Science.gov

Sample records for accounting physical protection

  1. 10 CFR 76.111 - Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information. 76.111 Section 76.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.111 Physical security, material...

  2. 10 CFR 76.111 - Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information. 76.111 Section 76.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.111 Physical security, material...

  3. 10 CFR 76.111 - Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information. 76.111 Section 76.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.111 Physical security, material...

  4. 10 CFR 76.111 - Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information. 76.111 Section 76.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.111 Physical security, material...

  5. 10 CFR 76.111 - Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information. 76.111 Section 76.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.111 Physical security, material...

  6. Nuclear material control and accounting and physical protection cooperation with the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, K.; Cherry, R.; Kuzmycz, G. )

    1993-01-01

    The end of the Cold War precipitated an unprecedented, fast-paced effort by the United States and states of the former Soviet Union (FSU) to dismantle nuclear weapons. At the same time, instability in the FSU as nuclear stockpiles are drawn down has given rise to a proliferation threat potentially more serious than any nuclear crisis faced by the superpowers during their 40-yr standoff. With the FSU more susceptible than ever to proliferation and terrorist threats, it is probable that countries that intend to develop nuclear weapons will attempt or may already have attempted to obtain nuclear material not only from dismantled weapons but from civilian nuclear programs as well. Numerous reports have emerged in the international media during the past year alone on FSU nuclear material being lost, stolen, or recovered following theft attempts. Under the US initiative for nuclear weapons safety, security and dismantlement (SSD), and the President's Nonproliferation Initiative, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are engaged in establishing bilateral technical assistance programs with FSU states in nuclear material safeguards. The overarching objective of US assistance is to help the FSU states improve their capabilities to effectively safeguard and protect nuclear material. The assistance will be carried out under bilateral agreements for cooperation and supported by funds authorized by Congress in the Soviet Nuclear Reduction Act of 1991 and successor legislation, such as the Freedom Support Act (1992).

  7. Program for upgrading nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting at all facilities within the All-Russian Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF)

    SciTech Connect

    Yuferev, V.; Zhikharev, S.; Yakimov, Y.

    1998-12-31

    As part of the Department of Energy-Russian program for strengthening nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A), plans have now been formulated to install an integrated MPC and A system at all facilities containing large quantities of weapons-usable nuclear material within the All-Russian Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF, Arzamas-16) complex. In addition to storage facilities, the complex houses a number of critical facilities used to conduct nuclear physics research and facilities for developing procedures for disassembly of nuclear weapons.

  8. Physical protection upgrades in Ukraine.

    SciTech Connect

    Djakov, A.

    1998-08-06

    The U.S. DOE is providing nuclear material safeguards assistance in both material control and accountability and in physical protection to several facilities in Ukraine. This paper summarizes the types of physical protection upgrades that have been or are presently being implemented at these facilities. These facilities include the Kiev Institute for Nuclear Research, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy and Industry, and the South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant. Typical upgrades include: hardening of storage areas; improvements in access control, intrusion detection, and CCTV assessment; central alarm station improvements; and implementation of new voice communication systems. Methods used to implement these upgrades and problems encountered are discussed. Training issues are also discussed.

  9. Protection of the Water: Who Is Accountable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Patricia; Glascoff, Mary A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a teaching activity consisting of a problem-solving story about a company in a small town that is burying hazardous material which may create future problems for the community. The activity challenges students to address ethical issues relative to responsibility and accountability for protection of the water supply. (PR)

  10. Generic physical protection logic trees

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  11. Developmental Physical Education Accountability; Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarnieri, Barbara; Sandeen, Cecile

    Presented in the first of a two volume series is a developmental physical education checklist which provides teachers of trainable mentally retarded students with a permanent and accountable record of pupil progress and needs. The checklist is intended to be used with the accompanying volume of curricular activities in a nongraded enviroment for…

  12. Protection against radiation (biological, pharmacological, chemical, physical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saksonov, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological protection for astronauts from penetrating radiation on long-term space flights is discussed. The status of pharmacochemical protection, development of protective substances, medical use of protective substances, protection for spacecraft ecologic systems, adaptogens and physical conditioning, bone marrow transplants and local protection are discussed. Combined use of local protection and pharmacochemical substances is also briefly considered.

  13. 32 CFR 644.140 - Physical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... physical protection. In accordance with 41 CFR 101-20.504, a Facility Self-Protection Plan is to be... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Physical protection. 644.140 Section 644.140... ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Acquisition by Leasing § 644.140 Physical protection. It is essential...

  14. 22 CFR 9a.8 - Physical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.8 Physical protection. Except as provided in § 9a.7, the physical... provisions of 22 CFR 9.45 through 9.49. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Physical protection. 9a.8 Section 9a.8...

  15. 22 CFR 9a.8 - Physical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.8 Physical protection. Except as provided in § 9a.7, the physical... provisions of 22 CFR 9.45 through 9.49. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Physical protection. 9a.8 Section 9a.8...

  16. 22 CFR 9a.8 - Physical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.8 Physical protection. Except as provided in § 9a.7, the physical... provisions of 22 CFR 9.45 through 9.49. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Physical protection. 9a.8 Section 9a.8...

  17. 22 CFR 9a.8 - Physical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.8 Physical protection. Except as provided in § 9a.7, the physical... provisions of 22 CFR 9.45 through 9.49. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Physical protection. 9a.8 Section 9a.8...

  18. 32 CFR 644.140 - Physical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Physical protection. 644.140 Section 644.140 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Acquisition by Leasing § 644.140 Physical protection. It is essential that the Division or District Engineer...

  19. Principles for protecting material accounting systems from data falsification

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D.R.; McDonnel, J.L.; Chilton, P.D.; Kufahl, G.E.; Vergari, A.A.

    1980-09-30

    This study is part of a larger effort involving the development of regulatory licensing criteria and guidance for an upgraded material accounting rule for fixed-site, commercial nuclear fuel-cycle facilities. Our approach was to examine the vulnerability events of the Generic Minimal Material Accounting (GMMA) system from the point-of-view of a systems analyst and an internal auditor and then determine some acceptable methods for protecting them. During the course of this task, four protection principles were identified which have the potential of controlling against data falsification: Data Control (DC) - to provide assurance that sufficient controls be involved in the handling of data, especially with regard to the introduction of original data; Control on Controls (CC) - to ensure accuracy, validity, and integrity of information or procedures; Skip Echelon Verification (SEV) - to verify by senders of data that the data are properly used; and Secondary Echelon Forwarding (SEF) - to verify by recipients of data that the data were previously used in an appropriate manner by the sender. The extent to which these or other protection principles should be applied to achieve protection against data falsification and Special Nuclear Material (SNM) diversion depends on the degree of protection desired and the level of threat from which a system must be protected. Data falsification and SNM diversion must involve personnel, and the personnel of concern here are insiders who perform the accounting functions as well as those who have authorized access to the accounting elements. Therefore, protection principles must be implemented with regard to organizational constraints. Our approach to setting organizational criteria is basically to ensure that there is adequate separation of responsibilities for elements of control mechanisms.

  20. Do No Evil: Unnoticed Assumptions in Accounts of Conscience Protection.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, Bryan C

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, I argue that distinctions between traditional and contemporary accounts of conscience protections, such as the account offered by Aulisio and Arora, fail. These accounts fail because they require an impoverished conception of our moral lives. This failure is due to unnoticed assumptions about the distinction between the traditional and contemporary articulations of conscience protection. My argument proceeds as follows: First, I highlight crucial assumptions in Aulisio and Arora's argument. Next, I argue that respecting maximal play in values, though a fine goal in our liberal democratic society, raises a key issue in exactly the situations that matter in these cases. Finally, I argue that too much weight is given to a too narrow conception of values. There are differences between appeals to conscience that are appropriately categorized as traditional or contemporary, and a way to make sense of conscience in the contemporary medical landscape is needed. However, the normative implications drawn by Aulisio and Arora do not follow from this distinction without much further argument. I conclude that their paper is a helpful illustration the complexity of this issue and of a common view about conscience, but insofar as their view fails to account for the richness of our moral life, they fail to resolve the issue at hand. PMID:25771783

  1. Physical protection cooperation with Former Soviet Union countries

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.D.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of physical protection cooperation activities between Sandia (SNL) and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) regarding Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC&A) responsibilities. Begun four years ago as part of the Safe, Secure Dismantlement Program, this project is intended to stem proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Purpose of the program is to accelerate progress toward a goal shared by both Russia and the United States: to reduce the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation, including such threats as theft, diversion, and unauthorized possession of nuclear materials. This will be accomplished by strengthening the MPC&A systems in both, countries. This new program (US Department of Energy Laboratory-to-Laboratory MPC&A program) is designed to complement Government-to-Government programs sponsored by US Senators Nunn and Lugar. US and Russian representatives exchange visits and discuss physical protection philosophies. Russian representatives have received formal training in the US process of system design and analysis to include the design of an effective physical protection system, determination of physical protection system objectives, initial design of a physical protection system, evaluation of the design, and often redesign or refinement of the existing system. Some Russian organizations have philosophies similar to those of the United States, but when they differ, the US and Russian representatives must negotiate. Other Russian organizations, because of heavy reliance on guard forces, have not developed a systematic design process. Cooperative work between US national laboratories and Russian counterparts has resulted in major physical protection enhancements at a Russian demonstration site and other advancements for Laboratory-to-Laboratory projects.

  2. Physical protection philosophy and techniques in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Dufva, B.

    1988-01-01

    The circumstances for the protection of nuclear power plants are special in Sweden. A very important factor is that armed guards at the facilities are alien to the Swedish society. They do not use them. The Swedish concept of physical protection accepts that the aggressor will get into the facility. With this in mind, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) has established the policy that administrative, technical, and organizational measures will be directed toward preventing an aggressor from damaging the reactor, even if he has occupied the facility. In addition, the best conditions possible shall be established for the operator and the police to reoccupy the plant. The author believes this policy is different from that of many other countries. Therefore, he focusses on the Swedish philosophy and techniques for the physical protection of nuclear power plants.

  3. 10 CFR 72.182 - Design for physical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Design for physical protection. 72.182 Section 72.182 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF... Physical Protection § 72.182 Design for physical protection. The design for physical protection must...

  4. 10 CFR 72.182 - Design for physical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Design for physical protection. 72.182 Section 72.182 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF... Physical Protection § 72.182 Design for physical protection. The design for physical protection must...

  5. Applications of fiber optics in physical protection

    SciTech Connect

    Buckle, T.H.

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to provide technical information useful for the development of fiber-optic communications and intrusion detection subsystems relevant to physical protection. There are major sections on fiber-optic technology and applications. Other topics include fiber-optic system components and systems engineering. This document also contains a glossary, a list of standards and specifications, and a list of fiber-optic equipment vendors.

  6. Integrated safeguards & security for material protection, accounting, and control.

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2009-10-01

    Traditional safeguards and security design for fuel cycle facilities is done separately and after the facility design is near completion. This can result in higher costs due to retrofits and redundant use of data. Future facilities will incorporate safeguards and security early in the design process and integrate the systems to make better use of plant data and strengthen both systems. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the integration of materials control and accounting (MC&A) measurements with physical security design for a nuclear reprocessing plant. Locations throughout the plant where data overlap occurs or where MC&A data could be a benefit were identified. This mapping is presented along with the methodology for including the additional data in existing probabilistic assessments to evaluate safeguards and security systems designs.

  7. 10 CFR 72.180 - Physical protection plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Physical protection plan. 72.180 Section 72.180 Energy... NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Physical Protection § 72.180 Physical protection plan. The licensee shall establish, maintain, and follow a...

  8. 10 CFR 72.180 - Physical protection plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Physical protection plan. 72.180 Section 72.180 Energy... NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Physical Protection § 72.180 Physical protection plan. The licensee shall establish, maintain, and follow a...

  9. 10 CFR 72.180 - Physical protection plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Physical protection plan. 72.180 Section 72.180 Energy... NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Physical Protection § 72.180 Physical protection plan. The licensee shall establish, maintain, and follow a...

  10. 10 CFR 72.180 - Physical protection plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Physical protection plan. 72.180 Section 72.180 Energy... NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Physical Protection § 72.180 Physical protection plan. The licensee shall establish, maintain, and follow a...

  11. 10 CFR 72.180 - Physical protection plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Physical protection plan. 72.180 Section 72.180 Energy... NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Physical Protection § 72.180 Physical protection plan. The licensee shall establish, maintain, and follow a...

  12. Upgrade of the Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting System at the VNIIEF Industrial Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.C.; Maltsev, V.; Singh, S.P.

    1999-09-20

    The Industrial Zone at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center/All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC/VNEEF) consists of ten guarded areas with twenty two material balance areas (A and As). The type of facilities in the Industrial Zone include storage sites, machine shops, research facilities, and training facilities. Modernization of the Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) System at the Industrial Zone started in 1997. This paper provides a description of, the methodology/strategy used in the upgrade of the MFC and A system.

  13. Object Individuation and Physical Reasoning in Infancy: An Integrative Account

    PubMed Central

    Baillargeon, Renée; Stavans, Maayan; Wu, Di; Gertner, Yael; Setoh, Peipei; Kittredge, Audrey K.; Bernard, Amélie

    2012-01-01

    Much of the research on object individuation in infancy has used a task in which two different objects emerge in alternation from behind a large screen, which is then removed to reveal either one or two objects. In their seminal work, Xu and Carey (1996) found that it is typically not until the end of the first year that infants detect a violation when a single object is revealed. Since then, a large number of investigations have modified the standard task in various ways and found that young infants succeed with some but not with other modifications, yielding a complex and unwieldy picture. In this article, we argue that this confusing picture can be better understood by bringing to bear insights from a related subfield of infancy research, physical reasoning. By considering how infants reason about object information within and across physical events, we can make sense of apparently inconsistent findings from different object-individuation tasks. In turn, object-individuation findings deepen our understanding of how physical reasoning develops in infancy. Integrating the insights from physical-reasoning and object-individuation investigations thus enriches both subfields and brings about a clearer account of how infants represent objects and events. PMID:23204946

  14. Protective clothing ensembles and physical employment standards.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Tom M; Havenith, George

    2016-06-01

    Physical employment standards (PESs) exist for certain occupational groups that also require the use of protective clothing ensembles (PCEs) during their normal work. This review addresses whether these current PESs appropriately incorporate the physiological burden associated with wearing PCEs during respective tasks. Metabolic heat production increases because of wearing PCE; this increase is greater than that because of simply the weight of the clothing and can vary 2-fold among individuals. This variation negates a simple adjustment to the PES for the effect of the clothing on metabolic rate. As a result, PES testing that only simulates the weight of the clothing and protective equipment does not adequately accommodate this effect. The physiological heat strain associated with the use of PCEs is also not addressed with current PESs. Typically the selection tests of a PES lasts less than 20 min, whereas the requirement for use of PCE in the workplace may approach 1 h before cooling strategies can be employed. One option that might be considered is to construct a heat stress test that requires new recruits and incumbents to work for a predetermined duration while exposed to a warm environmental temperature while wearing the PCE. PMID:27277562

  15. 49 CFR 1242.58 - Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). 1242.58 Section 1242.58... Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). Separate common expenses on the basis of total train hours (including...

  16. 49 CFR 1242.58 - Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). 1242.58 Section 1242.58... Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). Separate common expenses on the basis of total train hours (including...

  17. 49 CFR 1242.58 - Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). 1242.58 Section 1242.58... Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). Separate common expenses on the basis of total train hours (including...

  18. 49 CFR 1242.58 - Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). 1242.58 Section 1242.58... Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). Separate common expenses on the basis of total train hours (including...

  19. 49 CFR 1242.58 - Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). 1242.58 Section 1242.58... Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). Separate common expenses on the basis of total train hours (including...

  20. Blame Analysis: Accounting for the Behavior of Protected Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felson, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    Criticizes the use of blame analysis rather than scientific analysis in sociological studies. Defines blame analysis as an approach to social science that (1) evaluates theories according to the extent that they blame protected groups; (2) equates cause with blame; (3) and rejects theoretical arguments that posit any causal role for the protected…

  1. Status of U.S. programs for material protection, control & accounting assistance to Ukraine and Kazakstan

    SciTech Connect

    Roche, C.T.; Zinneman, T.E.; Rudolph, R.R.

