Science.gov

Sample records for accounting occupational safety

  1. Cluster Guide. Accounting Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaverton School District 48, OR.

    Based on a recent task inventory of key occupations in the accounting cluster taken in the Portland, Oregon, area, this curriculum guide is intended to assist administrators and teachers in the design and implementation of high school accounting cluster programs. The guide is divided into four major sections: program organization and…

  2. [Somnology and occupational safety].

    PubMed

    Dorokhov, V B

    2013-01-01

    Somnology has saved up enough great volume of objective knowledge of negative effects of a lack of the sleep, the raised drowsiness and sleep pathologies for health of people and occupational safety to formulate this knowledge in the accessible form for a society and acceptance by the state of acts and the organizational actions preventing these negative effects. The necessity of the salvation of these problems has led to occurrence of a new area of occupational sleep medicine, which problem is the analysis of influence of physiological mechanisms ofa sleep and functioning circadian systems on efficiency of professional activity and health of people. For a designation of the various items causing infringements of professional work use the term fatique. It is believed that fatigue development is connected with three major factors: deficiency of a sleep - defined by duration of previous wakefulness and a sleep, time-of-day and at last, task-related factors. Within the limits of approaches developed the occupational sleep medicine had been formulated the Fatigue Risk Management System. In the Russian literature there is a lack of the information on influence of mechanisms of a sleep on occupational safety, therefore the review will be interesting to a wide range of the experts dealing with the analysis of the human factor, health and an occupational safety

  3. Accounting. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Accounting Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) is one of a series of competency lists, verified by expert workers, that have evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from throughout Ohio. This OCAP identifies the…

  4. Factors influencing nurses' perceptions of occupational safety.

    PubMed

    Samur, Menevse; Intepeler, Seyda Seren

    2017-01-02

    To determine nurses' perceptions of occupational safety and their work environment and examine the sociodemographic traits and job characteristics that influence their occupational safety, we studied a sample of 278 nurses. According to the nurses, the quality of their work environment is average, and occupational safety is insufficient. In the subdimensions of the work environment scale, it was determined that the nurses think "labor force and other resources" are insufficient. In the occupational safety subdimensions "occupational illnesses and complaints" and "administrative support and approaches," they considered occupational safety to be insufficient. "Doctor-nurse-colleague relationships," "exposure to violence," and "work unit" (eg, internal medicine, surgical, intensive care) are the main factors that affect occupational safety. This study determined that hospital administrations should develop and immediately implement plans to ameliorate communication and clinical precautions and to reduce exposure to violence.

  5. Occupational medicine. The science of accounting.

    PubMed

    Fallon, J B

    1989-01-01

    Accounting is inextricably linked to professional practice, industry and commerce. Having knowledge of some fundamental concepts may ease the burdens imposed by the need to maintain accounting records and help occupational health professionals to operate better within the corporate realm. The material in this chapter is intended to provide a bare-bones introduction to accounting for the novice and a brief review for those with more experience. More advanced material is contained in Chapter 4.

  6. 77 FR 27776 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2... and funding cycles pertaining to research issues in occupational safety and health, and allied areas... focused research projects, which will lead to improvements in the delivery of occupational safety...

  7. 75 FR 56549 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Safety and Occupational Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Institute for Occupational Safety and... occupational safety and health, and allied areas. It is the intent of NIOSH to support broad-based research... delivery of occupational safety and health services, and the prevention of work-related injury and...

  8. Safety Guide for Health Occupations Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Vocational Education and Rehabilitation, Springfield. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    The handbook is intended to be utilized by health occupations teachers as supplementary instructional materials for a unit on safety. The document contains general safety rules applicable to hospitals and other health care institutions. Outlined are general rules for fire safety and office and clerical safety and more specific rules for the…

  9. Work, obesity, and occupational safety and health.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Paul A; Wagner, Gregory R; Ostry, Aleck; Blanciforti, Laura A; Cutlip, Robert G; Krajnak, Kristine M; Luster, Michael; Munson, Albert E; O'Callaghan, James P; Parks, Christine G; Simeonova, Petia P; Miller, Diane B

    2007-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that obesity and overweight may be related, in part, to adverse work conditions. In particular, the risk of obesity may increase in high-demand, low-control work environments, and for those who work long hours. In addition, obesity may modify the risk for vibration-induced injury and certain occupational musculoskeletal disorders. We hypothesized that obesity may also be a co-risk factor for the development of occupational asthma and cardiovascular disease that and it may modify the worker's response to occupational stress, immune response to chemical exposures, and risk of disease from occupational neurotoxins. We developed 5 conceptual models of the interrelationship of work, obesity, and occupational safety and health and highlighted the ethical, legal, and social issues related to fuller consideration of obesity's role in occupational health and safety.

  10. Occupational Therapy Home Safety Intervention via Telehealth

    PubMed Central

    BREEDEN, LORI E.

    2016-01-01

    Photography can be an effective addition for education-based telehealth services delivered by an occupational therapist. In this study, photography was used as antecedent to telehealth sessions delivered by an occupational therapist focused on narrative learning about home safety. After taking photographs of past home safety challenges, six participants experienced three web-based occupational therapy sessions. Sessions were recorded and transcribed. Data were examined using content analysis. The content analysis identified the following themes: the value of photos to support learning; the value of narrative learning related to home safety education; and abstract versus concrete learners. Procedural findings are included to support future endeavors. Findings indicate that within a wellness context, home safety education for older adults can be delivered effectively via telehealth when using photography as a part of an occupational therapy intervention. PMID:27563389

  11. The Impact of Language and Culture Diversity in Occupational Safety.

    PubMed

    De Jesus-Rivas, Mayra; Conlon, Helen Acree; Burns, Candace

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health nursing plays a critical part in improving the safety of foreign labor workers. The development and implementation of safety training programs do not always regularly take into account language barriers, low literacy levels, or cultural elements. This oversight can lead to more injuries and fatalities among this group. Despite established health and safety training programs, a significant number of non-native English speakers are injured or killed in preventable, occupation-related accidents. Introducing safety programs that use alternative teaching strategies such as pictograms, illustrations, and hands-on training opportunities will assist in addressing challenges for non-English laborers. Occupational health nursing has an opportunity to provide guidance on this subject and assist businesses in creating a safer and more productive work environment.

  12. A sociotechnical approach to occupational safety.

    PubMed

    Dainoff, Marvin J

    2017-02-27

    We present an integrated conceptual framework for improving occupational safety. This framework is based on sociotechnical principles and is based on the premise that occupational safety should not be an isolated function but rather seen as directly related to an organizational mission which combines performance and well-being. As such, a fundamental goal is to achieve joint optimization between social and technical components of the system. This framework consists of four basic questions: (1) How can we determine the overall level of safety in the system? (2) How can we determine what kinds of interventions would improve safety? (3) How can we determine if the organization is ready to implement safety interventions? (4) How can we determine the best pathway for implementing safety interventions? A sociotechnical approach implies that safety must be considered from a complexity perspective as an emergent property. Hence, a variety of methodological approaches is required.

  13. 75 FR 10629 - Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and...; ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION:...

  14. Transportation of Children: Ensuring Occupant Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Nick

    2004-01-01

    The two riskiest things to do with children is open the door to the playground and open the door to buses and vans. Experience proves that when serious injuries occur, they will happen in one of these two places. While the great debate over the safety of buses versus vans has now been settled, the issue regarding occupant safety is on fire in most…

  15. Highway Safety Occupational Program Development Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Ronald D.; And Others

    As part of a national project conducted for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, The Center for Vocational and Technical Education conducted a nationwide search for curriculum materials related to highway safety occupations. These materials were then screened and synthesized to provide training…

  16. 77 FR 75633 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  17. 77 FR 51810 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  18. 78 FR 64504 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH or Institute) Cancellation: This notice was published in the Federal Register...

  19. 76 FR 52330 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2... standard grants review and funding cycles pertaining to research issues in occupational safety and health... support more focused research projects, which will lead to improvements in the delivery of...

  20. 75 FR 5333 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section...

  1. 76 FR 18220 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section...

  2. Occupational Safety Review of High Technology Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Cadwallader

    2005-01-31

    This report contains reviews of operating experiences, selected accident events, and industrial safety performance indicators that document the performance of the major US DOE magnetic fusion experiments and particle accelerators. These data are useful to form a basis for the occupational safety level at matured research facilities with known sets of safety rules and regulations. Some of the issues discussed are radiation safety, electromagnetic energy exposure events, and some of the more widespread issues of working at height, equipment fires, confined space work, electrical work, and other industrial hazards. Nuclear power plant industrial safety data are also included for comparison.

  3. Danger zone: Men, masculinity and occupational health and safety in high risk occupations

    PubMed Central

    Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Mansfield, Elizabeth; Bezo, Randy; Colantonio, Angela; Garritano, Enzo; Lafrance, Marc; Lewko, John; Mantis, Steve; Moody, Joel; Power, Nicole; Theberge, Nancy; Westwood, Eleanor; Travers, Krista

    2016-01-01

    The workplace is a key setting where gender issues and organizational structures may influence occupational health and safety practices. The enactment of dominant norms of masculinity in high risk occupations can be particularly problematic, as it exposes men to significant risks for injuries and fatalities. To encourage multi-disciplinary collaborations and advance knowledge in the intersecting areas of gender studies, men’s health, work and workplace health and safety, a national network of thirteen researchers and health and safety stakeholders completed a critical literature review examining the intersection between masculinities and men’s workplace health and safety in order to: (i) account for research previously undertaken in this area; (ii) identify themes that may inform our understanding of masculinity and workplace health and safety and; (iii) identify research and practice gaps in relation to men’s workplace health and safety. In this paper we present key themes from this review. Recommendations are made regarding: (i) how to define gender; (ii) how to attend to and identify how masculinities may influence workers’ identities, perceptions of occupational risks and how institutionalized practices can reinforce norms of masculinity; (iii) the importance of considering how masculinities may intersect with other variables (e.g. historical context, age, class, race, geographical location) and; (iv) the added significance of present-day labour market forces on men’s occupational health and safety. PMID:27239098

  4. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Support Committee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-29

    0575 N5-95-1 Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Support Committee U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CARDEROCK DIVISION, NAVAL...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Shipbuilding Research Program, Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Support...SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMED. Sp-5 Safety and Health Final Report Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Support Committee Task No

  5. Occupant Protection. Traffic Safety Facts, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document provides statistical information on the benefits of occupant restraint systems in U.S. motor vehicle accidents. Data tables include: (1) estimated number of lives saved by restraint systems (seat belts, air bags, child restraints), 1975-2000; (2) cumulative estimated number of lives saved by safety belt use, 1975-2000; and (3)…

  6. Traffic Safety Facts, 2001: Occupant Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document provides statistical information on the benefits of occupant restraint systems in U.S. motor vehicle accidents. Data tables include: (1) estimated number of lives saved by restraint systems (seat belts, air bags, child restraints), 1975-2001; (2) cumulative estimated number of lives saved by safety belt use, 1975-2001; and (3)…

  7. Occupational Safety and Health Act: A Responsibility for Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Presents implications of the Occupational Safety and Health Act for science teachers both as workers and as they encourage, in students, the development of positive safety attitudes for future occupations. (PEB)

  8. Occupational Safety and Health in Peru.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Ismael; Huerta-Mercado, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Peru is a country located on the Pacific coast of South America with a population of more than 30 million inhabitants. In the past 10 years, Peru has had a steady economic growth. Peru is predominantly an extractive industry country, but the manufacturing and construction sectors are booming. It is in this context that regulations have been implemented to protect the safety and health of workers. One of the most important regulations is the Law on Safety and Health at Work, which has been recently promulgated. Regulations are complemented by training and education in occupational safety and health. The measures are yet to be fully implemented thus a positive effect in reducing accidents and occupational diseases at work has not yet been seen.

  9. Occupational safety considerations with hydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clewell, Harvey J., III; Mcdougal, James N.; George, Marilyn E.; Andersen, Melvin E.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrazine is a reducing agent that is most commonly used as a propellant and as an oxygen scavenger in boilers. Hydrazine is extremely irritating and has been demonstrated to produce both acute and chronic toxicity. As a result, the established permissible inhalation exposure limits are very low, and respiration protection is required whenever vapors are present. Liquid hydrazine penetrates the skin and produces a chemical burn; therefore, some protective measures must also be taken to protect the skin from liquid contact. Often, however, a cumbersome, whole-body protective suit is worn to protect against skin contact with vapor as well. To what extent it is actually necessary to protect skin from vapor penetration had not previously been demonstrated. In an attempt to answer this question, we conducted a study with rats to compare the dermal penetration of hydrazine vapor with inhalation. Pharmacokinetic modeling was used to compare body burdens resulting from these different routes of exposure. The analysis concluded that the vapor concentration during a skin-only exposure would have to be at least 200 times higher than that during inhalation to achieve the same body burden. This type of estimation illustrates the use of predictive toxicology in occupational exposures.

  10. Stepping Up Occupational Safety and Health Through Employee Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Gary R.

    1986-01-01

    The effectiveness of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 is examined, and it is suggested that employee participation could help improve occupational safety and health in the future, through safety committees, safety circles, safety teams, and individual participation. (MSE)

  11. Directory of Academic Programs in Occupational Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, William J., III; And Others

    This booklet describes academic program offerings in American colleges and universities in the area of occupational safety and health. Programs are divided into five major categories, corresponding to each of the core disciplines: (1) occupational safety and health/industrial hygiene, (2) occupational safety, (3) industrial hygiene, (4)…

  12. Recent Cases: Administrative Law--Occupational Safety and Health Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Law Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Implications of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 are described in two cases: Brennan v. Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (Underhill Construction Corp.), and Anning-Johnson Co. v. United States Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. (LBH)

  13. 78 FR 21977 - Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of... Occupational Safety and Health. The Committee will better enable OSHA to perform its duties under...

  14. 75 FR 13783 - Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: MACOSH meeting; Notice. SUMMARY: The Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH)...

  15. 77 FR 62536 - National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of renewal of... Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Deborah...

  16. 76 FR 32374 - National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Announcement of meetings of the National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) and NACOSH...

  17. 76 FR 54806 - Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of MACOSH Meeting. SUMMARY: The Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH)...

  18. 76 FR 71077 - Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health (FACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health (FACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Announcement of... advise the Secretary of Labor (Secretary) on all matters relating to the occupational safety and...

  19. 76 FR 60085 - National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Request for nominations to serve on NACOSH. SUMMARY: The Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and...

  20. 77 FR 33495 - Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of MACOSH..., Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, authorized the preparation of this...

  1. 75 FR 66797 - National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH), Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH), Charter Renewal AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION... National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) for two years. FOR...

  2. Occupational Safety and Health Guide (OSH Guide) (CD-ROM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Federal agencies in assessing their compliance with the standards of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and it may be used in...combination with an agency-specific manual. The OSH Guide is based on Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 1910, Occupational Safety and Health...Standards, and Part 1926, Safety and Health Regulations for Construction. Part 1960, Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee Occupational Safety and Health Programs and Related Mafters, is also included.

  3. Occupational Safety and Health Guide (OSH Guide) (CD-ROM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    standards of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and it may be used in combination with an agency-specific manual. The OSH Guide is...based on Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 1910, Occupational Safety and Health Standards, and Part 1926, Safety and Health Regulations...for Construction. Part 1960, Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee Occupational Safety and Health Programs and Related Matters, is also included.

  4. Occupational health and safety in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Frumkin, H; Câmara, V de M

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Brazil is the world's fifth largest and sixth most populous nation. Its economy is varied, with strong manufacturing, agriculture, mining, and service sectors. Therefore, a wide variety of workplace hazards confronts its work force. This paper describes Brazil's occupational safety and health regulatory scheme, workers' compensation system, plant-level practices, training, and data collection. METHODS. We reviewed and analyzed Brazilian regulatory legislation and government and non-governmental organization (NGO) activity in occupational safety and health, as well as the structure and function of the workers' compensation system. We also reviewed available data on injuries and diseases from major sources, including the now-defunct Instituto Nacional do Previdencia Social (INPS) and the workers' compensation scheme, Seguro de Acidente de Trabalho (SAT). RESULTS. The incidence of workplace injuries has decreased in recent years and is now reported to be about 5 per 100 workers per year. The case fatality rate has been constant at about 5 fatalities per 1000 injuries. Less than 6% of reported injuries are classified as "diseases." Brazil's rates are comparable to those of Mexico and Zimbabwe, and two to four times higher than in most industrialized countries. CONCLUSIONS. Brazil has a high incidence of occupational injuries and diseases; these injuries and diseases are underreported; there is a large informal sector at special risk; and Brazil illustrates the disparity that exists in many countries between legislation on the books and legislation that is actually implemented. PMID:1836110

  5. Occupational safety and health law handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Sarvadi, D.G.; Keller; Heckman

    1999-09-01

    This book reviews the regulations and standards governing the protection of employees in the workplace and provides insight into dealing with pertinent regulations and regulatory authorities. Written for safety professionals, industrial hygienists, human resource professionals, attorneys, and students, this companion to Government Institutes' best-selling ``Environmental Law Handbook'' offers the legal fundamentals behind occupational safety and health laws in one concise and authoritative volume. In 19 chapters, the authoring law firm of Keller and Heckman cover the OSHAct and its development; OSHA, NIOSH, and OSHRC; the roles played by other regulatory agencies; the OSHA rulemaking process; OSHA Standards and the General Duty Clause; record keeping and reporting; employers' and employees' rights; inspections; violations, penalties, and how to contest them; criminal prosecutions; state plans; industry-specific issues; OSHA reform; and international regulations and standards. This book references approximately 400 seminal OSHA legal decisions from the approximately 1,300 cases on record and includes coverage of Canadian and European Community regulations, making it the first comprehensive global overview of occupational safety and health law.

  6. Occupational Safety and Health Programs in Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Robert D.; And Others

    This resource guide was developed in response to the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and is intended to assist teachers in implementing courses in occupational safety and health as part of a career education program. The material is a synthesis of films, programed instruction, slides and narration, case studies, safety pamphlets,…

  7. 32 CFR 989.27 - Occupational safety and health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupational safety and health. 989.27 Section... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.27 Occupational safety and health. Assess direct and indirect impacts of proposed actions on the safety and health of Air Force employees...

  8. 32 CFR 989.27 - Occupational safety and health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Occupational safety and health. 989.27 Section... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.27 Occupational safety and health. Assess direct and indirect impacts of proposed actions on the safety and health of Air Force employees...

  9. 32 CFR 989.27 - Occupational safety and health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Occupational safety and health. 989.27 Section... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.27 Occupational safety and health. Assess direct and indirect impacts of proposed actions on the safety and health of Air Force employees...

  10. 32 CFR 989.27 - Occupational safety and health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Occupational safety and health. 989.27 Section... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.27 Occupational safety and health. Assess direct and indirect impacts of proposed actions on the safety and health of Air Force employees...

  11. 32 CFR 989.27 - Occupational safety and health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupational safety and health. 989.27 Section... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.27 Occupational safety and health. Assess direct and indirect impacts of proposed actions on the safety and health of Air Force employees...

  12. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Accounting Services Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These Illinois skill standards for the accounting services cluster are intended to serve as a guide to workforce preparation program providers as they define content for their programs and to employers as they establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. They could also serve as a mechanism for communication among education,…

  13. Hawaii State Plan for Occupational Safety and Health. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-21

    This document announces the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) decision to modify the Hawaii State Plan's ``final approval'' determination under Section 18(e) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (the Act) and to transition to ``initial approval'' status. OSHA is reinstating concurrent federal enforcement authority over occupational safety and health issues in the private sector, which have been solely covered by the Hawaii State Plan since 1984.

  14. Physician accountability, patient safety and patient compensation.

    PubMed

    Gray, John E

    2006-01-01

    In Canada, the response to adverse medical events follows one or more of three main paths: patient safety, physician accountability and patient compensation. While their goals differ, each of these responses serves a valuable function. There are however competing imperatives inherent in each response, particularly in terms of information disclosure: Effective patient safety depends on the full and protected disclosure of all information relevant to an adverse event and requires a "no blame" environment. While natural justice demands that a physician be held accountable for his actions, the doctor should be accorded the right of due process and be judged against an established standard of care. This is necessarily a fault-finding activity. Patient compensation meets both accountability demands and the social justice imperatives of supporting a patient injured through physician negligence. The most effective approach is one that achieves balance between competing imperatives. With clear information disclosure rules, patient safety, physician accountability and patient compensation can operate synergistically.

  15. A Bibliographic Guide to Occupational Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pease, Sue

    1981-01-01

    Lists government publications, periodicals, loose-leaf services, reports, and reference materials dealing with health and safety in the work environment. Addresses for the Occupational Safety and Health Administration regional offices are provided. (FM)

  16. Gender issues on occupational safety and health.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Eugenio; Vona, Rosa; Monterosso, Davide; Giammarioli, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    The increasing proportion of women in the workforce raises a range of gender-related questions about the different effects of work-related risks on men and women. Few studies have characterized gender differences across occupations and industries, although at this time, the gender sensitive approach is starting to acquire relevance in the field of human preventive medicine. The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work has encouraged a policy of gender equality in all European member states. Italy has adopted European provisions with new specific legislation that integrates the previous laws and introduces the gender differences into the workplace. Despite the fact that gender equal legislation opportunities have been enacted in Italy, their application is delayed by some difficulties. This review examines some of these critical aspects.

  17. Software for the occupational health and safety integrated management system

    SciTech Connect

    Vătăsescu, Mihaela

    2015-03-10

    This paper intends to present the design and the production of a software for the Occupational Health and Safety Integrated Management System with the view to a rapid drawing up of the system documents in the field of occupational health and safety.

  18. 77 FR 22358 - Occupational Safety and Health Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Preparations for the 23rd Session of the UN Sub-Committee of... Stakeholder Input for the Regulatory Coordination Council (RCC) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health... classification of chemicals according to their health, physical, and environmental effects. It also...

  19. Occupational Safety and Health Systems: A Three-Country Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, W. T.

    1983-01-01

    This article compares the occupational safety and health systems of Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States, looking at the origins of their legislation and its effects on occupational safety and health, with a view to determining what lessons may emerge, particularly for developing countries. (Author/SSH)

  20. High-performance work systems and occupational safety.

    PubMed

    Zacharatos, Anthea; Barling, Julian; Iverson, Roderick D

    2005-01-01

    Two studies were conducted investigating the relationship between high-performance work systems (HPWS) and occupational safety. In Study 1, data were obtained from company human resource and safety directors across 138 organizations. LISREL VIII results showed that an HPWS was positively related to occupational safety at the organizational level. Study 2 used data from 189 front-line employees in 2 organizations. Trust in management and perceived safety climate were found to mediate the relationship between an HPWS and safety performance measured in terms of personal-safety orientation (i.e., safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance, and safety initiative) and safety incidents (i.e., injuries requiring first aid and near misses). These 2 studies provide confirmation of the important role organizational factors play in ensuring worker safety.

  1. DoD Occupational Safety and Health Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-26

    TIC ’I Department of Defense . LECTE INSTRUCTION• 0~v 15 1993 •A2267" October 26, 1984 _. AD-A272 637 NUMBER 6055.1 SUBJECT: DoD Occupational Safety and...and State Occupational Safety and Health Inspections and Investigations at •r%3 Contractor Workplaces on Department of Defense Installations," June 29...thereby updating the policy, procedures, and responsibilities for administering a comprehensive DoD on-the-job occupational safety and health (OSH

  2. 77 FR 58488 - Hawaii State Plan for Occupational Safety and Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1952 RIN 1218-AC78 Hawaii State Plan for Occupational Safety and Health AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Department of Labor. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document announces the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's...

  3. 78 FR 54923 - Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Request for nominations to serve on the Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health (FACOSH). SUMMARY: The Assistant Secretary...

  4. Regulatory system reform of occupational health and safety in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fenghong; Chi, Yan

    2015-01-01

    With the explosive economic growth and social development, China's regulatory system of occupational health and safety now faces more and more challenges. This article reviews the history of regulatory system of occupational health and safety in China, as well as the current reform of this regulatory system in the country. Comprehensive, a range of laws, regulations and standards that promulgated by Chinese government, duties and responsibilities of the regulatory departments are described. Problems of current regulatory system, the ongoing adjustments and changes for modifying and improving regulatory system are discussed. The aim of reform and the incentives to drive forward more health and safety conditions in workplaces are also outlined.

  5. Ensuring the quality of occupational safety risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Abel; Ribeiro, Rita A; Nunes, Isabel L

    2013-03-01

    In work environments, the main aim of occupational safety risk assessment (OSRA) is to improve the safety level of an installation or site by either preventing accidents and injuries or minimizing their consequences. To this end, it is of paramount importance to identify all sources of hazards and assess their potential to cause problems in the respective context. If the OSRA process is inadequate and/or not applied effectively, it results in an ineffective safety prevention program and inefficient use of resources. An appropriate OSRA is an essential component of the occupational safety risk management process in industries. In this article, we performed a survey to elicit the relative importance for identified OSRA tasks to enable an in-depth evaluation of the quality of risk assessments related to occupational safety aspects on industrial sites. The survey involved defining a questionnaire with the most important elements (tasks) for OSRA quality assessment, which was then presented to safety experts in the mining, electrical power production, transportation, and petrochemical industries. With this work, we expect to contribute to the main question of OSRA in industries: "What constitutes a good occupational safety risk assessment?" The results obtained from the questionnaire showed that experts agree with the proposed OSRA process decomposition in steps and tasks (taxonomy) and also with the importance of assigning weights to obtain knowledge about OSRA task relevance. The knowledge gained will enable us, in the near future, to build a framework to evaluate OSRA quality for industrial sites.

  6. Prevention through pre-review in occupational health and safety.

    PubMed Central

    Richter, E D; Kretzmer, D

    1980-01-01

    Occupational health problems have needlessly been produced at many worksites as a consequence of their not having been anticipated during design and construction. Pre-review may be an effective and efficient mechanism for preventive intervention in occupational health and safety. Legal and administrative precedents are cited from the United States and other countries. Proposals are presented, with Israel as an example, which aim to implement the principle of pre-review. PMID:7352610

  7. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Analysis and Support (DCAS) Office of Research and Technology Transfer (r2p) Health Effects Laboratory Division (HELD) Division of Safety Research (DSR) Respiratory Health Division (RHD) Office of Mine Safety and Health National Personal Protective ... Research Laboratory Spokane Research Laboratory ...

  8. Promoting Occupational Safety and Health for Cambodian Entertainment Sector Workers.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Lee-Nah; Howard, Richard; Torriente, Anna Maria; Por, Chuong

    2016-08-01

    Cambodia has developed booming textile, garment, tourism, and entertainment service industries since the mid-1990s. The 2007 global financial crisis pushed many garment workers, who lost their jobs, into the entertainment sector. Entertainment workers are typically engaged informally by their employers and are subjected to long working hours, sexual harassment, and violence. Many who sell beverages are forced into excessive alcohol consumption as part of their work. Many are also expected by their employers and clients to provide sexual services. To address unsafe and unhealthy working conditions for these workers, an innovative occupational safety and health regulation was adopted in 2014. This first-of-its-kind occupational safety and health regulation was developed jointly by the Cambodian Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training and employers' and workers' organizations in the entertainment sector. The implementation of this regulation can also be a viable contribution of occupational safety and health to HIV interventions for these workers.

  9. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOR UNDERSERVED POPULATIONS

    PubMed Central

    O’CONNOR, TOM; FLYNN, MICHAEL; WEINSTOCK, DEBORAH; ZANONI, JOSEPH

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the essential elements of effective occupational safety and health education and training programs targeting under-served communities. While not an exhaustive review of the literature on occupational safety and health training, the paper provides a guide for practitioners and researchers to the key factors they should consider in the design and implementation of training programs for underserved communities. It also addresses issues of evaluation of such programs, with specific emphasis on considerations for programs involving low-literacy and limited-English-speaking workers. PMID:25053607

  10. Occupational safety and health education and training for underserved populations.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Tom; Flynn, Michael; Weinstock, Deborah; Zanoni, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the essential elements of effective occupational safety and health education and training programs targeting underserved communities. While not an exhaustive review of the literature on occupational safety and health training, the paper provides a guide for practitioners and researchers to the key factors they should consider in the design and implementation of training programs for underserved communities. It also addresses issues of evaluation of such programs, with specific emphasis on considerations for programs involving low-literacy and limited-English-speaking workers.

  11. WORKSAFE IOWA Occupational Medicine Associates Network: a university--community partnership in occupational safety and health.

    PubMed

    Merchant, J A; Walkner, L; Mikulski, M

    2001-01-01

    The WORKSAFE IOWA Occupational Medicine Associates Network is a unique health care model for dispensing regional occupational medicine services in the state of Iowa, USA. WORKSAFE IOWA is an educational, informational, and consultation service of the College of Public Health at The University of Iowa. WORKSAFE IOWA includes a fee-for-service industrial hygiene program, the Occupational Medicine Associates Network, and educational and informational services. The Associates Network provides education, information, and consultation in exchange for an annual fee paid by each Associate to the university-based network. The Associates clinics provide comprehensive occupational medicine services to up to 1,500 clients through 66,000 annual clinic visits in their respective communities. The Associates Network has been financially self-sustaining over a period of 10 years, and has proven to provide valuable services to the community-based Associates, and to provide excellent training opportunities for the University students in several occupational safety and health disciplines.

  12. [Hazard assessment and occupational safety measures in surgery : Relevant knowledge on occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Darius, S; Meyer, F; Böckelmann, I

    2016-11-01

    Surgeons routinely work in an environment with occupational risks and hazards about which they are often uninformed. Based on the currently available scientific literature this review article describes the various hazards in the operating theater and their effects on personnel, particularly from the surgical perspective. A further aim of this article is to describe the occupational safety measures to reduce the burdens and to maintain the long-term health of personnel. Ultimately, surgeons should be equipped with the necessary knowledge for implementing hazard assessments according to the German Occupational Health and Safety Act. Surgeons are exposed to increased risks and hazards by working in awkward positions with a high risk for musculoskeletal pain and injuries. They are also commonly exposed to inhalational anesthetics, surgical smoke, radiation, noise and infectious agents. Furthermore, the mental and emotional stress associated with these activities is also high. Meaningful occupational safety measures for reduction of burdens are from a technical aspect the installation of effective air extraction systems, measures to reduce exposure to radiation and noise and the use of safer instruments to prevent needle stick injuries. Furthermore, individual occupational safety measures, such as the use of personal protective equipment (e.g. radiation protective clothing and double gloves) must be observed. The consistent implementation and also adherence to these described occupational safety measures and regulations can reduce the burden on operating theater personnel and contribute to maintaining health. Furthermore, periodic preventive healthcare controls and health checks by the company medical officer and individually initiated additional prevention measures can be a sensible augmentation to these safety measures.

  13. Integrated Approaches to Occupational Health and Safety: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cooklin, A; Joss, N; Husser, E; Oldenburg, B

    2016-01-05

    Objective . The study objective was to conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of integrated workplace interventions that combine health promotion with occupational health and safety. Data Source . Electronic databases (n = 8), including PsychInfo and MEDLINE, were systematically searched. Study Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria . Studies included were those that reported on workplace interventions that met the consensus definition of an "integrated approach," published in English, in the scientific literature since 1990. Data Extraction . Data extracted were occupation, worksite, country, sample size, intervention targets, follow-up period, and results reported. Quality was assessed according to American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Practice Guidelines. Data Synthesis . Heterogeneity precluded formal meta-analyses. Results were classified according to the outcome(s) assessed into five categories (health promotion, injury prevention, occupational health and safety management, psychosocial, and return-on-investment). Narrative synthesis of outcomes was performed. Results . A total of 31 eligible studies were identified; 23 (74%) were (quasi-)experimental trials. Effective interventions were most of those aimed at improving employee physical or mental health. Less consistent results were reported from integrated interventions targeting occupational health and safety management, injury prevention, or organizational cost savings. Conclusion . Integrated approaches have been posed as comprehensive solutions to complex issues. Empirical evidence, while still emerging, provides some support for this. Continuing investment in, and evaluation of, integrated approaches are worthwhile.

  14. Telecommuting: Occupational health considerations for employee health and safety.

    PubMed

    Healy, M L

    2000-06-01

    1. Information technology has moved "work" out of a centralized location. Employees who telecommute pose significant challenges and considerations for the practice of occupational health nursing. 2. Employer and employee benefits associated with telecommuting are reportedly associated with high levels of job satisfaction. However, the occupational health and safety risks of this new work environment need to be fully assessed and understood. 3. The ergonomic controls to minimize the risk of repetitive motion injuries are the same for both office and home locations. Additional attention need to be paid to implementing risk controls for other physical hazards and psychosocial considerations, as well as personal safety and security issues. 4. The scope of occupational health nursing practice needs to remain dynamic, recognizing the impact new technologies have on the workplace, to continue to meet the needs of the changing workplace.

  15. Safety & Health. Resource Guide for Occupational/Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Albert S., Ed.

    This guide is intended to alert occupational/technology teachers, teacher educators, school administrators, and industrial education supervisors to the need and importance of a strong and active safety program. Responsibilities are detailed for all individuals involved. Teacher liability is addressed. A section on emergency procedures covers…

  16. An Occupant Behavior Model for Building Energy Efficiency and Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, L. L.; Chen, T.; Jia, Q. S.; Yuan, R. X.; Wang, H. T.; Ding, R.

    2010-05-01

    An occupant behavior model is suggested to improve building energy efficiency and safety. This paper provides a generic outline of the model, which includes occupancy behavior abstraction, model framework and primary structure, input and output, computer simulation results as well as summary and outlook. Using information technology, now it's possible to collect large amount of information of occupancy. Yet this can only provide partial and historical information, so it's important to develop a model to have full view of the researched building as well as prediction. We used the infrared monitoring system which is set at the front door of the Low Energy Demo Building (LEDB) at Tsinghua University in China, to provide the time variation of the total number of occupants in the LEDB building. This information is used as input data for the model. While the RFID system is set on the 1st floor, which provides the time variation of the occupants' localization in each region. The collected data are used to validate the model. The simulation results show that this presented model provides a feasible framework to simulate occupants' behavior and predict the time variation of the number of occupants in the building. Further development and application of the model is also discussed.

  17. The Role of Individual and Collective Mindfulness in Promoting Occupational Safety in Health Care.

    PubMed

    Dierynck, Bart; Leroy, Hannes; Savage, Grant T; Choi, Ellen

    2016-01-29

    Although the importance of safety regulations is highly emphasized in hospitals, nurses frequently work around, or intentionally bypass, safety regulations. We argue that work-arounds occur because adhering to safety regulations usually requires more time and work process design often lacks complementarity with safety regulations. Our main proposition is that mindfulness is associated with a decrease in occupational safety failures through a decrease in work-arounds. First, we propose that individual mindfulness may prevent the depletion of motivational resources caused by worrying about the consequences of time lost when adhering to safety regulations. Second, we argue that collective mindfulness may provide nursing teams with a cognitive infrastructure that facilitates the detection and adaptation of work processes. The results of a multilevel analysis of 580 survey responses from nurses are consistent with our propositions. Our multilevel analytic approach enables us to account for the unique variance in work-arounds that individual and collective mindfulness explain.

  18. Occupant safety in the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, N. R.; Prichard, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    The nature of Space Shuttle missions, i.e., the inclusion of non-pilot payload specialists in addition to military test pilots, necessitates a greater attention to built in safety features than on previous spacecraft. Basic systems such as fire protection, anti-depressurization, toxicity control, and protection from radiation are handled in a manner similar to that of past missions, but some important deviations are noted, most importantly those pertaining to the provisions for on-orbit rescue. A Personnel Rescue System (PRS) is outlined, describing EVA operations whereby the pilots are able to don pressure suits and the crew can be transferred to another vehicle in balloon-like enclosures, which provide one hour's worth of life support and protection from the space environment. Also mentioned are provisions for the quick abort and reentry of the Shuttle Orbiter, as well as passive safety provisions for the Spacelab module.

  19. Units of Instruction for Vocational Office Education. Volume 2. Office Occupations--Related Information, Accounting and Computing Occupations, Information Communications Occupations, Stenographic, Secretarial, and Related Occupations. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Sixteen units on office occupations are presented in this teacher's guide. The unit topics include the following: related information (e.g., preparing for job interview); accounting and computing (e.g., preparing a payroll and a balance sheet); information communications (e.g., handling appointments, composing correspondence); and stenographic,…

  20. 76 FR 28790 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BSC, NIOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... grants or contracts, research, experiments, and demonstrations relating to occupational safety and health..., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health on research and prevention programs. Specifically, the Board shall provide guidance on the Institute's research activities related to developing...

  1. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Advisory Committee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-29

    0576 N5-97-3 Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Advisory Committee U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CARDEROCK DIVISION, NAVAL...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Shipbuilding Research Program, Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Support

  2. Discretionary Review by the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission: Is It Necessary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Robert D.

    1974-01-01

    Deficiencies in the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (OSAHRC), a court system created to carry out adjudicatory functions under the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, are exposed and alternative solutions offered. (JT)

  3. Regulatory system reform of occupational health and safety in China

    PubMed Central

    WU, Fenghong; CHI, Yan

    2015-01-01

    With the explosive economic growth and social development, China’s regulatory system of occupational health and safety now faces more and more challenges. This article reviews the history of regulatory system of occupational health and safety in China, as well as the current reform of this regulatory system in the country. Comprehensive, a range of laws, regulations and standards that promulgated by Chinese government, duties and responsibilities of the regulatory departments are described. Problems of current regulatory system, the ongoing adjustments and changes for modifying and improving regulatory system are discussed. The aim of reform and the incentives to drive forward more health and safety conditions in workplaces are also outlined. PMID:25843565

  4. Occupational safety and health management among five ASEAN countries: Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Buranatrevedh, Surasak

    2015-03-01

    Occupational safety and health is one of important issues for workforce movement among ASEAN countries. The objective was to study laws, main agencies, and law enforcement regarding occupational safety and health in Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Singapore. This documentary research covered laws, main agencies' duties, and occupational safety and health law enforcement in Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Singapore. Thailand has its Occupational Safety, Health, and Work EnvironmentAct 2011. Its main agency was Department of Labor Protection and Welfare. Indonesia had WorkSafety Act (Law No. 1, 1970). Its main agency was Department of Manpower and Transmigration. Malaysia had Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) 1994. Its main agency is the Department of Occupational Safety and Health. The Philippines has its Occupational Safety and Health Standards. Its main agency was Department ofLabor and Employment. Singapore has its Workplace Safety and Health Act 2006. Its main agency is Occupational Safety and Health Division. Occupational safety and health law enforcement among each county covers work environment surveillance, workers' health surveillance, advice about prevention and control of occupational health hazards, training and education of employers and employees, data systems, and research. Further in-depth surveys of occupational safety and health among each ASEAN county are needed to develop frameworks for occupational safety and health management for all ASEAN countries.

  5. Occupational safety risk management in Australian mining.

    PubMed

    Joy, J

    2004-08-01

    In the past 15 years, there has been a major safety improvement in the Australian mining industry. Part of this change can be attributed to the development and application of risk assessment methods. These systematic, team-based techniques identify, assess and control unacceptable risks to people, assets, the environment and production. The outcomes have improved mine management systems. This paper discusses the risk assessment approach applied to equipment design and mining operations, as well as the specific risk assessment methodology. The paper also discusses the reactive side of risk management, incident and accident investigation. Systematic analytical methods have also been adopted by regulatory authorities and mining companies to investigate major losses.

  6. Getting Home Safe and Sound: Occupational Safety and Health Administration at 38

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHAct) declared that every worker is entitled to safe and healthful working conditions, and that employers are responsible for work being free from all recognized hazards. Thirty-eight years after these assurances, however, it is difficult to find anyone who believes the promise of the OSHAct has been met. The persistence of preventable, life-threatening hazards at work is a failure to keep a national promise. I review the history of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and propose measures to better ensure that those who go to work every day return home safe and sound. These measures fall into 6 areas: leverage and accountability, safety and health systems, employee rights, equal protection, framing, and infrastructure. PMID:18235060

  7. Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste Site Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    environment and the cleanup of inactive waste disposal sites." This manual is a guidance document for managers responsible for occupational safety and health...programs at inactive hazardous waste sites. It assumes a basic knowledge of science and experience in occupational safety and health. It is the...product of a four-agency committee (the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA

  8. Safety Capital: The Management of Organizational Knowledge on Occupational Health and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Imanol; Villanueva, Mikel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The concept of Safety Capital was developed by analyzing the creation and composition of the Intellectual Capital embedded in Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) systems. The paper aims to address this relationship. Design/methodology/approach: By drawing a theoretical link for the relationship between OHS activities and intellectual…

  9. 78 FR 40743 - Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory Committee, National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... program; an update on Division of Respiratory Disease Studies research; an update on the 1 mg initiative... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory Committee, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (MSHRAC, NIOSH) In accordance with...

  10. 77 FR 39743 - Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health (FACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-16468] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2012-0022] Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health (FACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Request for nominations to serve on...

  11. 77 FR 72998 - Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 91, 121, 125 and 135 Policy Statement on Occupational Safety... a proposed policy statement regarding the regulation of some occupational safety and health conditions affecting cabin crewmembers on aircraft by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration...

  12. 29 CFR 1902.6 - Consultation with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Safety and Health. 1902.6 Section 1902.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... Occupational Safety and Health. The Assistant Secretary will consult, as appropriate, with the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health with regard to plans submitted by the States...

  13. A Survey of Occupational Safety & Health Libraries in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Karen S.

    There is very little published information available about occupational safety and health libraries. This study identified, described, and compared the occupational safety and health libraries in the United States. The questionnaire first filtered out those libraries that did not fit the definition of an occupational safety and health library;…

  14. 48 CFR 1371.113 - Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards for ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... occupational safety and health standards for ship repair. 1371.113 Section 1371.113 Federal Acquisition... CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.113 Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards for ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-82, Department of Labor Occupational Safety and...

  15. 29 CFR 1912.5 - National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health. 1912.5 Section 1912.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Matters § 1912.5 National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health. (a) Section 7(a) of...

  16. 29 CFR 1960.19 - Other Federal agency standards affecting occupational safety and health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... safety and health. 1960.19 Section 1960.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Standards § 1960.19 Other Federal agency standards affecting occupational safety and health. (a) Where employees of different...

  17. 77 FR 75600 - Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY... regarding the regulation of some occupational safety and health conditions affecting cabin crewmembers on aircraft by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The comment period is scheduled to close...

  18. 29 CFR 1960.11 - Evaluation of occupational safety and health performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evaluation of occupational safety and health performance. 1960.11 Section 1960.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Administration § 1960.11 Evaluation of occupational safety...

  19. 29 CFR 1960.80 - Secretary's evaluations of agency occupational safety and health programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Evaluation of Federal Occupational Safety and Health Programs § 1960.80 Secretary's evaluations of agency occupational safety and health... distribute to Federal agencies detailed information on the Department of Labor's evaluation program....

  20. 29 CFR 1960.79 - Self-evaluations of occupational safety and health programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Self-evaluations of occupational safety and health programs... AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Evaluation of Federal Occupational Safety and Health Programs § 1960.79 Self-evaluations of occupational safety and health programs. Agency heads shall develop...

  1. 29 CFR 1960.80 - Secretary's evaluations of agency occupational safety and health programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Evaluation of Federal Occupational Safety and Health Programs § 1960.80 Secretary's evaluations of agency occupational safety and health... distribute to Federal agencies detailed information on the Department of Labor's evaluation program....

  2. 29 CFR 1960.79 - Self-evaluations of occupational safety and health programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Self-evaluations of occupational safety and health programs... AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Evaluation of Federal Occupational Safety and Health Programs § 1960.79 Self-evaluations of occupational safety and health programs. Agency heads shall develop...

  3. 29 CFR 1960.80 - Secretary's evaluations of agency occupational safety and health programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Evaluation of Federal Occupational Safety and Health Programs § 1960.80 Secretary's evaluations of agency occupational safety and health... distribute to Federal agencies detailed information on the Department of Labor's evaluation program....

  4. 29 CFR 1960.79 - Self-evaluations of occupational safety and health programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Self-evaluations of occupational safety and health programs... AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Evaluation of Federal Occupational Safety and Health Programs § 1960.79 Self-evaluations of occupational safety and health programs. Agency heads shall develop...

