. This review discusses recent progress in the studies of functional interactions between the Na,K-ATPase and molecular microenvironment, the Na,K-ATPase-dependent signaling pathways and their significance for diversity of cell function. PMID:27252653

  13. The Functionality of Spontaneous Mimicry and Its Influences on Affiliation: An Implicit Socialization Account

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, Liam C.; Winkielman, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    There is a broad theoretical and empirical interest in spontaneous mimicry, or the automatic reproduction of a model’s behavior. Evidence shows that people mimic models they like, and that mimicry enhances liking for the mimic. Yet, there is no satisfactory account of this phenomenon, especially in terms of its functional significance. While affiliation is often cited as the driver of mimicry, we argue that mimicry is primarily driven by a learning process that helps to produce the appropriate bodily and emotional responses to relevant social situations. Because the learning process and the resulting knowledge is implicit, it cannot easily be rejected, criticized, revised, and employed by the learner in a deliberative or deceptive manner. We argue that these characteristics will lead individuals to preferentially mimic ingroup members, whose implicit information is worth incorporating. Conversely, mimicry of the wrong person is costly because individuals will internalize “bad habits,” including emotional reactions and mannerisms indicating wrong group membership. This pattern of mimicry, in turn, means that observed mimicry is an honest signal of group affiliation. We propose that the preferences of models for the mimic stems from this true signal value. Further, just like facial expressions, mimicry communicates a genuine disposition when it is truly spontaneous. Consequently, perceivers are attuned to relevant cues such as appropriate timing, fidelity, and selectivity. Our account, while assuming no previously unknown biological endowments, also explains greater mimicry of powerful people, and why affiliation can be signaled by mimicry of seemingly inconsequential behaviors. PMID:27064398

  14. The Functionality of Spontaneous Mimicry and Its Influences on Affiliation: An Implicit Socialization Account.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Liam C; Winkielman, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    There is a broad theoretical and empirical interest in spontaneous mimicry, or the automatic reproduction of a model's behavior. Evidence shows that people mimic models they like, and that mimicry enhances liking for the mimic. Yet, there is no satisfactory account of this phenomenon, especially in terms of its functional significance. While affiliation is often cited as the driver of mimicry, we argue that mimicry is primarily driven by a learning process that helps to produce the appropriate bodily and emotional responses to relevant social situations. Because the learning process and the resulting knowledge is implicit, it cannot easily be rejected, criticized, revised, and employed by the learner in a deliberative or deceptive manner. We argue that these characteristics will lead individuals to preferentially mimic ingroup members, whose implicit information is worth incorporating. Conversely, mimicry of the wrong person is costly because individuals will internalize "bad habits," including emotional reactions and mannerisms indicating wrong group membership. This pattern of mimicry, in turn, means that observed mimicry is an honest signal of group affiliation. We propose that the preferences of models for the mimic stems from this true signal value. Further, just like facial expressions, mimicry communicates a genuine disposition when it is truly spontaneous. Consequently, perceivers are attuned to relevant cues such as appropriate timing, fidelity, and selectivity. Our account, while assuming no previously unknown biological endowments, also explains greater mimicry of powerful people, and why affiliation can be signaled by mimicry of seemingly inconsequential behaviors. PMID:27064398

  15. The Melanopic Sensitivity Function Accounts for Melanopsin-Driven Responses in Mice under Diverse Lighting Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Timothy M.; Allen, Annette E.; al-Enezi, Jazi; Wynne, Jonathan; Schlangen, Luc; Hommes, Vanja; Lucas, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    In addition to rods and cones, photoreception in mammals extends to a third retinal cell type expressing the photopigment melanopsin. The influences of this novel opsin are widespread, ranging from pupillary and circadian responses to brightness perception, yet established approaches to quantifying the biological effects of light do not adequately account for melanopsin sensitivity. We have recently proposed a novel metric, the melanopic sensitivity function (VZλ), to address this deficiency. Here, we further validate this new measure with a variety of tests based on potential barriers to its applicability identified in the literature or relating to obvious practical benefits. Using electrophysiogical approaches and pupillometry, initially in rodless+coneless mice, our data demonstrate that under a very wide range of different conditions (including switching between stimuli with highly divergent spectral content) the VZλ function provides an accurate prediction of the sensitivity of melanopsin-dependent responses. We further show that VZλ provides the best available description of the spectral sensitivity of at least one aspect of the visual response in mice with functional rods and cones: tonic firing activity in the lateral geniculate nuclei. Together, these data establish VZλ as an important new approach for light measurement with widespread practical utility. PMID:23301090

  16. Why do interracial interactions impair executive function? A resource depletion account.

    PubMed

    Richeson, Jennifer A; Trawalter, Sophie

    2005-06-01

    Three studies investigated the veracity of a resource depletion account of the impairment of inhibitory task performance after interracial contact. White individuals engaged in either an interracial or same-race interaction, then completed an ostensibly unrelated Stroop color-naming test. In each study, the self-regulatory demands of the interaction were either increased (Study 1) or decreased (Studies 2 and 3). Results revealed that increasing the self-regulatory demands of an interracial interaction led to greater Stroop interference compared with control, whereas reducing self-regulatory demands led to less Stroop interference. Manipulating self-regulatory demands did not affect Stroop performance after same-race interactions. Taken together, the present studies point to resource depletion as the likely mechanism underlying the impairment of cognitive functioning after interracial dyadic interactions. PMID:15982114

  17. A three-dimensional model of mammalian tyrosinase active site accounting for loss of function mutations.

    PubMed

    Schweikardt, Thorsten; Olivares, Concepción; Solano, Francisco; Jaenicke, Elmar; García-Borrón, José Carlos; Decker, Heinz

    2007-10-01

    Tyrosinases are the first and rate-limiting enzymes in the synthesis of melanin pigments responsible for colouring hair, skin and eyes. Mutation of tyrosinases often decreases melanin production resulting in albinism, but the effects are not always understood at the molecular level. Homology modelling of mouse tyrosinase based on recently published crystal structures of non-mammalian tyrosinases provides an active site model accounting for loss-of-function mutations. According to the model, the copper-binding histidines are located in a helix bundle comprising four densely packed helices. A loop containing residues M374, S375 and V377 connects the CuA and CuB centres, with the peptide oxygens of M374 and V377 serving as hydrogen acceptors for the NH-groups of the imidazole rings of the copper-binding His367 and His180. Therefore, this loop is essential for the stability of the active site architecture. A double substitution (374)MS(375) --> (374)GG(375) or a single M374G mutation lead to a local perturbation of the protein matrix at the active site affecting the orientation of the H367 side chain, that may be unable to bind CuB reliably, resulting in loss of activity. The model also accounts for loss of function in two naturally occurring albino mutations, S380P and V393F. The hydroxyl group in S380 contributes to the correct orientation of M374, and the substitution of V393 for a bulkier phenylalanine sterically impedes correct side chain packing at the active site. Therefore, our model explains the mechanistic necessity for conservation of not only active site histidines but also adjacent amino acids in tyrosinase. PMID:17850513

  18. Introduction to the Special Issue: Interventions to Improve Children's Social and Emotional Functioning at School.

    PubMed

    Collins, Tai A; Hawkins, Renee O; Nabors, Laura A

    2016-07-01

    Identification of evidence-based practices for promotion of social and emotional functioning of children at school is important for their academic and social development. This introduction reviews information from this special issue focusing on evidence-based research to improve the social and emotional functioning of children in their classrooms and schools. An emphasis on reduction of negative behaviors and promotion of positive, prosocial behaviors is presented in manuscripts for this special issue. The articles in this issue may be grouped in terms of the tiered system or School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports Framework into articles at the Tier I, II, and III levels. Tier I interventions support positive behaviors and reduce problem behaviors for all children in a classroom or school, as a type of primary prevention. In terms of secondary prevention, Tier II interventions are selected interventions that address problem behaviors of students at risk for poor functioning, who do not respond to Tier I interventions. Finally, Tier III interventions are used for those students with behavioral and emotional issues who do not respond to Tier II interventions, and students in this group are indicated for intervention at a tertiary care level. In summary, this special issue presents evidence-based knowledge from research at all three intervention levels that aim to promote children's social and emotional development in the school setting. PMID:27179003

  19. Accounting for variation in designing greenhouse experiments with special reference to greenhouses containing plants on conveyor systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are a number of unresolved issues in the design of experiments in greenhouses. They include whether statistical designs should be used and, if so, which designs should be used. Also, are there thigmomorphogenic or other effects arising from the movement of plants on conveyor belts within a greenhouse? A two-phase, single-line wheat experiment involving four tactics was conducted in a conventional greenhouse and a fully-automated phenotyping greenhouse (Smarthouse) to investigate these issues. Results and discussion Analyses of our experiment show that there was a small east–west trend in total area of the plants in the Smarthouse. Analyses of the data from three multiline experiments reveal a large north–south trend. In the single-line experiment, there was no evidence of differences between trios of lanes, nor of movement effects. Swapping plant positions during the trial was found to decrease the east–west trend, but at the cost of increased error variance. The movement of plants in a north–south direction, through a shaded area for an equal amount of time, nullified the north–south trend. An investigation of alternative experimental designs for equally-replicated experiments revealed that generally designs with smaller blocks performed best, but that (nearly) trend-free designs can be effective when blocks are larger. Conclusions To account for variation in microclimate in a greenhouse, using statistical design and analysis is better than rearranging the position of plants during the experiment. For the relocation of plants to be successful requires that plants spend an equal amount of time in each microclimate, preferably during comparable growth stages. Even then, there is no evidence that this will be any more precise than statistical design and analysis of the experiment, and the risk is that it will not be successful at all. As for statistical design and analysis, it is best to use either (i) smaller blocks, (ii) (nearly) trend

  20. Understanding the impact of special health care needs on early school functioning: a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, M; Howell-Meurs, S; Kvalsvig, A; Goldfeld, S

    2015-01-01

    Children with special health care needs (SHCN) have or are at increased risk for a chronic condition that necessitates more health and related supports than their peers. While it is generally accepted that these children are at risk for school failure, the mechanisms through which SHCN impact on children's experiences (and therefore opportunities to intervene) at school are still relatively poorly understood. Based on the current literature, this paper provides a conceptual framework to guide further discussion of this issue in research, policy and practice. Evidence from the literature was reviewed and existing frameworks examined. We propose that SHCN impact on four interrelated domains of children's functioning: (1) body functions and structures; (2) activities of daily living; (3) social participation; and (4) educational participation. Children's functioning is further influenced by risk and protective factors that can be identified at the level of the child, family and service systems. Together, these processes contribute to shaping either positive or negative trajectories of school functioning. The mechanisms influencing school experiences for children with special health care needs are complex, with opportunities for positive interventions at a range of levels. The proposed conceptual model provides an accessible tool for guiding discussion of the support needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:24912552

  1. Dendritic cell maturation: functional specialization through signaling specificity and transcriptional programming

    PubMed Central

    Dalod, Marc; Chelbi, Rabie; Malissen, Bernard; Lawrence, Toby

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are key regulators of both protective immune responses and tolerance to self-antigens. Soon after their discovery in lymphoid tissues by Steinman and Cohn, as cells with the unique ability to prime naïve antigen-specific T cells, it was realized that DC can exist in at least two distinctive states characterized by morphological, phenotypic and functional changes—this led to the description of DC maturation. It is now well appreciated that there are several subsets of DC in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues of mammals, and these cells show remarkable functional specialization and specificity in their roles in tolerance and immunity. This review will focus on the specific characteristics of DC subsets and how their functional specialization may be regulated by distinctive gene expression programs and signaling responses in both steady-state and in the context of inflammation. In particular, we will highlight the common and distinctive genes and signaling pathways that are associated with the functional maturation of DC subsets. PMID:24737868

  2. Functional specializations in human cerebral cortex analyzed using the Visible Man surface-based atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drury, H. A.; Van Essen, D. C.

    1997-01-01

    We used surface-based representations to analyze functional specializations in the human cerebral cortex. A computerized reconstruction of the cortical surface of the Visible Man digital atlas was generated and transformed to the Talairach coordinate system. This surface was also flattened and used to establish a surface-based coordinate system that respects the topology of the cortical sheet. The linkage between two-dimensional and three-dimensional representations allows the locations of published neuroimaging activation foci to be stereotaxically projected onto the Visible Man cortical flat map. An analysis of two activation studies related to the hearing and reading of music and of words illustrates how this approach permits the systematic estimation of the degree of functional segregation and of potential functional overlap for different aspects of sensory processing.

  3. Special functions arising in the study of semi-linear equations in circular domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlamov, Vladimir

    2007-05-01

    Rayleigh functions are defined by the formulawhere are zeros of the Bessel function J[nu](x) and n=1,2,3,..., is the number of the zero. These functions appear in the classical problems of vibrating circular membranes, heat conduction in cylinders and diffraction through circular apertures. In the present paper it is shown that a new family of special functions, convolutions of Rayleigh functions with respect to the Bessel index,arises in constructing solutions of semi-linear evolution equations in circular domains (see also [V. Varlamov, Convolution of Rayleigh functions with respect to the Bessel index, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 306 (2005) 413-424]). As an example of its application a forced Cahn-Hilliard equation is considered in a unit disc with homogeneous boundary and initial conditions. Construction of its global-in-time solutions involves the use of R1(m) and R2(m). A general representation of Rl(m) is deduced and on the basis of that a particular result for R2(m) is obtained convenient for computing its asymptotics as m-->[infinity]. The latter issue is important for establishing a function space to which a solution of the corresponding problem belongs.

  4. Rayleigh radiance computations for satellite remote sensing: accounting for the effect of sensor spectral response function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Menghua

    2016-05-30

    To understand and assess the effect of the sensor spectral response function (SRF) on the accuracy of the top of the atmosphere (TOA) Rayleigh-scattering radiance computation, new TOA Rayleigh radiance lookup tables (LUTs) over global oceans and inland waters have been generated. The new Rayleigh LUTs include spectral coverage of 335-2555 nm, all possible solar-sensor geometries, and surface wind speeds of 0-30 m/s. Using the new Rayleigh LUTs, the sensor SRF effect on the accuracy of the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation has been evaluated for spectral bands of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS)-1, showing some important uncertainties for VIIRS-SNPP particularly for large solar- and/or sensor-zenith angles as well as for large Rayleigh optical thicknesses (i.e., short wavelengths) and bands with broad spectral bandwidths. To accurately account for the sensor SRF effect, a new correction algorithm has been developed for VIIRS spectral bands, which improves the TOA Rayleigh radiance accuracy to ~0.01% even for the large solar-zenith angles of 70°-80°, compared with the error of ~0.7% without applying the correction for the VIIRS-SNPP 410 nm band. The same methodology that accounts for the sensor SRF effect on the Rayleigh radiance computation can be used for other satellite sensors. In addition, with the new Rayleigh LUTs, the effect of surface atmospheric pressure variation on the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation can be calculated precisely, and no specific atmospheric pressure correction algorithm is needed. There are some other important applications and advantages to using the new Rayleigh LUTs for satellite remote sensing, including an efficient and accurate TOA Rayleigh radiance computation for hyperspectral satellite remote sensing, detector-based TOA Rayleigh radiance computation, Rayleigh radiance calculations for high altitude

  5. Do Executive Function and Impulsivity Predict Adolescent Health Behaviour after Accounting for Intelligence? Findings from the ALSPAC Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pechey, Rachel; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Deary, Ian J.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Executive function, impulsivity, and intelligence are correlated markers of cognitive resource that predict health-related behaviours. It is unknown whether executive function and impulsivity are unique predictors of these behaviours after accounting for intelligence. Methods Data from 6069 participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were analysed to investigate whether components of executive function (selective attention, attentional control, working memory, and response inhibition) and impulsivity (parent-rated) measured between ages 8 and 10, predicted having ever drunk alcohol, having ever smoked, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and overweight at age 13, after accounting for intelligence at age 8 and childhood socioeconomic characteristics. Results Higher intelligence predicted having drunk alcohol, not smoking, greater fruit and vegetable consumption, and not being overweight. After accounting for intelligence, impulsivity predicted alcohol use (odds ratio = 1.10; 99% confidence interval = 1.02, 1.19) and smoking (1.22; 1.11, 1.34). Working memory predicted not being overweight (0.90; 0.81, 0.99). Conclusions After accounting for intelligence, executive function predicts overweight status but not health-related behaviours in early adolescence, whilst impulsivity predicts the onset of alcohol and cigarette use, all with small effects. This suggests overlap between executive function and intelligence as predictors of health behaviour in this cohort, with trait impulsivity accounting for additional variance. PMID:27479488

  6. Peptidoglycan recognition protein expression in mouse Peyer's Patch follicle associated epithelium suggests functional specialization.

    PubMed

    Lo, David; Tynan, Wendy; Dickerson, Janet; Mendy, Jason; Chang, Hwai-Wen; Scharf, Melinda; Byrne, Daragh; Brayden, David; Higgins, Lisa; Evans, Claire; O'Mahony, Daniel J

    2003-07-01

    Mammalian Peyer's Patches possess specialized epithelium, the follicle associated epithelium (FAE), and specialized cells called M cells which mediate transcytosis of antigens to underlying lymphoid tissue. To identify FAE specific genes, we used TOGA gene expression profiling of microdissected mouse Peyer's Patch tissue. We found expression of laminin beta3 across the FAE, and scattered expression of peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP)-S. Using the M cell specific lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (UEA-1), PGRP-S expression was nearly exclusively co-localized with UEA-1+ M cells. By contrast, the related gene PGRP-L was expressed among a subset of UEA-1 negative FAE cells. Expression of these proteins in transfected cells demonstrated distinct subcellular localization. PGRP-S showed a vesicular pattern and extracellular secretion, while PGRP-L showed localization to both the cytoplasm and the cell surface. The potential function of these PGRP proteins as pattern recognition receptors and their distinctive cellular distribution suggests a complex coordination among specialized cells of the FAE in triggering mucosal immunity and innate immune responses. PMID:14572796

  7. Energy-efficient specialization of functional units in a Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Array

    SciTech Connect

    Van Essen, B; Panda, R; Wood, A; Ebeling, C; Hauck, S

    2010-12-01

    Functional units provide the backbone of any spatial accelerator by providing the computing resources. The desire for having rich and expensive functional units is in tension with producing a regular and energy-efficient computing fabric. This paper explores the design trade-off between complex, universal functional units and simpler, limited functional units. We show that a modest amount of specialization reduces the area-delay-energy product of an optimized architecture to 0.86x a baseline architecture. Furthermore, we provide a design guideline that allows an architect to customize the contents of the computing fabric just by examining the profile of benchmarks within the application domains. Functional units are the core of compute-intensive spatial accelerators. They perform the computation of interest with support from local storage and communication structures. Ideally, the functional units will provide rich functionality, supporting operations ranging from simple addition, to fused multiply-adds, to advanced transcendental functions and domain specific operations like add-compare-select. However, the total opportunity cost to support the more complex operations is a function of the cost of the hardware, the rate of occurrence of the operation in the application domain, and the inefficiency of emulating the operation with simpler operators. Examples of operations that are typically emulated in spatial accelerators are division and trigonometric functions, which can be solved using table-lookup based algorithms and the CORDIC algorithm. One reason to avoid having direct hardware support for complex operations in a tiled architecture like a Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Array (CGRA) is that the expensive hardware will typically need to be replicated in some or all of the architecture's tiles. Tiled architecture are designed such that their tiles are either homogeneous or heterogeneous. Homogeneous architectures are simpler to design but heterogeneous

  8. Enhancing Commitment or Tightening Control: The Function of Teacher Professional Development in an Era of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas M.; Rowley, Kristie J.

    2005-01-01

    During the past decade or so, popular rhetoric has shifted away from site-based management and participatory governance as the centerpiece of school reform strategies as accountability and standards-based reform have become the reform mantra of policy makers at all levels of government. Critics of accountability-based reforms have suggested that…

  9. Families with special needs children: family health, functioning, and care burden.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    There are 11.2 million children with special health care needs in the United States or one in five households caring for a special needs child. A small group of children who need continuous medical, nursing, therapeutic services that enable them to survive is growing in numbers. This study examined physical health (physical functioning), mental health (emotional, social, and cognitive functioning; communication; and worry), family functioning (daily activities, family relationships), and care burden (caregiver employment, caregiving time, travel time, health-related out-of-pocket expenditures) of parent caregivers for medically complex, medical technology-dependent children. Data were collected once a month for 5 months on 84 parents recruited in South Florida using the Pediatric Quality of Life Family Impact Module. Physically, parents were tired when they woke up: too tired to do the things they liked to do and with little energy for chores or social activities. Mentally, they were frustrated, anxious, and angry; felt helpless and hopeless; had cognitive problems remembering and focusing on tasks; were worried about the child's medications, treatments, side effects; and were anxious about child's future and effect of the child's condition on other family members. Socially, they felt isolated and that people did not understand their family situation; they found it hard to talk with others including physicians and nurses. Average weekly hours of direct care was 33.0 (SD = 30.4 hours); average monthly out-of-pocket expenditures was $348.78 (SD = $623.34). It is essential to assess parents' physical and mental health and functioning and to provide interventions to improve health and functioning for both the parents and the children for whom they are caring. PMID:25428686

  10. Accountability Overboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chieppo, Charles D.; Gass, James T.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that special interest groups opposed to charter schools and high-stakes testing have hijacked Massachusetts's once-independent board of education and stand poised to water down the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) tests and the accountability system they support. President Barack Obama and Massachusetts…

  11. Peer Victimization and Social-Emotional Functioning: A Longitudinal Comparison of Students in General and Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; Pas, Elise T.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2015-01-01

    The present longitudinal study used a social-ecological framework to explore the extent to which peer victimization and aggression were associated with changes in concentration problems and emotion regulation among elementary students in general versus special education, while accounting for student demographics and school contextual factors. Data…

  12. Lag-3, Tim-3, and TIGIT: Co-inhibitory Receptors with Specialized Functions in Immune Regulation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ana C; Joller, Nicole; Kuchroo, Vijay K

    2016-05-17

    Co-inhibitory receptors, such as CTLA-4 and PD-1, have an important role in regulating T cell responses and have proven to be effective targets in the setting of chronic diseases where constitutive co-inhibitory receptor expression on T cells dampens effector T cell responses. Unfortunately, many patients still fail to respond to therapies that target CTLA-4 and PD-1. The next wave of co-inhibitory receptor targets that are being explored in clinical trials include Lag-3, Tim-3, and TIGIT. These receptors, although they belong to the same class of receptors as PD-1 and CTLA-4, exhibit unique functions, especially at tissue sites where they regulate distinct aspects of immunity. Increased understanding of the specialized functions of these receptors will inform the rational application of therapies that target these receptors to the clinic. PMID:27192565

  13. Stitching Organelles: Organization and Function of Specialized Membrane Contact Sites in Plants.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sancho, Jessica; Tilsner, Jens; Samuels, A Lacey; Botella, Miguel A; Bayer, Emmanuelle M; Rosado, Abel

    2016-09-01

    The coordination of multiple metabolic activities in plants relies on an interorganelle communication network established through membrane contact sites (MCS). The MCS are maintained in transient or durable configurations by tethering structures which keep the two membranes in close proximity, and create chemical microdomains that allow localized and targeted exchange of small molecules and possibly proteins. The past few years have witnessed a dramatic increase in our understanding of the structural and molecular organization of plant interorganelle MCS, and their crucial roles in plant specialized functions including stress responses, cell to cell communication, and lipid transport. In this review we summarize recent advances in understanding the molecular components, structural organization, and functions of different plant-specific MCS architectures. PMID:27318776

  14. Functional Specialization of Skin Dendritic Cell Subsets in Regulating T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Björn E.; Stoitzner, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are a heterogeneous family of professional antigen-presenting cells classically recognized as most potent inducers of adaptive immune responses. In this respect, Langerhans cells have long been considered to be prototypic immunogenic DC in the skin. More recently this view has considerably changed. The generation of in vivo cell ablation and lineage tracing models revealed the complexity of the skin DC network and, in particular, established the existence of a number of phenotypically distinct Langerin+ and negative DC populations in the dermis. Moreover, by now we appreciate that DC also exert important regulatory functions and are required for the maintenance of tolerance toward harmless foreign and self-antigens. This review summarizes our current understanding of the skin-resident DC system in the mouse and discusses emerging concepts on the functional specialization of the different skin DC subsets in regulating T cell responses. Special consideration is given to antigen cross-presentation as well as immune reactions toward contact sensitizers, cutaneous pathogens, and tumors. These studies form the basis for the manipulation of the human counterparts of the murine DC subsets to promote immunity or tolerance for the treatment of human disease. PMID:26557117

  15. Abnormal functional specialization within medial prefrontal cortex in high-functioning autism: a multi-voxel similarity analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meuwese, Julia D.I.; Towgood, Karren J.; Frith, Christopher D.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Multi-voxel pattern analyses have proved successful in ‘decoding’ mental states from fMRI data, but have not been used to examine brain differences associated with atypical populations. We investigated a group of 16 (14 males) high-functioning participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 16 non-autistic control participants (12 males) performing two tasks (spatial/verbal) previously shown to activate medial rostral prefrontal cortex (mrPFC). Each task manipulated: (i) attention towards perceptual versus self-generated information and (ii) reflection on another person's mental state (‘mentalizing'versus ‘non-mentalizing’) in a 2 × 2 design. Behavioral performance and group-level fMRI results were similar between groups. However, multi-voxel similarity analyses revealed strong differences. In control participants, the spatial distribution of activity generalized significantly between task contexts (spatial/verbal) when examining the same function (attention/mentalizing) but not when comparing different functions. This pattern was disrupted in the ASD group, indicating abnormal functional specialization within mrPFC, and demonstrating the applicability of multi-voxel pattern analysis to investigations of atypical populations. PMID:19174370

  16. Abnormal functional specialization within medial prefrontal cortex in high-functioning autism: a multi-voxel similarity analysis.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Sam J; Meuwese, Julia D I; Towgood, Karren J; Frith, Christopher D; Burgess, Paul W

    2009-04-01

    Multi-voxel pattern analyses have proved successful in 'decoding' mental states from fMRI data, but have not been used to examine brain differences associated with atypical populations. We investigated a group of 16 (14 males) high-functioning participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 16 non-autistic control participants (12 males) performing two tasks (spatial/verbal) previously shown to activate medial rostral prefrontal cortex (mrPFC). Each task manipulated: (i) attention towards perceptual versus self-generated information and (ii) reflection on another person's mental state ('mentalizing'versus 'non-mentalizing') in a 2 x 2 design. Behavioral performance and group-level fMRI results were similar between groups. However, multi-voxel similarity analyses revealed strong differences. In control participants, the spatial distribution of activity generalized significantly between task contexts (spatial/verbal) when examining the same function (attention/mentalizing) but not when comparing different functions. This pattern was disrupted in the ASD group, indicating abnormal functional specialization within mrPFC, and demonstrating the applicability of multi-voxel pattern analysis to investigations of atypical populations. PMID:19174370

  17. Emergence and subsequent functional specialization of kindlins during evolution of cell adhesiveness

    PubMed Central

    Meller, Julia; Rogozin, Igor B.; Poliakov, Eugenia; Meller, Nahum; Bedanov-Pack, Mark; Plow, Edward F.; Qin, Jun; Podrez, Eugene A.; Byzova, Tatiana V.

    2015-01-01

    Kindlins are integrin-interacting proteins essential for integrin-mediated cell adhesiveness. In this study, we focused on the evolutionary origin and functional specialization of kindlins as a part of the evolutionary adaptation of cell adhesive machinery. Database searches revealed that many members of the integrin machinery (including talin and integrins) existed before kindlin emergence in evolution. Among the analyzed species, all metazoan lineages—but none of the premetazoans—had at least one kindlin-encoding gene, whereas talin was present in several premetazoan lineages. Kindlin appears to originate from a duplication of the sequence encoding the N-terminal fragment of talin (the talin head domain) with a subsequent insertion of the PH domain of separate origin. Sequence analysis identified a member of the actin filament–associated protein 1 (AFAP1) superfamily as the most likely origin of the kindlin PH domain. The functional divergence between kindlin paralogues was assessed using the sequence swap (chimera) approach. Comparison of kindlin 2 (K2)/kindlin 3 (K3) chimeras revealed that the F2 subdomain, in particular its C-terminal part, is crucial for the differential functional properties of K2 and K3. The presence of this segment enables K2 but not K3 to localize to focal adhesions. Sequence analysis of the C-terminal part of the F2 subdomain of K3 suggests that insertion of a variable glycine-rich sequence in vertebrates contributed to the loss of constitutive K3 targeting to focal adhesions. Thus emergence and subsequent functional specialization of kindlins allowed multicellular organisms to develop additional tissue-specific adaptations of cell adhesiveness. PMID:25540429

  18. Children's Elementary School Social Experience and Executive Functions Development: Introduction to a Special Section.

    PubMed

    van Lier, Pol A C; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2016-01-01

    Children's executive functions, encompassing inhibitory control, working memory and attention are vital for their self-regulation. With the transition to formal schooling, children need to learn to manage their emotions and behavior in a new and complex social environment that with age increases in the intensity of social interactions with peers and teachers. Stronger executive functions skills facilitate children's social development. In addition, new experiences in the social environments of school also may influence executive function development. The focus of this special section is on this potential impact of elementary school social experiences with peers and teacher on the development of children's executive functions. The collection of papers encompass various aspects of peer and teacher social environments, and cover broad as well as specific facets and measures of executive functions including neural responses. The collection of papers sample developmental periods that span preschool through mid-adolescence. In this introduction, we summarize and highlight the main findings of each of the papers, organized around social interactions with peers and interactions with teachers. We conclude our synopsis with implications for future research, and a specific focus on prevention and intervention. PMID:26687502

  19. Baseline burnout symptoms predict visuospatial executive function during survival school training in special operations military personnel.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Charles A; Russell, Bartlett; McNeil, Jeff; Maxwell, Jeff; Snyder, Peter J; Southwick, Steven M; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2011-05-01

    Burnout symptoms, which are characterized by exhaustion, cynicism, and a reduced sense of professional efficacy, may deleteriously affect cognitive function in military personnel. A total of 32 U.S. Military Special Operations personnel enrolled in Survival School completed measures of trauma history, dissociation, and burnout before training. They then completed the Groton Maze Learning Test (GMLT), a neuropsychological measure of integrative visuospatial executive function during three field-based phases of Survival School-enemy evasion, captivity/interrogation, and escape/release from captivity. Lower pre-training perceptions of professional efficacy were associated with reduced executive function during all of the field-based phases of Survival School, even after adjustment for years of education, cynicism, and baseline GMLT scores. Magnitudes of decrements in executive function in Marines with low efficacy relative to those with high efficacy increased as training progressed and ranged from .58 during enemy evasion to .99 during escape/release from captivity. Pre-training perceptions of burnout may predict visuospatial executive function during naturalistic training-related stress in military personnel. Assessment of burnout symptoms, particularly perceptions of professional efficacy, may help identify military personnel at risk for stress-related executive dysfunction. PMID:21466738

  20. Functional specialization for auditory–spatial processing in the occipital cortex of congenitally blind humans

    PubMed Central

    Collignon, Olivier; Vandewalle, Gilles; Voss, Patrice; Albouy, Geneviève; Charbonneau, Geneviève; Lassonde, Maryse; Lepore, Franco

    2011-01-01

    The study of the congenitally blind (CB) represents a unique opportunity to explore experience-dependant plasticity in a sensory region deprived of its natural inputs since birth. Although several studies have shown occipital regions of CB to be involved in nonvisual processing, whether the functional organization of the visual cortex observed in sighted individuals (SI) is maintained in the rewired occipital regions of the blind has only been recently investigated. In the present functional MRI study, we compared the brain activity of CB and SI processing either the spatial or the pitch properties of sounds carrying information in both domains (i.e., the same sounds were used in both tasks), using an adaptive procedure specifically designed to adjust for performance level. In addition to showing a substantial recruitment of the occipital cortex for sound processing in CB, we also demonstrate that auditory–spatial processing mainly recruits the right cuneus and the right middle occipital gyrus, two regions of the dorsal occipital stream known to be involved in visuospatial/motion processing in SI. Moreover, functional connectivity analyses revealed that these reorganized occipital regions are part of an extensive brain network including regions known to underlie audiovisual spatial abilities (i.e., intraparietal sulcus, superior frontal gyrus). We conclude that some regions of the right dorsal occipital stream do not require visual experience to develop a specialization for the processing of spatial information and to be functionally integrated in a preexisting brain network dedicated to this ability. PMID:21368198

  1. Functional specialization for auditory-spatial processing in the occipital cortex of congenitally blind humans.

    PubMed

    Collignon, Olivier; Vandewalle, Gilles; Voss, Patrice; Albouy, Geneviève; Charbonneau, Geneviève; Lassonde, Maryse; Lepore, Franco

    2011-03-15

    The study of the congenitally blind (CB) represents a unique opportunity to explore experience-dependant plasticity in a sensory region deprived of its natural inputs since birth. Although several studies have shown occipital regions of CB to be involved in nonvisual processing, whether the functional organization of the visual cortex observed in sighted individuals (SI) is maintained in the rewired occipital regions of the blind has only been recently investigated. In the present functional MRI study, we compared the brain activity of CB and SI processing either the spatial or the pitch properties of sounds carrying information in both domains (i.e., the same sounds were used in both tasks), using an adaptive procedure specifically designed to adjust for performance level. In addition to showing a substantial recruitment of the occipital cortex for sound processing in CB, we also demonstrate that auditory-spatial processing mainly recruits the right cuneus and the right middle occipital gyrus, two regions of the dorsal occipital stream known to be involved in visuospatial/motion processing in SI. Moreover, functional connectivity analyses revealed that these reorganized occipital regions are part of an extensive brain network including regions known to underlie audiovisual spatial abilities (i.e., intraparietal sulcus, superior frontal gyrus). We conclude that some regions of the right dorsal occipital stream do not require visual experience to develop a specialization for the processing of spatial information and to be functionally integrated in a preexisting brain network dedicated to this ability. PMID:21368198

  2. Problems of the theory of the consolidation solved in the special functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasibekov, Azhibek; Abzhapbarov, Azimkhan; Duisebayeva, Peruza; Polatbek, Aigul

    2016-08-01

    The soil, which deformation modulus is continuously increased with depth is called continuously heterogeneous. In this paper, this heterogeneity is presented in the form of: E =Em(α+β z ) m (α >0 ,Em>0 ,α +βz>0 ), wher Em, α, β, m are experimental parameters. On the basis of this dependence the consolidation problems of elastic and elastically creeping inhomogeneous soils are solved in relation to the restricted area of the consolidation. These solutions make it possible to calculate the values of the pore pressure, the amount of the main stresses and vertical displacements of upper surface points of the condensed inhomogeneous soil mass. In these solutions for highly compressed water-saturated clay soils is also taken into account that at the initial time the part of loading, instantly enclosed load q to the soil which is equal in value of the structural strength of the compression pstr, is immediately perceived by a matrix. In addition, Darcy's law is broken, i.e. the initial gradient of pressure is considered. The resulting calculation formulas are presented as a combination of Bessel functions of the first and second kinds. Taking into account that currently one can define any values of the Bessel functions, it is possible to calculate the pressure in the pore fluids and predict the speed of sediments of the compacting mass.