    1995-12-01

    The United States is one of several donor states providing technical assistance to the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) for improving their systems for control of nuclear materials. Ukraine and Kazakstan have significant nuclear energy programs. Both countries have committed to nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. They have signed the NPT and have safeguards agreements with the U.S. concerning development of state systems of control, accounting and physical protection of nuclear materials. As directed by the DOE - International Safeguards Division (now the DOE - Russia/NIS Nuclear Materials Security Task Force), technical specialists from several national laboratories, including Argonne, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest and Sandia, as well as representatives of other U.S. Government organizations, such as the NRC, DOD/DNA and the New Brunswick Laboratory, are interacting with government regulatory and facility personnel of Ukraine and Kazakstan. Argonne has program coordination responsibilities for both countries. In support of agreements between the U.S. and Ukraine and the U.S. and Kazakstan, the DOE is responsible for providing technical assistance and training to aid in the evaluation, design, development, and implementation of nuclear material safeguards. This assistance includes: (1) information systems for tracking and reporting the location of nuclear materials, (2) application of nuclear measurement techniques for verifying inventories, (3) material control and accounting (MC&A) systems, and (4) physical protection (PP) systems. Site survey teams, including both MC&A and PP experts from several national labs, have visited Ukraine and Kazakstan. This paper summarizes activities to date and future plans.

  2. Chapter 2: The Need for Physical Protection, Safety, and Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazelton, T. Berry; Greenspan, Stanley I.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the need for physical protection and care of infants and young children and families. One of the most important preventable challenges to children's physical safety and protection is toxic substances in their environment. Many toxic substances that affect the central nervous system are in drinking water, soil, air, and areas…

  3. 10 CFR 72.182 - Design for physical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Design for physical protection. 72.182 Section 72.182 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Physical Protection § 72.182 Design for...

  4. 22 CFR 9a.8 - Physical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO CERTAIN INTERNATIONAL... protection of information or material classified under this regulation shall be governed by the appropriate provisions of 22 CFR 9.45 through 9.49....

  5. Physical protection philosophy and techniques in the United States of America

    SciTech Connect

    Eyck, E.Q.T.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear materials and facilities must be protected from hostile acts which could possibly impact public health and safety or national defense and security. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for regulating the safeguards of commercial nuclear facilities within the United States of America, and it issues and enforces requirements for safeguards at privately owned and operated nuclear facilities. The US Department of Energy (DOE) performs these functions for government-owned nuclear facilities. Domestic safeguards includes (1) physical protection measures to control access to nuclear material and facilities and (2) material control and accounting procedures to ensure that only authorized activities take place, to account for materials, and to conform with the US-IAEA Treaty. Physical protection measures (the focus of this article) contain the sensitive materials and activities within concentric physical barriers controlled by armed guards, who grant access to authorized individuals and prevent access by force or stealth.

  6. US/Russian program in materials protection, control and accounting at the RRC Kurchatov Institute: 1997--1998

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhoruchkin, V.; Rumyantsev, A.; Shmelev, V.

    1998-12-31

    Six US Department of Energy Laboratories are carrying out a program of cooperation with the Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute to improve nuclear material protection, control and accounting (MPC and A) at Kurchatov. In 1997--1998 the primary thrust of this program has been directed to Building 106, which houses a number of test reactors and critical facilities. Substantial improvements in physical protection, upgrades in the physical inventory taking procedures, installation of equipment for the computerized materials accounting system, and installation of nuclear material portal monitors and neutron-based measurement equipment are being carried out at this facility. Software for the computerized accounting system, named KI-MACS, has been developed at Kurchatov and the system has been fully integrated with the bar code printing and reading equipment, electronic scales, and nondestructive assay equipment provided under this program. Additional 1997--1998 activities at Kurchatov include continuation of a tamper indicating device program, vulnerability assessments of several facilities, hosting of a Russian-American Workshop on Fissile Material Control and Accountability at Critical Facilities, and the development of accounting procedures for transfers of nuclear materials between material balance areas.

  7. Sport, Physical Activity and Well-Being: An Objectivist Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloodworth, Andrew; McNamee, Mike; Bailey, Richard

    2012-01-01

    It is widely maintained that sport and physical activities contribute to the development of young people's well-being. Others argue that sports' contribution to good living is so strong that it is even thought to be a human right. Typically, however, the value of physical activity and sport to our well-being is conceptualized and researched within…

  8. The Infrastructure Necessary to Support a Sustainable Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Bachner, Katherine M.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-07-20

    The NNSA Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) program has been engaged for fifteen years in upgrading the security of nuclear materials in Russia. Part of the effort has been to establish the conditions necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of nuclear security. A sustainable program of nuclear security requires the creation of an indigenous infrastructure, starting with sustained high level government commitment. This includes organizational development, training, maintenance, regulations, inspections, and a strong nuclear security culture. The provision of modern physical protection, control, and accounting equipment to the Russian Federation alone is not sufficient. Comprehensive infrastructure projects support the Russian Federation's ability to maintain the risk reduction achieved through upgrades to the equipment. To illustrate the contributions to security, and challenges of implementation, this paper discusses the history and next steps for an indigenous Tamper Indication Device (TID) program, and a Radiation Portal Monitoring (RPM) program.

  9. Cooperative efforts of the materials protection control and accounting program at the electrochemical plant (Krasnoyarsk-45) in Russia-011

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.

    1998-07-22

    The USDOE Material Protection Control and Accountability Program (MPC&A) has established a Project Team with the goal of providing the Russian Electrochemical Plant (ECP) with equipment and training to enable ECP to evaluate, develop, and implement a comprehensive plan and systems for physical protection, material controls, and accountancy upgrades. The MPC&A project will provide for improvements such as risk assessments, access control upgrades, computerized MC&A, communications systems upgrades, building perimeter surveillance and intrusion detection upgrades, vault upgrades, metal and nuclear material detection upgrades, along with mass measurement and non- destructive analysis (NDA) instrumentation. This paper outlines the overall objectives of the MPC&A project at the Electrochemical Plant.

  10. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  11. Physical Activity Protects against the Health Risks of Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Blair, Steven N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the relationships between physical fitness and body composition and their combined effect on health. After discussing the epidemiologic evidence for a protective effect of physical fitness on the health risks associated with obesity, it describes the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, an ongoing observational study that…

  12. Determining Which Introductory Physics Topics Pre-Service Physics Teachers Have Difficulty Understanding and What Accounts for These Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Esin; Yagbasan, Rahmi

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at diagnosing which subjects pre-service physics teachers have difficulty understanding in introductory physics courses and what accounts for these difficulties. A questionnaire consisting of two qualitative questions was used to collect data for this study. The questionnaire was administered to 101 pre-service physics teachers who…

  13. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Controversy surrounding the accountability movement is related to how the movement began in response to dissatisfaction with public schools. Opponents see it as one-sided, somewhat mean-spirited, and a threat to the professional status of teachers. Supporters argue that all other spheres of the workplace have accountability systems and that the…

  14. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  15. Physical account of Weyl anomaly from Dirac Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habara, Yoshinobu; Nielsen, Holger B.; Ninomiya, Masao

    2015-09-01

    We rederive in a physical manner the Weyl anomaly in two-dimensional space-time by considering the Dirac Sea. It is regularized by some bosonic extra species which are formally negatively counted. In fact, we calculate the trace of the energy-momentum tensor in the Dirac Sea in presence of background gravitational field. It has to be regularized, since the Dirac Sea is bottomless and thus causes divergence. The new regularization method consists in adding various massive bosonic species some of which are to be counted negative in the Dirac Sea. The mass terms in the Lagrangian of the regularization fields have a dependence on the background gravitational field.

  16. Radiation protection aspects of EMITEL Encyclopaedia of Medical Physics.

    PubMed

    Stoeva, M; Tabakov, S; Lewis, C; Tabakova, V; Thurston, J; Smith, P

    2015-07-01

    The Encyclopaedia of Medical Physics EMITEL was developed under the EU pilot project European Medical Imaging Technology e-Encyclopaedia for Lifelong Learning. This large reference material includes 3400 articles on 2100 pages supported by thousands of illustrations. All materials are available free at the website, www.emitel2.eu. The articles are grouped in seven categories--physics of: X-ray diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, radiation protection and general terms. The radiation protection part of EMITEL includes 450 articles. These were organised in several sub-groups including: nuclear and atomic physics; ionizing radiation interactions and biological effects; radiation detection and measurement; dosimetric quantities and units; and general radiation protection and international bodies. EMITEL project was developed over 3 y and attracted as contributors 250+ senior specialists from 35 countries. After its successful launching, EMITEL is actively used by thousands of professionals around the world. PMID:25848099

  17. Medical savings accounts: assessing their impact on efficiency, equity and financial protection in health care.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Olivier J; Cylus, Jonathan; Yang, Wei; Thomson, Sarah; McKee, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Medical savings accounts (MSAs) allow enrolees to withdraw money from earmarked funds to pay for health care. The accounts are usually accompanied by out-of-pocket payments and a high-deductible insurance plan. This article reviews the association of MSAs with efficiency, equity, and financial protection. We draw on evidence from four countries where MSAs play a significant role in the financing of health care: China, Singapore, South Africa, and the United States of America. The available evidence suggests that MSA schemes have generally been inefficient and inequitable and have not provided adequate financial protection. The impact of these schemes on long-term health-care costs is unclear. Policymakers and others proposing the expansion of MSAs should make explicit what they seek to achieve given the shortcomings of the accounts. PMID:26883211

  18. Risk Assessment Methodology for Protecting Our Critical Physical Infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    BIRINGER,BETTY E.; DANNEELS,JEFFREY J.

    2000-12-13

    Critical infrastructures are central to our national defense and our economic well-being, but many are taken for granted. Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) 63 highlights the importance of eight of our critical infrastructures and outlines a plan for action. Greatly enhanced physical security systems will be required to protect these national assets from new and emerging threats. Sandia National Laboratories has been the lead laboratory for the Department of Energy (DOE) in developing and deploying physical security systems for the past twenty-five years. Many of the tools, processes, and systems employed in the protection of high consequence facilities can be adapted to the civilian infrastructure.

  19. Health physics/radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The ''Health Physics/Radiation Protection Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 1987'' included 59 institutions with programs offering a major in health physics or an option within another major with equivalent course work which will prepare the graduate to take a major role in conducting, coordinating, directing, or planning a program for the evaluation and control of radiation hazards, i.e., programs which prepare graduates to perform as health physicists. This report discusses the results of this survey.

  20. Determining which introductory physics topics pre-service physics teachers have difficulty understanding and what accounts for these difficulties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Esin; Yağbasan, Rahmi

    2012-03-01

    This study aims at diagnosing which subjects pre-service physics teachers have difficulty understanding in introductory physics courses and what accounts for these difficulties. A questionnaire consisting of two qualitative questions was used to collect data for this study. The questionnaire was administered to 101 pre-service physics teachers who have completed the courses Physics 1 (Mechanics 1), Physics 2 (Mechanics 2), Physics 3 (Electricity) and Physics 4 (Magnetism). Of the pre-service physics teachers 28 were second year, 26 were third year, 27 were fourth year and 20 were fifth year students. The results of the data analysis indicated that the percentage of students who think that Magnetism has the most difficult subjects is the highest compared to the others. The reasons why the pre-service physics teachers experience difficulty in understanding the subjects have been grouped into four categories.

  1. 78 FR 31821 - Physical Protection of Byproduct Material

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 20, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 51, 71, and 73 RIN 3150-AI12 Physical Protection of Byproduct Material Correction In rule document 2013-5895 appearing on pages 16922-17022 in...

  2. 10 CFR 72.182 - Design for physical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design for physical protection. 72.182 Section 72.182 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C...

  3. Nexus of technologies : international safeguards, physical protection and arms control.

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Blair, Dianna Sue; Smartt, Heidi Anne

    2010-09-01

    New technologies have been, and are continuing to be, developed for Safeguards, Arms Control, and Physical Protection. Application spaces and technical requirements are evolving - Overlaps are developing. Lessons learned from IAEA's extensive experience could benefit other communities. Technologies developed for other applications may benefit Safeguards - Inherent cost benefits and improvements in procurement security processes.

  4. Physical protection design and analysis training for the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Soo Hoo, M.S.; Chapek, J.F.; Ebel, P.E.

    1996-08-01

    Since 1978, Sandia National Laboratories has provided training courses in the systematic design of Physical Protection Systems (PPS). One such course, the International Training Course (TC) on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Materials, is sponsored by the Department of Energy`s International Safeguards Division , the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Department of State. Since 1978, twelve 3- and 4-week classes have been conducted by Sandia for these sponsors. One- and two-week adaptations of this course have been developed for other customers, and, since 1994, nine of these abbreviated courses have been presented in the Russian language to participants from the Former Soviet Union (SU). These courses have been performed in support of the Department of Energy`s program on Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) for the Russian Federation and the Newly Independent States. MPC&A physical protection training assumes participants have more narrowly defined backgrounds. In using affective approaches, the overall goal of training in the context of the MPC&A Program is to develop modern and effective, indigenous capabilities for physical protection system design and analysis within the SU. This paper contrasts the cognitive and affective approaches to training and indicates why different approaches are required for the ITC and the MPC&A Programs.

  5. Department of Energy nuclear material physical protection program in the Republic of Kazakstan

    SciTech Connect

    Eras, A.; Berry, R.B.; Case, R.S.

    1997-09-01

    As part of the joint U.S. and Republic of Kazakstan nuclear Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC{ampersand}A) program, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is providing assistance at four nuclear facilities in Kazakstan. These facilities are the Ulba Metallurgical Plant, the National Nuclear Center (NNC) Institute of Atomic Energy at Kurchatov (IAE-K), the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex (BN-350) Reactor, and the NNC Institute of Atomic Energy at Almaty (IAE-A). This paper describes the DOE MPC{ampersand}A physical protection program at each of the facilities.

  6. 10 CFR 73.40 - Physical protection: General requirements at fixed sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Physical protection: General requirements at fixed sites. 73.40 Section 73.40 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.40 Physical protection:...

  7. 10 CFR 73.40 - Physical protection: General requirements at fixed sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Physical protection: General requirements at fixed sites. 73.40 Section 73.40 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.40 Physical protection:...

  8. 10 CFR 73.40 - Physical protection: General requirements at fixed sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Physical protection: General requirements at fixed sites. 73.40 Section 73.40 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.40 Physical protection:...

  9. 10 CFR 73.40 - Physical protection: General requirements at fixed sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Physical protection: General requirements at fixed sites. 73.40 Section 73.40 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.40 Physical protection:...

  10. 10 CFR 73.40 - Physical protection: General requirements at fixed sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Physical protection: General requirements at fixed sites. 73.40 Section 73.40 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.40 Physical protection:...

  11. 10 CFR 73.60 - Additional requirements for physical protection at nonpower reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional requirements for physical protection at nonpower reactors. 73.60 Section 73.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.60 Additional requirements for physical protection at nonpower...

  12. Material protection, control and accounting cooperation at the Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP), Novouralsk, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, S., LLNL

    1998-07-15

    The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is one of the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy`s nuclear material production sites participating in the US Department of Energy`s Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program. The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is Russia`s largest uranium enrichment facility and blends tons of high-enriched uranium into low enriched uranium each year as part of the US high-enriched uranium purchase. The Electrochemical Integrated Plant and six participating national laboratories are cooperating to implement a series of enhancements to the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability systems at the site This paper outlines the overall objectives of the MPC&A program at Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant and the work completed as of the date of the presentation.

  13. US assistance in physical protection at the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology and the Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy and Industry, Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Zinneman, T.; Miranda, J.; Novick, A.; Roche, C.; Kuzmyez, G.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. DOE is providing nuclear material safeguards assistance in both material control & accountability and physical protection to several nuclear facilities in Ukraine. This paper describes the types of physical protection upgrades that are presently being implemented at the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology and at the Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy and Industry. These upgrades include: hardening of storage areas, improvements in access control, intrusion detection, CCTV assessment, alarm monitoring and voice communication systems. Methods used to implement these upgrades and problems encountered are discussed. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Operational Radiation Protection in High-Energy Physics Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Rokni, S.H.; Fasso, A.; Liu, J.C.; /SLAC

    2012-04-03

    An overview of operational radiation protection (RP) policies and practices at high-energy electron and proton accelerators used for physics research is presented. The different radiation fields and hazards typical of these facilities are described, as well as access control and radiation control systems. The implementation of an operational RP programme is illustrated, covering area and personnel classification and monitoring, radiation surveys, radiological environmental protection, management of induced radioactivity, radiological work planning and control, management of radioactive materials and wastes, facility dismantling and decommissioning, instrumentation and training.

  15. 75 FR 1301 - Damages Received on Account of Personal Physical Injuries or Physical Sickness; Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... Register on Tuesday, September 15, 2009 (74 FR 47152). Persons who wish to present oral comments at the... Injuries or Physical Sickness; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... of personal physical injuries or physical sickness. DATES: The public hearing is being held...