  5. 29 CFR 1960.79 - Self-evaluations of occupational safety and health programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Self-evaluations of occupational safety and health programs... AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Evaluation of Federal Occupational Safety and Health Programs § 1960.79 Self-evaluations of occupational safety and health programs. Agency heads shall develop...

  6. 29 CFR 1960.80 - Secretary's evaluations of agency occupational safety and health programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Evaluation of Federal Occupational Safety and Health Programs § 1960.80 Secretary's evaluations of agency occupational safety and health... distribute to Federal agencies detailed information on the Department of Labor's evaluation program....

  7. 29 CFR 1960.79 - Self-evaluations of occupational safety and health programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Self-evaluations of occupational safety and health programs... AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Evaluation of Federal Occupational Safety and Health Programs § 1960.79 Self-evaluations of occupational safety and health programs. Agency heads shall develop...

  8. Occupational health and safety among commercial sex workers.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael W; Crisp, Beth R; Månsson, Sven-Axel; Hawkes, Sarah

    2012-03-01

    The concept of occupational health and safety (OHS) for commercial sex workers has rarely been investigated, perhaps because of the often informal nature of the workplace, the associated stigma, and the frequently illegal nature of the activity. We reviewed the literature on health, occupational risks, and safety among commercial sex workers. Cultural and local variations and commonalities were identified. Dimensions of OHS that emerged included legal and policing risks, risks associated with particular business settings such as streets and brothels, violence from clients, mental health risks and protective factors, alcohol and drug use, repetitive strain injuries, sexually transmissible infections, risks associated with particular classes of clients, issues associated with male and transgender commercial sex workers, and issues of risk reduction that in many cases are associated with lack of agency or control, stigma, and legal barriers. We further discuss the impact and potential of OHS interventions for commercial sex workers. The OHS of commercial sex workers covers a range of domains, some potentially modifiable by OHS programs and workplace safety interventions targeted at this population. We argue that commercial sex work should be considered as an occupation overdue for interventions to reduce workplace risks and enhance worker safety.

  9. Occupational Safety. Hygiene Safety. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on hygiene safety is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to familiarize students with the different types of airborne contaminants--including noise--which may be health hazards and with the proper hygienic measures for dealing with them. The…

  10. Occupational safety and health objectives of Healthy People 2010: a systematic approach for occupational health nurses--Part II.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Kimberly; Parks, Carol; Chikotas, Noreen E

    2007-03-01

    Occupational safety and health objectives 20.6 through 20.11 focus on reducing work-related assaults, lead exposure, skin diseases and disorders, needlestick injuries, and work-related, noise-induced hearing loss and promoting worksite stress reduction programs. Using the intervention strategies provided, occupational health nurses can play a key role in reducing workplace-related injury, disease, disability, and death. variety of resources pertaining to occupational health and safety from the federal, national, health care, nursing, and environmental realms can assist occupational health nurses in developing and implementing programs appropriate for their workplaces. Through the Healthy People 2010 occupational health and safety objectives, occupational health nurses have the opportunity to develop and implement workplace policies and programs promoting not only a safe and healthy work environment but also improved health and disease prevention. Occupational health nurses can implement strategies to increase quality and years of life and eliminate health disparities in the American work force.

  11. Occupational cognitive failures and safety performance in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Allahyari, Teimour; Rangi, Narmin Hassanzadeh; Khalkhali, Hamidreza; Khosravi, Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The majority of industrial accidents occur because of human errors. Human error has different causes, however, in all cases cognitive abilities and limitations of human play an important role. Occupational cognitive failures are cognitively-based human errors that occur at work. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between occupational cognitive failures and safety consequences. Method. Personnel of a large industrial company in Iran filled out an occupational cognitive failure questionnaire (OCFQ) and answered questions on accidents. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between cognitive failures and safety consequences. Results. According to developed regression models, personnel with a high rate of cognitive failure, in comparison to low rate, have a high risk of minor injury involvement (OR 5.1, 95% CI [2.62, 10.3]); similar results were for major injury and near miss. Discussion. The results of this study revealed usefulness of the OCFQ as a tool of predicting safety- related consequences and planning preventive actions.

  12. Occupational safety and health implications of increased coal utilization.

    PubMed Central

    Bridbord, K; Costello, J; Gamble, J; Groce, D; Hutchison, M; Jones, W; Merchant, J; Ortmeyer, C; Reger, R; Wagner, W L

    1979-01-01

    An area of major concern in considering increased coal production and utilization is the health and safety of increased numbers of workers who mine, process, or utilize coal. Hazards related to mining activities in the past have been especially serious, resulting in many mine related accidental deaths, disabling injuries, and disability and death from chronic lung disease. Underground coal mines are clearly less safe than surface mines. Over one-third of currently employed underground miners experience chronic lung disease. Other stresses include noise and extremes of heat and cold. Newly emphasized technologies of the use of diesel powered mining equipment and the use of longwall mining techniques may be associated with serious health effects. Workers at coal-fired power plants are also potentially at risk of occupational diseases. Occupational safety and health aspects of coal mining are understood well enough today to justify implementing necessary and technically feasible and available control measures to minimize potential problems associated with increased coal production and use in the future. Increased emphasis on safety and health training for inexperienced coal miners expected to enter the work force is clearly needed. The recently enacted Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 will provide impetus for increased control over hazards in coal mining. PMID:540621

  13. Occupational Safety and Health Program at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Calderon

    1999-04-30

    The West Valley Nuclear Services Co. LLC (WVNS) is committed to provide a safe, clean, working environment for employees, and to implement U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements affecting worker safety. The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Occupational Safety and Health Program is designed to protect the safety, health, and well-being of WVDP employees by identifying, evaluating, and controlling biological, chemical, and physical hazards in the work place. Hazards are controlled within the requirements set forth in the reference section at the end of this report. It is the intent of the WVDP Occupational Safety and Health Program to assure that each employee is provided with a safe and healthy work environment. This report shows the logical path toward ensuring employee safety in planning work at the WVDP. In general, planning work to be performed safely includes: combining requirements from specific programs such as occupational safety, industrial hygiene, radiological control, nuclear safety, fire safety, environmental protection, etc.; including WVDP employees in the safety decision-making processes; pre-planning using safety support re-sources; and integrating the safety processes into the work instructions. Safety management principles help to define the path forward for the WVDP Occupational Safety and Health Program. Roles, responsibilities, and authority of personnel stem from these ideals. WVNS and its subcontractors are guided by the following fundamental safety management principles: ''Protection of the environment, workers, and the public is the highest priority. The safety and well-being of our employees, the public, and the environment must never be compromised in the aggressive pursuit of results and accomplishment of work product. A graded approach to environment, safety, and health in design, construction, operation, maintenance, and deactivation is incorporated to ensure the protection of the workers, the public, and the environment

  14. Living up to safety values in health care: the effect of leader behavioral integrity on occupational safety.

    PubMed

    Halbesleben, Jonathon R B; Leroy, Hannes; Dierynck, Bart; Simons, Tony; Savage, Grant T; McCaughey, Deirdre; Leon, Matthew R

    2013-10-01

    While previous research has identified that leaders' safety expectations and safety actions are important in fostering occupational safety, research has yet to demonstrate the importance of leader alignment between safety expectations and actions for improving occupational safety. We build on safety climate literature and theory on behavioral integrity to better understand the relationship between the leader's behavioral integrity regarding safety and work-related injuries. In a time-lagged study of 658 nurses, we find that behavioral integrity for high safety values is positively associated with greater reporting of fewer and less severe occupational injuries. The effects of behavioral integrity regarding safety can be better understood through the mediating mechanisms of safety compliance and psychological safety toward one's supervisor. We discuss the implications of our findings for future research on safety climate.

  15. Occupational Safety and Health Guide (OSH Guide) (CD-ROM). Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Guide is intended for use by Federal agencies in assessing their compliance with the standards of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration... Occupational Safety and Health Standards, and Part 1926, Safety and Health Regulations for Construction. Part 1960, Basic Program Elements for Federal...Employee Occupational Safety and Health Programs and Related Matters, as modified to address relevant requirements of Part 1904, is also included.

  16. 29 CFR 1960.11 - Evaluation of occupational safety and health performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evaluation of occupational safety and health performance. 1960.11 Section 1960.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) BASIC PROGRAM ELEMENTS FOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL...

  17. 29 CFR 1960.35 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 1960.35 Section 1960.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) BASIC PROGRAM ELEMENTS FOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL...

  18. Kaizen: ergonomics approach to occupational health and safety.

    PubMed

    Kumashiro, Masaharu

    2011-12-01

    Kaizen (work improvement) is the forte of Japanese industry. Kaizen activities were born in the early 20th century under the name efficiency research. These activities were the beginning of industrial engineering (IE). Later on people began to rethink the single-minded devotion to improving productivity. Then the job re-design concept was developed. The main target of kaizen in the area of occupational health and safety in Japanese manufacturing is the improvement of inadequate working posture followed by the improvement of work for transporting and lifting heavy objects. Unfortunately, the kaizen activities undertaken by most Japanese companies are still focused on improving productivity and quality. The know-how for promoting kaizen activities that integrate the three aspects of IE, occupational health, and ergonomics is not being accumulated, however. In particular, the IE techniques should be incorporated into kaizen activities aimed at occupational safety and health, and the quantitative assessment of workload is required. In addition, it is important for on-the-job kaizen training in the ERGOMA Approach for production supervisors, who are the main advocates of IE kaizen.

  19. [Occupational risks among public safety and security forces].

    PubMed

    Candura, S M; Verni, P; Minelli, C M; Rosso, G L; Cappelli, M I; Strambi, S; Martellosio, V

    2006-01-01

    The present paper tries to identify the occupational risk factors (physical, chemical, biological, psychological), variable depending on jobs and tasks, to which the heterogeneous public safety/security workers are exposed. The fight against criminality and public order maintenance imply (sometimes fatal) traumatic risks, and expose to psychophysical and sensorial tiring, unfavourable macro- and microclimatic conditions, the risk of baropathy (air navigation, underwater activities), noise (generated by firearms and several other sources), vibrations and shakings (automatic weapons, transport vehicles), the risk of electric injury, ionizing (X and gamma rays) and non-inonizing (ultraviolet rays, microwaves and radiofrequencies, electromagnetic fields) radiations. Chemical hazards include carbon monoxide and other combustion products (fires, urban traffic), substances released in chemical accidents, tear gases, lead (firing grounds, metal works, environmental pollution), solvents, lubrificants and cutting oils (mechanic repair and maintenance), laboratory materials and reagents, irritant and/or sensitizing agents contained in gloves. The main biological risks are tetanus, blood-borne diseases (viral hepatitis, AIDS), aerogenous diseases (e.g., tuberculosis, Legionnaire's disease, epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis), dog- or horse-transmitted zoonosis. Finally, emotional, psychosomatic and behavioural stress-related disorders (e.g., burn-out syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder) are typically frequent. The presence of numerous and diversified hazards among public safety/security forces imposes the adoption of occupational medicine measures, including risk assessment, health education, technical and environmental prevention, personal protective devices, sanitary surveillance and biological monitoring, clinical interventions (diagnosis, therapy and rehabilitation of occupational accidents and illnesses), prompt medico-legal evaluation of occupational

  20. Appraisal of Risk Perception in Occupational Health and Safety Research in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Hilhorst

    1996-10-01

    This paper addresses scientists in the field of occupational health and safety, with a special emphasis on research in developing countries. The article is based on findings of and a method used in a recent study of occupational health and safety in mines in Africa and Latin America. Dialog between technical experts and social scientists is needed to synthesize the values of society and the facts of nature into policy decisions that are both politically legitimate and consistent with the current state of technical knowledge. The author asks how researchers in the field of occupational health can take two axioms of the social sciences into account: 1) the concept of human agency, and 2) the notion that risk perception is socially constructed: rather than being determined by "real" risks, it is shaped by the adversarial context of, among other factors, the nature of labor relations, values in society, and personal histories. With regard to first axiom, it is shown why actors' risk perceptions and their context need indeed to be taken seriously. With regard to the second, a methodologic outline is given to complement technical research on occupational hygiene with risk-perception appraisal. The method is actor-oriented, building on the perceptions, views, and opinions of the different groups of relevant actors. Systematic integration of this method into technological studies could enrich them, contributing substantially to their applicability.

  1. Safety and Accountability in Healthcare From Past to Present

    SciTech Connect

    Hendee, William R.

    2008-05-01

    Healthcare is transitioning into a new era-an era of accountability. This era demands heightened awareness of the quality, cost, and safety of healthcare, with value (quality/cost) and safety being the watchwords of accountability. Many factors are driving this transition, and it is affecting all healthcare disciplines, including radiation oncology. The transition is accompanied by the transformation of healthcare from a craft-based culture to an information-age culture in which patient needs and information are given top priority. These changes call for new measures to quantify and document the value and safety of procedures in radiation oncology.

  2. 76 FR 65729 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BSC, NIOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... directly or by grants or contracts, research, experiments, and demonstrations relating to occupational... Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health on research and prevention programs. Specifically, the Board shall provide guidance on the Institute's research activities related to developing...

  3. Economic Techniques of Occupational Health and Safety Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, Aleksandr I.; Beregovaya, Irina B.; Khanzhina, Olga A.

    2016-10-01

    The article deals with the issues on economic techniques of occupational health and safety management. Authors’ definition of safety management is given. It is represented as a task-oriented process to identify, establish and maintain such a state of work environment in which there are no possible effects of hazardous and harmful factors, or their influence does not go beyond certain limits. It was noted that management techniques that are the part of the control mechanism, are divided into administrative, organizational and administrative, social and psychological and economic. The economic management techniques are proposed to be classified depending on the management subject, management object, in relation to an enterprise environment, depending on a control action. Technoeconomic study, feasibility study, planning, financial incentives, preferential crediting of enterprises, pricing, profit sharing and equity, preferential tax treatment for enterprises, economic regulations and standards setting have been distinguished as economic techniques.

  4. Occupational safety and health in India: now and the future.

    PubMed

    Pingle, Shyam

    2012-01-01

    India, a growing economy and world's largest democracy, has population exceeding 1.2 billion. Out of this huge number, 63.6% form working age group. More than 90% work in the informal economy, mainly agriculture and services. Less than 10% work in the organized sector; mainly industry, mining and some services. New service industries like Information Technology (IT), Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) are increasing rapidly; so is the proportion of females in the workforce. The occupational safety and health (OSH) scenario in India is complex. Unprecedented growth and progress go hand in hand with challenges such as huge workforce in unorganized sector, availability of cheap labor, meager public spending on health, inadequate implementation of existing legislation, lack of reliable OSH data, shortage of OSH professionals, multiplicity of statutory controls, apathy of stakeholders and infrastructure problems. The national policy on OSH at workplace, adopted by the government in 2009, is yet to be implemented. Some of the major occupational risks are accidents, pneumoconiosis, musculoskeletal injuries, chronic obstructive lung diseases; pesticide poisoning and noise induced hearing loss. The three most important OSH needs are: 1. legislation to extend OSH coverage to all sectors of working life including the unorganized sector; 2. spreading the awareness about OSH among stakeholders; 3. development of OSH infrastructure and OSH professionals. Other issues include integration of occupational health with primary health care.

  5. Occupational safety and health criteria for responsible development of nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, P. A.; Geraci, C. L.; Murashov, V.; Kuempel, E. D.; Zumwalde, R. D.; Castranova, V.; Hoover, M. D.; Hodson, L.; Martinez, K. F.

    2014-01-01

    Organizations around the world have called for the responsible development of nanotechnology. The goals of this approach are to emphasize the importance of considering and controlling the potential adverse impacts of nanotechnology in order to develop its capabilities and benefits. A primary area of concern is the potential adverse impact on workers, since they are the first people in society who are exposed to the potential hazards of nanotechnology. Occupational safety and health criteria for defining what constitutes responsible development of nanotechnology are needed. This article presents five criterion actions that should be practiced by decision-makers at the business and societal levels—if nanotechnology is to be developed responsibly. These include (1) anticipate, identify, and track potentially hazardous nanomaterials in the workplace; (2) assess workers' exposures to nanomaterials; (3) assess and communicate hazards and risks to workers; (4) manage occupational safety and health risks; and (5) foster the safe development of nanotechnology and realization of its societal and commercial benefits. All these criteria are necessary for responsible development to occur. Since it is early in the commercialization of nanotechnology, there are still many unknowns and concerns about nanomaterials. Therefore, it is prudent to treat them as potentially hazardous until sufficient toxicology, and exposure data are gathered for nanomaterial-specific hazard and risk assessments. In this emergent period, it is necessary to be clear about the extent of uncertainty and the need for prudent actions.

  6. Occupational safety and health criteria for responsible development of nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Schulte, P A; Geraci, C L; Murashov, V; Kuempel, E D; Zumwalde, R D; Castranova, V; Hoover, M D; Hodson, L; Martinez, K F

    2014-01-01

    Organizations around the world have called for the responsible development of nanotechnology. The goals of this approach are to emphasize the importance of considering and controlling the potential adverse impacts of nanotechnology in order to develop its capabilities and benefits. A primary area of concern is the potential adverse impact on workers, since they are the first people in society who are exposed to the potential hazards of nanotechnology. Occupational safety and health criteria for defining what constitutes responsible development of nanotechnology are needed. This article presents five criterion actions that should be practiced by decision-makers at the business and societal levels-if nanotechnology is to be developed responsibly. These include (1) anticipate, identify, and track potentially hazardous nanomaterials in the workplace; (2) assess workers' exposures to nanomaterials; (3) assess and communicate hazards and risks to workers; (4) manage occupational safety and health risks; and (5) foster the safe development of nanotechnology and realization of its societal and commercial benefits. All these criteria are necessary for responsible development to occur. Since it is early in the commercialization of nanotechnology, there are still many unknowns and concerns about nanomaterials. Therefore, it is prudent to treat them as potentially hazardous until sufficient toxicology, and exposure data are gathered for nanomaterial-specific hazard and risk assessments. In this emergent period, it is necessary to be clear about the extent of uncertainty and the need for prudent actions.

  7. Occupational safety among dental health-care workers.

    PubMed

    Shimoji, Shigehiro; Ishihama, Kohji; Yamada, Hidefumi; Okayama, Masaki; Yasuda, Kouichi; Shibutani, Tohru; Ogasawara, Tadashi; Miyazawa, Hiroo; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2010-01-01

    Compared to other health-care workers, dental health-care workers come in close contact with patients and use a variety of sharp and high-speed rotating instruments. It is important to understand the characteristics of the occupational accidents that occur. We reviewed incident reports from April 1, 2005, to March 31, 2010, at Matsumoto Dental University Hospital. In addition, questionnaires dealing with identification of occupational safety issues, especially splash exposures, were conducted for dentists, dental hygienists, and nurses. Thirty-two occupational injuries were reported during the study period, including 23 sharp instrument injuries (71.9%), 6 splash exposures (18.8%), and 3 others. Of the six splash exposures, only two cases involved potential contamination with blood or other potentially infectious patient material. Of the 66 workers who experienced sharps injuries, 20 workers (30.3%, 20/66) reported them to the hospital work safety team. The questionnaire revealed high incident of splash exposures and conjunctiva exposures: 87.9% (51/58) and 60.3% (35/58) in dentists and 88.6% (39/44) and 61.4% (27/44) in dental hygienists. The compliance rate for routine use of protective eyewear was 60.3% (35/58) for dentists and 34.1% (15/44) for hygienists. Of the presented informational items included in the questionnaire, those that strongly persuaded respondents to use protective eyewear were 'splatters from the patient's mouth contain blood' (90%, 99/110) and 'dental operations at our clinic are performed based only on a questionnaire without serious examinations for HBV, HCV, and HIV' (71.8%, 79/110). The reason of low compliance of protective eyewear among dentists might relate to fine dental procedures. Appropriate information is important for the motive of wearing personal protective equipment, and an early educational program may have a potential to increase compliance with the use of that equipment.

  8. 29 CFR 1960.12 - Dissemination of occupational safety and health program information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be requested of the Secretary prior to printing and distribution. (e) Agency heads shall promote employee awareness of occupational safety and health matters through their ordinary information...

  9. Report on occupational safety and health to the Secretary of Labor for CY 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Summary and evaluation of NASA occupational safety and health activities focus on: policy; personnel; funding. Training activities, inspection, record-keeping, and interagency activities are included.

  10. Increasing School Safety through Juvenile Accountability Programs. Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants (JAIBG) Program Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott H.

    This bulletin explores promotion of school safety by increasing students' accountability for their behavior. It provides information to facilitate the development of constructive, well-conceived, accountability-based programs that work with juvenile offenders. These programs also address the issues of violence, disorder, and fear. The bulletin…

  11. Just Culture: A Foundation for Balanced Accountability and Patient Safety

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The framework of a just culture ensures balanced accountability for both individuals and the organization responsible for designing and improving systems in the workplace. Engineering principles and human factors analysis influence the design of these systems so they are safe and reliable. Methods Approaches for improving patient safety introduced here are (1) analysis of error, (2) specific tools to enhance safety, and (3) outcome engineering. Conclusion The just culture is a learning culture that is constantly improving and oriented toward patient safety. PMID:24052772

  12. A qualitative review of existing national and international occupational safety and health policies relating to occupational sedentary behaviour.

    PubMed

    Coenen, Pieter; Gilson, Nicholas; Healy, Genevieve N; Dunstan, David W; Straker, Leon M

    2017-04-01

    Prolonged sedentary time is now recognised as an emergent ergonomics issue. We aimed to review current occupational safety and health policies relevant to occupational sedentary behaviour. An electronic search for documents was conducted on websites of ergonomics and occupational safety and health organisations from 10 countries and six international/pan-European agencies. Additionally, 43 informants (nine countries) were contacted and an international conference workshop held. 119 documents (e.g. legislation, guidelines, codes of practice) were identified. Using a qualitative synthesis, it was observed that many jurisdictions had legal frameworks establishing a duty of care for employers, designers/manufacturers/suppliers and employees. While no occupational authority policies focusing specifically on sedentary behaviour were found, relevant aspects of existing policies were identified. We highlight implications for ergonomics research and practice and recommend the development of policy to specifically address occupational sedentary behaviour and support workplace initiatives to assess and control the risks of this emergent hazard.

  13. Occupational Safety and Health Activities Conducted across Countries in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Keun; Khai, Ton T.

    2015-01-01

    Three occupational safety and health (OSH) activities, one international and two national workshops, were documented as part of OSH activities conducted under the International Labor Organization/Korea Partnership Program in the year 2011–2012. This study aimed to provide information on what the three OSH activities were implemented and how they contributed to the improvement of OSH in Asian countries. The international workshop was useful for the participants to understand a variety of information on OSH as well as participatory action-oriented training (PAOT) approaches at the regional and global levels. The two national workshops were practical for participants to strengthen their knowledge and skills on the PAOT at the enterprise and national levels. The study shows that the three OSH activities contributed to the understanding of the participants on OSH and PAOT, and that the activities promoted the improvement of OSH across countries in Asia. PMID:26106515

  14. Occupational Safety and Health Activities Conducted across Countries in Asia.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Keun; Khai, Ton T

    2015-06-01

    Three occupational safety and health (OSH) activities, one international and two national workshops, were documented as part of OSH activities conducted under the International Labor Organization/Korea Partnership Program in the year 2011-2012. This study aimed to provide information on what the three OSH activities were implemented and how they contributed to the improvement of OSH in Asian countries. The international workshop was useful for the participants to understand a variety of information on OSH as well as participatory action-oriented training (PAOT) approaches at the regional and global levels. The two national workshops were practical for participants to strengthen their knowledge and skills on the PAOT at the enterprise and national levels. The study shows that the three OSH activities contributed to the understanding of the participants on OSH and PAOT, and that the activities promoted the improvement of OSH across countries in Asia.

  15. 75 FR 42455 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section... October 6, 1972, that the Safety and Occupational Health Study Section, Centers for Disease Control and... Health Study Section, Department of Health and Human Services, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., Mailstop...

  16. 29 CFR 2200.108 - Official Seal of the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Official Seal of the Occupational Safety and Health Review... HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE Miscellaneous Provisions § 2200.108 Official Seal of the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. The seal of the Commission shall consist of: A gold...

  17. 29 CFR 2200.108 - Official Seal of the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Official Seal of the Occupational Safety and Health Review... HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE Miscellaneous Provisions § 2200.108 Official Seal of the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. The seal of the Commission shall consist of: A gold...

  18. 29 CFR 2200.108 - Official Seal of the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Official Seal of the Occupational Safety and Health Review... HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE Miscellaneous Provisions § 2200.108 Official Seal of the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. The seal of the Commission shall consist of: A gold...

  19. 29 CFR 2200.108 - Official Seal of the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Official Seal of the Occupational Safety and Health Review... HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE Miscellaneous Provisions § 2200.108 Official Seal of the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. The seal of the Commission shall consist of: A gold...

  20. Occupational Health and Safety. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with occupational safety and…

  1. Improvements Needed in Assessing Penalties and Controlling Penalty Collections Resulting from Occupational Safety and Health Inspections.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-15

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA’s) inspection program is its primary means of insuring safe and healthful working...conditions for about 73 million employees protected by the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. During fiscal year 1980, about 132,000 violations were

  2. Occupational Safety and Health Program Guidelines for Colleges and Universities. An Administrative Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbey, Frank W.; Hatch, Loren L.

    Designed as an aid for establishing and strengthening occupational safety and health programs on college and university campuses, this administrator guide is divided into four chapters. The first chapter defines and gives background information on the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA). In addition, it presents a discussion of what the OSHA…

  3. Impact of the Occupational Safety and Health Act on U. S. Naval Construction Forces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) effective 29 December 1970 (P. L. 91-596) and its impact on the U.S. Naval Construction Force (NCF...is examined. The history of occupational safety legislation in the United States is summarized and discussed. The OSH Act is condensed and interpreted

  4. 78 FR 48683 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Personal Protective Technology (PPT...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Institute for Occupational Safety and... Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... report entitled Preventing Transmission of Pandemic Influenza and Other Viral Respiratory...

  5. 29 CFR 1960.80 - Secretary's evaluations of agency occupational safety and health programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... distribute to Federal agencies detailed information on the Department of Labor's evaluation program. The... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secretary's evaluations of agency occupational safety and... EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Evaluation of Federal...

  6. Comparing non-safety with safety device sharps injury incidence data from two different occupational surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, A H; Parker, G B; Kanamori, H; Rutala, W A; Weber, D J

    2017-02-27

    The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Bloodborne Pathogens Standard as amended by the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act requiring the use of safety-engineered medical devices to prevent needlesticks and sharps injuries has been in place since 2001. Injury changes over time include differences between those from non-safety compared with safety-engineered medical devices. This research compares two US occupational incident surveillance systems to determine whether these data can be generalized to other facilities and other countries either with legislation in place or considering developing national policies for the prevention of sharps injuries among healthcare personnel.

  7. 75 FR 37343 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... rulemaking submitted by Public Citizen and Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety, to amend the Federal motor... systems that are regulated by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 208, ``Occupant...

  8. Implementation of cold risk management in occupational safety, occupational health and quality practices. Evaluation of a development process and its effects at the finnish maritime administration.

    PubMed

    Risikko, Tanja; Remes, Jouko; Hassi, Juhani

    2008-01-01

    Cold is a typical environmental risk factor in outdoor work in northern regions. It should be taken into account in a company's occupational safety, health and quality systems. A development process for improving cold risk management at the Finnish Maritime Administration (FMA) was carried out by FMA and external experts. FMA was to implement it. Three years after the development phase, the outcomes and implementation were evaluated. The study shows increased awareness about cold work and few concrete improvements. Concrete improvements in occupational safety and health practices could be seen in the pilot group. However, organization-wide implementation was insufficient, the main reasons being no organization-wide practices, unclear process ownership, no resources and a major reorganization process. The study shows a clear need for expertise supporting implementation. The study also presents a matrix for analyzing the process.

  9. 48 CFR 1352.271-82 - Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards for ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... occupational safety and health standards for ship repair. 1352.271-82 Section 1352.271-82 Federal Acquisition... of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-82 Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards... Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Ship Repair (APR 2010) The contractor, in performance of all...

  10. Informal occupational safety information exchange among Latino migrant and seasonal farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Spears, Chaya R; Summers, Phillip Y; Spencer, Kevin M; Arcury, Thomas A

    2012-01-01

    Latino farmworkers in North Carolina are a hard-to-reach population that faces diverse occupational health risks, including pesticide exposure. Health and safety education efforts often employ lay health advisor or promotor(a) de salud models in which farmworker community members are trained to provide health education. As a frequently tight-knit and isolated group, farmworkers may be well suited to serve as resident lay health advisors. This paper presents data collected from a nonrandom sample of Latino farmworkers living in North Carolina regarding the natural level of occupational safety information exchange among Latino farmworkers, specifically pesticide safety information. The data affirm that farmworkers informally exchange occupational safety information with one another, with the level of exchange increasing during the agricultural season. Consequently, if trained, the data suggest that farmworkers might be situated to provide in situ occupational health and safety education to their peers. This remains to be systematically tested and evaluated.

  11. Occupational Safety and Related Impacts on Health and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Watterson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The inter-relationship between safety, health and the ‘environment’ is a complex and at times a relatively neglected topic. In this issue, ‘safety’ is often viewed by contributors as ‘health and safety’ and includes occupationally-related ill health as well as injury or harm to employees and the wider public. ‘Environment’ is also interpreted in the widest sense covering both physical and work environments with upstream work hazards presenting risks to downstream communities. The focus is very much on exploring and where possible addressing the challenges, some old and some facing workers in a range of public and private settings and also at times their nearby communities. The 19 papers in the issue cover public and private sectors, global and very local populations, macro-theoretical perspectives, large epidemiological and some single factory or hospital site small case studies. A number of the papers are just beginning to explore and draw out for the first time the risks from hazards in their part of the world. The methodologies adopted also range from lab-based studies through ergonomic assessments and interventions to therapeutic approaches. PMID:27782047

  12. Office Occupations--Accounting. Kit No. 8. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Connie

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on accounting are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of office occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  13. Prototype Input and Output Data Elements for the Occupational Health and Safety Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whyte, A. A.

    1980-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration plans to implement a NASA-wide computerized information system for occupational health and safety. The system is necessary to administer the occupational health and safety programs and to meet the legal and regulatory reporting, recordkeeping, and surveillance requirements. Some of the potential data elements that NASA will require as input and output for the new occupational health and safety information system are illustrated. The data elements are shown on sample forms that have been compiled from various sources, including NASA Centers and industry.

  14. 77 FR 29247 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL07 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... technical amendments to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 208, Occupant Crash Protection.... This document also makes a correction to the air bag warning label requirements for vehicle...

  15. 76 FR 53648 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards: Occupant Crash Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK25 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) on occupant crash protection to remove the sunset of a requirement that a vehicle's lap belt must be lockable, without the use of special tools, to tightly secure a child...

  16. Student manual, Book 2: Orientation to occupational safety compliance in DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Colley, D.L.

    1993-10-01

    This is a student hand-book an Occupational Safety Compliance in DOE. Topics include the following: Electrical; materials handling & storage; inspection responsibilities & procedures; general environmental controls; confined space entry; lockout/tagout; office safety, ergonomics & human factors; medical & first aid, access to records; construction safety; injury/illness reporting system; and accident investigation procedures.

  17. Occupational safety and health: progress toward the 1990 objectives for the nation.

    PubMed Central

    Millar, J D; Myers, M L

    1983-01-01

    Occupational safety and health is 1 of 15 areas addressed in the Public Health Service's Objectives for the Nation. This area represents 104 million working men and women and the deaths, diseases, and injuries that result from exposures to hazards in their work environment. Characteristics of public health practice are compared with characteristics of occupational safety and health practice. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), created by the Occupational Safety and Health Act, is discussed. NIOSH has developed a list of 10 leading work-related diseases and injuries. The list is headed by occupational lung diseases. Twenty Objectives for the Nation in the area of occupational safety and health are reviewed, and the status of NIOSH efforts toward their attainment is discussed. Five categories of objectives are covered: (a) improved health status, (b) reduced risk factors, (c) improved public and professional awareness, (d) improved service and protection, and (e) improved surveillance and evaluation. The potential for achieving these objectives is discussed, with special attention given to the lack of a data base for monitoring progress. A major conclusion is that surveillance in occupational safety and health needs to be strengthened. PMID:6310668

  18. Investigating occupant safety through simulating the interaction between side curtain airbag deployment and an out-of-position occupant.

    PubMed

    Potula, S R; Solanki, K N; Oglesby, D L; Tschopp, M A; Bhatia, M A

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the effect of side curtain airbag deployment on occupant injuries and safety when the occupant is either in-position or out-of-position (OOP). We used side impact vehicle collision simulations with a 1996 Dodge Neon model, which was further modified to include a side curtain airbag, a seatbelt, and a 50th percentile Hybrid III dummy. The airbag used in the study was inflated using both the uniform pressure (UP) and smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods. In-position and OOP simulations were performed to assess and establish guidelines for airbag aggressivity thresholds and occupant position versus risk of injury. Three different OOP scenarios (OOP1, OOP2, OOP3) were initially setup following the work of Lund (2003), then modified such that the dummy's head was closer to the airbag, increasing the chance of injury caused by the airbag. The resultant head acceleration as a function of time for in-position and OOP simulations shows that both UP and SPH methods produce similar peak accelerations in cases where the airbag is fully inflated prior to impact. In all cases, the head peak accelerations and the head injury criteria for simulations with an airbag were significantly lower when compared with the no airbag case, which would typically indicate that the use of an airbag results in improved occupant protection during side impact. However, in the case of OOP2 and OOP3, the neck flexion forces actually increase significantly when compared with the no airbag case. This finding indicates that the HIC and neck flexion forces criterion are in conflict and that there may be a tradeoff in terms of occupant injury/safety with a side curtain airbag that is strongly correlated to the occupant position. Consequently, this study shows that safety devices result in a significant effect on occupant injury/safety when the occupant is in OOP conditions. Moreover, in some cases, simulation results show that the side curtain airbag

  19. Occupational Health and Safety Management and Turnover Intention in the Ghanaian Mining Sector

    PubMed Central

    Amponsah-Tawiah, Kwesi; Ntow, Michael Akomeah Ofori; Mensah, Justice

    2015-01-01

    Background The mining industry is considered as one of the most dangerous and hazardous industries and the need for effective and efficient occupational health and safety management is critical to safeguard workers and the industry. Despite the dangers and hazards present in the mining industry, only few studies have focused on how occupational health and safety and turnover intentions in the mines. Method The study suing a cross-sectional survey design collected quantitative data from the 255 mine workers that were conveniently sampled from the Ghanaian mining industry. The data collection tools were standardized questionnaires that measured occupational health and safety management and turnover intentions. These scales were also pretested before their usage in actual data collection. Results The correlation coefficient showed that a negative relationship existed between dimensions of occupational health and safety management and turnover intention; safety leadership (r = −0.33, p < 0.01); supervision (r = −0.26, p < 0.01); safety facilities and equipment (r = −0.32, p < 0.01); safety procedure (r = −0.27, p < 0.01). Among these dimensions, safety leadership and safety facility were significant predictors of turnover intention, (β = −0.28, p < 0.01) and (β = −0.24, p < 0.01) respectively. The study also found that turnover intention of employees is heavily influenced by the commitment of safety leadership in ensuring the effective formulation of policies and supervision of occupational health and safety at the workplace. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that safety leadership is crucial in the administration of occupational health and safety and reducing turnover intention in organizations. PMID:27014486

  20. Respiratory diseases research at NIOSH: reviews of research programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    Respiratory diseases caused by exposures to dangerous materials in the workplace have tremendous implications for worker health and, by extension, the national economy. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) estimates that deaths from work-related respiratory diseases and cancers account for about 70% of all occupational disease deaths. NIOSH conducts research in order to detect and reduce work-related hazardous exposures, injuries, and diseases; its Respiratory Disease Research Program (RDRP) focuses on respiratory diseases. This National Research Council book reviews the RDRP to evaluate the 1) relevance of its work to improvements in occupational safety and health and 2) the impact of research in reducing workplace respiratory illnesses. The assessment reveals that the program has made essential contributions to preventing occupational respiratory disease. The National Research Council has rated the Program a 5 out of 5 for relevance, and a 4 out of 5 for impact. To further increase its effectiveness, the Respiratory Disease Research Program should continue and expand its current efforts, provide resources for occupational disease surveillance, and include exposure assessment scientists in its activities. There are numerous references to respiratory systems diseases caused by coal mining. 4 apps.

  1. Modeling occupancy of hosts by mistletoe seeds after accounting for imperfect detectability.

    PubMed

    Fadini, Rodrigo F; Cintra, Renato

    2015-01-01

    The detection of an organism in a given site is widely used as a state variable in many metapopulation and epidemiological studies. However, failure to detect the species does not necessarily mean that it is absent. Assessing detectability is important for occupancy (presence-absence) surveys; and identifying the factors reducing detectability may help improve survey precision and efficiency. A method was used to estimate the occupancy status of host trees colonized by mistletoe seeds of Psittacanthus plagiophyllus as a function of host covariates: host size and presence of mistletoe infections on the same or on the nearest neighboring host (the cashew tree Anacardium occidentale). The technique also evaluated the effect of taking detectability into account for estimating host occupancy by mistletoe seeds. Individual host trees were surveyed for presence of mistletoe seeds with the aid of two or three observers to estimate detectability and occupancy. Detectability was, on average, 17% higher in focal-host trees with infected neighbors, while decreased about 23 to 50% from smallest to largest hosts. The presence of mistletoe plants in the sample tree had negligible effect on detectability. Failure to detect hosts as occupied decreased occupancy by 2.5% on average, with maximum of 10% for large and isolated hosts. The method presented in this study has potential for use with metapopulation studies of mistletoes, especially those focusing on the seed stage, but also as improvement of accuracy in occupancy models estimates often used for metapopulation dynamics of tree-dwelling plants in general.

  2. Modeling Occupancy of Hosts by Mistletoe Seeds after Accounting for Imperfect Detectability

    PubMed Central

    Fadini, Rodrigo F.; Cintra, Renato

    2015-01-01

    The detection of an organism in a given site is widely used as a state variable in many metapopulation and epidemiological studies. However, failure to detect the species does not necessarily mean that it is absent. Assessing detectability is important for occupancy (presence—absence) surveys; and identifying the factors reducing detectability may help improve survey precision and efficiency. A method was used to estimate the occupancy status of host trees colonized by mistletoe seeds of Psittacanthus plagiophyllus as a function of host covariates: host size and presence of mistletoe infections on the same or on the nearest neighboring host (the cashew tree Anacardium occidentale). The technique also evaluated the effect of taking detectability into account for estimating host occupancy by mistletoe seeds. Individual host trees were surveyed for presence of mistletoe seeds with the aid of two or three observers to estimate detectability and occupancy. Detectability was, on average, 17% higher in focal-host trees with infected neighbors, while decreased about 23 to 50% from smallest to largest hosts. The presence of mistletoe plants in the sample tree had negligible effect on detectability. Failure to detect hosts as occupied decreased occupancy by 2.5% on average, with maximum of 10% for large and isolated hosts. The method presented in this study has potential for use with metapopulation studies of mistletoes, especially those focusing on the seed stage, but also as improvement of accuracy in occupancy models estimates often used for metapopulation dynamics of tree-dwelling plants in general. PMID:25973754

  3. Occupational Safety and Health Symposia (37th American Medical Association Congress on Occupational Health. St. Louis, Missouri, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Bruce E.; And Others

    The papers compiled here were presented at the fourth symposium in a series designed to provide a continuing introduction to current aspects of occupational safety and health. The papers represent eight topics: (1) special health programs, (2) degenerative disease and injury of the back, (3) job stress and work performance, (4) role of industry in…

  4. Managing occupational risk in creative practice: a new perspective for occupational health and safety.

    PubMed

    Oughton, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    There has been little recognition of the fact that creative production operates in a somewhat different environment and timeframe to that associated with traditional industries. This has resulted in the application of an orthodox, generic or ``one size fits all'' framework of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) systems across all industries. With the rapid growth of ``creative industry,'' certain challenges arise from the application of this "generic" strategy, mainly because the systems currently employed may not be entirely suitable for creative practice. Some OHS practitioners suggest that the current OHS paradigm is failing. This paper questions the appropriateness of applying a twentieth century OHS model in the present industrial context, and considers what framework will best provide for the well-being of creative workers and their enterprise in the twenty-first century. The paper questions the notion of "Risk" and the paradox associated with "Risk Management," particularly in the context of the creative process. Clearly, risk taking contributes to creative enterprise and effective risk management should accommodate both risk minimization and risk exploitation.

  5. 76 FR 40733 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, (NIOSH), World Trade Center Health Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, (NIOSH), World Trade Center Health Program Science/Technical Advisory Committee...

  6. 77 FR 47850 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BSC, NIOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... to conduct directly or by grants or contracts, research, experiments, and demonstrations relating to... the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health on research and prevention programs. Specifically, the Board shall provide guidance on the Institute's research activities related...

  7. Fact Sheet: Revisions to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Hazard Communication Standards (HCS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On March 26, 2012, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) modified its HCS to conform to the United Nations’ (UN) Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), to improve consistency and quality of information.

  8. 29 CFR 2200.108 - Official Seal of the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. The seal of the Commission shall consist of: A gold eagle... olive branch in its claws, the whole superimposed over a plain solid white Greek cross with a...

  9. Occupational Therapy and Sensory Integration for Children with Autism: A Feasibility, Safety, Acceptability and Fidelity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, Roseann C.; Benevides, Teal W.; Kelly, Donna; Mailloux-Maggio, Zoe

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the feasibility, safety, and acceptability of a manualized protocol of occupational therapy using sensory integration principles for children with autism. Methods: Ten children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder ages 4-8 years received intensive occupational therapy intervention using sensory integration principles…

  10. 75 FR 50958 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcoach Definition; Occupant Crash Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Standards; Motorcoach Definition; Occupant Crash Protection AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety.... Stage 2: Frontal Sled Tests VI. Proposed Requirements a. Adding a Definition of ``Motorcoach'' to 49 CFR... to: Add a definition of ``motorcoach'' to 49 CFR Part 571.3; Amend FMVSS No. 208, ``Occupant...

  11. Effects of metric change on safety in the workplace for selected occupations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefande, J. M.; Pokorney, J. L.

    1982-04-01

    The study assesses the potential safety issues of metric conversion in the workplace. A purposive sample of 35 occupations based on injury and illnesses indexes were assessed. After an analysis of workforce population, hazard analysis and measurement sensitivity of the occupations, jobs were analyzed to identify potential safety hazards by industrial hygienists, safety engineers and academia. The study's major findings were as follows: No metric hazard experience was identified. An increased exposure might occur when particular jobs and their job tasks are going the transition from customary measurement to metric measurement. Well planned metric change programs reduce hazard potential. Metric safety issues are unresolved in the aviation industry.

  12. Occupational safety and health objectives of Healthy People 2010: a systematic approach for occupational health nurses--part I.

    PubMed

    Chikotas, Noreen E; Parks, Carol; Olszewski, Kimberly

    2007-02-01

    The Healthy People 2010 prevention agenda, along with the nation's leading health indicators, provides employers with national targets regarding safety, health, and disease prevention. The first five safety and health objectives presented in this article target a reduction in work-related deaths, work-related injuries, overexertion or repetitive motion injuries and illnesses, pneumoconiosis deaths, and work-related homicides. Although progress is being made, opportunities exist to make a greater impact. Using the information and strategies discussed, occupational health nurses can play a key role in developing and implementing workplace safety and health promotion programs.

  13. Leading and lagging indicators of occupational health and safety: The moderating role of safety leadership.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Cathy; Donohue, Ross; Shea, Tracey; Cooper, Brian; Cieri, Helen De

    2016-07-01

    In response to the call for empirical evidence of a connection between leading and lagging indicators of occupational health and safety (OHS), the first aim of the current research is to consider the association between leading and lagging indicators of OHS. Our second aim is to investigate the moderating effect of safety leadership on the association between leading and lagging indicators. Data were collected from 3578 employees nested within 66 workplaces. Multi-level modelling was used to test the two hypotheses. The results confirm an association between leading and lagging indicators of OHS as well as the moderating impact of middle management safety leadership on the direct association. The association between leading and lagging indicators provides OHS practitioners with useful information to substantiate efforts within organisations to move away from a traditional focus on lagging indicators towards a preventative focus on leading indicators. The research also highlights the important role played by middle managers and the value of OHS leadership development and investment at the middle management level.