  3. Specialized sperm function tests in varicocele and the future of andrology laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Majzoub, Ahmad; Esteves, Sandro C; Gosálvez, Jaime; Agarwal, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele is a common medical condition entangled with many controversies. Though it is highly prevalent in men with infertility, still it marks its presence in males who do have normal fertility. Determining which patients are negatively affected by varicocele would enable clinicians to better select those men who benefitted the most from surgery. Since conventional semen analysis has been limited in its ability to evaluate the negative effects of varicocele on fertility, a multitude of specialized laboratory tests have emerged. In this review, we examine the role and significance of specialized sperm function tests with regards to varicocele. Among the various tests, analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation and measurements of oxidative stress markers provide an independent measure of fertility in men with varicocele. These diagnostic modalities have both diagnostic and prognostic information complementary to, but distinct from conventional sperm parameters. Test results can guide management and aid in monitoring intervention outcomes. Proteomics, metabolomics, and genomics are areas; though still developing, holding promise to revolutionize our understanding of reproductive physiology, including varicocele. PMID:26780873

  4. About some application of special purpose Trefftz function for determination of effective viscosity in filtration equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodziej, Jan Adam; Mierzwiczak, Magdalena; Grabski, Jakub Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    Determination of the effective viscosity in the Brinkman's filtration equation by numerical simulation of an imagined physical experiment in volume flow rate viscometer is presented in this paper. Porous medium is modeled by the bundle of parallel fibers ordered in a regular square array. Such bundle is placed in a square duct. In the first step, a micro-structural flow problem is solved by the Trefftz method using special purpose Trefftz functions. In the second step the bundle of fibers is treated as a porous medium with the Brinkman's filtration equation as governing equation. Comparison the volume flow rate of these two flows permits as to determine a effective viscosity in filtration equation.

  5. Accounting for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Cooperative Accountability Project.

    This publication reports on two Regional Educational Accountability Conferences on Techniques sponsored by the Cooperative Accountability Project. Accountability is described as an "emotionally-charged issue" and an "operationally demanding concept." Overviewing accountability, major speakers emphasized that accountability is a means toward…

  6. Memory and Generativity in Very High Functioning Autism: A Firsthand Account, and an Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jill

    2007-01-01

    JS is a highly able person with Asperger syndrome whose language and intellectual abilities are, and always have been, superior. The first part of this short article consists of JS's analytical account of his atypical memory abilities, and the strategies he uses for memorizing and learning. JS has also described specific difficulties with creative…

  7. Functional Hemispheric Specialization in Processing Phonemic and Prosodic Auditory Changes in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Arimitsu, Takeshi; Uchida-Ota, Mariko; Yagihashi, Tatsuhiko; Kojima, Shozo; Watanabe, Shigeru; Hokuto, Isamu; Ikeda, Kazushige; Takahashi, Takao; Minagawa-Kawai, Yasuyo

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the early cerebral base of speech perception by examining functional lateralization in neonates for processing segmental and suprasegmental features of speech. For this purpose, auditory evoked responses of full-term neonates to phonemic and prosodic contrasts were measured in their temporal area and part of the frontal and parietal areas using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Stimuli used here were phonemic contrast /itta/ and /itte/ and prosodic contrast of declarative and interrogative forms /itta/ and /itta?/. The results showed clear hemodynamic responses to both phonemic and prosodic changes in the temporal areas and part of the parietal and frontal regions. In particular, significantly higher hemoglobin (Hb) changes were observed for the prosodic change in the right temporal area than for that in the left one, whereas Hb responses to the vowel change were similarly elicited in bilateral temporal areas. However, Hb responses to the vowel contrast were asymmetrical in the parietal area (around supra marginal gyrus), with stronger activation in the left. These results suggest a specialized function of the right hemisphere in prosody processing, which is already present in neonates. The parietal activities during phonemic processing were discussed in relation to verbal-auditory short-term memory. On the basis of this study and previous studies on older infants, the developmental process of functional lateralization from birth to 2 years of age for vowel and prosody was summarized. PMID:21954386

  8. 78 FR 57470 - Special Conditions: Eclipse, EA500, Certification of Autothrottle Functions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... Register on July 31, 2013, (78 FR 46295). No comments were received, and the special conditions are adopted... of part 34 and the noise certification requirements of part 36. ] The FAA issues special...

  9. Functional and developmental identification of a molecular subtype of brain serotonergic neuron specialized to regulate breathing dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Brust, Rachael D.; Corcoran, Andrea E.; Richerson, George B.; Nattie, Eugene; Dymecki, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Serotonergic neurons modulate behavioral and physiological responses from aggression and anxiety to breathing and thermoregulation. Disorders involving serotonin (5HT) dysregulation are commensurately heterogeneous and numerous. We hypothesized that this breadth in functionality derives in part from a developmentally determined substructure of distinct subtypes of 5HT neurons each specialized to modulate specific behaviors. We find, by manipulating developmentally defined subgroups one-by-one chemogenetically, that the Egr2-Pet1 subgroup is specialized to drive increased ventilation in response to carbon dioxide elevation and acidosis. Further, this subtype exhibits intrinsic chemosensitivity and modality-specific projections – increasing firing during hypercapnic acidosis and selectively projecting to respiratory chemosensory but not motor centers, respectively. These findings show that serotonergic regulation of the respiratory chemoreflex is mediated by a specialized molecular subtype of 5HT neuron harboring unique physiological, biophysical, and hodological properties specified developmentally, and demonstrate that the serotonergic system contains specialized modules contributing to its collective functional breadth. PMID:25497093

  10. Developmental changes in mental arithmetic: evidence for increased functional specialization in the left inferior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Rivera, S M; Reiss, A L; Eckert, M A; Menon, V

    2005-11-01

    Arithmetic reasoning is arguably one of the most important cognitive skills a child must master. Here we examine neurodevelopmental changes in mental arithmetic. Subjects (ages 8-19 years) viewed arithmetic equations and were asked to judge whether the results were correct or incorrect. During two-operand addition or subtraction trials, for which accuracy was comparable across age, older subjects showed greater activation in the left parietal cortex, along the supramarginal gyrus and adjoining anterior intra-parietal sulcus as well as the left lateral occipital temporal cortex. These age-related changes were not associated with alterations in gray matter density, and provide novel evidence for increased functional maturation with age. By contrast, younger subjects showed greater activation in the prefrontal cortex, including the dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting that they require comparatively more working memory and attentional resources to achieve similar levels of mental arithmetic performance. Younger subjects also showed greater activation of the hippocampus and dorsal basal ganglia, reflecting the greater demands placed on both declarative and procedural memory systems. Our findings provide evidence for a process of increased functional specialization of the left inferior parietal cortex in mental arithmetic, a process that is accompanied by decreased dependence on memory and attentional resources with development. PMID:15716474

  11. A survey. Financial accounting and internal control functions pursued by hospital boards.

    PubMed

    Gavin, T A

    1984-09-01

    Justification for a board committee's existence is its ability to devote time to issues judged to be important by the full board. This seems to have happened. Multiple committees pursue more functions than the other committee structures. Boards lacking an FA/IC committee pursue significantly fewer functions than their counterparts with committees. Substantial respondent agreement exists on those functions most and least frequently pursued, those perceived to be most and least important, and those perceived to be most and least effectively undertaken. Distinctions between committee structures and the full board, noted in the previous paragraph, hold true with respect to the importance of functions. All board structures identified reviewing the budget and comparing it to actual results as important. Committee structures are generally more inclined to address functions related to the work of the independent auditor and the effectiveness of the hospital's system and controls than are full board structures. Functions related to the internal auditor are pursued least frequently by all FA/IC board structures. The following suggestions are made to help boards pay adequate attention to and obtain objective information about the financial affairs of their hospitals. Those boards that do not have some form of an FA/IC committee should consider starting one. Evidence shows chief financial officers have been a moving force in establishing and strengthening such committees. Boards having a joint or single committee structure should consider upgrading their structure to either a single committee or multiple committees respectively. The complexity of the healthcare environment requires that more FA/IC functions be addressed by the board. The board or its FA/IC committee(s) should meet with their independent CPA's, fiscal intermediary auditors, and internal auditors. Where the hospital lacks an internal audit function a study should be undertaken to determine the feasibility of

  12. Lipid rafts in epithelial brush borders: atypical membrane microdomains with specialized functions.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H

    2003-10-31

    Epithelial cells that fulfil high-throughput digestive/absorptive functions, such as small intestinal enterocytes and kidney proximal tubule cells, are endowed with a dense apical brush border. It has long been recognized that the microvillar surface of the brush border is organized in cholesterol/sphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains commonly known as lipid rafts. More recent studies indicate that microvillar rafts, in particular those of enterocytes, have some unusual properties in comparison with rafts present on the surface of other cell types. Thus, microvillar rafts are stable rather than transient/dynamic, and their core components include glycolipids and the divalent lectin galectin-4, which together can be isolated as "superrafts", i.e., membrane microdomains resisting solubilization with Triton X-100 at physiological temperature. These glycolipid/lectin-based rafts serve as platforms for recruitment of GPI-linked and transmembrane digestive enzymes, most likely as an economizing effort to secure and prolong their digestive capability at the microvillar surface. However, in addition to microvilli, the brush border surface also consists of membrane invaginations between adjacent microvilli, which are the only part of the apical surface sterically accessible for membrane fusion/budding events. Many of these invaginations appear as pleiomorphic, deep apical tubules that extend up to 0.5-1 microm into the underlying terminal web region. Their sensitivity to methyl-beta-cyclodextrin suggests them to contain cholesterol-dependent lipid rafts of a different type from the glycolipid-based rafts at the microvillar surface. The brush border is thus an example of a complex membrane system that harbours at least two different types of lipid raft microdomains, each suited to fulfil specialized functions. This conclusion is in line with an emerging, more varied view of lipid rafts being pluripotent microdomains capable of adapting in size, shape, and content to

  13. Padé approximation of Laplace transforms of some special functions in terms of Painlevé equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Ohira, Norihiro

    2004-10-01

    Only in a limiting case has a closed form of the Laplace transforms of special functions been known (Abramowitz M and Stegun I A 1970 Handbook of Mathematical Functions (New York: Dover)). It is shown that Padé approximations of Laplace transforms of the Airy, Hermite-Weber, Bessel functions are computed by using Bäcklund transformations of the Painlevé equations in a purely algebraic manner.

  14. Recovering functions defined on the unit sphere by integration on a special family of sub-spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Yehonatan

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this article is to derive a reconstruction formula for the recovery of C1 functions, defined on the unit sphere {{{S}}}^{n - 1} , given their integrals on a special family of n - 2 dimensional sub-spheres. For a fixed point overline{a} strictly inside {{{S}}}^{n - 1} , each sub-sphere in this special family is obtained by intersection of {{{S}}}^{n - 1} with a hyperplane passing through overline{a} . The case overline{a} = 0 results in an inversion formula for the special case of integration on great spheres (i.e., Funk transform). The limiting case where pin {{{S}}}^{n - 1} and overline{a}→ p results in an inversion formula for the special case of integration on spheres passing through a common point in {{{S}}}^{n - 1}.

  15. A model of freezing foods with liquid nitrogen using special functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Vega, Martín.

    2014-05-01

    A food freezing model is analyzed analytically. The model is based on the heat diffusion equation in the case of cylindrical shaped food frozen by liquid nitrogen; and assuming that the thermal conductivity of the cylindrical food is radially modulated. The model is solved using the Laplace transform method, the Bromwich theorem, and the residue theorem. The temperature profile in the cylindrical food is presented as an infinite series of special functions. All the required computations are performed with computer algebra software, specifically Maple. Using the numeric values of the thermal and geometric parameters for the cylindrical food, as well as the thermal parameters of the liquid nitrogen freezing system, the temporal evolution of the temperature in different regions in the interior of the cylindrical food is presented both analytically and graphically. The duration of the liquid nitrogen freezing process to achieve the specified effect on the cylindrical food is computed. The analytical results are expected to be of importance in food engineering and cooking engineering. As a future research line, the formulation and solution of freezing models with thermal memory is proposed.

  16. Proposal of Functional-Specialization Multi-Objective Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm: FS-MOGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Naoki; Tanaka, Masaharu; Sakuma, Jun; Kobayashi, Shigenobu; Ono, Isao

    This paper presents a Genetic Algorithm (GA) for multi-objective function optimization. To find a precise and widely-distributed set of solutions in difficult multi-objective function optimization problems which have multimodality and curved Pareto-optimal set, a GA would be required conflicting behaviors in the early stage and the last stage of search. That is, in the early stage of search, GA should perform local-Pareto-optima-overcoming search which aims to overcome local Pareto-optima and converge the population to promising areas in the decision variable space. On the other hand, in the last stage of search, GA should perform Pareto-frontier-covering search which aims to spread the population along the Pareto-optimal set. NSGA-II and SPEA2, the most widely used conventional methods, have problems in local-Pareto-optima-overcoming and Pareto-frontier-covering search. In local-Pareto-optima-overcoming search, their selection pressure is too high to maintain the diversity for overcoming local Pareto-optima. In Pareto-frontier-covering search, their abilities of extrapolation-directed sampling are not enough to spread the population and they cannot sample along the Pareto-optimal set properly. To resolve above problems, the proposed method adaptively switches two search strategies, each of which is specialized for local-Pareto-optima-overcoming and Pareto-frontier-covering search, respectively. We examine the effectiveness of the proposed method using two benchmark problems. The experimental results show that our approach outperforms the conventional methods in terms of both local-Pareto-optima-overcoming and Pareto-frontier-covering search.

  17. pH-Regulated Mechanisms Account for Pigment-Type Differences in Epidermal Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Gunathilake, Roshan; Schurer, Nanna Y.; Shoo, Brenda A.; Celli, Anna; Hachem, Jean-Pierre; Crumrine, Debra; Sirimanna, Ganga; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Mauro, Theodora M.; Elias, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether pigment type determines differences in epidermal function, we studied stratum corneum (SC) pH, permeability barrier homeostasis, and SC integrity in three geographically disparate populations with pigment type I–II versus IV–V skin (Fitzpatrick I–VI scale). Type IV–V subjects showed: (i) lower surface pH (≈0.5 U); (ii) enhanced SC integrity (transepidermal water loss change with sequential tape strippings); and (iii) more rapid barrier recovery than type I–II subjects. Enhanced barrier function could be ascribed to increased epidermal lipid content, increased lamellar body production, and reduced acidity, leading to enhanced lipid processing. Compromised SC integrity in type I–II subjects could be ascribed to increased serine protease activity, resulting in accelerated desmoglein-1 (DSG-1)/corneodesmosome degradation. In contrast, DSG-1-positive CDs persisted in type IV–V subjects, but due to enhanced cathepsin-D activity, SC thickness did not increase. Adjustment of pH of type I–II SC to type IV–V levels improved epidermal function. Finally, dendrites from type IV–V melanocytes were more acidic than those from type I–II subjects, and they transfer more melanosomes to the SC, suggesting that melanosome secretion could contribute to the more acidic pH of type IV–V skin. These studies show marked pigment-type differences in epidermal structure and function that are pH driven. PMID:19177137

  18. Developmental Language Impairment through the Lens of the ICF: An Integrated Account of Children's Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Lynn; Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The conceptual framework of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) has the potential to advance understanding of developmental language impairment (LI) and enhance clinical practice. The framework provides a systematic way of unifying numerous lines of research, which have linked a…

  19. Calibration function for the Orbitrap FTMS accounting for the space charge effect.

    PubMed

    Gorshkov, Mikhail V; Good, David M; Lyutvinskiy, Yaroslav; Yang, Hongqian; Zubarev, Roman A

    2010-11-01

    Ion storage in an electrostatic trap has been implemented with the introduction of the Orbitrap Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS), which demonstrates performance similar to high-field ion cyclotron resonance MS. High mass spectral characteristics resulted in rapid acceptance of the Orbitrap FTMS for Life Sciences applications. The basics of Orbitrap operation are well documented; however, like in any ion trap MS technology, its performance is limited by interactions between the ion clouds. These interactions result in ion cloud couplings, systematic errors in measured masses, interference between ion clouds of different size yet with close m/z ratios, etc. In this work, we have characterized the space-charge effect on the measured frequency for the Orbitrap FTMS, looking for the possibility to achieve sub-ppm levels of mass measurement accuracy (MMA) for peptides in a wide range of total ion population. As a result of this characterization, we proposed an m/z calibration law for the Orbitrap FTMS that accounts for the total ion population present in the trap during a data acquisition event. Using this law, we were able to achieve a zero-space charge MMA limit of 80 ppb for the commercial Orbitrap FTMS system and sub-ppm level of MMA over a wide range of total ion populations with the automatic gain control values varying from 10 to 10(7). PMID:20696596

  20. Accounting for heterogeneity among treatment sites and time trends in developing crash modification functions.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Emanuele; Sayed, Tarek

    2014-11-01

    Collision modification factors (CMFs) are commonly used to quantify the impact of safety countermeasures. The CMFs obtained from observational before-after (BA) studies are usually estimated by averaging the safety impact (i.e., index of effectiveness) for a group of treatment sites. The heterogeneity among the treatment locations, in terms of their characteristics, and the effect of this heterogeneity on safety treatment effectiveness are usually ignored. This is in contrast to treatment evaluations in other fields like medical statistics where variations in the magnitude (or in the direction) of response to the same treatment given to different patients are considered. This paper introduces an approach for estimating a CMFunction from BA safety studies that account for variable treatment location characteristics (heterogeneity). The treatment sites heterogeneity was incorporated into the CMFunction using fixed-effects and random-effects regression models. In addition to heterogeneity, the paper also advocates the use of CMFunctions with a time variable to acknowledge that the safety treatment (intervention) effects do not occur instantaneously but are spread over future time. This is achieved using non-linear intervention (Koyck) models, developed within a hierarchical full Bayes (FB) context. To demonstrate the approach, a case study is presented to evaluate the safety effectiveness of the "Signal Head Upgrade Program" recently implemented in the city of Surrey (British Columbia, Canada), where signal visibility was improved at several urban signalized intersections. The results demonstrated the importance of considering treatment sites heterogeneity and time trends when developing CMFunctions. PMID:25033279

  1. Elusive accountabilities in the HIV scale-up: 'ownership' as a functional tautology.

    PubMed

    Esser, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    Mounting concerns over aid effectiveness have rendered 'ownership' a central concept in the vocabulary of development assistance for health (DAH). The article investigates the application of both 'national ownership' and 'country ownership' in the broader development discourse as well as more specifically in the context of internationally funded HIV/AIDS interventions. Based on comprehensive literature reviews, the research uncovers a multiplicity of definitions, most of which either divert from or plainly contradict the concept's original meaning and intent. During the last 10 years in particular, it appears that both public and private donors have advocated for greater 'ownership' by recipient governments and countries to hedge their own political risk rather than to work towards greater inclusion of the latter in agenda-setting and programming. Such politically driven semantic dynamics suggest that the concept's salience is not merely a discursive reflection of globally skewed power relations in DAH but a deliberate exercise in limiting donors' accountabilities. At the same time, the research also finds evidence that this conceptual contortion frames current global public health scholarship, thus adding further urgency to the need to critically re-evaluate the international political economy of global public health from a discursive perspective. PMID:24498888

  2. The superior precentral gyrus of the insula does not appear to be functionally specialized for articulation.

    PubMed

    Fedorenko, Evelina; Fillmore, Paul; Smith, Kimberly; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fridriksson, Julius

    2015-04-01

    Broca (Broca P. Bull Soc Anat Paris 36: 330-357, 1861) influentially argued that posterior left inferior frontal gyrus supports speech articulation. According to an alternative proposal (e.g., Dronkers NF. Nature 384: 159-161, 1996; Wise RJ, Greene J, Buchel C, Scott SK. Lancet 353: 1057-1061, 1999; Baldo JV, Wilkins DP, Ogar J, Willock S, Dronkers NF. Cortex 47: 800-807, 2011), a region in the anterior insula [specifically, the superior precentral gyrus of the insula (SPGI)] is the seat of articulatory abilities. Moreover, Dronkers and colleagues have argued that the SPGI is functionally specialized for (complex) speech articulation. Here, we evaluate this claim using individual-subject functional MRI (fMRI) analyses (e.g., Fedorenko E, Hsieh PJ, Nieto-Castanon A, Whitfield-Gabrieli S, Kanwisher N. J Neurophysiol 104: 1177-1194, 2010). We find that the SPGI responds weakly, if at all, during articulation (parts of Broca's area respond 3-4 times more strongly) and does not show a stronger response to higher articulatory demands. This holds regardless of whether the SPGI is defined functionally (by selecting the most articulation-responsive voxels in the vicinity of the SPGI in each subject individually) or anatomically (by using masks drawn on each individual subject's anatomy). Critically, nonspeech oral movements activate the SPGI more strongly than articulation, especially under the anatomical definition of the SPGI. In line with Hillis et al. (Hillis AE, Work M, Barker PB, Jacobs MA, Breese EL, Maurer K. Brain 127: 1479-1487, 2004; also Trupe L, Varma DD, Gomez Y, Race D, Leigh R, Hillis AE, Gottesman RF. Stroke 44: 740-744, 2013), we argue that previous links between the SPGI, and perhaps anterior insula more generally, and articulation may be due to its high base rate of ischemic damage (and activation in fMRI; Yarkoni T, Poldrack RA, Nichols TE, Van Essen DC, Wager TD. Nat Methods 8: 665-670, 2011), combined with its proximity to regions that more directly

  3. The superior precentral gyrus of the insula does not appear to be functionally specialized for articulation

    PubMed Central

    Fillmore, Paul; Smith, Kimberly; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fridriksson, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Broca (Broca P. Bull Soc Anat Paris 36: 330–357, 1861) influentially argued that posterior left inferior frontal gyrus supports speech articulation. According to an alternative proposal (e.g., Dronkers NF. Nature 384: 159–161, 1996; Wise RJ, Greene J, Buchel C, Scott SK. Lancet 353: 1057–1061, 1999; Baldo JV, Wilkins DP, Ogar J, Willock S, Dronkers NF. Cortex 47: 800–807, 2011), a region in the anterior insula [specifically, the superior precentral gyrus of the insula (SPGI)] is the seat of articulatory abilities. Moreover, Dronkers and colleagues have argued that the SPGI is functionally specialized for (complex) speech articulation. Here, we evaluate this claim using individual-subject functional MRI (fMRI) analyses (e.g., Fedorenko E, Hsieh PJ, Nieto-Castanon A, Whitfield-Gabrieli S, Kanwisher N. J Neurophysiol 104: 1177–1194, 2010). We find that the SPGI responds weakly, if at all, during articulation (parts of Broca's area respond 3–4 times more strongly) and does not show a stronger response to higher articulatory demands. This holds regardless of whether the SPGI is defined functionally (by selecting the most articulation-responsive voxels in the vicinity of the SPGI in each subject individually) or anatomically (by using masks drawn on each individual subject's anatomy). Critically, nonspeech oral movements activate the SPGI more strongly than articulation, especially under the anatomical definition of the SPGI. In line with Hillis et al. (Hillis AE, Work M, Barker PB, Jacobs MA, Breese EL, Maurer K. Brain 127: 1479–1487, 2004; also Trupe L, Varma DD, Gomez Y, Race D, Leigh R, Hillis AE, Gottesman RF. Stroke 44: 740–744, 2013), we argue that previous links between the SPGI, and perhaps anterior insula more generally, and articulation may be due to its high base rate of ischemic damage (and activation in fMRI; Yarkoni T, Poldrack RA, Nichols TE, Van Essen DC, Wager TD. Nat Methods 8: 665–670, 2011), combined with its proximity to regions

  4. Enhancing Recognition of High Quality, Functional IEP Goals: A Training Activity for Early Childhood Special Education Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Anne; Gillaspy, Kathi; Peters, Mary Louise; Hurth, Joicey

    2014-01-01

    This training activity was created to support participants' understanding of the criteria needed to develop and write high quality, participation-based Individualized Education Program (IEP) goals. The term "functional" is often used to describe what goals ought to be, yet many Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) staff (e.g.,…

  5. What Affects Academic Functioning in Secondary Special Education Students with Serious Emotional and/or Behavioral Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattison, Richard E.; Blader, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Concern is growing over the limited academic progress in special education students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD). We know little about how academic and behavioral factors interact in these students to affect their academic functioning. Therefore, potential associations were investigated over the course of one school year for…

  6. Institutional Separation in Schools of Education: Understanding the Functions of Space in General and Special Education Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Kathryn S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this spatial study is to understand the function space play in a combined credential program in the US in helping or hindering the program's inclusive mission. The study examines how physical and social manifestations of general and special education are (re)organized in the new program. The data provides evidence for the pervasive…

  7. Secondary School Mathematics Special Edition, Chapter 1. Flow Charts, Chapter 2. Structuring Space, Chapter 3. Functions, Student's Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVenney, William S.; And Others

    Chapters 1-3 of the special materials written for low achieving students in grades 7-8 by SMSG include flow charting, elementary coordinate geometry, and functions. Included for student use are many tables which are to be used to shorten computational processes. Each chapter also includes pretest exercises, instructional lessons and exercises, and…

  8. Do general intellectual functioning and socioeconomic status account for performance on the Children's Gambling Task?

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Fernanda; Sallum, Isabela; Miranda, Débora M.; Bechara, Antoine; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2013-01-01

    Studies that use the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and its age-appropriate versions as indices of affective decision-making during childhood and adolescence have demonstrated significant individual differences in scores. Our study investigated the association between general intellectual functioning and socioeconomic status (SES) and its effect on the development of affective decision-making in preschoolers by using a computerized version of the Children's Gambling Task (CGT). We administered the CGT and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS) to 137 Brazilian children between the ages of 3 and 5 years old to assess their general intellectual functioning. We also used the Brazilian Criterion of Economic Classification (CCEB) to assess their SES. Age differences between 3- and 4-years-old, but not between 4- and 5-years-old, confirmed the results obtained by Kerr and Zelazo (2004), indicating the rapid development of affective decision-making during the preschool period. Both 4- and 5-years-old performed significantly above chance on blocks 3, 4, and 5 of the CGT, whereas 3-years-old mean scores did not differ from chance. We found that general intellectual functioning was not related to affective decision-making. On the other hand, our findings showed that children with high SES performed better on the last block of the CGT in comparison to children with low SES, which indicates that children from the former group seem more likely to use the information about the gain/loss aspects of the decks to efficiently choose cards from the advantageous deck throughout the task. PMID:23760222

  9. 'A Leg to Stand On' by Oliver Sacks: a unique autobiographical account of functional paralysis.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jon; Perthen, Jo; Carson, Alan J

    2012-09-01

    Oliver Sacks, the well known neurologist and writer, published his fourth book, 'A Leg to Stand On', in 1984 following an earlier essay 'The Leg' in 1982. The book described his recovery after a fall in a remote region of Norway in which he injured his leg. Following surgery to reattach his quadriceps muscle, he experienced an emotional period in which his leg no longer felt a part of his body, and he struggled to regain his ability to walk. Sacks attributed the experience to a neurologically determined disorder of body-image and bodyego induced by peripheral injury. In the first edition of his book Sacks explicitly rejected the diagnosis of 'hysterical paralysis' as it was then understood, although he approached this diagnosis more closely in subsequent revisions. In this article we propose that, in the light of better understanding of functional neurological symptoms, Sacks' experiences deserve to be reappraised as a unique insight in to a genuinely experienced functional/psychogenic leg paralysis following injury. PMID:22872718

  10. A comprehensive account of spectral, Hartree Fock, and Density Functional Theory studies of 2-chlorobenzothiazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daswani, Ujla; Sharma, Pratibha; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Benzothiazole moiety is found to play an important role in medicinal chemistry with a wide range of pharmacological activities. Herein, a simple, benzothiazole derivative viz., 2-chlorobenzothiazole (2CBT) has been analyzed. The spectroscopic properties of the target compound were examined by FT-IR (4400-450 cm-1), FT-Raman (4000-50 cm-1), and NMR techniques. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO. Theoretical calculations were performed by ab initio Hartree Fock and Density Functional Theory (DFT)/B3LYP method using varied basis sets combination. The scaled B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) results precisely complements with the experimental findings. Electronic absorption spectra along with energy and oscillator strength were obtained by TDDFT method. Atomic charges have also been reported. Total density isosurface and total density mapped with electrostatic potential surface (MESP) has been shown.

  11. Clinical evaluation of cochlear implant sound coding taking into account conjectural masking functions, MP3000™

    PubMed Central

    Buechner, Andreas; Beynon, Andy; Szyfter, Witold; Niemczyk, Kazimierz; Hoppe, Ulrich; Hey, Matthias; Brokx, Jan; Eyles, Julie; Van de Heyning, Paul; Paludetti, Gaetano; Zarowski, Andrzej; Quaranta, Nicola; Wesarg, Thomas; Festen, Joost; Olze, Heidi; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Müller-Deile, Joachim; Ramos, Angel; Roman, Stephane; Piron, Jean-Pierre; Cuda, Domenico; Burdo, Sandro; Grolman, Wilko; Vaillard, Samantha Roux; Huarte, Alicia; Frachet, Bruno; Morera, Constantine; Garcia-Ibáñez, Luis; Abels, Daniel; Walger, Martin; Müller-Mazotta, Jochen; Leone, Carlo Antonio; Meyer, Bernard; Dillier, Norbert; Steffens, Thomas; Gentine, André; Mazzoli, Manuela; Rypkema, Gerben; Killian, Matthijs; Smoorenburg, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Efficacy of the SPEAK and ACE coding strategies was compared with that of a new strategy, MP3000™, by 37 European implant centers including 221 subjects. The SPEAK and ACE strategies are based on selection of 8–10 spectral components with the highest levels, while MP3000 is based on the selection of only 4–6 components, with the highest levels relative to an estimate of the spread of masking. The pulse rate per component was fixed. No significant difference was found for the speech scores and for coding preference between the SPEAK/ACE and MP3000 strategies. Battery life was 24% longer for the MP3000 strategy. With MP3000 the best results were found for a selection of six components. In addition, the best results were found for a masking function with a low-frequency slope of 50 dB/Bark and a high-frequency slope of 37 dB/Bark (50/37) as compared to the other combinations examined of 40/30 and 20/15 dB/Bark. The best results found for the steepest slopes do not seem to agree with current estimates of the spread of masking in electrical stimulation. Future research might reveal if performance with respect to SPEAK/ACE can be enhanced by increasing the number of channels in MP3000 beyond 4–6 and it should shed more light on the optimum steepness of the slopes of the masking functions applied in MP3000. PMID:22251806

  12. 78 FR 46295 - Special Conditions: Eclipse, EA500, Certification of Autothrottle Functions Under Part 23

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http... of part 34 and the noise certification requirements of part 36. The FAA issues special conditions,...

  13. VALVE FUNNEL SPRING PIN PRESS PERFORMANCE AND FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS EVALUATION FOR SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    WITHERSPOON JT

    2009-12-30

    This evaluation allows use of the valve funnel spring pin press and describes appropriate handling instructions for the tool. The engineering evaluation is required for operations and field use of special tools and equipment.