  16. Game theoretic analysis of physical protection system design

    SciTech Connect

    Canion, B.; Schneider, E.; Bickel, E.; Hadlock, C.; Morton, D.

    2013-07-01

    The physical protection system (PPS) of a fictional small modular reactor (SMR) facility have been modeled as a platform for a game theoretic approach to security decision analysis. To demonstrate the game theoretic approach, a rational adversary with complete knowledge of the facility has been modeled attempting a sabotage attack. The adversary adjusts his decisions in response to investments made by the defender to enhance the security measures. This can lead to a conservative physical protection system design. Since defender upgrades were limited by a budget, cost benefit analysis may be conducted upon security upgrades. One approach to cost benefit analysis is the efficient frontier, which depicts the reduction in expected consequence per incremental increase in the security budget.

  17. Physical protection technologies for the reconfigured weapons complex

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeger, C.D.

    1994-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was a memtier of the Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Safeguards and Security (S&S) team providing assistance to the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Weapons Complex Reconfigaration. New and improved S&S concepts, approaches and technologies were needed to support both new and upgraded facilities. Physical protection technologies used in these facilities were to use proven state-of-the-art systems in such areas as image processing, alarm communications and display, entry control, contraband detection, intrusion detection and video assessment, access delay, automation and robotics, and various insider protection systems. Factors considered in the selection of these technologies were protection against the design basis threat, reducing S&S life-cycle costs, automation of S&S functions to minimize operational costs, access to critical assets and exposure of people to hazardous environments, increasing the amount of delay to an outsider adversary and having reliable and maintainable systems. This paper will discuss the S&S issues, requirements, technology opportunities and needs. Physical protection technologies and systems considered in the design effort of the Weapons Complex Reconfiguration facilities will be reviewed.

  18. English/Russian and Russian/English glossary of physical protection terms

    SciTech Connect

    Soo Hoo, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    This glossary was prepared in fulfillment of the Glossary Preparation Task identified in the Program Plan for providing Assistance to the Russian Federation in Nuclear Material Control and Accounting and Physical Protection. The Program Plan is part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction Program as provided for under House Resolution (H.R.) 3807 (Title II, as referenced under Public Law (P.L.) 102-229. The terms in this glossary were derived from physical protection training material prepared at Sandia. The training material, and thus refinements to the glossary, has undergone years of development in presentation to both domestic and international audiences. Also, Russian Colleagues and interpreters have reviewed the translations for accuracy.

  19. International physical protection self-assessment tool for chemical facilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Tewell, Craig R.; Burdick, Brent A.; Stiles, Linda L.; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2010-09-01

    This report is the final report for Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project No.130746, International Physical Protection Self-Assessment Tool for Chemical Facilities. The goal of the project was to develop an exportable, low-cost, computer-based risk assessment tool for small to medium size chemical facilities. The tool would assist facilities in improving their physical protection posture, while protecting their proprietary information. In FY2009, the project team proposed a comprehensive evaluation of safety and security regulations in the target geographical area, Southeast Asia. This approach was later modified and the team worked instead on developing a methodology for identifying potential targets at chemical facilities. Milestones proposed for FY2010 included characterizing the international/regional regulatory framework, finalizing the target identification and consequence analysis methodology, and developing, reviewing, and piloting the software tool. The project team accomplished the initial goal of developing potential target categories for chemical facilities; however, the additional milestones proposed for FY2010 were not pursued and the LDRD funding therefore was redirected.

  20. Physical Protection System Upgrades - Optimizing for Performance and Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Ann M.; Hicks, Mary Jane

    1999-07-09

    CPA--Cost and Performance Analysis--is an architecture that supports analysis of physical protection systems and upgrade options. ASSESS (Analytic System and Software for Evaluating Security Systems), a tool for evaluating performance of physical protection systems, currently forms the cornerstone for evaluating detection probabilities and delay times of the system. Cost and performance data are offered to the decision-maker at the systems level and to technologists at the path-element level. A new optimization engine has been attached to the CPA methodology to automate analyses of many combinations (portfolios) of technologies. That engine controls a new analysis sequencer that automatically modifies ASSESS PPS files (facility descriptions), automatically invokes ASSESS Outsider analysis and then saves results for post-processing. Users can constrain the search to an upper bound on total cost, to a lower bound on level of performance, or to include specific technologies or technology types. This process has been applied to a set of technology development proposals to identify those portfolios that provide the most improvement in physical security for the lowest cost to install, operate and maintain at a baseline facility.

  1. Resilience in Physically Abused Children: Protective Factors for Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Megan R.; Yoon, Susan; Voith, Laura A.; Kobulsky, Julia M.; Steigerwald, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Aggression continues to be a serious problem among children, especially those children who have experienced adverse life events such as maltreatment. However, there are many maltreated children who show resilient functioning. This study investigated potential protective factors (i.e., child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being) that promoted positive adaptation and increased the likelihood of a child engaging in the healthy, normative range of aggressive behavior, despite experiencing physical maltreatment. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using two waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-I). Children who were physically maltreated were more likely to exhibit clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1 than children who were not physically maltreated. Children’s internalizing well-being, children’s prosocial behavior, and caregivers’ well-being were associated with lower likelihood of clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1. Children’s internalizing well-being and children’s prosocial behavior remained significantly associated with nonclinical aggression 18 months later. These findings highlight the role of protective factors in fostering positive and adaptive behaviors in maltreated children. Interventions focusing on preventing early aggression and reinforcing child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being may be promising in promoting healthy positive behavioral adjustment. PMID:25924113

  2. Physical basis of radiation protection in space travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Marco; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-10-01

    The health risks of space radiation are arguably the most serious challenge to space exploration, possibly preventing these missions due to safety concerns or increasing their costs to amounts beyond what would be acceptable. Radiation in space is substantially different from Earth: high-energy (E) and charge (Z) particles (HZE) provide the main contribution to the equivalent dose in deep space, whereas γ rays and low-energy α particles are major contributors on Earth. This difference causes a high uncertainty on the estimated radiation health risk (including cancer and noncancer effects), and makes protection extremely difficult. In fact, shielding is very difficult in space: the very high energy of the cosmic rays and the severe mass constraints in spaceflight represent a serious hindrance to effective shielding. Here the physical basis of space radiation protection is described, including the most recent achievements in space radiation transport codes and shielding approaches. Although deterministic and Monte Carlo transport codes can now describe well the interaction of cosmic rays with matter, more accurate double-differential nuclear cross sections are needed to improve the codes. Energy deposition in biological molecules and related effects should also be developed to achieve accurate risk models for long-term exploratory missions. Passive shielding can be effective for solar particle events; however, it is limited for galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Active shielding would have to overcome challenging technical hurdles to protect against GCR. Thus, improved risk assessment and genetic and biomedical approaches are a more likely solution to GCR radiation protection issues.

  3. PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION WORKING GROUP: METHODOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Bari R. A.; Whitlock, J.; Therios, I.U.; Peterson, P.F.

    2012-11-14

    We summarize the technical progress and accomplishments on the evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) of Generation IV nuclear energy systems. We intend the results of the evaluations performed with the methodology for three types of users: system designers, program policy makers, and external stakeholders. The PR and PP Working Group developed the methodology through a series of demonstration and case studies. Over the past few years various national and international groups have applied the methodology to nuclear energy system designs as well as to developing approaches to advanced safeguards.

  4. The Impact of Accountability on Student Performance in a Secondary Physical Education Badminton Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Jacalyn; Shanklin, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of accountability on the quality of student motor responses during a 10-day badminton unit with female high school students enrolled in a required physical education class. Students in the control class participated in the same learning activities taught by the same teacher as the treatment…

  5. Students' Use of the Energy Model to Account for Changes in Physical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadouris, Nico; Constantinou, Constantinos P.; Kyratsi, Theodora

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the ways in which students, aged 11-14 years, account for certain changes in physical systems and the extent to which they draw on an energy model as a common framework for explaining changes observed in diverse systems. Data were combined from two sources: interviews with 20 individuals and an open-ended…

  6. Managing water to protect fish: A review of California's environmental water account, 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.R.; Kimmerer, W.; Brown, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the landward reach of the San Francisco Estuary, provides habitat for threatened delta smelt, endangered winter-run Chinook salmon, and other species of concern. It is also the location of huge freshwater diversion facilities that entrain large numbers of fish. Reducing the entrainment of listed fishes into these facilities has required curtailment of pumping, reducing the reliability of water deliveries. We reviewed the first 5 years (2001-2005) of the Environmental Water Account (EWA), a program instituted to resolve conflicts between protecting listed fishes and providing a reliable water supply. The EWA provided fishery agencies with control over 0.2-0.4 km3 of water to be used for fish protection at no cost to users of exported water, and fish agencies guaranteed no disruption of water supply for fish protection. The EWA was successful in reducing uncertainty in water supply; however, its contribution to the recovery of listed fishes was unclear. We estimated the effectiveness of the EWA to be modest, increasing the survival of winter-run Chinook salmon by 0-6% (dependent on prescreen mortality), adult delta smelt by 0-1%, and juvenile delta smelt by 2-4%. Allocating EWA water for a single life stage of one species could provide larger gains in survival. An optimally allocated EWA of equal size to the median of the first 5 years could increase abundance of juvenile delta smelt up to 7% in the springs of dry years. If the EWA is to become a long-term program, estimates of efficacy should be refined. If the program is to be held accountable for quantitative increases in fish populations, it will be necessary to integrate scientific, possibly experimental, approaches. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  7. Managing Water to Protect Fish: A Review of California's Environmental Water Account, 2001-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Larry R.; Kimmerer, Wim; Brown, Randall

    2009-02-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the landward reach of the San Francisco Estuary, provides habitat for threatened delta smelt, endangered winter-run Chinook salmon, and other species of concern. It is also the location of huge freshwater diversion facilities that entrain large numbers of fish. Reducing the entrainment of listed fishes into these facilities has required curtailment of pumping, reducing the reliability of water deliveries. We reviewed the first 5 years (2001-2005) of the Environmental Water Account (EWA), a program instituted to resolve conflicts between protecting listed fishes and providing a reliable water supply. The EWA provided fishery agencies with control over 0.2-0.4 km3 of water to be used for fish protection at no cost to users of exported water, and fish agencies guaranteed no disruption of water supply for fish protection. The EWA was successful in reducing uncertainty in water supply; however, its contribution to the recovery of listed fishes was unclear. We estimated the effectiveness of the EWA to be modest, increasing the survival of winter-run Chinook salmon by 0-6% (dependent on prescreen mortality), adult delta smelt by 0-1%, and juvenile delta smelt by 2-4%. Allocating EWA water for a single life stage of one species could provide larger gains in survival. An optimally allocated EWA of equal size to the median of the first 5 years could increase abundance of juvenile delta smelt up to 7% in the springs of dry years. If the EWA is to become a long-term program, estimates of efficacy should be refined. If the program is to be held accountable for quantitative increases in fish populations, it will be necessary to integrate scientific, possibly experimental, approaches.

  8. 10 CFR 73.45 - Performance capabilities for fixed site physical protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance capabilities for fixed site physical protection systems. 73.45 Section 73.45 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.45...

  9. 10 CFR 73.45 - Performance capabilities for fixed site physical protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Performance capabilities for fixed site physical protection systems. 73.45 Section 73.45 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.45...

  10. 10 CFR 73.45 - Performance capabilities for fixed site physical protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Performance capabilities for fixed site physical protection systems. 73.45 Section 73.45 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.45...

  11. 10 CFR 73.45 - Performance capabilities for fixed site physical protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Performance capabilities for fixed site physical protection systems. 73.45 Section 73.45 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.45...

  12. 10 CFR 73.50 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities. 73.50 Section 73.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.50 Requirements for...

  13. 10 CFR 73.26 - Transportation physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transportation physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures. 73.26 Section 73.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit §...

  14. 10 CFR 73.46 - Fixed site physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fixed site physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures. 73.46 Section 73.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.46 Fixed...

  15. 41 CFR 109-27.5104-2 - Physical protection and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Physical protection and... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5104-2 Physical protection and storage. Precious metals shall be afforded exceptional physical protection from time of...

  16. 10 CFR 73.26 - Transportation physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transportation physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures. 73.26 Section 73.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit §...

  17. 10 CFR 73.50 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities. 73.50 Section 73.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.50 Requirements for...

  18. 10 CFR 73.26 - Transportation physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transportation physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures. 73.26 Section 73.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit §...

  19. 10 CFR 73.46 - Fixed site physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fixed site physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures. 73.46 Section 73.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.46 Fixed...

  20. 10 CFR 73.50 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities. 73.50 Section 73.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.50 Requirements for...

  1. 10 CFR 73.26 - Transportation physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transportation physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures. 73.26 Section 73.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit §...

  2. 41 CFR 109-27.5104-2 - Physical protection and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Physical protection and... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5104-2 Physical protection and storage. Precious metals shall be afforded exceptional physical protection from time of...

  3. 10 CFR 73.50 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities. 73.50 Section 73.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.50 Requirements for...

  4. 41 CFR 109-27.5104-2 - Physical protection and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Physical protection and... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5104-2 Physical protection and storage. Precious metals shall be afforded exceptional physical protection from time of...

  5. 41 CFR 109-27.5104-2 - Physical protection and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Physical protection and... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5104-2 Physical protection and storage. Precious metals shall be afforded exceptional physical protection from time of...

  6. 10 CFR 73.50 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities. 73.50 Section 73.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.50 Requirements for...

  7. 10 CFR 73.26 - Transportation physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transportation physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures. 73.26 Section 73.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit §...

  8. 10 CFR 73.45 - Performance capabilities for fixed site physical protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Performance capabilities for fixed site physical protection systems. 73.45 Section 73.45 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.45...

  9. Power supplies and quench protection for the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeyer, C.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is an advanced tokamak project aimed at the production of quasi-steady state plasmas with advanced shape, heating, and particle control. TPX is to be built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) using many of the facilities from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). First plasma is scheduled for the year 2000. TPX will be the first tokamak to utilize superconducting (SC) magnets in both the toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) systems. This is a new feature which requires not only a departure from the traditional tokamak power supply schemes but also that ultra-reliable quench protection devices be used to rapidly discharge the stored energy from the magnets in the event of a quench. This paper describes the plan and basis for the adaptation and augmentation of the PPPL/TFTR power system facilities to supply TPX. Following a description of the basic operational requirements, four major areas are addressed, namely the AC power system, the TF power supply, the PF power supply, and quench protection for the TF and PF systems.

  10. US/Russian cooperative efforts in nuclear material protection, control, and accounting at the Siberian Chemical Combine

    SciTech Connect

    Goloskokov, I.; Yarygin, A.; Petrushev, V.; Morgado, R.E.

    1998-12-31

    The Siberian Chemical Combine (SKhK) is the largest multifunction nuclear production facility in the Russian nuclear complex. Until recently, it produced and processed special nuclear material for the Russian Defense Ministry. SKhK and its US partners in the Department of Energy (DOE) US/Russian Materials Protection, Control, and Accountability (MPC and A) Program are nearing completion of the initial MPC and A upgrades at the six SKhK plant sites that were begun three years ago. Comprehensive enhancements to the physical protection and access control systems are progressing on a site-wide basis while a comprehensive MC and A system is being implemented at the Radiochemical Plant site. SKhK now produces thermal and electrical power, enriches uranium for commercial reactor fuel, reprocesses irradiated fuel, converts high-enriched uranium metal into high-enriched oxide for blending into reactor-grade, low-enriched uranium, and manufactures civilian products. The authors review the progress to date and outline plans for continuing the work in 1999.

  11. 10 CFR 73.25 - Performance capabilities for physical protection of strategic special nuclear material in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance capabilities for physical protection of... (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.25 Performance capabilities for physical protection of strategic special nuclear material...

  12. 10 CFR 73.25 - Performance capabilities for physical protection of strategic special nuclear material in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Performance capabilities for physical protection of... (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.25 Performance capabilities for physical protection of strategic special nuclear material...

  13. 10 CFR 73.51 - Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent... (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.51 Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and high-level...

  14. 10 CFR 73.51 - Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent... (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.51 Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and high-level...

  15. 10 CFR 73.51 - Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent... (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.51 Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and high-level...

  16. 10 CFR 73.51 - Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent... (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.51 Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and high-level...

  17. 10 CFR 73.51 - Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent... (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.51 Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and high-level...