  14. Complying with Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations: a guide for compounding pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Mixon, Bill; Nain, John

    2013-01-01

    In the compounding pharmacy, compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations is essential to protect employees and customers from exposure to hazardous substances and a dangerous environment, to avert heavy fines and penalties levied for noncompliance, and to fulfill the moral obligation of pharmacists to do no harm. Without adequate vigilance, compounders are vulnerable to lapses in adherence to Occupational Safety and Health Administration requirements, the results of which can be dire in a climate of increased scrutiny about the safety and integrity of pharmaceutical compounding. Proactively addressing necessary compliance with essential safety regulations can only benefit compounders and their staff and clients, and guidance from an expert in Occupational Safety and Health Administration requirements can be a key factor in accomplishing that goal.

  15. Occupational Safety and Health Measures in Micro-scale Enterprises (MSEs) in Shiraz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jahangiri, Mehdi; Rostamabadi, Akbar; Malekzadeh, Gholamreza; Sadi, Amin Fahandej; Hamzavi, Golnar; Rasooli, Javad; Momeni, Zahra; Ghaem, Haleh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to determine the extent of implementation of occupational safety and health measures in micro-scale enterprises (MSEs) and to assess the prevalence of occupational injuries and accidents and its relationship with occupational safety and health measures provided in the MSEs. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 595 of MSEs. An index called the Safety and Health Requirement Index (SHRI) was created and used to calculate the percentage of provided occupational safety and health measures. The relationship between the SHRI and the occurrence of occupational accidents and injuries was investigated with the independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA. Results: The mean SHRI score was 60.43%, which was categorized into moderate level. Of the 30.9% of enterprises that had experienced accidents and injuries, the most common types of injuries were musculoskeletal disorders and cuts, and the least common types were pulmonary and hearing problems. Results of one-way ANOVA revealed a statistically significant relationship between the mean SHRI score and industrial branch, enterprise size, and type of accident and injury. The independent samples t-test showed that the occurrence of occupational accidents and injuries was not significantly influenced by provided health and safety measures in MSEs. Conclusion: Given the high percentage of enterprises with very poor to poor levels for the SHRI and the high prevalence of occupational accidents and injuries among the studied MSEs, feasible protective strategies and job safety training programs are required to promote occupational health and safety in the studied MSEs. PMID:27010083

  16. Rationale and Design for a Mishap Cost-Reduction Model for the Navy’s Occupational Safety and Health Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Reduction and Quality Assessment Model for the Navy Occupational Safety and Health Program. The proposed Model will be derived from an integrated...1992. Actuarial projections of the total costs expected to accrue as a result of these mishaps exceed $357 million. Workers’ compensation, Occupational safety , Occupational health, Health economics, Injury epidemiology.

  17. Occupational Safety and Health Professionals' Training in Italy: Qualitative Evaluation Using T-LAB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaleo, Bruno; Cangiano, Giovanna; Calicchia, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the evaluation of a training course on chemicals for occupational safety and health (OSH) professionals. The study aims were to assess the effectiveness of the course; to find out what type of training met these workers' needs best, as their role is vital in the management of safety at work; and to…

  18. Skills Conversion Project: Chapter 17, Occupational Safety and Health. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Society of Professional Engineers, Washington, DC.

    The greatest employment opportunity for safety professionals at the present time is with the Department of Labor for enforcement of the Williams-Steiger Act, which establishes the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). As part of a federal study of job possibilities for displaced aerospace and defense technical professionals, it was…

  19. Catalog of Canadian fitness screening protocols for public safety occupations that qualify as a bona fide occupational requirement.

    PubMed

    Gumieniak, Robert J; Jamnik, Veronica K; Gledhill, Norman

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this paper was to provide succinct descriptions of prominent job-specific physical fitness protocols (JSPFPs) that were constructed to satisfy the legal obligations to qualify as a bona fide occupational requirement for physically demanding public safety occupations. The intent of a JSPFP is to determine whether an applicant or incumbent possesses the necessary physical capabilities to safely and efficiently perform the critical on-the-job tasks encountered in a physically demanding occupation. The JSPFP information summarized in this report is accessible in full detail in the public domain. Therefore, prospective JSPFP participants and fitness professionals who require the information to train participants can fully inform themselves about the specific protocol requirements and associated fitness training implications.

  20. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Industries and Occupations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety & Health Body Art Center for Workers Compensation Studies (CWCS) Cleaning and Custodial Services Commercial Aviation in Alaska Commercial Fishing Safety Confined Spaces Construction Correctional Health Care Workers Dentistry Drycleaning Emergency ...

  1. Pesticide exposure and occupational safety training of indigenous farmworkers in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Samples, Julie; Bergstad, Elizabeth A; Ventura, Santiago; Sanchez, Valentin; Farquhar, Stephanie Ann; Shadbeh, Nargess

    2009-11-01

    This follow-up study assessed indigenous and Latino farmworkers' occupational health and safety needs and measured variables related to pesticide exposure and pesticide safety training among this population. Results yielded differences between indigenous workers and Latino workers related to language barriers, experiences of workplace discrimination, preferred modes of information dissemination, pesticide exposures, and sufficiency of pesticide training. Employing more people who speak indigenous languages as interpreters, community and organizational leaders, and health workers may remove some of the linguistic and cultural barriers to occupational safety training.

  2. An overview of the electronic health and safety services of the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety.

    PubMed

    Abeytunga, P K

    1995-01-19

    This article describes the electronic information services of the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). The aim of CCOHS is to promote a healthier and safer workplace. CCOHS' key ways of achieving this are its CD-ROM (compact disc read-only memory) service, CCINFOdisc, and its on-line computer network called, CCINFOline. CCOHS' electronic services contain some 50 databases with bibliographic and factual information from CCOHS and major organizations in other countries, such as NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) in the U.S., the International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS) in Switzerland, and the Institut National de Recherche et de Sécurité (INRS) in France. In addition, the CD-ROM service includes The Chemical Advisor disc of regulatory and advisory lists for chemicals from the U.S. and other countries; full-text discs, such as CANADIAN HEALTH AND SAFETY LEGISLATION and two interactive, multimedia education and training products on the safe use of chemicals, and on preventing repetitive motion injuries. These services, available at an affordable price, are delivered worldwide and currently have thousands of organizations as subscribers in about 50 countries. Founded by the Government of Canada in 1978, CCOHS is the national resource in occupational health and safety information. In addition to the electronic service, other services offered are an inquiry service, which is free in Canada, and a publications service.

  3. The Occupational Safety of Health Professionals Working at Community and Family Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Havva; Babacan, Elif

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthcare professionals encounter many medical risks while providing healthcare services to individuals and the community. Thus, occupational safety studies are very important in health care organizations. They involve studies performed to establish legal, technical, and medical measures that must be taken to prevent employees from sustaining physical or mental damage because of work hazards. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine if the occupational safety of health personnel at community and family health centers (CHC and FHC) has been achieved. Martials and Methods: The population of this cross-sectional study comprised 507 nurses, 199 physicians, and 237 other medical personnel working at a total of 18 family health centers (FHC) and community health centers (CHC) in Trabzon, Turkey. The sample consisted of a total of 418 nurses, 156 physicians, and 123 other medical personnel. Sampling method was not used, and the researchers tried to reach the whole population. Data were gathered with the Occupational Safety Scale (OSS) and a questionnaire regarding demographic characteristics and occupational safety. Results: According to the evaluations of all the medical personnel, the mean ± SD of total score of the OSS was 3.57 ± 0.98; of the OSS’s subscales, the mean ± SD of the health screening and registry systems was 2.76 ± 1.44, of occupational diseases and problems was 3.04 ± 1.3 and critical fields control was 3.12 ± 1.62. In addition, occupational safety was found more insufficient by nurses (F = 14.18; P < 0.001). Conclusions: All healthcare personnel, particularly nurses working in CHCs and FHCs found occupational safety to be insufficient as related to protective and supportive activities. PMID:25558383

  4. [History of occupational health physician and industrial safety and health law].

    PubMed

    Horie, Seichi

    2013-10-01

    In Japan, an employer of a workplace with 50 or more employees is legally required to assign an occupational health physician. The assignment rate in 2010 was reported as 87.0%. This policy started with the provision of "factory physician"in the Factory Law in 1938, then the Labour Standard Law stipulated "physician hygienist" in 1947, and finally the Industrial Safety and Health Law defined "occupational health physician" in 1972. In 1996, a revision of the law then required those physicians to complete training courses in occupational medicine, as designated by an ordinance. Historically, an on-site physician was expected to cure injuries and to prevent communicable diseases of factory workers. The means of occupational hygienic management by working environment measurements, etc., and of health management by health examinations, etc., were developed. Localized exhaust ventilation and personal protection equipment became widely utilized. Qualification systems for non-medical experts in occupational hygiene were structured, and relationships between employers and occupational health physicians were stipulated in the legislative documents. Currently, the Japan Medical Association and the University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan educate and train occupational health physicians, and the Japan Society for Occupational Health maintains a specialized board certification system for these physicians. In the future, additional efforts should be made to strengthen the expertise of occupational health physicians, to define and recognize the roles of non-medical experts in occupational hygiene, to incorporate occupational health services in small enterprises, to promote occupational health risk assessment in the workplace, and to reorganize the current legislation, amended repeatedly over the decades.

  5. Affluence, occupational safety and ergonomics: are they interdependent?

    PubMed

    Broszkiewicz, Roman

    2016-12-01

    The number of fatal occupational injuries (FOI), the number of scientific publications in ergonomics (SP) and the gross domestic product (GDP) of 30 countries were investigated for their mutual dependence. This article shows that, although the ratio of FOI/SP decreases exponentially with a linear increase in the GDP, GDP may be only one of the major influencing factors.

  6. 75 FR 44967 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... Facility in Los Angeles County, California, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On July 13, 2010, the Secretary... Department of Energy, its predecessor agencies, and their contractors and subcontractors who worked at...

  7. Quantification of the Design Relationship Between Ground Vehicle Weight and Occupant Safety Under Blast Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    engineering model built in the software (Randers-Pehrson & Bannister, 1997; LSTC, 2007), where the charge intensity (in TNT mass- equivalent ) and charge...mass (mc) in kilograms TNT - equivalent . As vehicle mass is an input that can be designed for, the sample for mv is taken uniformly with a lower bound a...on the NATO report on protecting vehicle occupants from landmine effects, the ground vehicle safety benchmark is for occupants to have no greater than

  8. Creating a Culture of Prevention in Occupational Safety and Health Practice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yangho; Park, Jungsun; Park, Mijin

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of occupational injuries and diseases associated with industrialization has declined markedly following developments in science and technology, such as engineering controls, protective equipment, safer machinery and processes, and greater adherence to regulations and labor inspections. Although the introduction of health and safety management systems has further decreased the incidence of occupational injuries and diseases, these systems are not effective unless accompanied by a positive safety culture in the workplace. The characteristics of work in the 21(st) century have given rise to new issues related to workers' health, such as new types of work-related disorders, noncommunicable diseases, and inequality in the availability of occupational health services. Overcoming these new and emerging issues requires a culture of prevention at the national level. The present paper addresses: (1) how to change safety cultures in both theory and practice at the level of the workplace; and (2) the role of prevention culture at the national level.

  9. Code of Sustainable Practice in Occupational and Environmental Health and Safety for Corporations.

    PubMed

    Castleman, Barry; Allen, Barbara; Barca, Stefania; Bohme, Susanna Rankin; Henry, Emmanuel; Kaur, Amarjit; Massard-Guilbaud, Genvieve; Melling, Joseph; Menendez-Navarro, Alfredo; Renfrew, Daniel; Santiago, Myrna; Sellers, Christopher; Tweedale, Geoffrey; Zalik, Anna; Zavestoski, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    At a conference held at Stony Brook University in December 2007, "Dangerous Trade: Histories of Industrial Hazard across a Globalizing World," participants endorsed a Code of Sustainable Practice in Occupational and Environmental Health and Safety for Corporations. The Code outlines practices that would ensure corporations enact the highest health and environmentally protective measures in all the locations in which they operate. Corporations should observe international guidelines on occupational exposure to air contaminants, plant safety, air and water pollutant releases, hazardous waste disposal practices, remediation of polluted sites, public disclosure of toxic releases, product hazard labeling, sale of products for specific uses, storage and transport of toxic intermediates and products, corporate safety and health auditing, and corporate environmental auditing. Protective measures in all locations should be consonant with the most protective measures applied anywhere in the world, and should apply to the corporations' subsidiaries, contractors, suppliers, distributors, and licensees of technology. Key words: corporations, sustainability, environmental protection, occupational health, code of practice.

  10. [Safety and health in work from the perspective of the Prevention of Occupational Hazards Act].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Hortigüela Amillo, J

    1996-01-01

    The passing of the Prevention of Occupational Hazards Act, (Ley 31/1995), constituted a change in direction in the development of occupational safety and health in Spain. This article describes the most salient points of this new legislation, from the criteria and principles that have to govern preventive activities, to the obligations and rights of both employers and workers, together with the co-operation and co-ordination of the activities of the various Administrations which have jurisdiction and the participation of employers' and workers' organisations, as the backbone of policy in matters concerning the prevention of occupational hazards.

  11. 42 CFR 86.18 - Grantee accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grantee accountability. 86.18 Section 86.18 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.18 Grantee accountability. (a) Accounting for grant...

  12. Color Functionality Used in Visual Display for Occupational and Environmental Safety and Managing Color Vision Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Nobuhisa; Kondo, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    The effects of color perception are utilized in visual displays for the purpose of safety in the workplace and in daily life. These effects, generally known as color functionality, are divided into four classifications: visibility, legibility, conspicuity and discriminability. This article focuses on the relationship between the color functionality of color schemes used in visual displays for occupational and environmental safety and color vision deficiency (particularly congenital red-green color deficiency), a critical issue in ophthalmology, and examines the effects of color functionality on the perception of the color red in individuals with protan defects. Due to abrupt system reforms, current Japanese clinical ophthalmology finds itself in a situation where it is insufficiently prepared to handle congenital red-green color deficiencies. Indeed, occupational problems caused by color vision deficiencies have been almost completely neglected, and are an occupational safety and health concern that will need to be solved in the future. This report will present the guidelines for the color vision testing established by the British Health and Safety Executive (HSE), a pioneering example of a model meant to solve these problems. Issues relating to the creation of guidelines adapted to Japanese clinical ophthalmology will also be examined, and we will discuss ways to utilize color functionality used in visual displays for occupational and environmental safety to help manage color vision deficiency.

  13. Occupational Safety Precautions among Nurses at Four Hospitals, Nablus District, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, I A; El Ansari, W; Areqat, T A; Darkhawaja, R A; Mansour, S H; Tucktuck, M A; Khatib, J I

    2015-10-01

    Occupational hazards, exposure to blood and body fluids (BBF) accidents and safety precautions constitute an important public health issue. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of exposure to occupational hazards among nurses, and their knowledge of occupational safety precautions. In a cross-sectional study, we surveyed 332 nurses working in 4 hospitals, Nablus, West Bank, Palestine, by a questionnaire. Bivariate analysis tested the associations between ever exposure and the high likelihood of BBF exposure and the independent socio-demographic and occupational variables. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the associations between the same two exposures and selected independent variables (those significant in the bivariate analysis). Prevalence of ever exposure to BBF was 51.7%, and was associated with working in private and charitable hospitals (OR 2.62, 2.68, respectively), having 4-6 family members (OR 0.52) and "nursing" being as one's top career choice at university (OR 0.48). The prevalence of high likelihood of BBF exposure was 62.2%, and was associated with working in charitable and private hospitals (OR 7.81, 2.43, respectively) and "nursing" being as one's top career choice (OR 0.57). Regarding knowledge, most respondents believed it is necessary to enact laws and regulations regarding occupational safety precautions, reported the use of sharps containers, immediate disinfection after an accident, reporting an accident, and using personal protective equipment. Nurses had adequate knowledge of the risks of their hospital work. Nevertheless, they exhibited high prevalence of exposure to BBF accidents. Future studies are needed to re-evaluate existing occupational safety guidelines in hospitals, establish monitoring and evaluation protocols for health care workers' adherence to the guidelines, and institute well-defined policies for reporting occupational injury incidents so these can be handled appropriately.

  14. Occupational safety training and practices in selected vocational training institutions and workplaces in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kintu, Denis; Kyakula, Michael; Kikomeko, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Several industrial accidents, some of them fatal, have been reported in Uganda. Causes could include training gaps in vocational training institutions (VTIs) and workplaces. This study investigated how occupational safety training in VTIs and workplaces is implemented. The study was carried out in five selected VTIs and workplaces in Kampala. Data were collected from instructors, workshop technicians, students, workshop managers, production supervisors, machine operators and new technicians in the workplaces. A total of 35 respondents participated in the study. The results revealed that all curricula in VTIs include a component of safety but little is practiced in VTI workshops; in workplaces no specific training content was followed and there were no regular consultations between VTIs and industry on safety skills requirements, resulting in a mismatch in safety skills training. The major constraints to safety training include inadequate funds to purchase safety equipment and inadequate literature on safety.

  15. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Environmental and Occupational Safety and Health Inspections: A Guide for Shipyard Managers and Employees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-29

    facility inspections relating either to environmental (e.g. clean air, clean water, hazardous waste) or occupational safety and health (hereafter...occurring, or has recently occurred. The outline is devoted primarily to issues raised by federal environmental and occupational safety and health statutes

  16. Changes in Occupational Safety and Health Indices After the Korean Economic Crisis: Analysis of a National Sample, 1991–2007

    PubMed Central

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young; Park, Jae-Beom; Park, Shin-Goo

    2010-01-01

    We examined how the deregulation of South Korea's labor laws during the country's 1997 to 1998 economic crisis affected occupational safety and health. Although the economic index improved after the reforms, the total injury rate declined slowly and the incidence of occupational disease increased. The withdrawal of support for occupational safety and health is likely to have a sustained effect on public health. PMID:20339078

  17. Improving Occupational Safety and Health Among Mexican Immigrant Workers: A Binational Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Check, Pietra; Eggerth, Donald E.; Tonda, Josana

    2013-01-01

    Latino immigrants are 50% more likely than all workers in the United States to experience a fatal injury at work. Occupational safety and health (OSH) organizations often find that the approaches and networks they successfully use to promote OSH among U.S.-born workers are ineffective at reaching Latino immigrants. This article describes the collaboration between the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores) to promote OSH among Mexican immigrant workers. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs operates 50 consulates throughout the U.S. that provide four million discrete service contacts with Mexican citizens annually. The focus of this ongoing collaboration is to develop the internal capacity of Mexican institutions to promote OSH among Mexican immigrants while simultaneously developing NIOSH's internal capacity to create effective and sustainable initiatives to better document and reduce occupational health disparities for Mexican immigrants in the U.S. PMID:24179277

  18. Improving occupational safety and health among Mexican immigrant workers: a binational collaboration.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Michael A; Check, Pietra; Eggerth, Donald E; Tonda, Josana

    2013-11-01

    Latino immigrants are 50% more likely than all workers in the United States to experience a fatal injury at work. Occupational safety and health (OSH) organizations often find that the approaches and networks they successfully use to promote OSH among U.S.-born workers are ineffective at reaching Latino immigrants. This article describes the collaboration between the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores) to promote OSH among Mexican immigrant workers. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs operates 50 consulates throughout the U.S. that provide four million discrete service contacts with Mexican citizens annually. The focus of this ongoing collaboration is to develop the internal capacity of Mexican institutions to promote OSH among Mexican immigrants while simultaneously developing NIOSH's internal capacity to create effective and sustainable initiatives to better document and reduce occupational health disparities for Mexican immigrants in the U.S.

  19. Impulsive Choice and Workplace Safety: A New Area of Inquiry for Research in Occupational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Brady; Schiffbauer, Ryan M.

    2004-01-01

    A conceptual argument is presented for the relevance of behavior-analytic research on impulsive choice to issues of occupational safety and health. Impulsive choice is defined in terms of discounting, which is the tendency for the value of a commodity to decrease as a function of various parameters (e.g., having to wait or expend energy to receive…

  20. Occupational Health and Safety. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed…

  1. The National Program for Occupational Safety and Health in Agriculture. 1992 Project Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health (DHHS/PHS), Cincinnati, OH.

    This book contains information about a project instituted in 1990 by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to prevent work-related diseases and injuries among agricultural workers. Included are facts about 25 projects within NIOSH and 42 cooperative agreements between NIOSH and institutions in 25 states. These…

  2. Job Safety. Cooperative Occupational Education, Unit 14. Instructor Material and Student Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This unit, one in a series of packets of teacher and student materials for cooperative occupational education (COE) designed for special needs students, is intended to provide students with information relative to job safety. Emphasis is placed on monetary and personal costs of accidents, causes of accidents on the job, and how accidents can be…

  3. Occupational safety and health in nanotechnology and Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashov, Vladimir; Engel, Stefan; Savolainen, Kai; Fullam, Brian; Lee, Michelle; Kearns, Peter

    2009-10-01

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), an intergovernmental organization, is playing a critical global role in ensuring that emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology, are developed responsibly. This article describes OECD activities around occupational safety and health of nanotechnology and provides state-of-the-science overview resulting from an OECD workshop on exposure assessment and mitigation for nanotechnology workplace.

  4. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Partnered Development of Cryogenic Life Support Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Partnering with National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to develop several cyrogenically based life support technologies to be used in mine escape and rescue scenarios. Technologies developed for mine rescue directly benefit future NASA rescue and ground operation missions.

  5. Occupational safety and health, green chemistry, and sustainability: a review of areas of convergence.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Paul A; McKernan, Lauralynn T; Heidel, Donna S; Okun, Andrea H; Dotson, Gary Scott; Lentz, Thomas J; Geraci, Charles L; Heckel, Pamela E; Branche, Christine M

    2013-04-15

    With increasing numbers and quantities of chemicals in commerce and use, scientific attention continues to focus on the environmental and public health consequences of chemical production processes and exposures. Concerns about environmental stewardship have been gaining broader traction through emphases on sustainability and "green chemistry" principles. Occupational safety and health has not been fully promoted as a component of environmental sustainability. However, there is a natural convergence of green chemistry/sustainability and occupational safety and health efforts. Addressing both together can have a synergistic effect. Failure to promote this convergence could lead to increasing worker hazards and lack of support for sustainability efforts. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has made a concerted effort involving multiple stakeholders to anticipate and identify potential hazards associated with sustainable practices and green jobs for workers. Examples of potential hazards are presented in case studies with suggested solutions such as implementing the hierarchy of controls and prevention through design principles in green chemistry and green building practices. Practical considerations and strategies for green chemistry, and environmental stewardship could benefit from the incorporation of occupational safety and health concepts which in turn protect affected workers.

  6. Effectiveness of Occupational Health and Safety Training: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricci, Federico; Chiesi, Andrea; Bisio, Carlo; Panari, Chiara; Pelosi, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This meta-analysis aims to verify the efficacy of occupational health and safety (OHS) training in terms of knowledge, attitude and beliefs, behavior and health. Design/methodology/approach: The authors included studies published in English (2007-2014) selected from ten databases. Eligibility criteria were studies concerned with the…

  7. Principles and Practices of Occupational Safety and Health: Student Manual: Booklet Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC.

    The manual is the fourth of six student manuals for use in a course on occupational health and safety for supervisory personnel. The manual contains lessons 8-11 of the 15 consecutively-numbered lessons, each of which contains study questions (and answers) interwoven with the text and review questions at the end of each section. Lesson 8 discusses…

  8. Occupational safety and health, green chemistry, and sustainability: a review of areas of convergence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    With increasing numbers and quantities of chemicals in commerce and use, scientific attention continues to focus on the environmental and public health consequences of chemical production processes and exposures. Concerns about environmental stewardship have been gaining broader traction through emphases on sustainability and “green chemistry” principles. Occupational safety and health has not been fully promoted as a component of environmental sustainability. However, there is a natural convergence of green chemistry/sustainability and occupational safety and health efforts. Addressing both together can have a synergistic effect. Failure to promote this convergence could lead to increasing worker hazards and lack of support for sustainability efforts. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has made a concerted effort involving multiple stakeholders to anticipate and identify potential hazards associated with sustainable practices and green jobs for workers. Examples of potential hazards are presented in case studies with suggested solutions such as implementing the hierarchy of controls and prevention through design principles in green chemistry and green building practices. Practical considerations and strategies for green chemistry, and environmental stewardship could benefit from the incorporation of occupational safety and health concepts which in turn protect affected workers. PMID:23587312

  9. [Qualitative evaluation of employer requirements associated with occupational health and safety as good practice in small-scale enterprises].

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Naomi; Miyashita, Nana; Hino, Yoshiyuki; Kayashima, Kotaro; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Takada, Mikio; Nagata, Tomohisa; Yamataki, Hajime; Sakuragi, Sonoko; Kan, Hirohiko; Morita, Tetsuya; Ito, Akiyoshi; Mori, Koji

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify what motivates employers to promote good occupational health and safety practices in small-scale enterprises. Previous studies have shown that small-scale enterprises generally pay insufficient attention to issues of occupational health and safety. These findings were mainly derived from questionnaire based surveys. Nevertheless, some small-scale enterprises in which employers exercise good leadership do take a progressive approach to occupational health and safety. Although good practices can be identified in small-scale enterprises, it remains unclear what motivates employers in small-scale enterprises to actively implement occupational health and safety practices. We speculated that identifying employer motivations in promoting occupational health would help to spread good practices among small-scale enterprises. Using a qualitative approach based on the KJ methods, we interviewed ten employers who actively promote occupational health and safety in the workplace. The employers were asked to discuss their views of occupational health and safety in their own words. A semi-structured interview format was used, and transcripts were made of the interviews. Each transcript was independently coded by two or more researchers. These transcripts and codes were integrated and then the research group members discussed the heading titles and structural relationships between them according to the KJ method. Qualitative analysis revealed that all the employers expressed a strong interest in a "good company" and "good management". They emphasized four elements of "good management", namely "securing human resources", "trust of business partners", "social responsibility" and "employer's health condition itself", and considered that addressing occupational health and safety was essential to the achievement of these four elements. Consistent with previous findings, the results showed that implementation of occupational health and safety

  10. Evaluating the predictive abilities of community occupancy models using AUC while accounting for imperfect detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zipkin, Elise F.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Fagan, William F.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to accurately predict patterns of species' occurrences is fundamental to the successful management of animal communities. To determine optimal management strategies, it is essential to understand species-habitat relationships and how species habitat use is related to natural or human-induced environmental changes. Using five years of monitoring data in the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, Maryland, USA, we developed four multi-species hierarchical models for estimating amphibian wetland use that account for imperfect detection during sampling. The models were designed to determine which factors (wetland habitat characteristics, annual trend effects, spring/summer precipitation, and previous wetland occupancy) were most important for predicting future habitat use. We used the models to make predictions of species occurrences in sampled and unsampled wetlands and evaluated model projections using additional data. Using a Bayesian approach, we calculated a posterior distribution of receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC AUC) values, which allowed us to explicitly quantify the uncertainty in the quality of our predictions and to account for false negatives in the evaluation dataset. We found that wetland hydroperiod (the length of time that a wetland holds water) as well as the occurrence state in the prior year were generally the most important factors in determining occupancy. The model with only habitat covariates predicted species occurrences well; however, knowledge of wetland use in the previous year significantly improved predictive ability at the community level and for two of 12 species/species complexes. Our results demonstrate the utility of multi-species models for understanding which factors affect species habitat use of an entire community (of species) and provide an improved methodology using AUC that is helpful for quantifying the uncertainty in model predictions while explicitly accounting for

  11. Evaluating the predictive abilities of community occupancy models using AUC while accounting for imperfect detection.

    PubMed

    Zipkin, Elise F; Grant, Evan H Campbell; Fagan, William F

    2012-10-01

    The ability to accurately predict patterns of species' occurrences is fundamental to the successful management of animal communities. To determine optimal management strategies, it is essential to understand species-habitat relationships and how species habitat use is related to natural or human-induced environmental changes. Using five years of monitoring data in the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, Maryland, USA, we developed four multispecies hierarchical models for estimating amphibian wetland use that account for imperfect detection during sampling. The models were designed to determine which factors (wetland habitat characteristics, annual trend effects, spring/summer precipitation, and previous wetland occupancy) were most important for predicting future habitat use. We used the models to make predictions about species occurrences in sampled and unsampled wetlands and evaluated model projections using additional data. Using a Bayesian approach, we calculated a posterior distribution of receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC AUC) values, which allowed us to explicitly quantify the uncertainty in the quality of our predictions and to account for false negatives in the evaluation data set. We found that wetland hydroperiod (the length of time that a wetland holds water), as well as the occurrence state in the prior year, were generally the most important factors in determining occupancy. The model with habitat-only covariates predicted species occurrences well; however, knowledge of wetland use in the previous year significantly improved predictive ability at the community level and for two of 12 species/species complexes. Our results demonstrate the utility of multispecies models for understanding which factors affect species habitat use of an entire community (of species) and provide an improved methodology using AUC that is helpful for quantifying the uncertainty in model predictions while explicitly accounting for

  12. Comparison of AIHA ISO 9001-based occupational health and safety management system guidance document with a manufacturer's occupational health and safety assessment instrument.

    PubMed

    Dyjack, D T; Levine, S P; Holtshouser, J L; Schork, M A

    1998-06-01

    Numerous manufacturing and service organizations have integrated or are considering integration of their respective occupational health and safety management and audit systems into the International Organization for Standardization-based (ISO) audit-driven Quality Management Systems (ISO 9000) or Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14000) models. Companies considering one of these options will likely need to identify and evaluate several key factors before embarking on such efforts. The purpose of this article is to identify and address the key factors through a case study approach. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of the key features of the American Industrial Hygiene Association ISO-9001 harmonized Occupational Health and Safety Management System with The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. management and audit system were conducted. The comparisons showed that the two management systems and their respective audit protocols, although structured differently, were not substantially statistically dissimilar in content. The authors recommend that future studies continue to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of various audit protocols. Ideally, these studies would identify those audit outcome measures that can be reliably correlated with health and safety performance.

  13. Student internships with unions and workers: building the occupational health and safety movement.

    PubMed

    Bateson, Gail

    2013-01-01

    One of the most successful programs to recruit young professionals to the occupational safety and health field was launched more than 35 years ago, in 1976. Created by the Montefiore Medical Center's Department of Social Medicine collaborating with Tony Mazzocchi of the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union (OCAW), it placed medical, nursing, and public health students in summer internships with local unions to identify and solve health and safety problems in the workplace. The experience of working with and learning from workers about the complex interactions of political, economic, and scientific-technological issues surrounding workplace conditions inspired many students to enter and stay in our field. Many former interns went on to make important medical and scientific contributions directly linked to their union-based projects. Former interns are now among the leaders within the occupational health and safety community, holding key positions in leading academic institutions and governmental agencies.

  14. Integration of occupational health and safety, environmental and quality management system standards.

    PubMed

    Stromsvag, A; Winder, C

    1997-01-01

    Occupational health and safety, environmental, and quality (SEQ) issues are commonly managed by three separate departments within organizations. Because of a number of commonalities in the three management systems, there could be a degree of overlap that might lead to inefficiencies. By integrating these three management systems into one SEQ system, the duplication of effort could be minimized and the health and safety, environmental, and quality issues could be managed by one common proactive approach. The draft Australian standard for an occupational health and safety (OHS) management system and the internationally accepted standards for environmental (ISO 14001) and quality (ISO 9001) management systems were analyzed to identify all requirements of the three management systems and integrate this into one SEQ management system standard.

  15. Radon in the Workplace: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Ionizing Radiation Standard.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Robert K

    2016-10-01

    On 29 December 1970, the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 established the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This article on OSHA, Title 29, Part 1910.1096 Ionizing Radiation standard was written to increase awareness of the employer, the workforce, state and federal governments, and those in the radon industry who perform radon testing and radon mitigation of the existence of these regulations, particularly the radon relevant aspect of the regulations. This review paper was also written to try to explain what can sometimes be complicated regulations. As the author works within the Radon Division of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Radiation Protection, the exclusive focus of the article is on radon. The 1910.1096 standard obviously covers many other aspects of radiation and radiation safety in the work place.

  16. Causal Inference in Occupational Epidemiology: Accounting for the Healthy Worker Effect by Using Structural Nested Models

    PubMed Central

    Naimi, Ashley I.; Richardson, David B.; Cole, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    In a recent issue of the Journal, Kirkeleit et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(11):1218–1224) provided empirical evidence for the potential of the healthy worker effect in a large cohort of Norwegian workers across a range of occupations. In this commentary, we provide some historical context, define the healthy worker effect by using causal diagrams, and use simulated data to illustrate how structural nested models can be used to estimate exposure effects while accounting for the healthy worker survivor effect in 4 simple steps. We provide technical details and annotated SAS software (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina) code corresponding to the example analysis in the Web Appendices, available at http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/. PMID:24077092

  17. Causal inference in occupational epidemiology: accounting for the healthy worker effect by using structural nested models.

    PubMed

    Naimi, Ashley I; Richardson, David B; Cole, Stephen R

    2013-12-15

    In a recent issue of the Journal, Kirkeleit et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(11):1218-1224) provided empirical evidence for the potential of the healthy worker effect in a large cohort of Norwegian workers across a range of occupations. In this commentary, we provide some historical context, define the healthy worker effect by using causal diagrams, and use simulated data to illustrate how structural nested models can be used to estimate exposure effects while accounting for the healthy worker survivor effect in 4 simple steps. We provide technical details and annotated SAS software (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina) code corresponding to the example analysis in the Web Appendices, available at http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/.

  18. Current Needs and Future Directions of Occupational Safety and Heath in a Globalized World

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica P.; Li, TY; Lin, C; Tang, Deliang; Gilbert, Steven G.; Kang, Seong-Kyu; Aschner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This summary provides a synopsis of talks included in a symposium entitled “Current Needs and Future Directions of Occupational Safety and Heath in a Globalized World”. The purpose of the symposium was to (1) highlight national and international agencies with occupational health related activities; (2) address electronic (e-)waste issues in developing countries where exposures are secondary to the handling and scavenging of scrap; and (3) discuss the effects of hazardous materials, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and tobacco smoke on child intelligence quotient (IQ) in developing countries. PMID:22037493

  19. Integrating Occupational Safety and Health Information Into Vocational and Technical Education and Other Workforce Preparation Programs

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Paul A.; Stephenson, Carol Merry; Okun, Andrea H.; Palassis, John; Biddle, Elyce

    2005-01-01

    The high rates of injury among young workers are a pressing public health issue, especially given the demand of the job market for new workers. Young and new workers experience the highest rates of occupational injuries of any age group. Incorporating occupational safety and health (OSH) information into the more than 20 000 vocational and other workforce preparation programs in the United States might provide a mechanism for reducing work-related injuries and illnesses among young and new workers. We assessed the status of including OSH information or training in workforce preparation programs and found there is an inconsistent emphasis on OSH information. PMID:15727967

  20. Integration of Occupational Safety to Contractors` or Subcontractors` Performance Evaluation in Construction Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovská, Mária; Struková, Zuzana

    2013-06-01

    Several factors should be considered by the owner and general contractor in the process of contractors` and subcontractors` selection and evaluation. The paper reviews the recent models addressed to guide general contractors in subcontractors' selection process and in evaluation of different contractors during the execution of the project. Moreover the paper suggests the impact of different contractors' performance to the overall level of occupational health and safety culture at the sites. It deals with the factors influencing the safety performance of contractors during construction and analyses the methods for assessing the safety performance of construction contractors. The results of contractors' safety performance evaluation could be a useful tool in motivating contractors to achieve better safety outcomes or could have effect on owners` or general contractors' decision making about contractors suitability for future contracting works.

  1. Occupational safety issues in residential construction surveyed in Wisconsin, United States.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sang D; Carlson, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Residential construction is a high-risk industry in the U.S. due to the exposure to work-related safety hazards and fall injuries. This study aimed to examine the safety training and safe work practices of construction workers within the small residential construction industry. In order to achieve the study objectives, a survey was designed and sent to approximately 200 Wisconsin based residential construction contractors. About one third of the respondents stated that they did not have any form of safety programs. The study indicated that the most common types of work-related injuries in residential construction were slips/trips/falls and cuts/lacerations. The survey findings also suggested that the residential construction contractors needed to increase the utilization of fall protection safety equipment. Further education and subject matter expert training could provide benefits to improve occupational safety and health of the small business workforce in the residential construction industry.

  2. Occupational Safety Issues in Residential Construction Surveyed in Wisconsin, United States

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, Sang D.; CARLSON, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Residential construction is a high-risk industry in the U.S. due to the exposure to work-related safety hazards and fall injuries. This study aimed to examine the safety training and safe work practices of construction workers within the small residential construction industry. In order to achieve the study objectives, a survey was designed and sent to approximately 200 Wisconsin based residential construction contractors. About one third of the respondents stated that they did not have any form of safety programs. The study indicated that the most common types of work-related injuries in residential construction were slips/trips/falls and cuts/lacerations. The survey findings also suggested that the residential construction contractors needed to increase the utilization of fall protection safety equipment. Further education and subject matter expert training could provide benefits to improve occupational safety and health of the small business workforce in the residential construction industry. PMID:25016947

  3. The determinants of employee participation in occupational health and safety management.

    PubMed

    Masso, Märt

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on employee direct participation in occupational health and safety (OHS) management. The article explains what determines employee opportunities to participate in OHS management. The explanatory framework focuses on safety culture and safety management at workplaces. The framework is empirically tested using Estonian cross-sectional, multilevel data of organizations and their employees. The analysis indicates that differences in employee participation in OHS management in the Estonian case could be explained by differences in OHS management practices rather than differences in safety culture. This indicates that throughout the institutional change and shift to the European model of employment relations system, change in management practices has preceded changes in safety culture which according to theoretical argument is supposed to follow culture change.

  4. Agricultural occupational health and safety perspectives among Latino-American youth.

    PubMed

    Perla, M E; Iman, Esmeralda; Campos, Leticia; Perkins, Alexandra; Liebman, Amy K; Miller, Mary E; Beaudet, Nancy J; Karr, Catherine J

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural work is one of the most dangerous jobs for adolescents. Through a university-community partnership, the authors surveyed young primarily acculturated Latino-American farmworkers 14 to 18 years of age regarding their agricultural work experience. Topics included occupational health and safety education, work history, and information sources. The authors also evaluated the Rapid Clinical Assessment Tool (RCAT), a pictorial tool for identifying agricultural tasks to enhance discussion with clinical providers. One hundred forty youth with farmwork experience completed the survey; 6% reported a previous work-related injury or illness and 53% reported receiving some workplace health and safety training. Correct identification of legally restricted duties for youth varied but were generally low: participants identified working alone past 8 pm (57%), driving a forklift (56%), doing roofing work (39%), working in freezers (34%), and driving a delivery vehicle (30%). The Internet was identified as the most likely and reliable place youth would go to find information on workplace health and safety. Few (15%) reported clinician-initiated conversations on occupational health; however, a high proportion responded positively to questions regarding the usefulness of the RCAT for this purpose. This study highlights the need for workplace health and safety guidance for youth employed in agriculture. The results support Internet-based outreach and use of the RCAT to help facilitate occupational health discussions in clinical settings.

  5. Occupational health and safety in the least developed countries--a simple case of neglect.

    PubMed

    Ahasan, M R; Partanen, T

    2001-03-01

    In many of the least developed countries, working people are significantly exposed to a number of occupational problems that may result in a deterioration of their health, safety and well being. These work-related problems are untenable, not only because of the occupational problems itself but also because of the simultaneous exposure to heat, dusts, noise, organo-chemicals, and biological and environmental pollution. This situation has existed for a long time due to various socio economic,geographical, cultural and local factors. The deteriorating situation of health and safety in the workplace may perhaps exist due to the inadequate resource facilities, economic constraints and lack of opportunity to conduct research and studies on the assessment of exposure-diseases associations. Officials, who are employed by the state, are not able to implement work regulations and labour legislation easily. Generally, they are not professionally trained and expert in the occupational health, industrial hygiene and/or safety fields, and thus, successful application and implementation of control measures are lacking. Steps to control work exposure limits have been ineffective, since national policies have been rare, owing to the multiple obstacles in preventing occupational problems. However, the major focus is on practical solutions to differing workers' needs, consideration of which is very important, depending on the what the industrial entrepreneurs could reasonably to be expected to afford. Why there is a lack of motivation and effort regarding the development of health and safety-this paper explores some important issues, aiming to focus public attention on the legacy of national and international efforts. Examples are likewise given to show the real situation of health and safety in the least developed countries.

  6. Ergonomic initiatives at Inmetro: measuring occupational health and safety.

    PubMed

    Drucker, L; Amaral, M; Carvalheira, C

    2012-01-01

    This work studies biomechanical hazards to which the workforce of Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia Industrial (Inmetro) is exposed. It suggests a model for ergonomic evaluation of work, based on the concepts of resilience engineering which take into consideration the institute's ability to manage risk and deal with its consequences. Methodology includes the stages of identification, inventory, analysis, and risk management. Diagnosis of the workplace uses as parameters the minimal criteria stated in Brazilian legislation. The approach has several prospectives and encompasses the points of view of public management, safety engineering, physical therapy and ergonomics-oriented design. The suggested solution integrates all aspects of the problem: biological, psychological, sociological and organizational. Results obtained from a pilot Project allow to build a significant sample of Inmetro's workforce, identifying problems and validating the methodology employed as a tool to be applied to the whole institution. Finally, this work intends to draw risk maps and support goals and methods based on resiliency engineering to assess environmental and ergonomic risk management.

  7. Will the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Proposed Standards for Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica Reduce Workplace Risk?

    PubMed

    Dudley, Susan E; Morriss, Andrew P

    2015-07-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is developing regulations to amend existing standards for occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica by establishing a new permissible exposure limit as well as a series of ancillary provisions for controlling exposure. This article briefly reviews OSHA's proposed regulatory approach and the statutory authority on which it is based. It then evaluates OSHA's preliminary determination of significant risk and its analysis of the risk reduction achievable by its proposed controls. It recognizes that OSHA faces multiple challenges in devising a regulatory approach that reduces exposures and health risks and meets its statutory goal. However, the greatest challenge to reducing risks associated with silica exposure is not the lack of incentives (for either employers or employees) but rather lack of information, particularly information on the relative toxicity of different forms of silica. The article finds that OSHA's proposed rule would contribute little in the way of new information, particularly since it is largely based on information that is at least a decade old--a significant deficiency, given the rapidly changing conditions observed over the last 45 years. The article concludes with recommendations for alternative approaches that would be more likely to generate information needed to improve worker health outcomes.

  8. Occupational safety and health on the U.S.-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Mireles, Luis Ramon

    2003-01-01

    A number of trade agreements were adopted in the 1990s that promised economic growth for Mexico. The most significant was the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which promotes open trade between Mexico, the United States, and Canada. Like WTO, NAFTA focuses on the economic aspects of trade. Occupational safety and health issues were not specifically addressed by NAFTA. Despite the presence of domestic regulatory systems, concerns over working conditions persist on both sides of the U.S.-Mexico border and the workforces face similar health problems. The upsurge in trade between the United States and Mexico must be accompanied by an international commitment to occupational safety and health in border areas. If government agencies cannot or will not intervene to reduce rates of workplace injuries and illnesses, civil coalitions must assume this role.

  9. Occupational safety conditions of bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jewelle Ann; Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2016-12-01

    The study looks into the occupational safety and working conditions among bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines. Quantitative data were collected through survey interviews of 95 bus drivers using the stratified sampling technique. Results showed that bus drivers worked an average of 16 h/day and were engaged in risky driving behaviors such as over-speeding and road racing in order to reach their quota for the day. Fifty-nine percent experienced work-related accidents, with a mean of three accidents. The most common accident was hitting another vehicle followed by side swipe. The accidents were blamed on other drivers, followed by vehicle defect, inattentiveness and tiredness/micro-sleep or sudden involuntary sleep while driving. The most common health symptoms experienced by the bus drivers were fatigue, back pain, and cough and colds. This study underlines the need for an occupational health and safety program for bus drivers in the Philippines.