  14. 75 FR 50853 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ..., 2010, 75 FR 29962. No comments were received, and the special conditions are adopted as proposed... products, the SF50 includes a ballistically deployed airframe parachute. The model SF50 has a...

  15. A method to account for outliers in the development of safety performance functions.

    PubMed

    El-Basyouny, Karim; Sayed, Tarek

    2010-07-01

    Accident data sets can include some unusual data points that are not typical of the rest of the data. The presence of these data points (usually termed outliers) can have a significant impact on the estimates of the parameters of safety performance functions (SPFs). Few studies have considered outliers analysis in the development of SPFs. In these studies, the practice has been to identify and then exclude outliers from further analysis. This paper introduces alternative mixture models based on the multivariate Poisson lognormal (MVPLN) regression. The proposed approach presents outlier resistance modeling techniques that provide robust safety inferences by down-weighting the outlying observations rather than rejecting them. The first proposed model is a scale-mixture model that is obtained by replacing the normal distribution in the Poisson-lognormal hierarchy by the Student t distribution, which has heavier tails. The second model is a two-component mixture (contaminated normal model) where it is assumed that most of the observations come from a basic distribution, whereas the remaining few outliers arise from an alternative distribution that has a larger variance. The results indicate that the estimates of the extra-Poisson variation parameters were considerably smaller under the mixture models leading to higher precision. Also, both mixture models have identified the same set of outliers. In terms of goodness-of-fit, both mixture models have outperformed the MVPLN. The outlier rejecting MVPLN model provided a superior fit in terms of a much smaller DIC and standard deviations for the parameter estimates. However, this approach tends to underestimate uncertainty by producing too small standard deviations for the parameter estimates, which may lead to incorrect conclusions. It is recommended that the proposed outlier resistance modeling techniques be used unless the exclusion of the outlying observations can be justified because of data related reasons (e

  16. Proton-Λ correlation functions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider taking into account residual correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapoval, V. M.; Sinyukov, Yu. M.; Naboka, V. Yu.

    2015-10-01

    The theoretical analysis of the p ¯-Λ ⊕p -Λ ¯ correlation function in 10% most central Au+Au collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energy √{sNN}=200 GeV shows that the contribution of residual correlations is a necessary factor for obtaining a satisfactory description of the experimental data. Neglecting the residual correlation effect leads to an unrealistically low source radius, about 2 times smaller than the corresponding value for p -Λ ⊕p ¯-Λ ¯ case, when one fits the experimental correlation function within Lednický-Lyuboshitz analytical model. Recently an approach that accounts effectively for residual correlations for the baryon-antibaryon correlation function was proposed, and a good RHIC data description was reached with the source radius extracted from the hydrokinetic model (HKM). The p ¯-Λ scattering length, as well as the parameters characterizing the residual correlation effect—annihilation dip amplitude and its inverse width—were extracted from the corresponding fit. In this paper we use these extracted values and simulated in HKM source functions for Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC energy √{sNN}=2.76 TeV to predict the corresponding p Λ and p Λ ¯ correlation functions.

  17. High intraspecific variability in the functional niche of a predator is associated with ontogenetic shift and individual specialization

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tian; Villéger, Sébastien; Lek, Sovan; Cucherousset, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Investigations on the functional niche of organisms have primarily focused on differences among species and tended to neglect the potential effects of intraspecific variability despite the fact that its potential ecological and evolutionary importance is now widely recognized. In this study, we measured the distribution of functional traits in an entire population of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) to quantify the magnitude of intraspecific variability in functional traits and niche (size, position, and overlap) between age classes. Stable isotope analyses (δ13C and δ15N) were also used to determine the association between individual trophic ecology and intraspecific functional trait variability. We observed that functional traits were highly variable within the population (mean coefficient variation: 15.62% ± 1.78% SE) and predominantly different between age classes. In addition, functional and trophic niche overlap between age classes was extremely low. Differences in functional niche between age classes were associated with strong changes in trophic niche occurring during ontogeny while, within age classes, differences among individuals were likely driven by trophic specialization. Each age class filled only a small portion of the total functional niche of the population and age classes occupied distinct portions in the functional space, indicating the existence of ontogenetic specialists with different functional roles within the population. The high amplitude of intraspecific variability in functional traits and differences in functional niche position among individuals reported here supports the recent claims for an individual-based approach in functional ecology. PMID:25558359

  18. The Ferrier Lecture 1995 Behind the Seen: The functional specialization of the brain in space and time

    PubMed Central

    Zeki, Semir

    2005-01-01

    The visual brain consists of many different visual areas, which are functionally specialized to process and perceive different attributes of the visual scene. However, the time taken to process different attributes varies; consequently, we see some attributes before others. It follows that there is a perceptual asynchrony and hierarchy in visual perception. Because perceiving an attribute is tantamount to becoming conscious of it, it follows that we become conscious of different attributes at different times. Visual consciousness is therefore distributed in time. Given that we become conscious of different visual attributes because of activity at different, functionally specialized, areas of the visual brain, it follows that visual consciousness is also distributed in space. Therefore, visual consciousness is not a single unified entity, but consists of many microconsciousnesses. PMID:16147515

  19. Taking Development Seriously: Critique of the 2008 "JME" Special Issue on Moral Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, John C.; Moshman, David; Berkowitz, Marvin W.; Basinger, Karen S.; Grime, Rebecca L.

    2009-01-01

    This essay comments on articles comprising a "Journal of Moral Education" Special Issue (September, 2008, 37[3]). The issue was intended to honour the 50th anniversary of Lawrence Kohlberg's doctoral dissertation and his subsequent impact on the field of moral development and education. The articles were characterised by the Issue editor (Don…

  20. 78 FR 36084 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Function and Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... aircraft. It incorporates an Electronic Flight Information System (EFIS), pressurized cabin, retractable... simple, ``stand-alone'' systems whose failure was more likely to be an inconvenience than an accident...: This special condition published on August 18, 2010 at 75 FR 50853 is withdrawn, effective June...

  1. Decision Making in Special Education: The Function of Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavale, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    This article uses meta-analytic findings to evaluate six special education interventions: psycholinguistic training, perceptual-motor training, modality-matched instruction, and treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (stimulant medication, diet modification, and social skills training). Findings are related to decision making in…

  2. Determinants of Adult Functional Outcome in Adolescents Receiving Special Educational Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, H. R.; Johnstone, E. C.; McKirdy, J.; Owens, D. C.; Stanfield, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the role of IQ, autistic traits and challenging behaviours in affecting adult outcomes among adolescents who receive special educational assistance. Methods: A total of 58 participants were recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study. All received assessments of IQ, behavioural patterns (using the Childhood…

  3. 75 FR 29962 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Design Corporation SF50 airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature(s) associated... airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design feature. These... for the SF 50 because of a novel or unusual design feature, special conditions are prescribed...

  4. Hemispheric Specialization for Emotional Word Processing Is a Function of SSRI Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Amy; McDowall, John; Grimshaw, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    Vulnerability to depression and non-response to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are associated with specific neurophysiological characteristics including greater right hemisphere (RH) relative to left hemisphere (LH) activity. The present study investigated the relationship between hemispheric specialization and processing of…

  5. The cochlea of Tadarida brasiliensis: specialized functional organization in a generalized bat.

    PubMed

    Vater, M; Siefer, W

    1995-11-01

    Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana employs a broad-band sonar system at frequencies between 80 and 20 kHz and is characterized by non-specialized hearing capabilities. The cochlear frequency map was determined with extracellular horseradish peroxidase tracing in relation to quantitative morphological data obtained with light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These data reveal distinct species characteristic specializations clearly separate from the patterns observed in other bats with either broad-band or narrow-band sonar systems. The basilar membrane (BM) is coiled to 2.5 turns and about 12 mm long. Its thickness and width only change within the extreme basal and apical ends. The frequency range from about 30 to 80 kHz is represented in the lower basal turn with a typically mammalian mapping coefficient of about 3 mm/octave. This region exhibits morphological features correlated with non-specialized processing of high frequencies. (1) The BM is radially segmented by thickenings of pars tecta and pars pectinata. (2) The 3 rows of outer hair cells (OHCs) have similar morphology. Between 35 and 86% distance from base, frequencies between 30 and 12 kHz are represented with a slightly expanded mapping coefficient of about 6 mm/octave. In analogy to previous work, this cochlea region is termed acoustic fovea. It includes the frequency range of maximum sensitivity and sharpest tuning (21-27 kHz) but also frequencies below the sonar signals. The fovea is characterized by several morphological specializations. (1) The BM features a continuous radial thickening mainly composed of hyaline substance. (2) There is an increased number of layers of tension fibroblasts in the spiral ligament. (3) There are morphological differences in the arrangements of stereocilia bundles among the 3 rows of OHCs. The transitions between non-specialized and specialized cochlear regions occur gradually within a distance of about 600 microns. The gradients in stereocilia length of both

  6. The Contingency of Cocaine Administration Accounts for Structural and Functional Medial Prefrontal Deficits and Increased Adrenocortical Activation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rachel M.; Cosme, Caitlin V.; Glanz, Ryan M.; Miller, Mary C.; Romig-Martin, Sara A.; LaLumiere, Ryan T.

    2015-01-01

    The prelimbic region (PL) of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in the relapse of drug-seeking behavior. Optimal mPFC functioning relies on synaptic connections involving dendritic spines in pyramidal neurons, whereas prefrontal dysfunction resulting from elevated glucocorticoids, stress, aging, and mental illness are each linked to decreased apical dendritic branching and spine density in pyramidal neurons in these cortical fields. The fact that cocaine use induces activation of the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis raises the possibility that cocaine-related impairments in mPFC functioning may be manifested by similar changes in neuronal architecture in mPFC. Nevertheless, previous studies have generally identified increases, rather than decreases, in structural plasticity in mPFC after cocaine self-administration. Here, we use 3D imaging and analysis of dendritic spine morphometry to show that chronic cocaine self-administration leads to mild decreases of apical dendritic branching, prominent dendritic spine attrition in PL pyramidal neurons, and working memory deficits. Importantly, these impairments were largely accounted for in groups of rats that self-administered cocaine compared with yoked-cocaine- and saline-matched counterparts. Follow-up experiments failed to demonstrate any effects of either experimenter-administered cocaine or food self-administration on structural alterations in PL neurons. Finally, we verified that the cocaine self-administration group was distinguished by more protracted increases in adrenocortical activity compared with yoked-cocaine- and saline-matched controls. These studies suggest a mechanism whereby increased adrenocortical activity resulting from chronic cocaine self-administration may contribute to regressive prefrontal structural and functional plasticity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Stress, aging, and mental illness are each linked to decreased prefrontal plasticity. Here, we show that chronic

  7. Changes in collagen metabolism account for ventricular functional recovery following beta-blocker therapy in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Miho; Goda, Akiko; Komamura, Kazuo; Nakabo, Ayumi; Masaki, Mitsuru; Yoshida, Chikako; Hirotani, Shinichi; Lee-Kawabata, Masaaki; Tsujino, Takeshi; Mano, Toshiaki; Masuyama, Tohru

    2016-02-01

    While beta blockade improves left ventricular (LV) function in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), the mechanisms are not well known. This study aimed to examine whether changes in myocardial collagen metabolism account for LV functional recovery following beta-blocker therapy in 62 CHF patients with reduced ejection fraction (EF). LV function was echocardiographically measured at baseline and 1, 6, and 12 months after bisoprolol therapy along with serum markers of collagen metabolism including C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (CITP) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. Deceleration time of mitral early velocity (DcT) increased even in the early phase, but LVEF gradually improved throughout the study period. Heart rate (HR) was reduced from the early stage, and CITP gradually decreased. LVEF and DcT increased more so in patients with the larger decreases in CITP (r = -0.33, p < 0.05; r = -0.28, p < 0.05, respectively), and HR (r = -0.31, p < 0.05; r = -0.38, p < 0.05, respectively). In addition, there were greater decreases in CITP, MMP-2 and HR from baseline to 1, 6, or 12 months in patients with above-average improvement in LVEF than in those with below-average improvement in LVEF. Similar results were obtained in terms of DcT. There was no significant correlation between the changes in HR and CITP. In conclusion, improvement in LV systolic/diastolic function was greatest in patients with the larger inhibition of collagen degradation. Changes in myocardial collagen metabolism are closely related to LV functional recovery somewhat independently from HR reduction. PMID:25351137

  8. MATERIAL CONTROL ACCOUNTING INMM

    SciTech Connect

    Hasty, T.

    2009-06-14

    Since 1996, the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC - formerly known as K-26), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have been cooperating under the cooperative Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program between the Russian Federation and the U.S. Governments. Since MCC continues to operate a reactor for steam and electricity production for the site and city of Zheleznogorsk which results in production of the weapons grade plutonium, one of the goals of the MPC&A program is to support implementation of an expanded comprehensive nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) program. To date MCC has completed upgrades identified in the initial gap analysis and documented in the site MC&A Plan and is implementing additional upgrades identified during an update to the gap analysis. The scope of these upgrades includes implementation of MCC organization structure relating to MC&A, establishing material balance area structure for special nuclear materials (SNM) storage and bulk processing areas, and material control functions including SNM portal monitors at target locations. Material accounting function upgrades include enhancements in the conduct of physical inventories, limit of error inventory difference procedure enhancements, implementation of basic computerized accounting system for four SNM storage areas, implementation of measurement equipment for improved accountability reporting, and both new and revised site-level MC&A procedures. This paper will discuss the implementation of MC&A upgrades at MCC based on the requirements established in the comprehensive MC&A plan developed by the Mining and Chemical Combine as part of the MPC&A Program.

  9. An integrative method for testing form–function linkages and reconstructed evolutionary pathways of masticatory specialization

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Z. Jack; Flynn, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Morphology serves as a ubiquitous proxy in macroevolutionary studies to identify potential adaptive processes and patterns. Inferences of functional significance of phenotypes or their evolution are overwhelmingly based on data from living taxa. Yet, correspondence between form and function has been tested in only a few model species, and those linkages are highly complex. The lack of explicit methodologies to integrate form and function analyses within a deep-time and phylogenetic context weakens inferences of adaptive morphological evolution, by invoking but not testing form–function linkages. Here, we provide a novel approach to test mechanical properties at reconstructed ancestral nodes/taxa and the strength and direction of evolutionary pathways in feeding biomechanics, in a case study of carnivorous mammals. Using biomechanical profile comparisons that provide functional signals for the separation of feeding morphologies, we demonstrate, using experimental optimization criteria on estimation of strength and direction of functional changes on a phylogeny, that convergence in mechanical properties and degree of evolutionary optimization can be decoupled. This integrative approach is broadly applicable to other clades, by using quantitative data and model-based tests to evaluate interpretations of function from morphology and functional explanations for observed macroevolutionary pathways. PMID:25994295

  10. An integrative method for testing form-function linkages and reconstructed evolutionary pathways of masticatory specialization.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Z Jack; Flynn, John J

    2015-06-01

    Morphology serves as a ubiquitous proxy in macroevolutionary studies to identify potential adaptive processes and patterns. Inferences of functional significance of phenotypes or their evolution are overwhelmingly based on data from living taxa. Yet, correspondence between form and function has been tested in only a few model species, and those linkages are highly complex. The lack of explicit methodologies to integrate form and function analyses within a deep-time and phylogenetic context weakens inferences of adaptive morphological evolution, by invoking but not testing form-function linkages. Here, we provide a novel approach to test mechanical properties at reconstructed ancestral nodes/taxa and the strength and direction of evolutionary pathways in feeding biomechanics, in a case study of carnivorous mammals. Using biomechanical profile comparisons that provide functional signals for the separation of feeding morphologies, we demonstrate, using experimental optimization criteria on estimation of strength and direction of functional changes on a phylogeny, that convergence in mechanical properties and degree of evolutionary optimization can be decoupled. This integrative approach is broadly applicable to other clades, by using quantitative data and model-based tests to evaluate interpretations of function from morphology and functional explanations for observed macroevolutionary pathways. PMID:25994295

  11. Spatial Compartmentalization Specializes the Function of Aurora A and Aurora B*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Si; Deng, Zhaoxuan; Fu, Jingyan; Xu, Caiyue; Xin, Guangwei; Wu, Zhige; Luo, Jia; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Shuli; Zhang, Boyan; Zou, Fangdong; Jiang, Qing; Zhang, Chuanmao

    2015-01-01

    Aurora kinase A and B share great similarity in sequences, structures, and phosphorylation motif, yet they show different localizations and play distinct crucial roles. The factors that determine such differences are largely unknown. Here we targeted Aurora A to the localization of Aurora B and found that Aurora A phosphorylates the substrate of Aurora B and substitutes its function in spindle checkpoint. In return, the centrosome targeting of Aurora B substitutes the function of Aurora A in the mitotic entry. Expressing the chimera proteins of the Auroras with exchanged N termini in cells indicates that the divergent N termini are also important for their spatiotemporal localizations and functions. Collectively, we demonstrate that functional divergence of Aurora kinases is determined by spatial compartmentalization, and their divergent N termini also contribute to their spatial and functional differentiation. PMID:25987563

  12. Spatial Compartmentalization Specializes the Function of Aurora A and Aurora B.

    PubMed

    Li, Si; Deng, Zhaoxuan; Fu, Jingyan; Xu, Caiyue; Xin, Guangwei; Wu, Zhige; Luo, Jia; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Shuli; Zhang, Boyan; Zou, Fangdong; Jiang, Qing; Zhang, Chuanmao

    2015-07-10

    Aurora kinase A and B share great similarity in sequences, structures, and phosphorylation motif, yet they show different localizations and play distinct crucial roles. The factors that determine such differences are largely unknown. Here we targeted Aurora A to the localization of Aurora B and found that Aurora A phosphorylates the substrate of Aurora B and substitutes its function in spindle checkpoint. In return, the centrosome targeting of Aurora B substitutes the function of Aurora A in the mitotic entry. Expressing the chimera proteins of the Auroras with exchanged N termini in cells indicates that the divergent N termini are also important for their spatiotemporal localizations and functions. Collectively, we demonstrate that functional divergence of Aurora kinases is determined by spatial compartmentalization, and their divergent N termini also contribute to their spatial and functional differentiation. PMID:25987563

  13. Teacher ratings of student risk for substance use as a function of specialized training.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, R J; Holcomb, J D; Jibaja-Rusth, M L; Webb, J

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if teachers' abilities to identify accurately students who are at risk for substance abuse can be improved through attendance at a specialized training program. Sixty-three eighth-grade teachers participated in the study. Of these, thirty-six teachers participated in the training sequence (intervention group), while the remaining twenty-seven teachers served as a comparison group. All eighth-grade students in the school district were surveyed regarding their substance usage. Teachers rated the students regarding their risk for substance usage. Teachers' ratings and students' reported substance usage were compared to assess the percentage of matching responses. After training, the intervention teachers provided more accurate ratings among usage categories than did the comparison teachers. The trained teachers were better at correctly identifying the students who were at risk for substance use. PMID:8487144

  14. General and specialized brain correlates for analogical reasoning: A meta-analysis of functional imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Hobeika, Lucie; Diard-Detoeuf, Capucine; Garcin, Béatrice; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2016-05-01

    Reasoning by analogy allows us to link distinct domains of knowledge and to transfer solutions from one domain to another. Analogical reasoning has been studied using various tasks that have generally required the consideration of the relationships between objects and their integration to infer an analogy schema. However, these tasks varied in terms of the level and the nature of the relationships to consider (e.g., semantic, visuospatial). The aim of this study was to identify the cerebral network involved in analogical reasoning and its specialization based on the domains of information and task specificity. We conducted a coordinate-based meta-analysis of 27 experiments that used analogical reasoning tasks. The left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex was one of the regions most consistently activated across the studies. A comparison between semantic and visuospatial analogy tasks showed both domain-oriented regions in the inferior and middle frontal gyri and a domain-general region, the left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex, which was specialized for analogy tasks. A comparison of visuospatial analogy to matrix problem tasks revealed that these two relational reasoning tasks engage, at least in part, distinct right and left cerebral networks, particularly separate areas within the left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings highlight several cognitive and cerebral differences between relational reasoning tasks that can allow us to make predictions about the respective roles of distinct brain regions or networks. These results also provide new, testable anatomical hypotheses about reasoning disorders that are induced by brain damage. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1953-1969, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27012301

  15. Abnormal Functional Specialization within Medial Prefrontal Cortex in High-Functioning Autism: A Multi-Voxel Similarity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Sam J.; Meuwese, Julia D. I.; Towgood, Karren J.; Frith, Christopher D.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Multi-voxel pattern analyses have proved successful in "decoding" mental states from fMRI data, but have not been used to examine brain differences associated with atypical populations. We investigated a group of 16 (14 males) high-functioning participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 16 non-autistic control participants (12 males)…

  16. Quantization of fluctuations in deformed special relativity: The two-point function and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubitosi, Giulia; Arzano, Michele; Magueijo, João

    2016-03-01

    We show that the two-point function of a quantum field theory with de Sitter momentum space (herein called DSR) can be expressed as the product of a standard delta function and an energy-dependent factor. The proportionality to a standard delta function is a nontrivial result valid in any theory without a preferred frame and relies crucially on the on-shellness condition. Different theories are distinguished by the specific form of the energy-dependent proportionality factor. Applied to models exhibiting running of the dimensionality of space, this result is essential in proving that vacuum fluctuations are generally scale invariant at high energies whenever there is running to two dimensions. This is equally true for theories with and without a preferred frame, with differences arising only as we consider higher order correlators. Specifically, the three-point function of DSR has a unique structure of "open triangles," as shown here.

  17. Do Tasks Make a Difference? Accounting for Heterogeneity of Performance of Children with Reading Difficulties on Tasks of Executive Function: Findings from a Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Josephine N.; Boyle, James M. E.; Kelly, Steve W.

    2010-01-01

    Research studies have implicated executive functions in reading difficulties (RD). But while some studies have found children with RD to be impaired on tasks of executive function other studies report unimpaired performance. A meta-analysis was carried out to determine whether these discrepant findings can be accounted for by differences in the…

  18. Fluorescence microscopy point spread function model accounting for aberrations due to refractive index variability within a specimen.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sreya; Preza, Chrysanthe

    2015-07-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) point spread function (PSF) model for wide-field fluorescence microscopy, suitable for imaging samples with variable refractive index (RI) in multilayered media, is presented. This PSF model is a key component for accurate 3-D image restoration of thick biological samples, such as lung tissue. Microscope- and specimen-derived parameters are combined with a rigorous vectorial formulation to obtain a new PSF model that accounts for additional aberrations due to specimen RI variability. Experimental evaluation and verification of the PSF model was accomplished using images from 175-nm fluorescent beads in a controlled test sample. Fundamental experimental validation of the advantage of using improved PSFs in depth-variant restoration was accomplished by restoring experimental data from beads (6  μm in diameter) mounted in a sample with RI variation. In the investigated study, improvement in restoration accuracy in the range of 18 to 35% was observed when PSFs from the proposed model were used over restoration using PSFs from an existing model. The new PSF model was further validated by showing that its prediction compares to an experimental PSF (determined from 175-nm beads located below a thick rat lung slice) with a 42% improved accuracy over the current PSF model prediction. PMID:26154937

  19. The default-mode, ego-functions and free-energy: a neurobiological account of Freudian ideas

    PubMed Central

    Friston, K. J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the notion that Freudian constructs may have neurobiological substrates. Specifically, we propose that Freud’s descriptions of the primary and secondary processes are consistent with self-organized activity in hierarchical cortical systems and that his descriptions of the ego are consistent with the functions of the default-mode and its reciprocal exchanges with subordinate brain systems. This neurobiological account rests on a view of the brain as a hierarchical inference or Helmholtz machine. In this view, large-scale intrinsic networks occupy supraordinate levels of hierarchical brain systems that try to optimize their representation of the sensorium. This optimization has been formulated as minimizing a free-energy; a process that is formally similar to the treatment of energy in Freudian formulations. We substantiate this synthesis by showing that Freud’s descriptions of the primary process are consistent with the phenomenology and neurophysiology of rapid eye movement sleep, the early and acute psychotic state, the aura of temporal lobe epilepsy and hallucinogenic drug states. PMID:20194141

  20. Special Report on the "Department of Energy's Efforts to Meet Accountability and Performance Reporting Objectives of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) was to jumpstart the U.S. economy, create or save millions of jobs, spur technological advances in health and science, and invest in the Nation's energy future. The Department of Energy will receive an unprecedented $38 billion in Recovery Act funding to support a variety of science, energy, and environmental initiatives. The Recovery Act requires transparency and accountability over these funds. To this end, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) issued guidance requiring the Department to compile and report a wide variety of funding, accounting, and performance information. The Department plans to leverage existing information systems to develop accounting and performance information that will be used by program managers and ultimately reported to Recovery.gov, the government-wide source of Recovery Act information, and to OMB. The Department's iManage iPortal, a system that aggregates information from a number of corporate systems, will serve as the main reporting gateway for accounting information. In addition, the Department plans to implement a methodology or system that will permit it to monitor information reported directly to OMB by prime funding recipients. Furthermore, performance measures or metrics that outline expected outcomes are being developed, with results ultimately to be reported in a recently developed Department-wide system. Because of the significance of funds provided and their importance to strengthening the Nation's economy, we initiated this review to determine whether the Department had taken the steps necessary to ensure that Recovery Act funds can be appropriately tracked and are transparent to the public, and whether the benefits of the expenditures can be properly measured and reported clearly, accurately, and in a timely manner. Although not yet fully mature, we found that the Department's efforts to develop, refine, and apply the control structure

  1. Hydrophobic Core Variations Provide a Structural Framework for Tyrosine Kinase Evolution and Functional Specialization

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Annie; Byrne, Dominic P.; Ferries, Samantha; Ruan, Zheng; Hanold, Laura E.; Katiyar, Samiksha; Kennedy, Eileen J.; Eyers, Patrick A.; Kannan, Natarajan

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are a group of closely related enzymes that have evolutionarily diverged from serine/threonine kinases (STKs) to regulate pathways associated with multi-cellularity. Evolutionary divergence of PTKs from STKs has occurred through accumulation of mutations in the active site as well as in the commonly conserved hydrophobic core. While the functional significance of active site variations is well understood, relatively little is known about how hydrophobic core variations contribute to PTK evolutionary divergence. Here, using a combination of statistical sequence comparisons, molecular dynamics simulations, mutational analysis and in vitro thermostability and kinase assays, we investigate the structural and functional significance of key PTK-specific variations in the kinase core. We find that the nature of residues and interactions in the hydrophobic core of PTKs is strikingly different from other protein kinases, and PTK-specific variations in the core contribute to functional divergence by altering the stability and dynamics of the kinase domain. In particular, a functionally critical STK-conserved histidine that stabilizes the regulatory spine in STKs is selectively mutated to an alanine, serine or glutamate in PTKs, and this loss-of-function mutation is accommodated, in part, through compensatory PTK-specific interactions in the core. In particular, a PTK-conserved phenylalanine in the I-helix appears to structurally and functionally compensate for the loss of STK-histidine by interacting with the regulatory spine, which has far-reaching effects on enzyme activity, inhibitor sensing, and stability. We propose that hydrophobic core variations provide a selective advantage during PTK evolution by increasing the conformational flexibility, and therefore the allosteric potential of the kinase domain. Our studies also suggest that Tyrosine Kinase Like kinases such as RAF are intermediates in PTK evolutionary divergence inasmuch as they

  2. Mass extinctions, biodiversity and mitochondrial function: are bats 'special' as reservoirs for emerging viruses?

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Fa; Walker, Peter J; Poon, Leo L M

    2011-12-01

    For the past 10-15 years, bats have attracted growing attention as reservoirs of emerging zoonotic viruses. This has been due to a combination of factors including the emergence of highly virulent zoonotic pathogens, such as Hendra, Nipah, SARS and Ebola viruses, and the high rate of detection of a large number of previously unknown viral sequences in bat specimens. As bats have ancient evolutionary origins and are the only flying mammals, it has been hypothesized that some of their unique biological features may have made them especially suitable hosts for different viruses. So the question 'Are bats different, special or exceptional?' has become a focal point in the field of virology, bat biology and virus-host co-evolution. In this brief review, we examine the topic in a relatively unconventional way, that is, our discussion will be based on both scientific discoveries and theoretical predictions. This approach was chosen partially because the data in this field are so limited that it is impossible to conduct a useful review based on published results only and also because we believe it is important to provoke original, speculative or even controversial ideas or theories in this important field of research. PMID:22440923

  3. Interhemispheric transcallosal connectivity between the left and right planum temporale predicts musicianship, performance in temporal speech processing, and functional specialization.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Stefan; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is strong evidence showing that musicianship favours functional and structural changes of the left planum temporale (PT), and that these cortical reorganizations facilitate the discrimination of temporal speech cues. Based on the proposition of a division of labour between the left and right PT, here we postulated that the musicians' advantage in processing temporal speech cues and PT specialization origin, at least in part, from increased white matter connectivity between the two auditory-related cortices. In particular, we assume that increased transcallosal PT connectivity might promote functional specialization and asymmetry of homotopic brain regions. With this purpose in mind, we applied diffusion tensor imaging and compared axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the interhemispheric connection between the left and right PT in thirteen musicians and 13 nonmusicians. Furthermore, in the form of an addendum, we integrated cortical surface area values and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses of the left PT that were collected in the context of two previous studies conducted with the same sample of subjects. Our results indicate increased connectivity between the left and right PT in musicians compared to nonmusicians, as indexed by reduced mean RD. We did not find significant between-group differences in FA and AD. Most notably, RD was related to the performance in the phonetic categorization task, musical aptitudes, as well as to BOLD responses in the left PT. Hence, we provide first evidence for a relationship between PT connectivity, musicianship, and phonetic categorization. PMID:25413573

  4. Federal R&D Funding by Budget Function: Fiscal Years 2001-03. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Ronald L.

    This report contains information on the federal funding of research and development (R&D) components of agency programs as proposed for the fiscal year (FY) 2001-2003. Research and development data are classified into the same federal budget function categories as those used in "Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2001-2003." The…

  5. Evaluating Implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health in Portugal's Special Education Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanches-Ferreira, Manuela; Simeonsson, Rune J.; Silveira-Maia, Mónica; Alves, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a national two-year project, commissioned by the Portuguese Ministry of Education, to investigate the implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) under Decree-Law 3/2008. The Decree-Law also introduced the principle that the documentation of students' functioning…

  6. Functional Specialization of Domains Tandemly Duplicated Witin 16S rRNA Methyltransferase RsmC

    SciTech Connect

    Sunita,S.; Purta, E.; Durawa, M.; Tkaczuk, K.; Swaathi, J.; Bujnicki, J.; Sivaraman, J.

    2007-01-01

    RNA methyltransferases (MTases) are important players in the biogenesis and regulation of the ribosome, the cellular machine for protein synthesis. RsmC is a MTase that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to G1207 of 16S rRNA. Mutations of G1207 have dominant lethal phenotypes in Escherichia coli, underscoring the significance of this modified nucleotide for ribosome function. Here we report the crystal structure of E. coli RsmC refined to 2.1 Angstroms resolution, which reveals two homologous domains tandemly duplicated within a single polypeptide. We characterized the function of the individual domains and identified key residues involved in binding of rRNA and SAM, and in catalysis. We also discovered that one of the domains is important for the folding of the other. Domain duplication and subfunctionalization by complementary degeneration of redundant functions (in particular substrate binding versus catalysis) has been reported for many enzymes, including those involved in RNA metabolism. Thus, RsmC can be regarded as a model system for functional streamlining of domains accompanied by the development of dependencies concerning folding and stability.

  7. Academic and Social Achievement Goals: Their Additive, Interactive, and Specialized Effects on School Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Students' pursuit of academic and social goals has implications for school functioning. However, studies on academic and social achievement goals have been relatively independent and mainly conducted with students in culturally Western settings. Aims: Guided by multiple-goal perspectives, this study examined the role of academic and…

  8. Functional specialization among insect chitinase family genes revealed by RNA interference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biological functions of individual members of the large family of chitinase-like proteins from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, were examined using gene-specific RNA interference (RNAi). One chitinase, TcCHT5, was found to be required for pupal-adult molting only. A lethal phenotype ...