  18. SELECTION AND MEASUREMENT OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical protective clothing (CPC) must possess certain physical properties if it is to function as an effective barrier to chemicals. he physical characteristics of CPC materials has gone largely unstudied; most attention has been focussecd on chemical resistance. hysical proper...

  19. 45 CFR 164.528 - Accounting of disclosures of protected health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... by paragraphs (b)(3) or (b)(4) of this section, the accounting must include for each disclosure: (i... (b)(2) of this section for the first disclosure during the accounting period; (ii) The frequency... such disclosure during the accounting period. (4)(i) If, during the period covered by the...

  20. Candidate mechanisms accounting for effects of physical activity on breast carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Henry J; Jiang, Weiqin; Zhu, Zongjian

    2009-09-01

    Evidence is strong that a reduction in risk for breast cancer is associated with moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA); however, there is limited understanding of the role of type, intensity, duration, and frequency of PA and their mechanisms in accounting for this health benefit. The objective of this review is to stimulate investigations of candidate mechanisms that may account for the effects of the intensity and duration of aerobic PA on breast cancer risk and tumor burden. Three hypotheses are considered: 1) the mTOR network hypothesis: PA inhibits carcinogenesis by suppressing the activation of the mTOR signaling network in mammary carcinomas; 2) the hormesis hypothesis: the carcinogenic response to PA is nonlinear and accounted for by a physiological cellular stress response; and 3) the metabolic reprogramming hypothesis: PA limits the amount of glucose and glutamine available to mammary carcinomas thereby inducing apoptosis because tumor-associated metabolic programming is reversed. To link these hypotheses to systemic effects of PA, it is recommended that consideration be given to determining: 1) what contracting muscle releases into circulation or removes from circulation that would directly modulate the carcinogenic process in epithelial cells; 2) whether the effects of muscle contraction on epithelial cell carcinogenesis are exerted in an endocrine, paracrine, autocrine, or intracrine manner; and 3) if the effects of muscle contraction on malignant cells differ from effects on normal or premalignant cells that do not manifest the hallmarks of malignancy. PMID:19588523

  1. 10 CFR 73.60 - Additional requirements for physical protection at nonpower reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nonpower reactors. 73.60 Section 73.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION... requirements for physical protection at nonpower reactors. Each nonpower reactor licensee who, pursuant to the... nonpower reactors licensed to operate at or above a power level of 2 megawatts thermal....

  2. 10 CFR 73.60 - Additional requirements for physical protection at nonpower reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nonpower reactors. 73.60 Section 73.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION... requirements for physical protection at nonpower reactors. Each nonpower reactor licensee who, pursuant to the... nonpower reactors licensed to operate at or above a power level of 2 megawatts thermal....

  3. 10 CFR 73.60 - Additional requirements for physical protection at nonpower reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nonpower reactors. 73.60 Section 73.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION... requirements for physical protection at nonpower reactors. Each nonpower reactor licensee who, pursuant to the... nonpower reactors licensed to operate at or above a power level of 2 megawatts thermal....

  4. 41 CFR 109-1.5107 - Physical protection of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical protection of... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.51-Personal Property Management Standards and Practices § 109-1.5107 Physical protection...

  5. 41 CFR 109-1.5107 - Physical protection of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Physical protection of... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.51-Personal Property Management Standards and Practices § 109-1.5107 Physical protection...

  6. 41 CFR 109-1.5107 - Physical protection of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Physical protection of... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.51-Personal Property Management Standards and Practices § 109-1.5107 Physical protection...

  7. The DNA Bank: High-Security Bank Accounts to Protect and Share Your Genetic Identity.

    PubMed

    den Dunnen, Johan T

    2015-07-01

    With the cost of genome sequencing decreasing every day, DNA information has the potential of affecting the lives of everyone. Surprisingly, an individual has little knowledge about his own DNA information, can rarely access it, and has hardly any control over its use. This may result in preventable, life-threatening situations, and also significantly inhibits scientific progress. What we urgently need is a "DNA bank," a resource providing a secure personal account where, similar to a financial institution, you can store your DNA sequence. Using this private and secure DNA bank account, you govern your sequence-related business. For any genetic study performed, the data generated must be transferred (paid) to your DNA account. Using your account, you regulate access, knowing for what purpose (informed consent) and only for the genetic data you are willing to share. The DNA account ensures you are in the driver's seat, know what is known, and control what is happening with it. PMID:25952467

  8. Explicitly Accounting for Protected Lands within the GCAM 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.; Zhou, Yuyu

    2012-05-01

    The Global Change Assessment Model Version 3.0 defines three different levels of “Protected Lands” within the agricultural and landuse component. These three different scenarios effectively cordon off 3.5% (5.0 million km2) of the Earth’s terrestrial lands in the de minimus Protected Land Scenario, 5.0% (7.20 million km2) in the Core Protected Land Scenario, and 8.2% (11.8 million km2) in the Expanded Protected Land Scenario. None of these scenarios represents the “right” level of Protected Lands for the planet today or tomorrow. Rather, the goal is to create a range of scenarios that can be used in modeling human responses to climate change and the impact those would have on managed and unmanaged terrestrial lands. These scenarios harness the wealth of information in the United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre’s World Database on Protected Areas and its categories of explicit degrees of protection.

  9. Quality Daily Physical Education for the Primary School Student: A Personal Account of the Trois-Rivieres Regional Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.; Trudeau, Francois

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a brief and personal account of the historical background, implementation and principal findings from the Trois-Rivieres regional project, a large-scale quasi-experimental intervention that tested the impact of providing a daily hour of specialist-taught quality physical education upon the physical and mental development of…

  10. Development of computerized materials, protection, control and accountability systems in the former Soviet republics: a joint effort

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteson, R.; Ryan, R.H.; Seitz, S.; Landry, R.P.

    1996-07-01

    The laboratory-to-laboratory programs of cooperation between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Institutes of the Russian Federation and the government-to-government programs between the US and Russia have the goal of reducing the danger of nuclear weapons proliferation by strengthening systems of nuclear materials protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A). As part of these programs, DOE is making available to sites in the former Soviet Republics a new-generation nuclear materials accountability system similar to one developed for DOE sites. This new system, the Core Materials Accountability System (COREMAS), is designed for international use. It is a core system to which facility-specific extensions are expected to be made. This paper describes the joint efforts of US personnel and software development teams at sites in Russia, Kazakhstan, and the Ukraine to develop sophisticated computerized MPC&A systems that are customized for the site-specific needs of each facility.

  11. 10 CFR 72.182 - Design for physical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE... the site layout and the design features provided to protect the ISFSI or MRS from sabotage. It must... this section; and (c) Information relative to materials of construction, equipment, general...

  12. Executing the double win: protect your cash flow during a patient accounting system install.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jason L; Smith, J Cathy; Strand, Brett

    2009-09-01

    MultiCare Health System's plan for ensuring that its patient accounting system implementation would bring rapid financial benefits comprised eight basic steps: Set baselines and establish goals. Identify key leadership stakeholders across departmental lines. Identify team resources. Establish roles and responsibilities. Identify and prepare for potential risks. Develop guiding principles. Develop key reporting and monitoring tools. Conduct daily monitoring. PMID:19743653

  13. 45 CFR 164.528 - Accounting of disclosures of protected health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... years prior to the date on which the accounting is requested, except for disclosures: (i) To carry out..., provide: (A) The name of the protocol or other research activity; (B) A description, in plain language, of the research protocol or other research activity, including the purpose of the research and...

  14. 45 CFR 164.528 - Accounting of disclosures of protected health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... years prior to the date on which the accounting is requested, except for disclosures: (i) To carry out..., provide: (A) The name of the protocol or other research activity; (B) A description, in plain language, of the research protocol or other research activity, including the purpose of the research and...

  15. 45 CFR 164.528 - Accounting of disclosures of protected health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... years prior to the date on which the accounting is requested, except for disclosures: (i) To carry out..., provide: (A) The name of the protocol or other research activity; (B) A description, in plain language, of the research protocol or other research activity, including the purpose of the research and...

  16. 45 CFR 164.528 - Accounting of disclosures of protected health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... years prior to the date on which the accounting is requested, except for disclosures: (i) To carry out..., provide: (A) The name of the protocol or other research activity; (B) A description, in plain language, of the research protocol or other research activity, including the purpose of the research and...

  17. International Training Course on Physical Protection (ITC-25) Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Overholt, Michelle Jungst

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this evaluation repor t is to provide the informa tion necessary to improve the effectiveness of the ITC provided to the In ternational Atomic Energy Agency Member States. This report examines ITC-25 training content, delivery me thods, scheduling, and logistics. Ultimately, this report evaluates whether the course pr ovides the knowledge and skills necessary to meet the students' needs in the protection of nuclear materials and facilities.

  18. Physical key-protected one-time pad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horstmeyer, Roarke; Judkewitz, Benjamin; Vellekoop, Ivo M.; Assawaworrarit, Sid; Yang, Changhuei

    2013-12-01

    We describe an encrypted communication principle that forms a secure link between two parties without electronically saving either of their keys. Instead, random cryptographic bits are kept safe within the unique mesoscopic randomness of two volumetric scattering materials. We demonstrate how a shared set of patterned optical probes can generate 10 gigabits of statistically verified randomness between a pair of unique 2 mm3 scattering objects. This shared randomness is used to facilitate information-theoretically secure communication following a modified one-time pad protocol. Benefits of volumetric physical storage over electronic memory include the inability to probe, duplicate or selectively reset any bits without fundamentally altering the entire key space. Our ability to securely couple the randomness contained within two unique physical objects can extend to strengthen hardware required by a variety of cryptographic protocols, which is currently a critically weak link in the security pipeline of our increasingly mobile communication culture.

  19. Physical key-protected one-time pad.

    PubMed

    Horstmeyer, Roarke; Judkewitz, Benjamin; Vellekoop, Ivo M; Assawaworrarit, Sid; Yang, Changhuei

    2013-01-01

    We describe an encrypted communication principle that forms a secure link between two parties without electronically saving either of their keys. Instead, random cryptographic bits are kept safe within the unique mesoscopic randomness of two volumetric scattering materials. We demonstrate how a shared set of patterned optical probes can generate 10 gigabits of statistically verified randomness between a pair of unique 2 mm(3) scattering objects. This shared randomness is used to facilitate information-theoretically secure communication following a modified one-time pad protocol. Benefits of volumetric physical storage over electronic memory include the inability to probe, duplicate or selectively reset any bits without fundamentally altering the entire key space. Our ability to securely couple the randomness contained within two unique physical objects can extend to strengthen hardware required by a variety of cryptographic protocols, which is currently a critically weak link in the security pipeline of our increasingly mobile communication culture. PMID:24345925

  20. Physical key-protected one-time pad

    PubMed Central

    Horstmeyer, Roarke; Judkewitz, Benjamin; Vellekoop, Ivo M.; Assawaworrarit, Sid; Yang, Changhuei

    2013-01-01

    We describe an encrypted communication principle that forms a secure link between two parties without electronically saving either of their keys. Instead, random cryptographic bits are kept safe within the unique mesoscopic randomness of two volumetric scattering materials. We demonstrate how a shared set of patterned optical probes can generate 10 gigabits of statistically verified randomness between a pair of unique 2 mm3 scattering objects. This shared randomness is used to facilitate information-theoretically secure communication following a modified one-time pad protocol. Benefits of volumetric physical storage over electronic memory include the inability to probe, duplicate or selectively reset any bits without fundamentally altering the entire key space. Our ability to securely couple the randomness contained within two unique physical objects can extend to strengthen hardware required by a variety of cryptographic protocols, which is currently a critically weak link in the security pipeline of our increasingly mobile communication culture. PMID:24345925

  1. 10 CFR 73.67 - Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... physical protection of special nuclear material of moderate and low strategic significance. 73.67 Section 73.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material of Moderate and Low Strategic Significance § 73.67...

  2. 10 CFR 73.67 - Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... physical protection of special nuclear material of moderate and low strategic significance. 73.67 Section 73.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material of Moderate and Low Strategic Significance § 73.67...

  3. 10 CFR 73.67 - Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... physical protection of special nuclear material of moderate and low strategic significance. 73.67 Section 73.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material of Moderate and Low Strategic Significance § 73.67...

  4. 10 CFR 73.67 - Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... physical protection of special nuclear material of moderate and low strategic significance. 73.67 Section 73.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material of Moderate and Low Strategic Significance § 73.67...

  5. 10 CFR 73.67 - Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... physical protection of special nuclear material of moderate and low strategic significance. 73.67 Section 73.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material of Moderate and Low Strategic Significance § 73.67...

  6. 10 CFR 37.79 - Requirements for physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive material during shipment. 37.79 Section 37.79 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in Transit §...

  7. Contributions to the acoustic protection of civil buildings taking into account the use of light prefabs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smigelschi, M.

    1974-01-01

    Usually it is expensive to obtain suitable damping coefficients for exterior and interior walls made up of light materials. Hence, acoustic protection problems must be tackled in parallel with the design and introduction of new types of elements. A comparison of classical solutions shows that interior separating walls raise the most difficult problems. In order to reduce building costs it is necessary to make a careful study of architectural solutions and to provide for wall structures with characteristics that vary with the particular case.

  8. Blast mines: physics, injury mechanisms and vehicle protection.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, A; Hill, A M; Hepper, A E; Bull, A M J; Clasper, J C

    2009-12-01

    Since World War II, more vehicles have been lost to land mines than all other threats combined. Anti-vehicular (AV) mines are capable of disabling a heavy vehicle, or completely destroying a lighter vehicle. The most common form of AV mine is the blast mine, which uses a large amount of explosive to directly damage the target. In a conventional military setting, landmines are used as a defensive force-multiplier and to restrict the movements of the opposing force. They are relatively cheap to purchase and easy to acquire, hence landmines are also potent weapons in the insurgents' armamentarium. The stand-offnature of its design has allowed insurgents to cause significant injuries to security forces in current conflicts with little personal risk. As a result, AV mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) have become the most common cause of death and injury to Coalition and local security forces operating in Iraq and Afghanistan. Detonation of an AV mine causes an explosive, exothermic reaction which results in the formation of a shockwave followed by a rapid expansion of gases. The shockwave is mainly reflected by the soillair interface and fractures the soil cap overthe mine. The detonation products then vent through the voids in the soil, resulting in a hollow inverse cone which consists of the detonation gases surrounded by the soil ejecta. It is the combination of the detonation products and soil ejecta that interact with the target vehicle and cause injury to the vehicle occupants. A number of different strategies are required to mitigate the blast effects of an explosion. Primary blast effects can be reduced by increasing the standoff distance between the seat of the explosion and the crew compartment. Enhancement of armour on the base of the vehicle, as well as improvements in personal protection can prevent penetration of fragments. Mitigating tertiary effects can be achieved by altering the vehicle geometry and structure, increasing vehicle mass, as

  9. Physical and mechanical properties and thermal protection efficiency of intumescent coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zverev, V. G.; Zinchenko, V. I.; Tsimbalyuk, A. F.

    2016-04-01

    The new engineering technique for the experimental investigation of physical and mechanical characteristics of thermal protective intumescent coatings is offered. A mathematical model is proposed for predicting the thermal behavior of structures protected by coatings; the model is closed by the studied material characteristics. The heating of a metal plate under standard thermal loading conditions is modeled mathematically. The modeling results are in good agreement with bench test results for metal temperature under the coating. The proposed technique of studying physical and mechanical characteristics can be applied to identify and monitor the state of thermal protective intumescent coatings in the long-term operation.

  10. 78 FR 50313 - Physical Protection of Irradiated Reactor Fuel in Transit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... safety. On May 20, 2013 (78 FR 29520), the NRC published the final rule for 10 CFR 73.37, ``Physical... 3150-AI64 Physical Protection of Irradiated Reactor Fuel in Transit AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Greater than 100 Grams,'' dated October 10, 2002, and subsequent...

  11. 10 CFR 73.46 - Fixed site physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fixed site physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures. 73.46 Section 73.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL... Energy couriers engaged in the transport of special nuclear material. The search function for...

  12. 10 CFR 73.46 - Fixed site physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fixed site physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures. 73.46 Section 73.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL... Energy couriers engaged in the transport of special nuclear material. The search function for...