  10. A discussion of occupational health and safety management for the catering industry in China.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Chen; Chow, Wan Ki

    2007-01-01

    The catering industry is developing rapidly in China. Statistics in 2002 indicated that there were over 3.5 million dining places in China, hiring over 18 million people. However, the accident rate was high. Occupational health and safety (OHS) has to be watched more carefully. It is proposed to develop an OHS management system for the catering industry and to integrate it with an ongoing management system by referring to OHSAS 18001:1999. The first step is risk identification and evaluating the major factors concerned by referring to the codes in China, the list of occupational diseases, operation rules, requirements of the law, and records of past incidents. The technological aspect has to be considered in working out the safety strategies. This includes technical measures in accident prevention at the workplace. The kitchen is the main area to be focused on. Methods for hazard identification and risk assessment of dangerous factors in kitchens are proposed in this paper.

  11. Occupational Safety in the Age of the Opioid Crisis: Needle Stick Injury among Baltimore Police.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Javier A; Beletsky, Leo; Sawyer, Anne; Serio-Chapman, Chris; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Han, Jennifer; Robinowitz, Natanya; Sherman, Susan G

    2017-01-19

    At a time of resurgence in injection drug use and injection-attributable infections, needle stick injury (NSI) risk and its correlates among police remain understudied. In the context of occupational safety training, a convenience sample of 771 Baltimore city police officers responded to a self-administered survey. Domains included NSI experience, protective behaviors, and attitudes towards syringe exchange programs. Sixty officers (8%) reported lifetime NSI. Officers identifying as Latino or other race were almost three times more likely (aOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.12-5.96) to have experienced NSI compared to whites, after adjusting for potential confounders. Findings highlight disparate burdens of NSIs among officers of color, elevating risk of hepatitis, HIV, and trauma. Training, equipment, and other measures to improve occupational safety are critical to attracting and safeguarding police, especially minority officers.

  12. Undocumented Status as a Social Determinant of Occupational Safety and Health: The Workers’ Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Michael A.; Eggerth, Donald E.; Jacobson, C. Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Background Undocumented immigration to the United States has grown dramatically over the past 25 years. This study explores undocumented status as a social determinant of occupational health by examining its perceived consequences on workplace safety of Latino immigrants. Methods Guided by the Theory of Work Adjustment, qualitative analysis was conducted on transcripts from focus groups and individual interviews conducted with a convenience sample of Latino immigrant workers. Results Participants reported that unauthorized status negatively impacted their safety at work and resulted in a degree of alienation that exceeded the specific proscriptions of the law. Participants overwhelming used a strategy of disengagement to cope with the challenges they face as undocumented immigrants. Conclusion This study describes the complex web of consequences resulting from undocumented status and its impact on occupational health. This study presents a framework connecting the daily work experiences of immigrants, the coping strategy of disengagement, and efforts to minimize the impact of structural violence. PMID:26471878

  13. Occupational Exposure to Diagnostic Radiology in Workers without Training in Radiation Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona, Enrique; Enríquez, Jesús G. Franco

    2004-09-01

    The physicians, technicians, nurses, and others involved in radiation areas constitute the largest group of workers occupationally exposed to man-made sources of radiation. Personnel radiation exposure must be monitored for safety and regulatory considerations, this assessment may need to be made over a period of one month or several months. The purpose of this study was to carry out an exploratory survey of occupational exposures associated with diagnostic radiology. The personnel dosimeters used in this study were thermoluminiscent dosimeters (TLDs). The reported number of monitored workers was 110 of different departments of radiology of the Mexican Republic without education in radiation safety, included general fluoscopic/radiographic imaging, computed tomography and mammography procedures. Physicians and X-ray technologist in diagnostic radiology receive an average annual effective dose of 2.9 mSv with range from 0.18 to 5.64 mSv. The average level of occupational exposures is generally similar to the global average level of natural radiation exposure. The annual global per capita effective dose due to natural radiation sources is 2.4 mSv (UNSCEAR 2000 Report). There is not significant difference between average occupational exposures and natural radiation exposure for p < 0.05.

  14. Gender and occupational health and safety requirements among Saskatchewan farm adolescents.

    PubMed

    Crouchman, E; Ding, K; Hagel, L; Dosman, J; Pickett, W

    2011-10-01

    Children on farms perform hazardous work that exposes them to risks for injury. Hazards include operation of heavy machinery, working with limited supervision, working at heights, and performing work prohibited by law in other industries. Incidence rates and patterns of injury are known to differ between boys and girls on farms. Farm adherence to occupational health and safety practices, and whether such practices vary by gender, has received limited study in this occupational setting. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between gender and work practices, and required occupational health and safety practices, within a sample of adolescent children age 12 to 18 years living on Saskatchewan farms. A cross-sectional study was performed. Measures were obtained by self-report. We compared requirements for boys and girls on the following: (1) use of personal protective equipment (PPE), (2) conduct of specific hazardous jobs, (3) training and supervision for equipment work, and (4) training and supervision for large animal work. A total of 434 children were identified, and 297 (68%) met the eligibility criteria. Of these, 170 were boys (57%) with a mean age of 14.5 years (SD 1.9). Occupational health and safety requirements varied by gender; girls were less likely to be required to use PPE (adjusted OR 2.39; 95% CI: 1.16, 4.94). There was no evidence of an association between gender and the conduct of hazardous work. Gender patterns in required training and supervision for work suggested disadvantages for girls, but were not significant. Adolescent girls and boys both performed hazardous jobs on the farm. Girls were as likely to conduct hazardous jobs but not to be required to use PPE. This gender disparity may indicate a need for a public health approach that recognizes gender as a determinant of work assignment and of health and safety practices on farms.

  15. Human performance cognitive-behavioral modeling: a benefit for occupational safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2002-01-01

    Human Performance Modeling (HPM) is a computer-aided job analysis software methodology used to generate predictions of complex human-automation integration and system flow patterns with the goal of improving operator and system safety. The use of HPM tools has recently been increasing due to reductions in computational cost, augmentations in the tools' fidelity, and usefulness in the generated output. An examination of an Air Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (Air MIDAS) model evaluating complex human-automation integration currently underway at NASA Ames Research Center will highlight the importance to occupational safety of considering both cognitive and physical aspects of performance when researching human error.

  16. NASA technical advances in aircraft occupant safety. [clear air turbulence detectors, fire resistant materials, and crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's aviation safety technology program examines specific safety problems associated with atmospheric hazards, crash-fire survival, control of aircraft on runways, human factors, terminal area operations hazards, and accident factors simulation. While aircraft occupants are ultimately affected by any of these hazards, their well-being is immediately impacted by three specific events: unexpected turbulence encounters, fire and its effects, and crash impact. NASA research in the application of laser technology to the problem of clear air turbulence detection, the development of fire resistant materials for aircraft construction, and to the improvement of seats and restraint systems to reduce crash injuries are reviewed.

  17. “Health Courts” and Accountability for Patient Safety

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Michelle M; Studdert, David M; Kachalia, Allen B; Brennan, Troyen A

    2006-01-01

    Proposals that medical malpractice claims be removed from the tort system and processed in an alternative system, known as administrative compensation or ‘health courts,’ attract considerable policy interest during malpractice ‘crises,’ including the current one. This article describes current proposals for the design of a health court system and the system's advantages for improving patient safety. Among these advantages are the cultivation of a culture of transparency regarding medical errors and the creation of mechanisms to gather and analyze data on medical injuries. The article discusses the experiences of foreign countries with administrative compensation systems for medical injury, including their use of claims data for research on patient safety; choices regarding the compensation system's relationship to physician disciplinary processes; and the proposed system's possible limitations. PMID:16953807

  18. Occupational health and safety issues affecting young workers: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Laberge, Marie; Ledoux, Elise

    2011-01-01

    Many overview articles, reports, book chapters and literature reviews have examined the health and safety of young workers. These sources discuss the relationships between the work conditions of young workers and the various indicators of accidents and occupational diseases. Breslin et al. [12,13] conducted two literature reviews of quantitative studies to determine which factors best predicted work accidents and occupational disorders in young people. The present article proposes a review of young people's occupational health and safety (OHS) factors (e.g., demographic, individual, professional, organizational, temporal and operational factors) in both qualitative and quantitative studies. Five types of problems were analyzed in greater depth, namely MSD symptoms, respiratory, allergy and toxicological problems, mental health and well-being, alcohol and drug consumption, and fatigue. This review likewise examines related dimensions that allow us to adopt a more global perspective on this subject by considering such elements as young people's values, their knowledge and attitudes, safety practices in companies, the safe integration of young people, and rehabilitation. A total of 189 scientific articles were selected on the basis of certain criteria. These articles came from refereed OHS journals published between 1994 and 2005.

  19. Office Occupations--Accounting, Banking. Kit No. 26. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide: Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Creola S.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on accounting and banking are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of office occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  20. 77 FR 31066 - Improvements to the Compliance, Safety, Accountability (CSA) Motor Carrier Safety Measurement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Measurement System (SMS) AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... Safety Measurement System (SMS). A preview of these improvements and their potential effects on a motor... published a notice announcing changes to the Agency's Safety Measurement System and a preview period for...

  1. Industrial hygiene, occupational safety and respiratory symptoms in the Pakistani cotton industry

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Wali; Moshammer, Hanns Michael; Kundi, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the cotton industry of Pakistan, 15 million people are employed and exposed to cotton dust, toxic chemicals, noise and physical hazards. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of health symptoms, particularly respiratory symptoms, and to measure cotton dust and endotoxin levels in different textile factories of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional investigation was performed in a representative sample of 47 cotton factories in the Faisalabad region in Punjab, Pakistan. Respiratory symptoms of 800 workers were documented by questionnaire. Occupational safety in the factories was assessed by a trained expert following a checklist, and dust and endotoxin levels in different work areas were measured. Results Prevalence of respiratory disease symptoms (fever, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough) was generally high and highest in the weaving section of the cotton industry (20–40% depending on symptoms). This section also displayed the poorest occupational safety ratings and the highest levels of inhalable cotton dust (mean±SD 4.6±2.5 vs 0.95±0.65 mg/m3 in compact units). In contrast, endotoxin levels were highest in the spinning section (median 1521 EU/m3), where high humidity is maintained. Conclusions There are still poor working conditions in the cotton industry in Pakistan where workers are exposed to different occupational hazards. More health symptoms were reported from small weaving factories (power looms). There is a dire need for improvements in occupational health and safety in this industrial sector with particular focus on power looms. PMID:25838509

  2. Framework for Continuous Assessment and Improvement of Occupational Health and Safety Issues in Construction Companies

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Shahram; Ghasemi, Fakhradin; Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soleimani, Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    Background Construction industry is among the most hazardous industries, and needs a comprehensive and simple-to-administer tool to continuously assess and promote its health and safety performance. Methods Through the study of various standard systems (mainly Health, Safety, and Environment Management System; Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 180001; and British Standard, occupational health and safety management systems-Guide 8800), seven main elements were determined for the desired framework, and then, by reviewing literature, factors affecting these main elements were determined. The relative importance of each element and its related factors was calculated at organizational and project levels. The provided framework was then implemented in three construction companies, and results were compared together. Results The results of the study show that the relative importance of the main elements and their related factors differ between organizational and project levels: leadership and commitment are the most important elements at the organization level, whereas risk assessment and management are most important at the project level. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that the framework is easy to administer, and by interpreting the results, the main factors leading to the present condition of companies can be determined. PMID:25379325

  3. The Perception, Level of Safety Satisfaction and Safety Feedback on Occupational Safety and Health Management among Hospital Staff Nurses in Sabah State Health Department

    PubMed Central

    Cheah, Whye Lian; Giloi, Nelbon; Chang, Ching Thon; Lim, Jac Fang

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine the perception and level of safety satisfaction of staff nurses with regards to Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) management practice in the Sabah Health Department, and to associate the OSH management dimensions, to Safety Satisfaction and Safety Feedback. Methods: A cross-sectional study using a validated self-administered questionnaire was conducted among randomly respondents. Results: 135 nurses responded the survey. Mean (SD) score for each dimension ranged from 1.70 ± 0.68–4.04 ± 0.65, with Training and Competence dimension (mean [SD], 4.04 ± 0.65) had the highest while Safety Incidence was the least score (mean [SD], 1.70 ± 0.68). Both mean (SD) scores for Safety Satisfaction and Safety Feedback was high, 3.28 ± 0.51 and 3.57 ± 0.73, respectively. Pearson’s correlation analysis indicated that all OSH dimensions had significant correlation with Safety Satisfaction and Safety Feedback (r coefficient ranged from 0.176–0.512) except for Safety Incidence. Conclusion: The overall perception of OSH management was rather low. Significant correlation between Safety Satisfaction and Safety Feedback and several dimensions, suggest that each organization to put in place the leaders who have appropriate leadership and supervisory skills and committed in providing staff training to improve staff’s competency in OSH practice. In addition, clear goals, rules, and reporting system will help the organization to implement proper OSH management practice. PMID:23610550

  4. An Integrated Intervention for Increasing Clinical Nurses' Knowledge of HIV/AIDS-Related Occupational Safety.

    PubMed

    He, Liping; Lu, Zhiyan; Huang, Jing; Zhou, Yiping; Huang, Jian; Bi, Yongyi; Li, Jun

    2016-11-07

    Background: Approximately 35 new HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV) cases and at least 1000 serious infections are transmitted annually to health care workers. In China, HIV prevalence is increasing and nursing personnel are encountering these individuals more than in the past. Contaminated needle-stick injuries represent a significant occupational burden for nurses. Evidence suggests that nurses in China may not fully understand HIV/AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS) and HIV-related occupational safety. At this time, universal protection precautions are not strictly implemented in Chinese hospitals. Lack of training may place nurses at risk for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of integrated interventions on nurses' knowledge improvement about reducing the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection. Methods: We audited integrated interventions using 300 questionnaires collected from nurses at the Affiliated Hospital of Xiangnan University, a public polyclinic in Hunan Province. The intervention studied was multifaceted and included appropriate and targeted training content for hospital, department and individual levels. After three months of occupational safety integrated interventions, 234 participants who completed the program were assessed. Results: Of the subjects studied, 94.3% (283/300) were injured one or more times by medical sharp instruments or splashed by body fluids in the last year and 95.3% considered their risk of occupational exposure high or very high. After the intervention, awareness of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge improved significantly (χ² = 86.34, p = 0.00), and correct answers increased from 67.9% to 82.34%. Correct answers regarding risk perception were significantly different between pre-test (54.4%) and post-test (66.6%) (χ² = 73.2, p = 0.00). When coming into contact with patient body fluids and blood only 24.0% of subjects used gloves regularly. The pre

  5. Developing legally defensible physiological employment standards for prominent physically demanding public safety occupations: a Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Jamnik, V; Gumienak, R; Gledhill, N

    2013-10-01

    Canadian court decisions and human rights legislation impose strict legal criteria for developing applicant and incumbent physiological employment standards to qualify as a bona fide occupational requirement. These legal criteria compel researchers and employers to ensure that the standards are criterion-based and validly linked to the critical life threatening physically demanding tasks of the occupation, and this has led to the establishment of a systematic research process template to ensure this connection. Validation of job-related physiological employment standards is achieved using both construct and content procedures and reliability is established via test-retest procedures. The 1999 Supreme Court of Canada Meiorin Decision also obliges employers to demonstrate that it is impossible to accommodate an individual applicant or employee who is adversely impacted by lowering the physiological employment standards without imposing undue hardship on the employer. Recent evidence has demonstrated convincingly that familiarization opportunities, motivational feedback/coaching during test performance, and participation in a 6-week job-specific physical fitness training program can overcome the adverse impact of a physiological employment standards on a sub-group of participants, thereby providing "de facto" accommodation. In this article, the authors review the physiological employment standards for prominent Canadian physically demanding public safety occupations; police, correctional officers, nuclear emergency personnel, structural fire fighters, and wildland fire fighters, to illustrate the steps, challenges, and solutions involved in developing and implementing physiological employment standards designed to meet the requirements to qualify as a bona fide occupational requirement.

  6. Climate change and occupational safety and health: establishing a preliminary framework.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Paul A; Chun, HeeKyoung

    2009-09-01

    The relationship between global climate change and occupational safety and health has not been extensively characterized. To begin such an effort, it may be useful to develop a framework for identifying how climate change could affect the workplace; workers; and occupational morbidity, mortality, and injury. This article develops such a framework based on a review of the published scientific literature from 1988-2008 that includes climatic effects, their interaction with occupational hazards, and their manifestation in the working population. Seven categories of climate-related hazards are identified: (1) increased ambient temperature, (2) air pollution, (3) ultraviolet exposure, (4) extreme weather, (5) vector-borne diseases and expanded habitats, (6) industrial transitions and emerging industries; and (7) changes in the built environment. This review indicates that while climate change may result in increasing the prevalence, distribution, and severity of known occupational hazards, there is no evidence of unique or previously unknown hazards. However, such a possibility should not be excluded, since there is potential for interactions of known hazards and new conditions leading to new hazards and risks.

  7. Application of a model for delivering occupational safety and health to smaller businesses: Case studies from the US

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Thomas R.; Sinclair, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Smaller firms are the majority in every industry in the US, and they endure a greater burden of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities than larger firms. Smaller firms often lack the necessary resources for effective occupational safety and health activities, and many require external assistance with safety and health programming. Based on previous work by researchers in Europe and New Zealand, NIOSH researchers developed for occupational safety and health intervention in small businesses. This model was evaluated with several intermediary organizations. Four case studies which describe efforts to reach small businesses with occupational safety and health assistance include the following: trenching safety training for construction, basic compliance and hazard recognition for general industry, expanded safety and health training for restaurants, and fall prevention and respirator training for boat repair contractors. Successful efforts included participation by the initiator among the intermediaries’ planning activities, alignment of small business needs with intermediary offerings, continued monitoring of intermediary activities by the initiator, and strong leadership for occupational safety and health among intermediaries. Common challenges were a lack of resources among intermediaries, lack of opportunities for in-person meetings between intermediaries and the initiator, and balancing the exchanges in the initiator–intermediary–small business relationships. The model offers some encouragement that initiator organizations can contribute to sustainable OSH assistance for small firms, but they must depend on intermediaries who have compatible interests in smaller businesses and they must work to understand the small business social system. PMID:26300585

  8. Application of a model for delivering occupational safety and health to smaller businesses: Case studies from the US.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Thomas R; Sinclair, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Smaller firms are the majority in every industry in the US, and they endure a greater burden of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities than larger firms. Smaller firms often lack the necessary resources for effective occupational safety and health activities, and many require external assistance with safety and health programming. Based on previous work by researchers in Europe and New Zealand, NIOSH researchers developed for occupational safety and health intervention in small businesses. This model was evaluated with several intermediary organizations. Four case studies which describe efforts to reach small businesses with occupational safety and health assistance include the following: trenching safety training for construction, basic compliance and hazard recognition for general industry, expanded safety and health training for restaurants, and fall prevention and respirator training for boat repair contractors. Successful efforts included participation by the initiator among the intermediaries' planning activities, alignment of small business needs with intermediary offerings, continued monitoring of intermediary activities by the initiator, and strong leadership for occupational safety and health among intermediaries. Common challenges were a lack of resources among intermediaries, lack of opportunities for in-person meetings between intermediaries and the initiator, and balancing the exchanges in the initiator-intermediary-small business relationships. The model offers some encouragement that initiator organizations can contribute to sustainable OSH assistance for small firms, but they must depend on intermediaries who have compatible interests in smaller businesses and they must work to understand the small business social system.

  9. Occupational health and safety: Designing and building with MACBETH a value risk-matrix for evaluating health and safety risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, D. F.; Oliveira, M. D.; Costa, C. A. Bana e.

    2015-05-01

    Risk matrices (RMs) are commonly used to evaluate health and safety risks. Nonetheless, they violate some theoretical principles that compromise their feasibility and use. This study describes how multiple criteria decision analysis methods have been used to improve the design and the deployment of RMs to evaluate health and safety risks at the Occupational Health and Safety Unit (OHSU) of the Regional Health Administration of Lisbon and Tagus Valley. ‘Value risk-matrices’ (VRMs) are built with the MACBETH approach in four modelling steps: a) structuring risk impacts, involving the construction of descriptors of impact that link risk events with health impacts and are informed by scientific evidence; b) generating a value measurement scale of risk impacts, by applying the MACBETH-Choquet procedure; c) building a system for eliciting subjective probabilities that makes use of a numerical probability scale that was constructed with MACBETH qualitative judgments on likelihood; d) and defining a classification colouring scheme for the VRM. A VRM built with OHSU members was implemented in a decision support system which will be used by OHSU members to evaluate health and safety risks and to identify risk mitigation actions.

  10. Extending Occupational Health and Safety to Urban Street Vendors: Reflections From a Project in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Alfers, Laura; Xulu, Phumzile; Dobson, Richard; Hariparsad, Sujatha

    2016-08-01

    This article focuses on an action-research project which is attempting to extend occupational health and safety to a group of street traders in Durban, South Africa, using a variety of different (and sometimes unconventional) institutional actors. The article is written from the perspective of key people who have played a role in conceptualizing and administering the project and is intended to deepen the conversation about what it means to extend occupational health to the informal economy. It explores this question through a reflection on three key project activities: the setting up of a trader-led health and safety committee, an occupational health and safety training course, and a clinical health assessment. It concludes with a discussion of the issues that emerge from the reflections of project participants, which include the need to bring occupational health and urban health into closer conversation with one another, the need to be cognizant of local "informal" politics and the impact that has on occupational health and safety interventions, and the need to create greater opportunities for occupational health and safety professionals to interact with workers in the informal economy.

  11. Waste collection in developing countries--tackling occupational safety and health hazards at their source.

    PubMed

    Bleck, Daniela; Wettberg, Wieland

    2012-11-01

    Waste management procedures in developing countries are associated with occupational safety and health risks. Gastro-intestinal infections, respiratory and skin diseases as well as muscular-skeletal problems and cutting injuries are commonly found among waste workers around the globe. In order to find efficient, sustainable solutions to reduce occupational risks of waste workers, a methodological risk assessment has to be performed and counteractive measures have to be developed according to an internationally acknowledged hierarchy. From a case study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia suggestions for the transferral of collected household waste into roadside containers are given. With construction of ramps to dump collected household waste straight into roadside containers and an adaptation of pushcarts and collection procedures, the risk is tackled at the source.

  12. Using lagging and leading indicators for the evaluation of occupational safety and health performance in industry.

    PubMed

    Pawłowska, Zofia

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of occupational safety and health (OSH) management is closely related to the development of OSH performance measurement, which should include OSH outcomes (e.g., occupational accidents), OSH inputs (including working conditions) and OSH-related activities. The indicators used to measure the OSH outcomes are often called lagging indicators, and the indicators of inputs and OSH activities are leading indicators. A study was conducted in 60 companies in order to determine what kinds of indicators were used for OSH performance measurement by companies with different levels of OSH performance. The results reveal that the indicators most commonly used in all of the companies are those related to ensuring compliance with the statutory requirements. At the same time, the leading indicators are much more often adopted in companies with a higher performance level. These companies also much more often monitor on a regular basis the indicators adopted for the evaluation of their OSH performance.

  13. Waste collection in developing countries - Tackling occupational safety and health hazards at their source

    SciTech Connect

    Bleck, Daniela; Wettberg, Wieland

    2012-11-15

    Waste management procedures in developing countries are associated with occupational safety and health risks. Gastro-intestinal infections, respiratory and skin diseases as well as muscular-skeletal problems and cutting injuries are commonly found among waste workers around the globe. In order to find efficient, sustainable solutions to reduce occupational risks of waste workers, a methodological risk assessment has to be performed and counteractive measures have to be developed according to an internationally acknowledged hierarchy. From a case study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia suggestions for the transferral of collected household waste into roadside containers are given. With construction of ramps to dump collected household waste straight into roadside containers and an adaptation of pushcarts and collection procedures, the risk is tackled at the source.

  14. Quantifying the costs and benefits of occupational health and safety interventions at a Bangladesh shipbuilding company

    PubMed Central

    Thiede, Irene; Thiede, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study is the first cost–benefit analysis (CBA) of occupational health and safety (OHS) in a low-income country. It focuses on one of the largest shipbuilding companies in Bangladesh, where globally recognised Occupational Health and Safety Advisory Services (OHSAS) 18001 certification was achieved in 2012. Objectives: The study examines the relative costs of implementing OHS measures against qualitative and quantifiable benefits of implementation in order to determine whether OHSAS measures are economically advantageous. Methods: Quantifying past costs and benefits and discounting future ones, this study looks at the returns of OHS measures at Western Marine Shipbuilding Company Ltd. Results: Costs included investments in workplace and environmental safety, a new clinic that also serves the community, and personal protective equipment (PPE) and training. The results are impressive: previously high injury statistics dropped to close to zero. Conclusions: OHS measures decrease injuries, increase efficiency, and bring income security to workers’ families. Certification has proven a competitive edge for the shipyard, resulting in access to greater markets. Intangible benefits such as trust, motivation and security are deemed crucial in the CBA, and this study finds the high investments made are difficult to offset with quantifiable benefits alone. PMID:25589369

  15. SiO2 aerosol nanoparticle reactor for occupational health and safety studies.

    PubMed

    Ostraat, Michele L; Swain, Keith A; Krajewski, James J

    2008-06-01

    Important questions are emerging about potential occupational safety, toxicological, and ecotoxicological effects and occupational inhalation exposure risks to engineered aerosol nanoparticles. Although multiple avenues are available to synthesize nanoparticles, few tools are accessible to industrial hygienists and inhalation toxicologists to produce well-characterized aerosols of known aerosol size distribution and particle number concentration that are stable, simple, and robust to operate. This article describes a SiO(2) aerosol nanoparticle reactor that has been developed as a tool for the study of the safety, health, and environmental consequences of exposure to nanoparticle synthesis and processing. The SiO(2) aerosol nanoparticle reactor is capable of stable, long-term synthesis of amorphous SiO(2) aerosol nanoparticles from d(50) = 10-70 nm at particle concentrations approximately 10(4)-10(7)particles/cm(3) that does not produce halogen-containing byproducts and does not require daily monitoring of the particle size distribution. This reactor is designed to produce a well-characterized aerosol to enable subsequent testing with a continuous, stable supply of aerosol nanoparticles (i) to facilitate inhalation toxicology studies, (ii) to measure explosion characteristics of aerosol nanoparticles, (iii) to determine the barrier efficacy for respirator filtration, bag house exhaust, and personal protective garment media challenged with diverse aerosol nanoparticles, and (iv) to develop airborne monitoring technologies for verifying workplace safety protocols. This article details reactor design, synthesis parameters, and instruments available to characterize the resulting aerosol nanoparticle size distributions.

  16. Assessment of occupational safety risks in Floridian solid waste systems using Bayesian analysis.

    PubMed

    Bastani, Mehrad; Celik, Nurcin

    2015-10-01

    Safety risks embedded within solid waste management systems continue to be a significant issue and are prevalent at every step in the solid waste management process. To recognise and address these occupational hazards, it is necessary to discover the potential safety concerns that cause them, as well as their direct and/or indirect impacts on the different types of solid waste workers. In this research, our goal is to statistically assess occupational safety risks to solid waste workers in the state of Florida. Here, we first review the related standard industrial codes to major solid waste management methods including recycling, incineration, landfilling, and composting. Then, a quantitative assessment of major risks is conducted based on the data collected using a Bayesian data analysis and predictive methods. The risks estimated in this study for the period of 2005-2012 are then compared with historical statistics (1993-1997) from previous assessment studies. The results have shown that the injury rates among refuse collectors in both musculoskeletal and dermal injuries have decreased from 88 and 15 to 16 and three injuries per 1000 workers, respectively. However, a contrasting trend is observed for the injury rates among recycling workers, for whom musculoskeletal and dermal injuries have increased from 13 and four injuries to 14 and six injuries per 1000 workers, respectively. Lastly, a linear regression model has been proposed to identify major elements of the high number of musculoskeletal and dermal injuries.

  17. 75 FR 12554 - Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory Committee, National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory..., mine illumination research, mine escape and rescue, human factors research, coal dust particle size... 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  18. Occupational Safety and Health Administration--Access to employee exposure and medical records. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1980-05-23

    This final occupational safety and health standard, promulgated today as a revised 29 CFR 1910.20, provides for employee, designated representative, and OSHA access to employer-maintained exposure and medical records relevant to employees exposed to toxic substances and harmful physical agents. Access is also assured to employer analyses using exposure and medical records. The final standard requires long term preservation of these records, contains provisions concerning informing employees of their rights under the standard, and includes provisions protective of trade secret information.

  19. Complying with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration: guidelines for the dental office.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Ricardo; Mull, Justin

    2008-07-01

    This article outlines Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) guidelines for maintaining a safe dental practice workplace and covers requirements, such as education and protection for dental health care personnel. OSHA regulations aim to reduce exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Environmental infection control in dental offices and operatories is the goal of enforcement of OSHA codes of practice. Universal precautions reduce the risk for infectious disease. OSHA has a mandate to protect workers in the United States from potential workplace injuries. OSHA standards are available through online and print publications and owners of dental practices must meet OSHA standards for the workplace.

  20. 'Sometimes your safety goes a bit by the wayside' … exploring occupational health and safety (OHS) with student nurses.

    PubMed

    Boucaut, Rose; Cusack, Lynette

    2016-09-01

    Because nursing is a high risk profession in terms of occupational health and safety (OHS), the topic of OHS is an important component of student nurse education and practice. Seeking ways to enhance curricular content and foster student health, safety and wellbeing is an ongoing pursuit. This pilot study explored nursing student perspectives about OHS in the clinical setting to develop an understanding of student views that could enlighten teaching about this topic within the undergraduate nursing course. Focus groups were held with pre-registration student nurses in two discrete cohort levels (first and third year). Themes were identified from the focus group discussion about trust, knowledge and responsibility. The students demonstrated a sound grasp of clinical hazards and associated administrative controls. Strengthening student awareness of higher order controls and their evaluation would augment their knowledge of legislative requirements. Students may benefit from learning about a risk management approach to OHS which would provide them with a structured basis for problem solving. This may assist them with clinical reasoning about health and safety issues and empower them in aspects of self-care.

  1. Evaluation of S-101 courses Orientation to Occupational Safety Compliance in DOE''

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T S

    1992-02-01

    This section summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety Training Section course, Supervisors' Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE,'' (S-101) which was conducted August 5 to 8, 1991 at Hanford, in Richland, Washington. This report summarizes the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Appendix A provides a transcript of the trainees' written comments. Numeric course ratings were generally positive and show that the course material and instruction were very effective. Written comments supported the positive numeric ratings. The course content and knowledge gained by the trainees exceeded most of the students' expectations of the course. Results from the final examination showed that students gained significant knowledge from the course.

  2. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH IN DISASTER RESTORATION ACTIVITY AFTER SOME MAJOR EARTHQUAKES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyosawa, Yasuo; Itoh, Kazuya; Kikkawa, Naotaka

    Occupational safety and health in disaster restoration activity following the Great Hanshin Earthquake (1995), Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake (2004), Niigata Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (2007) Great East Japan Earthquake (2011) were analyzed and characterized in order to raise awareness on the risks and hazards in such work. In this scenario, the predominant type of accident is a "fall" which increases mainly due to the fact that labourers are working to repair houses and buildings. On the other hand, landslides were prevalent in the Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake, resulting in more accidents occurring during geotechnical works rather than in buildings construction works. In the abnormal conditions that characterize recovery activities, when safety and health measures have a tendency to be neglected, it is important to reinstate adequate measures as soon as possible by carrying out the usial risk assessments.

  3. Occupational safety and health in the USA: now and the future.

    PubMed

    Howard, John; Hearl, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In the USA, national worker protection legislation was enacted in 1970. The legislation required that research, recommendations and guidance be developed to aid employers and workers, that workplace health and safety standards be adopted, that employer comply with those rules and that the government police employer compliance, and that assistance be offered to employers and workers to help them maintain a safe and healthful workplace. In the 40 yr since passage of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, worker injury, illness and fatalities have declined but not been eliminated. Efforts to accelerate the standards adoption process are much discussed in the USA along with how to protect workers from emerging hazards like nanotechnology. New strategies which seek to eliminate not only the causes of work-related injury and illness, but also more broadly, worker injury and illness, are on the horizon.

  4. Chainat: a case study in occupational health and safety promotion for farmers.

    PubMed

    Arphorn, Sara; Brooks, Richard; Permsirivanich, Panupun

    2006-01-01

    The high rates of occupationally related injuries, accidents, and deaths in rural Thailand are of particular concern to public health officials, as well as the residents and workers living in these areas. In response to specific concerns raised by local residents and local health officials in Chainat Province, Thailand, the Work Improvement in Neighborhood Development (WIND) programme was introduced and implemented by means of the local Primary Care Unit (PCU). The objective was to improve farmers' knowledge of methods to improve occupational safety and to reduce the occurrence of occupationally related injuries, accidents, and deaths in the area. Local farmers, public health officers, and health volunteers from the PCU played a primary role in the programme, serving as trainers in the initial training of trainer session. Major activities included visiting a local farm to carry out a check-list improvement activity and active discussion among participants about potential improvements. Following the implementation of WIND in Chainat, a number of significant improvements in work conditions were noted, including construction of resting corners, plans to build toilets in the fields, improved knowledge about the dangers of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and increased use of personal protective equipment. Furthermore, participants began making organic fertilizer and had independently developed an organic anti-snail pesticide. This integrative approach, achieved by including many different members of the community, in combination with government support and diligent follow-up, has proved to be particularly successful.

  5. The Influence Paths of Emotion on the Occupational Safety of Rescuers Involved in Environmental Emergencies- Systematic Review Article.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jintao; Yang, Naiding; Ye, Jinfu; Wu, Haoran

    2014-11-01

    A detailed study and analysis of previous research has been carried out to illustrate the relationships between a range of environmental emergencies, and their effects on the emotional state of the rescuers involved in responding to them, by employing Pub Med, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, CNKI and Scopus for required information with the several keywords "emergency rescue", "occupational safety", "natural disaster", "emotional management". The effect of the rescuers' emotion on their occupational safety and immediate and long-term emotional behavior is then considered. From these considerations, we suggested four research propositions related to the emotional effects at both individual and group levels, and to the responsibilities of emergency response agencies in respect of ensuring the psychological and physical occupational safety of rescuers during and after environmental emergencies. An analysis framework is proposed which could be used to study the influence paths of these different aspects of emotional impact on a range of occupational safety issues for rescue workers. The authors believe that the conclusions drawn in this paper can provide a useful theoretical reference for decision-making related to the management and protection of the occupational safety of rescuers responding to natural disasters and environmental emergencies.

  6. Occupational safety and health in construction: a review of applications and trends.

    PubMed

    Suárez Sánchez, Fabián Alberto; Carvajal Peláez, Gloria Isabel; Catalá Alís, Joaquín

    2017-02-07

    Due to the high number of accidents that occur in construction and the consequences this has for workers, organizations, society and countries, occupational safety and health (OSH) has become a very important issue for stakeholders to take care of the human resource. For this reason, and in order to know how OSH research in the construction sector has evolved over time, this article - in which articles published in English were studied - presents an analysis of research conducted from 1930 to 2016. The classification of documents was carried out following the Occupational Safety and Health Cycle which is composed of five steps: regulation, education and training, risk assessment, risk prevention, and accident analysis. With the help of tree diagrams we show that evolution takes place. In addition, risk assessment, risk prevention, and accident analysis were the research topics with the highest number of papers. The main objective of the study was to contribute to knowledge of the subject, showing trends through an exploratory study that may serve as a starting point for further research.

  7. Occupational health and safety status of indigenous and Latino farmworkers in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, S A; Goff, N M; Shadbeh, N; Samples, J; Ventura, S; Sanchez, V; Rao, P; Davis, S

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to pesticides poses great risk to agricultural workers and their families. Of the approximately 174,000 agricultural workers in Oregon, studies estimate that up to 40% of the workers in Oregon are indigenous and may be particularly vulnerable to the health risks of working in pesticide treated areas. Surveys conducted with Oregon farmworkers suggest that Latino and indigenous farmworkers differ demographically and may have diverse occupational and health needs. All Latino workers reported Spanish as their native language, while indigenous workers spoke several different native languages. Latino workers were employed mostly in orchards (28%) and nurseries (24%), while indigenous workers were mostly pickers (40%). Indigenous farmworkers reported less frequent suitable occupational safety training, and potentially less knowledge of the health consequences of pesticides. Addressing the barriers to obtaining pesticide health and safety information is of primary importance, given the changing demographics of farmworkers in Oregon. This article concludes with a discussion of these findings and the programmatic activities that have been implemented in Oregon to improve farmworkers' understanding of hazards and rights associated with agricultural work.

  8. 42 CFR 86.38 - Accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accountability. 86.38 Section 86.38 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH... Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.38 Accountability. Accountability for payments will be...

  9. Organized labor and the origins of the Occupational Safety and Health Act.

    PubMed

    Asher, Robert

    2014-11-01

    New Solutions is republishing this 1991 article by Robert Asher, which reviews the history of organized labor's efforts in the United States to secure health and safety protections for workers. The 1877 passage of the Massachusetts factory inspection law and the implementation of primitive industrial safety inspection systems in many states paralleled labor action for improved measures to protect workers' health and safety. In the early 1900s labor was focusing on workers' compensation laws. The New Deal expanded the federal government's role in worker protection, supported at least by the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), but challenged by industry and many members of the U.S. Congress. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the CIO backed opposing legal and inspection strategies in the late 1940s and through the 1950s. Still, by the late 1960s, several unions were able to help craft the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and secure new federal protections for U.S. workers.

  10. Occupational Hazards and Safety Measures Amongst the Paint Factory Workers in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Popoola, Temidayo D.; Ogbudu, Bawo S.; Akinyede, Akin; Coker, Herbert A.B.; Akintonwa, Alade

    2014-01-01

    Background The manufacture of paint involves a variety of processes that present with medical hazards. Safety initiatives are hence introduced to limit hazard exposures and promote workplace safety. This aim of this study is to assess the use of available control measures/initiatives in selected paint factories in Lagos West Senatorial District, Nigeria. Methods A total of 400 randomly selected paint factory workers were involved in the study. A well-structured World Health Organization standard questionnaire was designed and distributed to the workers to elicit information on awareness to occupational hazards, use of personal protective devices, and commonly experienced adverse symptoms. Urine samples were obtained from 50 workers randomly selected from these 400 participants, and the concentrations of the heavy metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium) were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results The results show that 72.5% of the respondents are aware of the hazards associated with their jobs; 30% have had formal training on hazards and safety measures; 40% do not use personal protective devices, and 90% of the respondents reported symptoms relating to hazard exposure. There was a statistically significant (p < 0.05) increase in the mean heavy metal concentrations in the urine samples obtained from paint factory workers as compared with nonfactory workers. Conclusion The need to develop effective frameworks that will initiate the integration and ensure implementation of safety regulations in paint factories is evident. Where these exist, there is a need to promote adherence to these practice guidelines. PMID:25180142

  11. Accounting for false-positive acoustic detections of bats using occupancy models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clement, Matthew J.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ormsbee, Patricia C.; Szewczak, Joseph M.; Nichols, James D.

    2014-01-01

    4. Synthesis and applications. Our results suggest that false positives sufficient to affect inferences may be common in acoustic surveys for bats. We demonstrate an approach that can estimate occupancy, regardless of the false-positive rate, when acoustic surveys are paired with capture surveys. Applications of this approach include monitoring the spread of White-Nose Syndrome, estimating the impact of climate change and informing conservation listing decisions. We calculate a site-specific probability of occupancy, conditional on survey results, which could inform local permitting decisions, such as for wind energy projects. More generally, the magnitude of false positives suggests that false-positive occupancy models can improve accuracy in research and monitoring of bats and provide wildlife managers with more reliable information.

  12. Workers' active involvement in the improvement of occupational safety and health in a textile enterprise--a case study.

    PubMed

    Milczarek, Małgorzata; Szczecińska, Katarzyna

    2006-01-01

    Part of the Polish-Swedish OSHMAN project was carried out in a textile company. It aimed at implementing and improving effective health and safety management with workers' active involvement at all levels of the enterprise. The two main problems to be solved during the project were decreasing occupational risk and improving workers' poor knowledge on occupational risk. Training courses, workshops and practical activities were undertaken. As expected, there were changes in work organisation and improvement in the way workstations were looked after, which led to a decrease in occupational risk. Workers were highly committed during the project. Nevertheless it seems that more training should be directed at middle management.

  13. Accounting and Related Occupations Module. Achieving Sex Equity in Business and Office Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sara L.; Mayhew, Carol O.

    The Vocational Education Amendments of 1976 mandate that sex bias and sex stereotyping be eliminated from all vocational education programs. In business and office occupations programs, the problems have been centered around increasing the number of male students in the program, encouraging women to move into management positions and other upper…

  14. The Influence Paths of Emotion on the Occupational Safety of Rescuers Involved in Environmental Emergencies- Systematic Review Article

    PubMed Central

    LU, Jintao; YANG, Naiding; YE, Jinfu; WU, Haoran

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A detailed study and analysis of previous research has been carried out to illustrate the relationships between a range of environmental emergencies, and their effects on the emotional state of the rescuers involved in responding to them, by employing Pub Med, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, CNKI and Scopus for required information with the several keywords “emergency rescue”, “occupational safety”, “natural disaster”, “emotional management”. The effect of the rescuers’ emotion on their occupational safety and immediate and long-term emotional behavior is then considered. From these considerations, we suggested four research propositions related to the emotional effects at both individual and group levels, and to the responsibilities of emergency response agencies in respect of ensuring the psychological and physical occupational safety of rescuers during and after environmental emergencies. An analysis framework is proposed which could be used to study the influence paths of these different aspects of emotional impact on a range of occupational safety issues for rescue workers. The authors believe that the conclusions drawn in this paper can provide a useful theoretical reference for decision-making related to the management and protection of the occupational safety of rescuers responding to natural disasters and environmental emergencies. PMID:26060714

  15. Strategy for Coordinated EPA/Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Implementation of the Chemical Accident Prevention Requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) share responsibility for prevention: OSHA has the Process Safety Management Standard to protect workers, and EPA the Risk Management Program to protect the general public and environment.

  16. Developing a Comprehensive Animal Care Occupational Health and Safety Program at a Land-Grant Institution.

    PubMed

    Goodly, Lyndon J; Jarrell, Vickie L; Miller, Monica A; Banks, Maureen C; Anderson, Thomas J; Branson, Katherine A; Woodward, Robert T; Peper, Randall L; Myers, Sara J

    2016-01-01

    The Public Health Service Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and sound ethical practices require institutions to provide safe working environments for personnel working with animals; this mandate is achieved in part by establishing an effective animal care Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP). Land-grant institutions often face unique organizational challenges in fulfilling this requirement. For example, responsibilities for providing health and safety programs often have historically been dispersed among many different divisions scattered around the campus. Here we describe how our institutional management personnel overcame organizational structure and cultural obstacles during the formation of a comprehensive campus-wide animal care OHSP. Steps toward establishing the animal care OHSP included assigning overall responsibility, identifying all stakeholders, creating a leadership group, and hiring a fulltime Animal Care OHSP Specialist. A web-based portal was developed, implemented, and refined over the past 7 y and reflected the unique organizational structures of the university and the needs of our research community. Through this web-based portal, hazards are identified, risks are assessed, and training is provided. The animal care OHSP now provides easy mandatory enrollment, supports timely feedback regarding hazards, and affords enrollees the opportunity to participate in voluntary medical surveillance. The future direction and development of the animal care OHSP will be based on the research trends of campus, identification of emerging health and safety hazards, and ongoing evaluation and refinement of the program.

  17. Analysis of third-party certification approaches using an occupational health and safety conformity-assessment model.

    PubMed

    Redinger, C F; Levine, S P

    1998-11-01

    The occupational health and safety conformity-assessment model presented in this article was developed (1) to analyze 22 public and private programs to determine the extent to which these programs use third parties in conformity-assessment determinations, and (2) to establish a framework to guide future policy developments related to the use of third parties in occupational health and safety conformity-assessment activities. The units of analysis for this study included select Occupational Safety and Health Administration programs and standards, International Organization for Standardization-based standards and guidelines, and standards and guidelines developed by nongovernmental bodies. The model is based on a 15-cell matrix that categorizes first-, second-, and third-party activities in terms of assessment, accreditation, and accreditation-recognition activities. The third-party component of the model has three categories: industrial hygiene/safety testing and sampling; product, equipment, and laboratory certification; and, occupational health and safety management system registration/certification. Using the model, 16 of the 22 programs were found to have a third-party component in their conformity-assessment structure. The analysis revealed that (1) the model provides a useful means to describe and analyze various third-party approaches, (2) the model needs modification to capture aspects of traditional governmental conformity-assessment/enforcement activities, and (3) several existing third-party conformity-assessment systems offer robust models that can guide future third-party policy formulation and implementation activities.