  9. Anxiety symptoms in young people with autism spectrum disorder attending special schools: Associations with gender, adaptive functioning and autism symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Magiati, Iliana; Ong, Clarissa; Lim, Xin Yi; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Ong, Amily Yi Lin; Patrycia, Ferninda; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Sung, Min; Poon, Kenneth K; Howlin, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Anxiety-related problems are among the most frequently reported mental health difficulties in autism spectrum disorder. As most research has focused on clinical samples or high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder, less is known about the factors associated with anxiety in community samples across the ability range. This cross-sectional study examined the association of gender, age, adaptive functioning and autism symptom severity with different caregiver-reported anxiety symptoms. Participants were caregivers of 241 children (6-18 years old) with autism spectrum disorder attending special schools in Singapore. Measures included the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale and assessments of overall emotional, behavioural and adaptive functioning. Caregivers reported more anxiety symptoms in total, but fewer social anxiety symptoms, than Spence Children's Anxiety Scale Australian/Dutch norms. There were no gender differences. Variance in total anxiety scores was best explained by severity of repetitive speech/stereotyped behaviour symptoms, followed by adaptive functioning. Severity of repetitive speech/behaviour symptoms was a significant predictor of separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, panic/agoraphobia and obsessive-compulsive subscale symptoms, but not of social phobia and physical injury fears. Adaptive functioning and chronological age predicted social phobia and generalized anxiety symptoms only. Severity of social/communication autism symptoms did not explain any anxiety symptoms, when the other variables were controlled for. Findings are discussed in relation to the existing literature. Limitations and possible implications for prevention, assessment and intervention are also discussed. PMID:25916865

  10. Resources, attitudes and culture: an understanding of the factors that influence the functioning of accountability mechanisms in primary health care settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background District level health system governance is recognised as an important but challenging element of health system development in low and middle-income countries. Accountability is a more recent focus in health system debates. Accountability mechanisms are governance tools that seek to regulate answerability between the health system and the community (external accountability) and/or between different levels of the health system (bureaucratic accountability). External accountability has attracted significant attention in recent years, but bureaucratic accountability mechanisms, and the interactions between the two forms of accountability, have been relatively neglected. This is an important gap given that webs of accountability relationships exist within every health system. There is a need to strike a balance between achieving accountability upwards within the health system (for example through information reporting arrangements) while at the same time allowing for the local level innovation that could improve quality of care and patient responsiveness. Methods Using a descriptive literature review, this paper examines the factors that influence the functioning of accountability mechanisms and relationships within the district health system, and draws out the implications for responsiveness to patients and communities. We also seek to understand the practices that might strengthen accountability in ways that improve responsiveness – of the health system to citizens’ needs and rights, and of providers to patients. Results The review highlights the ways in which bureaucratic accountability mechanisms often constrain the functioning of external accountability mechanisms. For example, meeting the expectations of relatively powerful managers further up the system may crowd out efforts to respond to citizens and patients. Organisational cultures characterized by supervision and management systems focused on compliance to centrally defined outputs and targets

  11. Detrusor function with lesions of the cauda equina, with special emphasis on the bladder neck.

    PubMed

    Light, J K; Beric, A; Petronic, I

    1993-03-01

    A total of 13 patients with proved lesions of the cauda equina underwent neurological evaluation. All patients had video urodynamic testing, while 9 underwent a varying combination of pelvic floor electromyography, lumbosacral evoked potentials to tibial nerve stimulation and the sympathetic skin response from the perineum. All patients had detrusor areflexia with varying degrees of bladder neck incompetence. Reports of clinical and experimental studies are discussed in relation to the pathophysiology of bladder neck function following lesions of the pudendal and preganglionic pelvic nerve to explain why there have been conflicting reports in the literature regarding bladder neck function with lesions of the cauda equina. The adaptive changes observed in the experimental animal, consisting of random regeneration of the cholinergic neuroeffective junctions, adrenergic hyperinnervation and an increased sensitivity of the prejunctional inhibitory muscarinic receptors on the adrenergic nerve, may explain the degree of variability of bladder neck incompetence observed clinically. PMID:8437259

  12. Synopsis of wetland functions and values: bottomland hardwoods with special emphasis on eastern Texas and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkinson, D.L.; Schneller-McDonald, K.; Olson, R.W.; Auble, G.T.

    1987-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood wetlands are the natural cover type of many floodplain ecosystems in the southeastern United States. They are dynamic, productive systems that depend on intermittent flooding and moving water for maintenance of structure and function. Many of the diverse functions performed by bottomland hardwoods (e.g., flood control, sediment trapping, fish and wildlife habitat) are directly or indirectly valued by humans. Balanced decisions regarding bottomland hardwoods are often hindered by a limited ability to accurately specify the functions being performed by these systems and, furthermore, by an inability to evaluate these functions in economic terms. This report addresses these informational needs. It focuses on the bottomland hardwoods of eastern Texas and Oklahoma, serving as an introduction and entry to the literature. It is not intended to serve as a substitute for reference to the original literature. The first section of the report is a review of the major functions of bottomland hardwoods, grouped under the headings of hydrology, water quality, productivity, detritus, nutrients, and habitat. Although the hydrology of these areas is diverse and complex, especially with respect to groundwater, water storage at high flows can clearly function to attenuate peak flows, with possible reductions in downstream flooding damage. Water moving through a bottomland hardwood system carries with it various organic and inorganic constituents, including sediment, organic matter, nutrients, and pollutants. When waterborne materials are introduced to bottomland hardwoods (from river flooding or upland runoff), they may be retained, transformed, or transported. As a result, water quality may be significantly altered and improved. The fluctuating and flowing water regime of bottomland hardwoods is associated with generally high net primary productivity and rapid fluxes of organic matter and nutrients. These, in turn, support secondary productivity in the bottomland

  13. Are executive function and impulsivity antipodes? A conceptual reconstruction with special reference to addiction

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, Warren K.; Jarmolowicz, David P.; Mueller, E. Terry; Gatchalian, Kirstin M.; McClure, Samuel M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Although there is considerable interest in how either executive function (EF) or impulsivity relate to addiction, there is little apparent overlap between these research areas. Objectives The present paper aims to determine if components of these two constructs are conceptual antipodes—widely separated on a shared continuum. Methods EFs and impulsivities were compared and contrasted. Specifically, the definitions of the components of EF and impulsivity, the methods used to measure the various components, the populations of drug users that show deficits in these components, and the neural substrates of these components were compared and contrasted. Results Each component of impulsivity had an antipode in EF. EF, however, covered a wider range of phenomena, including compulsivity. Conclusions Impulsivity functions as an antipode of certain components of EF. Recognition of the relationship between EF and impulsivity may inform the scientific inquiry of behavioral problems such as addiction. Other theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:22441659

  14. Functional circuitry of a unique cerebellar specialization: the valvula cerebelli of a mormyrid fish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Shi, Z; Magnus, G; Meek, J; Han, V Z; Qiao, J T

    2011-05-19

    The valvula cerebelli of the mormyrid electric fish is a useful site for the study of cerebellar function. The valvula forms a part of the electrosensory-electromotor system of this fish, a system that offers many possibilities for the study of sensory-motor integration. The valvula also has a number of histological features not present in mammals which facilitate investigation of cerebellar circuitry and its plasticity. This initial study characterizes the basic physiology and pharmacology of cells in the valvula using an in vitro slice preparation. Intrinsic properties and synaptic responses of Purkinje cells and other cell types were examined. We found that Purkinje cells fire a small narrow Na(+) spike and a large broad Ca(2+) spike, generated in the axon initial segment and dendritic-soma region, respectively. Purkinje cells respond to parallel fiber inputs with graded excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and to climbing fiber inputs with all-or-none EPSPs. Efferent cells, Golgi cells, and deep stellate cells all fire a single type of large narrow spike and respond only to parallel fiber inputs. Both parallel fiber and climbing fiber responses in Purkinje cells appear to be entirely mediated by AMPA-type glutamate receptors, whereas parallel fiber responses in efferent cells and stellate cells include AMPA and NMDA components. In addition, a strong synaptic inhibition was uncovered in both Purkinje cells and efferent cells in response to the focal stimulation of parallel fibers. Dual cell recordings indicate that deep stellate cells contribute at least partially to this inhibition. We conclude that despite its unique histology, the local functional circuitry of the mormyrid valvula cerebelli is largely similar to that of the mammalian cerebellum. Thus, what is learned concerning the functioning of the mormyrid valvula cerebelli may be expected to be informative about cerebellar function in general. PMID:21414387

  15. Class I Myosins Have Overlapping and Specialized Functions in Left-Right Asymmetric Development in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, Takashi; Sasamura, Takeshi; Inatomi, Momoko; Hozumi, Shunya; Nakamura, Mitsutoshi; Hatori, Ryo; Taniguchi, Kiichiro; Nakazawa, Naotaka; Suzuki, Emiko; Maeda, Reo; Yamakawa, Tomoko; Matsuno, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The class I myosin genes are conserved in diverse organisms, and their gene products are involved in actin dynamics, endocytosis, and signal transduction. Drosophila melanogaster has three class I myosin genes, Myosin 31DF (Myo31DF), Myosin 61F (Myo61F), and Myosin 95E (Myo95E). Myo31DF, Myo61F, and Myo95E belong to the Myosin ID, Myosin IC, and Myosin IB families, respectively. Previous loss-of-function analyses of Myo31DF and Myo61F revealed important roles in left–right (LR) asymmetric development and enterocyte maintenance, respectively. However, it was difficult to elucidate their roles in vivo, because of potential redundant activities. Here we generated class I myosin double and triple mutants to address this issue. We found that the triple mutant was viable and fertile, indicating that all three class I myosins were dispensable for survival. A loss-of-function analysis revealed further that Myo31DF and Myo61F, but not Myo95E, had redundant functions in promoting the dextral LR asymmetric development of the male genitalia. Myo61F overexpression is known to antagonize the dextral activity of Myo31DF in various Drosophila organs. Thus, the LR-reversing activity of overexpressed Myo61F may not reflect its physiological function. The endogenous activity of Myo61F in promoting dextral LR asymmetric development was observed in the male genitalia, but not the embryonic gut, another LR asymmetric organ. Thus, Myo61F and Myo31DF, but not Myo95E, play tissue-specific, redundant roles in LR asymmetric development. Our studies also revealed differential colocalization of the class I myosins with filamentous (F)-actin in the brush border of intestinal enterocytes. PMID:25659376

  16. Projection of Young-Old and Old-Old with Functional Disability: Does Accounting for the Changing Educational Composition of the Elderly Population Make a Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Ansah, John P.; Malhotra, Rahul; Lew, Nicola; Chiu, Chi-Tsun; Chan, Angelique; Bayer, Steffen; Matchar, David B.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares projections, up to year 2040, of young-old (aged 60-79) and old-old (aged 80+) with functional disability in Singapore with and without accounting for the changing educational composition of the Singaporean elderly. Two multi-state population models, with and without accounting for educational composition respectively, were developed, parameterized with age-gender-(education)-specific transition probabilities (between active, functional disability and death states) estimated from two waves (2009 and 2011) of a nationally representative survey of community-dwelling Singaporeans aged ≥60 years (N=4,990). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis with the bootstrap method was used to obtain the 95% confidence interval of the transition probabilities. Not accounting for educational composition overestimated the young-old with functional disability by 65 percent and underestimated the old-old by 20 percent in 2040. Accounting for educational composition, the proportion of old-old with functional disability increased from 40.8 percent in 2000 to 64.4 percent by 2040; not accounting for educational composition, the proportion in 2040 was 49.4 percent. Since the health profiles, and hence care needs, of the old-old differ from those of the young-old, health care service utilization and expenditure and the demand for formal and informal caregiving will be affected, impacting health and long-term care policy. PMID:25974069

  17. Functional morphology of the crista ampullaris: with special interests in sensory hairs and cupula: a review.

    PubMed

    Takumida, M

    2001-12-01

    The functional significance of the ciliary interconnections and cupula has been reviewed. The ciliary interconnecting systems are divided into 2 types, i.e. side links and tip links. The side links acts to maintain the regular distance between the cilia thereby keeping the geometrical arrangement of the entire sensory hair bundle intact as well as to prevent close contact between neighbouring cilia. The tip links, stretching upwards from the tips of the shorter stereocilia to their taller neighbouring shafts, are actually involved in mechanoelectrical transduction. The cupula is composed of the cupula and subcupular meshwork. The subcupular meshwork consists of long branching filaments cross-bridged to one another. The cupula would function as a rigid plate and equally distribute the shear force of the cupula to all the ciliary bundles. The subcupular meshwork may play a role in the transmission of the shear strain force of the cupula to the ciliary bundle and may also exert an additional damping effect in order to prevent unwanted vibrations. PMID:12101357

  18. Functional Specialization Among Members Of Knickkopf Family Of Proteins In Insect Cuticle Organization

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Sujata S.; Moussian, Bernard; Specht, Charles A.; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Kramer, Karl J.; Beeman, Richard W.; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam

    2014-01-01

    Our recent study on the functional analysis of the Knickkopf protein from T. castaneum (TcKnk), indicated a novel role for this protein in protection of chitin from degradation by chitinases. Knk is also required for the laminar organization of chitin in the procuticle. During a bioinformatics search using this protein sequence as the query, we discovered the existence of a small family of three Knk-like genes (including the prototypical TcKnk) in the T. castaneum genome as well as in all insects with completed genome assemblies. The two additional Knk-like genes have been named TcKnk2 and TcKnk3. Further complexity arises as a result of alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation of transcripts of TcKnk3, leading to the production of three transcripts (and by inference, three proteins) from this gene. These transcripts are named TcKnk3-Full Length (TcKnk3-FL), TcKnk3-5′ and TcKnk3-3′. All three Knk-family genes appear to have essential and non-redundant functions. RNAi for TcKnk led to developmental arrest at every molt, while down-regulation of either TcKnk2 or one of the three TcKnk3 transcripts (TcKnk3-3′) resulted in specific molting arrest only at the pharate adult stage. All three Knk genes appear to influence the total chitin content at the pharate adult stage, but to variable extents. While TcKnk contributes mostly to the stability and laminar organization of chitin in the elytral and body wall procuticles, proteins encoded by TcKnk2 and TcKnk3-3′ transcripts appear to be required for the integrity of the body wall denticles and tracheal taenidia, but not the elytral and body wall procuticles. Thus, the three members of the Knk-family of proteins perform different essential functions in cuticle formation at different developmental stages and in different parts of the insect anatomy. PMID:25144557

  19. Special functions of valve organs of blood-sucking female mosquitoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Boheum; Lee, Sangjoon

    2010-11-01

    Food-feeding insects usually have valve organs to regulate the sucking flow effectively. Female mosquitoes sucking lots of blood instantaneously have a unique valve system between two pumping organs located in their head. The valve system seems to prevent reverse flow and to grind granule particles such as red blood cells. To understand the functional characteristics of this valve organ in detail, the volumetric flow rate passing through the valves and their interaction with the two-pumps need to be investigated. However, it is very difficult to observe the dynamic behaviors of pumping organs and valve system. In this study, the dynamic motions of valve organs of blood-sucking female mosquitoes were observed under in vivo condition using synchrotron X-ray micro imaging technique. X-ray micro computed tomography was also employed to examine the three-dimensional internal structure of the blood pumping system including valve organs.

  20. Drug targeting to infectious diseases by nanoparticles surface functionalized with special biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Shyam; Prajapati, Vijay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The potential to deliver nanoparticles directly into the targeted cells is important in the therapeutic applications for infectious diseases. The possibility of therapeutic agent being attached to the nanoparticles by chemical modification has provided a novel drug delivery option. Interestingly, the discovery of carbon nanotubes and graphene has given an excellent imaging and therapeutic agent for the biomedical applications. In spite of continuous advancement in pharmaceutical drug delivery viz. micelles, vesicles and liquid crystals etc. during the past decades, their prohibitive production has limited their use. Nanomaterials with their properties of biodegradation, equal biodistribution, mass production and long time storage make them attractive alternative for future biomedical applications. Nanoparticles surface functionalized with specific biomolecules based drug delivery has driven new direction for modulating the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, biorecognition; and increasing the efficacy of targeted drugs. These new strategies are likely to minimize drug degradation and loss, increase drug availability, and opens up new vistas for drug delivery. PMID:22612703

  1. Depth-stratified functional and taxonomic niche specialization in the 'core' and 'flexible' Pacific Ocean Virome.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, Bonnie L; Brum, Jennifer R; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2015-02-01

    Microbes drive myriad ecosystem processes, and their viruses modulate microbial-driven processes through mortality, horizontal gene transfer, and metabolic reprogramming by viral-encoded auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs). However, our knowledge of viral roles in the oceans is primarily limited to surface waters. Here we assess the depth distribution of protein clusters (PCs) in the first large-scale quantitative viral metagenomic data set that spans much of the pelagic depth continuum (the Pacific Ocean Virome; POV). This established 'core' (180 PCs; one-third new to science) and 'flexible' (423K PCs) community gene sets, including niche-defining genes in the latter (385 and 170 PCs are exclusive and core to the photic and aphotic zones, respectively). Taxonomic annotation suggested that tailed phages are ubiquitous, but not abundant (<5% of PCs) and revealed depth-related taxonomic patterns. Functional annotation, coupled with extensive analyses to document non-viral DNA contamination, uncovered 32 new AMGs (9 core, 20 photic and 3 aphotic) that introduce ways in which viruses manipulate infected host metabolism, and parallel depth-stratified host adaptations (for example, photic zone genes for iron-sulphur cluster modulation for phage production, and aphotic zone genes for high-pressure deep-sea survival). Finally, significant vertical flux of photic zone viruses to the deep sea was detected, which is critical for interpreting depth-related patterns in nature. Beyond the ecological advances outlined here, this catalog of viral core, flexible and niche-defining genes provides a resource for future investigation into the organization, function and evolution of microbial molecular networks to mechanistically understand and model viral roles in the biosphere. PMID:25093636

  2. An exact explicit solution for one-dimensional, transient, nonlinear Richards' equation for modeling infiltration with special hydraulic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayek, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    This work develops a simple exact and explicit solution of the one-dimensional transient and nonlinear Richards' equation for soils in a special case of exponential water retention curve and power law hydraulic conductivity. The exact solution is obtained as traveling wave based on the approach proposed by Philip (1957, 1967) and adopted by Zlotnik et al. (2007). The obtained solution is novel, and it expresses explicitly the water content as function of the depth and time. It can be useful to model infiltration into semi-infinite soils with time-dependent boundary conditions and infiltration with constant boundary condition but space-dependent initial condition. A complete analytical inverse procedure based on the proposed analytical solution is presented which allows the estimation of hydraulic parameters. The proposed exact solution is also important for the verification of numerical schemes as well as for checking the implementation of time-dependent boundary conditions.

  3. The haemodynamic and metabolic effects of tolmesoxide with special reference to impaired myocardial function.

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, J. E.; Marshall, R. J.; Parratt, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The haemodynamic, metabolic and regional blood flow effects of the vasodilator, tolmesoxide (1 mg kg-1 min-1 for 20 min by intravenous infusion) were examined in two groups of greyhound dogs anaesthetized with alpha-chloralose and mechanically ventilated. One group of dogs was thoracotomized and subjected to acute coronary artery occlusion. In these dogs tolmesoxide was infused 2.5 h after occlusion when there was evidence of impaired myocardial function. Tolmesoxide administration resulted in marked systemic hypotension which was associated with myocardial stimulation (increase in heart rate and LVdP/dtmax). These effects were less marked in thoracotomized dogs subjected to coronary artery occlusion. Cardiac stimulation was attenuated by pretreatment with the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, atenolol. Peripheral resistance and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were reduced by tolmesoxide. In spite of the systemic hypotension, the marked reduction in LVEDP resulted in an enhanced subendocardial driving pressure and an increased blood flow to ischaemic regions of the left ventricular wall as measured with Xe133 clearance. Blood flow to normal regions of the left ventricular wall was also increased by tolmesoxide. A metabolic and respiratory acidosis may have contributed to the haemodynamic effects of tolmesoxide. Plasma renin levels were significantly elevated by the drug. Tolmesoxide administration thus resulted in cardiac stimulation, reduced both pre-load and after-load, yet maintained coronary and pulmonary perfusion. This haemodynamic profile of tolmesoxide would explain the beneficial effects obtained with this drug in the treatment of cardiac failure. PMID:3779213

  4. [Preserving ovarian function in the treatment of epithelial and special (other) malignant ovarian tumors].

    PubMed

    Kolstad, P

    1987-10-01

    About 90% of malignant tumors of the ovary in Scandinavia develop from the germinal epithelium. There are great differences in the incidence rates between countries in the Western world and in Africa and Asia. The WHO classification of ovarian malignancies is generally used. The epithelial tumors comprise the serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, undifferentiated and mixed true carcinomas. In addition, borderline lesions of especially the serous and mucinous types are of interest when the question of preservation of ovarian function comes into notice. Conservative surgery, which means removal of only the afflicted ovary should be restricted to young women of the childbearing age who want to preserve the possibility of becoming pregnant. However, certain prerequisites must be fulfilled. The tumor must be located to one ovary only (Stage Ia) and must be either a borderline lesion or a Grade 1 true carcinoma of either the serous, mucinous or endometrioid type. There must be no ascites and peritoneal washings must be negative for cancer cells. Germ cell tumors are usually found in young women. Only the dysgerminomas are regularly bilateral in 10-15% of the cases. All other germ cell tumors are rarely bilateral. But both in borderline lesions, Grade 1 true carcinomas, and in germ cell tumors, a biopsy of the normal looking contralateral ovary should always be performed. Endodermal sinus tumors and immature teratomas may well be treated conservatively by surgery, but modern triple chemotherapy (VAC, PVB) must be added. Granulosa theca cell tumors are bilateral in only about 5% of the cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2824278

  5. Response function theories that account for size distribution effects - A review. [mathematical models concerning composite propellant heterogeneity effects on combustion instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents theoretical models developed to account for the heterogeneity of composite propellants in expressing the pressure-coupled combustion response function. It is noted that the model of Lengelle and Williams (1968) furnishes a viable basis to explain the effects of heterogeneity.

  6. Orexin B inhibits proliferation and stimulates specialized function of cultured rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Rucinski, Marcin; Tyczewska, Marianna; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2008-12-01

    Orexin-A (OXA) and orexin-B (OXB) are polypeptides derived from the same 130 amino acid long precursor (prepro-orexin) that bind and activate two closely related orphan G protein-coupled receptors OX1-R and OX2-R. These hypothalamic neuropeptides stimulate food intake and energy expenditure and play a significant role in sleep-wakefulness regulation. Present studies aimed to investigate the effects of orexins on proliferative activity and osteocalcin secretion by cultured rat calvarial osteoblast-like (ROB) cells. Conventional RT-PCR methods detected expression of the OX1-R gene in freshly isolated ROB cells and cells cultured for 7, 14 and 21 days. In contrast, at all time points tested, expression of prepro-OX or OX2-R genes was not demonstrated. QPCR revealed the highest expression of OX1-R gene in freshly isolated bone cells and a notably lower one in cultured ROB cells. Exposure of cultured cells to both OXA and OXB stimulated expression of the OX1-R gene. However, this effect was seen at the lowest tested concentration (1x10(-10) M). Exposure of cultured ROB cells to OXA for 48 h did not change osteocalcin concentrations in media analyzed at days 7, 14 and 21 of culture. On the contrary, OXB notably stimulated osteocalcin concentrations in media taken at days 14 and 21 of culture. In contrast, OXA exerted a notable inhibitory effect on the proliferative activity of ROB cells at day 7 of culture, while OXB exerted a similar effect at day 14. Thus, the obtained results suggest that: (i)(ROB) cells are provided with functional OX1-R gene; (ii) in ROB cells expression of this gene seems to be up-regulated by low concentrations of both OXA and OXB; (iii) OXB exerts inhibitory effects on proliferative activity and stimulating effects on osteocalcin secretion by cultured ROB cells; (iv) rat calvarial osteoblasts provided with OX receptor may be a target for circulating orexins. Thus, orexins may be included in the expanding group of neuropeptides involved in the

  7. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.9 What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system... digits to accommodate the design of the game. (3) Accounting data displayed to the player may be... audit, configuration, recall and test modes; or (ii) Temporarily, during entertaining displays of...

  8. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.9 What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system... digits to accommodate the design of the game. (3) Accounting data displayed to the player may be... audit, configuration, recall and test modes; or (ii) Temporarily, during entertaining displays of...

  9. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.9 What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system... digits to accommodate the design of the game. (3) Accounting data displayed to the player may be... audit, configuration, recall and test modes; or (ii) Temporarily, during entertaining displays of...

  10. Methods for in vitro functional analysis of iPSC derived cardiomyocytes - Special focus on analyzing the mechanical beating behavior.

    PubMed

    Laurila, Eeva; Ahola, Antti; Hyttinen, Jari; Aalto-Setälä, Katriina

    2016-07-01

    A rapidly increasing number of papers describing novel iPSC models for cardiac diseases are being published. To be able to understand the disease mechanisms in more detail, we should also take the full advantage of the various methods for analyzing these cell models. The traditionally and commonly used electrophysiological analysis methods have been recently accompanied by novel approaches for analyzing the mechanical beatingbehavior of the cardiomyocytes. In this review, we provide first a concise overview on the methodology for cardiomyocyte functional analysis and then concentrate on the video microscopy, which provides a promise for a new faster yet reliable method for cardiomyocyte functional analysis. We also show how analysis conditions may affect the results. Development of the methodology not only serves the basic research on the disease models, but could also provide the much needed efficient early phase screening method for cardiac safety toxicology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. PMID:26707468

  11. Model Accounting Program. Adopters Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaverton School District 48, OR.

    The accounting cluster demonstration project conducted at Aloha High School in the Beaverton, Oregon, school district developed a model curriculum for high school accounting. The curriculum is based on interviews with professionals in the accounting field and emphasizes the use of computers. It is suitable for use with special needs students as…

  12. THE APICAL ECTOPLASMIC SPECIALIZATION-BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER FUNCTIONAL AXIS IS A NOVEL TARGET FOR MALE CONTRACEPTION

    PubMed Central

    Mruk, Dolores D.; Mannu, Jayakanthan; Mathur, Premendu P.; Silvestrini, Bruno; Cheng, C. Yan

    2014-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB), similar to other blood-tissue barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier and the blood-retinal barrier, is used to protect the corresponding organ from harmful substances (e.g., xenobiotics) including drugs and foreign compounds. More importantly, the BTB allows postmeiotic spermatid development to take place in an immune privileged site at the adluminal (or apical) compartment to avoid the production of antibodies against spermatid-specific antigens, many of which express transiently during spermiogenesis and spermiation. The BTB, however, also poses an obstacle in developing nonhormonal-based male contraceptives by sequestering drugs (e.g., adjudin) that exert their effects on germ cells in the adluminal compartment. The effects of these drugs include disruption of germ cell cycle progression and development, apoptosis, cell adhesion, metabolism and others. Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a functional axis that operates locally in the seminiferous epithelium to co-ordinate different cellular events across the Sertoli cell epithelium, such as spermiation and BTB restructuring during the seminiferous epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. Components of this functional axis, such as the apical ectoplasmic specialization (apical ES, a testis-specific atypical anchoring junction type) and the BTB, in particular their constituent protein complexes, such as α6ß1-integrin and occludin at the apical ES and the BTB, respectively, can be the target of male contraception. In this chapter, we highlight recent advances regarding the likely mechanism of action of adjudin in this functional axis with emphasis on the use of molecular modeling technique to facilitate the design of better compounds in male contraceptive development. PMID:23397633

  13. Randomly Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.; Geppert, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    The accountability debate tends to devolve into a battle between the pro-testing and anti-testing crowds. When it comes to the design of a school accountability system, the devil is truly in the details. A well-designed accountability plan may go a long way toward giving school personnel the kinds of signals they need to improve performance.…

  14. School Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Williamson M., Ed.; Walberg, Herbert J., Ed.

    This book presents the perspectives of experts from the fields of history, economics, political science, and psychology on what is known about accountability, what still needs to be learned, what should be done right now, and what should be avoided in devising accountability systems. The common myths about accountability are dispelled and how it…

  15. Colorful Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrick, C. Shane

    2006-01-01

    As instructors of accounting, we should take an abstract topic (at least to most students) and connect it to content known by students to help increase the effectiveness of our instruction. In a recent semester, ordinary items such as colors, a basketball, and baseball were used to relate the subject of accounting. The accounting topics of account…

  16. It Might Not Make a Big DIF: Improved Differential Test Functioning Statistics That Account for Sampling Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, R. Philip; Counsell, Alyssa; Flora, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Differential test functioning, or DTF, occurs when one or more items in a test demonstrate differential item functioning (DIF) and the aggregate of these effects are witnessed at the test level. In many applications, DTF can be more important than DIF when the overall effects of DIF at the test level can be quantified. However, optimal statistical…

  17. Accountability for Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Productivity gains in higher education won't be made just by improving cost effectiveness or even performance. They need to be documented, communicated, and integrated into a strategic agenda to increase attainment. This requires special attention to "accountability" for productivity, meaning public presentation and communication of evidence about…

  18. Preface to ISIF 2009 special issue of Journal of Applied Physics : science and technology of integrated functionalities.

    SciTech Connect

    Auciello, O.; Dey, S.; Paz de Araujo, C.

    2011-05-01

    committee and the session chairs, the conference successfully achieved its objectives and the work presented reflected very well the most recent advances of integrated ferroelectrics and their applications, as well as advances in other areas related to the new theme of Integrated Functionalities. Many aspects of ferroelectric, piezoelectric, high-K dielectric, magnetic, and phase change materials, including the science and technology of these materials in thin film form, integration with other thin film materials (metals or oxide electrodes), and fabrication of micro- and nanostructures based on these heterostructure layers, and device architecture and physics, were addressed from the experimental point of view. Work on theory and computer simulations of the mentioned materials and devices were discussed also with a view to the promising applications to multifunctional devices. In addition, the ISIF 2009 featured discussions of alternative nonvolatile memory concepts and materials, such as phase change memories, research on multiferroics and magnetoelectric materials, ferroelectric photovoltaics, and new directions on the science of perovskites such as biomolecular/polarizable interfaces, and bio-ferroelectric and other oxide interfaces. Following the standard submission and peer review process of Journal of Applied Physics, the selected papers presented in ISIF 2009 in Colorado Springs are published in this special issue. We believe that the papers in this special issue represent the forefront contributions to ISIF 2009 in the various areas of fundamental and applied science of integrated ferroelectrics and functionalities and their applications. We would like to take this opportunity to thank the following organizations and companies for their support and sponsorship for ISIF 2009, namely: Aixact Systems GMBH, Radiant Technologies, Symetrix Corporation, and Taylor and Francis Publishers. We would also like to thank the conference and session chairs, advisory and

  19. A neural network as a nonlinear transfer function model for retrieving surface wind speeds from the special sensor microwave imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, V. M.; Breaker, L. C.; Gemmill, W. H.

    1995-06-01

    A single, extended-range neural network (SER NN) has been developed to model the transfer function for special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I) surface wind speed retrievals. Applied to data sets used in previous SSM/I wind speed retrieval studies, this algorithm yields a bias of 0.05 m/s and an rms difference of 1.65 m/s, compared to buoy observations. The accuracy of the SER NN for clear (low moisture) and cloudy (higher moisture/light rain) conditions equals the accuracy of NNs trained separately for each of these cases. A new moisture retrieval criterion based on a single, physically interpretable parameter, cloud liquid water, is proposed in conjunction with the SER NN. Using this retrieval criterion, (1) a moisture retrieval threshold for cloud liquid water of 0.5 kg/m2 was estimated, and (2) 40% of the data rejected by previous rain flags could be recovered. When the SER NN was trained using this retrieval criterion, a bias of 0.03 m/s and an rms value of 1.58 m/s were obtained and only 2% of the data were rejected. Also, a slight improvement in retrieval accuracy for cloudy conditions was achieved (˜10%) by including SSM/I brightness temperatures at 85 GHz. Finally, the limitations of NN algorithms are discussed in light of the present application.

  20. Revisiting the metabolism and physiological functions of caprylic acid (C8:0) with special focus on ghrelin octanoylation.

    PubMed

    Lemarié, Fanny; Beauchamp, Erwan; Legrand, Philippe; Rioux, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Caprylic acid (octanoic acid, C8:0) belongs to the class of medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MCFAs). Dairy products and specific oils like coconut oil are natural sources of dietary C8:0 but higher intakes of this fatty acid can be provided with MCT (Medium-Chain Triglycerides) oil that consists in 75% of C8:0. MCFAs have physical and metabolic properties that are distinct from those of long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCFAs ≥ 12 carbons). Beneficial physiological effects of dietary C8:0 have been studied for a long time and MCT oil has been used as a special energy source for patients suffering from pancreatic insufficiency, impaired lymphatic chylomicron transport and fat malabsorption. More recently, caprylic acid was also shown to acylate ghrelin, the only known peptide hormone with an orexigenic effect. Through its covalent binding to the ghrelin peptide, caprylic acid exhibits an emerging and specific role in modulating physiological functions themselves regulated by octanoylated ghrelin. Dietary caprylic acid is therefore now suspected to provide the ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) enzyme with octanoyl-CoA co-substrates necessary for the acyl modification of ghrelin. This review tries to highlight the discrepancy between the formerly described beneficial effects of dietary MCFAs on body weight loss and the C8:0 newly reported effect on appetite stimulation via ghrelin octanoylation. The subsequent aim of this review is to demonstrate the relevance of carrying out further studies to better understand the physiological functions of this particular fatty acid. PMID:26253695

  1. General and Special Educators' Predictions of Student Success as a Function of Learner Characteristics and Teacher Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podell, David M.; Tournaki, Nelly

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the influence of teacher and learner characteristics on general and special educators' predictions of student success. Two groups of teachers, 384 general educators and 384 special educators, reported year of experience and responded to case studies describing a student for whom gender, reading achievement, social behavior, and…

  2. Putting Emotion into the Self: A Response to the 2008 "Journal of Moral Education" Special Issue on Moral Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes as its starting point the Journal of Moral Education Special Issue (September, 2008, 37[3]) "Towards an integrated model of moral reasoning". Although explicitly post-Kohlbergian, the authors in this Special Issue do not, I argue, depart far enough from Kohlberg's impoverished notion of the role of the affective in moral life--or…

  3. 18 CFR 367.9160 - Account 916, Miscellaneous sales expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Miscellaneous sales expenses. 367.9160 Section 367.9160 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005... work not assigned to specific functions. (2) Special analysis of customer accounts and...