  13. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,…

  14. Lower bound of optimization in radiological protection system taking account of practical implementation of clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Takatoshi

    2007-07-01

    The dose criterion used to derive clearance and exemption levels is of the order of 0.01 mSv/y based on the Basic Safety Standard (BSS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the use of which has been agreed upon by many countries. It is important for human beings, who are facing the fact that global resources for risk reduction are limited, to carefully consider the practical implementation of radiological protection systems, particularly for low-radiation-dose regions. For example, in direct gamma ray monitoring, to achieve clearance level compliance, difficult issues on how the uncertainty (error) of gamma measurement should be handled and also how the uncertainty (scattering) of the estimation of non-gamma emitters should be treated in clearance must be resolved. To resolve these issues, a new probabilistic approach has been proposed to establish an appropriate safety factor for compliance with the clearance level in Japan. This approach is based on the fundamental concept that 0.1 mSv/y should be complied with the 97.5. percentile of the probability distribution for the uncertainties of both the measurement and estimation of non-gamma emitters. The International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP published a new concept of the representative person in Publication 101 Part I. The representative person is a hypothetical person exposed to a dose that is representative of those of highly exposed persons in a population. In a probabilistic dose assessment, the ICRP recommends that the representative person should be defined such that the probability of exposure occurrence is lower than about 5% that of a person randomly selected from the population receiving a high dose. From the new concept of the ICRP, it is reasonable to consider that the 95. percentile of the dose distribution for the representative person is theoretically always lower than the dose constraint. Using this established relationship, it can be concluded that the minimum dose

  15. The Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant Sustainability Program of Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting System Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Vakhonin, Alexander; Yuldashev, Rashid; Dabbs, Richard D.; Carroll, Michael F.; Garrett, Albert G.; Patrick, Scott W.; Ku, Eshter M.

    2009-09-30

    UEIP has been working on a comprehensive sustainability program that includes establishing a site sustainability working group, information gathering, planning, organizing, developing schedule and estimated costs, trhough joint UEIP-US DOE/NNSA National Laboratory sustainability contracts. Considerable efforts have been necessary in the sustainability planning, monitoring, and control of the scope of work using tools such as Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Project and SAP R/3. While information interchanges within the sustainability program provides adequate US assurances that US funds are well spent through its quarterly reporting methodology, proper information security and protection measures are taken throughout the process. Decommissioning of outdated equipment has also become part of determining sustainability requirements and processes. The site’s sustainability program has facilitated the development of a transition plan toward eventual full Russian funding of sustaining nuclear security upgrades.

  16. United States-Russian laboratory-to-laboratory cooperation on protection, control, and accounting for naval nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhoruchkin, V.; Yurasov, N.; Goncharenko, Y.; Mullen, M.; McConnell, D.

    1996-12-31

    In March 1995, the Russian Navy contacted safeguards experts at the Kurchatov Institute (KI) and proposed the initiation of work to enhance nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) at Russian Navy facilities. Because of KI`s successful experience in laboratory-to-laboratory MPC and A cooperation with US Department of Energy Laboratories, the possibility of US participation in the work with the Russian Navy was explored. Several months later, approval was received from the US Government and the Russian Navy to proceed with this work on a laboratory-to-laboratory basis through Kurchatov Institute. As a first step in the cooperation, a planning meeting occurred at KI in September, 1995. Representatives from the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of Defense (DOD), the Russian Navy, and KI discussed several areas for near-term cooperative work, including a vulnerability assessment workshop and a planning study to identify and prioritize near-term MPC and A enhancements that might be implemented at Russian facilities which store or handle unirradiated highly enriched uranium fuel for naval propulsion applications. In subsequent meetings, these early proposals have been further refined and extended. This MPC and A cooperation will now include enhanced protection and control features for storage facilities and refueling service ships, computerized accounting systems for naval fuel, methods and equipment for rapid inventories, improved security of fresh fuel during truck transportation, and training. This paper describes the current status and future plans for MPC and A cooperation for naval nuclear materials.

  17. U.S. Department of Energy physical protection upgrades at the Latvian Academy of Sciences Nuclear Research Center, Latvia

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, M.; Hine, C.; Robertson, C.

    1996-12-31

    Approximately five years ago, the Safe, Secure Dismantlement program was started between the US and countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The purpose of the program is to accelerate progress toward reducing the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation, including such threats as theft, diversion, and unauthorized possession of nuclear materials. This would be accomplished by strengthening the material protection, control, and accounting systems within the FSU countries. Under the US Department of Energy`s program of providing cooperative assistance to the FSU countries in the areas of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A), the Latvian Academy of Sciences Nuclear Research Center (LNRC) near Riga, Latvia, was identified as a candidate site for a cooperative MPC and A project. The LNRC is the site of a 5-megawatt IRT-C pool-type research reactor. This paper describes: the process involved, from initial contracting to project completion, for the physical protection upgrades now in place at the LNRC; the intervening activities; and a brief overview of the technical aspects of the upgrades.

  18. [MODIFICATION OF THE PROTON BEAM PHYSICAL PARAMETERS AND RADIOBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS BY ELEMENTS OF SPACECRAFT RADIATION PROTECTION].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A A; Molokanov, A G; Shurshakov, V A; Bulynina, T M; Liakhova, K N; Severiukhin, Yu S; Abrosimova, A N; Ushakov, I B

    2015-01-01

    The experiment was performed with outbred ICR (CD-1). female mice (SPF). The animals were irradiated by 171 MeV protons at a dose of 20 cGy. The spacecraft radiation protection elements used in the experiment were a construction of wet hygiene wipes called a "protective blind", and a glass plate imitating an ISS window. Physical obstacles on the path of 171 MeV protons increase their linear energy transfer leading to the absorbed dose elevation and strengthening of the radiobiological effect. In the experiment, two types of obstacles together raised the absorbed dose from 20 to 23.2 cGy. Chemically different materials (glass and water in the wipes) were found to exert unequal modifying effects on physical and biological parameters of the proton-irradiated mice. There was a distinct dose-dependent reduction of bone marrow cellularity within the dose range from 20 cGy to 23.2 cGy in 24 hours after exposure. No modifying effect of the radiation protection elements on spontaneous motor activity was discovered when compared with entrance protons. The group of animals protected by the glass plate exhibited normal orientative-trying reactions and weakened grip with the forelimbs. Rationalization of physical methods of spacecrew protection should be based as on knowledge in physical dosimetry (ionizing chambers, thermoluminescent, track detectors etc.), so the radiobiological criteria established in experiments with animals. PMID:26738306

  19. Health physics fundamentals, radiation protection, and radioactive waste treatment. Volume ten

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Topics include health physics fundamentals (is radiation dangerous, what is health physics, federal regulations, presence of radiation, sources of radiation, types of radiation), radiation protection (amounts of radiation, radiation measurement, individual radiation exposure measurements, reducing the effects of radiation), and radioactive waste treatment (what are radioactive wastes, gaseous radioactive waste, liquid radioactive waste, solid radioactive waste, methods of rad-waste treatment, PWR and BWR radwaste treatment.

  20. 78 FR 31821 - Physical Protection of Shipments of Irradiated Reactor Fuel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... in the Federal Register on May 20, 2013 (78 FR 29519) (RIN 3150-AI64), that amended its security... public comment on November 3, 2010 (75 FR 67636). The NRC received comments from eight commenters during... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 73 RIN 3150-AI64 Physical Protection of Shipments of Irradiated Reactor Fuel...

  1. 41 CFR 109-27.5104-2 - Physical protection and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical protection and storage. 109-27.5104-2 Section 109-27.5104-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT...

  2. 10 CFR 73.37 - Requirements for physical protection of irradiated reactor fuel in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Department of Transportation in 49 CFR § 172.202 and § 172.203(d). (iii) A listing of the routes... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of irradiated reactor fuel in transit. 73.37 Section 73.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED)...

  3. 10 CFR 73.37 - Requirements for physical protection of irradiated reactor fuel in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Department of Transportation in 49 CFR § 172.202 and § 172.203(d). (iii) A listing of the routes... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of irradiated reactor fuel in transit. 73.37 Section 73.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED)...

  4. 10 CFR 73.37 - Requirements for physical protection of irradiated reactor fuel in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Department of Transportation in 49 CFR § 172.202 and § 172.203(d). (iii) A listing of the routes... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of irradiated reactor fuel in transit. 73.37 Section 73.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED)...

  5. 77 FR 20743 - Protective Force Personnel Medical, Physical Readiness, Training, and Access Authorization Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... March 6, 2012 (77 FR 13206), is extended. The Department of Energy (DOE) will accept comments, data, and... authorizations for PF personnel employed by contractors providing security services to the Department. (77 FR...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 1046 RIN 1992-AA40 Protective Force Personnel Medical, Physical...

  6. 10 CFR 73.37 - Requirements for physical protection of irradiated reactor fuel in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in 49 CFR 172.202 and 172.203(d). (iii) A listing of the routes to be used within the State or Tribal... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of irradiated reactor fuel in transit. 73.37 Section 73.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED)...

  7. 41 CFR 109-1.5107 - Physical protection of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Physical protection of personal property. 109-1.5107 Section 109-1.5107 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL...

  8. 41 CFR 109-1.5107 - Physical protection of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Physical protection of personal property. 109-1.5107 Section 109-1.5107 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL...

  9. 78 FR 29519 - Physical Protection of Irradiated Reactor Fuel in Transit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Register (44 FR 34466) an interim final rule that established requirements for the physical protection of... June 3, 1980 (45 FR 37399). Section 73.37 has changed little since its promulgation in 1980. The... for public comment a notice of receipt of PRM-73-10 on September 13, 1999 (64 FR 49410). The...

  10. Modification of radiobiological effects of 171 MeV protons by elements of physical protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulinina, Taisia; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav; Ivanov, Alexander; Molokanov, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation includes protons of various energies. Physical protection is effective in the case of low energy protons (50-100 MeV) and becomes insufficient for radiation with a high part of high-energy protons. In the experiment performed on outbred mice, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the radiobiological effect of 171 MeV protons and protons modified by elements of physical protection of the spacecraft, on a complex of indicators of the functional condition of the system hematopoiesis and the central nervous system in 24 hours after irradiation at 20 cGy dose. The spacecraft radiation protection elements used in the experiment were a construction of wet hygiene wipes called a «protective curtain», and a glass plate imitating an ISS window. Mass thickness of the " protective curtain" in terms of water equivalent was ̴ 6,2 g/cm2. Physical shielding along the path of 171 MeV protons increases their linear energy transfer leading to the absorbed dose elevation and strengthening of the radiobiological effect. In the experiment, the two types of shielding together raised the absorbed dose from 20 to 23.2 cGy. Chemically different materials (glass and water in the wipes) were found to exert unequal modifying effects on physical and biological parameters of the proton-irradiated mice. There was a distinct dose-dependent reduction of bone marrow cellularity within the dose range from 20 cGy to 23.2 cGy in 24 hours after exposure. No modifying effect of the radiation protection elements on spontaneous motor activity was discovered when compared with entrance protons. The group of animals protected by the glass plate exhibited normal orientative-trying reactions and weakened grip with the forelimbs. The effects observed in the experiment indicate the necessity to carry out comprehensive radiobiological researches (physical, biological and mathematical) in assessing the effects of physical protection, that are actual for ensuring radiation safety of crews in

  11. Children's coping with marital conflict and their adjustment and physical health: vulnerability and protective functions.

    PubMed

    Nicolotti, Linda; el-Sheikh, Mona; Whitson, Stephanie M

    2003-09-01

    Children's strategies for coping with parental marital conflict were examined as predictors, mediators, and moderators of the relations between marital conflict and 8- to 11-year-olds' internalizing, externalizing, and physical health problems. In the context of marital conflict, a higher level of active coping and support coping combined was a protective factor against girls' depression symptoms and self-esteem problems and both boys' and girls' health problems. Further, avoidance coping was a vulnerability factor for externalizing, internalizing, and physical health problems in boys, and distraction coping was protective against children's depression and health problems. These findings extend the literature by delineating coping strategies that either protected children against, or heightened their vulnerability to, adjustment and health problems associated with exposure to parental marital conflict. PMID:14562456

  12. Narrative Accounts of US Teachers' Collaborative Curriculum Making in a Physical Education Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, JeongAe; Craig, Cheryl J.

    2015-01-01

    Through the use of narrative inquiry, this research study explores the collaborative curriculum making experiences of six teachers (three males; three females) in one physical education (PE) department in an urban middle school in the U.S. Collaboration; as defined in this work, this has to do with teachers' voluntary interactions and their shared…

  13. Solving the software protection problem with intrinsic personal physical unclonable functions.

    SciTech Connect

    Nithyanand, Rishab; Sion, Radu

    2011-09-01

    Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) or Physical One Way Functions (P-OWFs) are physical systems whose responses to input stimuli (i.e., challenges) are easy to measure (within reasonable error bounds) but hard to clone. The unclonability property comes from the accepted hardness of replicating the multitude of characteristics introduced during the manufacturing process. This makes PUFs useful for solving problems such as device authentication, software protection, licensing, and certified execution. In this paper, we focus on the effectiveness of PUFs for software protection in offline settings. We first argue that traditional (black-box) PUFs are not useful for protecting software in settings where communication with a vendor's server or third party network device is infeasible or impossible. Instead, we argue that Intrinsic PUFs are needed to solve the above mentioned problems because they are intrinsically involved in processing the information that is to be protected. Finally, we describe how sources of randomness in any computing device can be used for creating intrinsic-personal-PUFs (IP-PUF) and present experimental results in using standard off-the-shelf computers as IP-PUFs.

  14. Sexual and physical violence victimization among senior high school students in Ghana: Risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Ohene, Sally-Ann; Johnson, Kiana; Atunah-Jay, Sarah; Owusu, Andrew; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

    2015-12-01

    Violence in all forms poses a concern because of associations with multiple adverse effects including injuries and mental health problems. There is however limited data on violence in general and youth violence in particular in Ghana. To explore the nature and scope of youth violence in Ghana, we used the nationwide Global School-based Health Survey, conducted among senior high school students in Ghana, to explore risk and protective factors at the individual, family, and environmental levels associated with sexual and physical violence victimization. A fifth of these students reported being forced to have sex in their lifetime while two out of five had been a victim of a physical attack in the year preceding the survey. In final multivariate analysis, for sexual violence victimization, history of sexual activity with or without condom use at last sex, feeling sad or hopeless, and being a victim of bullying and electronic bullying were identified as risk factors, while having friends who were not sexually active was protective. Independent risk factors for physical violence victimization were attempting suicide in the last year, alcohol use in the past month, and bullying other students in the past month. Parent respect for privacy just reached significance as a protective factor for physical violence victimization in the final model. Recognition of the magnitude of violence victimization among Ghanaian students and associated factors must be used to guide development and implementation of appropriate concrete measures to prevent and address the problem. PMID:26603310

  15. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    In the first chapter, terminology, physical and radiological quantities, and units of measurement used to describe the properties of accelerator radiation fields are reviewed. The general considerations of primary radiation fields pertinent to accelerators are discussed. The primary radiation fields produced by electron beams are described qualitatively and quantitatively. In the same manner the primary radiation fields produced by proton and ion beams are described. Subsequent chapters describe: shielding of electrons and photons at accelerators; shielding of proton and ion accelerators; low energy prompt radiation phenomena; induced radioactivity at accelerators; topics in radiation protection instrumentation at accelerators; and accelerator radiation protection program elements.

  16. Physical exercise-induced protection on ischemic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Li, Mei; Dong, Fang; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise is any bodily activity to enhance or maintain physical fitness and overall health and wellness. A series of associated studies have demonstrated that physical exercise could alleviate the infarct volume, increase the collateral circulation, promote endothelial progenitor cells, improve cerebral blood flow after cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In this review, we summed up the protective effects of physical exercise on cerebral blood flow (CBF), vascular endothelium, vascular vasodilation, endothelial progenitor cells and collateral circulation. An awareness of the exercise intervention benefits for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases may encourage more patients with cerebral infarction and myocardial infarction and people with high risk factors to accept exercise interventions for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. PMID:26884896

  17. The Relationship Between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakié; Hostler, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status, and task performance was analyzed. There was an effect of equipment and training status on performance with the group reporting both aerobic and resistance training performing better than the group reporting no physical training. In conclusion, firefighters walk more slowly as a strategy to maintain balance when wearing TPC, which may be suboptimal given the emergent nature of fire suppression. This result was most prominent in the group reporting no physical training. PMID:23367817

  18. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 73 - Physical Protection of Irradiated Reactor Fuel in Transit, Training Program Subject Schedule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 CFR part 73, each licensee who transports or delivers to a carrier for transport irradiated..., Training Program Subject Schedule D Appendix D to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. D Appendix D to Part 73—Physical Protection...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 73 - Physical Protection of Irradiated Reactor Fuel in Transit, Training Program Subject Schedule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 CFR part 73, each licensee who transports or delivers to a carrier for transport irradiated..., Training Program Subject Schedule D Appendix D to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. D Appendix D to Part 73—Physical Protection...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 73 - Physical Protection of Irradiated Reactor Fuel in Transit, Training Program Subject Schedule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 CFR part 73, each licensee who transports or delivers to a carrier for transport irradiated..., Training Program Subject Schedule D Appendix D to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. D Appendix D to Part 73—Physical Protection...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 73 - Physical Protection of Irradiated Reactor Fuel in Transit, Training Program Subject Schedule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 CFR part 73, each licensee who transports or delivers to a carrier for transport irradiated..., Training Program Subject Schedule D Appendix D to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. D Appendix D to Part 73—Physical Protection...