  18. Application of a screening method in assessing occupational safety and health of computer workstations.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Toivo; Lehtelä, Jouni; Länsikallio, Riina

    2014-01-01

    Employers and workers need concrete guidance to plan and implement changes in the ergonomics of computer workstations. The Näppärä method is a screening tool for identifying problems requiring further assessment and corrective actions. The aim of this study was to assess the work of occupational safety and health (OSH) government inspectors who used Näppärä as part of their OSH enforcement inspections (430 assessments) related to computer work. The modifications in workstation ergonomics involved mainly adjustments to the screen, mouse, keyboard, forearm supports, and chair. One output of the assessment is an index indicating the percentage of compliance items. This method can be considered as exposure assessment and ergonomics intervention used as a benchmark for the level of ergonomics. Future research can examine whether the effectiveness of participatory ergonomics interventions should be investigated with Näppärä.

  19. Promoting occupational safety and health for working children through microfinance programming.

    PubMed

    Carothers, Richard; Breslin, Curtis; Denomy, Jennifer; Foad, Mamdouh

    2010-01-01

    Microfinance programs are recognized as a way of improving incomes and creating employment for large numbers of low-income families, but there are concerns that working conditions within these informal microenterprises are far from ideal. For example, when families receive loans to expand a microenterprise, children may make up the labor shortfall until the family can afford to hire adult workers. Through the Promoting and Protecting the Interests of Children who Work (PPIC-Work) project being carried out in Egypt, a set of interventions that can not only improve working conditions, but can also be integrated into standard microfinance programs has been developed. By working with and through self-financing microfinance programs, the PPIC-Work approach provides a way of improving occupational safety and health not only for children working in microenterprises but also for large numbers of children and adults working in the informal sector more generally.

  20. Assessment of Occupational Health and Safety for a Gas Meter Manufacturing Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkmaz, Ece; Iskender, Gulen; Germirli Babuna, Fatos

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates the occupational health and safety for a gas meter manufacturing plant. The risk assessment and management study is applied to plastic injection and mounting departments of the factory through quantitative Fine Kinney method and the effect of adopting 5S workplace organization procedure on risk assessment is examined. The risk assessment reveals that there are 17 risks involved; 14 grouped in high risk class (immediate improvement as required action); 2 in significant (measures to be taken as required action) and one in possible risk class (monitoring as required action). Among 14 high risks, 4 can be reduced by 83 % to be grouped under possible class when 5S is applied. One significant risk is observed to be lowered by 78 % and considered as possible risk due to the application of 5S. As a result of either 67 or 50 % reductions in 7 high risks, these risks are converted to be members of significant risk group after 5S implications.

  1. On the line: worker democracy and the struggle over occupational health and safety.

    PubMed

    Granzow, Kara; Theberge, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    In this article we present a qualitative analysis of worker involvement in a participatory project to improve occupational health and safety at a Canadian manufacturing site. Based on interviews with workers in the plant, we consider the manner and degree to which workers experienced meaningful participation in the intervention process and some of the main barriers to worker participation. Findings emphasize the importance of the social and political context in conditioning the dynamics of joint management labor ventures specifically in relation to health initiatives. Interviews revealed few instances in which workers felt included in the participatory initiative; most often they felt marginalized. In the absence of structural change in the plant, workers described the health initiative as seriously limited in its ability to render meaningful worker participation. These results extend beyond this analysis of a participatory workplace health initiative, offering insights into the dynamics of institutional participatory process, and into participatory research practice generally.

  2. Occupational safety and health as an element of a complex compensation system evaluation within an organization.

    PubMed

    Beck-Krala, Ewa; Klimkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    Occupational safety and health (OSH) plays a significant role in today's organizations, because it helps in attracting and retaining employees as well as molding their attitudes and behaviors at work. This is why the issue of OSH is stressed in a comprehensive approach to employee rewards: the total reward concept. This article explains how OSH may be included in a complex evaluation process of the compensation system. Although the literature on the effectiveness of employee compensation refers mainly to financial and non-financial components, there is a need for inclusion of working conditions in such analyses. An evaluation of the compensation system that incorporates OSH can drive many benefits for both the organization and employees. Obtaining such benefits, however, requires systematic evaluation of the reward system, including OSH. Incorporation of OSH issue within the comprehensive analysis of compensation systems promotes responsible behavior of all stakeholders.

  3. Occupational safety and health education under the lifelong learning framework in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Macuzic, Ivan; Giagloglou, Eva; Djapan, Marko; Todorovic, Petar; Jeremic, Branislav

    2016-12-01

    Serbia is aligning with European Union requirements and the occupational safety and health (OSH) administration is one of the most representative sectors of this alignment. Many efforts were made in this field, by introducing new laws and regulations, but it turned out to be insufficient. OSH professionals need to renovate and strengthen their knowledge in accordance with continuous, updated and improved OSH standards and regulation. Lifelong learning (LLL) programmes can contribute to forming professionals who are always up to date. This paper presents an implemented LLL programme, over the duration of two academic years, dedicated to OSH professionals, and investigates whether this programme will be helpful and accepted by professionals. The results from the study show that the given LLL programme had indeed a positive influence on the professional careers of the participants and that the LLL presents the future trend in OSH education.

  4. Investigation into qualitative discourses of the occupational safety and health inspectors in order to promote enforcement.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Toivo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to conduct an ex-post evaluation of the OSH Enforcement Act. The focus of the study was to collate the views of occupational safety and health (OSH) inspectors on how the OSH Enforcement Act and the practices of the governmental OSH inspectorate operate from an effectiveness perspective. The questionnaire included open questions addressed to OSH inspectors. The results indicated that there is a tension between the quantitative performance targets, e.g., the number of inspections and the effectiveness of the practical enforcement work. Harmonizing the enforcement practices should be implemented at two levels: OSH local agencies and individual inspectors. OSH inspectors believe that developing the professional skills of OSH inspectors and the monitoring of OSH management systems are important ways of promoting the effectiveness of OSH enforcement.

  5. Ergonomic work analysis as a tool of prevention for the occupational safety and health management system.

    PubMed

    de Miranda Prottes, Verônica; Oliveira, Nádia Cristina; de Oliveira Andrade, Alessandra Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the Ergonomic Work Analysis as a relevant instrument to identify the risks in occupational environments through the investigation of factors that influence the relationship between the worker and the productive process. It draws a parallel between the several aspects of risk identification in traditional tools of Health and Safety Management and the factors embraced by the Ergonomic Work Analysis, showing that the ergonomic methodology is able to go deeper in the scenarios of possible incident causes. This deepening enables the establishment of a relationship between the work context and the upcoming damage to the physical integrity of the worker. It acts as a complementary instrument in the traditional approach to the risk management. In order to explain the application of this methodology in a preventive way, it is presented a case study of a coal mill inspector in a siderurgic company.

  6. Pilot Testing an Intervention on Cultural Safety and Indigenous Health in a Canadian Occupational Therapy Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Margaret; Chen, Shu-Ping; Murphy, Susanne; Maracle, Laura; Mofina, Amanda; Hill, Janice

    2017-01-01

    First-year Canadian occupational therapy students (n=27) rated their knowledge of and cultural/emotional responses to cultural safety and Indigenous health prior to and following an educational intervention led by a trained Indigenous educator. At post-intervention, students were also asked to comment on their learning experience. Pilot data of 40% of the class were analyzed using nonparametric approaches proposed by Koller and colleagues; qualitative data were explored using conventional methods. The majority of participant ratings reflected a perceived increase in knowledge and cultural/emotional responses, indicative of positive change following intervention. Student comments about their learning were in keeping with the positive findings. Although our sample size was small and our study examined perceived knowledge acquisition, preliminary results were consistent with related literature.

  7. Development and Validation of Career Development Guidelines by Task/Activity Analysis of Occupational Safety and Health Professions: Industrial Hygiene and Safety Professional. Final Report. Technical Report XII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Ralph J.; And Others

    This report summarizes research findings which resulted in development of curricula for occupational safety and health professions based on task/activity analyses and related performance objectives. The first seven chapters focus on the seven objectives. Chapter 1, Literature Review and Selection of Employers, concerns tasks required for…

  8. A Model for Occupational Safety and Health Intervention Diffusion to Small Businesses

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Raymond C.; Cunningham, Thomas R.; Schulte, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Smaller businesses differ from their larger counterparts in having higher rates of occupational injuries and illnesses and fewer resources for preventing those losses. Intervention models developed outside the United States have addressed the resource deficiency issue by incorporating intermediary organizations such as trade associations. Methods This paper extends previous models by using exchange theory and by borrowing from the diffusion of innovations model. It emphasizes that occupational safety and health (OSH) organizations must understand as much about intermediary organizations as they do about small businesses. OSH organizations (“initiators”) must understand how to position interventions and information to intermediaries as added value to their relationships with small businesses. Examples from experiences in two midwestern states are used to illustrate relationships and types of analyses implied by the extended model. Results The study found that intermediary organizations were highly attuned to providing smaller businesses with what they want, including OSH services. The study also found that there are opinion leader organizations and individual champions within intermediaries who are key to decisions and actions about OSH programming. Conclusions The model places more responsibility on both initiators and intermediaries to develop and market interventions that will be valued in the competitive small business environment where the resources required to adopt each new business activity could always be used in other ways. The model is a candidate for empirical validation, and it offers some encouragement that the issue of sustainable OSH assistance to small businesses might be addressed. PMID:24115112

  9. Impact of software and hardware technologies on occupational health and safety policies in Saudi Arabian oil refineries.

    PubMed

    Idreis, Hany M; Siqueira, Carlos E; Levenstein, Charles C

    2006-01-01

    This article seeks to examine the impact of technology importation on occupational health and safety in both Saudi Arabian and U.S. oil refining industries. Technologies imported to the Saudi oil industry take two forms: hardware (sophisticated equipment to run oil facilities) and software (policies and regulations pertaining to workers' health and safety, and employment rights installed by Aramco's founding multinational companies). This study utilizes qualitative, historically oriented, cross-national case studies to compare and assess workers' health, safety, and rights in Saudi Aramco with its U.S. counterpart, Motiva Enterprises. Two facilities were chosen to conduct field research: the Saudi Aramco oil refinery at Jeddah and Motiva's refinery at Port Arthur, Texas. The Jeddah refinery is fully owned by Saudi Aramco, thus, representing Aramco's health and safety policies and regulations. The Port Arthur refinery serves as a reference case study for U.S. oil refining facilities. The aspects of occupational health and safety in Saudi Aramco--ExxonMobil's joint ventures SAMREF and LUBREF--also are discussed to examine workers' health policies in both companies. The American oil industry made a significant contribution in establishing the Saudi oil industry, with the cooperation of the Saudi government. Despite having outstanding employment benefits schemes in Saudi Aramco, the presence of an organized work force better serves employee participation in Motiva than in Aramco. Safety systems such as Process Safety Management (PSM)--applied in Motiva--partially exist in Aramco to operate hardware technologies safely. Motiva training systems are better through PACE's Triangle of Prevention (TOP). Both companies follow the same pattern of handling occupational injuries and diseases; however, Saudi government agencies (GOSI) are responsible for compensating and treating injured workers. Saudi workers expressed conditional support for the worker committee program

  10. Study of Occupational Safety and Health Audit on Facilities at Ungku Omar College, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM): A Preliminary Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariffin, Kadir; Ahmad, Shaharuddin; Aiyub, Kadaruddin; Awang, Azhan; Aziz, Azmi; Mohamad, Lukman Z.; Mamat, Samsu Adabi

    2010-01-01

    Occupational safety and health (OSH) in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) is being considered as an important program to measure employee and student welfare and well-being. During academic session, apart from attending lectures, laboratory works, tutorial and library search, majority of students spend most of their time in residential…

  11. China's laws, rights, and administrative structures in occupational safety and health: a comparison with the United States.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yinling; Xu, Lingzhong; Shao, Hua; Wang, He

    2014-11-01

    China has achieved rapid economic development, but faces tremendous challenges in occupational safety and health (OSH). We describe China's laws, rights, and administrative structures in OSH and in workers' compensation. The article compares these with comparable laws, rights, and administrative structures in the United States. We hope this comparison may provide useful lessons for continued OSH development and improvement in China.

  12. Doing It Old School: Peer-Led Occupational Safety Training in the U.S. Construction Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinyai, Clayton; Stafford, Pete; Trahan, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Many labour organizations that sponsor occupational health and safety training champion "peer training," preferring instructors drawn from the shopfloor over academically credentialed experts. But peer training is hardly new: in the skilled trades, master craftsmen have instructed apprentices since the Middle Ages. Building on the…

  13. Naval Sea Systems Command Occupational Safety and Health Record Keeping System. Hazardous Materials Control Module. Program Maintenance Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    terms and abbreviations are used in this manual: • CAS ( Chemical Abstract Service) Number: A unique identification number given to chemical substances...by the Chemical Abstract Service. * Code 106: The Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Office at the shipyard. " Document Number: The number used by

  14. Accidental discovery of asbestos-related occupational pleural disease in unemployed carpenter: a healthcare safety net that needs mending.

    PubMed

    Manfredo, Irena

    2015-09-01

    Unemployed persons are often on the margins of the healthcare system and under the radar of safety and health organisations, as no systematic records are kept of occupational diseases caused by exposure at previous work place. Law in Slovenia requires that asbestos-related occupational diseases are verified by establishing the causal relationship between exposure at work and its effect on the worker. This report describes a case of verifying occupational pleural disease in an unemployed carpenter who was referred for consultation with occupational health specialist as part of the regular procedure for the unemployed registered at the Employment Service of Slovenia. At the consultation it turned out that the carpenter had been exposed to asbestos when he worked as a teenage apprentice. The diagnosis of the bilateral pleural disease and asbestosis was confirmed by X-ray and high-resolution computed tomography. Because he had no record of exposure in that period, we analysed his past working environment for minerals and found chrysotile in all asbestos board samples. The case was presented to an interdisciplinary committee, which verified his disease as occupational. This case points to the need of adopting guidelines for occupational health specialists providing counsel to the national employment service so that the number of unrecorded occupational diseases is minimised and their treatment is covered by the state.

  15. Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids: new postexposure prophylaxis recommendations. United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Cuny, E; Carpenter, W M

    1998-04-01

    Dental health care professionals continue to suffer exposure incidents from instruments contaminated with blood and/or body fluids from patients. Each of these cases requires that a rigid protocol be followed for their evaluation. New information regarding the risk factors for HIV-seroconversion following an exposure incident have been identified. Recent data has demonstrated that a 79 percent reduction in disease transmission may be possible with a new combination drug therapy. The anti-retroviral drugs included in this new regimen are now standard in the management of occupational exposure to HIV. Several factors set dentistry apart from other health care occupations, and these differences appear to have an effect on the risks associated with occupational exposures. This article explores these risk factors and the new recommendations for postexposure care.

  16. Obtaining compliance with occupational health and safety regulations: a multilevel study using self-determination theory.

    PubMed

    Burstyn, Igor; Jonasi, Lorraine; Wild, T Cameron

    2010-08-01

    It was hypothesized that occupational health and safety (OHS) inspectors who prefer to use autonomy supportive tactics to resolve workplace conflicts (e.g. providing rationale, choices) would be more effective in resolving industry non-compliance with OHS regulations, compared to inspectors who prefer to use coercive tactics (e.g. deadlines, pressure). Preferences for resolving work conflicts were collected from 39 Canadian OHS inspectors and were linked to administrative records documenting 17,960 industry inspection episodes and 29,451 compliance orders issued by those inspectors from 2003-2006. Multilevel Poisson and negative binomial regression models examined associations between inspector autonomy-supportiveness and compliance outcomes, adjusting for covariates at the inspector level (e.g. job experience, number of inspection episodes) and at the worksite level (e.g. workplace safety record). Relative to coercive inspectors, autonomy-supportive inspectors issued fewer severe compliance orders and achieved compliance after fewer worksite visits. Use of autonomy-supportive approaches may reduce exposure to preventable injuries at non-compliant worksites.

  17. Occupational health and environment research 1983: Health, Safety, and Environment Division. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Voelz, G.L.

    1985-05-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environmental protection. These activities are designed to protect the workers, the public, and the environment. Evaluation of respiratory protective equipment included the XM-30 and M17A1 military masks, use of MAG-1 spectacles in respirators, and eight self-contained units. The latter units were used in an evaluation of test procedures used for Bureau of Mines approval of breathing apparatuses. Analyses of air samples from field studies of a modified in situ oil shale retorting facility were performed for total cyclohexane extractables and selected polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Aerosols generation and characterization of effluents from oil shale processing were continued as part of an inhalation toxicology study. Additional data on plutonium excretion in urine are presented and point up problems in using the Langham equation to predict plutonium deposition in the body from long-term excretion data. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1983 showed the highest estimated radiation dose from Laboratory operations to be about 26% of the natural background radiation dose. Several studies on radionuclides and their transport in the Los Alamos environment are described. The chemical quality of surface and ground water near the geothermal hot dry rock facility is described. Short- and long-term consequences to man from releases of radionuclides into the environment can be simulated by the BIOTRAN computer model, which is discussed brirfly.

  18. Taking stock of the occupational safety and health challenges of nanotechnology: 2000-2015.

    PubMed

    Schulte, P A; Roth, G; Hodson, L L; Murashov, V; Hoover, M D; Zumwalde, R; Kuempel, E D; Geraci, C L; Stefaniak, A B; Castranova, V; Howard, J

    2016-06-01

    Engineered nanomaterials significantly entered commerce at the beginning of the 21st century. Concerns about serious potential health effects of nanomaterials were widespread. Now, approximately 15 years later, it is worthwhile to take stock of research and efforts to protect nanomaterial workers from potential risks of adverse health effects. This article provides and examines timelines for major functional areas (toxicology, metrology, exposure assessment, engineering controls and personal protective equipment, risk assessment, risk management, medical surveillance, and epidemiology) to identify significant contributions to worker safety and health. The occupational safety and health field has responded effectively to identify gaps in knowledge and practice, but further research is warranted and is described. There is now a greater, if imperfect, understanding of the mechanisms underlying nanoparticle toxicology, hazards to workers, and appropriate controls for nanomaterials, but unified analytical standards and exposure characterization methods are still lacking. The development of control-banding and similar strategies has compensated for incomplete data on exposure and risk, but it is unknown how widely such approaches are being adopted. Although the importance of epidemiologic studies and medical surveillance is recognized, implementation has been slowed by logistical issues. Responsible development of nanotechnology requires protection of workers at all stages of the technological life cycle. In each of the functional areas assessed, progress has been made, but more is required.

  19. Taking stock of the occupational safety and health challenges of nanotechnology: 2000-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, P. A.; Roth, G.; Hodson, L. L.; Murashov, V.; Hoover, M. D.; Zumwalde, R.; Kuempel, E. D.; Geraci, C. L.; Stefaniak, A. B.; Castranova, V.; Howard, J.

    2016-06-01

    Engineered nanomaterials significantly entered commerce at the beginning of the 21st century. Concerns about serious potential health effects of nanomaterials were widespread. Now, approximately 15 years later, it is worthwhile to take stock of research and efforts to protect nanomaterial workers from potential risks of adverse health effects. This article provides and examines timelines for major functional areas (toxicology, metrology, exposure assessment, engineering controls and personal protective equipment, risk assessment, risk management, medical surveillance, and epidemiology) to identify significant contributions to worker safety and health. The occupational safety and health field has responded effectively to identify gaps in knowledge and practice, but further research is warranted and is described. There is now a greater, if imperfect, understanding of the mechanisms underlying nanoparticle toxicology, hazards to workers, and appropriate controls for nanomaterials, but unified analytical standards and exposure characterization methods are still lacking. The development of control-banding and similar strategies has compensated for incomplete data on exposure and risk, but it is unknown how widely such approaches are being adopted. Although the importance of epidemiologic studies and medical surveillance is recognized, implementation has been slowed by logistical issues. Responsible development of nanotechnology requires protection of workers at all stages of the technological life cycle. In each of the functional areas assessed, progress has been made, but more is required.

  20. Using in-depth investigations to identify transportation safety issues for wheelchair-seated occupants of motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Lawrence W; Klinich, Kathleen D; Moore, Jamie L; MacWilliams, Joel B

    2010-04-01

    In-depth investigations of motor-vehicle crashes involve detailed inspection, measurement, and photodocumentation of vehicle exterior and interior damage, evidence of belt-restraint use, and evidence of occupant contacts with the vehicle interior. Results of in-depth investigations thereby provide the most objective way to identify current and emerging injury problems and issues in occupant safety and crash protection, and provide important feedback on the real-world performance of the latest restraint-system and vehicle crashworthiness technologies. To provide an objective understanding of real-world transportation safety issues for wheelchair-seated travelers, the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) has been conducting and assembling data from in-depth investigations of motor-vehicle crashes and non-crash adverse moving-vehicle incidents, such as emergency vehicle braking, turning, and swerving, in which there was at least one vehicle occupant sitting in a wheelchair. The results of 39 investigations involving 42 wheelchair-seated occupants have been assembled and entered into a wheelchair-occupant crash/injury database. In addition, a biomechanical analysis of each case has been performed to identify key safety issues for wheelchair-seated travelers. The wheelchairs of 34 of the 42 occupants who were seated in wheelchairs while traveling in motor vehicles were effectively secured by either a four-point, strap-type tiedown system or a docking securement device, and all but one of these properly secured wheelchairs remained in place during the crash or non-collision event. However, 30 of the 42 occupants were improperly restrained, either because of non-use or incomplete use of available belt restraints, or because the belt restraints were improperly positioned on the occupant's body. Twenty-six of the 42 occupants sustained significant injuries and 10 of these occupants died as a direct result of injuries sustained, or from

  1. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Zytoon, Mohamed A; Basahel, Abdulrahman M

    2017-02-24

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels.

  2. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Zytoon, Mohamed A.; Basahel, Abdulrahman M.

    2017-01-01

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels. PMID:28245578

  3. Occupational health and safety for agricultural workers in Thailand: gaps and recommendations, with a focus on pesticide use.

    PubMed

    Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Kongtip, Pornpimol; Woskie, Susan

    2015-05-01

    Over 16.7 million workers in Thailand (42 percent of the working population) are engaged in agriculture, disproportionately from the lower socioeconomic strata of Thai society. Most agricultural workers (over 93 percent) work in the informal sector without the protections of regulations or enforcement of labor or health and safety laws or enrollment in a social security system. Although Thailand's use of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides is growing, there is little regulation of the sale, use, or application of these potentially toxic chemicals. This paper summarizes the research to date on occupational health and safety for Thai agricultural workers, identifies gaps in pesticide regulations and the current systems for occupational health and safety and social support for Thai agricultural workers, and makes recommendations for future policy and research initiatives to fill the identified gaps.

  4. A comparative study of vocational education and occupational safety and health training in China and the UK.

    PubMed

    Nie, Baisheng; Huang, Xin; Xue, Fei; Chen, Jiang; Liu, Xiaobing; Meng, Yangyang; Huang, Jinxin

    2017-01-16

    In order to enhance Chinese workers' occupational safety awareness, it is essential to learn from developed countries' experiences. This article investigates thoroughly occupational safety and health (OSH) in China and the UK; moreover, the article performs a comparison of Chinese and British OSH training-related laws, regulations and education system. The following conclusions are drawn: China's work safety continues to improve, but there is still a large gap compared with the UK. In China a relatively complete vocational education and training (VET) system has been established. However, there exist some defects in OSH. In the UK, the employer will not only pay attention to employees' physiological health, but also to their mental health. The UK's VET is characterized by classification and grading management, which helps integrate OSH into the whole education system. China can learn from the UK in the development of policies, VET and OSH training.

  5. Early experience of a safety net provider reorganizing into an accountable care organization.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Karen; Santos, Palmira; Thompson, Douglas; Stout, Somava S; Bearse, Adriana; Mechanic, Robert E

    2014-08-01

    Although safety net providers will benefit from health insurance expansions under the Affordable Care Act, they also face significant challenges in the postreform environment. Some have embraced the concept of the accountable care organization to help improve quality and efficiency while addressing financial shortfalls. The experience of Cambridge Health Alliance (CHA) in Massachusetts, where health care reform began six years ago, provides insight into the opportunities and challenges of this approach in the safety net. CHA's strategies include care redesign, financial realignment, workforce transformation, and development of external partnerships. Early results show some improvement in access, patient experience, quality, and utilization; however, the potential efficiencies will not eliminate CHA's current operating deficit. The patient population, payer mix, service mix, cost structure, and political requirements reduce the likelihood of financial sustainability without significant changes in these factors, increased public funding, or both. Thus the future of safety net institutions, regardless of payment and care redesign success, remains at risk.

  6. Landscape characteristics influence pond occupancy by frogs after accounting for detectability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazerolle, M.J.; Desrochers, A.; Rochefort, L.

    2005-01-01

    Many investigators have hypothesized that landscape attributes such as the amount and proximity of habitat are important for amphibian spatial patterns. This has produced a number of studies focusing on the effects of landscape characteristics on amphibian patterns of occurrence in patches or ponds, most of which conclude that the landscape is important. We identified two concerns associated with these studies: one deals with their applicability to other landscape types, as most have been conducted in agricultural landscapes; the other highlights the need to account for the probability of detection. We tested the hypothesis that landscape characteristics influence spatial patterns of amphibian occurrence at ponds after accounting for the probability of detection in little-studied peatland landscapes undergoing peat mining. We also illustrated the costs of not accounting for the probability of detection by comparing our results to conventional logistic regression analyses. Results indicate that frog occurrence increased with the percent cover of ponds within 100, 250, and 1000 m, as well as the amount of forest cover within 1000 m. However, forest cover at 250 m had a negative influence on frog presence at ponds. Not accounting for the probability of detection resulted in underestimating the influence of most variables on frog occurrence, whereas a few were overestimated. Regardless, we show that conventional logistic regression can lead to different conclusions than analyses accounting for detectability. Our study is consistent with the hypothesis that landscape characteristics are important in determining the spatial patterns of frog occurrence at ponds. We strongly recommend estimating the probability of detection in field surveys, as this will increase the quality and conservation potential of models derived from such data. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Accounting for interim safety monitoring of an adverse event upon termination of a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Upon termination of a clinical trial that uses interim evaluations to determine whether the trial can be stopped, a proper statistical analysis must account for the interim evaluations. For example, in a group-sequential design where the efficacy of a treatment regimen is evaluated at interim stages, and the opportunity to stop the trial based on positive efficacy findings exists, the terminal p-value, point estimate, and confidence limits of the outcome of interest must be adjusted to eliminate bias. While it is standard practice to adjust terminal statistical analyses due to opportunities to stop for "positive" findings, adjusting due to opportunities to stop for "negative" findings is also important. Stopping rules for negative findings are particularly useful when monitoring a specific rare serious adverse event in trials designed to show safety with respect to the event. In these settings, establishing conservative stopping rules are appropriate, and therefore accounting for the interim monitoring can have a substantial effect on the final results. Here I present a method to account for interim safety monitoring and illustrate its usefulness. The method is demonstrated to have advantages over methodology that does not account for interim monitoring.

  8. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  9. Effects of an injury and illness prevention program on occupational safety behaviors among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Santaweesuk, Sapsatree; Chapman, Robert S; Siriwong, Wattasit

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an Injury and Illness Prevention (IIP) program intervention on occupational safety behavior among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand. This was a quasi-experimental study in an intervention group and a control group. It was carried out in two rice farming communities, in which most people are rice farmers with similar socio-demographic characteristics. Multistage sampling was employed, selecting one person per rice farming household. The intervention group was 62 randomly selected rice farmers living in a rural area; another 55 rice farmers served as the control group. A structured face-to-face interview questionnaire was administered to participants to evaluate their safety behaviors in four areas: equipment use, pesticide use, ergonomics, and working conditions. The 2-week intervention program consisted of four elements: 1) health education, 2) safety inspection, 3) safety communication, and 4) health surveillance. Data were collected at baseline and 4 months after the intervention (follow-up). We used a general linear model repeated-measures analysis of variance to assess the mean difference between baseline and follow-up occupational safety behavior points between the intervention and control groups. Pesticide safety behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group compared with the control group. Ergonomics and working conditions points also increased in the intervention group, but not significantly so. The equipment use score decreased in the intervention group. It is necessary to identify and develop further measures to improve occupational safety behaviors. Some methods, such as effective risk communication, could be added to increase risk perception.

  10. Environment, Safety and Health independent evaluation of Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Company`s (FERMCO) Comprehensive Environmental Occupational Safety and Health Program (CEOSHP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) requested the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) to perform an independent evaluation of Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation`s (FERMCO`s) Comprehensive Environmental occupational Safety and Health Program (CEOSHP) document. In 1992, FERMCO was awarded the Department of Energy`s (DOE) first Environmental Restoration Management Contract and developed the CEOSHP to respond to contract requirements. EH limited its review to the CEOSHP because this document constitutes FERMCO`s written environment, safety and health (ES&H) program document and thus provides the basis for FERMCO`s ES&H program. EH`s independent review identified several major areas of the CEOSHP that need to be revised if it is to function successfully as the program-level document for FERMCO`s environment, safety and health program. The problems identified occur throughout the document and apply across the three CEOSHP sections evaluated by EH: the Occupational Safety and Health program, the Environmental Protection program, and the Radiological Control program. Primary findings of the CEOSHP: (1) Does not fully reflect the occupational safety and health, environmental protection, and radiological control requirements of the Department; (2) Does not convey a strong sense of management leadership of the program or clearly delineate employee rights, responsibilities, and roles in FERMCO`s ES&H program; (3) Is not a program management-level document; (4) Does not describe a ``seamless`` ES&H program; and (5) Does not clearly convey how FERMCO`s ES&H program actually works. EH`s detailed evaluation of FERMCO`s CEOSHP, along with specific recommendations are presented in Sections 2, 3, and 4 of this report. EH believes that EM will find this review and analysis useful in its efforts to assist FERMCO in a comprehensive redrafting of the CEOSHP.

  11. Complying with Executive Order 13148 using the Enterprise Environmental Safety And Occupational Health Management Information System.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Nelson, Tim M; Rasmussen, Steve L; Palmer, Glenn R; Olivas, Arthur C

    2005-03-01

    All U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) facilities are required under Executive Order (EO) 13148, "Greening the Government through Leadership in Environmental Management," to establish quality-based environmental management systems (EMSs) that support environmental decision-making and verification of continuous environmental improvement by December 31, 2005. Compliance with EO 13148 as well as other federal, state, and local environmental regulations places a significant information management burden on DoD facilities. Cost-effective management of environmental data compels DoD facilities to establish robust database systems that not only address the complex and multifaceted environmental monitoring, record-keeping, and reporting requirements demanded by these rules but enable environmental management decision-makers to gauge improvements in environmental performance. The Enterprise Environmental Safety and Occupational Health Management Information System (EESOH-MIS) is a new electronic database developed by the U.S. Air Force to manage both the data needs associated with regulatory compliance programs across its facilities as well as the non-regulatory environmental information that supports installation business practices. The U.S. Air Force, which has adopted the Plan-Do-Check-Act methodology as the EMS standard that it will employ to address EO 13148 requirements.

  12. Occupational safety and health practices among flower greenhouses workers from Alto Tietê region (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Marcela G; Colasso, Camilla G; Monteiro, Paula P; Pedreira Filho, Walter R; Yonamine, Maurício

    2012-02-01

    In this preliminary study the occupational safety and health practices among flower greenhouses workers were evaluated. The study was carried out in the alto Tietê region, located at the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Inadequate welfare facilities; poor pesticide storage, use and disposal conditions; use of highly toxic pesticides; lack of adequate data regarding pesticide use; and incorrect use and maintenance of PPE were observed in most of the visited greenhouses. These results suggest that, in greenhouses, workers may be at higher risk of pesticide exposure, due to many factors that can intensify the exposure such as the lack of control on reentry intervals after pesticide application. Specific regulations are needed to ensure better OSH practices on pesticide use and to improve working conditions in greenhouses, in order to deal with the peculiarities of greenhouse working environment. Some of the special requirements for greenhouses workers' protection are the establishment of ventilation criteria for restricted entry interval; clear reentry restrictions; and EPI for workers other than applicators that need to enter the greenhouse before expiring REI interval. Another important way to improve OSH practices among workers includes the distribution of simple guidelines on the dos and don'ts regarding OSH practices in greenhouses and extensively training interventions to change the perception of hazards and the behavior towards risk.

  13. Prioritized schedule for review of industrial safety and occupational health programs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This document provides the rationale and criteria for developing a schedule for reviewing the Industrial Safety and Occupational Health programs for the Management and Operating Contractor (MOC) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The reviews will evaluate the MOC`s compliance with applicable Department of Energy (DOE) orders and regulatory requirements. The scope of this task includes developing prioritization criteria, determining the review priority of each program based upon the criteria, identifying review requirements for each program, and preparing a detailed review schedule. In keeping with the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) structure for the review of site activities, these review activities will be addressed as surveillances, although the original basis for this requirement refers to these activities as appraisals. Surveillances and appraisals are the same within this document. Surveillances are defined as: ``The act of monitoring or observing to verify whether an item, activity, system, or process conforms to specified requirements. Surveillance of a technical work activity is normally done in real time, i.e., the surveillance is accomplished as the work is being performed.``

  14. Working in light vehicles--a review and conceptual model for occupational health and safety.

    PubMed

    Stuckey, Rwth; Lamontagne, Anthony D; Sim, Malcolm

    2007-09-01

    Occupational light vehicle (OLV) use is the leading cause of work related traumatic deaths in Westernised countries. Previous research has focused primarily on narrow contexts of OLV-use such as corporate fleet vehicles. We have proposed a comprehensive systems model for OLV-use to provide a framework for identifying research needs and proposing policy and practice interventions. This model presents the worker as the locus of injury at the centre of work- and road-related determinants of injury. Using this model, we reviewed existing knowledge and found most studies focused only on company car drivers, neglecting OLV-users in non-traditional employment arrangements and those using other vehicle types. Environmental exposures, work design factors and risk and protective factors for the wider OLV-user population are inadequately researched. Neither road- nor work-related policy appropriately addresses OLV-use, and population surveillance relies largely on inadequate workers compensation insurance data. This review demonstrates that there are significant gaps in understanding the problem of OLV-use and a need for further research integrating public health, insurance and road safety responses. The model provides a framework for understanding the theory of OLV-use OHS and guidance for urgently needed intervention research, policy and practice.

  15. Can workers answer their questions about occupational safety and health: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Rhebergen, Martijn; Van Dijk, Frank; Hulshof, Carel

    2012-01-01

    Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). Answers to these questions empower them to further improve their knowledge about OSH, make good decisions about OSH matters and improve OSH practice when necessary. Nevertheless, many workers fail to find the answers to their questions. This paper explores the challenges workers may face when seeking answers to their OSH questions. Findings suggest that many workers may lack the skills, experience or motivation to formulate an answerable question, seek and find information, appraise information, compose correct answers and apply information in OSH practice. Simultaneously, OSH knowledge infrastructures often insufficiently support workers in answering their OSH questions. This paper discusses several potentially attractive strategies for developing and improving OSH knowledge infrastructures: 1) providing courses that teach workers to ask answerable questions and to train them to find, appraise and apply information, 2) developing information and communication technology tools or facilities that support workers as they complete one or more stages in the process from question to answer and 3) tailoring information and implementation strategies to the workers' needs and context to ensure that the information can be applied to OSH practice more easily.

  16. Program desk manual for occupational safety and health -- U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations, Office of Environment Safety and Health

    SciTech Connect

    Musen, L.G.

    1998-08-27

    The format of this manual is designed to make this valuable information easily accessible to the user as well as enjoyable to read. Each chapter contains common information such as Purpose, Scope, Policy and References, as well as information unique to the topic at hand. This manual can also be provided on a CD or Hanford Internet. Major topics include: Organization and program for operational safety; Occupational medicine; Construction and demolition; Material handling and storage; Hoisting and rigging; Explosives; Chemical hazards; Gas cylinders; Electrical; Boiler and pressure vessels; Industrial fire protection; Industrial hygiene; and Safety inspection checklist.

  17. Case-control analysis in highway safety: Accounting for sites with multiple crashes.

    PubMed

    Gross, Frank

    2013-12-01

    There is an increased interest in the use of epidemiological methods in highway safety analysis. The case-control and cohort methods are commonly used in the epidemiological field to identify risk factors and quantify the risk or odds of disease given certain characteristics and factors related to an individual. This same concept can be applied to highway safety where the entity of interest is a roadway segment or intersection (rather than a person) and the risk factors of interest are the operational and geometric characteristics of a given roadway. One criticism of the use of these methods in highway safety is that they have not accounted for the difference between sites with single and multiple crashes. In the medical field, a disease either occurs or it does not; multiple occurrences are generally not an issue. In the highway safety field, it is necessary to evaluate the safety of a given site while accounting for multiple crashes. Otherwise, the analysis may underestimate the safety effects of a given factor. This paper explores the use of the case-control method in highway safety and two variations to account for sites with multiple crashes. Specifically, the paper presents two alternative methods for defining cases in a case-control study and compares the results in a case study. The first alternative defines a separate case for each crash in a given study period, thereby increasing the weight of the associated roadway characteristics in the analysis. The second alternative defines entire crash categories as cases (sites with one crash, sites with two crashes, etc.) and analyzes each group separately in comparison to sites with no crashes. The results are also compared to a "typical" case-control application, where the cases are simply defined as any entity that experiences at least one crash and controls are those entities without a crash in a given period. In a "typical" case-control design, the attributes associated with single-crash segments are weighted

  18. What is the role of individual accountability in patient safety? A multi-site ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Aveling, Emma-Louise; Parker, Michael; Dixon-Woods, Mary

    2016-02-01

    An enduring debate concerns how responsibility for patient safety should be distributed between organisational systems and individual professionals. Though rule-based, calculus-like approaches intended to support a 'just culture' have become popular, they perpetuate an asocial and atomised account. In this article, we use insights from practice theory--which sees organisational phenomena as accomplished in everyday actions, with individual agency and structural conditions as a mutually constitutive, dynamic duality--along with contributions from the political science and ethics literature as a starting point for analysis. Presenting ethnographic data from five hospitals, three in one high-income country and two in low-income countries, we offer an empirically informed, normative rethinking of the role of personal accountability, identifying the collective nature of the healthcare enterprise and the extent to which patient safety depends on contributions from many hands. We show that moral responsibility for actions and behaviours is an irreducible element of professional practice, but that individuals are not somehow 'outside' and separate from 'systems': they create, modify and are subject to the social forces that are an inescapable feature of any organisational system; each element acts on the other. Our work illustrates starkly the structuring effects of the broader institutional and socioeconomic context on opportunities to 'be good'. These findings imply that one of the key responsibilities of organisations and wider institutions in relation to patient safety is the fostering of the conditions of moral community.

  19. Occupational Safety and Health for Public Safety Employees. Assessing the Evidence and the Implications for Public Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    with angina pectoris Heart attack Ever had a heart attack Other heart condition Ever diagnosed with some other heart condition Stroke Ever diagnosed...months D. Chronic Disease Hypertension Ever diagnosed with hypertension Heart disease Ever diagnosed with coronary heart disease Angina Ever diagnosed...Table 5.7 Incidence of Chronic Disease, by Occupation Occupation Incidence of Chronic Disease (%) Hyper- tension Heart Disease Angina Heart Attack

  20. The journey to creating safety net accountable care in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Skoufalos, Alexis; Cecil, Kate

    2013-01-01

    New Jersey's 3-year Medicaid Accountable Care Organization (ACO) Demonstration Project was the result of a bipartisan effort to address the quality and cost issues regarding the State's safety net population. The legislation sets forth a framework that allows communities to customize ACOs to meet the unique needs of their population. Camden, Trenton, and Newark are currently experimenting with implementation at various levels. This article documents the context, journey, challenges, and future direction of the legislation through the accounts of 7 stakeholders whose roles were integral in the process of its creation, marketing, and eventual implementation. Their individual perspectives serve not only as an historical record of events but also as a guide for states seeking reference for implementing their own ACO framework.

  1. An evaluation of the effects of the occupational safety and health inspectors' supervision in workplaces.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Toivo; Louhelainen, Kyösti; Hirvonen, Maria L

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the administrational supervision of occupational safety and health (OSH) inspectors in the workplaces that they inspect. In the questionnaire survey, the respondents were OSH managers and workers' OSH representatives in the chemical companies' plants. For workers, the aggregated variable 'General OSH enforcement operations' was positively related to the aggregated variable 'Effects of the current OSH inspection'. In contrast, for the OSH managers, the corresponding data did not reveal any correlation. The professional competence in carrying out the OSH inspections was positively related to the different variables of the aggregated variable 'Effects of the current OSH inspection (Outputs)'. In contrast, for the workers' OSH representatives, the analysis failed to confirm this relationship. The present findings are that OSH managers and workers' OSH representatives desired that the OSH inspector should follow up more effectively that OSH management systems are being implemented in practice. They should provide more advice to workplaces in order to help them to exceed the minimum level laid down by law. Workers' OSH representatives expressed clearly that the OSH inspector should more often impose binding obligations. The professional skills of the OSH inspectors need to correspond better to the needs of today's working life and to be able to react to system changes in the workplaces. The OSH enforcement approach should become more uniform and be harmonized between the individual OSH inspectors and the OSH agencies. The development of the quality of OSH inspections and the professional competence of inspectors are important aspects from the point of the effectiveness.

  2. Multilevel Vehicle Design: Fuel Economy, Mobility and Safety Considerations, Part B. Ground Vehicle Weight and Occupant Safety Under Blast Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-11

    TNT - equivalent ) UNCLASSIFIED 8 Uncertainty in Charge Size & Location Underbody Blast Simulation Uncertainty in Vehicle Peak Acceleration Drop Tower...for Protection of Vehicle Occupants against Anti-Vehicular Landmine Effects.” North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, Neuilly-sur-Seine Cedex, France

  3. The Impact Of Occupational Hazards In Workplaces - Maintenance, A Main Target For Ensuring The Safety Of Working Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, Anca Elena; Buica, Georgeta; Darabont, Doru Costin; Beiu, Constantin

    2015-07-01

    For use of work equipment having the economic performance and the highest level of safety, it must be ensured that it complies with the conditions set by the manufacturer in terms of putting into service, use and maintenance operations, ensuring appropriate technical and environmental requirements, including appropriate measures and means of protection. The research aimed to identify and analyze the occupational hazards associated to maintenance operations, in terms of the history of the adjustments, maintenance, cleaning and repair, including the case that occur after the incidents, capital repairs and upgrades. The results of the research consisted in the development of recommendations on the effective management of maintenance activities of work equipment and a software model to enable an efficient management of maintenance, as a tool for occupational hazards in companies - premise for increasing the competitiveness of employers in the market economy.

  4. Occupational Safety, Health, and Well-being Among Home-based Workers in the Informal Economy of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nankongnab, Noppanun; Silpasuwan, Pimpan; Markkanen, Pia; Kongtip, Pornpimol; Woskie, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this article is to provide a summary of the issues related to occupational safety and health and well-being among workers in the informal economy of Thailand, with a special emphasis on home-based workers. The reviewed literature includes documents and information sources developed by the International Labour Organization, the National Statistical Office of Thailand, peer-reviewed scientific publications, and master's theses conducted in Thailand. This work is part of a needs and opportunities analysis carried out by the Center for Work, Environment, Nutrition and Development--a partnership between Mahidol University and University of Massachusetts Lowell to identify the gaps in knowledge and research to support government policy development in the area of occupational and environmental health for workers in the informal economy.

  5. 81 FR 35063 - Hawaii State Plan for Occupational Safety and Health; Operational Status Agreement Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2016-06-01

    ... most of general industry, including facilities that include processes covered by the process safety... processes covered by the process safety management standard (29 CFR 1910.119)). The FY 2014 addendum also... include processes covered by the process safety management standard (29 CFR 1910.119)) to HIOSH....