  4. 18 CFR 367.9160 - Account 916, Miscellaneous sales expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Miscellaneous sales expenses. 367.9160 Section 367.9160 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005... work not assigned to specific functions. (2) Special analysis of customer accounts and...

  5. 18 CFR 367.9160 - Account 916, Miscellaneous sales expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Miscellaneous sales expenses. 367.9160 Section 367.9160 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005... work not assigned to specific functions. (2) Special analysis of customer accounts and...

  6. ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE IN CHILDREN: AN APPLICATION TO CONTINUOUS LUNG FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study is to estimate an unbiased exposure effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on children's continuous lung function. A majority of the evidence from health studies suggests that ETS exposure in early life contributes significantly to childhood ...

  7. Do Children's Executive Functions Account for Associations between Early Autonomy-Supportive Parenting and Achievement through High School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindman, Samantha W.; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the positive association between early autonomy-supportive parenting and children's subsequent achievement is mediated by children's executive functions. Using observations of mothers' parenting from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N…

  8. Functional specialization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cytosolic thioredoxin h1 in the response to alkylation-induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Nandita; Lemaire, Stéphane; Wu-Scharf, Danxia; Issakidis-Bourguet, Emmanuelle; Cerutti, Heriberto

    2005-02-01

    DNA damage occurs as a by-product of intrinsic cellular processes, like DNA replication, or as a consequence of exposure to genotoxic agents. Organisms have evolved multiple mechanisms to avoid, tolerate, or repair DNA lesions. To gain insight into these processes, we have isolated mutants hypersensitive to DNA-damaging agents in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. One mutant, Ble-1, showed decreased survival when it was treated with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), bleomycin, or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) but behaved like the wild type when it was exposed to UVC irradiation. Ble-1 carries an extensive chromosomal deletion that includes the gene encoding cytosolic thioredoxin h1 (Trxh1). Transformation of Ble-1 with a wild-type copy of Trxh1 fully corrected the MMS hypersensitivity and partly restored the tolerance to bleomycin. Trxh1 also complemented a defect in the repair of MMS-induced DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites. In addition, a Trxh1-beta-glucuronidase fusion protein translocated to the nucleus in response to treatment with MMS. However, somewhat surprisingly, Trxh1 failed to correct the Ble-1 hypersensitivity to H2O2. Moreover, Trxh1 suppression by RNA interference in a wild-type strain resulted in enhanced sensitivity to MMS and DNA repair defects but no increased cytotoxicity to H2O2. Thioredoxins have been implicated in oxidative-stress responses in many organisms. Yet our results indicate a specific role of Chlamydomonas Trxh1 in the repair of MMS-induced DNA damage, whereas it is dispensable for the response to H2O2. These observations also suggest functional specialization among cytosolic thioredoxins since another Chlamydomonas isoform (Trxh2) does not compensate for the lack of Trxh1. PMID:15701788

  9. Independent gene duplications of the YidC/Oxa/Alb3 family enabled a specialized cotranslational function

    PubMed Central

    Funes, Soledad; Hasona, Adnan; Bauerschmitt, Heike; Grubbauer, Caroline; Kauff, Frank; Collins, Ryan; Crowley, Paula J.; Palmer, Sara R.; Brady, L. Jeannine; Herrmann, Johannes M.

    2009-01-01

    YidC/Oxa/Alb3 family proteins catalyze the insertion of integral membrane proteins in bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts, respectively. Unlike gram-negative organisms, gram-positive bacteria express 2 paralogs of this family, YidC1/SpoIIIJ and YidC2/YgjG. In Streptococcus mutans, deletion of yidC2 results in a stress-sensitive phenotype similar to that of mutants lacking the signal recognition particle (SRP) protein translocation pathway, while deletion of yidC1 has a less severe phenotype. In contrast to eukaryotes and gram-negative bacteria, SRP-deficient mutants are viable in S. mutans; however, double SRP-yidC2 mutants are severely compromised. Thus, YidC2 may enable loss of the SRP by playing an independent but overlapping role in cotranslational protein insertion into the membrane. This is reminiscent of the situation in mitochondria that lack an SRP pathway and where Oxa1 facilitates cotranslational membrane protein insertion by binding directly to translation-active ribosomes. Here, we show that OXA1 complements a lack of yidC2 in S. mutans. YidC2 also functions reciprocally in oxa1-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants and mediates the cotranslational insertion of mitochondrial translation products into the inner membrane. YidC2, like Oxa1, contains a positively charged C-terminal extension and associates with translating ribosomes. Our results are consistent with a gene-duplication event in gram-positive bacteria that enabled the specialization of a YidC isoform that mediates cotranslational activity independent of an SRP pathway. PMID:19366667

  10. The long-term impacts of fisheries on epifaunal assemblage function and structure, in a Special Area of Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strain, E. M. A.; Allcock, A. L.; Goodwin, C. E.; Maggs, C. A.; Picton, B. E.; Roberts, D.

    2012-01-01

    Fisheries can have profound effects on epifaunal community function and structure. We analysed the results from five dive surveys (1975-1976, 1980, 1983, 2003 and 2007), taken in a Special Area of Conservation, Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland before and after a ten year period of increased trawling activity between 1985 and 1995. There were no detectable differences in the species richness or taxonomic distinctiveness before (1975-1983) and after (2003-2007) this period. However, there was a shift in the epifaunal assemblage between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. In general, the slow-moving, or sessile, erect, filter-feeders were replaced by highly mobile, swimming, scavengers and predators. There were declines in the frequency of the fished bivalve Aequipecten opercularis and the non-fished bivalves Modiolus modiolus and Chlamys varia and some erect sessile invertebrates between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. In contrast, there were increases in the frequency of the fished and reseeded bivalves Pecten maximus and Ostrea edulis, the fished crabs Cancer pagurus and Necora puber and the non-fished sea stars Asterias rubens, Crossaster papposus and Henricia oculata between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. We suggest that these shifts could be directly and indirectly attributed to the long-term impacts of trawl fishing gear, although increases in the supply of discarded bait and influxes of sediment may also have contributed to changes in the frequency of some taxa. These results suggest that despite their limitations, historical surveys and repeat sampling over long periods can help to elucidate the inferred patterns in the epifaunal community. The use of commercial fishing gear was banned from two areas in Strangford Lough in 2011, making it a model ecosystem for assessing the long-term recovery of the epifaunal community from the impacts of mobile and pot fishing gear.

  11. Beyond localized and distributed accounts of brain functions. Comment on “Understanding brain networks and brain organization” by Pessoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauda, Franco; Costa, Tommaso; Tamietto, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence in cognitive neuroscience lends support to the idea that network models of brain architecture provide a privileged access to the understanding of the relation between brain organization and cognitive processes [1]. The core perspective holds that cognitive processes depend on the interactions among distributed neuronal populations and brain structures, and that the impact of a given region on behavior largely depends on its pattern of anatomical and functional connectivity [2,3].

  12. Does the regulation of local excitation-inhibition balance aid in recovery of functional connectivity? A computational account.

    PubMed

    Vattikonda, Anirudh; Surampudi, Bapi Raju; Banerjee, Arpan; Deco, Gustavo; Roy, Dipanjan

    2016-08-01

    Computational modeling of the spontaneous dynamics over the whole brain provides critical insight into the spatiotemporal organization of brain dynamics at multiple resolutions and their alteration to changes in brain structure (e.g. in diseased states, aging, across individuals). Recent experimental evidence further suggests that the adverse effect of lesions is visible on spontaneous dynamics characterized by changes in resting state functional connectivity and its graph theoretical properties (e.g. modularity). These changes originate from altered neural dynamics in individual brain areas that are otherwise poised towards a homeostatic equilibrium to maintain a stable excitatory and inhibitory activity. In this work, we employ a homeostatic inhibitory mechanism, balancing excitation and inhibition in the local brain areas of the entire cortex under neurological impairments like lesions to understand global functional recovery (across brain networks and individuals). Previous computational and empirical studies have demonstrated that the resting state functional connectivity varies primarily due to the location and specific topological characteristics of the lesion. We show that local homeostatic balance provides a functional recovery by re-establishing excitation-inhibition balance in all areas that are affected by lesion. We systematically compare the extent of recovery in the primary hub areas (e.g. default mode network (DMN), medial temporal lobe, medial prefrontal cortex) as well as other sensory areas like primary motor area, supplementary motor area, fronto-parietal and temporo-parietal networks. Our findings suggest that stability and richness similar to the normal brain dynamics at rest are achievable by re-establishment of balance. PMID:27177761

  13. Study of dust particle charging in weakly ionized inert gases taking into account the nonlocality of the electron energy distribution function

    SciTech Connect

    Filippov, A. V. Dyatko, N. A.; Kostenko, A. S.

    2014-11-15

    The charging of dust particles in weakly ionized inert gases at atmospheric pressure has been investigated. The conditions under which the gas is ionized by an external source, a beam of fast electrons, are considered. The electron energy distribution function in argon, krypton, and xenon has been calculated for three rates of gas ionization by fast electrons: 10{sup 13}, 10{sup 14}, and 10{sup 15} cm{sup −1}. A model of dust particle charging with allowance for the nonlocal formation of the electron energy distribution function in the region of strong plasma quasi-neutrality violation around the dust particle is described. The nonlocality is taken into account in an approximation where the distribution function is a function of only the total electron energy. Comparative calculations of the dust particle charge with and without allowance for the nonlocality of the electron energy distribution function have been performed. Allowance for the nonlocality is shown to lead to a noticeable increase in the dust particle charge due to the influence of the group of hot electrons from the tail of the distribution function. It has been established that the screening constant virtually coincides with the smallest screening constant determined according to the asymptotic theory of screening with the electron transport and recombination coefficients in an unperturbed plasma.

  14. Special Days, Special Ways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Jacqueline

    2001-01-01

    Presents unique ways to create special rituals that recognize individual students' achievements and milestones. Ideas include throwing a send-off party for a student who is moving; holding monthly birthday luncheons; choosing an ambassador to accompany new students around school; and making a lost tooth container that students can use to safely…

  15. [Respiratory function evaluation in welders taking into account tecnological evolution of individual protection dispositive and risk specific information].

    PubMed

    Boggia, B; Graziuso, G; Carbone, U

    2011-01-01

    Aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of specific information program on DPI use on the functional respiratory parameters in a group of 15 welders compared with 18 welders not included in the program and 18 workers of industrial sector. Spirometryc parameters were recorded and compared and the results pointed out a significant increase of FEV1 and FVC in the study group compared with welder out of the study while no difference were observed between study group and workers of industrial sector. Results shown that the correct use of DPI could reduce the effects of welding fumes on respiratory tract making these effects equal to the exposure to industrial dusts. PMID:23393790

  16. Mississippi Special Olympics: Special Events Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinze, Toni; Cooper, Walter E.

    Provided in the manual are organizational guidelines and suggested activities for a Special Evants segment of the Mississippi Special Olympics Program to encourage participation by low motor functioning, multihandicapped, mentally retarded persons. Information is provided concerning objectives, organizational set-up, guidelines, communication…

  17. Functional neuroanatomy of remote episodic, semantic and spatial memory: a unified account based on multiple trace theory

    PubMed Central

    Moscovitch, Morris; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Gilboa, Asaf; Addis, Donna Rose; Westmacott, Robyn; Grady, Cheryl; McAndrews, Mary Pat; Levine, Brian; Black, Sandra; Winocur, Gordon; Nadel, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    We review lesion and neuroimaging evidence on the role of the hippocampus, and other structures, in retention and retrieval of recent and remote memories. We examine episodic, semantic and spatial memory, and show that important distinctions exist among different types of these memories and the structures that mediate them. We argue that retention and retrieval of detailed, vivid autobiographical memories depend on the hippocampal system no matter how long ago they were acquired. Semantic memories, on the other hand, benefit from hippocampal contribution for some time before they can be retrieved independently of the hippocampus. Even semantic memories, however, can have episodic elements associated with them that continue to depend on the hippocampus. Likewise, we distinguish between experientially detailed spatial memories (akin to episodic memory) and more schematic memories (akin to semantic memory) that are sufficient for navigation but not for re-experiencing the environment in which they were acquired. Like their episodic and semantic counterparts, the former type of spatial memory is dependent on the hippocampus no matter how long ago it was acquired, whereas the latter can survive independently of the hippocampus and is represented in extra-hippocampal structures. In short, the evidence reviewed suggests strongly that the function of the hippocampus (and possibly that of related limbic structures) is to help encode, retain, and retrieve experiences, no matter how long ago the events comprising the experience occurred, and no matter whether the memories are episodic or spatial. We conclude that the evidence favours a multiple trace theory (MTT) of memory over two other models: (1) traditional consolidation models which posit that the hippocampus is a time-limited memory structure for all forms of memory; and (2) versions of cognitive map theory which posit that the hippocampus is needed for representing all forms of allocentric space in memory. PMID

  18. NsrR from Streptomyces coelicolor Is a Nitric Oxide-sensing [4Fe-4S] Cluster Protein with a Specialized Regulatory Function*

    PubMed Central

    Crack, Jason C.; Munnoch, John; Dodd, Erin L.; Knowles, Felicity; Al Bassam, Mahmoud M.; Kamali, Saeed; Holland, Ashley A.; Cramer, Stephen P.; Hamilton, Chris J.; Johnson, Michael K.; Thomson, Andrew J.; Hutchings, Matthew I.; Le Brun, Nick E.

    2015-01-01

    The Rrf2 family transcription factor NsrR controls expression of genes in a wide range of bacteria in response to nitric oxide (NO). The precise form of the NO-sensing module of NsrR is the subject of controversy because NsrR proteins containing either [2Fe-2S] or [4Fe-4S] clusters have been observed previously. Optical, Mössbauer, resonance Raman spectroscopies and native mass spectrometry demonstrate that Streptomyces coelicolor NsrR (ScNsrR), previously reported to contain a [2Fe-2S] cluster, can be isolated containing a [4Fe-4S] cluster. ChIP-seq experiments indicated that the ScNsrR regulon is small, consisting of only hmpA1, hmpA2, and nsrR itself. The hmpA genes encode NO-detoxifying flavohemoglobins, indicating that ScNsrR has a specialized regulatory function focused on NO detoxification and is not a global regulator like some NsrR orthologues. EMSAs and DNase I footprinting showed that the [4Fe-4S] form of ScNsrR binds specifically and tightly to an 11-bp inverted repeat sequence in the promoter regions of the identified target genes and that DNA binding is abolished following reaction with NO. Resonance Raman data were consistent with cluster coordination by three Cys residues and one oxygen-containing residue, and analysis of ScNsrR variants suggested that highly conserved Glu-85 may be the fourth ligand. Finally, we demonstrate that some low molecular weight thiols, but importantly not physiologically relevant thiols, such as cysteine and an analogue of mycothiol, bind weakly to the [4Fe-4S] cluster, and exposure of this bound form to O2 results in cluster conversion to the [2Fe-2S] form, which does not bind to DNA. These data help to account for the observation of [2Fe-2S] forms of NsrR. PMID:25771538

  19. Special Care Units and Traditional Care in Dementia: Relationship with Behavior, Cognition, Functional Status and Quality of Life – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Jeroen S.; Berg, Ina J.; Scherder, Erik J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Special care facilities for patients with dementia gain increasing attention. However, an overview of studies examining the differences between care facilities with respect to their effects on behavior, cognition, functional status and quality of life is lacking. Results Our literature search resulted in 32 studies published until October 2012. Overall, patients with dementia who lived at special care units (SCUs) showed a significantly more challenging behavior, more agitation/aggression, more depression and anxiety, more cases of global cognitive impairment and a better psychosocial functioning. There was a tendency towards a better functional status in specialized care facilities, and a better quality of life was found in favor of the SCU group compared to the traditional nursing home (n-SCU) group. Longitudinal studies showed an increased number of neuropsychiatric cases, more patients displaying deteriorating behavior and resistance to care as well as less decline in activities of daily living (ADL) in the SCU group compared to the n-SCU group. Patients in small-scale, homelike SCUs showed more agitation and less ADL decline compared to SCU patients. Conclusion This review shows that the patient characteristics in SCU and n-SCU settings and, to a minor extent, in SCU and small-scale, homelike SCU settings are different. Over time, there are differences between n-SCU, SCU and small-scale, homelike SCU facilities for some variables. PMID:24403908

  20. Accounting Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication identifies 20 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of accounting specialist, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 20 units are as follows:…

  1. Educational Accounting Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Sam B.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" reviews the functions, procedures, and reports with which school business officials must be familiar in order to interpret and make decisions regarding the school district's financial position. Among the accounting functions discussed are financial management, internal auditing, annual…

  2. Using a Modified Pyramidal Training Model to Teach Special Education Teachers to Conduct Trial-Based Functional Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunnavatana, S. Shanun; Bloom, Sarah E.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Lignugaris/Kraft, Benjamin; Dayton, Elizabeth; Harris, Shannon K.

    2013-01-01

    Functional behavioral assessments are commonly used in school settings to assess and develop interventions for problem behavior. The trial-based functional analysis is an approach that teachers can use in their classrooms to identify the function of problem behavior. The current study evaluates the effectiveness of a modified pyramidal training…

  3. Assessing the Link between Executive Functions and Aggressive Behaviours of Children Who Are Deaf: Impact of Early Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipal, Rafet Firat; Bayhan, Pinar

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Relation between constructing complex mental structures and language skills cause delays in development of executive functions of deaf children. When the importance of language skills in development of executive functions and frequency of aggressive behaviours of deaf children are considered, investigation of executive functions of…

  4. Estimation of the shadow prices of pollutants with production/environment inefficiency taken into account: a nonparametric directional distance function approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Dong; Park, Jong-Bok; Kim, Tai-Yoo

    2002-04-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of the shadow prices of pollutants with a nonparametric directional distance function approach, where the inefficiency involved in the production process is taken into account unlike the previous studies. The directional vector, which is critical to the estimation and subject to the criterion for an appropriate efficiency rule proposed here, is calculated by using the annual plans of power plants in terms of production and environment. In the empirical study for Korea's electric power industry during the period of 1990-1995, we find that the average shadow prices of sulfur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and total suspended particulates (TSP) are approximately 10% lower than those calculated under the assumption of full efficiency. The methodology we propose and the findings obtained in the empirical study allow us to undertake better decision-making over a broad range of environmental policy issues. PMID:12141157

  5. Functional Genomic Approaches for the Study of Fetal/Placental Development in Swine with Special Emphasis on Imprinted Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overall focus of this chapter will be the application of functional genomic approaches for the study of the imprinted gene family in swine. While there are varied definitions of “functional genomics” in general they focus on the application of genomic approaches such as DNA microarrays, single n...

  6. The roles of whole-genome and small-scale duplications in the functional specialization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes.

    PubMed

    Fares, Mario A; Keane, Orla M; Toft, Christina; Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Jones, Gary W

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have long been enthralled with the idea that gene duplication can generate novel functions, crediting this process with great evolutionary importance. Empirical data shows that whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are more likely to be retained than small-scale duplications (SSDs), though their relative contribution to the functional fate of duplicates remains unexplored. Using the map of genetic interactions and the re-sequencing of 27 Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomes evolving for 2,200 generations we show that SSD-duplicates lead to neo-functionalization while WGD-duplicates partition ancestral functions. This conclusion is supported by: (a) SSD-duplicates establish more genetic interactions than singletons and WGD-duplicates; (b) SSD-duplicates copies share more interaction-partners than WGD-duplicates copies; (c) WGD-duplicates interaction partners are more functionally related than SSD-duplicates partners; (d) SSD-duplicates gene copies are more functionally divergent from one another, while keeping more overlapping functions, and diverge in their sub-cellular locations more than WGD-duplicates copies; and (e) SSD-duplicates complement their functions to a greater extent than WGD-duplicates. We propose a novel model that uncovers the complexity of evolution after gene duplication. PMID:23300483

  7. UTRdb and UTRsite: specialized databases of sequences and functional elements of 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of eukaryotic mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Pesole, Graziano; Liuni, Sabino; Grillo, Giorgio; Licciulli, Flavio; Larizza, Alessandra; Makalowski, Wojciech; Saccone, Cecilia

    2000-01-01

    The 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of eukaryotic mRNAs may play a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression controlling mRNA localization, stability and translational efficiency. For this reason we developed UTRdb, a specialized database of 5′ and 3′ untranslated sequences of eukaryotic mRNAs cleaned from redundancy. UTRdb entries are enriched with specialized information not present in the primary databases including the presence of nucleotide sequence patterns already demonstrated by experimental analysis to have some functional role. All these patterns have been collected in the UTRsite database so that it is possible to search any input sequence for the presence of annotated functional motifs. Furthermore, UTRdb entries have been annotated for the presence of repetitive elements. All internet resources implemented for retrieval and functional analysis of 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of eukaryotic mRNAs are accessible at http://bigarea.area.ba.cnr.it:8000/EmbIT/UTRHome/ PMID:10592223

  8. UTRdb and UTRsite: specialized databases of sequences and functional elements of 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of eukaryotic mRNAs. Update 2002

    PubMed Central

    Pesole, Graziano; Liuni, Sabino; Grillo, Giorgio; Licciulli, Flavio; Mignone, Flavio; Gissi, Carmela; Saccone, Cecilia

    2002-01-01

    The 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions (5′- and 3′-UTRs) of eukaryotic mRNAs are known to play a crucial role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression modulating nucleo-cytoplasmic mRNA transport, translation efficiency, subcellular localization and stability. UTRdb is a specialized database of 5′ and 3′ untranslated sequences of eukaryotic mRNAs cleaned from redundancy. UTRdb entries are enriched with specialized information not present in the primary databases including the presence of nucleotide sequence patterns already demonstrated by experimental analysis to have some functional role. All these patterns have been collected in the UTRsite database so that it is possible to search any input sequence for the presence of annotated functional motifs. Furthermore, UTRdb entries have been annotated for the presence of repetitive elements. All Internet resources we implemented for retrieval and functional analysis of 5′- and 3′-UTRs of eukaryotic mRNAs are accessible at http://bighost.area.ba.cnr.it/BIG/UTRHome/. PMID:11752330

  9. Chronic conditions, functional difficulties, and disease burden among American Indian/Alaska Native children with special health care needs, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Mary Kay; Thierry, Judy

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of chronic conditions and functional difficulties of American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) children with special health care needs (CSHCN). We conducted bivariate and multivariable analysis of cross-sectional data on 40,202 children from the 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs aged birth through 17 years, including 1,051 AIAN CSHCN. The prevalence of AIAN CSHCN was 15.7 %, not significantly different from the prevalence of US white CSHCN (16.3 %). As qualifiers for special needs status among AIAN children the use of or need for prescription medication was the most frequent (70 %), compared to the lower rates of need for elevated service use (44 %) and emotional, mental, or behavioral treatment/counseling (36 %). Asthma (45 %), conduct disorder (18 %), developmental delay (27 %), and migraine headaches (16 %) were significantly more common chronic conditions among AIAN CSHCN compared to white CSHCN, as were functional difficulties with respiration (52 %), communication (42 %), anxiety/depression (57 %), and behavior (54 %). AIAN CSHCN were also more likely to have 3 or more chronic conditions (39 vs. 28 %, respectively) and 3 or more functional difficulties (70 vs. 55 %, respectively) than white CSHCN. Results indicated a greater impact on the daily activities of AIAN CSHCN compared to white CSHCN (74 vs. 63 %). Significantly greater disease burden among AIAN CSHCN suggests that care must be taken to ensure an appropriate level of coordinated care in a medical home to ameliorate the severity and complexity of their conditions. PMID:24553797

  10. A systematic catalogue of butterflies of the former Soviet Union (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lituania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan) with special account to their type specimens (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea, Papilionoidea).

    PubMed

    Korb, Stanislav K; Bolshakov, Lavr V

    2016-01-01

    A catalogue of butterflies of Russia and adjacent countries is given, with special account to the name-bearing types depository. This catalogue contains data about 86 species (3 of them are questionable) of Hesperiidae (22 genera); 47 species of Papilionidae (14 genera); 89 species of Pieridae (5 of them are questionable)  (15 genera); 1 species (1 genus) of Libytheinae(dae); 2 species of Danainae(dae) (2 genera); 160 species of Nymphalinae(dae) (1 of them is questionable) (23 genera); 259 species of Satyrinae(dae) (14 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Oeneis and Pseudochazara) (34 genera); 3 species of Riodinidae (2 genera); 318 species of Lycaenidae (11 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Neolycaena and Plebeius) (57 genera). In total: 965 species of butterflies, 174 genera, by countries: Armenia-244, Azerbaijan-225, Belarus-107, Estonia-113, Georgia-211, Kyrgyzstan-316, Kazakhstan-344, Latvia-115, Lituania-126, Moldova-87, Russia-522, Tajikistan-295, Turkmenistan-159, Ukraine-192, Uzbekistan-241. Detailed distribution and subspecific structure (if present) for every species is provided. Lectotypes of the following species-group taxa are designated: Hesperia poggei Lederer, 1858, Parnassius felderi Bremer, 1861, P. eversmanni Eversmann, 1851, P. boedromius Püngeler, 1901, Limenitis moltrechti Kardakov, 1928, L. sydyi Kindermann, 1853, L. amphyssa Ménétriès, 1859, L. doerriesi Staudinger, 1892, L. helmanni duplicata Staudinger, 1892, L. homeyeri Tancré, 1881, Argynnis penelope Staudinger, 1891, A. thore borealis Staudinger, 1861, Vanessa io geisha Stichel, [1908], Melitaea maturna staudingeri Wnukowsky, 1929 (=uralensis Staudinger, 1871), M. didymina Staudinger, 1895, Papilio fascelis Esper, 1783, Thecla quercivora Staudinger, 1887, Lycaena orion var. ornata Staudinger, 1892. The following nomenclatural acts are established: Neolycaena submontana baitenovi (Zhdanko, 2011), comb. et stat.n. The following new synonymy is provided: Hesperia

  11. The effect of exercise intervention on frail elderly in need of care: half-day program in a senior day-care service facility specializing in functional training.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Ryota; Miura, Yasushi

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the long-term effect of a half-day exercise intervention program on health-related quality of life, life function, and physical function in frail elderly in need of care. The program was conducted at a senior day-care facility specializing in functional training. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included 41 elderly in need of care who had visited the service facility for at least 1 year. Physical function and life function were evaluated at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Quality of life was evaluated with the Short Form-36 at baseline and 12 months. [Results] Improvements in balance, walking speed and endurance, complex performance abilities, self-efficacy during the activities, and the level and sphere of activity were observed at 6 months and maintained up to 12 months. Moreover, improvements in agility, activities of daily living, life function, and quality of life were also observed at 12 months. Improvements in muscle strength, walking ability, self-efficacy over an action, and activities of daily living were related to the improvement in quality of life. [Conclusion] The use of individualized exercise programs developed by physiotherapists led to improvements in activities of daily living and quality of life among elderly in need of care. PMID:27512243

  12. The effect of exercise intervention on frail elderly in need of care: half-day program in a senior day-care service facility specializing in functional training

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Ryota; Miura, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the long-term effect of a half-day exercise intervention program on health-related quality of life, life function, and physical function in frail elderly in need of care. The program was conducted at a senior day-care facility specializing in functional training. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included 41 elderly in need of care who had visited the service facility for at least 1 year. Physical function and life function were evaluated at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Quality of life was evaluated with the Short Form-36 at baseline and 12 months. [Results] Improvements in balance, walking speed and endurance, complex performance abilities, self-efficacy during the activities, and the level and sphere of activity were observed at 6 months and maintained up to 12 months. Moreover, improvements in agility, activities of daily living, life function, and quality of life were also observed at 12 months. Improvements in muscle strength, walking ability, self-efficacy over an action, and activities of daily living were related to the improvement in quality of life. [Conclusion] The use of individualized exercise programs developed by physiotherapists led to improvements in activities of daily living and quality of life among elderly in need of care. PMID:27512243

  13. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals Functional Specialization along the Intestinal Tract of a Carnivorous Teleostean Fish (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    High-quality sequencing reads from the intestine of European sea bass were assembled, annotated by similarity against protein reference databases and combined with nucleotide sequences from public and private databases. After redundancy filtering, 24,906 non-redundant annotated sequences encoding 15,367 different gene descriptions were obtained. These annotated sequences were used to design a custom, high-density oligo-microarray (8 × 15 K) for the transcriptomic profiling of anterior (AI), middle (MI), and posterior (PI) intestinal segments. Similar molecular signatures were found for AI and MI segments, which were combined in a single group (AI-MI) whereas the PI outstood separately, with more than 1900 differentially expressed genes with a fold-change cutoff of 2. Functional analysis revealed that molecular and cellular functions related to feed digestion and nutrient absorption and transport were over-represented in AI-MI segments. By contrast, the initiation and establishment of immune defense mechanisms became especially relevant in PI, although the microarray expression profiling validated by qPCR indicated that these functional changes are gradual from anterior to posterior intestinal segments. This functional divergence occurred in association with spatial transcriptional changes in nutrient transporters and the mucosal chemosensing system via G protein-coupled receptors. These findings contribute to identify key indicators of gut functions and to compare different fish feeding strategies and immune defense mechanisms acquired along the evolution of teleosts. PMID:27610085

  14. Executive functions and behavioral problems in deaf and hard-of-hearing students at general and special schools.

    PubMed

    Hintermair, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    In this study, behavioral problems of deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) school-aged children are discussed in the context of executive functioning and communicative competence. Teachers assessed the executive functions of a sample of 214 D/HH students from general schools and schools for the deaf, using a German version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF-D). This was complemented by a questionnaire that measured communicative competence and behavioral problems (German version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; SDQ-D). The results in nearly all the scales show a significantly higher problem rate for executive functions in the group of D/HH students compared with a normative sample of hearing children. In the D/HH group, students at general schools had better scores on most scales than students at schools for the deaf. Regression analysis reveals the importance of executive functions and communicative competence for behavioral problems. The relevance of the findings for pedagogical work is discussed. A specific focus on competencies such as self-efficacy or self-control in educational concepts for D/HH students seems to be necessary in addition to extending language competencies. PMID:23418367

  15. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals Functional Specialization along the Intestinal Tract of a Carnivorous Teleostean Fish (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    PubMed Central

    Calduch-Giner, Josep A.; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    High-quality sequencing reads from the intestine of European sea bass were assembled, annotated by similarity against protein reference databases and combined with nucleotide sequences from public and private databases. After redundancy filtering, 24,906 non-redundant annotated sequences encoding 15,367 different gene descriptions were obtained. These annotated sequences were used to design a custom, high-density oligo-microarray (8 × 15 K) for the transcriptomic profiling of anterior (AI), middle (MI), and posterior (PI) intestinal segments. Similar molecular signatures were found for AI and MI segments, which were combined in a single group (AI-MI) whereas the PI outstood separately, with more than 1900 differentially expressed genes with a fold-change cutoff of 2. Functional analysis revealed that molecular and cellular functions related to feed digestion and nutrient absorption and transport were over-represented in AI-MI segments. By contrast, the initiation and establishment of immune defense mechanisms became especially relevant in PI, although the microarray expression profiling validated by qPCR indicated that these functional changes are gradual from anterior to posterior intestinal segments. This functional divergence occurred in association with spatial transcriptional changes in nutrient transporters and the mucosal chemosensing system via G protein-coupled receptors. These findings contribute to identify key indicators of gut functions and to compare different fish feeding strategies and immune defense mechanisms acquired along the evolution of teleosts. PMID:27610085

  16. Faculty Perspectives on International Accounting Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, L. Murphy; Salter, Stephen B.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 63 professors specializing in international accounting identified the following topics as most important to incorporate into the curriculum: (1) foreign currency translation; (2) international accounting standards; (3) comparative standards and harmonizing of accounting standards; (4) reporting and disclosure problems of multinational…

  17. Special Education: Grant Programs Designed To Serve Children Ages 0-5. Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, Restructuring and the District of Columbia, U.S. Senate Committee on Government Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaul, Marnie S.

    This report of the General Accounting Office to a Congressional Committee examines possible overlapping functions of three federal special education grant programs mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The programs are: (1) Special Education Grants to States (School-age Grants); (2) Special Education Preschool Grants…

  18. Specialized functions of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. II. Hmt binds N-formylated peptides of mitochondrial and prokaryotic origin

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The physiological functions of the mouse telomeric major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, including Hmt, are unknown. Hmt presents a polymorphic, N-formylated peptide encoded by the mitochondrial gene ND1 forming the cell surface maternally transmitted antigen (Mta). Because the N-formyl moiety is required for Hmt binding, we proposed that Hmt may function generally in presentation of N-formylated antigens. This hypothesis was validated by a competitive binding assay, demonstrating that synthetic N-formyl peptides from other mitochondrial genes also bound Hmt. Bacteria similarly initiate protein synthesis with N-formylmethionine; indeed, we established that Hmt can also present prokaryotic peptides in an N- formyl-dependent manner. These results indicate biochemical specialization of this MHC-peptide interaction and suggest a unique role for Hmt in prokaryotic host defenses. PMID:1919442

  19. Federal R&D Funding by Budget Function: Fiscal Years 2000-2002. An SRS Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Ronald L.