  2. Physical Energy Accounting in California: A Case Study of Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, Katie; Fridley, David

    2008-07-17

    California's target for greenhouse gas reduction in part relies on the development of viable low-carbon fuel alternatives to gasoline. It is often assumed that cellulosic ethanol--ethanol made from the structural parts of a plant and not from the food parts--will be one of these alternatives. This study examines the physical viability of a switchgrass-based cellulosic ethanol industry in California from the point of view of the physical requirements of land, water, energy and other material use. Starting from a scenario in which existing irrigated pastureland and fiber-crop land is converted to switchgrass production, the analysis determines the total acreage and water supply available and the resulting total biofuel feedstock output under different assumed yields. The number and location of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries that can be supported is also determined, assuming that the distance from field to biorefinery would be minimized. The biorefinery energy input requirement, available energy from the fraction of biomass not converted to ethanol, and energy output is calculated at various levels of ethanol yields, making different assumptions about process efficiencies. The analysis shows that there is insufficient biomass (after cellulose separation and fermentation into ethanol) to provide all the process energy needed to run the biorefinery; hence, the purchase of external energy such as natural gas is required to produce ethanol from switchgrass. The higher the yield of ethanol, the more external energy is needed, so that the net gains due to improved process efficiency may not be positive. On 2.7 million acres of land planted in switchgrass in this scenario, the switchgrass outputproduces enough ethanol to substitute for only 1.2 to 4.0percent of California's gasoline consumption in 2007.

  3. A novel VLES model accounting for near-wall turbulence: physical rationale and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakirlic, Suad; Chang, Chi-Yao; Kutej, Lukas; Tropea, Cameron

    2014-11-01

    A novel VLES (Very Large Eddy Simulation) model whose non-resolved residual turbulence is modelled by using an advanced near-wall eddy-viscosity model accounting for the near-wall Reynolds stress anisotropy influence on the turbulence viscosity by modelling appropriately the velocity scale in the relevant formulation (Hanjalic et al., 2004) is proposed. It represents a variable resolution Hybrid LES/RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) computational scheme enabling a seamless transition from RANS to LES depending on the ratio of the turbulent viscosities associated with the unresolved scales corresponding to the LES cut-off and the `unsteady' scales pertinent to the turbulent properties of the VLES residual motion, which varies within the flow domain. The VLES method is validated interactively in the process of the model derivation by computing fully-developed flow in a plane channel (important representative of wall-bounded flows, underlying the log-law for the velocity field, for studying near-wall Reynolds stress anisotropy) and a separating flow over a periodic arrangement of smoothly-contoured 2-D hills. The model performances are also assessed in capturing the natural decay of the homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The model is finally applied to swirling flow in a vortex tube, flow in an IC-engine configuration and flow past a realistic car model.

  4. Summary of Technical Meeting To Compare US/French Approaches for Physical Protection Test Beds

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, Thomas Kimball; Martinez, Ruben; Thomas, Gerald; Palut, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, representatives of the US Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration, including test bed professionals from Sandia National Laboratories, and representatives of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission participated in a one-week workshop to share best practices in design, organization, operations, utilization, improvement, and performance testing of physical protection test beds. The intended workshop outcomes were to (1) share methods of improving respective test bed methodologies and programs and (2) prepare recommendations for standards regarding creating and operating testing facilities for nations new to nuclear operations. At the workshop, the French and American subject matter experts compared best practices as developed at their respective test bed sites; discussed access delay test bed considerations; and presented the limitations/ constraints of physical protection test beds.

  5. Assessment methodology development for proliferation resistance and physical protection of generation IV systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Roglans, J.; Peterson, P. F.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Univ. of California Berkeley

    2003-01-01

    One of the technology goals set for future Generation IV nuclear energy systems is to be 'a very unattractive and least desirable route' for proliferation, and to provide increased physical protection against theft or sabotage. To evaluate system performance for this goal, an international Expert Group has been formed and has adopted an evaluation method that involves three elements: (1) a process to systematically identify the range of potential security challenges that could face the system-a 'threat space' that includes State diversion or undeclared production of materials for nuclear explosives (proliferation resistance), and non-State theft or radiological sabotage (physical protection robustness); (2) methods for evaluating the system response to these challenges, at a level of detail appropriate to the stage of system or facility design; and (3) a set of measures of system performance that allow assessment and comparison of how well facilities systems meet the goal of providing a 'very unattractive and least desirable route.'

  6. Framework for Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection for Nonproliferation Impact Assessments.

    SciTech Connect

    Bari,R.

    2008-03-01

    This report describes a framework for proliferation resistance and physical protection evaluation for the fuel cycle systems envisioned in the expansion of nuclear power for electricity generation. The methodology is based on an approach developed as part of the Generation IV technical evaluation framework and on a qualitative evaluation approach to policy factors similar to those that were introduced in previous Nonproliferation Impact Assessments performed by DOE.

  7. An overview of the global threat reduction initiative's physical protection work in Tanzania.

    SciTech Connect

    Banzi, Firmi Paul; Itamura, Michael Takeshi; Robinson, Phillip W.; Strosinski, Micheal Vernon

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) established the Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) mission to reduce and protect nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. Internationally, over 80 countries are cooperating with GTRI to enhance security of facilities with these materials. In 2004, a GTRI delegation began working with the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, (TAEC). The team conducted site assessments for the physical protection of radiological materials in Tanzania. Today, GTRI and the Government of Tanzania continue cooperative efforts to enhance physical security at several radiological sites, including a central sealed-source storage facility, and sites in the cities of Arusha, Dar Es Salaam, and Tanga. This paper describes the scope of physical protection work, lessons learned, and plans for future cooperation between the GTRI program and the TAEC. Additionally the paper will review the cooperative efforts between TAEC and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) with regards to a remote monitoring system at a storage facility and to the repackaging of radioactive sources.

  8. Accounting for surface roughness in a physically-based urban wash-off model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Stephen B.; Parlange, Jean-Yves; Lebowitz, Molly; Todd Walter, M.

    2009-03-01

    SummaryTo date, urban wash-off models have largely ignored the role of surface roughness in controlling particulate mass loss. We propose a mechanistic model in which particles are ejected by raindrops from surface cavities and travel laterally at the velocity of the overland flow until they are recaptured. In the model, cavities of differing depth and diameter have different ejection rates. The model has a similar form to multiple rate mass transfer models more commonly used to simulate solute transport in groundwater. An analytical solution for a model consisting of two possible cavity geometries is fit to breakthrough curves from sediment wash-off experiments. The experiments are conducted on a 0.8-m flume under artificial rainfall with a surface constructed of casts of asphalt. The experiments use fine sand (˜250 μm) and rainfall rates equivalent to that from a 2 year, 5-min storm in non-coastal regions of the Northeastern United States. Model parameters can be attributed to specific physical features of the surface cavities, particles, or rainfall rate and can be determined with limited calibration. At the plot scale, the model replicates an initial first flush and then settles to a more gradual loss rate which is noticeably different from the more rapid mass exhaustion implied by use of the common exponential wash-off model. Insights from this model could lead to improved design and placement of water quality management structures in urban landscapes.

  9. Modelling the physiological strain and physical burden of chemical protective coveralls.

    PubMed

    Wen, ShuQin; Petersen, Stewart; McQueen, Rachel; Batcheller, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the impact of selected chemical protective coveralls (CPC) on physiological responses and comfort sensations. Fifteen males exercised at approximately 6 METS in three CPC (Tyvek®, Gulf and Tychem®) and a control garment. Physiological strain was characterised by core and skin temperatures, heart rate, V̇O2, perceived exertion, hotness and wetness. Physical burden was characterised by restriction to movement, V̇O2 and RPE. The highest levels of physiological strain and physical burden were found in Tychem®, and the lowest in control. Seven statistical regression models were developed through correlation and multiple regression analyses between the human responses and the results from previously conducted fabric and garment property testing. These models showed that physical burden was increased by adding weight and/or restricting movement. Oxygen consumption was best predicted by clothing weight and fabric bending hysteresis. Fabric evaporative resistance and thickness were the two best predictors of physiological and perceptual responses. Practitioner Summary: Traditional evaluation of chemical protective coveralls (CPC) involves testing at the fabric and garment levels and rarely is based on human trials. This study integrates information from fabric, garment and human trials to better understand physiological strain and physical comfort during prolonged exercise in CPC. PMID:26135878

  10. Multidisciplinary Child Protection Decision Making About Physical Abuse: Determining Substantiation Thresholds and Biases

    PubMed Central

    Jent, Jason F.; Eaton, Cyd K.; Knickerbocker, Lauren; Lambert, Walter F.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Dandes, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the threshold at which multidisciplinary child protection team (CPT) professionals substantiate physical abuse allegations and the extent that they utilize potentially biased constructs in their decision making when presented with the same case evidence. State legal definitions of child maltreatment are broad. Therefore, the burden of interpretation is largely on CPT professionals who must determine at what threshold physical acts by parents surpass corporal discipline and constitute child physical abuse. Biased or subjective decisions may be made if certain case-specific characteristics or CPT professionals’ personal characteristics are used in making physical abuse determinations. Case vignettes with visual depictions of inflicted injuries were sent to CPT professionals in Florida and their substantiation decisions, personal beliefs about corporal discipline, and coercive discipline were collected. Results of the study demonstrated relatively high agreement among professionals across vignettes about what constitutes physical abuse. Further, CPT professionals strongly considered their perceptions of the severity of inflicted injuries in substantiation decisions. Although case specific characteristics did not bias decisions in a systematic way, some CPT professional characteristics influenced the substantiation of physical abuse. Practice implications and future directions of research are discussed. PMID:21804681

  11. Evaluation of Biological and Physical Protection against Nuclease Degradation of Clay-Bound Plasmid DNA

    PubMed Central

    Demanèche, Sandrine; Jocteur-Monrozier, Lucile; Quiquampoix, Hervé; Simonet, Pascal

    2001-01-01

    In order to determine the mechanisms involved in the persistence of extracellular DNA in soils and to monitor whether bacterial transformation could occur in such an environment, we developed artificial models composed of plasmid DNA adsorbed on clay particles. We determined that clay-bound DNA submitted to an increasing range of nuclease concentrations was physically protected. The protection mechanism was mainly related to the adsorption of the nuclease on the clay mineral. The biological potential of the resulting DNA was monitored by transforming the naturally competent proteobacterium Acinetobacter sp. strain BD413, allowing us to demonstrate that adsorbed DNA was only partially available for transformation. This part of the clay-bound DNA which was available for bacteria, was also accessible to nucleases, while the remaining fraction escaped both transformation and degradation. Finally, transformation efficiency was related to the perpetuation mechanism, with homologous recombination being less sensitive to nucleases than autonomous replication, which requires intact molecules. PMID:11133458

  12. Short-Range-Order Mineral Physical Protection On Black Carbon Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, B.; Weng, Y. T.; Wang, C. C.; Song, Y. F.; Lehmann, J.; Wang, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Soil organic matter is one of the largest reservoirs in global carbon cycle, and black carbon (BC) represents a chemical resistant component. Black C plays an important role in global climate change. Generally considered recalcitrant due to high aromaticity, the reactive surface and functional groups of BC are crucial for carbon sequestration in soils. Mineral sorption and physical protection is an important mechanism for BC long term stabilization and sequestration in environments. Previous studies on mineral protection of BC were limited to analysis techniques in two-dimensions, for example, by SEM, TEM, and NanoSIMS. Little is known about the scope of organo-mineral association, the in-situ distribution and forms of minerals, and the ultimate interplay of BC and minerals. The aim of this study is to investigate the three-dimensional interaction of organic C and minerals in submicron scale using synchrotron-based Transmission X-ray Microcopy (TXM) and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Abundant poorly-crystallined nano-minerals particles were observed. These short-range-order (SRO) minerals also aggregate into clusters and sheets, and form envelops-like structures on the surface of BC. On top of large surface contact area, the intimate interplay between BC and minerals reinforces the stability of both organic C and minerals, resulting from chemical bonding through cation bridging and ligand exchange. The mineral protection enhances BC stabilization and sequestration and lowers its bioavailability in environment. The results suggest that mineral physical protection for BC sequestration may be more important than previous understanding.

  13. Identifying combinations of risk and protective factors predicting physical activity change in high school students.

    PubMed

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Atienza, Audie A; Tscherne, James; Rodriguez, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Research sought to identify combinations of risk and protective factors predicting change in physical activity (PA) over one year in high school students. Adolescents (N = 344; M = 15.7 years) participated in a longitudinal study with assessment of demographics, substance use/smoking exposure, height and weight, psychological factors, and PA in 10th and 11th grade. PA participation in 11th grade was greatest for adolescents who engaged in PA and had high sports competence (78%), and least for adolescents who did not engage in or enjoy PA (13%) in 10th grade. Identifying adolescent subgroups at risk for decreasing PA can inform the development of tailored interventions. PMID:21467595

  14. Cost and performance analysis of conceptual designs of physical protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, M.J.; Snell, M.S.; Sandoval, J.S.; Potter, C.S.

    1998-06-01

    CPA -- Cost and Performance Analysis -- is a methodology that joins Activity Based Cost (ABC) estimation with performance based analysis of physical protection systems. CPA offers system managers an approach that supports both tactical decision making and strategic planning. Current exploratory applications of the CPA methodology are addressing analysis of alternative conceptual designs. To support these activities, the original architecture for CPA, is being expanded to incorporate results from a suite of performance and consequence analysis tools such as JTS (Joint Tactical Simulation), ERAD (Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion) and blast effect models. The process flow for applying CPA to the development and analysis conceptual designs is illustrated graphically.

  15. Sections prepared for inclusion in an IAEA technical document handbook on Designing and Implementing a Physical Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Mark K.

    2015-11-01

    Two major sections were drafted (each with several subsections) for the IAEA dealing with designing and implementing a Physical Protection System (PPS). Areas addressed were Search Systems and the evaluation of PPS effectiveness.

  16. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 73 - Levels of Physical Protection To Be Applied in International Transport of Nuclear Material 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Levels of Physical Protection To Be Applied in International Transport of Nuclear Material 1 E Appendix E to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. E Appendix E to Part 73—Levels of Physical Protection To Be Applied in...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 73 - Levels of Physical Protection To Be Applied in International Transport of Nuclear Material 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Levels of Physical Protection To Be Applied in... (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. E Appendix E to Part 73—Levels of Physical Protection To Be Applied in International Transport of Nuclear Material 1 1 See appendix C to...

  18. 10 CFR 37.73 - Applicability of physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... category 2 quantities of radioactive material during transit. 37.73 Section 37.73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical... radioactive material during transit. (a) For shipments of category 1 quantities of radioactive material,...

  19. Accounting for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Cooperative Accountability Project.

    This publication reports on two Regional Educational Accountability Conferences on Techniques sponsored by the Cooperative Accountability Project. Accountability is described as an "emotionally-charged issue" and an "operationally demanding concept." Overviewing accountability, major speakers emphasized that accountability is a means toward…

  20. Evaluation Methodology For Proliferation Resistance And Physical Protection Of Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    T. Bjornard; R. Bari; R. Nishimura; P. Peterson; J. Roglans; D. Bley; J. Cazalet; G.G.M. Cojazzi; P. Delaune; M. Golay; G. Rendad; G. Rochau; M. Senzaki; I. Therios; M. Zentner

    2006-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: 1.System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. 2.Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. 3.Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  1. EVALUATION METHODOLOGY FOR PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF GENERATION IV NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW.

    SciTech Connect

    BARI, R.; ET AL.