  6. Hennepin Health: a safety-net accountable care organization for the expanded Medicaid population.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Shana F; Erikson, Clese; Owen, Ross; Vickery, Katherine D; Shimotsu, Scott T; Linzer, Mark; Garrett, Nancy A; Johnsrud, Kimry A; Soderlund, Dana M; DeCubellis, Jennifer

    2014-11-01

    Health care payment and delivery models that challenge providers to be accountable for outcomes have fueled interest in community-level partnerships that address the behavioral, social, and economic determinants of health. We describe how Hennepin Health--a county-based safety-net accountable care organization in Minnesota--has forged such a partnership to redesign the health care workforce and improve the coordination of the physical, behavioral, social, and economic dimensions of care for an expanded community of Medicaid beneficiaries. Early outcomes suggest that the program has had an impact in shifting care from hospitals to outpatient settings. For example, emergency department visits decreased 9.1 percent between 2012 and 2013, while outpatient visits increased 3.3 percent. An increasing percentage of patients have received diabetes, vascular, and asthma care at optimal levels. At the same time, Hennepin Health has realized savings and reinvested them in future improvements. Hennepin Health offers lessons for counties, states, and public hospitals grappling with the problem of how to make the best use of public funds in serving expanded Medicaid populations and other communities with high needs.

  7. Occupational Health

    MedlinePlus

    Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

  8. Searching for safety: addressing search engine, website, and provider accountability for illicit online drug sales.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Online sales of pharmaceuticals are a rapidly growing phenomenon. Yet despite the dangers of purchasing drugs over the Internet, sales continue to escalate. These dangers include patient harm from fake or tainted drugs, lack of clinical oversight, and financial loss. Patients, and in particular vulnerable groups such as seniors and minorities, purchase drugs online either naïvely or because they lack the ability to access medications from other sources due to price considerations. Unfortunately, high risk online drug sources dominate the Internet, and virtually no accountability exists to ensure safety of purchased products. Importantly, search engines such as Google, Yahoo, and MSN, although purportedly requiring "verification" of Internet drug sellers using PharmacyChecker.com requirements, actually allow and profit from illicit drug sales from unverified websites. These search engines are not held accountable for facilitating clearly illegal activities. Both website drug seller anonymity and unethical physicians approving or writing prescriptions without seeing the patient contribute to rampant illegal online drug sales. Efforts in this country and around the world to stem the tide of these sales have had extremely limited effectiveness. Unfortunately, current congressional proposals are fractionated and do not address the key issues of demand by vulnerable patient populations, search engine accountability, and the ease with which financial transactions can be consummated to promote illegal online sales. To deal with the social scourge of illicit online drug sales, this article proposes a comprehensive statutory solution that creates a no-cost/low-cost national Drug Access Program to break the chain of demand from vulnerable patient populations and illicit online sellers, makes all Internet drug sales illegal unless the Internet pharmacy is licensed through a national Internet pharmacy licensing program, prohibits financial transactions for illegal online drug

  9. 100 years of occupational safety research: From basic protections and work analysis to a multilevel view of workplace safety and risk.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, David A; Burke, Michael J; Zohar, Dov

    2017-03-01

    Starting with initiatives dating back to the mid-1800s, we provide a high-level review of the key trends and developments in the application of applied psychology to the field of occupational safety. Factory laws, basic worker compensation, and research on accident proneness comprised much of the early work. Thus, early research and practice very much focused on the individual worker, the design of their work, and their basic protection. Gradually and over time, the focus began to navigate further into the organizational context. One of the early efforts to broaden beyond the individual worker was a significant focus on safety-related training during the middle of the 20th century. Toward the latter years of the 20th century and continuing the move from the individual worker to the broader organizational context, there was a significant increase in leadership and organizational climate (safety climate) research. Ultimately, this resulted in the development of a multilevel model of safety culture/climate. After discussing these trends, we identify key conclusions and opportunities for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Health and safety economics: limitations of economic appraisal of occupational health services activities in Poland.

    PubMed

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2002-01-01

    Methods of economic appraisal developed for evaluating activities in health care system may as well be successfully used for evaluating occupational health service activities. This involves the problem of resources management and cost containment not only at the company level, but also at different managerial and institutional levels. The decision makers have to know what resources are spent on occupational health, what is the effectiveness and efficiency of investing in employees health. The key issue of good understanding of the theory and practice of economic appraisal is a precise definition of costs, effectiveness and benefits. Another important area is the identification of information sources and barriers of economic appraisal. The results of the project carried out by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine have provided evidence that defining costs, effectiveness and benefits of preventive activities need to be developed. It becomes even more clear after an analysis of existing limitations of economic appraisal in Polish enterprises.

  11. Interaction of Occupational and Personal Risk Factors in Workforce Health and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Pandalai, Sudha; Wulsin, Victoria; Chun, HeeKyoung

    2012-01-01

    Most diseases, injuries, and other health conditions experienced by working people are multifactorial, especially as the workforce ages. Evidence supporting the role of work and personal risk factors in the health of working people is frequently underused in developing interventions. Achieving a longer, healthy working life requires a comprehensive preventive approach. To help develop such an approach, we evaluated the influence of both occupational and personal risk factors on workforce health. We present 32 examples illustrating 4 combinatorial models of occupational hazards and personal risk factors (genetics, age, gender, chronic disease, obesity, smoking, alcohol use, prescription drug use). Models that address occupational and personal risk factors and their interactions can improve our understanding of health hazards and guide research and interventions. PMID:22021293

  12. Occupational safety data and casualty rates for the uranium fuel cycle. [Glossaries

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, F.R.; Hoy, H.C.

    1981-10-01

    Occupational casualty (injuries, illnesses, fatalities, and lost workdays) and production data are presented and used to calculate occupational casualty incidence rates for technologies that make up the uranium fuel cycle, including: mining, milling, conversion, and enrichment of uranium; fabrication of reactor fuel; transportation of uranium and fuel elements; generation of electric power; and transmission of electric power. Each technology is treated in a separate chapter. All data sources are referenced. All steps used to calculate normalized occupational casualty incidence rates from the data are presented. Rates given include fatalities, serious cases, and lost workdays per 100 man-years worked, per 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy output, and per other appropriate units of output.

  13. Climate change and Occupational Health and Safety in a temperate climate: potential impacts and research priorities in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Adam-Poupart, Ariane; Labrèche, France; Smargiassi, Audrey; Duguay, Patrice; Busque, Marc-Antoine; Gagné, Charles; Rintamäki, Hannu; Kjellstrom, Tord; Zayed, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The potential impacts of climate change (CC) on Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) have been studied a little in tropical countries, while they received no attention in northern industrialized countries with a temperate climate. This work aimed to establish an overview of the potential links between CC and OHS in those countries and to determine research priorities for Quebec, Canada. A narrative review of the scientific literature (2005-2010) was presented to a working group of international and national experts and stakeholders during a workshop held in 2010. The working group was invited to identify knowledge gaps, and a modified Delphi method helped prioritize research avenues. This process highlighted five categories of hazards that are likely to impact OHS in northern industrialized countries: heat waves/increased temperatures, air pollutants, UV radiation, extreme weather events, vector-borne/zoonotic diseases. These hazards will affect working activities related to natural resources (i.e. agriculture, fishing and forestry) and may influence the socioeconomic context (built environment and green industries), thus indirectly modifying OHS. From this consensus approach, three categories of research were identified: 1) Knowledge acquisition on hazards, target populations and methods of adaptation; 2) Surveillance of diseases/accidents/occupational hazards; and 3) Development of new occupational adaptation strategies.

  14. Free trade and occupational health policy: an argument for health and safety across the North American workplace.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, M J

    1994-01-01

    This article considers the argument that the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) would encourage US and Canadian industry to relocate their hazardous manufacturing operations to Mexico. Proponents of this view believe that this industrial flight south would worsen working conditions in Mexico as well as lower occupational health and safety standards in the US and Canada. In evaluating this argument, the article examines working conditions in US-owned factories in the Mexican maquiladora zone, reviews the current occupational health and safety regulatory structure in Mexico, and considers those institutions established by the European Community to protect workers against the flight of hazardous industries. The article concludes that the harmonization of labor norms throughout North American and the establishment of a functional North American regulatory structure following the precedents set by the European Community are necessary steps to ensure that NAFTA does not produce the feared flight of hazardous industries to Mexico nor degrade the health of workers in Mexico, Canada, or the US.

  15. Overstretched and unreciprocated commitment: reviewing research on the occupational health and safety effects of downsizing and job insecurity.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Michael; Bohle, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Over the past two decades, a leading business practice has been often-repeated rounds of downsizing and restructuring (also referred to as reorganization, re-engineering, and a host of other euphemistic terms) by large private and public sector employers. Frequently associated with other practices such as outsourcing, privatization, and the increased use of temporary workers, downsizing/restructuring has increased the level of job insecurity among workers as well as leading to changes in work processes (including work intensification and multi-tasking) and management behavior. How has downsizing/restructuring and increased job insecurity affected the occupational health, safety, and well-being of workers, and what measures have employers, unions, and governments taken to address any adverse effects? The authors reviewed international studies of the occupational health and safety (OHS) effects of downsizing/restructuring and increased job insecurity undertaken over the past 20 years. After imposing quality filters, they obtained 86 studies. Analysis revealed that 73 (85%) of the studies found poorer OHS outcomes (using a range of measures). Studies were examined to see whether they provided clues as to the reasons for negative outcomes.

  16. Critical features of an auditable management system for an ISO 9000-compatible occupational health and safety standard.

    PubMed

    Levine, S; Dyjack, D T

    1997-04-01

    An International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9001: 1994-harmonized occupational health and safety (OHS) management system has been written at the University of Michigan, and reviewed, revised, and accepted under the direction of the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS) Task Force and the Board of Directors. This system is easily adaptable to the ISO 14001 format and to both OHS and environmental management system applications. As was the case with ISO 9001: 1994, this system is expected to be compatible with current production quality and OHS quality systems and standards, have forward compatibility for new applications, and forward flexibility, with new features added as needed. Since ISO 9001: 1987 and 9001: 1994 have been applied worldwide, the incorporation of harmonized OHS and environmental management system components should be acceptable to business units already performing first-party (self-) auditing, and second-party (contract qualification) auditing. This article explains the basis of this OHS management system, its relationship to ISO 9001 and 14001 standards, the philosophy and methodology of an ISO-harmonized system audit, the relationship of these systems to traditional OHS audit systems, and the authors' vision of the future for application of such systems.

  17. Nursing leaders' accountability to narrow the safety chasm: insights and implications from the collective evidence base on healthcare safety.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, Lianne; Macmillan, Kathleen; McKey, Colleen; Ferris, Ella

    2009-01-01

    Challenges continue to exist in bridging the safety gap to ensure that consistent, high-quality nursing care is provided based on the best scientific knowledge available. This paper examines findings from nursing research presented at the symposium Advancing Nursing Leadership for a Safer Healthcare System, held in Toronto, Ontario in 2007. Four central themes emerged: (1) place the patient in safety; (2) generate a broader knowledge base on safety across the continuum of care; (3) create a safe culture and healthy work environment to mitigate current threats to patient safety; and (4) advance translation of evidence to practice at the organizational and clinical levels. The aim of this exchange of knowledge was to equip nursing leaders and their decision partners with evidence that can become a catalyst for mobilizing change in practice to address the safety chasm.

  18. 78 FR 36192 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Traumatic Injury Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Institute for Occupational... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION... Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the availability of...

  19. Personal Safety. Cooperative Occupational Education, Unit 18. Instructor Material and Student Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This unit, one in a series of packets of teacher and student materials for cooperative occupational education (COE) designed for special needs students, stresses to students the importance of taking care of themselves by maintaining good health, avoiding accidents, and making wise choices about the use of drugs and alcohol. The instructor material…

  20. Workplace measurements by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration since 1979: Descriptive analysis and potential uses for exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Lavoue, J; Friesen, M C; Burstyn, I

    2013-06-01

    This letter summarizes modifications to the results presented in Lavoué et al. (2012): Lavoué, J., Burstyn, I.,Friesen, M. (2012) Workplace Measurements by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration since1979: Descriptive Analysis and Potential Uses for Exposure Assessment. Annals of occupational hygiene57(1):77–97. Although several results were altered, the conclusions were not affected by the changes.

  1. 75 FR 6123 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK57 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... final rule that amended the child restraint systems (CRSs) prescribed in Appendix A of Federal Motor... Manufacturers (Alliance),\\5\\ Ford Motor Company (Ford), Evenflo Company, Incorporated (Evenflo), IEE S.A....

  2. Renewable energy and occupational health and safety research directions: a white paper from the Energy Summit, Denver Colorado, April 11-13, 2011.

    PubMed

    Mulloy, Karen B; Sumner, Steven A; Rose, Cecile; Conway, George A; Reynolds, Stephen J; Davidson, Margaret E; Heidel, Donna S; Layde, Peter M

    2013-11-01

    Renewable energy production may offer advantages to human health by way of less pollution and fewer climate-change associated ill-health effects. Limited data suggests that renewable energy will also offer benefits to workers in the form of reduced occupational injury, illness and deaths. However, studies of worker safety and health in the industry are limited. The Mountain and Plains Education and Research Center (MAP ERC) Energy Summit held in April 2011 explored issues concerning worker health and safety in the renewable energy industry. The limited information on hazards of working in the renewable energy industry emphasizes the need for further research. Two basic approaches to guiding both prevention and future research should include: (1) applying lessons learned from other fields of occupational safety and health, particularly the extractive energy industry; and (2) utilizing knowledge of occupational hazards of specific materials and processes used in the renewable energy industry.

  3. Safety analysis forseismic motion of control rods accounting for rod misalignment

    SciTech Connect

    Osmin, W.L.; Paik, I.K.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the results of three safety analyses performed by the SRL Safety Analysis Group (SAG) to assess the safety impact of control rod motion induced by a Design Basis Earthquake (DBE).

  4. A multiple methods approach: radiation associated cataracts and occupational radiation safety practices in interventionalists in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rose, A; Rae, W I D; Chikobvu, P; Marais, W

    2017-03-02

    Ionising radiation is a modality used in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The technology has improved and resulted in lower dose exposure but there has been an escalation in the quantity of procedures, their duration and complexity. These factors have meant increased occupational radiation exposure for interventionalists. Ionising radiation exposure can have detrimental health effects and includes radiation skin burns, various carcinomas, genetic and chromosomal aberrations and cataractogenesis of the lenses of the eye. The lenses of the eye are of the most radiosensitive organs and the risk of cataracts is high despite low radiation dose exposures. The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is a method that can be used to mitigate the risk for developing lens opacifications. The consistent and effective utilisation of PPE is marred by availability, proper fit and ease of use when performing procedures. Radiation safety training is imperative to enforce a culture of radiation safety among interventionalists. The aim of this study was to quantify and describe cataracts among South African interventionalists and to understand their radiation safety practices. For this purpose, a cross sectional study was designed using multiple methods. A survey was conducted to determine the demographics and the risk factors of doctors exposed to radiation to doctors not exposed. The radiation workload and radiation safety practices of interventionalists were explored. Both groups had slit lamp examinations. The data were analysed analytically and a regression model developed looking at the outcomes and the risk factors. Qualitative in-depth interviews and group interviews were conducted to explore the perceptions of interventionalists regarding radiation safety. Deductive and inductive thematic analysis was done. Interdisciplinary research is challenging but offers tremendous opportunity for exploring and tackling complex issues related to securing a safe radiation work

  5. Safe Use of Pesticides, Guidelines. Occupational Safety and Health Series No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This document provides guidance on the safe use of pesticides in agricultural work. General principles are given and followed by more detailed safety requirements for the various pesticide application techniques. Finally, the medical aspects of pesticides are considered. (BB)

  6. 75 FR 13785 - Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH); Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    .... In addition, MACOSH provides advice on enforcement initiatives that will help improve the working conditions and the safety and health of men and women employed in the maritime industries. Nominations:...

  7. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery

    PubMed Central

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005–2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  8. Occupational safety and health in small and medium-sized enterprises during social and economic transformation.

    PubMed

    Koradecka, D

    2001-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Central and Eastern Europe at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s were characterised by many people exposed to hazardous working conditions. Statistics recorded a considerable increase in the number of occupational diseases. They also showed that it was more dangerous to work for a small company. The transition from planned to market economy has brought about an increase in the number of SMEs in Poland. Data on them are provided. The role of the Central Institute for Labour Protection in studying SMEs is presented. A pilot study of employers and employees is discussed.

  9. A review of occupational safety and health issues relevant to the environmental restoration program: Selected case histories and associated issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.; Siegel, M.R.; McKinney, M.D.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine the impact of occupational safety and health (OSH) issues on the environmental restoration process at US Department of Energy sites. PNL selected three remediation projects to study: (1) the 618-9 Burial Ground Expedited Removal Action at the Hanford Site, (2) the Chemical Consolidation Interim Response Action at the Weldon Spring Site, (3) and the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Removal Action and VOC-Arid Integration Demonstration at the Hanford Site. The first two case studies involve sites where a remediation activity has been complete. The third case study involves a remediation activity in its early stages of development. This study identifies OSH issues related to actual cleanup, time, documentation, training, and technology development. These issues need to be considered by DOE before making long-term planning efforts. Section 4.0 of this report describes recommendations for addressing these issues.

  10. [Registry of the Italian Institute for Occupational Prevention and Safety of local productive units: methodology and structure].

    PubMed

    Scarselli, A; Leva, A; Campo, G; Marconi, M; Nesti, M; Erba, P

    2005-01-01

    The Italian Institute for Occupational Prevention and Safety (ISPESL) carried out a register of enterprises operating in industry, services and agriculture sector to provide information on their location, economical activity and occupational data. This database has been built merging administrative files from the National Institute of Social Security (INPS) and the Computer Science Society of Italian Chambers of Commerce (InfoCamere). Enterprises have been classified by economic sector - in accordance with ISTAT (National Statistics Institute) "Ateco91" classification--and by accuracy level of the record linkage. In details, three different subsystems have been set up: (A) enterprises satisfying linkage; (B) enterprises in InfoCamere file not linked with INPS file; (C) enterprises in INPS file not linked with InfoCamere file. In the whole, 6.026.676 factories have been collected, of which 1.188.784 in group A, 4.543.091 in group B and 294.801 in group C. Establishing a database of information on industries may be useful to improve preventive programs and to plan health care surveillance systems.

  11. A study of occupational health and safety measures in the Laundry Department of a private tertiary care teaching hospital, Bengaluru

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M. Shashi; Goud, B. Ramakrishna; Joseph, Bobby

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Laundry Department plays an important role in preventing the spread of infection and continuously supplying clean linen to various departments in any hospital. Objectives of the Study: To identify existing practices and occupational safety and health (OSH) measures in the Laundry Department and to assess the use of personal protective equipments (PPEs) among health care workers. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a private tertiary care teaching hospital. An observation checklist was developed, which was partially based on occupational hazard checklist of OSHA for Laundry Department. This was field tested and validated for applicability for this study. Results: The potential biological hazards are infections through exposure to aerosols, spills and splashes during various activities, fungal infection due to wet clothes and environment and infections through fomites. The potential physical hazards are injuries due to slips and falls, exposure to heat, humidity, dust, noise, and vibration. The potential chemical hazards are contact dermatitis and allergic asthma due to exposure to detergents, phenyl solution, bleaching powder, and soap oil solution. The potential ergonomic hazards are musculoskeletal diseases and repetitive stress injuries at the shoulder, elbow, and small joints of the hands. PPEs were not used consistently in most areas of the department. PMID:25006311

  12. Evaluation of P-101 course Orientation to Occupational Safety Compliance in DOE'' taught in Richland, Washington, June 16--June 26, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Colley, D.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety Training Section course, Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE'', (P-101) which was conducted June 16 to 26, 1992 at Hanford, in Richland, Washington. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 of this report summarize the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Appendix A provides a transcript of the trainees' written comments.

  13. Evaluation of P-101 course ``Orientation to Occupational Safety Compliance in DOE`` taught in Richland, Washington, June 16--June 26, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Colley, D.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety Training Section course, ``Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE``, (P-101) which was conducted June 16 to 26, 1992 at Hanford, in Richland, Washington. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 of this report summarize the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Appendix A provides a transcript of the trainees` written comments.

  14. Factors Influencing Learning Satisfaction of Migrant Workers in Korea with E-learning-Based Occupational Safety and Health Education

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Joo; Lee, Dongjoo

    2015-01-01

    Background E-learning-based programs have recently been introduced to the occupational safety and health (OSH) education for migrant workers in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the factors related to migrant workers' backgrounds and the instructional design affect the migrant workers' satisfaction with e-learning-based OSH education. Methods The data were collected from the surveys of 300 migrant workers who had participated in an OSH education program. Independent sample t test and one-way analysis of variance were conducted to examine differences in the degree of learning satisfaction using background variables. In addition, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were conducted to examine relationships between the instructional design variables and the degree of learning satisfaction. Results There was no significant difference in the degree of learning satisfaction by gender, age, level of education, number of employees, or type of occupation, except for nationality. Among the instructional design variables, “learning content” (β = 0.344, p < 0.001) affected the degree of learning satisfaction most significantly, followed by “motivation to learn” (β = 0.293, p < 0.001), “interactions with learners and instructors” (β = 0.149, p < 0.01), and “previous experience related to e-learning” (β = 0.095, p < 0.05). “Learning environment” had no significant influence on the degree of learning satisfaction. Conclusion E-learning-based OSH education for migrant workers may be an effective way to increase their safety knowledge and behavior if the accuracy, credibility, and novelty of learning content; strategies to promote learners' motivation to learn; and interactions with learners and instructors are systematically applied during the development and implementation of e-learning programs. PMID:26929830

  15. Bayesian risk analysis of municipal solid waste workers' occupational health and safety problems

    SciTech Connect

    An, H.; Englehardt, J.; Bean, J.; Fleming, L.; Dantis, M.

    1999-07-01

    A study of the risk of occupational injuries and diseases to municipal solid waste workers is reported in this paper. Using Florida Workers' Compensation data from 1993 to 1997, principal injuries among municipal solid waste workers were identified. The size of Worker's Compensation claims was found to have the lognormal distribution. The annual numbers of injuries and annual costs of Workers' Compensation claims were assessed by a predictive Bayesian adaptation of the basic compound Poisson model. The risk assessment indicated that Workers' Compensation costs for municipal solid waste workers in Florida average $10.2 million per year, constant 1998 dollars, and have a 5% probability of exceeding $38.4 million in any year. Fifty-two percent of this cost is attributed for injuries to drivers/helpers; Forty-four percent of the cost is attributed to strains/sprains. The total economic and non-economic costs for occupational injuries and diseases will be much higher than Workers' Compensation costs.

  16. Nanotoxicity: emerging concerns regarding nanomaterial safety and occupational hard metal (WC-Co) nanoparticle exposure

    PubMed Central

    Armstead, Andrea L; Li, Bingyun

    2016-01-01

    As the number of commercial and consumer products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) continually rises, the increased use and production of these ENMs presents an important toxicological concern. Although ENMs offer a number of advantages over traditional materials, their extremely small size and associated characteristics may also greatly enhance their toxic potentials. ENM exposure can occur in various consumer and industrial settings through inhalation, ingestion, or dermal routes. Although the importance of accurate ENM characterization, effective dosage metrics, and selection of appropriate cell or animal-based models are universally agreed upon as important factors in ENM research, at present, there is no “standardized” approach used to assess ENM toxicity in the research community. Of particular interest is occupational exposure to tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) “dusts,” composed of nano- and micro-sized particles, in hard metal manufacturing facilities and mining and drilling industries. Inhalation of WC-Co dust is known to cause “hard metal lung disease” and an increased risk of lung cancer; however, the mechanisms underlying WC-Co toxicity, the inflammatory disease state and progression to cancer are poorly understood. Herein, a discussion of ENM toxicity is followed by a review of the known literature regarding the effects of WC-Co particle exposure. The risk of WC-Co exposure in occupational settings and the updates of in vitro and in vivo studies of both micro- and nano-WC-Co particles are discussed. PMID:27942214

  17. 78 FR 52848 - Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... procedures to address and coordinate workplace inspections if and when they may be required. The IBT further urged the FAA to stress the importance of properly reporting safety and health issues and encourage..., contaminated bleed air ventilation systems, heat stress, ergonomic hazards, hazardous agents, pinch points,...

  18. 76 FR 28816 - Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health (FACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... any personal information provided, will be posted without change at http://www.regulations.gov . Therefore, OSHA cautions interested persons about submitting certain personal information such as social... requirements for Federal workers and requirements of the Safety and Health Management and Industrial...

  19. Occupational Safety and Health: A View of Current Practices in Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threeton, Mark D.; Ewing, John C.; Evanoski, Danielle C.

    2015-01-01

    Providing safe and secure teaching and learning environments within schools is an ongoing process which requires a significant amount of attention. Therefore, this study sought to: 1) explore safety and health practices within secondary Agricultural Mechanics Education; and 2) identify the perceived obstacles which appear to hinder implementation…

  20. 78 FR 70415 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Contents I. Executive Summary II. NHTSA's Statutory Authority a. National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety... System on Forward-Facing Seats XI. Integrated Anchorages XII. Seat Belt Adjustment, Fit, Lockability, and... assembly'' for plain language purposes. Documents may occasionally refer to lap/shoulder belts as...

  1. Teaching Occupational Safety and Health at the Secondary and College Level. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter

    The activities in this guide are designed to provide a framework for instruction on safety and health on the job. The guide consists of three chapters. Chapter one introduces the guide, discusses how to use it, and explains the goals and objectives of the course. The second chapter contains detailed learning activities. Chapter three provides an…

  2. The development of an information system and installation of an Internet web database for the purposes of the occupational health and safety management system.

    PubMed

    Mavrikakis, I; Mantas, J; Diomidous, M

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based on the research on the possible structure of an information system for the purposes of occupational health and safety management. We initiated a questionnaire in order to find the possible interest on the part of potential users in the subject of occupational health and safety. The depiction of the potential interest is vital both for the software analysis cycle and development according to previous models. The evaluation of the results tends to create pilot applications among different enterprises. Documentation and process improvements ascertained quality of services, operational support, occupational health and safety advice are the basics of the above applications. Communication and codified information among intersted parts is the other target of the survey regarding health issues. Computer networks can offer such services. The network will consist of certain nodes responsible to inform executives on Occupational Health and Safety. A web database has been installed for inserting and searching documents. The submission of files to a server and the answers to questionnaires through the web help the experts to perform their activities. Based on the requirements of enterprises we have constructed a web file server. We submit files so that users can retrieve the files which they need. The access is limited to authorized users. Digital watermarks authenticate and protect digital objects.

  3. [Occupational medicine: practice and ethical requirements of the new law on health and safety in the workplace (legislative decree 81/2008)].

    PubMed

    Franco, Giuliano; Mora, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Decisions in occupational health may involve ethical conflicts arising from conflicts between stakeholders' interests. Codes of ethics can provide a practical guide to solve dilemmas. The new law on health and safety in the workplace in Italy (decree 81/2008) states that occupational health practice must comply with the code of ethics of the International Commission on Occupational Health. The universally acknowledged ethical principles of beneficience/nonmaleficience, autonomy and justice, which are the basis of the Charter of fundamental rights of the European Union, inspired this code. Although the code is not a systematic textbook of occupational health ethics and does not cover all possible aspects arising from the practice, making decisions based on it will assure their effectiveness and compliance with ethical principles, besides the formal respect of the law.

  4. The Impact of Environment and Occupation on the Health and Safety of Active Duty Air Force Members: Database Development and De-Identification.

    PubMed

    Erich, Roger; Eaton, Melinda; Mayes, Ryan; Pierce, Lamar; Knight, Andrew; Genovesi, Paul; Escobar, James; Mychalczuk, George; Selent, Monica

    2016-08-01

    Preparing data for medical research can be challenging, detail oriented, and time consuming. Transcription errors, missing or nonsensical data, and records not applicable to the study population may hamper progress and, if unaddressed, can lead to erroneous conclusions. In addition, study data may be housed in multiple disparate databases and complex formats. Merging methods may be incomplete to obtain temporally synchronized data elements. We created a comprehensive database to explore the general hypothesis that environmental and occupational factors influence health outcomes and risk-taking behavior among active duty Air Force personnel. Several databases containing demographics, medical records, health survey responses, and safety incident reports were cleaned, validated, and linked to form a comprehensive, relational database. The final step involved removing and transforming personally identifiable information to form a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant limited database. Initial data consisted of over 62.8 million records containing 221 variables. When completed, approximately 23.9 million clean and valid records with 214 variables remained. With a clean, robust database, future analysis aims to identify high-risk career fields for targeted interventions or uncover potential protective factors in low-risk career fields.

  5. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) testimony on indoor air quality by J. D. Millar on May 26, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-26

    The testimony considered the work conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in the area of indoor air quality. The quality of indoor air often worsened soon after energy-conservation measures were enacted at many business places following the Arab oil embargo in the 1970s. Concurrently, new office technologies in some cases presented chemical and physical hazards to the office staff as well. Of the 1200 NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluations performed between 1971 and 1978, six were to study indoor air-quality problems, or 0.5% of the total number of studies. Between 1978 to 1980 this percentage increased dramatically to 7.4% of the total and, since 1980 indoor air-quality studies have accounted for 12% of the total Health-Hazard Evaluation studies. Such pollution arises from human metabolic activity, smoking, structural components of the building and contents, biological contamination, office and mechanical equipment, and outside air pollutants that enter the building. In more than half the investigations, lack of adequate ventilation was the cause of the complaints. In 20 to 25% of the cases, sources inside the building were identified as the major generators of indoor air contaminants. Some major examples of governmental and nongovernmental research along this same line of study were highlighted.

  6. Proposal of a risk-factor-based analytical approach for integrating occupational health and safety into project risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Badri, Adel; Nadeau, Sylvie; Gbodossou, André

    2012-09-01

    Excluding occupational health and safety (OHS) from project management is no longer acceptable. Numerous industrial accidents have exposed the ineffectiveness of conventional risk evaluation methods as well as negligence of risk factors having major impact on the health and safety of workers and nearby residents. Lack of reliable and complete evaluations from the beginning of a project generates bad decisions that could end up threatening the very existence of an organization. This article supports a systematic approach to the evaluation of OHS risks and proposes a new procedure based on the number of risk factors identified and their relative significance. A new concept called risk factor concentration along with weighting of risk factor categories as contributors to undesirable events are used in the analytical hierarchy process multi-criteria comparison model with Expert Choice(©) software. A case study is used to illustrate the various steps of the risk evaluation approach and the quick and simple integration of OHS at an early stage of a project. The approach allows continual reassessment of criteria over the course of the project or when new data are acquired. It was thus possible to differentiate the OHS risks from the risk of drop in quality in the case of the factory expansion project.

  7. A study on fire spreading model for the safety distance between the neighborhood occupancies and historical buildings in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H.; Chien, S. W.; Ho, M. C.

    2015-08-01

    Cultural heritages and historical buildings are vulnerable against severe threats from fire. Since the 1970s, ten fire-spread events involving historic buildings have occurred in Taiwan, affecting a total of 132 nearby buildings. Developed under the influence of traditional Taiwanese culture, historic buildings in Taiwan are often built using non-fire resistant brick-wood structure and located in proximity to residential occupancies. Fire outbreak in these types of neighborhood will lead to severe damage of antiquities, leaving only unrecoverable historical imagery. This study is aimed to investigate the minimal safety distance required between a historical building and its surroundings in order to reduce the risk of external fire. This study is based on literature analysis and the fire spread model using a Fire Dynamics Simulator. The selected target is Jingmei Temple in Taipei City. This study explored local geography to identify patterns behind historical buildings distribution. In the past, risk reduction engineering for cultural heritages and historical buildings focused mainly on fire equipment and the available personnel with emergency response ability, and little attention was given to external fire risks and the affected damage. Through discussions on the required safety distance, this research provides guidelines for the following items: management of neighborhoods with historical buildings and consultation between the protection of cultural heritages and disaster prevention, reducing the frequency and extent of fire damages, and preserving cultural resource.

  8. Information requirements of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's safety, environmental health, and occupational medicine programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whyte, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of the internal and external reporting and recordkeeping procedures of these programs was conducted and the major problems associated with them are outlined. The impact of probable future requirements on existing information systems is evaluated. This report also presents the benefits of combining the safety and health information systems into one computerized system and recommendations for the development and scope of that system.

  9. A Guide to the Design of Occupational Safety and Health Training for Immigrant, Latino/a Dairy Workers

    PubMed Central

    Menger, Lauren M.; Rosecrance, John; Stallones, Lorann; Roman-Muniz, Ivette Noami

    2016-01-01

    Industrialized dairy production in the U.S. relies on an immigrant, primarily Latino/a, workforce to meet greater production demands. Given the high rates of injuries and illnesses on U.S. dairies, there is pressing need to develop culturally appropriate training to promote safe practices among immigrant, Latino/a dairy workers. To date, there have been few published research articles or guidelines specific to developing effective occupational safety and health (OSH) training for immigrant, Latino/a workers in the dairy industry. Literature relevant to safety training for immigrant workers in agriculture and other high-risk industries (e.g., construction) was examined to identify promising approaches. The aim of this paper is to provide a practical guide for researchers and practitioners involved in the design and implementation of effective OSH training programs for immigrant, Latino/a workers in the dairy industry. The search was restricted to peer-reviewed academic journals and guidelines published between 1980 and 2015 by universities or extension programs, written in English, and related to health and safety training among immigrant, Latino/a workers within agriculture and other high-risk industries. Relevant recommendations regarding effective training transfer were also included from literature in the field of industrial–organizational psychology. A total of 97 articles were identified, of which 65 met the inclusion criteria and made a unique and significant contribution. The review revealed a number of promising strategies for how to effectively tailor health and safety training for immigrant, Latino/a workers in the dairy industry grouped under five main themes: (1) understanding and involving workers; (2) training content and materials; (3) training methods; (4) maximizing worker engagement; and (5) program evaluation. The identification of best practices in the design and implementation of training programs for immigrant, Latino/a workers within

  10. A Guide to the Design of Occupational Safety and Health Training for Immigrant, Latino/a Dairy Workers.

    PubMed

    Menger, Lauren M; Rosecrance, John; Stallones, Lorann; Roman-Muniz, Ivette Noami

    2016-01-01

    Industrialized dairy production in the U.S. relies on an immigrant, primarily Latino/a, workforce to meet greater production demands. Given the high rates of injuries and illnesses on U.S. dairies, there is pressing need to develop culturally appropriate training to promote safe practices among immigrant, Latino/a dairy workers. To date, there have been few published research articles or guidelines specific to developing effective occupational safety and health (OSH) training for immigrant, Latino/a workers in the dairy industry. Literature relevant to safety training for immigrant workers in agriculture and other high-risk industries (e.g., construction) was examined to identify promising approaches. The aim of this paper is to provide a practical guide for researchers and practitioners involved in the design and implementation of effective OSH training programs for immigrant, Latino/a workers in the dairy industry. The search was restricted to peer-reviewed academic journals and guidelines published between 1980 and 2015 by universities or extension programs, written in English, and related to health and safety training among immigrant, Latino/a workers within agriculture and other high-risk industries. Relevant recommendations regarding effective training transfer were also included from literature in the field of industrial-organizational psychology. A total of 97 articles were identified, of which 65 met the inclusion criteria and made a unique and significant contribution. The review revealed a number of promising strategies for how to effectively tailor health and safety training for immigrant, Latino/a workers in the dairy industry grouped under five main themes: (1) understanding and involving workers; (2) training content and materials; (3) training methods; (4) maximizing worker engagement; and (5) program evaluation. The identification of best practices in the design and implementation of training programs for immigrant, Latino/a workers within

  11. Occupational health and safety in the biotechnology industry--a survey of practicing professionals.

    PubMed

    Lee, S B; Ryan, L J

    1996-04-01

    A survey was created to gauge how health and safety (H&S) resources are allocated in the biotechnology industry and to help understand the concerns of industry H&S professionals. A questionnaire was distributed to "the person most responsible for health and safety" at 34 companies; 12 commercial firms responded. Nearly 68% of the work force monitored did not fall into any biohazard classification. Almost 80% of work involving biohazards was considered "exempt" or "BL-1" under the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention classification system, indicating that most work was performed involving organisms of low pathogenic potential. H&S program development and administration is mature; 100% of respondents report having written programs for chemical, biological, and physical hazards. Chemical safety programs occupied, on average, the greatest percentage of the H&S professionals' time (46%), followed by biosafety (29.6%) and physical hazards (16.4%). The person most responsible for H&S averaged 65% of work time on H&S issues, while only 25% described their full-time responsibilities as H&S related. Staffing levels for companies with more than about 100 technical workers approximated 1.0-1.5 full-time H&S staff equivalents per 100 technical workers. This figure compares favorably with levels reported in a benchmarking survey of hospitals. Investigation into accident rates as a measure of H&S program effectiveness suggests that the biotechnology industry is a relatively safe one. Lost time injury and illness rates were significantly lower for the 12 participating companies than the accident frequency rates in the Standard Industrial Classification codes selected for comparison.

  12. Occupational demand and human rights. Public safety officers and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J

    1991-08-01

    The issue of discrimination in physically demanding employment, such as police, firefighters, prison guards and military personnel, is contentious. In terms of oxygen transport, the 'action limit' (calling for personnel selection or task redesign) is a steady oxygen consumption of 0.7 L/min, while the maximum permissible limit is 2.1 L/min. Note is taken of the commonly expressed belief that public safety duties are physically demanding, calling for personnel with an aerobic power of at least 3 L/min, or 42 to 45 ml/kg/min. The actual demands of such work can be assessed on small samples by physiological measurements (using heart rate or oxygen consumption meters), but the periods sampled may not be typical of a normal day. A Gestalt can also be formed as to the heaviness of a given job, or a detailed task analysis can be performed; most such analyses of public safety work list distance running and other aerobic activities infrequently. An arbitrary requirement of 'above average fitness' is no longer accepted by courts, but a further approach is to examine the characteristics of those currently meeting the demands of public safety jobs satisfactorily. Young men commonly satisfy the 3 L/min standard, but this is not usually the case for women or older men; in the case of female employees, it also seems unreasonable that they should be expected to satisfy the same standards as men, since a lower body mass reduces the energy cost of most of the tasks that they must perform. A second criterion sometimes applied to physically demanding work (a low vulnerability to heart attacks) is examined critically. It is concluded that the chances that a symptom-free public safety officer will develop a heart attack during a critical solo mission are so low that cardiac risk should not be a condition of employment. Arbitrary age- and sex-related employment criteria are plainly discriminatory, since some women and 65-year-old men have higher levels of physical fitness than the

  13. Accounting Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication identifies 20 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of accounting specialist, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 20 units are as follows:…

  14. Best Practices for Optimizing DoD Contractor Safety and Occupational Health Program Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    professionals who have advanced degrees in counseling or related academic disciplines and who meet all requirements for State licensure and board...Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), P.L. 104-191). (c) The government may subject itself to liability for malpractice ...allegation of malpractice , whether or not successful, would require costly efforts to defend against even unsupported allegations. Based on these

  15. Occupational health and safety aspects of animal handling in dairy production.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Cecilia; Lundqvist, Peter; Hagevoort, G Robert; Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Douphrate, David I; Pinzke, Stefan; Grandin, Temple

    2013-01-01

    Livestock handling in dairy production is associated with a number of health and safety issues. A large number of fatal and nonfatal injuries still occur when handling livestock. The many animal handling tasks on a dairy farm include moving cattle between different locations, vaccination, administration of medication, hoof care, artificial insemination, ear tagging, milking, and loading onto trucks. There are particular problems with bulls, which continue to cause considerable numbers of injuries and fatalities in dairy production. In order to reduce the number of injuries during animal handling on dairy farms, it is important to understand the key factors in human-animal interactions. These include handler attitudes and behavior, animal behavior, and fear in cows. Care when in close proximity to the animal is the key for safe handling, including knowledge of the flight zone, and use of the right types of tools and suitable restraint equipment. Thus, in order to create safe working conditions during livestock handling, it is important to provide handlers with adequate training and to establish sound safety management procedures on the farm.

  16. Occupational health and safety of merchant seafarers from Kiribati and Tuvalu.

    PubMed

    Borovnik, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Intensifying international competition in the shipping industry in response to global pressures makes seafarers' jobs increasingly difficult. Challenging conditions in ship employment are problematic, particularly in a development context where home communities' dependence on seafarers' income is high and social protection is low. Qualitative fieldwork revealed that seafarers from Kiribati and Tuvalu endure exceptionally lengthy work periods at sea to remain competitive. Absence from home while working in constrained and mobile spaces with multinational crews, frequent security controls and speedy turnarounds impacting on sleep deprivation and decreased shore time have implications for physical and emotional health and can become safety matters. Hence, there is a growing need to address mechanisms to protect seafarers from the physical and emotional effects of global demands in the shipping industry.

  17. Occupational Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 90% of all cases of work-related cutaneous disorders. It can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis, which occurs in 80% of cases, and allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, both types will present as eczematous lesions on exposed parts of the body, notably the hands. Accurate diagnosis relies on meticulous history taking, thorough physical examination, careful reading of Material Safety Data Sheets to distinguish between irritants and allergens, and comprehensive patch testing to confirm or rule out allergic sensitization. This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of occupational contact dermatitis and provides diagnostic guidelines and a rational approach to management of these often frustrating cases. PMID:20525126

  18. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) testimony on asbestos by R. A. Lemen on March 21, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-21

    The testimony discussed the work conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) concerning protection for workers exposed to asbestos (1332214). All commercial forms of asbestos were considered to be carcinogenic. Exposure to asbestos significantly increased the risk of contracting asbestos, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Asbestos was one of the primary causes of lung cancer in nonsmokers. It was estimated that since the beginning of World War II as many as eight million workers have been exposed to asbestos. Over one million currently worked where exposure may be a problem. Construction workers involved in the demolition of buildings containing asbestos insulation were at increased risk of developing asbestos-related disease. Maintenance personnel often repaired machines in asbestos-contaminated work spaces or worked directly with products containing asbestos. NIOSH programs have involved measuring and characterizing asbestos fibers found in the work environment, quantification of the extent of disease among workers through epidemiological studies, and supporting these study results with toxicological experiments. NIOSH has also sponsored educational programs for the public and the training of workers to alert individuals to the dangers of asbestos.

  19. Analysis of workplace compliance measurements of asbestos by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (1984-2011).

    PubMed

    Cowan, Dallas M; Cheng, Thales J; Ground, Matthew; Sahmel, Jennifer; Varughese, Allysha; Madl, Amy K

    2015-08-01

    The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) maintains the Chemical Exposure Health Data (CEHD) and the Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) databases, which contain quantitative and qualitative data resulting from compliance inspections conducted from 1984 to 2011. This analysis aimed to evaluate trends in workplace asbestos concentrations over time and across industries by combining the samples from these two databases. From 1984 to 2011, personal air samples ranged from 0.001 to 175 f/cc. Asbestos compliance sampling data associated with the construction, automotive repair, manufacturing, and chemical/petroleum/rubber industries included measurements in excess of 10 f/cc, and were above the permissible exposure limit from 2001 to 2011. The utility of combining the databases was limited by the completeness and accuracy of the data recorded. In this analysis, 40% of the data overlapped between the two databases. Other limitations included sampling bias associated with compliance sampling and errors occurring from user-entered data. A clear decreasing trend in both airborne fiber concentrations and the numbers of asbestos samples collected parallels historically decreasing trends in the consumption of asbestos, and declining mesothelioma incidence rates. Although air sampling data indicated that airborne fiber exposure potential was high (>10 f/cc for short and long-term samples) in some industries (e.g., construction, manufacturing), airborne concentrations have significantly declined over the past 30 years. Recommendations for improving the existing exposure OSHA databases are provided.