    This annual report contains information on the federal funding of the research and development (R&D) components of the agency programs as proposed for the fiscal year 2002. Research and development data are classified into the same federal budget function categories as those used in the "Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2002."…

  20. Adult Literacy in the Commonwealth Caribbean with Special Reference to a Study of the Functional Literacy of Young Guyanese Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Zellynne

    2000-01-01

    A test measuring document, prose, and quantitative literacy of out-of-school youth in Guyana found that only 11% had high levels of functional literacy, a literacy rate much lower than usually reported. Failure to represent the situation accurately prolongs the lack of political will to deal with the issue. (SK)

  1. Anxiety Symptoms in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder Attending Special Schools: Associations with Gender, Adaptive Functioning and Autism Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magiati, Iliana; Ong, Clarissa; Lim, Xin Yi; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Ong, Amily Yi Lin; Patrycia, Ferninda; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Sung, Min; Poon, Kenneth K.; Howlin, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety-related problems are among the most frequently reported mental health difficulties in autism spectrum disorder. As most research has focused on clinical samples or high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder, less is known about the factors associated with anxiety in community samples across the ability range. This…

  2. Association of tissue lineage and gene expression: conservatively and differentially expressed genes define common and special functions of tissues

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo is formed, develops, and establishes developmental hierarchies of tissues. The recent advance in microarray technology made it possible to investigate the tissue specific patterns of gene expression and their relationship with tissue lineages. This study is focused on how tissue specific functions, tissue lineage, and cell differentiation are correlated, which is essential to understand embryonic development and organism complexity. Results We performed individual gene and gene set based analysis on multiple tissue expression data, in association with the classic topology of mammalian fate maps of embryogenesis. For each sub-group of tissues on the fate map, conservatively, differentially and correlatively expressed genes or gene sets were identified. Tissue distance was found to correlate with gene expression divergence. Tissues of the ectoderm or mesoderm origins from the same segments on the fate map shared more similar expression pattern than those from different origins. Conservatively expressed genes or gene sets define common functions in a tissue group and are related to tissue specific diseases, which is supported by results from Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis. Gene expression divergence is larger in certain human tissues than in the mouse homologous tissues. Conclusion The results from tissue lineage and gene expression analysis indicate that common function features of neighbor tissue groups were defined by the conservatively expressed genes and were related to tissue specific diseases, and differentially expressed genes contribute to the functional divergence of tissues. The difference of gene expression divergence in human and mouse homologous tissues reflected the organism complexity, i.e. distinct neural development levels and different body sizes. PMID:21172044

  3. A special asymptotic limit of a Kampé de Fériet hypergeometric function appearing in nonhomogeneous Coulomb problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancarani, L. U.; Gasaneo, G.

    2011-02-01

    In the investigation of two-body Coulomb Schrödinger equations with some types of nonhomogeneities, the particular solution can be expressed in terms of a two-variable Kampé de Fériet hypergeometric function. The asymptotic limit of the latter—for both variables being large but their ratio being a bound constant—is required in order to extract relevant physical information from the solutions. In this report the mathematical limit is provided. For that purpose, a particular series representation of the hypergeometric function—in terms of products of Kummer and Gauss functions—is first derived.

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis of PAPS1-Dependent Polyadenylation Identifies Novel Roles for Functionally Specialized Poly(A) Polymerases in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ramming, Anna; Kolbe, Benjamin; Vi, Son Lang; Bispo, Cláudia; Becker, Jörg D.; de Moor, Cornelia; Lenhard, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The poly(A) tail at 3’ ends of eukaryotic mRNAs promotes their nuclear export, stability and translational efficiency, and changes in its length can strongly impact gene expression. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes three canonical nuclear poly(A) polymerases, PAPS1, PAPS2 and PAPS4. As shown by their different mutant phenotypes, these three isoforms are functionally specialized, with PAPS1 modifying organ growth and suppressing a constitutive immune response. However, the molecular basis of this specialization is largely unknown. Here, we have estimated poly(A)-tail lengths on a transcriptome-wide scale in wild-type and paps1 mutants. This identified categories of genes as particularly strongly affected in paps1 mutants, including genes encoding ribosomal proteins, cell-division factors and major carbohydrate-metabolic proteins. We experimentally verified two novel functions of PAPS1 in ribosome biogenesis and redox homoeostasis that were predicted based on the analysis of poly(A)-tail length changes in paps1 mutants. When overlaying the PAPS1-dependent effects observed here with coexpression analysis based on independent microarray data, the two clusters of transcripts that are most closely coexpressed with PAPS1 show the strongest change in poly(A)-tail length and transcript abundance in paps1 mutants in our analysis. This suggests that their coexpression reflects at least partly the preferential polyadenylation of these transcripts by PAPS1 versus the other two poly(A)-polymerase isoforms. Thus, transcriptome-wide analysis of poly(A)-tail lengths identifies novel biological functions and likely target transcripts for polyadenylation by PAPS1. Data integration with large-scale co-expression data suggests that changes in the relative activities of the isoforms are used as an endogenous mechanism to co-ordinately modulate plant gene expression. PMID:26305463

  5. An allelic series of miR-17 ∼ 92-mutant mice uncovers functional specialization and cooperation among members of a microRNA polycistron.

    PubMed

    Han, Yoon-Chi; Vidigal, Joana A; Mu, Ping; Yao, Evelyn; Singh, Irtisha; González, Alvaro J; Concepcion, Carla P; Bonetti, Ciro; Ogrodowski, Paul; Carver, Brett; Selleri, Licia; Betel, Doron; Leslie, Christina; Ventura, Andrea

    2015-07-01

    Polycistronic microRNA (miRNA) clusters are a common feature of vertebrate genomes. The coordinated expression of miRNAs belonging to different seed families from a single transcriptional unit suggests functional cooperation, but this hypothesis has not been experimentally tested. Here we report the characterization of an allelic series of genetically engineered mice harboring selective targeted deletions of individual components of the miR-17 ∼ 92 cluster. Our results demonstrate the coexistence of functional cooperation and specialization among members of this cluster, identify a previously undescribed function for the miR-17 seed family in controlling axial patterning in vertebrates and show that loss of miR-19 selectively impairs Myc-driven tumorigenesis in two models of human cancer. By integrating phenotypic analysis and gene expression profiling, we provide a genome-wide view of how the components of a polycistronic miRNA cluster affect gene expression in vivo. The reagents and data sets reported here will accelerate exploration of the complex biological functions of this important miRNA cluster. PMID:26029871

  6. The neural crest is a source of mesenchymal stem cells with specialized hematopoietic stem cell niche function

    PubMed Central

    Isern, Joan; García-García, Andrés; Martín, Ana M; Arranz, Lorena; Martín-Pérez, Daniel; Torroja, Carlos; Sánchez-Cabo, Fátima; Méndez-Ferrer, Simón

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and osteolineage cells contribute to the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche in the bone marrow of long bones. However, their developmental relationships remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that different MSC populations in the developing marrow of long bones have distinct functions. Proliferative mesoderm-derived nestin− MSCs participate in fetal skeletogenesis and lose MSC activity soon after birth. In contrast, quiescent neural crest-derived nestin+ cells preserve MSC activity, but do not generate fetal chondrocytes. Instead, they differentiate into HSC niche-forming MSCs, helping to establish the HSC niche by secreting Cxcl12. Perineural migration of these cells to the bone marrow requires the ErbB3 receptor. The neonatal Nestin-GFP+ Pdgfrα− cell population also contains Schwann cell precursors, but does not comprise mature Schwann cells. Thus, in the developing bone marrow HSC niche-forming MSCs share a common origin with sympathetic peripheral neurons and glial cells, and ontogenically distinct MSCs have non-overlapping functions in endochondrogenesis and HSC niche formation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03696.001 PMID:25255216

  7. Gene functionalities and genome structure in Bathycoccus prasinos reflect cellular specializations at the base of the green lineage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bathycoccus prasinos is an extremely small cosmopolitan marine green alga whose cells are covered with intricate spider's web patterned scales that develop within the Golgi cisternae before their transport to the cell surface. The objective of this work is to sequence and analyze its genome, and to present a comparative analysis with other known genomes of the green lineage. Research Its small genome of 15 Mb consists of 19 chromosomes and lacks transposons. Although 70% of all B. prasinos genes share similarities with other Viridiplantae genes, up to 428 genes were probably acquired by horizontal gene transfer, mainly from other eukaryotes. Two chromosomes, one big and one small, are atypical, an unusual synapomorphic feature within the Mamiellales. Genes on these atypical outlier chromosomes show lower GC content and a significant fraction of putative horizontal gene transfer genes. Whereas the small outlier chromosome lacks colinearity with other Mamiellales and contains many unknown genes without homologs in other species, the big outlier shows a higher intron content, increased expression levels and a unique clustering pattern of housekeeping functionalities. Four gene families are highly expanded in B. prasinos, including sialyltransferases, sialidases, ankyrin repeats and zinc ion-binding genes, and we hypothesize that these genes are associated with the process of scale biogenesis. Conclusion The minimal genomes of the Mamiellophyceae provide a baseline for evolutionary and functional analyses of metabolic processes in green plants. PMID:22925495

  8. Membrane transporters for the special amino acid glutamine: Structure/function relationships and relevance to human health.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochini, Lorena; Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Galluccio, Michele; Indiveri, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    Glutamine together with glucose is essential for body’s homeostasis. It is the most abundant amino acid and is involved in many biosynthetic, regulatory and energy production processes. Several membrane transporters which differ in transport modes, ensure glutamine homeostasis by coordinating its absorption, reabsorption and delivery to tissues. These transporters belong to different protein families, are redundant and ubiquitous. Their classification, originally based on functional properties, has recently been associated with the SLC nomenclature. Function of glutamine transporters is studied in cells over-expressing the transporters or, more recently in proteoliposomes harboring the proteins extracted from animal tissues or over-expressed in microorganisms. The role of the glutamine transporters is linked to their transport modes and coupling with Na+ and H+. Most transporters share specificity for other neutral or cationic amino acids. Na+-dependent co-transporters efficiently accumulate glutamine while antiporters regulate the pools of glutamine and other amino acids. The most acknowledged glutamine transporters belong to the SLC1, 6, 7 and 38 families. The members involved in the homeostasis are the co-transporters B0AT1 and the SNAT members 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7; the antiporters ASCT2, LAT1 and 2. The last two are associated to the ancillary CD98 protein. Some information on regulation of the glutamine transporters exist, which, however, need to be deepened. No information at all is available on structures, besides some homology models obtained using similar bacterial transporters as templates. Some models of rat and human glutamine transporters highlight very similar structures between the orthologues. Moreover the presence of glycosylation and/or phosphorylation sites located at the extracellular or intracellular faces has been predicted. ASCT2 and LAT1 are over-expressed in several cancers, thus representing potential targets for pharmacological intervention.

  9. Membrane transporters for the special amino acid glutamine: structure/function relationships and relevance to human health

    PubMed Central

    Pochini, Lorena; Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Galluccio, Michele; Indiveri, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Glutamine together with glucose is essential for body's homeostasis. It is the most abundant amino acid and is involved in many biosynthetic, regulatory and energy production processes. Several membrane transporters which differ in transport modes, ensure glutamine homeostasis by coordinating its absorption, reabsorption and delivery to tissues. These transporters belong to different protein families, are redundant and ubiquitous. Their classification, originally based on functional properties, has recently been associated with the SLC nomenclature. Function of glutamine transporters is studied in cells over-expressing the transporters or, more recently in proteoliposomes harboring the proteins extracted from animal tissues or over-expressed in microorganisms. The role of the glutamine transporters is linked to their transport modes and coupling with Na+ and H+. Most transporters share specificity for other neutral or cationic amino acids. Na+-dependent co-transporters efficiently accumulate glutamine while antiporters regulate the pools of glutamine and other amino acids. The most acknowledged glutamine transporters belong to the SLC1, 6, 7, and 38 families. The members involved in the homeostasis are the co-transporters B0AT1 and the SNAT members 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7; the antiporters ASCT2, LAT1 and 2. The last two are associated to the ancillary CD98 protein. Some information on regulation of the glutamine transporters exist, which, however, need to be deepened. No information at all is available on structures, besides some homology models obtained using similar bacterial transporters as templates. Some models of rat and human glutamine transporters highlight very similar structures between the orthologs. Moreover the presence of glycosylation and/or phosphorylation sites located at the extracellular or intracellular faces has been predicted. ASCT2 and LAT1 are over-expressed in several cancers, thus representing potential targets for pharmacological intervention

  10. Comparative Functional Genomics of Lactobacillus spp. Reveals Possible Mechanisms for Specialization of Vaginal Lactobacilli to Their Environment

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Haruo; Hickey, Roxana J.; Forney, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacilli are found in a wide variety of habitats. Four species, Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri, L. iners, and L. jensenii, are common and abundant in the human vagina and absent from other habitats. These may be adapted to the vagina and possess characteristics enabling them to thrive in that environment. Furthermore, stable codominance of multiple Lactobacillus species in a single community is infrequently observed. Thus, it is possible that individual vaginal Lactobacillus species possess unique characteristics that confer to them host-specific competitive advantages. We performed comparative functional genomic analyses of representatives of 25 species of Lactobacillus, searching for habitat-specific traits in the genomes of the vaginal lactobacilli. We found that the genomes of the vaginal species were significantly smaller and had significantly lower GC content than those of the nonvaginal species. No protein families were found to be specific to the vaginal species analyzed, but some were either over- or underrepresented relative to nonvaginal species. We also found that within the vaginal species, each genome coded for species-specific protein families. Our results suggest that even though the vaginal species show no general signatures of adaptation to the vaginal environment, each species has specific and perhaps unique ways of interacting with its environment, be it the host or other microbes in the community. These findings will serve as a foundation for further exploring the role of lactobacilli in the ecological dynamics of vaginal microbial communities and their ultimate impact on host health. PMID:24488312

  11. Results of Pancreas Transplantation Alone with Special Attention to Native Kidney Function and Proteinuria in Type 1 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Boggi, Ugo; Vistoli, Fabio; Amorese, Gabriella; Giannarelli, Rosa; Coppelli, Alberto; Mariotti, Rita; Rondinini, Lorenzo; Barsotti, Massimiliamo; Piaggesi, Alberto; Tedeschi, Anna; Signori, Stefano; De Lio, Nelide; Occhipinti, Margherita; Mangione, Emanuela; Cantarovich, Diego; Del Prato, Stefano; Mosca, Franco; Marchetti, Piero

    2011-01-01

    We report on our single-center experience with pancreas transplantation alone (PTA) in 71 patients with type 1 diabetes, and a 4-year follow-up. Portal insulin delivery was used in 73.2% of cases and enteric drainage of exocrine secretion in 100%. Immunosuppression consisted of basiliximab (76%), or thymoglobulin (24%), followed by mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and low-dose steroids. Actuarial patient and pancreas survival at 4 years were 98.4% and 76.7%, respectively. Relaparatomy was needed in 18.3% of patients. Restored endogenous insulin secretion resulted in sustained normalization of fasting plasma glucose levels and HbA1c concentration in all technically successful transplantations. Protenuria (24-hour) improved significantly after PTA. Renal function declined only in recipients with pretransplant glomerular filtration rate (GFR) greater than 90 ml/min, possibly as a result of correction of hyperfiltration following normalization of glucose metabolism. Further improvements were recorded in several cardiovascular risk factors, retinopathy, and neuropathy. We conclude that PTA was an effective and reasonably safe procedure in this single-center experience. PMID:22189549

  12. Specialized Science

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C.

    2014-01-01

    As the body of scientific knowledge in a discipline increases, there is pressure for specialization. Fields spawn subfields that then become entities in themselves that promote further specialization. The process by which scientists join specialized groups has remarkable similarities to the guild system of the middle ages. The advantages of specialization of science include efficiency, the establishment of normative standards, and the potential for greater rigor in experimental research. However, specialization also carries risks of monopoly, monotony, and isolation. The current tendency to judge scientific work by the impact factor of the journal in which it is published may have roots in overspecialization, as scientists are less able to critically evaluate work outside their field than before. Scientists in particular define themselves through group identity and adopt practices that conform to the expectations and dynamics of such groups. As part of our continuing analysis of issues confronting contemporary science, we analyze the emergence and consequences of specialization in science, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and suggest that specialization carries significant costs. We propose measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of scientific specialism. PMID:24421049

  13. Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Ray, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on special needs instruction and technology: (1) "Hawaii Special Education Teacher Induction" (Kalena Oliva and Quinn Avery); (2) "The Impact of Group v Individual Use of Hypermedia-Based Instruction" (Lewis R. Johnson, Louis P. Semrau, and Gail E. Fitzgerald); (3) "Assistive Technology Meets…

  14. Response Essay: Special Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Paid

    2000-01-01

    This commentary reflects on findings from previous articles that reviewed trends in special education research in the United States, Norway, Botswana, Ecuador, Australia, and Turkey. It discusses the function, funding, and subject matter of special education research, on research on the education of special education teachers, and on research…

  15. Functional specializations in lateral prefrontal cortex associated with the integration and segregation of information in working memory.

    PubMed

    De Pisapia, Nicola; Slomski, Jessica A; Braver, Todd S

    2007-05-01

    Control processes are thought to play an important role in working memory (WM), by enabling the coordination, transformation, and integration of stored information. Yet little is known about the neural mechanisms that subserve such control processes. This study examined whether integration operations within WM involve the activation of distinct neural mechanisms within lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to monitor brain activity while participants performed a mental arithmetic task. In the integration (IN) condition, a WM preload item had to be mentally inserted into the last step of the math problem. This contrasted with the segregation (SG) condition, which also required maintenance of the WM preload while performing mental arithmetic but had no integration requirement. Two additional control conditions involved either ignoring the preload (math only condition) or ignoring the math problem (recall only condition). Left anterior PFC (Brodmann's Area [BA] 46/10) was selectively engaged by integration demands, with activation increasing prior to, as well as during the integration period. A homologous right anterior PFC region showed selectively increased activity in the SG condition during the period in which the math problem and preload digit were reported. Left middorsolateral PFC regions (BA 9/46) showed increased, but equivalent, activity in both the SG and IN conditions relative to both control conditions. These results provide support for the selective role of lateral PFC in cognitive control over WM and suggest more specific hypotheses regarding dissociable PFC mechanisms involved during the integration and segregation of stored WM items. PMID:16769743

  16. Identification of global gene expression differences between human lens epithelial and cortical fiber cells reveals specific genes and their associated pathways important for specialized lens cell functions

    PubMed Central

    Hawse, John R.; DeAmicis-Tress, Candida; Cowell, Tracy L.; Kantorow, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In order to identify specific genes that may play important roles in maintaining the specialized functions of lens epithelial and fiber cells, we have analyzed the global gene expression profiles of these two cell types in the human lens. This analysis will also reveal those genes that are exclusively expressed in the epithelial and cortical fiber cells and those genes that may play important roles in the differentiation of epithelial cells to mature fiber cells. Methods: Oligonucleotide microarray hybridization was used to analyze the expression profiles of 22,215 genes between adult (average age greater than 56 years) human lens epithelial and cortical fiber cells. The expression levels of selected genes were further compared by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and selected genes were functionally clustered into common categories using the EASE bioinformatics software package. Results: Analysis of three separate microarray hybridizations revealed 1,196 transcripts that exhibit increased expression and 1,278 transcripts that exhibit decreased expression at the 2 fold or greater level between lens epithelial cells and cortical fiber cells on all three of the arrays analyzed. Of these, 222 transcripts exhibited increased expression and 135 transcripts exhibited decreased expression by an average of 5 fold or greater levels on all three arrays. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of 21 randomly selected genes revealed identical expression patterns as those detected by microarray hybridization indicating that the microarray data are accurate. Functional clustering of the identified gene expression patterns using the EASE program revealed a wide variety of biological pathways that exhibited altered expression patterns between the two cell types including mRNA processing, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, translation, protein folding, oxidative phosphorylation, and apoptosis, among others. Conclusions: These data reveal novel and previously identified gene expression

  17. Density-functional approaches to non-bonding interactions: a comparison of dispersion corrections (DFT-D), exchange-hole dipole moment (XDM) theory, and specialized functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Lori A; Sherrill, David; Vazquez-Mayagoitia, Alvaro; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2011-01-01

    A systematic study of techniques for treating non-covalent interactions within the computationally efficient density functional theory (DFT) framework is presented through comparison to benchmark-quality evaluations of binding strength com- piled for molecular complexes of diverse size and nature. In particular, the effi- cacy of functionals deliberately crafted to encompass long-range forces, a posteri- ori DFT+dispersion corrections (DFT-D2 and DFT-D3), and exchange-hole dipole moment (XDM) theory is assessed against a large collection (469 energy points) of reference interaction energies at the CCSD(T) level of theory extrapolated to the estimated complete basis set limit. The established S22 and JSCH test sets of minimum-energy structures, as well as collections of dispersion-bound (NBC10) and hydrogen-bonded (HBC6) dissociation curves and a pairwise decomposition of a protein-ligand reaction site (HSG), comprise the chemical systems for this work. From evaluations of accuracy, consistency, and efficiency for PBE-D, BP86-D, B97-D, PBE0-D, B3LYP-D, B970-D, M05-2X, M06-2X, B97X-D, B2PLYP-D, XYG3, and B3LYP-XDM methodologies, it is concluded that distinct, often contrasting, groups of these elicit the best performance within the accessible double- or robust triple- basis set regimes and among hydrogen-bonded or dispersion-dominated complexes. For overall results, M05-2X, B97-D3, and B970-D2 yield superior values in conjunc- tion with aug-cc-pVDZ, for a mean absolute deviation of 0.41 0.49 kcal/mol, and B3LYP-D3, B97-D3, B97X-D, and B2PLYP-D3 dominate with aug-cc-pVTZ, af- fording, together with XYG3/6-311+G(3df,2p), a mean absolute deviation of 0.33 0.38 kcal/mol.

  18. The Use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Version for Children and Youth (ICF-CY), in Portuguese Special Education Assessment and Eligibility Procedures: The Professionals' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanches-Ferreira, Manuela; Silveira-Maia, Mónica; Alves, Sílvia

    2014-01-01

    Portugal was the first country decreeing the mandatory use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Child and Youth (ICF-CY) framework for guiding special education assessment process and to base eligibility decision-making on students' functioning profiles--in contrast with traditional approaches centred on…

  19. Specialized Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Dangott, Bryan

    2016-03-01

    Some laboratories or laboratory sections have unique needs that traditional anatomic and clinical pathology systems may not address. A specialized laboratory information system (LIS), which is designed to perform a limited number of functions, may perform well in areas where a traditional LIS falls short. Opportunities for specialized LISs continue to evolve with the introduction of new testing methodologies. These systems may take many forms, including stand-alone architecture, a module integrated with an existing LIS, a separate vendor-supplied module, and customized software. This article addresses the concepts underlying specialized LISs, their characteristics, and in what settings they are found. PMID:26851663

  20. Counselors' Accounts of Their Clients' Spiritual Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Janice Miner

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a special section within this issue of Counseling and Values that focuses on counselors' accounts of their clients' transpersonal experiences. The eight articles in this special section discuss ten types of transpersonal experiences. Clients range in age from early 20s to early 80s. Experiences occurred in various settings and were…

  1. Special Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Phil

    1986-01-01

    Specialized publications such as "Opera News,""Gourmet," and "Forbes" can bring an institution's story to targeted audiences. The experiences of Chautauqua Institution are described. Some of the benefits of marketing articles to these publications are discussed. (MLW)

  2. Special Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavendel, Giuliana

    1977-01-01

    Discusses problems involved in maintaining special scientific or engineering libraries, including budget problems, remote storage locations, rental computer retrieval systems, protecting trade secrets, and establishing a magnetic tape library. (MLH)

  3. Effect of ice storage on the functional properties of proteins from a few species of fresh water fish (Indian major carps) with special emphasis on gel forming ability.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Naresh Kumar; Elavarasan, K; Reddy, A Manjunatha; Shamasundar, B A

    2014-04-01

    In the present study the effect of ice storage on physico-chemical and functional properties of proteins from Indian major carps with special emphasis on gel forming ability have been assessed for a period of 22 days. The solubility profile of proteins in high ionic strength buffer and calcium adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity reduced significantly (p < 0.05), while that of total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) increased significantly (p < 0.05) at the end of 22 days of ice storage. The major protein fraction showed association-dissociation-denaturation phenomenon during ice storage as revealed by gel filtration profile and viscosity measurements. The gel forming ability of three fish species both in fresh and during different periods of ice storage was assessed by measuring the gel strength of heat induced gel. Among the three species the gel strength of the gel obtained from Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala was higher (586 and 561 g.cm) than the gel obtained from Labeo rohita (395 g.cm) in fresh condition. The gel forming ability of three species was significantly affected (p < 0.05) during ice storage. The TVB-N values of fish meat as a function of ice storage was within the prescribed limit up to 17 days of the ice storage. PMID:24741158

  4. WAPA Daily Energy Accounting Activities

    1990-10-01

    ISA (Interchange, Scheduling, & Accounting) is the interchange scheduling system used by the DOE Western Area Power Administration to perform energy accounting functions associated with the daily activities of the Watertown Operations Office (WOO). The system's primary role is to provide accounting functions for scheduled energy which is exchanged with other power companies and power operating organizations. The system has a secondary role of providing a historical record of all scheduled interchange transactions. The followingmore » major functions are performed by ISA: scheduled energy accounting for received and delivered energy; generation scheduling accounting for both fossil and hydro-electric power plants; metered energy accounting for received and delivered totals; energy accounting for Direct Current (D.C.) Ties; regulation accounting; automatic generation control set calculations; accounting summaries for Basin, Heartland Consumers Power District, and the Missouri Basin Municipal Power Agency; calculation of estimated generation for the Laramie River Station plant; daily and monthly reports; and dual control areas.« less

  5. 49 CFR 1242.04 - Special tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special tests. 1242.04 Section 1242.04... BETWEEN FREIGHT SERVICE AND PASSENGER SERVICE FOR RAILROADS 1 General § 1242.04 Special tests. When the separation of common expense accounts between freight and passenger services is based upon special tests...

  6. 49 CFR 1242.04 - Special tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special tests. 1242.04 Section 1242.04... BETWEEN FREIGHT SERVICE AND PASSENGER SERVICE FOR RAILROADS 1 General § 1242.04 Special tests. When the separation of common expense accounts between freight and passenger services is based upon special tests...

  7. The Interactive Account of ventral occipitotemporal contributions to reading

    PubMed Central

    Price, Cathy J.; Devlin, Joseph T.

    2011-01-01

    The ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) is involved in the perception of visually presented objects and written words. The Interactive Account of vOT function is based on the premise that perception involves the synthesis of bottom-up sensory input with top-down predictions that are generated automatically from prior experience. We propose that vOT integrates visuospatial features abstracted from sensory inputs with higher level associations such as speech sounds, actions and meanings. In this context, specialization for orthography emerges from regional interactions without assuming that vOT is selectively tuned to orthographic features. We discuss how the Interactive Account explains left vOT responses during normal reading and developmental dyslexia; and how it accounts for the behavioural consequences of left vOT damage. PMID:21549634

  8. Material control and accountability alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    1991-08-12

    Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations governing material control and accountability in nuclear facilities have become more restrictive in the past decade, especially in areas that address the insider threat. As the insider threat receives greater credibility, regulations have been strengthened to increase the probability of detecting insider activity and to prevent removal of a significant quantity of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) from areas under control of the protective force.

  9. Evaluation of accountability measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Cacic, C.G.

    1988-01-01

    The New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) is programmatically responsible to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) for providing independent review and evaluation of accountability measurement technology in DOE nuclear facilities. This function is addressed in part through the NBL Safegaurds Measurement Evaluation (SME) Program. The SME Program utilizes both on-site review of measurement methods along with material-specific measurement evaluation studies to provide information concerning the adequacy of subject accountability measurements. This paper reviews SME Program activities for the 1986-87 time period, with emphasis on noted improvements in measurement capabilities. Continued evolution of the SME Program to respond to changing safeguards concerns is discussed.

  10. Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics: a special issue in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics: a special issue in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowker, Fay; Elizalde, Emilio; Kirsten, Klaus

    2012-09-01

    probably the reason that his paper did not receive the same recognition as the one by Hawking [12], where zeta function regularization was mentioned in the title and where it was actually applied to examples in the article. Of course, Stuart's and Raymond's paper hit the pulse of the time in that after Stephen Hawking's announcement about Hawking radiation [13], the quantum field theory in curved space-time frenzy began. He had been interested in that subject for a while, the most important influence being de Witt's Les Houches lectures and also Chris Isham, who introduced him to Dennis Sciama's Oxford group, including Philip Candelas and Derek Raine, in 1973. The project about de Sitter space got somewhat delayed by work on path integrals and the ordering problem until Ray Critchley came by looking for a PhD topic. Several more of his best known papers are in the context of quantum field theory in curved spacetime. In the article [14], conformal transformations play a fundamental role. They are used to transform static manifolds to ultra-static ones where a high-temperature expansion of the effective action can be done. The result has since been rediscovered many times for special cases. In the process they also showed results about the conformal transformation of heat kernel coefficients claimed later on by mathematicians. The paper by Kennedy, Critchley and Dowker [15] belongs in the same context. Deutsch and Candelas had shown the occurrence of non-integrable singularities near boundaries of the Casimir energy densities, which made it impossible to obtain global energies by naively integrating local quantities. To resolve that problem, the needed surface counterterms for an arbitrarily shaped smooth boundary in curved space were computed. How does the paper [16] fit into the general scheme? The seed to considering this topic was probably planted when Yakir Aharonov was visiting Birmingham in 1958. In the Aharonov-Bohm effect we have an electromagnetic field with finite

  11. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to Describe Children Referred to Special Care or Paediatric Dental Services

    PubMed Central

    Faulks, Denise; Norderyd, Johanna; Molina, Gustavo; Macgiolla Phadraig, Caoimhin; Scagnet, Gabriela; Eschevins, Caroline; Hennequin, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Children in dentistry are traditionally described in terms of medical diagnosis and prevalence of oral disease. This approach gives little information regarding a child’s capacity to maintain oral health or regarding the social determinants of oral health. The biopsychosocial approach, embodied in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Child and Youth version (ICF-CY) (WHO), provides a wider picture of a child’s real-life experience, but practical tools for the application of this model are lacking. This article describes the preliminary empirical study necessary for development of such a tool - an ICF-CY Core Set for Oral Health. An ICF-CY questionnaire was used to identify the medical, functional, social and environmental context of 218 children and adolescents referred to special care or paediatric dental services in France, Sweden, Argentina and Ireland (mean age 8 years ±3.6yrs). International Classification of Disease (ICD-10) diagnoses included disorders of the nervous system (26.1%), Down syndrome (22.0%), mental retardation (17.0%), autistic disorders (16.1%), and dental anxiety alone (11.0%). The most frequently impaired items in the ICF Body functions domain were ‘Intellectual functions’, ‘High-level cognitive functions’, and ‘Attention functions’. In the Activities and Participation domain, participation restriction was frequently reported for 25 items including ‘Handling stress’, ‘Caring for body parts’, ‘Looking after one’s health’ and ‘Speaking’. In the Environment domain, facilitating items included ‘Support of friends’, ‘Attitude of friends’ and ‘Support of immediate family’. One item was reported as an environmental barrier – ‘Societal attitudes’. The ICF-CY can be used to highlight common profiles of functioning, activities, participation and environment shared by children in relation to oral health, despite widely differing medical, social and geographical

  12. 7 CFR 761.53 - Interest bearing accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest bearing accounts. 761.53 Section 761.53... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Supervised Bank Accounts § 761.53 Interest bearing accounts. (a) A supervised bank account, if possible, will be established as an interest bearing...

  13. 7 CFR 761.53 - Interest bearing accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interest bearing accounts. 761.53 Section 761.53... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Supervised Bank Accounts § 761.53 Interest bearing accounts. (a) A supervised bank account, if possible, will be established as an interest bearing...

  14. 7 CFR 761.55 - Closing a supervised bank account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Closing a supervised bank account. 761.55 Section 761..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS FARM LOAN PROGRAMS; GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Supervised Bank Accounts § 761.55 Closing a supervised bank account. (a) If the supervised bank account is no longer...

  15. 7 CFR 761.55 - Closing a supervised bank account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Closing a supervised bank account. 761.55 Section 761..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS FARM LOAN PROGRAMS; GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Supervised Bank Accounts § 761.55 Closing a supervised bank account. (a) If the supervised bank account is no longer...

  16. 7 CFR 761.55 - Closing a supervised bank account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Closing a supervised bank account. 761.55 Section 761..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Supervised Bank Accounts § 761.55 Closing a supervised bank account. (a) If the supervised bank account is no longer needed and the...