    2006-03-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: (1) System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. (2) Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. (3) Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  2. Physical activity as a protective factor for development of non-alcoholic fatty liver in men

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Carla Giuliano de Sá; Marega, Marcio; de Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf; Carmona, Felipe Gambetta; Lopes, Carlos Eduardo Felix; Ceschini, Fabio Luis; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Figueira, Aylton José

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of physical activity on the prevalence of fatty liver, metabolic and cardiovascular disease in adult men. Methods This study evaluated 1,399 men (40.7±8.18 years) with body mass index of 26.7kg/m2 (±3.4) who participated in the Protocol of Preventive Health Check-up at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein from January to October 2011. We conducted tests of serum blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, reactive c-protein, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. The statistical analysis comprised in the comparison of mean and standard deviation. The analysis of variance was based in two paths of two way ANOVA, Student’s t-test, Mann Whitney U test, Wald test and χ2. We considered a significance level at p<0.05 and correlation of univariate Poison with 95% confidence interval. Results :Fatty liver was diagnosed in 37.0% of the sample. Triglyceride levels of active men with fatty liver were 148.2±77.6mg/dL while inactive men with fatty liver had 173.4±15.6mg/dL. The remaining serum levels were normal. Inactive individuals showed higher values than active. In addition, inactive individuals have 10.68 times higher risk of developing fatty liver compared with active. Conclusion Physical activity improves metabolic parameters such as triglycerides, weight control, HDL, which interfere in the development of fatty liver. Physically active individuals had lower fatty liver prevalence regardless of values of body composition and lipid profile, leading the conclusion that physical activity has a protective role against development of fatty liver. PMID:25993066

  3. Very High-Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP)

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, David Lewis

    2011-10-01

    This report documents the detailed background information that has been compiled to support the preparation of a much shorter white paper on the design features and fuel cycles of Very High-Temperature Reactors (VHTRs), including the proposed Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), to identify the important proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP) aspects of the proposed concepts. The shorter white paper derived from the information in this report was prepared for the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Science and Technology for the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) VHTR Systems Steering Committee (SSC) as input to the GIF Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection Working Group (PR&PPWG) (http://www.gen-4.org/Technology/horizontal/proliferation.htm). The short white paper was edited by the GIF VHTR SCC to address their concerns and thus may differ from the information presented in this supporting report. The GIF PR&PPWG will use the derived white paper based on this report along with other white papers on the six alternative Generation IV design concepts (http://www.gen-4.org/Technology/systems/index.htm) to employ an evaluation methodology that can be applied and will evolve from the earliest stages of design. This methodology will guide system designers, program policy makers, and external stakeholders in evaluating the response of each system, to determine each system's resistance to proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and terrorism threats, and thereby guide future international cooperation on ensuring safeguards in the deployment of the Generation IV systems. The format and content of this report is that specified in a template prepared by the GIF PR&PPWG. Other than the level of detail, the key exception to the specified template format is the addition of Appendix C to document the history and status of coated-particle fuel reprocessing technologies, which fuel reprocessing technologies have yet to be deployed

  4. Study of solid oxide fuel cell interconnects, protective coatings and advanced physical vapor deposition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannon, Paul Edward

    High energy conversion efficiency, decreased environmentally-sensitive emissions and fuel flexibility have attracted increasing attention toward solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems for stationary, transportation and portable power generation. Critical durability and cost issues, however, continue to impede wide-spread deployment. Many intermediate temperature (600-800°C) planar SOFC systems employ metallic alloy interconnect components, which physically connect individual fuel cells into electric series, facilitate gas distribution to appropriate SOFC electrode chambers (fuel/anode and oxidant[air]/cathode) and provide SOFC stack mechanical support. These demanding multifunctional requirements challenge commercially-available and inexpensive metallic alloys due to corrosion and related effects. Many ongoing investigations are aimed at enabling inexpensive metallic alloys (via bulk and/or surface modifications) as SOFC interconnects (SOFC(IC)s). In this study, two advanced physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques: large area filtered vacuum arc deposition (LAFAD), and filtered arc plasma-assisted electron beam PVD (FA-EBPVD) were used to deposit a wide-variety of protective nanocomposite (amorphous/nanocrystalline) ceramic thin-film (<5microm) coatings on commercial and specialty stainless steels with different surface finishes. Both bare and coated steel specimens were subjected to SOFC(IC)-relevant exposures and evaluated using complimentary surface analysis techniques. Significant improvements were observed under simulated SOFC(IC) exposures with many coated specimens at ˜800°C relative to uncoated specimens: stable surface morphology; low area specific resistance (ASR <100mO·cm 2 >1,000 hours); and, dramatically reduced Cr volatility (>30-fold). Analyses and discussions of SOFC(IC) corrosion, advanced PVD processes and protective coating behavior are intended to advance understanding and accelerate the development of durable and commercially-viable SOFC

  5. Development of computer-based analytical tool for assessing physical protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardhi, Alim; Pengvanich, Phongphaeth

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of physical protection system effectiveness is the priority for ensuring the optimum protection caused by unlawful acts against a nuclear facility, such as unauthorized removal of nuclear materials and sabotage of the facility itself. Since an assessment based on real exercise scenarios is costly and time-consuming, the computer-based analytical tool can offer the solution for approaching the likelihood threat scenario. There are several currently available tools that can be used instantly such as EASI and SAPE, however for our research purpose it is more suitable to have the tool that can be customized and enhanced further. In this work, we have developed a computer-based analytical tool by utilizing the network methodological approach for modelling the adversary paths. The inputs are multi-elements in security used for evaluate the effectiveness of the system's detection, delay, and response. The tool has capability to analyze the most critical path and quantify the probability of effectiveness of the system as performance measure.

  6. Influence of physical parameters on radiation protection and image quality in intra-oral radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinato, W.; Souza, D. N.

    2011-10-01

    In the world of diagnostic imaging, radiography is an important supplementary method for dental diagnosis. In radiology, special attention must be paid to the radiological protection of patients and health professionals, and also to image quality for correct diagnosis. In Brazil, the national rules governing the operation of medical and dental radiology were specified in 1998 by the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency, complemented in 2005 by the guide "Medical radiology: security and performance of equipment." In this study, quality control tests were performed in public clinics with dental X-ray equipment in the State of Sergipe, Brazil, with consideration of the physical parameters that influence radiological protection and also the quality of images taken in intra-oral radiography. The accuracy of the exposure time was considered acceptable for equipment with digital timers. Exposure times and focal-spot size variations can lead to increased entrance dose. Increased dose has also been associated with visual processing of radiographic film, which often requires repeating the radiographic examination.

  7. Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) System Upgrades and Performance Testing at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) VNIIEF)

    SciTech Connect

    Bushmelev, Vadim; Viktorov, Vladimir; Zhikharev, Stanislav; Yuferev, Vladimir; Singh, Surinder Paul; Kuzminski, Jozef; Hogan, Kevin; McKisson, Jacquelin

    2008-01-01

    The All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), founded in 1946 at the historic village of Sarov, in Nizhniy Novgorod Oblast, is the largest nuclear research center in the Rosatom complex. In the framework of international collaboration, the United States (US) Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Agency, in cooperation with US national laboratories, on the one hand, Rosatom and VNIIEF on the other hand, have focused their cooperative efforts to upgrade the existing material protection control and accountability system to prevent unauthorized access to the nuclear material. In this paper we will discuss the present status of material control and accounting (MC&A) system upgrades and the preliminary results from a pilot program on the MC&A system performance testing that was recently conducted at one technical area.

  8. Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) of Ceramics for Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harder, Bryan J.; Zhu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    In order to generate advanced multilayer thermal and environmental protection systems, a new deposition process is needed to bridge the gap between conventional plasma spray, which produces relatively thick coatings on the order of 125-250 microns, and conventional vapor phase processes such as electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) which are limited by relatively slow deposition rates, high investment costs, and coating material vapor pressure requirements. The use of Plasma Spray - Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) processing fills this gap and allows thin (< 10 microns) single layers to be deposited and multilayer coatings of less than 100 microns to be generated with the flexibility to tailor microstructures by changing processing conditions. Coatings of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were applied to NiCrAlY bond coated superalloy substrates using the PS-PVD coater at NASA Glenn Research Center. A design-of-experiments was used to examine the effects of process variables (Ar/He plasma gas ratio, the total plasma gas flow, and the torch current) on chamber pressure and torch power. Coating thickness, phase and microstructure were evaluated for each set of deposition conditions. Low chamber pressures and high power were shown to increase coating thickness and create columnar-like structures. Likewise, high chamber pressures and low power had lower growth rates, but resulted in flatter, more homogeneous layers

  9. [DEMONSTRATION OF LIKELIHOOD OF THE NEGATIVE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL PROTECTION DURING TOTAL PROTON IRRADIATION OF MICE].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A A; Bulynina, T M; Molokanov, A G; Vorozhtsova, S V; Utina, D M; Severyukhin, Yu S; Ushakov, I B

    2015-01-01

    The experiments were performed with outbred CD-1 male mice (SPF category). Total irradiation at 1.0; 2.5 and 5.0 Gy by protons with the average energy of 170 MeV was conducted in a level medical beam of the phasotron at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Investigations. Targets were 2 points of in-depth dose distribution, i.e. beam entrance of the object, and modified Bragg peak. As a physical protector, the comb filter increases linear energy transfer (LET) of 170 MeV entrance protons from 0.49 keV/μm to 1.6 keV/μm and, according to the bone marrow test, doubles the biological effectiveness of protons when comparing radiation doses that cause 37% inhibition of blood cell formation in the bone marrow. Physical protection increases dose rate from 0.37 Gy/min for entrance protons to 0.8 Gy/min for moderated protons which more than in thrice reduces time of irradiation needed to reach an equal radiobiological effect. PMID:26554131

  10. POSSIBILITIES FOR ASSESSMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF NPP PHYSICAL PROTECTION SYSTEMS IN UKRAINE ON THE BASIS OF NUCLEAR SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Shcherbinin, Konstantin

    2011-10-01

    The design requirements for physical protection systems currently adopted at Ukrainian NPPs were established in the middle of the nineties on the basis of deterministic analyses and expert evaluations of the vulnerabilities of reactor facilities. At the present time the in-depth assessment of the nuclear safety of Ukrainian NPPs with VVER-1000/B320 reactors has been completed using Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). PSA has established and provided a qualitative assessment of the significance of the equipment for maintaining the integrity of a reactor core and preventing an abnormal radioactive release. The availability of qualitative assessments of the importance of equipment for nuclear safety allows one to assess the existing physical protection system using (1) comparative analysis: to determine whether all equipment and zones that may be affected, as established by the nuclear safety assessment, are actually included into the vital zones protected by the existing physical protection system; (2) specific analysis of dominant contributors: since nuclear safety analyses provide qualitative assessment of the equipment’s importance for safety, it is easy to select a limited group of essential equipment that makes the major contribution to safety, and (3) specific equipment analysis included in dominant emergency sets: part of the components might not be included in the essential equipment group, but it might be included in the dominant emergency sets. If some equipment is found not to be covered by the physical protection system, it is possible, using qualitative assessment of the importance of this equipment for safety, to assess the required degree of enhancement of physical protection. Such analysis will permit an assessment of the sufficiency of the existing physical protection system, to define the "tight" system areas and, therefore, to develop a justified optimization of a PPS with the objective of implementing priority upgrades to enhance safety, and

  11. Development of Physical Protection Regulations for Rosatom State Corporation Sites under the U.S.-Russian MPC&A Program

    SciTech Connect

    Izmaylov, Alexander; Babkin, Vladimir; Shemigon, Nikolai N.; O'Brien, Patricia; Wright, Troy L.; Hazel, Michael J.; Tuttle, John D.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Lane, Melinda; Kovchegin, Dmitry

    2012-07-14

    This paper describes issues related to upgrading the physical protection regulatory basis for Rosatom State Corporation sites. It is underlined that most of the regulatory and methodological documents for this subject area have been developed under the U.S.-Russian MPC&A Program. According to the joint management plan developed and agreed upon by the parties in 2005, nearly 50 physical protection documents were identified to be developed, approved and implemented at Rosatom sites by 2012. It is also noted that, on the whole, the plans have been fulfilled.

  12. A Physical Protection Systems Test Bed for International Counter-Trafficking System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, Brad J; Kuhn, Michael J; Donaldson, Terrence L; Richardson, Dave; Rowe, Nathan C; Younkin, James R; Pickett, Chris A

    2011-01-01

    Physical protection systems have a widespread impact on the nuclear industry in areas such as nuclear safeguards, arms control, and trafficking of illicit goods (e.g., nuclear materials) across international borders around the world. Many challenges must be overcome in design and deployment of foreign border security systems such as lack of infrastructure, extreme environmental conditions, limited knowledge of terrain, insider threats, and occasional cultural resistance. Successful security systems, whether it be a system designed to secure a single facility or a whole border security system, rely on the entire integrated system composed of multiple subsystems. This test bed is composed of many unique sensors and subsystems, including wireless unattended ground sensors, a buried fiber-optic acoustic sensor, a lossy coaxial distributed sensor, wireless links, pan-tilt-zoom cameras, mobile power generation systems, unmanned aerial vehicles, and fiber-optic-fence intrusion detection systems. A Common Operating Picture software architecture is utilized to integrate a number of these subsystems. We are currently performance testing each system for border security and perimeter security applications by examining metrics such as probability of sense and a qualitative understanding of the sensor s vulnerability of defeat. The testing process includes different soil conditions for buried sensors (e.g., dry, wet, and frozen) and an array of different tests including walking, running, stealth detection, and vehicle detection. Also, long term sustainability of systems is tested including performance differences due to seasonal variations (e.g. summer versus winter, while raining, in foggy conditions). The capabilities of the test bed are discussed. Performance testing results, both at the individual component level and integrated into a larger system for a specific deployment (in situ), help illustrate the usefulness and need for integrated testing facilities to carry out this

  13. Radiological Threat Reduction (RTR) program : implementing physical security to protect large radioactive sources worldwide.

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, Daniel L.

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Radiological Threat Reduction (RTR) Program strives to reduce the threat of a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD) incident that could affect U.S. interests worldwide. Sandia National Laboratories supports the RTR program on many different levels. Sandia works directly with DOE to develop strategies, including the selection of countries to receive support and the identification of radioactive materials to be protected. Sandia also works with DOE in the development of guidelines and in training DOE project managers in physical protection principles. Other support to DOE includes performing rapid assessments and providing guidance for establishing foreign regulatory and knowledge infrastructure. Sandia works directly with foreign governments to establish cooperative agreements necessary to implement the RTR Program efforts to protect radioactive sources. Once necessary agreements are in place, Sandia works with in-country organizations to implement various security related initiatives, such as installing security systems and searching for (and securing) orphaned radioactive sources. The radioactive materials of interest to the RTR program include Cobalt 60, Cesium 137, Strontium 90, Iridium 192, Radium 226, Plutonium 238, Americium 241, Californium 252, and Others. Security systems are implemented using a standardized approach that provides consistency through out the RTR program efforts at Sandia. The approach incorporates a series of major tasks that overlap in order to provide continuity. The major task sequence is to: Establish in-country contacts - integrators, Obtain material characterizations, Perform site assessments and vulnerability assessments, Develop upgrade plans, Procure and install equipment, Conduct acceptance testing and performance testing, Develop procedures, and Conduct training. Other tasks are incorporated as appropriate and commonly include such as support of reconfiguring infrastructure, and developing security

  14. Thiolate–Protected Gold Nanoparticles Via Physical Approach: Unusual Structural and Photophysical Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Yohei; Akita, Ikumi; Sumi, Taiki; Matsubara, Masaki; Yonezawa, Tetsu

    2016-07-01

    Here we report a novel physical approach for thiolate–protected fluorescent gold nanoparticles with a controlled size of the order of a few nanometers. This approach is based on a sputtering of gold into a liquid matrix containing thiolate ligand as a stabilizer at various concentrations, thus no reductant was used. The size of the gold nanoparticles was successfully controlled to range from 1.6 to 7.4 nm by adjusting the thiol concentrations. Surface plasmon absorption was observed in larger nanoparticles, but it was not observed in smaller ones. Such smaller nanoparticles fluoresced at around 670 nm with a small spectral shift according to their size, however, the diameter (1.6–2.7 nm) was very strange to show such red emission compared with photophysical characteristics of reported gold cluster or nanoparticles synthesized by chemical method. By detailed investigations using TEM, HAADF-STEM, XPS, and TGA, and size fractionation by size exclusion chromatography, we finally arrived at the plausible mechanism for the origin of unusual fluorescence property; the obtained gold nanoparticles are not single-crystal and are composed of aggregates of very small components such as multinuclear gold clusters or complexes.

  15. Methodology Development and Applications of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, R.A.; Peterson, P.F., Therios, I.U., Whitlock, J.J.