  20. Neural Features of Processing the Enforcement Phrases Used during Occupational Health and Safety Inspections: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingguo; Shi, Liping; Hu, Linfeng; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Qiuzhen

    2016-01-01

    The appropriate enforcement phrases used during occupational health and safety (OHS) inspection activities is a crucial factor to guarantee the compliance with OHS regulations in enterprises. However, few researchers have empirically investigated the issue of how enforcement phrases are processed. The present study explored the neural features of processing two types of enforcement phrases (severe-and-deterrent vs. mild-and-polite phrases) used during OHS inspections by applying event-related potentials (ERP) method. Electroencephalogram data were recorded while the participants distinguished between severe-and-deterrent phrases and mild-and-polite phrases depicted in written Chinese words. The ERP results showed that severe-and-deterrent phrases elicited significantly augmented P300 amplitude with a central-parietal scalp distribution compared with mild-and-polite phrases, indicating the allocation of more attention resources to and elaborate processing of the severe-and-deterrent phrases. It reveals that humans may consider the severe-and-deterrent phrases as more motivationally significant and elaborately process the severity and deterrence information contained in the enforcement phrases for the adaptive protection. The current study provides an objective and supplementary way to measure the efficiency of different enforcement phrases at neural level, which may help generate appropriate enforcement phrases and improve the performance of OHS inspections.

  1. Chronic Electromagnetic Exposure at Occupational Safety Level Does Not Affect the Metabolic Profile nor Cornea Healing after LASIK Surgery.

    PubMed

    Crouzier, David; Dabouis, Vincent; Gentilhomme, Edgar; Vignal, Rodolphe; Bourbon, Fréderic; Fauvelle, Florence; Debouzy, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    LASIK eye surgery has become a very common practice for myopic people, especially those in the military. Sometimes undertaken by people who need to keep a specific medical aptitude, this surgery could be performed in secret from the hierarchy and from the institute medical staff. However, even though the eyes have been previously described as one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic fields in the human body, no data exist on the potential deleterious effects of electromagnetic fields on the healing eye. The consequences of chronic long-lasting radar exposures at power density, in accordance with the occupational safety standards (9.71 GHz, 50 W/m(2)), were investigated on cornea healing. The metabolic and clinical statuses after experimental LASIK keratotomy were assessed on the different eye segments in a New Zealand rabbit model. The analysis methods were performed after 5 months of exposure (1 hour/day, 3 times/week). Neither clinical or histological examinations, nor experimental data, such as light scattering, (1)H-NMR HRMAS metabolomics, (13)C-NMR spectra of lipidic extracts, and antioxidant status, evidenced significant modifications. It was concluded that withdrawing the medical aptitude of people working in electromagnetic field environments (i.e., radar operators in the navy) after eye surgery was not justified.

  2. Neural Features of Processing the Enforcement Phrases Used during Occupational Health and Safety Inspections: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qingguo; Shi, Liping; Hu, Linfeng; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Qiuzhen

    2016-01-01

    The appropriate enforcement phrases used during occupational health and safety (OHS) inspection activities is a crucial factor to guarantee the compliance with OHS regulations in enterprises. However, few researchers have empirically investigated the issue of how enforcement phrases are processed. The present study explored the neural features of processing two types of enforcement phrases (severe-and-deterrent vs. mild-and-polite phrases) used during OHS inspections by applying event-related potentials (ERP) method. Electroencephalogram data were recorded while the participants distinguished between severe-and-deterrent phrases and mild-and-polite phrases depicted in written Chinese words. The ERP results showed that severe-and-deterrent phrases elicited significantly augmented P300 amplitude with a central-parietal scalp distribution compared with mild-and-polite phrases, indicating the allocation of more attention resources to and elaborate processing of the severe-and-deterrent phrases. It reveals that humans may consider the severe-and-deterrent phrases as more motivationally significant and elaborately process the severity and deterrence information contained in the enforcement phrases for the adaptive protection. The current study provides an objective and supplementary way to measure the efficiency of different enforcement phrases at neural level, which may help generate appropriate enforcement phrases and improve the performance of OHS inspections. PMID:27807404

  3. Chronic Electromagnetic Exposure at Occupational Safety Level Does Not Affect the Metabolic Profile nor Cornea Healing after LASIK Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dabouis, Vincent; Gentilhomme, Edgar; Vignal, Rodolphe; Bourbon, Fréderic; Fauvelle, Florence; Debouzy, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    LASIK eye surgery has become a very common practice for myopic people, especially those in the military. Sometimes undertaken by people who need to keep a specific medical aptitude, this surgery could be performed in secret from the hierarchy and from the institute medical staff. However, even though the eyes have been previously described as one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic fields in the human body, no data exist on the potential deleterious effects of electromagnetic fields on the healing eye. The consequences of chronic long-lasting radar exposures at power density, in accordance with the occupational safety standards (9.71 GHz, 50 W/m2), were investigated on cornea healing. The metabolic and clinical statuses after experimental LASIK keratotomy were assessed on the different eye segments in a New Zealand rabbit model. The analysis methods were performed after 5 months of exposure (1 hour/day, 3 times/week). Neither clinical or histological examinations, nor experimental data, such as light scattering, 1H-NMR HRMAS metabolomics, 13C-NMR spectra of lipidic extracts, and antioxidant status, evidenced significant modifications. It was concluded that withdrawing the medical aptitude of people working in electromagnetic field environments (i.e., radar operators in the navy) after eye surgery was not justified. PMID:24757560

  4. Role of Headmasters, Teachers, and Supervisors in Knowledge Transfer about Occupational Health and Safety to Pupils in Vocational Education

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Ing-Marie; Gunnarsson, Kristina; Rosèn, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Background Young people are at an increased risk for illness in working life. The authorities stipulate certain goals for training in occupational health and safety (OHS) in vocational schools. A previous study concluded that pupils in vocational education had limited knowledge in the prevention of health risks at work. The aim of the current study, therefore, was to study how OHS training is organized in school and in workplace-based learning (WPL). Methods The study design featured a qualitative approach, which included interviews with 12 headmasters, 20 teachers, and 20 supervisors at companies in which the pupils had their WPL. The study was conducted at 10 upper secondary schools, located in Central Sweden, that were graduating pupils in four vocational programs. Results The interviews with headmasters, teachers, and supervisors indicate a staggered picture of how pupils are prepared for safe work. The headmasters generally give teachers the responsibility for how goals should be reached. Teaching is very much based on risk factors that are present in the workshops and on teachers' own experiences and knowledge. The teaching during WPL also lacks the systematic training in OHS as well as in the traditional classroom environment. Conclusion Teachers and supervisors did not plan the training in OHS in accordance with the provisions of systematic work environment management. Instead, the teachers based the training on their own experiences. Most of the supervisors did not receive information from the schools as to what should be included when introducing OHS issues in WPL. PMID:26929844

  5. A review of occupational safety and health issues relevant to the Environmental Restoration Program: Selected case histories and associated issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.; Siegel, M.R.; McKinney, M.C.

    1994-08-01

    Since the 1940s, US Department of Energy (DOE) sites have been used for nuclear materials processing and production, warhead testing, and weapons research and development. These activities have resulted in extensive environmental contamination. DOE has established a goal to cleanup and restore the groundwater, soils, sediments, and surface water at its facilities across the nation. To achieve this goal, many workers will be needed to conduct the cleanup. These workers will need training and will be required to follow occupational safety and health (OSH) regulations and guidelines. Compliance with the OSH regulations and guidelines will have an anomous influence on the schedule, money, and technology needed for environmental restoration. Therefore, one area that must be considered in the early stages of long-term planning is the impact of OSH issues on the environmental restoration process. The DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management has requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) investigate the impact of these issues on the environmental restoration process.

  6. Occupational health and safety-ergonomics improvement as a corporate responsibility of a Bali handicraft company: a case study.

    PubMed

    Purnawati, Susy

    2007-12-01

    The issue of corporate social responsibility is nowadays becoming popular around industrial communities. The support for the issue has initially spread since the adoption in 1998 of the ILO Declaration concerning fundamental principles and rights at work and then followed up by industries in developed countries. A case study was done from February to August 2006 at a handicraft company in Bali in order to find out the core application of the issue at the enterprise level. The study was conducted by observation in the field of the factory and suppliers, taking photos and interviewing management and employees of the company. The results of the study show that the company has already executed the activities that reflect the application of the core principles. The activities included programs which concerned not only the business corporate community but also wider communities. With regard to the business corporate community, the company had improved the conditions related to ergonomics and occupational health and safety. The improvement was done by referring to the external audit. At the national community level, the company had participated in the recovery measures of national disasters by helping small industries revive. It is hoped that this core program is soon copied by other companies considering that it is very beneficial to the communities and companies.

  7. Workplace Measurements by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration since 1979: Descriptive Analysis and Potential Uses for Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background : Inspectors from the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) have been collecting industrial hygiene samples since 1972 to verify compliance with Permissible Exposure Limits. Starting in 1979, these measurements were computerized into the Integrated Management Information System (IMIS). In 2010, a dataset of over 1 million personal sample results analysed at OSHA’s central laboratory in Salt Lake City [Chemical Exposure Health Data (CEHD)], only partially overlapping the IMIS database, was placed into public domain via the internet. We undertook this study to inform potential users about the relationship between this newly available OSHA data and IMIS and to offer insight about the opportunities and challenges associated with the use of OSHA measurement data for occupational exposure assessment. Methods : We conducted a literature review of previous uses of IMIS in occupational health research and performed a descriptive analysis of the data recently made available and compared them to the IMIS database for lead, the most frequently sampled agent. Results : The literature review yielded 29 studies reporting use of IMIS data, but none using the CEHD data. Most studies focused on a single contaminant, with silica and lead being most frequently analysed. Sixteen studies addressed potential bias in IMIS, mostly by examining the association between exposure levels and ancillary information. Although no biases of appreciable magnitude were consistently reported across studies and agents, these assessments may have been obscured by selective under-reporting of non-detectable measurements. The CEHD data comprised 1 450 836 records from 1984 to 2009, not counting analytical blanks and erroneous records. Seventy eight agents with >1000 personal samples yielded 1 037 367 records. Unlike IMIS, which contain administrative information (company size, job description), ancillary information in the CEHD data is mostly analytical. When the IMIS and

  8. [Scientific evidence and legal liability in occupational health: indemnity claim based on lack of safety and hygiene controls after a worker's death due to mesothelioma].

    PubMed

    G Benavides, Fernando; Menéndez-Navarro, Alfredo; Delclòs, Jordi; Luque, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect, under the precautionary principle, on the relationship between scientific causation and legal liability in connection with a lawsuit regarding compensation for lack of occupational safety and hygiene controls following the death of a worker with mesothelioma that had been previously accepted as an occupational disease. The worker had spent 28 years as a shipyard welder, with a diagnosis of occupationally-related mesothelioma in 2007, and who died in 2009. After reviewing the advances in a) scientific knowledge on the health effects of asbestos exposure, which were consolidated between 1955 and 1976, and b) the development of a regulatory framework for the protection of workers in Spain that began generically in 1940 and became more specific in 1982, we conclude that our case probably would have benefited from application of the precautionary principle, which is now widely accepted.

  9. Sound Practice—improving occupational health and safety for professional orchestral musicians in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Bronwen J.; Kenny, Dianna T.; O'Brien, Ian; Driscoll, Tim R.

    2014-01-01

    The Sound Practice Project is a 5-year study involving baseline evaluation, development, and implementation of musician-specific work health and safety initiatives. A cross-sectional population physical and psychological survey and physical assessment were conducted at the same time, with an auditory health assessment conducted later. The results were used to guide the development of a series of targeted interventions, encompassing physical, psychological, and auditory health components. This paper provides an overview of the project but focuses on the health findings arising from the cross-sectional survey. Three hundred and seventy-seven musicians from the eight professional symphony orchestras in Australia took part in the cross-sectional study (about 70% of eligible musicians). Eighty-four percent (84%) of musicians reported past performance-related musculoskeletal disorder (PRMD) episodes; 50% were suffering a current PRMD. Of the 63% who returned hearing surveys, 43% believed they had hearing loss, and 64% used earplugs at least intermittently. Noise exposure was found to be high in private practice, although awareness of risk and earplug use in this environment was lower than in orchestral settings. Improved strategic approaches, acoustic screens and recently developed active earplugs were found to provide effective new options for hearing protection. With respect to psychosocial screening, female musicians reported significantly more trait anxiety, music performance anxiety, social anxiety, and other forms of anxiety and depression than male musicians. The youngest musicians were significantly more anxious compared with the oldest musicians. Thirty-three percent (33%) of musicians may meet criteria for a diagnosis of social phobia; 32% returned a positive depression screen and 22% for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PRMDs and trigger point discomfort levels were strongly associated with increasing severity of psychological issues such as depression

  10. "Educate the Individual... to a Sane Appreciation of the Risk" A History of Industry's Responsibility to Warn of Job Dangers Before the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Rosner, David; Markowitz, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Workers Right to Know laws later in that decade were signature moments in the history of occupational safety and health. We have examined how and why industry leaders came to accept that it was the obligation of business to provide information about the dangers to health of the materials that workers encountered. Informing workers about the hazards of the job had plagued labor-management relations and fed labor disputes, strikes, and even pitched battles during the turn of the century decades. Industry's rhetorical embrace of the responsibility to inform was part of its argument that government regulation of the workplace was not necessary because private corporations were doing it.

  11. Evaluation of S-101 course Supervisors Orientation to Occupational Safety Compliance in DOE'' taught in Richland, Washington May 5--8, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.S.

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety Training Section course, Supervisors' Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE'', (S-101)which was conducted May 5--8 at Hanford, in Richland, Washington. Section 1.1 and 1.2 of this report summarizes the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Appendix A provides a transcript of the trainees' written comments. Numeric course ratings were generally positive and show that the course material and instruction were very effective. Written comments supported the positive numeric ratings. The course content and knowledge gained by the trainees exceeded most of the students' expectations of the course.

  12. Evaluation of S-101 course ``Supervisors Orientation to Occupational Safety Compliance in DOE`` taught in Richland, Washington May 5--8, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.S.

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety Training Section course, ``Supervisors` Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE``, (S-101)which was conducted May 5--8 at Hanford, in Richland, Washington. Section 1.1 and 1.2 of this report summarizes the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Appendix A provides a transcript of the trainees` written comments. Numeric course ratings were generally positive and show that the course material and instruction were very effective. Written comments supported the positive numeric ratings. The course content and knowledge gained by the trainees exceeded most of the students` expectations of the course.

  13. Evaluation of S-101 course Supervisors' Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE'' taught in Stanford, California, July 28, 1992--July 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety Training Section Course, Supervisors' Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE'' in Stanford, California. Section 1.1 and 1.2 summarize the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Appendix A provides a transcript of the trainees' written comments. Numeric Course ratings were generally positive and show that the course material and instruction were very effective. Written comments supported the positive numeric ratings. The course content and knowledge gained by the trainees exceeded most of the students' expectations of the course. Results from the final examination showed that students gained significant koowledde from the course.

  14. Evaluation of S-101 course ``Supervisors` Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE`` taught in Stanford, California, July 28, 1992--July 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety Training Section Course, ``Supervisors` Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE`` in Stanford, California. Section 1.1 and 1.2 summarize the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Appendix A provides a transcript of the trainees` written comments. Numeric Course ratings were generally positive and show that the course material and instruction were very effective. Written comments supported the positive numeric ratings. The course content and knowledge gained by the trainees exceeded most of the students` expectations of the course. Results from the final examination showed that students gained significant koowledde from the course.

  15. Evaluation of S-101 course Supervisors' Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE'' taught in Idaho Falls, Idaho, June 23, 1992--June 26, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety Training Section course, Supervisors' Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE'', (S-101) which was conducted June 23---26 at Idaho Falls Engineering Laboratory, in Idaho Falls, Idaho. Section 1.1 and 1.2 of this report summarizes the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Appendix A provides a transcript of the trainees' written comments. Numeric course ratings were generally positive and show that the course material and instruction were very effective. Written comments supported the positive numeric ratings. The course content and knowledge gained by the trainees exceeded most of the students' expectations of the course.

  16. Evaluation of S-101 course ``Supervisors` Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE`` taught in Idaho Falls, Idaho, June 23, 1992--June 26, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety Training Section course, ``Supervisors` Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE``, (S-101) which was conducted June 23---26 at Idaho Falls Engineering Laboratory, in Idaho Falls, Idaho. Section 1.1 and 1.2 of this report summarizes the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Appendix A provides a transcript of the trainees` written comments. Numeric course ratings were generally positive and show that the course material and instruction were very effective. Written comments supported the positive numeric ratings. The course content and knowledge gained by the trainees exceeded most of the students` expectations of the course.

  17. Evaluation of S-101 course Supervisors' Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE'' taught in Las Vegas, Nevada, October 26--29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.S.

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety Training Section course, Supervisors' Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE'', (S-101) which was conducted October 26--29, 1992 at EG G Measurement, in Las Vegas, Nevada. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 of this report summarize the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Sections 2.0 and 3.0 provide examination results, and recommendations for improvement. Appendix A provides a transcript of the trainees' written comments and Appendix B presents a copy of the course evaluation form that students were asked to complete.

  18. Evaluation of S-101 course ``Supervisors` Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE`` taught in Las Vegas, Nevada, October 26--29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.S.

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety Training Section course, ``Supervisors` Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE``, (S-101) which was conducted October 26--29, 1992 at EG&G Measurement, in Las Vegas, Nevada. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 of this report summarize the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Sections 2.0 and 3.0 provide examination results, and recommendations for improvement. Appendix A provides a transcript of the trainees` written comments and Appendix B presents a copy of the course evaluation form that students were asked to complete.

  19. The combined relationship of occupational and leisure-time physical activity with all-cause mortality among men, accounting for physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark; De Bacquer, Dirk; Van Herck, Koen; De Backer, Guy; Kittel, France; de Smet, Patrick; Holtermann, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the combined relationship of occupational physical activity and leisure-time physical activity with all-cause mortality among men, while accounting for physical fitness. The prospective Belgian Physical Fitness Study included 1,456 male workers aged 40-55 years who were free of coronary heart disease at baseline. Baseline data were collected through questionnaires and clinical examinations from 1976 to 1978. To estimate physical fitness, a submaximal graded exercise test was performed on a bicycle ergometer. Total mortality was registered during a mean follow-up period of 16.9 years. Main results were obtained through Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. A total of 145 deaths were registered during follow-up. After adjustment for confounders, a significantly increased mortality rate was observed in workers who had low levels of both physical activity types (hazard ratio = 2.07, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 4.19) but also in workers combining high occupational physical activity and low leisure-time physical activity (hazard ratio = 2.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.07, 3.91); the latter finding was particularly pronounced among workers with a low physical fitness level. The present results confirm the existence of a complex interplay among different physical activity settings and fitness levels in predicting mortality.

  20. Basic Program Elements for Federal employee Occupational Safety and Health Programs and related matters; Subpart I for Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-08-05

    OSHA is issuing a final rule amending the Basic Program Elements to require Federal agencies to submit their occupational injury and illness recordkeeping information to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and OSHA on an annual basis. The information, which is already required to be created and maintained by Federal agencies, will be used by BLS to aggregate injury and illness information throughout the Federal government. OSHA will use the information to identify Federal establishments with high incidence rates for targeted inspection, and assist in determining the most effective safety and health training for Federal employees. The final rule also interprets several existing basic program elements in our regulations to clarify requirements applicable to Federal agencies, amends the date when Federal agencies must submit to the Secretary of Labor their annual report on occupational safety and health programs, amends the date when the Secretary of Labor must submit to the President the annual report on Federal agency safety and health, and clarifies that Federal agencies must include uncompensated volunteers when reporting and recording occupational injuries and illnesses.

  1. Association between overuse of mobile phones on quality of sleep and general health among occupational health and safety students.

    PubMed

    Eyvazlou, Meysam; Zarei, Esmaeil; Rahimi, Azin; Abazari, Malek

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about health problems due to the increasing use of mobile phones are growing. Excessive use of mobile phones can affect the quality of sleep as one of the important issues in the health literature and general health of people. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the excessive use of mobile phones and general health and quality of sleep on 450 Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) students in five universities of medical sciences in the North East of Iran in 2014. To achieve this objective, special questionnaires that included Cell Phone Overuse Scale, Pittsburgh's Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) were used, respectively. In addition to descriptive statistical methods, independent t-test, Pearson correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression tests were performed. The results revealed that half of the students had a poor level of sleep quality and most of them were considered unhealthy. The Pearson correlation co-efficient indicated a significant association between the excessive use of mobile phones and the total score of general health and the quality of sleep. In addition, the results of the multiple regression showed that the excessive use of mobile phones has a significant relationship between each of the four subscales of general health and the quality of sleep. Furthermore, the results of the multivariate regression indicated that the quality of sleep has a simultaneous effect on each of the four scales of the general health. Overall, a simultaneous study of the effects of the mobile phones on the quality of sleep and the general health could be considered as a trigger to employ some intervention programs to improve their general health status, quality of sleep and consequently educational performance.

  2. A method to account for outliers in the development of safety performance functions.

    PubMed

    El-Basyouny, Karim; Sayed, Tarek

    2010-07-01

    Accident data sets can include some unusual data points that are not typical of the rest of the data. The presence of these data points (usually termed outliers) can have a significant impact on the estimates of the parameters of safety performance functions (SPFs). Few studies have considered outliers analysis in the development of SPFs. In these studies, the practice has been to identify and then exclude outliers from further analysis. This paper introduces alternative mixture models based on the multivariate Poisson lognormal (MVPLN) regression. The proposed approach presents outlier resistance modeling techniques that provide robust safety inferences by down-weighting the outlying observations rather than rejecting them. The first proposed model is a scale-mixture model that is obtained by replacing the normal distribution in the Poisson-lognormal hierarchy by the Student t distribution, which has heavier tails. The second model is a two-component mixture (contaminated normal model) where it is assumed that most of the observations come from a basic distribution, whereas the remaining few outliers arise from an alternative distribution that has a larger variance. The results indicate that the estimates of the extra-Poisson variation parameters were considerably smaller under the mixture models leading to higher precision. Also, both mixture models have identified the same set of outliers. In terms of goodness-of-fit, both mixture models have outperformed the MVPLN. The outlier rejecting MVPLN model provided a superior fit in terms of a much smaller DIC and standard deviations for the parameter estimates. However, this approach tends to underestimate uncertainty by producing too small standard deviations for the parameter estimates, which may lead to incorrect conclusions. It is recommended that the proposed outlier resistance modeling techniques be used unless the exclusion of the outlying observations can be justified because of data related reasons (e

  3. NIOSH testimony to DOL on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's proposed rule on occupational exposure to cadmium by R. A. Lemen, July 17, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-17

    The testimony summarizes the position of NIOSH in support of the proposed rule on cadmium (7440439). NIOSH supports the position of OSHA that exposure to cadmium is associated with increased incidence of lung cancer, emphysema, and kidney dysfunction. Because cadmium is a potential occupational carcinogen, occupational exposures to cadmium should be reduced to the lowest feasible level. NIOSH strongly recommends the use of engineering controls and work practices instead of personal protective equipment, including respiratory protection, for controlling exposures to cadmium. NIOSH responds in this testimony to specific areas covered in the proposed rule including respiratory protection, medical surveillance, medical screening requirements, and exposure monitoring frequency. Use of specific control methods is considered for cadmium plating operations, stabilizer production, and pigment production.

  4. Client Perceptions of Occupational Health and Safety Management System Assistance Provided by OSHA On-Site Consultation: Results of a Survey of Colorado Small Business Consultation Clients.

    PubMed

    Autenrieth, Daniel A; Brazile, William J; Gilkey, David P; Reynolds, Stephen J; June, Cathy; Sandfort, Del

    2015-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) On-Site Consultation Service provides assistance establishing occupational health and safety management systems (OHSMS) to small businesses. The Safety and Health Program Assessment Worksheet (Revised OSHA Form 33) is the instrument used by consultants to assess an organization's OHSMS and provide feedback on how to improve a system. A survey was developed to determine the usefulness of the Revised OSHA Form 33 from the perspective of Colorado OSHA consultation clients. One hundred and seven clients who had received consultation services within a six-year period responded to the survey. The vast majority of respondents indicated that the Revised OSHA Form 33 accurately reflected their OHSMS and that information provided on the Revised OSHA Form 33 was helpful for improving their systems. Specific outcomes reported by the respondents included increased safety awareness, reduced injuries, and improved morale. The results indicate that the OHSMS assistance provided by OSHA consultation is beneficial for clients and that the Revised OSHA Form 33 can be an effective tool for assessing and communicating OHSMS results to business management. Detailed comments and suggestions provided on the Revised OSHA Form 33 are helpful for clients to improve their OHSMS.

  5. Development and Validation of the Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) Version 5 Containing Multiple 1D Muscles for Estimating Occupant Motions with Muscle Activation During Side Impacts.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masami; Nakahira, Yuko

    2015-11-01

    Accurate prediction of occupant head kinematics is critical for better understanding of head/face injury mechanisms in side impacts, especially far-side occupants. In light of the fact that researchers have demonstrated that muscle activations, especially in neck muscles, can affect occupant head kinematics, a human body finite element (FE) model that considers muscle activation is useful for predicting occupant head kinematics in real-world automotive accidents. In this study, we developed a human body FE model called the THUMS (Total HUman Model for Safety) Version 5 that contains 262 one-dimensional (1D) Hill-type muscle models over the entire body. The THUMS was validated against 36 series of PMHS (Post Mortem Human Surrogate) and volunteer test data in this study, and 16 series of PMHS and volunteer test data on side impacts are presented. Validation results with force-time curves were also evaluated quantitatively using the CORA (CORrelation and Analysis) method. The validation results suggest that the THUMS has good biofidelity in the responses of the regional or full body for side impacts, but relatively poor biofidelity in its local level of responses such as brain displacements. Occupant kinematics predicted by the THUMS with a muscle controller using 22 PID (Proportional-Integral- Derivative) controllers were compared with those of volunteer test data on low-speed lateral impacts. The THUMS with muscle controller reproduced the head kinematics of the volunteer data more accurately than that without muscle activation, although further studies on validation of torso kinematics are needed for more accurate predictions of occupant head kinematics.

  6. Reliability of COPVs Accounting for Margin of Safety on Design Burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L.N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the stress rupture reliability of Carbon/Epoxy Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) is examined utilizing the classic Phoenix model and accounting for the differences between the design and the actual burst pressure, and the liner contribution effects. Stress rupture life primarily depends upon the fiber stress ratio which is defined as the ratio of stress in fibers at the maximum expected operating pressure to actual delivered fiber strength. The actual delivered fiber strength is calculated using the actual burst pressures of vessels established through burst tests. However, during the design phase the actual burst pressure is generally not known and to estimate the reliability of the vessels calculations are usually performed based upon the design burst pressure only. Since the design burst is lower than the actual burst, this process yields a much higher value for the stress ratio and consequently a conservative estimate for the reliability. Other complications arise due to the fact that the actual burst pressure and the liner contributions have inherent variability and therefore must be treated as random variables in order to compute the stress rupture reliability. Furthermore, the model parameters, which have to be established based on stress rupture tests of subscale vessels or coupons, have significant variability as well due to limited available data and hence must be properly accounted for. In this work an assessment of reliability of COPVs including both parameter uncertainties and physical variability inherent in liner and overwrap material behavior is made and estimates are provided in terms of degree of uncertainty in the actual burst pressure and the liner load sharing.

  7. Accounting for outcome misclassification in estimates of the effect of occupational asbestos exposure on lung cancer death.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jessie K; Cole, Stephen R; Chu, Haitao; Olshan, Andrew F; Richardson, David B

    2014-03-01

    In studies of the health effects of asbestos, lung cancer death is subject to misclassification. We used modified maximum likelihood to explore the effects of outcome misclassification on the rate ratio of lung cancer death per 100 fiber-years per milliliter of cumulative asbestos exposure in a cohort study of textile workers in Charleston, South Carolina, followed from 1940 to 2001. The standard covariate-adjusted estimate of the rate ratio was 1.94 (95% confidence interval: 1.55, 2.44), and modified maximum likelihood produced similar results when we assumed that the specificity of outcome classification was 0.98. With sensitivity assumed to be 0.80 and specificity assumed to be 0.95, estimated rate ratios were further from the null and less precise (rate ratio = 2.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.59, 2.98). In the present context, standard estimates for the effect of asbestos on lung cancer death were similar to estimates accounting for the limited misclassification. However, sensitivity analysis using modified maximum likelihood was needed to verify the robustness of standard estimates, and this approach will provide unbiased estimates in settings with more misclassification.

  8. Development of a wheelchair occupant injury risk assessment method and its application in the investigation of wheelchair securement point influence on frontal crash safety.

    PubMed

    Bertocci, G E; Hobson, D A; Digges, K H

    2000-03-01

    To promote proper wheelchair securement in transportation, the proposed ANSI/RESNA Standard on Wheelchairs Used as Seats in Motor Vehicles will require that all transit wheelchairs be equipped with four securement points compatible with strap-type tiedowns. Through computer simulations, the location of these securement points has been found to influence wheelchair user response to a frontal crash. This study develops and employs an injury risk assessment method to compare the crashworthiness of various securement point configurations. The comparative injury risk assessment method is designed to predict the risk associated with internalized crash forces, as well as risk associated with secondary occupant impact with the vehicle interior. Injury criteria established by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and General Motors, along with excursion limitations set by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J2249 Wheelchair Tiedowns and Occupant Restraint Systems (WTORS) Standard were used as benchmarks for the risk assessment method. The simulation model subjected a secured commercial powerbase wheelchair with a seated 50th percentile male Hybrid III test dummy to a 20 g/30 mph crash. The occupant was restrained using pelvic and shoulder belts, and the wheelchair was secured with four strap-type tiedowns. Results indicated that securement points located 1.5 in to 2.5 in above the evaluated wheelchair's center of gravity provide the most effective occupant protection.

  9. Risk Level Based Management System: a control banding model for occupational health and safety risk management in a highly regulated environment

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D; Kamerzell, R; Paik, S; Kapp, J; Harrington, D; Swuste, P

    2009-05-27

    The Risk Level Based Management System (RLBMS) is an occupational risk management (ORM) model that focuses occupational safety, hygeiene, and health (OSHH) resources on the highest risk procedures at work. This article demonstrates the model's simplicity through an implementation within a heavily regulated research institution. The model utilizes control banding strategies with a stratification of four risk levels (RLs) for many commonly performed maintenance and support activities, characterizing risk consistently for comparable tasks. RLBMS creates an auditable tracking of activities, maximizes OSHH professional field time, and standardizes documentation and control commensurate to a given task's RL. Validation of RLs and their exposure control effectiveness is collected in a traditional quantitative collection regime for regulatory auditing. However, qualitative risk assessment methods are also used within this validation process. Participatory approaches are used throughout the RLBMS process. Workers are involved in all phases of building, maintaining, and improving this model. This work participation also improves the implementation of established controls.

  10. Prevention of work-related psychological disorders. A national strategy proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

    PubMed

    Sauter, S L; Murphy, L R; Hurrell, J J

    1990-10-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recognizes psychological disorders as a leading occupational health problem. This document, developed by a NIOSH working group led by the present authors, represents a first attempt to fashion a comprehensive national strategy to protect and promote the psychological health of workers. Roles are identified for industry, labor, government, and academia. Key initiatives include (a) steps to improve working conditions and employee mental health services and (b) increased research and surveillance to advance understanding of the problem. Because work-related psychological disorders appear to be a rapidly developing problem lacking complete definition in terms of scope and etiology, this strategy is not to be considered a final statement of NIOSH policy.

  11. An integrated quality function deployment and capital budgeting methodology for occupational safety and health as a systems thinking approach: the case of the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Bas, Esra

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, an integrated methodology for Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and a 0-1 knapsack model is proposed for occupational safety and health as a systems thinking approach. The House of Quality (HoQ) in QFD methodology is a systematic tool to consider the inter-relationships between two factors. In this paper, three HoQs are used to consider the interrelationships between tasks and hazards, hazards and events, and events and preventive/protective measures. The final priority weights of events are defined by considering their project-specific preliminary weights, probability of occurrence, and effects on the victim and the company. The priority weights of the preventive/protective measures obtained in the last HoQ are fed into a 0-1 knapsack model for the investment decision. Then, the selected preventive/protective measures can be adapted to the task design. The proposed step-by-step methodology can be applied to any stage of a project to design the workplace for occupational safety and health, and continuous improvement for safety is endorsed by the closed loop characteristic of the integrated methodology.

  12. 64 FR 34625 - Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-06-28

    ... Tuberculosis AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice..., 1997, OSHA published its proposed standard to regulate occupational exposure to tuberculosis (TB) (62... preliminary risk assessment for occupational exposure to tuberculosis. DATES: Comments and data...

  13. Occupational safety and health aspects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Japanese companies listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE) first section.

    PubMed

    Kawashita, Futoshi; Taniyama, Yukari; Hwi, Song You; Fujisaki, Takeshi; Kameda, Takashi; Mori, Koji

    2005-11-01

    Recently, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is becoming widely recognized as an issue for Japanese companies. Corporate responsibility for employees is considered important by various stakeholders, and occupational safety and health is regarded as one of these responsibilities. The present authors examined this issue from the viewpoint of corporate management by analysis of statements found in CSR-related reports. For companies listed on the First Section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE), we searched for CSR-related reports, and titles and contents, based on two established guidelines: the GRI Sustainability Reporting Guidelines 2002 as the international reference and the Environmental Reporting Guidelines of the Ministry of the Environment, Government of Japan, as the domestic reference. Corporations that published CSR reports were 26.3% (416/1,581) of the total, and large differences were recognized by type of industry. Comparing the numbers of pages for various contents, more concern was shown about the environment than about social activity, indicating the environment to be the main issue of CSR in Japan. In the items included in the guidelines, many matters about occupational accidents were mentioned, but it was found that statements regarding HIV/AIDS, which is not of such strong social concern in Japan, and statements regarding the costs of safety that are difficult to calculate were few. However, statements regarding mental health, which is of high interest socially, were many, even though this issue is not included in the two guidelines used. In revising the guidelines, these matters should be reviewed. In the future, continuance of analysis of CSR-related reports with regard to changes and comparisons with overseas reports will help improve occupational safety and health.

  14. 62 FR 54160 - Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-10-17

    ... Tuberculosis; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 62, No. 201 / Friday, October 17, 1997 / Proposed... 1218-AB46 Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration... Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, 29 U.S.C. 655, to control occupational exposure to tuberculosis...

  15. Evaluation of P-101 course ``Orientation to Occupational Safety Compliance in DOE`` taught in Livermore, California March 31--April 10, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Colley, D.L.

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety and Health Training Section course, ``Orientation to Occupational Safety Compliance in DOE`` (P-101), which was conducted March 31 to April 10 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in Livermore, California. Section 1.1 and 1.2 of this report summarize the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Appendix A provides a transcript of the trainees` written comments. Numeric course ratings were generally positive and show that the course material and instruction were very effective. Written comments supported the positive numeric ratings. The course content and knowledge gained by the trainees exceeded most of the students` expectations of the course. Results from the final examination showed that students gained significant knowledge from the course.

  16. Evaluation of P-101 course Orientation to Occupational Safety Compliance in DOE'' taught in Livermore, California March 31--April 10, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Colley, D.L.

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety and Health Training Section course, Orientation to Occupational Safety Compliance in DOE'' (P-101), which was conducted March 31 to April 10 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in Livermore, California. Section 1.1 and 1.2 of this report summarize the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Appendix A provides a transcript of the trainees' written comments. Numeric course ratings were generally positive and show that the course material and instruction were very effective. Written comments supported the positive numeric ratings. The course content and knowledge gained by the trainees exceeded most of the students' expectations of the course. Results from the final examination showed that students gained significant knowledge from the course.

  17. Evaluation of S-101 course Supervisors' orientation to occupational safety in DOE'' taught at Rocky Flats, Colorado, April 23--May 2, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Vinther, R W

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the DOE Safety Training Institute's course, Supervisors Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE,'' which was conducted twice at the Rocky Flats facility between April 23, 1991 and May 2, 1991. The first part of the report summarizes the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course and provides a transcript of the trainees written comments in Appendices A and B. The second part summarizes results from the final examination designed to measure the knowledge gained from the course. The third part of the report summarizes course modifications and recommendations for improvement. Numeric course ratings were generally positive and show that the course material and instruction was very effective. Written comments supported the positive numeric ratings. The course content and knowledge gained by the trainees exceeded most of the students expectations of the course. Results from the final examination showed that students gained appropriate knowledge from the course.

  18. Evaluation of P-101 course Orientation to occupational safety compliance in DOE'' taught in Albuquerque, New Mexico, April 28--May 8, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Colley, D L

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety Training section course, Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE'', (P-101) which was Section course , conducted April 28 to May 8, 1992 at Sandia National Laboratory, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Section 1.1 and 1.2 of this report summarizes the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Appendix A provides a transcript of the trainees' written comments. Numeric course ratings were generally positive and show that the course material and instruction were very effective. Written comments supported the positive numeric ratings. The course content and knowledge gained by the trainees exceeded most of the students' expectations of the course. Results from the final examination showed that students gained significant knowledge from the course.

  19. Accidents and Apathy: The Construction of the ‘Robens Philosophy’ of Occupational Safety and Health Regulation in Britain, 1961–1974

    PubMed Central

    Sirrs, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The 1972 Robens Report is widely regarded to have provided the underlying rationale for the ‘modern’ system of occupational health and safety regulation in Britain, embodied in the Health and Safety at Work Act (HSW Act) 1974. The HSW Act advanced a new, more flexible system of regulation, premised on the ideal of self-regulation by industry. This article advances a more nuanced historical understanding of the Report and its ethos—the ‘Robens philosophy’—than hitherto developed, situating its assumptions about accidents, regulation and the role of the state in the social, economic and political context of Britain in the 1960s and early 1970s. Highlighting the interaction between these trends and long-established regulatory practices, the article argues that the turn to ‘self-regulation’ heralded by the Robens Report was highly convincing from a political and regulatory perspective at the time it was promulgated. PMID:26858514

  20. Occupational Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  1. Essential Occupational Safety and Health Interventions for Low- and Middle-income Countries: An Overview of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Verbeek, Jos; Ivanov, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    There is still a considerable burden of occupational diseases and injuries in the world. It is not well known which interventions can effectively reduce the exposures at work that cause this burden. The objective of this article is to summarize evidence from systematic reviews of interventions to prevent occupational diseases and injuries. We included systematic reviews of interventions to reduce the incidence of work-related cancer, dust-related diseases, occupational asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, noiseinduced hearing loss, back pain, and occupational injuries. We searched Medline and Embase with predefined search strategies to locate systematic reviews of these interventions. We found 23 systematic reviews of which the results are also applicable to low- and middle income countries. Effective measures to reduce exposure leading to work-related cancer, dust-related diseases, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, noise, and injuries are available. However, better implementation of these measures is needed. Regulation, enforcement of regulation, and incentives for employers are effective interventions to achieve this goal. There is evidence that feedback and rewards for workers help in reducing occupational injuries. There is no evidence in many studies that back pain can be prevented. Personal protective equipment technically has the potential to reduce exposure but this is difficult to put into effect. There is no evidence in the studies regarding the effectiveness of education and training, preventive drugs, or health examinations. There is evidence that the implementation of technical measures enforced by regulation can prevent occupational diseases and injuries. For other interventions such as education or health examinations, there is no evidence that supports their effectiveness. More systematic reviews are needed in the area of injury prevention. PMID:23961329

  2. Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthelot, Ronald J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This series of five articles highlights Pensacola Junior College's occupational safety course, involving simulated emergencies, Florida's standards for teacher liability, electrical safety in the classroom and laboratory, color coding for machine safety, and Florida industrial arts safety instructional materials. (SK)

  3. Farm Health and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  4. Occupational injury deaths among females. The US experience for the decade 1980 to 1989.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, E L

    1994-03-01

    From 1980 through 1989, females accounted for 44% of the total employed population. Thus, occupational safety and health issues specific to the experience of women merit consideration. Research has demonstrated that the occupational fatality experience of females is not adequately described by the group of all workers. The leading cause of death for all workers is motor vehicle incidents, while the leading cause of occupational injury death of females is homicide. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has compiled a decade of data on the fatal occupational injury experience of US workers, providing a sufficient number of female cases to allow separate analyses. Over the decade, 3821 females died as a result of injuries sustained at work, with an average annual fatality rate of 0.82/100,000 female workers. Among industries, retail trade and services accounted for nearly half of all occupational injury deaths to females. The detailed occupations with the highest rates of work-related injury death were airplane pilots and navigators, drivers of heavy trucks, construction laborers, and police and detectives. Information on the causes of work-related injury death by occupation is fundamental to the prevention of these deaths. The causes of death in the highest-risk occupations included aircraft crashes, motor vehicle collisions, pedestrians struck by motor vehicles, and homicides by firearms. These data provide a foundation for the prevention of occupational injury deaths among females in the United States.

  5. 75 FR 57024 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; Designation of a Class of Employees for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... of a decision to designate a class of employees from the Blockson Chemical Company in Joliet, Illinois, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational... the Blockson Chemical Company in Joliet, Illinois from March 1, 1951 to June 30, 1960, for a number...

  6. 75 FR 65018 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; Designation of a Class of Employees for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... of a decision to designate a class of employees from the Blockson Chemical Company in Joliet, Illinois, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational... the Blockson Chemical Company in Joliet, Illinois from March 1, 1951 to June 30, 1960, for a number...

  7. 75 FR 32783 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; Designation of a Class of Employees for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ..., California, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational... class of employees as an addition to the SEC: All employees of the Department of Energy, its predecessor... County, California, from January 1, 1955 through December 31, 1960 for a number of work days...

  8. Optimizing health care delivery by integrating workplaces, homes, and communities: how occupational and environmental medicine can serve as a vital connecting link between accountable care organizations and the patient-centered medical home.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Robert K; Sherman, Bruce; Loeppke, Ronald R; McKenzie, Judith; Mueller, Kathryn L; Yarborough, Charles M; Grundy, Paul; Allen, Harris; Larson, Paul W

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, the health care reform discussion in the United States has focused increasingly on the dual goals of cost-effective delivery and better patient outcomes. A number of new conceptual models for health care have been advanced to achieve these goals, including two that are well along in terms of practical development and implementation-the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) and accountable care organizations (ACOs). At the core of these two emerging concepts is a new emphasis on encouraging physicians, hospitals, and other health care stakeholders to work more closely together to better coordinate patient care through integrated goals and data sharing and to create team-based approaches that give a greater role to patients in health care decision-making. This approach aims to achieve better health outcomes at lower cost. The PCMH model emphasizes the central role of primary care and facilitation of partnerships between patient, physician, family, and other caregivers, and integrates this care along a spectrum that includes hospitals, specialty care, and nursing homes. Accountable care organizations make physicians and hospitals more accountable in the care system, emphasizing organizational integration and efficiencies coupled with outcome-oriented, performance-based medical strategies to improve the health of populations. The ACO model is meant to improve the value of health care services, controlling costs while improving quality as defined by outcomes, safety, and patient experience. This document urges adoption of the PCMH model and ACOs, but argues that in order for these new paradigms to succeed in the long term, all sectors with a stake in health care will need to become better aligned with them-including the employer community, which remains heavily invested in the health outcomes of millions of Americans. At present, ACOs are largely being developed as a part of the Medicare and Medicaid systems, and the PCMH model is still gathering

  9. Safety coaches in radiology: decreasing human error and minimizing patient harm.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Julie M; Koch, Bernadette L; Adams, Janet M; Goodfriend, Martha A; Donnelly, Lane F

    2010-09-01

    Successful programs to improve patient safety require a component aimed at improving safety culture and environment, resulting in a reduced number of human errors that could lead to patient harm. Safety coaching provides peer accountability. It involves observing for safety behaviors and use of error prevention techniques and provides immediate feedback. For more than a decade, behavior-based safety coaching has been a successful strategy for reducing error within the context of occupational safety in industry. We describe the use of safety coaches in radiology. Safety coaches are an important component of our comprehensive patient safety program.

  10. Developing Occupation-Based Preventive Programs for Late-Middle-Aged Latino Patients in Safety-Net Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Mike; Martínez, Jenny; Guzmán, Laura; Mahajan, Anish; Clark, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Latino adults between ages 50 and 60 yr are at high risk for developing chronic conditions that can lead to early disability. We conducted a qualitative pilot study with 11 Latinos in this demographic group to develop a foundational schema for the design of health promotion programs that could be implemented by occupational therapy practitioners in primary care settings for this population. One-on-one interviews addressing routines and activities, health management, and health care utilization were conducted, audiotaped, and transcribed. Results of a content analysis of the qualitative data revealed the following six domains of most concern: Weight Management; Disease Management; Mental Health and Well-Being; Personal Finances; Family, Friends, and Community; and Stress Management. A typology of perceived health-actualizing strategies was derived for each domain. This schema can be used by occupational therapy practitioners to inform the development of health-promotion lifestyle interventions designed specifically for late-middle-aged Latinos. PMID:26565102

  11. 75 FR 74733 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; Final Effect of Designation of a Class of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ...HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On October 6, 2010, as provided for under 42 U.S.C. 7384q(b), the Secretary of HHS designated the following class of......