  17. Special Advocate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Weele, Maribeth

    1992-01-01

    Thomas Hehir, special education chief of Chicago Public Schools, is evangelist of integrating children with disabilities into regular classrooms. By completely reorganizing department viewed as political patronage dumping ground, Hehir has made remarkable progress in handling large number of children awaiting evaluation and placement in special…

  18. Special Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, L.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The special theory of relativity (SR), developed by ALBERT EINSTEIN in 1905, represents a revolutionary change in the human conception of the nature of space and time. According to SR, space and time are not absolute but must be viewed as components of a single entity, SPACE-TIME. This idea has numerous important implications, both conceptual and practical....

  19. Special Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiant, Sarah K.; Lynch, Clifford; Nevins, Kate; Juergens, Bonnie

    1998-01-01

    Contains three special reports: developments in copyright law, 1997 (World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) legislation, Ashcroft Bill, No Electronic Theft Act, database protection, Conference on Fair Use (CONFU), judicial decisions, principles for licensing electronic resources, and Uniform Commercial Code Article 2B); Internet2 and the…

  20. Specialized Mediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Carol; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Six articles discuss librarians as mediators in special circumstances. Highlights include the reference librarian and the information paraprofessional; effective reference mediation for nontraditional public library users, including mentally impaired patrons and illiterate adults; the academic librarian's role in the education process; and…

  1. A Functional Assessment of the Use of Virtual Simulations to Train Distance Preservice Special Education Teachers to Conduct Individualized Education Program Team Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lee Landrum

    2011-01-01

    The individualized education program (IEP) is a critical component of providing special education services to children with disabilities, outlining the services and modifications that will be provided to help them make progress towards the general curriculum. While simulations have been shown to be an effective means of teaching special education…

  2. Special Rules for Special Ed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherly, Julie J.

    2000-01-01

    School districts are on safer legal ground if they recommend appropriate educational services for each special-needs child, convene parents and school personnel for Individual Education Plan meetings, make placement decisions based on individualized, thorough evaluations; document alternative options; develop behavior-management programs, and use…

  3. Mechanisms of hemispheric specialization: Insights from analyses of connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Klaas Enno; Fink, Gereon R.; Marshall, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, anatomical and physiological descriptions of hemispheric specialization have focused on hemispheric asymmetries of local brain structure or local functional properties, respectively. This article reviews the current state of an alternative approach that aims at unraveling the causes and functional principles of hemispheric specialization in terms of asymmetries in connectivity. Starting with an overview of the historical origins of the concept of lateralization, we briefly review recent evidence from anatomical and developmental studies that asymmetries in structural connectivity may be a critical factor shaping hemispheric specialization. These differences in anatomical connectivity, which are found both at the intra- and inter-regional level, are likely to form the structural substrate of different functional principles of information processing in the two hemispheres. The main goal of this article is to describe how these functional principles can be characterized using functional neuroimaging in combination with models of functional and effective connectivity. We discuss the methodology of established models of connectivity which are applicable to data from positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging and review published studies that have applied these approaches to characterize asymmetries of connectivity during lateralized tasks. Adopting a model-based approach enables functional imaging to proceed from mere descriptions of asymmetric activation patterns to mechanistic accounts of how these asymmetries are caused. PMID:16949111

  4. Special Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhouse, Nicholas M. J.

    This course on special relativity emphasizes the coordinate-free and tensorial approach to Einstein's theory. The author encourages the reader to look at problems from a four-dimensional point of view, so preparing them for further study in relativistic physics, gravitation and cosmology. The book will be especially appealing to students with a mathematical bent and those who like brevity and clarity of reasoning.

  5. 28 CFR 600.7 - Conduct and accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conduct and accountability. 600.7 Section 600.7 Judicial Administration OFFICES OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL POWERS OF SPECIAL COUNSEL § 600.7 Conduct and accountability. (a) A Special Counsel shall comply with the...

  6. 47 CFR 32.5083 - Special access revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special access revenue. 32.5083 Section 32.5083... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Revenue Accounts § 32.5083 Special access revenue... user or switched access charges referred to in Account 5081, End user revenue, and Account...

  7. 47 CFR 32.5083 - Special access revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special access revenue. 32.5083 Section 32.5083... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Revenue Accounts § 32.5083 Special access revenue... user or switched access charges referred to in Account 5081, End user revenue, and Account...

  8. Towards a Convergent Account of Pragmatic Language Deficits in Children with High-Functioning Autism: Depicting the Phenotype Using the Pragmatic Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Yan Grace; Yeung, Siu Sze Susanna

    2012-01-01

    Despite its prominence, pragmatic characteristic associated with autism is under-explored and thus was not well defined. The present study attempted to depict a relatively comprehensive profile of language pragmatics in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) using the Pragmatic Rating Scale (PRS). Pragmatic behaviors of 26 HFA children were…

  9. 26 CFR 1.446-1 - General rule for methods of accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... also the accounting treatment of any item. Examples of such over-all methods are the cash receipts and... various methods provided for the accounting treatment of special items. These methods of accounting for special items include the accounting treatment prescribed for research and experimental expenditures,...

  10. Holding Accountability to Account. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Holding Accountability to Account: How Scholarship and Experience in Other Fields Inform Exploration of Performance Incentives in Education"--a paper presented at the National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference in February--Richard Rothstein, a research associate at the Economic Policy Institute, argues educational…

  11. Accountability, California Style: Counting or Accounting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Michael; Higgins, Jennifer; Raczek, Anastasia

    2004-01-01

    Across the nation and at nearly all levels of our educational system, efforts to hold schools accountable for student learning dominate strategies for improving the quality of education. At both the national and state level, student testing stands at the center of educational accountability programs, such that schools are effectively held…

  12. International Accounting and the Accounting Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laribee, Stephen F.

    The American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) has been instrumental in internationalizing the accounting curriculum by means of accreditation requirements and standards. Colleges and universities have met the AACSB requirements either by providing separate international accounting courses or by integrating international topics…

  13. Selective instability of Orc1 protein accounts for the absence of functional origin recognition complexes during the M-G(1) transition in mammals.

    PubMed

    Natale, D A; Li, C J; Sun, W H; DePamphilis, M L

    2000-06-01

    To investigate the events leading to initiation of DNA replication in mammalian chromosomes, the time when hamster origin recognition complexes (ORCs) became functional was related to the time when Orc1, Orc2 and Mcm3 proteins became stably bound to hamster chromatin. Functional ORCs, defined as those able to initiate DNA replication, were absent during mitosis and early G(1) phase, and reappeared as cells progressed through G(1) phase. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that hamster Orc1 and Orc2 proteins were present in nuclei at equivalent concentrations throughout the cell cycle, but only Orc2 was stably bound to chromatin. Orc1 and Mcm3 were easily eluted from chromatin during mitosis and early G(1) phase, but became stably bound during mid-G(1) phase, concomitant with the appearance of a functional pre-replication complex at a hamster replication origin. Since hamster Orc proteins are closely related to their human and mouse homologs, the unexpected behavior of hamster Orc1 provides a novel mechanism in mammals for delaying assembly of pre-replication complexes until mitosis is complete and a nuclear structure has formed. PMID:10835370

  14. Cancer Reduces Transcriptome Specialization

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Octavio; Reyes-Valdés, M. Humberto; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2010-01-01

    A central goal of cancer biology is to understand how cells from this family of genetic diseases undergo specific morphological and physiological changes and regress to a de-regulated state of the cell cycle. The fact that tumors are unable to perform most of the specific functions of the original tissue led us to hypothesize that the degree of specialization of the transcriptome of cancerous tissues must be less than their normal counterparts. With the aid of information theory tools, we analyzed four datasets derived from transcriptomes of normal and tumor tissues to quantitatively test the hypothesis that cancer reduces transcriptome specialization. Here, we show that the transcriptional specialization of a tumor is significantly less than the corresponding normal tissue and comparable with the specialization of dedifferentiated embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the drop in specialization in cancerous tissues is largely due to a decrease in expression of genes that are highly specific to the normal organ. This approach gives us a better understanding of carcinogenesis and offers new tools for the identification of genes that are highly influential in cancer progression. PMID:20454660

  15. A Harmonious Accounting Duo?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schapperle, Robert F.; Hardiman, Patrick F.

    1992-01-01

    Accountants have urged "harmonization" of standards between the Governmental Accounting Standards Board and the Financial Accounting Standards Board, recommending similar reporting of like transactions. However, varying display of similar accounting events does not necessarily indicate disharmony. The potential for problems because of differing…

  16. Automated attendance accounting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automated accounting system useful for applying data to a computer from any or all of a multiplicity of data terminals is disclosed. The system essentially includes a preselected number of data terminals which are each adapted to convert data words of decimal form to another form, i.e., binary, usable with the computer. Each data terminal may take the form of a keyboard unit having a number of depressable buttons or switches corresponding to selected data digits and/or function digits. A bank of data buffers, one of which is associated with each data terminal, is provided as a temporary storage. Data from the terminals is applied to the data buffers on a digit by digit basis for transfer via a multiplexer to the computer.

  17. The New Oregon Trail: Accountability for Results. Special Report #7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anne; Dunkle, Margaret

    This report was designed to help policy makers and concerned citizens understand the context, culture, and history that set the stage for Oregon's efforts to reform state government, including those areas of government that affect education. This text offers a "snapshot" of what Oregon is doing to improve results, such as setting benchmarks to…

  18. 10 CFR 74.59 - Quality assurance and accounting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quality assurance and accounting requirements. 74.59 Section 74.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL... accounting requirements. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51 shall provide the quality assurance and...

  19. 10 CFR 74.59 - Quality assurance and accounting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quality assurance and accounting requirements. 74.59 Section 74.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL... accounting requirements. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51 shall provide the quality assurance and...

  20. 10 CFR 74.59 - Quality assurance and accounting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quality assurance and accounting requirements. 74.59 Section 74.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL... accounting requirements. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51 shall provide the quality assurance and...

  1. 10 CFR 74.59 - Quality assurance and accounting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quality assurance and accounting requirements. 74.59 Section 74.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL... accounting requirements. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51 shall provide the quality assurance and...

  2. 7 CFR 761.51 - Establishing a supervised bank account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the supervised bank account in accordance with 31 CFR part 202 (Treasury Circular 176). (2) When the... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing a supervised bank account. 761.51 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Supervised Bank Accounts §...

  3. Graded specialization within and between the anterior temporal lobes.

    PubMed

    Rice, Grace E; Hoffman, Paul; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2015-11-01

    Considerable evidence from different methodologies has identified the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) as key regions for the representation of semantic knowledge. Research interest is now shifting to investigate the roles of different ATL subregions in semantic representation, with particular emphasis on the functions of the left versus right ATLs. In this review, we provide evidence for graded specializations both between and within the ATLs. We argue (1) that multimodal, pan-category semantic representations are supported jointly by both left and right ATLs, yet (2) that the ATLs are not homogeneous in their function. Instead, subtle functional gradations both between and within the ATLs emerge as a consequence of differential connectivity with primary sensory/motor/limbic regions. This graded specialization account of semantic representation provides a compromise between theories that posit no differences between the functions of the left and right ATLs and those that posit that the left and right ATLs are entirely segregated in function. Evidence for this graded account comes from converging sources, and its benefits have been exemplified in formal computational models. We propose that this graded principle is not only a defining feature of the ATLs but is also a more general neurocomputational principle found throughout the temporal lobes. PMID:26502375

  4. Process Accountability in Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooler, Dennis D.; Grotelueschen, Arden

    This paper urges the curriculum developer to assume the accountability for his decisions necessitated by the actual ways our society functions. The curriculum developer is encouraged to recognize that he is a salesman with a commodity (the curriculum). He is urged to realize that if he cannot market the package to the customers (the various…

  5. Accountability: A Mosaic Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Teri

    1977-01-01

    The problems involved in definition, implementation and control of accountability processes are discussed. It is stated that "...emotional involvement in accountability is one of the most difficult aspects to deal with, the chief emotion being fear". (Author/RW)

  6. LMAL Accounting Office 1936

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1936-01-01

    Accounting Office: The Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory's accounting office, 1936, with photographs of the Wright brothers on the wall. Although the Lab was named after Samuel P. Langley, most of the NACA staff held the Wrights as their heroes.

  7. Managerial Accounting. Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plachta, Leonard E.

    This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course in managerial accounting. The study guide is intended for use by students in conjuction with a separate textbook, Horngren's "Accounting for Management Control: An Introduction," and a workbook, Curry's "Student Guide to Accounting for Management…

  8. The Accounting Capstone Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Henry; Norris, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Capstone courses in accounting programs bring students experiences integrating across the curriculum (University of Washington, 2005) and offer unique (Sanyal, 2003) and transformative experiences (Sill, Harward, & Cooper, 2009). Students take many accounting courses without preparing complete sets of financial statements. Accountants not only…

  9. Accounting & Computing Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avani, Nathan T.; And Others

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching a competency-based accounting and computing course that is designed to prepare students for employability in the following occupational areas: inventory control clerk, invoice clerk, payroll clerk, traffic clerk, general ledger bookkeeper, accounting clerk, account information clerk,…

  10. Intelligent Accountability in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Onora

    2013-01-01

    Systems of accountability are "second order" ways of using evidence of the standard to which "first order" tasks are carried out for a great variety of purposes. However, more accountability is not always better, and processes of holding to account can impose high costs without securing substantial benefits. At their worst,…

  11. Accounting Education in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Karen F.; Reed, Ronald O.; Greiman, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Almost on a daily basis new accounting rules and laws are put into use, creating information that must be known and learned by the accounting faculty and then introduced to and understood by the accounting student. Even with the 150 hours of education now required for CPA licensure, it is impossible to teach and learn all there is to learn. Over…

  12. Data for Improvement, Data for Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary on the special issue on data use highlights the distinctions between data systems intended to improve the performance of school staff and those intended to hold schools and districts accountable for outcomes. It advises researchers to be alert to the differences in the policy logics connected with each approach.

  13. Abnormal Functional Lateralization and Activity of Language Brain Areas in Typical Specific Language Impairment (Developmental Dysphasia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guibert, Clement; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Treguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting…

  14. The Effect of Parent-Child Function on Physical Activity and Television Viewing among Adolescents with and without Special Healthcare Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Beth M.; Mandic, Carmen Gomez; Carle, Adam C.; Robert, Stephanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, the association between parent-child function and physical activity and television viewing was investigated among a national sample of adolescents in the United States. Parent-child function was measured using the National Survey of Children's Health "Family Function" survey items and…

  15. Water Accounting from Ungauged Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G.; Savenije, H.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity is increasing globally. This requires a more accurate management of the water resources at river basin scale and understanding of withdrawals and return flows; both naturally and man-induced. Many basins and their tributaries are, however, ungauged or poorly gauged. This hampers sound planning and monitoring processes. While certain countries have developed clear guidelines and policies on data observatories and data sharing, other countries and their basin organization still have to start on developing data democracies. Water accounting quantifies flows, fluxes, stocks and consumptive use pertaining to every land use class in a river basin. The objective is to derive a knowledge base with certain minimum information that facilitates decision making. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) is a new method for water resources assessment reporting (www.wateraccounting.org). While the PUB framework has yielded several deterministic models for flow prediction, WA+ utilizes remote sensing data of rainfall, evaporation (including soil, water, vegetation and interception evaporation), soil moisture, water levels, land use and biomass production. Examples will be demonstrated that show how remote sensing and hydrological models can be smartly integrated for generating all the required input data into WA+. A standard water accounting system for all basins in the world - with a special emphasis on data scarce regions - is under development. First results of using remote sensing measurements and hydrological modeling as an alternative to expensive field data sets, will be presented and discussed.

  16. Performance measurement: the new accountability.

    PubMed

    Martin, L L; Kettner, P M

    1997-01-01

    Over the years, "accountability" in the human services has focused upon issues such as the legal framework, organizational management, financial responsibility, political concerns, and client inputs and expectations. Within the past decade, the meaning of "accountability" has been extended to the more dynamic organizational functions of "efficiency" and " effectiveness." Efficiency and effectiveness increasingly must be put to the tests of performance measurement and outcome evaluation. Forces outside the social work profession, including, among others, federal expectations and initiatives and the increased implementation of the concept of managed care, will ensure that efficiency and effectiveness will be central and highlighted concerns far into the future. This "new accountability" is demanded by the stakeholders in the nonprofit sector and by federal requirements built into the planning, funding, and implementation processes for nonprofits and for-profits alike. PMID:10166757

  17. 47 CFR 32.5083 - Special access revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special access revenue. 32.5083 Section 32.5083 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Revenue Accounts § 32.5083 Special access...

  18. 47 CFR 32.5083 - Special access revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special access revenue. 32.5083 Section 32.5083 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Revenue Accounts § 32.5083 Special access...

  19. 47 CFR 32.5083 - Special access revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special access revenue. 32.5083 Section 32.5083 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Revenue Accounts § 32.5083 Special access...

  20. Analysis of the DNA-binding profile and function of TALE homeoproteins reveals their specialization and specific interactions with Hox genes/proteins.

    PubMed

    Penkov, Dmitry; Mateos San Martín, Daniel; Fernandez-Díaz, Luis C; Rosselló, Catalina A; Torroja, Carlos; Sánchez-Cabo, Fátima; Warnatz, H J; Sultan, Marc; Yaspo, Marie L; Gabrieli, Arianna; Tkachuk, Vsevolod; Brendolan, Andrea; Blasi, Francesco; Torres, Miguel

    2013-04-25

    The interactions of Meis, Prep, and Pbx1 TALE homeoproteins with Hox proteins are essential for development and disease. Although Meis and Prep behave similarly in vitro, their in vivo activities remain largely unexplored. We show that Prep and Meis interact with largely independent sets of genomic sites and select different DNA-binding sequences, Prep associating mostly with promoters and housekeeping genes and Meis with promoter-remote regions and developmental genes. Hox target sequences associate strongly with Meis but not with Prep binding sites, while Pbx1 cooperates with both Prep and Meis. Accordingly, Meis1 shows strong genetic interaction with Pbx1 but not with Prep1. Meis1 and Prep1 nonetheless coregulate a subset of genes, predominantly through opposing effects. Notably, the TALE homeoprotein binding profile subdivides Hox clusters into two domains differentially regulated by Meis1 and Prep1. During evolution, Meis and Prep thus specialized their interactions but maintained significant regulatory coordination. PMID:23602564

  1. Brain specialization for music.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Isabelle

    2002-08-01

    Music, like language, is a universal and specific trait to humans. Similarly, music appreciation, like language comprehension, appears to be the product of a dedicated brain organization. Support for the existence of music-specific neural networks is found in various pathological conditions that isolate musical abilities from the rest of the cognitive system. Cerebrovascular accidents, traumatic brain damage, and congenital brain anomalies can lead to selective disorders of music processing. Conversely, autism and epilepsy can reveal the autonomous functioning and the selectivity, respectively, of the neural networks that subserve music. However, brain specialization for music should not be equated with the presence of a singular "musical center" in the brain. Rather, multiple interconnected neural networks are engaged, of which some may capture the essence of brain specialization for music. The encoding of pitch along musical scales is likely such an essential component. The implications of the existence of such special-purpose cortical processes are that the human brain might be hardwired for music. PMID:12194505

  2. Computerizing the Accounting Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, John F.; England, Thomas G.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of computers in college accounting courses. Argues that the success of new efforts in using computers in teaching accounting is dependent upon increasing instructors' computer skills, and choosing appropriate hardware and software, including commercially available business software packages. (TW)

  3. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  4. The Choreography of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2006-01-01

    The prevailing performance discourse in education claims school improvements can be achieved through transparent accountability procedures. The article identifies how teachers generate performances of their work in order to satisfy accountability demands. By identifying sources of teachers' knowledge that produce choreographed performances, I…

  5. Teaching Accounting with Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaoul, Jean

    This paper addresses the numerous ways that computers may be used to enhance the teaching of accounting and business topics. It focuses on the pedagogical use of spreadsheet software to improve the conceptual coverage of accounting principles and practice, increase student understanding by involvement in the solution process, and reduce the amount…

  6. Leadership for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    2001-01-01

    This document explores issues of leadership for accountability and reviews five resources on the subject. These include: (1) "Accountability by Carrots and Sticks: Will Incentives and Sanctions Motivate Students, Teachers, and Administrators for Peak Performance?" (Larry Lashway); (2) "Organizing Schools for Teacher Learning" (Judith Warren…

  7. Accountability in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chippendale, P. R., Ed.; Wilkes, Paula V., Ed.

    This collection of papers delivered at a conference on accountability held at Darling Downs Institute of Advanced Education in Australia examines the meaning of accountability in education for teachers, lecturers, government, parents, administrators, education authorities, and the society at large. In Part 1, W. G. Walker attempts to answer the…

  8. The Accountability Illusion: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  9. The Accountability Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glisson, Charles

    1975-01-01

    Author discusses accountability controversy concerning effectiveness of social services. Turem's mechanistic and Gruber's organic models of accountability are compared and an alternate open system model of organization is offered which combines positive aspects of Turem's and Gruber's models as well as adds other constructive elements to them. (SE)

  10. The Accountability Illusion: Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  11. The Evolution of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Campus 2020: Thinking ahead is a policy in British Columbia (BC), Canada, that attempted to hold universities accountable to performance. Within, I demonstrate how this Canadian articulation of educational accountability intended to develop "governmentality constellations" to control the university and regulate its knowledge output. This research…

  12. The Accountability Illusion: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  13. Responsible and accountable.

    PubMed

    Woodrow, Philip

    2006-03-01

    Healthcare assistants are valuable members of the multi-disciplinary team, using many skills outlined in previous articles in this series. But anyone exceeding the limits of their skills can cause harm and may be called to account. This article explains how everyone is accountable. PMID:16538993

  14. The Accountability Illusion: Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  15. Accountability and primary healthcare.

    PubMed

    Mukhi, Shaheena; Barnsley, Jan; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    This paper examines the accountability structures within primary healthcare (PHC) in Ontario; in particular, who is accountable for what and to whom, and the policy tools being used. Ontario has implemented a series of incremental reforms, using expenditure policy instruments, enforced through contractual agreements to provide a defined set of publicly financed services that are privately delivered, most often by family physicians. The findings indicate that reporting, funding, evaluation and governance accountability requirements vary across service provider models. Accountability to the funder and patients is most common. Agreements, incentives and compensation tools have been used but may be insufficient to ensure parties are being held responsible for their activities related to stated goals. Clear definitions of various governance structures, a cohesive approach to monitoring critical performance indicators and associated improvement strategies are important elements in operationalizing accountability and determining whether goals are being met. PMID:25305392

  16. Accountability and Primary Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Mukhi, Shaheena; Barnsley, Jan; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the accountability structures within primary healthcare (PHC) in Ontario; in particular, who is accountable for what and to whom, and the policy tools being used. Ontario has implemented a series of incremental reforms, using expenditure policy instruments, enforced through contractual agreements to provide a defined set of publicly financed services that are privately delivered, most often by family physicians. The findings indicate that reporting, funding, evaluation and governance accountability requirements vary across service provider models. Accountability to the funder and patients is most common. Agreements, incentives and compensation tools have been used but may be insufficient to ensure parties are being held responsible for their activities related to stated goals. Clear definitions of various governance structures, a cohesive approach to monitoring critical performance indicators and associated improvement strategies are important elements in operationalizing accountability and determining whether goals are being met. PMID:25305392

  17. Professionalism, Accountability and Peer Review

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Roice D.; Modrow, Robert E.

    1982-01-01

    Passage in April 1979 of the new hospital standard on quality assurance by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals (JCAH) has given impetus to the development of an expanded literature on the organizational/behavioral aspects of quality assurance. In response to this need for new literature, several conferences on quality assurance were held resulting in the preparation for publication of the four papers included in this special issue of Health Services Research. This paper presents the general orientation which guided selection of the papers. It suggests that if the health sector is to reconcile professional expectations for autonomy with evolving institutional accountabilities for aggregate quality and cost, there must be 1) an expansion of the domain of professional concern from quality to both cost and quality and 2) the development of explicit mechanisms of control both within and external to health institutions. PMID:6954151

  18. Communication: A combined periodic density functional and incremental wave-function-based approach for the dispersion-accounting time-resolved dynamics of {sup 4}He nanodroplets on surfaces: {sup 4}He/graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-Castells, María Pilar de; Stoll, Hermann; Civalleri, Bartolomeo; Causà, Mauro; Voloshina, Elena; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O.; Pi, Martí

    2014-10-21

    In this work we propose a general strategy to calculate accurate He–surface interaction potentials. It extends the dispersionless density functional approach recently developed by Pernal et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 263201 (2009)] to adsorbate-surface interactions by including periodic boundary conditions. We also introduce a scheme to parametrize the dispersion interaction by calculating two- and three-body dispersion terms at coupled cluster singles and doubles and perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) level via the method of increments [H. Stoll, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8449 (1992)]. The performance of the composite approach is tested on {sup 4}He/graphene by determining the energies of the low-lying selective adsorption states, finding an excellent agreement with the best available theoretical data. Second, the capability of the approach to describe dispersionless correlation effects realistically is used to extract dispersion effects in time-dependent density functional simulations on the collision of {sup 4}He droplets with a single graphene sheet. It is found that dispersion effects play a key role in the fast spreading of the {sup 4}He nanodroplet, the evaporation-like process of helium atoms, and the formation of solid-like helium structures. These characteristics are expected to be quite general and highly relevant to explain experimental measurements with the newly developed helium droplet mediated deposition technique.

  19. The action of the special orthogonal group on planar vectors: integrity bases via a generalization of the symbolic interpretation of Molien functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhont, Guillaume; Patras, Frédéric; Zhilinskií, Boris I.

    2015-01-01

    The present article completes the mathematical description initiated in the paper by Dhont and Zhilinskií (2013 The action of the orthogonal group on planar vectors: invariants, covariants and syzygies J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46 455202) of the algebraic structures that emerge from the symmetry-adapted polynomials in the ({{x}i},{{y}i}) coordinates of n planar vectors under the action of the SO(2) group. The set of ≤ft( m \\right)-covariant polynomials contains all the polynomials that transform according to the weight m\\in {Z} of SO(2) and is a free module for |m|≤slant n-1 but a non-free module for |m|≥slant n. The sum of the rational functions of the Molien function for ≤ft( m \\right)-covariants describes the decomposition of the ring of invariants or the module of ≤ft( m \\right)-covariants as a direct sum of submodules. A method for extracting the generating function for ≤ft( m \\right)-covariants from the comprehensive generating function for all polynomials is introduced. The approach allows the direct construction of the integrity basis for the module of ≤ft( m \\right)-covariants decomposed as a direct sum of submodules and gives insight into the expressions for the Molien functions found in our earlier paper. In particular, a generalized symbolic interpretation in terms of the integrity basis of a rational function is discussed, where the requirement of associating the different terms in the numerator of one rational function with the same subring of invariants is relaxed.

  20. A problem-solving task specialized for functional neuroimaging: validation of the Scarborough adaptation of the Tower of London (S-TOL) using near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ruocco, Anthony C.; Rodrigo, Achala H.; Lam, Jaeger; Di Domenico, Stefano I.; Graves, Bryanna; Ayaz, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Problem-solving is an executive function subserved by a network of neural structures of which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is central. Whereas several studies have evaluated the role of the DLPFC in problem-solving, few standardized tasks have been developed specifically for use with functional neuroimaging. The current study adapted a measure with established validity for the assessment of problem-solving abilities to design a test more suitable for functional neuroimaging protocols. The Scarborough adaptation of the Tower of London (S-TOL) was administered to 38 healthy adults while hemodynamic oxygenation of the PFC was measured using 16-channel continuous-wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Compared to a baseline condition, problems that required two or three steps to achieve a goal configuration were associated with higher activation in the left DLPFC and deactivation in the medial PFC. Individuals scoring higher in trait deliberation showed consistently higher activation in the left DLPFC regardless of task difficulty, whereas individuals lower in this trait displayed less activation when solving simple problems. Based on these results, the S-TOL may serve as a standardized task to evaluate problem-solving abilities in functional neuroimaging studies. PMID:24734017

  1. A table of integrals of the error function. II - Additions and corrections.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, M.; Ng, E. W.

    1971-01-01

    Integrals of products of error functions with other functions are presented, taking into account a combination of the error function with powers, a combination of the error function with exponentials and powers, a combination of the error function with exponentials of more complicated arguments, definite integrals from Laplace transforms, and a combination of the error function with trigonometric functions. Other integrals considered include a combination of the error function with logarithms and powers, a combination of two error functions, and a combination of the error function with other special functions.

  2. Ribosome shunting in the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA leader is a special case of reinitiation of translation functioning in plant and animal systems

    PubMed Central

    Ryabova, Lyubov A.; Hohn, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The shunt model predicts that small ORFs (sORFs) within the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S RNA leader and downstream ORF VII are translated by different mechanisms, that is, scanning–reinitiation and shunting, respectively. Wheat germ extract (WGE) and rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) in vitro translation systems were used to discriminate between these two processes and to study the mechanism of ribosomal shunt. In both systems, expression downstream of the leader occurred via ribosomal shunt under the control of a stable stem and a small ORF preceding it. Shunting ribosomes were also able to initiate quite efficiently at non-AUG start codons just downstream of the shunt landing site in WGE but not in RRL. The short sORF MAGDIS from the mammalian AdoMetDC RNA, which conditionally suppresses reinitiation at a downstream ORF, prevented shunting if placed at the position of sORF A, the 5′-proximal ORF of the CaMV leader. We have demonstrated directly that sORF A is translated and that proper termination of translation at the 5′-proximal ORF is absolutely required for both shunting and linear ribosome migration. These findings strongly indicate that shunting is a special case of reinitiation. PMID:10766738

  3. Tissue Engineering Special Feature: A macroporous hydrogel for the coculture of neural progenitor and endothelial cells to form functional vascular networks in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Millicent C.; Bertram, James P.; Royce Hynes, Sara; Michaud, Michael; Li, Qi; Young, Michael; Segal, Steven S.; Madri, Joseph A.; Lavik, Erin B.

    2006-02-01

    A microvascular network is critical for the survival and function of most tissues. We have investigated the potential of neural progenitor cells to augment the formation and stabilization of microvascular networks in a previously uncharacterized three-dimensional macroporous hydrogel and the ability of this engineered system to develop a functional microcirculation in vivo. The hydrogel is synthesized by cross-linking polyethylene glycol with polylysine around a salt-leached polylactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold that is degraded in a sodium hydroxide solution. An open macroporous network is formed that supports the efficient formation of tubular structures by brain endothelial cells. After subcutaneous implantation of hydrogel cocultures in mice, blood flow in new microvessels was apparent at 2 weeks with perfused networks established on the surface of implants at 6 weeks. Compared to endothelial cells cultured alone, cocultures of endothelial cells and neural progenitor cells had a significantly greater density of tubular structures positive for platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 at the 6-week time point. In implant cross sections, the presence of red blood cells in vessel lumens confirmed a functional microcirculation. These findings indicate that neural progenitor cells promote the formation of endothelial cell tubes in coculture and the development of a functional microcirculation in vivo. We demonstrate a previously undescribed strategy for creating stable microvascular networks to support engineered tissues of desired parenchymal cell origin. microvasculature | neural stem cells | polymer | scaffold

  4. The Mediating Effects of Work-Related Stress on Mentoring Functions and Job Attitude: A Comparison of General and Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabenhorst, Greg A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study is designed to investigate the mediating effects of work-related stress on the relationship between mentoring functions (i.e., career support, psychosocial support, and role modeling) and measures of job attitude (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment). Mentoring is widely used as a means of assisting in the new…

  5. Shift in power to hospital accountants.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, L G; Rayburn, J M

    1996-01-01

    With the introduction of the Prospective Payment System, hospital accountants' role changed from reimbursement maximizers to an important role in decision making. Faced with increased competition, many hospitals are installing financial controls. Many hospitals are engaging in promotion and health awareness campaigns and expanding their services to stabilize income and reduce the effects of a changing environment. Thus, hospitals operate in a more competitive environment with much uncertainty. When faced with uncertainty, organizations often believe that they must convince society that their existence is legitimate. Increasing specialization and organizational complexity in healthcare professions have made the expert important. Experts, such as the role assumed by hospital accountants, maintain power because the organization depends on them for their special skills and information. Scarce resources coupled with uncertainty move hospital accountants as experts into the power equation in the changing control of the U.S. healthcare system. Since accountants often serve as monitors of scarce resources, information about the resource allocation directly affects the distribution of power. This places hospital accountants in a critical role of assisting their institutions in adapting to a new environment. PMID:10164119

  6. Functional specialization within the medial frontal gyrus for perceptual go/no-go decisions based on "what," "when," and "where" related information: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Talati, Ardesheer; Hirsch, Joy

    2005-07-01

    Cortical systems engaged during executive and volitional functions receive and integrate input from multiple systems. However, these integration processes are not well understood. In particular, it is not known whether these input pathways converge or remain segregated at the executive levels of cortical information processing. If unilateral information streams are conserved within structures that serve high-level executive functions, then the functional organization within these structures would predictably be similarly organized. If, however, unilateral input information streams are integrated within executive-related structures, then activity patterns will not necessarily reflect lower organizations. In this study, subjects were imaged during the performance of a "perceptual go/no-go" task for which instructions were based on spatial ("where"), temporal ("when"), or object ("what") stimulus features known to engage unilateral processing streams, and the expected hemispheric biases were observed for early processing areas. For example, activity within the inferior and middle occipital gyri, and the middle temporal gyrus, during the what and when tasks, was biased toward the left hemisphere, and toward the right hemisphere during the "where" task. We discover a similar lateralization within the medial frontal gyrus, a region associated with high-level executive functions and decision-related processes. This lateralization was observed regardless of whether the response was executed or imagined, and was demonstrated in multiple sensory modalities. Although active during the go/no-go task, the cingulate gyrus did not show a similar lateralization. These findings further differentiate the organizations and functions of the medial frontal and cingulate executive regions, and suggest that the executive mechanisms operative within the medial frontal gyrus preserve fundamental aspects of input processing streams. PMID:16102231

  7. Human Resource Accounting System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerullo, Michael J.

    1974-01-01

    Main objectives of human resource accounting systems are to satisfy the informational demands made by investors and by operating managers. The paper's main concern is with the internal uses of a human asset system. (Author)

  8. 23 CFR 660.117 - Funding, records and accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... their FH records according to 49 CFR part 18. (f) Funds provided to the FHWA by a cooperator should be... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Funding, records and accounting. 660.117 Section 660.117... SPECIAL PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Forest Highways § 660.117 Funding, records and accounting. (a)...

  9. 7 CFR 761.51 - Establishing a supervised bank account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accordance with 31 CFR part 202 (Treasury Circular 176). (2) When the balance in the account has been reduced... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishing a supervised bank account. 761.51 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS FARM LOAN PROGRAMS; GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Supervised...

  10. 7 CFR 761.51 - Establishing a supervised bank account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accordance with 31 CFR part 202 (Treasury Circular 176). (2) When the balance in the account has been reduced... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishing a supervised bank account. 761.51 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS FARM LOAN PROGRAMS; GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Supervised...

  11. 7 CFR 762.143 - Servicing distressed accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Servicing distressed accounts. 762.143 Section 762.143 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.143 Servicing distressed accounts. (a) A borrower...

  12. 23 CFR 660.117 - Funding, records and accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... their FH records according to 49 CFR part 18. (f) Funds provided to the FHWA by a cooperator should be... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Funding, records and accounting. 660.117 Section 660.117... SPECIAL PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Forest Highways § 660.117 Funding, records and accounting. (a)...

  13. 23 CFR 660.117 - Funding, records and accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... their FH records according to 49 CFR part 18. (f) Funds provided to the FHWA by a cooperator should be... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Funding, records and accounting. 660.117 Section 660.117... SPECIAL PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Forest Highways § 660.117 Funding, records and accounting. (a)...

  14. 78 FR 67225 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 40, 70, 72, 74, and 150 RIN 3150-AI61 Amendments to Material Control and Accounting... Commission (NRC) is proposing to amend its regulations for material control and accounting (MC&A) of special... would requirements be added to designate material balance areas, item control areas, and custodians?...

  15. Special Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha, Ed.; Yeo, Kwang Eung

    The text on special education in Korea is divided into four major sections--a brief history of special education in Korea, the present status of special education in Korea, the special education plan of the Young Kwang Educational Foundation, and directory of schools and classes for the exceptional in Korea. Topics covered include the following:…

  16. Ethics and Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, James; French, Peter; Cranston-Gingras, Ann

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of ethics in special education focuses on four challenges: (1) examination of special education's history within an ethical framework; (2) articulation of character morality as well as choice morality in special education ethical dilemmas; (3) examination of special education in a liberal democracy; and (4) development of an ethical…

  17. Accounting for the environment.

    PubMed

    Lutz, E; Munasinghe, M

    1991-03-01

    Environmental awareness in the 1980s has led to efforts to improve the current UN System of National Accounts (SNA) for better measurement of the value of environmental resources when estimating income. National governments, the UN, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank are interested in solving this issue. The World Bank relies heavily on national aggregates in income accounts compiled by means of the SNA that was published in 1968 and stressed gross domestic product (GDP). GDP measures mainly market activity, but it takes does not consider the consumption of natural capital, and indirectly inhibits sustained development. The deficiencies of the current method of accounting are inconsistent treatment of manmade and natural capital, the omission of natural resources and their depletion from balance sheets, and pollution cleanup costs from national income. In the calculation of GDP pollution is overlooked, and beneficial environmental inputs are valued at zero. The calculation of environmentally adjusted net domestic product (EDP) and environmentally adjusted net income (ENI) would lower income and growth rate, as the World Resources Institute found with respect to Indonesia for 1971-84. When depreciation for oil, timber, and top soil was included the net domestic product (NDP) was only 4% compared with a 7.1% GDP. The World Bank has advocated environmental accounting since 1983 in SNA revisions. The 1989 revised Blue Book of the SNA takes environment concerns into account. Relevant research is under way in Mexico and Papua New Guinea using the UN Statistical Office framework as a system for environmentally adjusted economic accounts that computes EDP and ENI and integrates environmental data with national accounts while preserving SNA concepts. PMID:12285741

  18. A Specialization for Speech Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberman, Alvin M.; Mattingly, Ignatius G.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the phonetic module that increases the rate of information flow, establishes the parity between sender and receiver, and provides for the natural development of phonetic structures in the individual. Cites evidence and function of this specialization and architectural relations between the two classes of modules. (Author/RT)

  19. Thinking about Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Accountability is a key component of healthcare reforms, in Canada and internationally, but there is increasing recognition that one size does not fit all. A more nuanced understanding begins with clarifying what is meant by accountability, including specifying for what, by whom, to whom and how. These papers arise from a Partnership for Health System Improvement (PHSI), funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), on approaches to accountability that examined accountability across multiple healthcare subsectors in Ontario. The partnership features collaboration among an interdisciplinary team, working with senior policy makers, to clarify what is known about best practices to achieve accountability under various circumstances. This paper presents our conceptual framework. It examines potential approaches (policy instruments) and postulates that their outcomes may vary by subsector depending upon (a) the policy goals being pursued, (b) governance/ownership structures and relationships and (c) the types of goods and services being delivered, and their production characteristics (e.g., contestability, measurability and complexity). PMID:25305385

  20. Efficiency of Organelle Capture by Microtubules as a Function of Centrosome Nucleation Capacity: General Theory and the Special Case of Polyspermia

    PubMed Central

    Maly, Ivan V.

    2012-01-01

    Transport of organelles along microtubules is essential for the cell metabolism and morphogenesis. The presented analysis derives the probability that an organelle of a given size comes in contact with the microtubule aster. The question is asked how this measure of functionality of the microtubule aster is controlled by the centrosome. A quantitative model is developed to address this question. It is shown that for the given set of cellular parameters, such as size and total tubulin content, a centrosome nucleation capacity exists that maximizes the probability of the organelle capture. The developed general model is then applied to the capture of the female pronucleus by microtubules assembled on the sperm centrosome, following physiologically polyspermic fertilization. This application highlights an unintuitive reflection of nonlinearity of the nucleated polymerization of the cellular pool of tubulin. The prediction that the sperm centrosome should lower its nucleation capacity in the face of the competition from the other sperm is a stark illustration of the new optimality principle. Overall, the model calls attention to the capabilities of the centrosomal pathway of regulation of the transport-related functionality of the microtubule cytoskeleton. It establishes a quantitative and conceptual framework that can guide experiment design and interpretation. PMID:22662187

  1. Optimal wavelengths obtained from laws analogous to the Wien's law for monospectral and bispectral methods, and general methodology for multispectral temperature measurements taking into account global transfer function including non-uniform emissivity of surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodiet, Christophe; Remy, Benjamin; Degiovanni, Alain

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, it is shown how to select the optimal wavelengths minimizing the relative error and the standard deviation of the temperature. Furthermore, it is shown that the optimal wavelengths in mono-spectral and bi-spectral methods (for a Planck's law) can be determined by laws analogous to the displacement Wien's law. The simplicity of these laws can thus allow real-time selection of optimal wavelengths for a control/optimization of industrial processes, for example. A more general methodology to obtain the optimal wavelengths selection in a multi-spectral method (taking into account the spectral variations of the global transfer function including the emissivity variations) for temperature measurement of surfaces exhibiting non-uniform emissivity, is also presented. This latter can then find an interest in glass furnaces temperature measurement with spatiotemporal non-uniformities of emissivity, the control of biomass pyrolysis, the surface temperature measurement of buildings or heating devices, for example. The goal consists of minimizing the standard deviation of the estimated temperature (optimal design experiment). For the multi-spectral method, two cases will be treated: optimal global and optimal constrained wavelengths selection (to the spectral range of the detector, for example). The estimated temperature results obtained by different models and for different number of parameters and wavelengths are compared. These different points are treated from theoretical, numerical and experimental points of view.

  2. Towards a Comparative and International History of School Testing and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Sherman; Ydesen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The speed and extent of modern school accountability have obscured the history of testing and accountability. This brief introduction identifies central themes of historical research into educational accountability and recurring traits associated with accountability practices. We hope our colleagues and this special issue will also help to…

  3. 31 CFR 103.178 - Due diligence programs for private banking accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... banking accounts. 103.178 Section 103.178 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... Programs Special Due Diligence for Correspondent Accounts and Private Banking Accounts § 103.178 Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. (a) In general. A covered financial institution...

  4. SPECIAL CLASSES FOR STUDENTS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOWELL, G.L.

    A SPECIAL 3-YEAR TRAINING PROGRAM IN FARM POWER AND MACHINERY WAS DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE FOR DIFFERENT LEVELS OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT AND TO HELP MEET THE NEED FOR SKILLED WORKERS IN THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA AREA. CHANGES IN THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT OF STUDENTS TRANSFERRED FROM REGULAR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE CLASSES TO THE SPECIAL CLASSES PROVIDE A MORE…

  5. 18 CFR 367.9040 - Account 904, Uncollectible accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 904... GAS ACT Operation and Maintenance Expense Chart of Accounts § 367.9040 Account 904, Uncollectible accounts. This account must be charged with amounts sufficient to provide for losses from...

  6. Excel in the Accounting Curriculum: Perceptions from Accounting Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandran Rackliffe, Usha; Ragland, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Public accounting firms emphasize the importance of accounting graduates being proficient in Excel. Since many accounting graduates often aspire to work in public accounting, a question arises as to whether there should be an emphasis on Excel in accounting education. The purpose of this paper is to specifically look at this issue by examining…

  7. A Pariah Profession? Some Student Perceptions of Accounting and Accountancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Roy; Murphy, Vivienne

    1995-01-01

    Existing literature and a survey of 106 undergraduate accounting students in the United Kingdom were analyzed for perceptions of the accounting profession and the academic discipline of accounting. Results suggest that among accounting and nonaccounting students alike, there exist coexisting perceptions of accounting as having high status and low…

  8. Planning for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuneo, Tim; Bell, Shareen; Welsh-Gray, Carol

    1999-01-01

    Through its Challenge 2000 program, Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network's 21st Century Education Initiative has been working with K-12 schools to improve student performance in literature, math, and science. Clearly stated standards, appropriate assessments, formal monitoring, critical friends, and systemwide accountability are keys to success.…

  9. Accountability Measures Report, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota University System, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This document is a tool for demonstrating that the University System is meeting the "flexibility with accountability" expectations of SB 2003 passed by the 2001 Legislative Assembly. The 2007 report reflects some of the many ways North Dakota University System (NDUS) colleges and universities are developing the human capital needed to create a…

  10. Accountability Measures Report, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota University System, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This document is a valuable tool for demonstrating that the University System is meeting the "flexibility with accountability" expectations of SB 2003 passed by the 2001 Legislative Assembly. The 2006 report reflects some of the many ways North Dakota University System (NDUS) colleges and universities are developing the human capital needed to…

  11. Accounting Forms. Instructor's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itter, Pat

    Supporting performance objective of the 16 V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Bookkeeper Catalog, this instructor's manual contains copies of accounting forms which can be used to make spirit masters or transparencies. (This module is the first in a set of ten on bookkeeping [CE 019 480-489].) Twenty forms grouped under…

  12. Viewpoints on Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Innovators Press, Tucson, AZ.

    This booklet contains five papers which examine the activities, successes, and pitfalls encountered by educators who are introducing accountability techniques into instructional programs where they did not exist in the past. The papers are based on actual programs and offer possible solutions in the areas considered, which are 1) performance…

  13. Accounting 202, 302.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide consists of guidelines for conducting two secondary-level introductory accounting courses. Intended for vocational business education students, the courses are designed to introduce financial principles and practices important to personal and business life, to promote development of clerical and bookkeeping skills sufficient…

  14. Accountability: A Rationale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brademas, John

    1974-01-01

    The idea of accountability has by now been interpreted in ways which are different enough from one another to have permitted a certain ambiguity to creep into the notion in its present use within the educational community. The principal purpose of this report is, therefore, to try to set forth some clearer statement of what the idea of…

  15. Democracy, Accountability, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Meira

    2011-01-01

    Educational standards, assessments, and accountability systems are of immense political moment around the world. But there is no developed theory exploring the role that these systems should play within a democratic polity in particular. On the one hand, well-designed standards are public goods, supported by assessment and accountability…

  16. Student Attendance Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitas, Joseph M.

    In response to state legislation authorizing procedures for changes in academic calendars and measurement of student workload in California community colleges, this manual from the Chancellor's Office provides guidelines for student attendance accounting. Chapter 1 explains general items such as the academic calendar, admissions policies, student…

  17. CEBAF beam loss accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Ursic, R.; Mahoney, K.; Hovater, C.; Hutton, A.; Sinclair, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a beam loss accounting system for the CEBAF electron accelerator. This system samples the beam curent throughout the beam path and measures the beam current accurately. Personnel Safety and Machine Protection systems use this system to turn off the beam when hazardous beam losses occur.

  18. Accounting for What Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joseph O.; Ferran, Joan E.; Martin, Katharine Y.

    2003-01-01

    No Child Left Behind legislation makes it clear that outside evaluators determine what gets taught in the classroom. It is important to ensure they measure what truly counts in school. This fact is poignantly and sadly true for the under funded, poorly resourced, "low performing" schools that may be hammered by administration accountants in the…

  19. Assessment and Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    Discusses six books that give a range of perspectives on the issues of assessment and accountability, from the use of standardized reading tests to creating student and professional portfolios. States that these books will provide teachers with the knowledge to make sound assessment decisions and with practical suggestions to document student and…

  20. The Accountability Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, John; Dahlin, Michael; Xiang, Yun; McCahon, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states have leeway to: (1) Craft their own academic standards, select their own tests, and define…

  1. Accountability in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumke, Glenn S.

    Since education has become big business, the reactions of the academic community to social change are of immense political and social effect. Therefore, before higher education can deal with the question of accountability, it has to define the role of the college or university in relation to society. One alternative is that the campus operate as…

  2. Fiscal Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Housing and Community Development, Sacramento. Indian Assistance Program.

    Written in simple, easy to understand form, the manual provides a vehicle for the untrained person in bookkeeping to control funds received from grants for Indian Tribal Councils and Indian organizations. The method used to control grants (federal, state, or private) is fund accounting, designed to organize rendering services on a non-profit…

  3. Measurements and material accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, G.A. )

    1989-11-01

    The DOE role for the NBL in safeguarding nuclear material into the 21st century is discussed. Development of measurement technology and reference materials supporting requirements of SDI, SIS, AVLIS, pyrochemical reprocessing, fusion, waste storage, plant modernization program, and improved tritium accounting are some of the suggested examples.

  4. Professional Capital as Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael; Rincón-Gallardo, Santiago; Hargreaves, Andy

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to clarify and spells out the responsibilities of policy makers to create the conditions for an effective accountability system that produces substantial improvements in student learning, strengthens the teaching profession, and provides transparency of results to the public. The authors point out that U.S. policy makers will need…

  5. Legal responsibility and accountability.

    PubMed

    Cox, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Shifting boundaries in healthcare roles have led to anxiety among some nurses about their legal responsibilities and accountabilities. This is partly because of a lack of education about legal principles that underpin healthcare delivery. This article explains the law in terms of standards of care, duty of care, vicarious liability and indemnity insurance. PMID:20583648

  6. 49 CFR 1242.05 - Operating expense account number notation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable to all accounts with the “XX” symbol except transportation, train and yards accounts (XX-(33/43/53... consisting of more than one functional assignment that is reported as one item. This includes Repairs...

  7. Functional specialization within the striatum along both the dorsal/ventral and anterior/posterior axes during associative learning via reward and punishment

    PubMed Central

    Mattfeld, Aaron T.; Gluck, Mark A.; Stark, Craig E.L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to elucidate the role of the human striatum in learning via reward and punishment during an associative learning task. Previous studies have identified the striatum as a critical component in the neural circuitry of reward-related learning. It remains unclear, however, under what task conditions, and to what extent, the striatum is modulated by punishment during an instrumental learning task. Using high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a reward- and punishment-based probabilistic associative learning task, we observed activity in the ventral putamen for stimuli learned via reward regardless of whether participants were correct or incorrect (i.e., outcome). In contrast, activity in the dorsal caudate was modulated by trials that received feedback—either correct reward or incorrect punishment trials. We also identified an anterior/posterior dissociation reflecting reward and punishment prediction error estimates. Additionally, differences in patterns of activity that correlated with the amount of training were identified along the anterior/posterior axis of the striatum. We suggest that unique subregions of the striatum—separated along both a dorsal/ventral and anterior/posterior axis— differentially participate in the learning of associations through reward and punishment. PMID:22021252

  8. Computerized accounting methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of the research performed under the Task Order on computerized accounting methods in a period from 03 August to 31 December 1994. Computerized nuclear material accounting methods are analyzed and evaluated. Selected methods are implemented in a hardware-software complex developed as a prototype of the local network-based CONMIT system. This complex has been put into trial operation for test and evaluation of the selected methods at two selected ``Kurchatov Institute`` Russian Research Center (``KI`` RRC) nuclear facilities. Trial operation is carried out since the beginning of Initial Physical Inventory Taking in these facilities that was performed in November 1994. Operation of CONMIT prototype system was demonstrated in the middle of December 1994. Results of evaluation of CONMIT prototype system features and functioning under real operating conditions are considered. Conclusions are formulated on the ways of further development of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. The most important conclusion is a need to strengthen computer and information security features supported by the operating environment. Security provisions as well as other LANL Client/Server System approaches being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory are recommended for selection of software and hardware components to be integrated into production version of CONMIT system for KI RRC.

  9. The Mammalian Brain in the Electromagnetic Fields Designed by Man with Special Reference to Blood-Brain Barrier Function, Neuronal Damage and Possible Physical Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salford, L. G.; Nittby, H.; Brun, A.; Grafström, G.; Malmgren, L.; Sommarin, M.; Eberhardt, J.; Widegren, B.; Persson, B. R.

    Life on earth was formed during billions of years, exposed to,and shaped by the original physical forces such as gravitation, cosmic irradiation, atmospheric electric fields and the terrestrial magnetism. The Schumann resonances at 7.4 Hz are an example of oscillations possibly important for life. The existing organisms are created to function in harmony with these forces. However, in the late 19th century mankind introduced the use of electricity, in the early 20th century long-wave radio and in the 1940-ies short-wave radio. High frequency RF was introduced in the 50-ies as FM and television and during the very last decades, microwaves of the modern communication society spread around the world. Today, however, one third of the world's population is owner of the microwave-producing mobile phones and an even larger number is exposed to the cordless RF emitting systems. To what extent are all living organisms affected by these, almost everywhere present radio freque ncy fields? And what will be the effects of many years of continuing exposure? Since 1988 our group has studied the effects upon the mammalian blood-brain barrier (BBB) in rats by non-thermal radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). These have been shown to cause significantly increased leakage of the rats' own blood albumin through the BBB of exposed rats, at energy levels of 1W/kg and below, as compared to non-exposed animals in a total series of about two thousand animals.-6)} One remarkable observation is the fact that the lowest energy levels, with whole-body average power densities below 10mW/kg, give rise to the most pronounced albumin leakage. If mobile communication, even at extremely low energy levels, causes the users' own albumin to leak out through the BBB, also other unwanted and toxic molecules in the blood, may leak into the brain tissue and concentrate in and damage the neurons and glial cells of the brain. In later studies we have shown that a 2-h exposure to GSM 915 MHz, at

  10. Principles for protecting material accounting systems from data falsification

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D.R.; McDonnel, J.L.; Chilton, P.D.; Kufahl, G.E.; Vergari, A.A.

    1980-09-30

    This study is part of a larger effort involving the development of regulatory licensing criteria and guidance for an upgraded material accounting rule for fixed-site, commercial nuclear fuel-cycle facilities. Our approach was to examine the vulnerability events of the Generic Minimal Material Accounting (GMMA) system from the point-of-view of a systems analyst and an internal auditor and then determine some acceptable methods for protecting them. During the course of this task, four protection principles were identified which have the potential of controlling against data falsification: Data Control (DC) - to provide assurance that sufficient controls be involved in the handling of data, especially with regard to the introduction of original data; Control on Controls (CC) - to ensure accuracy, validity, and integrity of information or procedures; Skip Echelon Verification (SEV) - to verify by senders of data that the data are properly used; and Secondary Echelon Forwarding (SEF) - to verify by recipients of data that the data were previously used in an appropriate manner by the sender. The extent to which these or other protection principles should be applied to achieve protection against data falsification and Special Nuclear Material (SNM) diversion depends on the degree of protection desired and the level of threat from which a system must be protected. Data falsification and SNM diversion must involve personnel, and the personnel of concern here are insiders who perform the accounting functions as well as those who have authorized access to the accounting elements. Therefore, protection principles must be implemented with regard to organizational constraints. Our approach to setting organizational criteria is basically to ensure that there is adequate separation of responsibilities for elements of control mechanisms.

  11. Special Education in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abang, Theresa B.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the special education system in Nigeria, focusing on integration; training of special educators; medical, health, and welfare services for children with disabilities; recreational facilities; employment opportunities; national planning; and problems and successes. (JDD)

  12. Codes with special correlation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumert, L. D.

    1964-01-01

    Uniform binary codes with special correlation including transorthogonality and simplex code, Hadamard matrices and difference sets uniform binary codes with special correlation including transorthogonality and simplex code, Hadamard matrices and difference sets

  13. Algorithmically specialized parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, L.; Jamieson, L.H.; Gannon, D.B.; Siegel, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    This book is based on a workshop which dealt with array processors. Topics considered include algorithmic specialization using VLSI, innovative architectures, signal processing, speech recognition, image processing, specialized architectures for numerical computations, and general-purpose computers.

  14. Iowa Community Colleges Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Community Colleges and Workforce Preparation.

    This document describes account classifications and definitions for the accounting system of the Iowa community colleges. In view of the objectives of the accounting system, it is necessary to segregate the assets of the community college according to its source and intended use. Additionally, the accounting system should provide for accounting by…

  15. Mentorship of Special Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madigan, Jennifer Booker; Schroth-Cavataio, Georganne

    2012-01-01

    The national shortage and exceptionally high attrition rate of special education teachers are impediments to serving students with special needs. Given that only 64 percent of special education teachers have access to a mentor compared with 86 percent of general education teachers, this book meets an essential need for attracting, retaining, and…

  16. Special Effects Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxer, Jennifer; Valenta, Carol

    This guide accompanies "Special Effects," a 40-minute IMAX film and "Special Effects II", a multimedia, interactive traveling exhibit designed by the California Museum of Science and Industry. The exhibit focuses on the underlying scientific and technical processes of special effects from the earliest motion picture to state-of-the-art digital…

  17. Mentoring Special Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Keith E.; Edwards, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Mentorship is critical for career development. Members of special populations are at increased risk of information shortfalls and advice that is not framed with cultural sensitivity. Special knowledge and skills are needed to successfully mentor members of ethnic minority and other special populations. Midlevel and senior scientists need…

  18. Assessing Special Educational Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfendale, Sheila, Ed.

    This essays in this book contain valuable and up-to-date information about current issues and developments in assessing special educational needs. The context of the book is the mainstream setting in the United Kingdom. The aim of these chapters is to consider special needs in inclusive education, consistent with British special needs legislation.…

  19. Managing global accounts.

    PubMed

    Yip, George S; Bink, Audrey J M

    2007-09-01

    Global account management--which treats a multinational customer's operations as one integrated account, with coherent terms for pricing, product specifications, and service--has proliferated over the past decade. Yet according to the authors' research, only about a third of the suppliers that have offered GAM are pleased with the results. The unhappy majority may be suffering from confusion about when, how, and to whom to provide it. Yip, the director of research and innovation at Capgemini, and Bink, the head of marketing communications at Uxbridge College, have found that GAM can improve customer satisfaction by 20% or more and can raise both profits and revenues by at least 15% within just a few years of its introduction. They provide guidelines to help companies achieve similar results. The first steps are determining whether your products or services are appropriate for GAM, whether your customers want such a program, whether those customers are crucial to your strategy, and how GAM might affect your competitive advantage. If moving forward makes sense, the authors' exhibit, "A Scorecard for Selecting Global Accounts," can help you target the right customers. The final step is deciding which of three basic forms to offer: coordination GAM (in which national operations remain relatively strong), control GAM (in which the global operation and the national operations are fairly balanced), and separate GAM (in which a new business unit has total responsibility for global accounts). Given the difficulty and expense of providing multiple varieties, the vast majority of companies should initially customize just one---and they should be careful not to start with a choice that is too ambitious for either themselves or their customers to handle. PMID:17886487

  20. First-Person Accounts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gribs, H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Personal accounts describe the lives of 2 individuals with deaf-blindness, one an 87-year-old woman who was deaf from birth and became totally blind over a 50-year period and the other of a woman who became deaf-blind as a result of a fever at the age of 7. Managing activities of daily life and experiencing sensory hallucinations are among topics…

  1. Special Libraries and Information Centres in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Eduardo J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a survey of 192 special library and information center managers in Brazil that examined managerial activities and factors accounting for variation in managerial jobs. The results are discussed in terms of personal and organizational characteristics, perceived importance of managerial roles, and perceived preparedness to perform…

  2. Hospitals' Internal Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K.; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387

  3. Hospitals' internal accountability.

    PubMed

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387

  4. Differential Subcellular Localization and Expression of ATP Sulfurylase and 5′-Adenylylsulfate Reductase during Ontogenesis of Arabidopsis Leaves Indicates That Cytosolic and Plastid Forms of ATP Sulfurylase May Have Specialized Functions1

    PubMed Central

    Rotte, Carmen; Leustek, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    ATP sulfurylase and 5′-adenylylsulfate (APS) reductase catalyze two reactions in the sulfate assimilation pathway. Cell fractionation of Arabidopsis leaves revealed that ATP sulfurylase isoenzymes exist in the chloroplast and the cytosol, whereas APS reductase is localized exclusively in chloroplasts. During development of Arabidopsis plants the total activity of ATP sulfurylase and APS reductase declines by 3-fold in leaves. The decline in APS reductase can be attributed to a reduction of enzyme during aging of individual leaves, the highest activity occurring in the youngest leaves and the lowest in fully expanded leaves. By contrast, total ATP sulfurylase activity declines proportionally in all the leaves. The distinct behavior of ATP sulfurylase can be attributed to reciprocal expression of the chloroplast and cytosolic isoenzymes. The chloroplast form, representing the more abundant isoenzyme, declines in parallel with APS reductase during aging; however, the cytosolic form increases over the same period. In total, the results suggest that cytosolic ATP sulfurylase plays a specialized function that is probably unrelated to sulfate reduction. A plausible function could be in generating APS for sulfation reactions. PMID:11027720

  5. 18 CFR 367.1840 - Account 184, Clearing accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accounts. 367.1840 Section 367.1840 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1840 Account 184, Clearing accounts....

  6. 18 CFR 367.1840 - Account 184, Clearing accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accounts. 367.1840 Section 367.1840 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1840 Account 184, Clearing accounts....

  7. 18 CFR 367.1840 - Account 184, Clearing accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accounts. 367.1840 Section 367.1840 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1840 Account 184, Clearing accounts....

  8. 18 CFR 367.1840 - Account 184, Clearing accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accounts. 367.1840 Section 367.1840 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1840 Account 184, Clearing accounts....

  9. 18 CFR 367.1840 - Account 184, Clearing accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... accounts. 367.1840 Section 367.1840 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1840 Account 184, Clearing accounts....

  10. New Frontiers: Training Forensic Accountants within the Accounting Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswamy, Vinita

    2007-01-01

    Accountants have recently been subject to very unpleasant publicity following the collapse of Enron and other major companies. There has been a plethora of accounting failures and accounting restatements of falsified earnings, with litigations and prosecutions taking place every day. As the FASB struggles to tighten the loopholes in accounting,…

  11. Teaching Elementary Accounting to Non-Accounting Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Abbey, Augustus

    2009-01-01

    A central recurring theme in business education is the optimal strategy for improving introductory accounting, the gateway subject of business education. For many students, especially non-accounting majors, who are required to take introductory accounting as a requirement of the curriculum, introductory accounting has become a major obstacle for…

  12. Special and general superatoms.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhixun; Castleman, A Welford

    2014-10-21

    of application of the jellium model and modification of the theory to account for nonspherical symmetry and nonmetal-doped metal clusters are still illusive to be further developed. It is still worth mentioning that a superatom concept has also been introduced in ligand-stabilized metal clusters which could also follow the major shell-closing electron count for a spherical, square-well potential. By proposing a new concept named as special and general superatoms, herein we try to summarize all these investigations in series, expecting to provide an overview of this field with a primary focus on the joint undertakings which have given rise to the superatom concept. To be specific, for special superatoms, we limit to clusters under a strict jellium model and simply classify them into groups based on their valence electron counts. While for general superatoms we emphasize on nonmetal-doped metal clusters and ligand-stabilized metal clusters, as well as a few isovalent cluster systems. Hopefully this summary of special and general superatoms benefits the further development of cluster-related theory, and lights up the prospect of using them as building blocks of new materials with tailored properties, such as inexpensive isovalent systems for industrial catalysis, semiconductive superatoms for transistors, and magnetic superatoms for spin electronics. PMID:25252219

  13. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    PubMed

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability. PMID:19064476

  14. Performance and Accountability Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Fiscal Year 2002 Performance and Accountability Report is presented. Over the past year, significant changes have been implemented to greatly improve NASA's management while continuing to break new ground in science and technology. Excellent progress has been made in implementing the President's Management Agenda. NASA is leading the government in its implementation of the five government-wide initiatives. NASA received an unqualified audit opinion on FY 2002 financial statements. The vast majority of performance goals have been achieved, furthering each area of NASA's mission. The contents include: 1) NASA Vision and Mission; 2) Management's Discussion and Analysis; 3) Performance; and 4) Financial.

  15. 28 CFR 0.41 - Special functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Interstate Commerce Commission. (Pub. L. 93-584, Sec. 10, 88 Stat. 1917) (c) Representing the United States in proceedings before courts of appeals to review orders of the Interstate Commerce... their respective administrative orders. (e) Defending the Secretary of the Treasury or his...

  16. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited availability of data and, moreover, the different scopes of the accounting lead to many ways of quantifying emissions and producing the accounts. The importance of transparency in GHG accounting is emphasised regarding waste type, waste composition, time period considered, GHGs included, global warming potential (GWP) assigned to the GHGs, counting of biogenic carbon dioxide, choice of system boundaries, interactions with the energy system, and generic emissions factors. In order to enhance transparency and consistency, a format called the upstream-operating-downstream framework (UOD) is proposed for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities. PMID:19808731

  17. Performance testing accountability measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Oldham, R.D.; Mitchell, W.G.; Spaletto, M.I.

    1993-12-31

    The New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) provides assessment support to the DOE Operations Offices in the area of Material Control and Accountability (MC and A). During surveys of facilities, the Operations Offices have begun to request from NBL either assistance in providing materials for performance testing of accountability measurements or both materials and personnel to do performance testing. To meet these needs, NBL has developed measurement and measurement control performance test procedures and materials. The present NBL repertoire of performance tests include the following: (1) mass measurement performance testing procedures using calibrated and traceable test weights, (2) uranium elemental concentration (assay) measurement performance tests which use ampulated solutions of normal uranyl nitrate containing approximately 7 milligrams of uranium per gram of solution, and (3) uranium isotopic measurement performance tests which use ampulated uranyl nitrate solutions with enrichments ranging from 4% to 90% U-235. The preparation, characterization, and packaging of the uranium isotopic and assay performance test materials were done in cooperation with the NBL Safeguards Measurements Evaluation Program since these materials can be used for both purposes.

  18. Taking It All into Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driver, Melissa K.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating special education teachers is an especially salient topic for secondary principals because special educators in middle and high schools often collaborate with numerous content-area teachers and have varying degrees of direct instructional impact. The author's experiences as a secondary special educator and as a supervisor…

  19. Where Are the Accounting Professors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Jui-Chin; Sun, Huey-Lian

    2008-01-01

    Accounting education is facing a crisis of shortage of accounting faculty. This study discusses the reasons behind the shortage and offers suggestions to increase the supply of accounting faculty. Our suggestions are as followings. First, educators should begin promoting accounting academia as one of the career choices to undergraduate and…

  20. Program Accounting for Indiana Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Jack; Costerison, Dennis

    This booklet outlines the conversion of the Western Wayne (Indiana) Schools from a traditional school accounting and budgeting system to a program accounting and budgeting system. The Western Wayne Schools became the first district to adopt Indiana's new program accounting and budgeting system in 1975. The Indiana approach to program accounting is…