  12. Comparison of the occupational safety applications in marble quarries of Carrara (Italy) and Iscehisar (Turkey) by using Elmeri method.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Metin; Yesilkaya, Liyaddin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a brief summary is given about marble quarries in Carrara (Italy) and Iscehisar (Turkey), the Elmeri method is introduced, work accidents that can happen in marble quarries and their causes besides work safety behaviours in fields are explained, and the Elmeri monitoring method is applied and analysed. For this reason, marble quarries are divided into seven in terms of working conditions and active six quarries both in Carrara and Iscehisar areas, and work safety behaviours are analysed. Analysis process is based on True-False method; there are 18 items in total under six main topics; three items on each topic. The safety index for each section and the main topics are also calculated. According to the calculated safety indexes, Carrara area marble quarries (65.08%) are safer than Iscehisar area marble quarries (46.01%).

  13. Occupational Safety and Related Impacts on Health  and the Environment.

    PubMed

    Watterson, Andrew

    2016-10-05

    The inter-relationship between safety, health and the 'environment' is a complex and at times a relatively neglected topic. In this issue, 'safety' is often viewed by contributors as 'health and safety' and includes occupationally-related ill health as well as injury or harm to employees and the wider public. 'Environment' is also interpreted in the widest sense covering both physical and work environments with upstream work hazards presenting risks to downstream communities. The focus is very much on exploring and where possible addressing the challenges, some old and some facing workers in a range of public and private settings and also at times their nearby communities. The 19 papers in the issue cover public and private sectors, global and very local populations, macro-theoretical perspectives, large epidemiological and some single factory or hospital site small case studies. A number of the papers are just beginning to explore and draw out for the first time the risks from hazards in their part of the world. The methodologies adopted also range from lab-based studies through ergonomic assessments and interventions to therapeutic approaches.

  14. Worker Safety and Health Issues Associated with the DOE Environmental Cleanup Program: Insights From the DOE Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public health Standards Steering Group

    SciTech Connect

    M.C. Edelson; Samuel C. Morris; Joan M. Daisey

    2001-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public Health Standards Steering Group (or ''SSG'') was formed in 1990. It was felt then that ''risk'' could be an organizing principle for environmental cleanup and that risk-based cleanup standards could rationalize clean up work. The environmental remediation process puts workers engaged in cleanup activities at risk from hazardous materials and from the more usual hazards associated with construction activities. In a real sense, the site remediation process involves the transfer of a hypothetical risk to the environment and the public from isolated contamination into real risks to the workers engaged in the remediation activities. Late in its existence the SSG, primarily motivated by its LANL representative, Dr. Harry Ettinger, actively investigated issues associated with worker health and safety during environmental remediation activities. This paper summarizes the insights noted by the SSG. Most continue to be pertinent today.

  15. Did you have an impact? A theory-based method for planning and evaluating knowledge-transfer and exchange activities in occupational health and safety.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Desré M; Wells, Richard P; Carlan, Nicolette; Aversa, Theresa; Bigelow, Philip P; Dixon, Shane M; McMillan, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Few evaluation tools are available to assess knowledge-transfer and exchange interventions. The objective of this paper is to develop and demonstrate a theory-based knowledge-transfer and exchange method of evaluation (KEME) that synthesizes 3 theoretical frameworks: the promoting action on research implementation of health services (PARiHS) model, the transtheoretical model of change, and a model of knowledge use. It proposes a new term, keme, to mean a unit of evidence-based transferable knowledge. The usefulness of the evaluation method is demonstrated with 4 occupational health and safety knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) implementation case studies that are based upon the analysis of over 50 pre-existing interviews. The usefulness of the evaluation model has enabled us to better understand stakeholder feedback, frame our interpretation, and perform a more comprehensive evaluation of the knowledge use outcomes of our KTE efforts.

  16. Finnish discourses of the stakeholders on development of the implementation of EU legislation concerned with occupational safety and health in computer work.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Toivo; Lehtelä, Jouni

    2015-01-01

    The overall research objective was to empirically develop the ideas around a system of occupational safety and health (OSH) practices in visual display unit (VDU) work, to describe their relationship with the OSH legislation and to explore how these best practices work to achieve positive results. The aim of the present study was to explore qualitative perceptions of the stakeholders (Finnish Employers' Associations, Employees Organizations and OSH Governmental Inspectorates) concerning the way that the OSH legislation on VDU work is being applied at work. Many stakeholders claim that technological advances require that in OSH the VDU legislation should be updated, especially that it should be clarified, e.g., when does the VDU worker have the right to obtain special eyeglasses needed for VDU work. Many stakeholders believe that additional guidelines concerning practical ergonomic arrangements in VDU work environment and eyeglasses of the VDU workers are needed. In VDU ergonomics, the co-operation between workplace and occupational health care professionals needs to be developed.

  17. A police education programme to integrate occupational safety and HIV prevention: protocol for a modified stepped-wedge study design with parallel prospective cohorts to assess behavioural outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A; Arredondo, Jaime; Rocha, Teresita; Abramovitz, Daniela; Rolon, Maria Luisa; Patiño Mandujano, Efrain; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Olivarria, Horcasitas Omar; Gaines, Tommi; Patterson, Thomas L; Beletsky, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Policing practices are key drivers of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID). This paper describes the protocol for the first study to prospectively examine the impact of a police education programme (PEP) to align law enforcement and HIV prevention. PEPs incorporating HIV prevention (including harm reduction programmes like syringe exchange) have been successfully piloted in several countries but were limited to brief pre–post assessments; the impact of PEPs on policing behaviours and occupational safety is unknown. Objectives Proyecto ESCUDO (SHIELD) aims to evaluate the efficacy of the PEP on uptake of occupational safety procedures, as assessed through the incidence of needle stick injuries (NSIs) (primary outcome) and changes in knowledge of transmission, prevention and treatment of HIV and viral hepatitis; attitudes towards PWID, adverse behaviours that interfere with HIV prevention and protective behaviours (secondary outcomes). Methods/analysis ESCUDO is a hybrid type I design that simultaneously tests an intervention and an implementation strategy. Using a modified stepped-wedge design involving all active duty street-level police officers in Tijuana (N=∼1200), we will administer one 3 h PEP course to groups of 20–50 officers until the entire force is trained. NSI incidence and geocoded arrest data will be assessed from department-wide de-identified data. Of the consenting police officers, a subcohort (N=500) will be randomly sampled from each class to undergo pre-PEP and post-PEP surveys with a semiannual follow-up for 2 years to assess self-reported NSIs, attitudes and behaviour changes. The impact on PWIDs will be externally validated through a parallel cohort of Tijuana PWIDs. Ethics/dissemination Research ethics approval was obtained from the USA and Mexico. Findings will be disseminated through open access to protocol materials through the Law Enforcement and HIV Network. Trial registration number NCT02444403. PMID:26260350

  18. NOVEL APPROACHES TO DEVELOPMENT, DELIVERY AND EVALUATION OF A PEER-LED OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY TRAINING FOR LATINO DAY LABORERS

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Rachael Ann; Hecker, Steven; de Castro, A. B.; Stern, Hilary; Hernandez, Araceli; Seixas, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Latino day laborers experience high rates of work-related injuries and are a hard-to-reach group for safety interventions. This study describes the creation and implementation of safety training based in empowerment theory and its evaluation to address three levels in empowerment’s hierarchy of change. Pictographic pre- and post-tests were used to assess knowledge level changes. Individual and large-group interviews were conducted to address attitudes and behavior-level changes. Results indicate that day laborers learn and apply lessons from this type of safety training. Findings also offer insight into challenges that day laborers encounter when trying to work safely as well as ideas for future training interventions. PMID:22967369

  19. Rear seat occupant safety: kinematics and injury of PMHS restrained by a standard 3-point belt in frontal crashes.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Jarett; Forman, Jason; Kent, Richard; Kuppa, Shashi

    2008-11-01

    Very little experimental research has focused on the kinematics, dynamics, and injuries of rear-seated occupants. This study seeks to develop a baseline response for rear-seated post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) in frontal crashes. Three PMHS sled tests were performed in a sled buck designed to represent the interior rear-seat compartment of a contemporary mid-sized sedan. All occupants were positioned in the right-rear passenger seat and subjected to simulated frontal crashes with an impact speed of 48 km/h. The subjects were restrained by a standard, rear seat, 3-point seat belt. The response of each subject was evaluated in terms of whole-body kinematics, dynamics, and injury. All the PMHS experienced excessive forward translation of the pelvis resulting in a backward rotation of the torso at the time of maximum forward excursion. The three subjects experienced maximum normalized chest deflections of 30%, 45%, and 30%, respectively, and maximum 3 ms clip resultant chest accelerations of 50, 42, and 52 g, respectively. Additionally, each PMHS received at least 13 rib fractures (maximum of 29 fractures), and flexion-tension induced neck injuries initiating in the lower cervical spine (C4-T1). The neck trauma ranged from ligament damage (AIS 1) to complete cervical spine transection (AIS 5).

  20. The Impact of Occupational Hazard Information on Employee Health and Safety: An Analysis by Professional Sectors in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldaria, Miguel Angel Mariscal; Herrero, Susana Garcia; Rodriguez, Javier Garcia; Ritzel, Dale

    2012-01-01

    All workers have the right to perform their job duties under the best possible conditions, safeguarded from the harm which the execution of their duties may entail. In addition, employers have the obligation to guarantee this right to health, implementing a preventive system which assures the safety and health of the workers under their charge.…

  1. Rear seat occupant safety: an investigation of a progressive force-limiting, pretensioning 3-point belt system using adult PMHS in frontal sled tests.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jason; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco; Lessley, David; Kindig, Matthew; Kent, Richard; Ridella, Stephen; Bostrom, Ola

    2009-11-01

    Rear seat adult occupant protection is receiving increased attention from the automotive safety community. Recent anthropomorphic test device (ATD) studies have suggested that it may be possible to improve kinematics and reduce injuries to rear seat occupants in frontal collisions by incorporating shoulder-belt force-limiting and pretensioning (FL+PT) technologies into rear seat 3-point belt restraints. This study seeks to further investigate the feasibility and potential kinematic benefits of a FL+PT rear seat, 3-point belt restraint system in a series of 48 kmh frontal impact sled tests (20 g, 80 ms sled acceleration pulse) performed with post mortem human surrogates (PMHS). Three PMHS were tested with a 3-point belt restraint with a progressive (two-stage) force limiting and pretensioing retractor in a sled buck representing the rear seat occupant environment of a 2004 mid-sized sedan. Instrumentation included belt tension load cells, accelerometers on the head and at multiple locations on the spine, and chestbands to measure the chest deformation contours in the transverse plane. The kinematics of the subjects were quantified using off-board, high-speed video. The results of these tests were then compared to matched PMHS tests, published in 2008, performed in the same environment with a standard (not-force limited, not pretensioning) 3-point belt restraint. The FL+PT restraint system resulted in significant (p<0.05) decreases in peak shoulder belt tension (average +/- standard deviation: 4.4 +/- 0.13 kN with the FL+PT belt, 7.8 +/- 0. 6 kN with the standard belt) and 3 ms-resultant, mid-spine acceleration (FL+PT: 34 +/- 3.8 g; standard belt: 44 +/- 1.4 g). The FL+PT tests also produced more forward torso rotation caused by decreased forward excursion of the pelvis and increased payout out of the shoulder belt by the force-limiter. These results support the previous ATD studies that suggest that it may be possible to improve the kinematics of rear seat occupants

  2. Defining Occupational Illnesses and Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    This technical report will discuss the definitions of occupational illnesses and injuries as established by the Occupational Safety and Health...Administration (OSHA). A systematic method for classifying an occupational event as either an illness or an injury will be presented. The Air Force is...required to collect occupational injury and illness data, to analyze collected data, and to establish preventive programs based upon any identified unsafe

  3. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  4. Safety and Environmental Regulation in Industrial Mobilization,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    1. OSHA and EPA: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow. 9 The Occupational Safety and Health Administration ..............9 The Environmental Protection...quotes underscore the need for a comprehensive review of the impact of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the Occupational Safety and Health...and Tomorrow THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION O N DECEMBER 29, 1970, THE CONGRESS ENACTED Public Law91-576, the Occupational Safety and

  5. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) testimony to Department of Labor on the Mine Safety and Health Administration proposed rule: ionizing radiation standards for metal and nonmetal mines, August 13, 1987 by R. Niemeier

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-13

    Recommendations were offered for protecting workers against the health effects of ionizing radiation in metal and nonmetal mines. Available data demonstrating such health effects was reviewed and evidence supporting the technical feasibility of reducing the current Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) standard was presented. Five recent studies indicated a significant increase in lung cancer rates associated with radon progeny exposure in underground mines. Additional studies indicated an exposure/response relationship in uranium miners. The influence of smoking on the association between radon progeny exposure and lung cancer was cited. Evidence has indicated that exposure to radon progeny carries a potential risk of developing occupationally induced lung cancer. Risk-assessment data supported the conclusion that miners with the same characteristics as the United States Public Health Service uranium miners cohort and who accrue a cumulative occupational exposure of 120 working level months, would have a lung cancer excess lifetime risk of about 35 to 40 lung cancer deaths per 1000 exposed miners. Modern mining methods using dilution ventilation as well as bulkheading and backfilling techniques make it possible to achieve substantial reductions in the cumulative exposure to radon progeny. Information was provided on sampling strategy, control technology, ventilation systems, respirators, and medical surveillance programs.

  6. Acquisition Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health: Lessons Learned From DoD Acquisition Systems Engineering Program Support Reviews

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Administration ( FAA ) Airworthiness Certification process do not fully address the unique safety issues of Military Operations of the NA-1 ⌐ The...PESHE states once the FAA approves the NA-1, the aircraft will be safe for humans, but this does not fully cover ESOH risks. Additionally, an FAA ...Budget sufficiency and phasing, staffing, system schedule, and assets available to meet program objectives . 3. Management – Acquisition strategy and

  7. Elements of a violence prevention program for healthcare workers. U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    For many years, healthcare and social service workers have faced a significant risk of work-related violence. In this article, OSHA's new violence prevention guidelines are presented, providing the agency's recommendations for reducing workplace violence. Through these guidelines, OSHA assists healthcare and social service employers and providers in preventing such violence and in providing a safe and healthful workplace through effective violence prevention programs. By adopting these practical measures, OSHA states, the serious threat to worker safety can be significantly reduced.

  8. Radio Frequency Radiation of Millimeter Wave Length: An Evaluation of Potential Occupational Safety Issues Relating to Surface Heating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-14

    not efficiently remove heat that is deposited internally. A primary avenue of heat removal is blood flow in the retina. Other than conduction...SAFETY ISSUES RELATING TO SURFACE HEATING Kathy L. Ryan,*i John A. D’Andrea,+ James R. Jauchern,* and Patrick A. Mason** Abstract-Currently, technology...more and more systems come on line and are used in everyday applications, the possibility of inadvertent exposure of person- nel to MMWs increases

  9. 76 FR 20489 - Occupational Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ...-45 Occupational Radiation Protection AGENCY: Office of Health, Safety and Security, Department of... to its Occupational Radiation Protection requirements. The derived air concentration values for air...), Occupational Radiation Protection, are designed to protect the health and safety of workers at Department...

  10. Estimates of occupational safety and health impacts resulting from large-scale production of major photovoltaic technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, T.; Ungers, L.; Briggs, T.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate both quantitatively and qualitatively, the worker and societal risks attributable to four photovoltaic cell (solar cell) production processes. Quantitative risk values were determined by use of statistics from the California semiconductor industry. The qualitative risk assessment was performed using a variety of both governmental and private sources of data. The occupational health statistics derived from the semiconductor industry were used to predict injury and fatality levels associated with photovoltaic cell manufacturing. The use of these statistics to characterize the two silicon processes described herein is defensible from the standpoint that many of the same process steps and materials are used in both the semiconductor and photovoltaic industries. These health statistics are less applicable to the gallium arsenide and cadmium sulfide manufacturing processes, primarily because of differences in the materials utilized. Although such differences tend to discourage any absolute comparisons among the four photovoltaic cell production processes, certain relative comparisons are warranted. To facilitate a risk comparison of the four processes, the number and severity of process-related chemical hazards were assessed. This qualitative hazard assessment addresses both the relative toxicity and the exposure potential of substances in the workplace. In addition to the worker-related hazards, estimates of process-related emissions and wastes are also provided.

  11. Occupational Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... working with laboratory animals or with powdered natural rubber latex gloves have developed occupational asthma. Occupational asthma ... spray painting, insulation installation and in manufacturing plastics, rubber and foam. These chemicals can cause occupational asthma ...

  12. Bundling occupational safety with harm reduction information as a feasible method for improving police receptiveness to syringe access programs: evidence from three U.S. cities

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Corey S; Beletsky, Leo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction In light of overwhelming evidence that access to sterile injection equipment reduces incidence of injection-attributable bloodborne disease without encouraging drug use, many localities have authorized sterile syringe access programs (SAPs), including syringe exchange and pharmacy-based initiatives. Even where such interventions are clearly legal, many law enforcement officers are unaware of the public health benefits and legal status of these programs and may continue to treat the possession of injection equipment as illegal and program participation as a marker of illegal behavior. Law enforcement practice can impede SAP utilization and may increase the risk of needlestick injury (NSI) among law enforcement personnel. Many SAPs conduct little or no outreach to law enforcement, in part because they perceive law enforcement actors as unreceptive to health-promotion programs targeting drug users. Case description We report on a brief training intervention for law enforcement personnel designed to increase officer knowledge of and positive attitudes towards SAPs by bundling content that addresses officer concerns about infectious disease and occupational safety with information about the legality and public health benefits of these programs. Pilot trainings using this bundled curriculum were conducted with approximately 600 officers in three US cities. Discussion and evaluation Law enforcement officers were generally receptive to receiving information about SAPs through the bundled curriculum. The trainings led to better communication and collaboration between SAP and law enforcement personnel, providing a valuable platform for better harmonization of law enforcement and public health activities targeting injection drug users. Conclusion The experience in these three cities suggests that a harm reduction training curriculum that bundles strategies for increasing officer occupational safety with information about the legality and public health benefits of

  13. 63 FR 5905 - Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-02-05

    ... Tuberculosis AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule... to tuberculosis and is announcing the dates and locations of the informal public hearings to be held...-5986. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: OSHA's proposed standard on Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis...

  14. 68 FR 75767 - Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-12-31

    ... Tuberculosis; Proposed Rule; Termination of Rulemaking Respiratory Protection for M. Tuberculosis; Final Rule... Exposure to Tuberculosis AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION... Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis (TB). Because of a broad range of Federal and community initiatives,...

  15. Child Care: State Efforts To Enforce Safety and Health Requirements. United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagnoni, Cynthia M.

    Although states must certify that they have requirements to protect the health and safety of children in child care in order to receive Child Care and Development Block Grant funds, neither the scope nor stringency of these requirements has been stipulated. At the request of Congressional members, this report identifies the most critical…

  16. Occupational asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Asthma - occupational exposure; Irritant-induced reactive airways disease Images Spirometry Respiratory system References Lemiere C, Vandenplas O. Occupational allergy and asthma. In: Adkinson NF Jr., Bochner ...

  17. Occupational lung diseases and the mining industry in Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Lkhasuren, O.; Takahashi, K.; Dash-Onolt, L.

    2007-04-15

    Mining production has accounted for around 50% of the gross industrial product in Mongolia since 1998. Dust-induced chronic bronchitis and pneumoconiosis currently account for the largest relative share (67.8%) of occupational diseases in Mongolia, and cases are increasing annually. In 1967-2004, medically diagnosed cases of occupational diseases in Mongolia numbered 7,600. Of these, 5,154 were confirmed cases of dust-induced chronic bronchitis and pneumoconiosis. Lung diseases and other mining-sector health risks pose major challenges for Mongolia. Gold and coal mines, both formal and informal, contribute significantly to economic growth, but the prevalence of occupational lung diseases is high and access to health care is limited. Rapid implementation of an effective national program of silicosis elimination and pneumoconiosis reduction is critical to ensure the health and safety of workers in this important sector of the Mongolian economy.

  18. Occupational lung diseases and the mining industry in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Lkhasuren, Oyuntogos; Takahashi, Ken; Dash-Onolt, Lkhamsuren

    2007-01-01

    Mining production has accounted for around 50% of the gross industrial product in Mongolia since 1998. Dust-induced chronic bronchitis and pneumoconiosis currently account for the largest relative share (67.8%) of occupational diseases in Mongolia, and cases are increasing annually. In 1967-2004, medically diagnosed cases of occupational diseases in Mongolia numbered 7,600. Of these, 5,154 were confirmed cases of dust-induced chronic bronchitis and pneumoconiosis. Lung diseases and other mining-sector health risks pose major challenges for Mongolia. Gold and coal mines, both formal and informal, contribute significantly to economic growth, but the prevalence of occupational lung diseases is high and access to health care is limited. Rapid implementation of an effective national program of silicosis elimination and pneumoconiosis reduction is critical to ensure the health and safety of workers in this important sector of the Mongolian economy.

  19. Occupational Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Jae Sim

    2010-01-01

    Occupational infection is a human disease caused by work-associated exposure to microbial agents through human and environmental contact. According to the literature, occupational infection was the third leading cause of occupational disease (861 cases, 8.0%), and health care, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers were risk groups in Korea. In addition, most high-risk groups have not been protected by workers' compensation, which could lead to underestimation of the exact spectrum and magnitude of the problem, and may also result in a lack of development and implementation of occupational infection management. Through a review of national guidelines and documentations on prevention and control of occupational infection, a management strategy would promote adherence to worker safety regulations if it is explicit with regard to the agent and mode of infection in each of the high-risk groups. PMID:21258592

  20. Accounting & Computing Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avani, Nathan T.; And Others

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching a competency-based accounting and computing course that is designed to prepare students for employability in the following occupational areas: inventory control clerk, invoice clerk, payroll clerk, traffic clerk, general ledger bookkeeper, accounting clerk, account information clerk,…

  1. Occupational fatigue and other health and safety issues for young Australian workers: an exploratory mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Jessica Louise; Clarkson, Larissa; Rainbird, Sophia; Etherton, Hayley; Blewett, Verna

    2015-01-01

    Youth are vulnerable to sleep loss and fatigue due to biological, social and psychological factors. However, there are few studies addressing the risk that sleep loss and fatigue pose for youth in the workplace. The aim of this study was to explore work health and safety (WHS) issues for young workers and develop strategies and solutions for improved WHS outcomes, with a focus on issues related to fatigue, using a mixed-method, multi-stage approach. Participants either completed a survey (n=212) or took part in focus groups (n=115) addressing WHS for young workers, or attended a Future Inquiry Workshop (n=29) where strategies for improving youth WHS were developed. Fatigue was identified as a significant problem by the majority of young workers and was associated with unpredictable working time arrangements, precarious employment, high workload, working overtime and limited ability to self-advocate. Participants identified six key areas for action to improve WHS outcomes for young workers; 1) develop expertise, 2) give young workers a voice, 3) improve education and training, 4) build stakeholder engagement, 5) increase employer awareness of WHS responsibilities and, 6) improve processes for employers to manage and monitor WHS outcomes. The application of these directives to fatigue is discussed.

  2. [Utilization, needs, and related factors for e-learning and its application to education and training in occupational safety and health among enterprises in Japan].

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Takao, Soshi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Kawakami, Norito

    2006-09-01

    In order to know utilization, needs, and related factors for e-learning and its application to education and training in occupational safety and health (OSH) among enterprises in Japan, a questionnaire survey was conducted of enterprises randomly selected from those with 1,000 or more employees and those with 999 or less (500 for each). Data from 134 (56 and 78, respectively) enterprises were analyzed (response rate, 13%). Among total enterprises, 19% had introduced and 16% planned to introduce e-learning. However, only 7% of larger enterprises and less than 3% of smaller enterprises used e-learning for education and training in OSH. On the other hand, 80-90% of enterprises responded positively to considering the use of e-learning for education and training on various OSH topics for various users. Highly rated merits of e-learning were "can use whenever", "can use anywhere"; and its highly rated obstacles were "cost", "individual PC not available", "insufficient information on efficacy". However, the merit "can monitor training" was significantly associated with the use/plan of e-learning. "Good contents not available" was more frequent among enterprises which used/planned e-learning. The study indicated a greater need for e-learning based OSH education and training, despite a currently low rate of its use. Improvement of e-learning platforms and contents, reduction of cost, and improvement of e-learning infrastructure at work may be needed to facilitate the use of e-learning in OSH.

  3. A full Bayes before-after study accounting for temporal and spatial effects: Evaluating the safety impact of new signal installations.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Emanuele; Sayed, Tarek; El-Basyouny, Karim

    2016-09-01

    Recently, important advances in road safety statistics have been brought about by methods able to address issues other than the choice of the best error structure for modeling crash data. In particular, accounting for spatial and temporal interdependence, i.e., the notion that the collision occurrence of a site or unit times depend on those of others, has become an important issue that needs further research. Overall, autoregressive models can be used for this purpose as they can specify that the output variable depends on its own previous values and on a stochastic term. Spatial effects have been investigated and applied mostly in the context of developing safety performance functions (SPFs) to relate crash occurrence to highway characteristics. Hence, there is a need for studies that attempt to estimate the effectiveness of safety countermeasures by including the spatial interdependence of road sites within the context of an observational before-after (BA) study. Moreover, the combination of temporal dynamics and spatial effects on crash frequency has not been explored in depth for SPF development. Therefore, the main goal of this research was to carry out a BA study accounting for spatial effects and temporal dynamics in evaluating the effectiveness of a road safety treatment. The countermeasure analyzed was the installation of traffic signals at unsignalized urban/suburban intersections in British Columbia (Canada). The full Bayes approach was selected as the statistical framework to develop the models. The results demonstrated that zone variation was a major component of total crash variability and that spatial effects were alleviated by clustering intersections together. Finally, the methodology used also allowed estimation of the treatment's effectiveness in the form of crash modification factors and functions with time trends.

  4. Occupational Health for Health Care Providers

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevention practices. They can reduce your risk of health problems. Use protective equipment, follow infection control guidelines, ... manage stress. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

  5. Incident Ischemic Heart Disease After Long-Term Occupational Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter: Accounting for 2 Forms of Survivor Bias

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Sadie; Neophytou, Andreas M.; Brown, Daniel M.; Noth, Elizabeth M.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Cullen, Mark R.; Eisen, Ellen A.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the heart disease risks associated with occupational, rather than traffic-related, exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5). We examined long-term exposure to PM2.5 in cohorts of aluminum smelters and fabrication workers in the United States who were followed for incident ischemic heart disease from 1998 to 2012, and we addressed 2 forms of survivor bias. Left truncation bias was addressed by restricting analyses to the subcohort hired after the start of follow up. Healthy worker survivor bias, which is characterized by time-varying confounding that is affected by prior exposure, was documented only in the smelters and required the use of marginal structural Cox models. When comparing always-exposed participants above the 10th percentile of annual exposure with those below, the hazard ratios were 1.67 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 2.52) and 3.95 (95% CI: 0.87, 18.00) in the full and restricted subcohorts of smelter workers, respectively. In the fabrication stratum, hazard ratios based on conditional Cox models were 0.98 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.02) and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.37) per 1 mg/m3-year in the full and restricted subcohorts, respectively. Long-term exposure to occupational PM2.5 was associated with a higher risk of ischemic heart disease among aluminum manufacturing workers, particularly in smelters, after adjustment for survivor bias. PMID:27033425

  6. Occupational cancer in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiqun; Osman, John

    2012-01-01

    Although only a relatively small proportion of cancer is attributable to occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents, the estimated number of deaths due to occupational cancer is high when compared to other deaths due to work-related ill health and injury. However, risk from occupational exposure to carcinogens can be minimised through proportionate but effective risk management. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the regulator of workplace health and safety in Great Britain. As part of its aim to reduce ill health arising from failures to control properly exposure to hazards at work, HSE commissioned the research presented elsewhere in this supplement to enable it to identify priorities for preventing occupational cancer. The research has shown that occupational cancer remains a key health issue and that low-level exposure of a large number of workers to carcinogens is important. The finding that a small number of carcinogens have been responsible for the majority of the burden of occupational cancer provides key evidence in the development of priorities for significant reduction of occupational cancer. Although the research presented in this supplement reflects the consequences of past exposures to carcinogens, occupational cancer remains a problem. The potential for exposure to the agents considered in this research is still present in the workplace and the findings are relevant to prevention of future disease. In this article, the principle approaches for risk reduction are described. It provides supporting information on some of the initiatives already being undertaken, or those being put in place, to reduce occupational cancer in Great Britain. The need also for systematic collection of exposure information and the importance of raising awareness and changing behaviours are discussed. PMID:22710673

  7. Health Occupations Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walraven, Catherine; And Others

    These instructional materials consist of a series of curriculum worksheets that cover tasks to be mastered by students in health occupations cluster programs. Covered in the curriculum worksheets are diagnostic procedures; observing/recording/reporting/planning; safety; nutrition/elimination; hygiene/personal care/comfort;…

  8. Business Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on business occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include accountants, advertising workers, collections…

  9. Mathematics and Related Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on mathematics and related occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include accountants, actuaries,…

  10. Comparison of Safety Margin Generation Concepts in Image Guided Radiotherapy to Account for Daily Head and Neck Pose Variations

    PubMed Central

    Stoiber, Eva Maria; Grimm, Sarah; Debus, Jürgen; Bendl, Rolf; Giske, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of head and neck tumors allows a precise conformation of the high-dose region to clinical target volumes (CTVs) while respecting dose limits to organs a risk (OARs). Accurate patient setup reduces translational and rotational deviations between therapy planning and therapy delivery days. However, uncertainties in the shape of the CTV and OARs due to e.g. small pose variations in the highly deformable anatomy of the head and neck region can still compromise the dose conformation. Routinely applied safety margins around the CTV cause higher dose deposition in adjacent healthy tissue and should be kept as small as possible. Materials and Methods In this work we evaluate and compare three approaches for margin generation 1) a clinically used approach with a constant isotropic 3 mm margin, 2) a previously proposed approach adopting a spatial model of the patient and 3) a newly developed approach adopting a biomechanical model of the patient. All approaches are retrospectively evaluated using a large patient cohort of over 500 fraction control CT images with heterogeneous pose changes. Automatic methods for finding landmark positions in the control CT images are combined with a patient specific biomechanical finite element model to evaluate the CTV deformation. Results The applied methods for deformation modeling show that the pose changes cause deformations in the target region with a mean motion magnitude of 1.80 mm. We found that the CTV size can be reduced by both variable margin approaches by 15.6% and 13.3% respectively, while maintaining the CTV coverage. With approach 3 an increase of target coverage was obtained. Conclusion Variable margins increase target coverage, reduce risk to OARs and improve healthy tissue sparing at the same time. PMID:28033416

  11. Insulator (Heat and Frost). Occupational Analyses Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRory, Aline; Ally, Mohamed

    This analysis covers tasks performed by an insulator, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as heat and frost insulator. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and safety. To facilitate understanding the nature of the occupation,…

  12. Occupational Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    When choosing a career, jobseekers often want to know which occupations offer the best prospects. Generally, occupations that have rapid job growth, many new jobs, or many job openings--and good wages--promise better opportunities. This paper shows how employment in particular occupations is projected to change from 2010 to 2020. It presents…

  13. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

    MedlinePlus

    Select Language Afrikaans Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Basque Belarusian Bengali Bosnian Bulgarian Catalan Cebuano Chichewa Chinese (Simplified) Chinese (Traditional) Corsican Croatian Czech Danish Dutch Esperanto Estonian ...

  14. OSHA and Experimental Safety Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichak, Stephen, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that a governmental agency, most likely Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) be considered in the safety design stage of any experiment. Focusing on OSHA's role, discusses such topics as occupational health hazards of toxic chemicals in laboratories, occupational exposure to benzene, and role/regulations of other agencies.…

  15. A current global view of environmental and occupational cancers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mihi

    2011-07-01

    This review is focused on current information of avoidable environmental pollution and occupational exposure as causes of cancer. Approximately 2% to 8% of all cancers are thought to be due to occupation. In addition, occupational and environmental cancers have their own characteristics, e.g., specific chemicals and cancers, multiple factors, multiple causation and interaction, or latency period. Concerning carcinogens, asbestos/silica/wood dust, soot/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [benzo(a) pyrene], heavy metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), aromatic amines (4-aminobiphenyl, benzidine), organic solvents (benzene or vinyl chloride), radiation/radon, or indoor pollutants (formaldehyde, tobacco smoking) are mentioned with their specific cancers, e.g., lung, skin, and bladder cancers, mesothelioma or leukemia, and exposure routes, rubber or pigment manufacturing, textile, painting, insulation, mining, and so on. In addition, nanoparticles, electromagnetic waves, and climate changes are suspected as future carcinogenic sources. Moreover, the aspects of environmental and occupational cancers are quite different between developing and developed countries. The recent follow-up of occupational cancers in Nordic countries shows a good example for developed countries. On the other hand, newly industrializing countries face an increased burden of occupational and environmental cancers. Developing countries are particularly suffering from preventable cancers in mining, agriculture, or industries without proper implication of safety regulations. Therefore, industrialized countries are expected to educate and provide support for developing countries. In addition, citizens can encounter new environmental and occupational carcinogen nominators such as nanomaterials, electromagnetic wave, and climate exchanges. As their carcinogenicity or involvement in carcinogenesis is not clearly unknown, proper consideration for them should be taken into account. For these purposes, new

  16. DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure report, _Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security. December 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Derek Hagemeyer, Yolanda McCormick

    2012-12-12

    This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2011 occupational radiation dose data along with trends over the past 5 years, and provides instructions to submit successful as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) projects.

  17. Safety and Health: Whose Job Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fountain, Melvin

    1991-01-01

    Describes occupations involved with safety and health including safety professionals, industrial hygienists, health and regulatory inspectors, public health microbiologists, ecologists, pollution control engineers, health physicists, and ergonomists. (JOW)

  18. Infections and interaction rituals in the organisation: clinician accounts of speaking up or remaining silent in the face of threats to patient safety.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Julia E

    2016-02-01

    Clinician silence in the face of known threats to patient safety is a source of growing concern. Current explanations for the difficulties clinicians have of speaking up are conceptualised at the individual or organisational level, with little attention paid to the space between--the interaction context. Drawing on 103 interviews with clinicians at one hospital in the United States this article examines how clinicians talk about speaking up or not in the face of breaches in infection prevention technique. Accounts are analysed using a microsociological lens as stories of interaction, through which respondents appeal to situational and organisational realities of medical work that serve to justify speaking up or remaining silent. Analysis of these accounts reveals three influences on the decision to speak up, shaped by background conditions in the organisation; mutual focus of attention, interactional path dependence and the presence of an audience. These findings suggest that the decision to speak up in a clinical setting is dynamic, highly context-dependent, embedded in the interaction rituals that suffuse everyday work and constrained by organisational dynamics. This article develops a more sophisticated and distinctly sociological understanding of the reasons why speaking up in healthcare is so difficult.

  19. Occupational Sleep Medicine.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Philip; Drake, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms significantly impact almost all aspects of human behavior and are therefore relevant to occupational sleep medicine, which is focused predominantly around workplace productivity, safety, and health. In this article, 5 main factors that influence occupational functioning are reviewed: (1) sleep deprivation, (2) disordered sleep, (3) circadian rhythms, (4) common medical illnesses that affect sleep and sleepiness, and (5) medications that affect sleep and sleepiness. Consequences of disturbed sleep and sleepiness are also reviewed, including cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor functioning and drowsy driving.

  20. Occupational cancer in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    González, C A; Agudo, A

    1999-01-01

    The knowledge of specific problems of occupational cancer in Spain is scarce. The environment of the workplace has improved over the last few years after a long period distinguished by bad working conditions, incomplete legislation, and insufficient safety measures and control. It has been estimated that 3,083,479 workers (25.4% of employees) were exposed to carcinogens. The most common occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents were solar radiation, environmental tobacco smoke, silica, and wood dust. The highest number of employees were exposed to silica crystalline (404,729), diesel engine exhaust (274,321), rubber products (99,804), benzene (89,932), ethylene dibromide (81,336), agents used in furniture and cabinet making (72,068), and formaldehyde (71,189). The percentage of total cancer deaths attributed to occupational exposure was 4% (6% in men, 0.9% in women). Compared with other European countries, the incidence of lung cancer and leukemia in Spain are one of the lowest, but it is rapidly increasing. The incidence of urinary bladder and larynx cancer, on the contrary, are one of the highest. Few studies on occupational cancer have been conducted in Spain. The main problems are the availability of death certificates and the quality of the information on occupation in mortality of statistics. It is necessary to improve methods of assessment of exposures using expert hygienists and biologic markers of exposure and diseases. Reduction of cancer by limiting or avoiding exposure to known occupational carcinogens is still necessary. PMID:10350510

  1. Occupational Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L

    2015-10-02

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country's ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives - notably work by Biko and Fanon - and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term 'consciousness' in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation.

  2. Occupational Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country’s ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives – notably work by Biko and Fanon – and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term ‘consciousness’ in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation. PMID:26549984

  3. 78 FR 56273 - Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ...The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) proposes to amend its existing standards for occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica. The basis for issuance of this proposal is a preliminary determination by the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health that employees exposed to respirable crystalline silica face a significant risk to their health......

  4. 29 CFR 1926.96 - Occupational foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Occupational foot protection. 1926.96 Section 1926.96 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.96 Occupational foot protection. Safety-toe footwear for employees shall meet the requirements...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.96 - Occupational foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Occupational foot protection. 1926.96 Section 1926.96 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.96 Occupational foot protection. Safety-toe footwear for employees shall meet the requirements...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.96 - Occupational foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupational foot protection. 1926.96 Section 1926.96 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.96 Occupational foot protection. Safety-toe footwear for employees shall meet the requirements...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.96 - Occupational foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupational foot protection. 1926.96 Section 1926.96 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.96 Occupational foot protection. Safety-toe footwear for employees shall meet the requirements...

  8. Occupational Asthma in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-01-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) is the leading occupational respiratory disease. Cases compensated as OA by the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL) (218 cases), cases reported by a surveillance system (286 cases), case reports by related scientific journals and cases confirmed by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI) over 15 yr from 1992 to 2006 were analyzed. Annual mean incidence rate was 1.6 by compensation and 3.5 by surveillance system, respectively. The trend appeared to increase according to the surveillance system. Incidence was very low compared with other countries. The most frequently reported causative agent was isocyanate followed by reactive dye in dyeing factories. Other chemicals, metals and dust were also found as causative agents. OA was underreported according to compensation and surveillance system data. In conclusion, a more effective surveillance system is needed to evaluate OA causes and distribution, and to effectively prevent newly developing OA. PMID:21258586

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1981 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. Part 5. Environmental and occupational protection, assessment, and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, W.A.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1981. The five parts of the report are oriented to particular segments of the program. Parts 1 to 4 report on research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. Part 5 reports progress on all research performed for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. The parts are: Part 1: Biomedical Sciences under Program Manager, H. Drucker; Part 2: Ecological Sciences, under Program Manager, B.E. Vaughan; Part 3: Atmospheric Sciences under Program Manager, C.E. Elderkin; Part 4: Physical Sciences under Program Manager, J.M. Nielsen; and Part 5: Environmental and Occupational Protection, Assessment, and Engineering under Program Managers, D.L. Hessel, S. Marks, and W.A. Glass.

  10. Occupational health in Cuba.

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, M R

    1981-01-01

    Health and safety regulation, training, and research were practically non-existent in Cuba before the Revolution in 1959. Since that time important advances have been made. Specialized inspectors, occupational physicians, and other such personnel are now trained in Cuba. An Occupational Health Institute, founded in 1976, provides training and specialized technical services, and conducts research. In 1978, a far reaching "Work Safety and Health Law" was enacted which defines the rights and responsibility of government agencies, workplace administrators, unions, and workers. Comprehensive control of toxic substances in workplaces, still at an early stage, is likely to increase in light of the new law, the growing availability of qualified personnel, and the mounting concern of public health authorities with the increasingly "developed" health profile of the population. PMID:7212141

  11. Occupational health nursing in hungary.

    PubMed

    Hirdi, Henriett Éva; Hong, OiSaeng

    2014-10-01

    This article is the first about occupational health nursing in Hungary. The authors describe the Hungarian health care and occupational health care systems, including nursing education and professional organizations for occupational health nurses. The Fundamental Law of Hungary guarantees the right of every employee to healthy and safe working conditions, daily and weekly rest times and annual paid leave, and physical and mental health. Hungary promotes the exercise of these rights by managing industrial safety and health care, providing access to healthy food, supporting sports and regular physical exercise, and ensuring environmental protection. According to the law, the responsibility for regulation of the occupational health service lies with the Ministry of Human Resources. Safety regulations are under the aegis of the Ministry of National Economy.

  12. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  13. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  14. Defense Occupational and Environmental Health Readiness System (DOEHRS) Guidance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    TERMS Defense Occupational and Environmental Health Reporting System (DOEHRS), Industrial Hygiene, Environmental Health, Information Management System Hygiene...Information System (AF EMIS), the Air Force Enterprise Environmental, Safety, and Occupational Health Information Management System (EESOH MIS), or the

  15. Migrant and Seasonal Hired Adolescent Farmworkers: A Plan To Improve Working Conditions. Recommendations from the National Adolescent Farmworker Occupational Health and Safety Advisory Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vela Acosta, Martha, Ed.; Lee, Barbara, Ed.

    Agriculture is the second most common employer of youth and is associated with numerous occupational hazards, but few preventive efforts to protect adolescent farmworkers have been implemented or evaluated. The largest group of adolescent farmworkers is youth who live away from their natural families and migrate, mostly from Mexico, to work in…

  16. NIOSH comments to DOL on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's proposed rule on occupational exposure to asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite by J. D. Millar, April 26, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-26

    The testimony contains the comments of NIOSH regarding the proposed rule on occupational exposure to asbestos (1332214), tremolite (14567738), anthophyllite (17068789), and actinolite (77536664). The testimony included a memorandum comparing NIOSH Method 7400 to OSHA Method ID 160, an evaluation of glove bag containment in asbestos removal, the limit of detection that was ascertained from the sampling strategies for three sets of samples, effectiveness of periodic cleaning of surfaces with a HEPA vacuum, an update on cancer mortality among chrysotile (12001295) asbestos miners, and the use of hand tools to remove built up roofing.

  17. Occupational Burns Treated in Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Reichard, Audrey A.; Konda, Srinivas; Jackson, Larry L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite reported declines, occupational burn injuries remain a workplace safety concern. More severe burns may result in costly medical treatment and long-term physical and psychological consequences. Methods We used the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—Occupational Supplement to produce national estimates of burns treated in emergency departments (EDs). We analyzed data trends from 1999 to 2008 and provided detailed descriptions of 2008 data. Results From 1999 to 2008 there were 1,132,000 (95% CI: ±192,300) nonfatal occupational burns treated in EDs. Burn numbers and rates declined approximately 40% over the 10 years. In 2008, men and younger workers 15–24 years old had the highest rates. Scalds and thermal burns accounted for more than 60% of burns. Accommodation and food service, manufacturing, and construction industries had the largest number of burns. Conclusions Despite declining burn rates, emphasis is needed on reducing burn hazards to young food service workers and using job specific hazard analyses to prevent burns. PMID:25678457

  18. Coal gasification and occupational health.

    PubMed

    Young, R J; McKay, W J; Evans, J M

    1978-12-01

    Identification and prevention of health effects due to occupational exposures in coal gasification processes requires a basic knowledge of the technological process by which gasification proceeds. This paper presents an overview of the technology and a rational approach to health hazard identification based upon the concept of the unit operation specific micro environment. A final section is devoted to summarizing current research efforts being carried out under the aegis of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

  19. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  20. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.