    2010-04-11

    We present an overview of the program on the evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP) of advanced nuclear energy systems (NESs) sponsored by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). For a proposed NES design, the methodology defines a set of challenges, analyzes system response to these challenges, and assesses outcomes. The challenges to the NES are the threats posed by potential actors (proliferant States or sub-national adversaries). The characteristics of Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate the response of the system and to determine its resistance against proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and terrorism threats. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of a set of measures, which are the high-level PR&PP characteristics of the NES. The methodology is organized to allow evaluations to be performed at the earliest stages of system design and to become more detailed and more representative as the design progresses. It can thus be used to enable a program in safeguards by design or to enhance the conceptual design process of an NES with regard to intrinsic features for PR&PP.

  16. Thiolate–Protected Gold Nanoparticles Via Physical Approach: Unusual Structural and Photophysical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Yohei; Akita, Ikumi; Sumi, Taiki; Matsubara, Masaki; Yonezawa, Tetsu

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a novel physical approach for thiolate–protected fluorescent gold nanoparticles with a controlled size of the order of a few nanometers. This approach is based on a sputtering of gold into a liquid matrix containing thiolate ligand as a stabilizer at various concentrations, thus no reductant was used. The size of the gold nanoparticles was successfully controlled to range from 1.6 to 7.4 nm by adjusting the thiol concentrations. Surface plasmon absorption was observed in larger nanoparticles, but it was not observed in smaller ones. Such smaller nanoparticles fluoresced at around 670 nm with a small spectral shift according to their size, however, the diameter (1.6–2.7 nm) was very strange to show such red emission compared with photophysical characteristics of reported gold cluster or nanoparticles synthesized by chemical method. By detailed investigations using TEM, HAADF-STEM, XPS, and TGA, and size fractionation by size exclusion chromatography, we finally arrived at the plausible mechanism for the origin of unusual fluorescence property; the obtained gold nanoparticles are not single-crystal and are composed of aggregates of very small components such as multinuclear gold clusters or complexes. PMID:27427446

  17. Thiolate-Protected Gold Nanoparticles Via Physical Approach: Unusual Structural and Photophysical Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yohei; Akita, Ikumi; Sumi, Taiki; Matsubara, Masaki; Yonezawa, Tetsu

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a novel physical approach for thiolate-protected fluorescent gold nanoparticles with a controlled size of the order of a few nanometers. This approach is based on a sputtering of gold into a liquid matrix containing thiolate ligand as a stabilizer at various concentrations, thus no reductant was used. The size of the gold nanoparticles was successfully controlled to range from 1.6 to 7.4 nm by adjusting the thiol concentrations. Surface plasmon absorption was observed in larger nanoparticles, but it was not observed in smaller ones. Such smaller nanoparticles fluoresced at around 670 nm with a small spectral shift according to their size, however, the diameter (1.6-2.7 nm) was very strange to show such red emission compared with photophysical characteristics of reported gold cluster or nanoparticles synthesized by chemical method. By detailed investigations using TEM, HAADF-STEM, XPS, and TGA, and size fractionation by size exclusion chromatography, we finally arrived at the plausible mechanism for the origin of unusual fluorescence property; the obtained gold nanoparticles are not single-crystal and are composed of aggregates of very small components such as multinuclear gold clusters or complexes. PMID:27427446

  18. Protective and vulnerability factors for physically abused children: Effects of ethnicity and parenting context

    PubMed Central

    Haskett, Mary E.; Allaire, Jason C.; Kreig, Shawn; Hart, Kendrea C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Although social maladjustment appears to be common among abused children, negative outcomes are not inevitable. This investigation was designed to determine whether ethnicity and features of the parenting context predicted children’s social adjustment, and whether the strength and direction of these relations differed for abused and nonabused children. Method Participants included 78 physically abused and 75 demographically-matched nonabused children and one of their parents. Observations of parenting were used to measure parental sensitivity, and parent self-reports of depression were obtained using the SCL-90-R. Children’s peer social adjustment was measured by teacher report. Results Using regression analysis, we tested whether each potential protective or vulnerability factor interacted with abuse status in prediction of social adjustment. Results indicated main effects of ethnicity and sensitivity for prosocial behavior, and a main effect of sensitivity for aggression. In addition, there was a significant interaction of ethnicity and abuse status for aggression such that there was a significant difference between abused and nonabused European American children but not between abused and nonabused African American children. Conclusions Findings indicate that risk for aggressive behavior among abused children might be culturally-specific rather than universal. In addition, results point to beneficial effects of parental sensitivity for maltreated children. PMID:18511116

  19. Physical Protection of Spent Fuel Shipments: Resolution of Stakeholder Concerns Through Rulemaking - 12284

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, James D.; Halstead, Robert J.; Dilger, Fred

    2012-07-01

    In 1999, the State of Nevada brought its concerns about physical protection of current spent nuclear fuel (SNF) shipments, and future SNF shipments to a federal repository, before the NRC in a 1999 petition for rulemaking (PRM-73-10). In October 2010, the NRC published a rulemaking decision which would significantly strengthen physical protection of SNF in transit. The newest articulation of the rule (10 CFR 73.37) incorporates regulatory clarifications and security enhancements requested in Nevada's 1999 petition for rulemaking, codifies the findings of the Nuclear NRC and DOE consequence analyses into policy guidance documents and brings forward into regulations the agency and licensee experience gained since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Although at present DOE SNF shipments would continue to be exempt from these NRC regulations, Nevada considers the rule to constitute a largely satisfactory resolution to stakeholder concerns raised in the original petition and in subsequent comments submitted to the NRC. This paper reviews the process of regulatory changes, assesses the specific improvements contained in the new rules and briefly describes the significance of the new rule in the context of a future national nuclear waste management program. Nevada's petition for rulemaking led to a generally satisfactory resolution of the State's concerns. The decade plus timeframe from petition to rulemaking conclusion saw a sea change in many aspects of the relevant issues - perhaps most importantly the attacks on 9/11 led to the recognition by regulatory bodies that a new threat environment exists wherein shipments of SNF and HLW pose a viable target for human initiated events. The State of Nevada has always considered security a critical concern for the transport of these highly radioactive materials. This was one of the primary reasons for the original rulemaking petition and subsequent advocacy by Nevada on related issues. NRC decisions on the majority of

  20. Workshop materials from the 2nd international training course on physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials, Module 13

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F. P.

    1980-04-01

    This course is intended for representatives of countries where nuclear power is being developed and whose responsibilities include the preparation of regulation and the design and evaluation of physical protection systems. This is the second of two volumes; the first volume is SAND-79-1090. (DLC)

  1. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 73 - Physical Protection of Irradiated Reactor Fuel in Transit, Training Program Subject Schedule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Irradiated Reactor Fuel in Transit, Training Program Subject Schedule Pursuant to the provision of § 73.37 of 10 CFR part 73, each licensee who transports or delivers to a carrier for transport irradiated... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Physical Protection of Irradiated Reactor Fuel in...

  2. Risk and Protective Factors for Physical and Emotional Intimate Partner Violence against Women in a Community of Lima, Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayorga, Magaly Noblega

    2012-01-01

    This article shows risk and protective factors for both physical and emotional intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. The study was carried out in a shanty town of Lima, Peru, which has a strong community organization. One hundred ninety-two women between 25 and 59 years old (M = 34.09, SD = 6.5) were interviewed; 44.3% had secondary…

  3. 10 CFR 73.55 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage. 73.55 Section 73.55 Energy NUCLEAR... power reactor licensee, licensed under 10 CFR part 50, shall implement the requirements of this...

  4. 10 CFR 73.55 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage. 73.55 Section 73.55 Energy NUCLEAR... power reactor licensee, licensed under 10 CFR part 50, shall implement the requirements of this...

  5. 10 CFR 73.35 - Requirements for physical protection of irradiated reactor fuel (100 grams or less) in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fuel (100 grams or less) in transit. 73.35 Section 73.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... Transit § 73.35 Requirements for physical protection of irradiated reactor fuel (100 grams or less) in... quantity of irradiated reactor fuel weighing 100 grams (0.22 pounds) or less in net weight of...

  6. Household and neighborhood conditions partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in the National Health and Aging Trends Study.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Laura J; Glass, Thomas A; Thorpe, Roland J; Szanton, Sarah L; Roth, David L

    2015-03-01

    Socioeconomic resources, such as education, prevent disability but are not readily modifiable. We tested the hypothesis that household and neighborhood conditions, which may be modifiable, partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in a population-based sample of older adults. The National Health and Aging Trends Study measured education (physical capacity with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), grip strength and peak expiratory flow. Structural equation models were used to decompose total educational effects into direct effects and indirect effects via household and neighborhood conditions, using sample weights and adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, household size, BMI, self-reported health, and number of medical conditions in 6874 community-dwelling participants. Education was directly associated with SPPB scores (β = 0.055, p < 0.05) and peak flow (β = 0.095, p < 0.05), but not grip strength. Also, indirect effects were found for household disorder with SPPB scores (β = 0.013, p < 0.05), grip strength (β = 0.007, p < 0.05), and peak flow (β = 0.010, p < 0.05). Indirect effects were also found for street disorder with SPPB scores (β = 0.012, p < 0.05). Indirect effects of household and neighborhood conditions accounted for approximately 35%, 27% and 14% of the total association between education and SPPB scores, grip strength level, and peak expiratory flow level, respectively. Household disorder and street disorder partially accounted for educational disparities in physical capacity. However, educational disparities in SPPB scores and peak expiratory flow persisted after accounting for household and neighborhood conditions and chronic conditions, suggesting additional pathways. Interventions and policies aiming to

  7. Household and neighborhood conditions partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in the National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Laura J.; Glass, Thomas A.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Szanton, Sarah L.; Roth, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic resources, such as education, prevent disability but are not readily modifiable. We tested the hypothesis that household and neighborhood conditions, which may be modifiable, partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in a population-based sample of older adults. The National Health and Aging Trends Study measured education (physical capacity with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), grip strength and peak expiratory flow. Structural equation models were used to decompose total educational effects into direct effects and indirect effects via household and neighborhood conditions, using sample weights and adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, household size, BMI, self-reported health, and number of medical conditions in 6874 community-dwelling participants. Education was directly associated with SPPB scores (β=0.055, p<0.05) and peak flow (β=0.095, p<0.05), but not grip strength. Also, indirect effects were found for household disorder with SPPB scores (β=0.013, p<0.05), grip strength (β=0.007, p<0.05), and peak flow (β=0.010, p<0.05). Indirect effects were also found for street disorder with SPPB scores (β=0.012, p<0.05). Indirect effects of household and neighborhood conditions accounted for approximately 35%, 27% and 14% of the total association between education and SPPB scores, grip strength level, and peak expiratory flow level, respectively. Household disorder and street disorder partially accounted for educational disparities in physical capacity. However, educational disparities in SPPB scores and peak expiratory flow persisted after accounting for household and neighborhood conditions and chronic conditions, suggesting additional pathways. Interventions and policies aiming to support aging in place

  8. 10 CFR Appendix F to Part 73 - Nations That Are Parties to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nations That Are Parties to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material 1 F Appendix F to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. F Appendix F to Part 73—Nations That Are Parties to the Convention on the...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix F to Part 73 - Nations That Are Parties to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nations That Are Parties to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material 1 F Appendix F to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. F Appendix F to Part 73—Nations That Are Parties to the Convention on the...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix F to Part 73 - Nations That Are Parties to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nations That Are Parties to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material 1 F Appendix F to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. F Appendix F to Part 73—Nations That Are Parties to the Convention on the...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix F to Part 73 - Nations That Are Parties to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nations That Are Parties to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material 1 F Appendix F to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. F Appendix F to Part 73—Nations That Are Parties to the Convention on the...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix F to Part 73 - Nations That Are Parties to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nations That Are Parties to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material 1 F Appendix F to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. F Appendix F to Part 73—Nations That Are Parties to the Convention on the...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 73 - Levels of Physical Protection To Be Applied in International Transport of Nuclear Material 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Levels of Physical Protection To Be Applied in International Transport of Nuclear Material 1 E Appendix E to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. E Appendix E to Part 73—Levels...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 73 - Levels of Physical Protection To Be Applied in International Transport of Nuclear Material 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Levels of Physical Protection To Be Applied in International Transport of Nuclear Material 1 E Appendix E to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. E Appendix E to Part 73—Levels...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 73 - Levels of Physical Protection To Be Applied in International Transport of Nuclear Material 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Levels of Physical Protection To Be Applied in International Transport of Nuclear Material 1 E Appendix E to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. E Appendix E to Part 73—Levels...

  16. Accounting for the physical and mental health benefits of entry into marriage: a genetically informed study of selection and causation.

    PubMed

    Horn, Erin E; Xu, Yishan; Beam, Christopher R; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E

    2013-02-01

    Married adults show better psychological adjustment and physical health than their separated/divorced or never-married counterparts. However, this apparent "marriage benefit" may be due to social selection, social causation, or both processes. Genetically informed research designs offer critical advantages for helping to disentangle selection from causation by controlling for measured and unmeasured genetic and shared environmental selection. Using young-adult twin and sibling pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Harris, 2009), we conducted genetically informed analyses of the association between entry into marriage, cohabitation, or singlehood and multiple indices of psychological and physical health. The relation between physical health and marriage was completely explained by nonrandom selection. For internalizing behaviors, selection did not fully explain the benefits of marriage or cohabitation relative to being single, whereas for externalizing symptoms, marriage predicted benefits over cohabitation. The genetically informed approach provides perhaps the strongest nonexperimental evidence that these observed effects are causal. PMID:23088795

  17. PHYSICAL FOUNDATIONS OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Scattering of an ensemble of photons taking their space — time localisation into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makshantsev, B. I.; Makshantsev, V. B.

    2001-09-01

    A problem of scattering of an ensemble of photons by material particles is solved. The vector potential of each of the incident photons scattered by particles is described by a nonspreading wave packet. The expressions for cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering of electromagnetic radiation are derived taking the space — time localisation of photons into account. The possible experiments for verifying these theoretical results are discussed.

  18. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Composition of Accelerator Radiation Fields; Shielding of Electrons and Photons at Accelerators; Shielding of Hadrons at Accelerators; Low Energy Prompt Radiation Phenomena; Induced Radioactivity at Accelerators; Topics in Radiation Protection Instrumentation at Accelerators; and Accelerator Radiation Protection Program Elements.

  19. Expedient Respiratory and Physical Protection: Does a Wet Towel Work to Prevent Chemical Warfare Agent Vapor Infiltration?

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.H.

    2002-08-30

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of expedient protection strategies to reduce exposure to vapors from chemical warfare agents. This includes an examination of the physical and the psychological effectiveness of measures such as using a wet towel to seal a door jam against the infiltration of chemicals while sheltering in place or to provide expedient respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for civilians has never been considered a viable option for population protection in the CSEPP. Problems of storage, ability to effectively don respirators, and questionable fit have been primary factors in rejecting this option. Expedient respiratory protection seems to offer little benefits for population protection for chemical agent vapors. Furthermore, using wet towels as a vapor barrier at the bottom of a door should be discouraged. The wetted towel provides no vapor filtration and its effectiveness in infiltration reduction is unknown. Taping the bottom of the door will still likely provide greater infiltration reduction and is recommended as the current method for use in sheltering.

  20. Physical Environmental Adversity and the Protective Role of Maternal Monitoring in Relation to Early Child Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Supplee, Lauren H.; Unikel, Emily B.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    Research on the development of externalizing behaviors during early childhood has focused on child and parenting factors. Fewer studies have investigated effects of aversive features of the micro-level physical environment, such as overcrowding and chaos in the home, and the macro-level environment, such as neighborhood quality. This study extends research on physical environmental factors by examining their association with children’s early externalizing behaviors, and exploring how maternal monitoring may serve as a protective factor in such contexts. 120 male toddlers at high risk for developing early externalizing behaviors were followed from ages 2 to 5 years. Direct longitudinal associations were found for micro-level environmental factors beginning at age 2 and for neighborhood risk beginning at age 3. Maternal monitoring served as a protective factor for child externalizing behaviors in the context of neighborhood risk. Implications for prevention research and the development of early externalizing behaviors are discussed. PMID:18311323

  1. Project W-314 Polyurea Special Protective Coating (SPC) Test Plan Chemical Compatibility and Physical Characteristics Testing

    SciTech Connect

    MAUSER, R.W.

    2001-01-15

    This Test Plan outlines the testing to be done on the Special Protective Coating (SPC) Polyurea which includes: Tank Waste Compatibility, Decontamination Factor Testing, and Adhesion Strength Testing after a sample has been exposed to Radiation.

  2. MATERIAL CONTROL ACCOUNTING INMM

    SciTech Connect

    Hasty, T.

    2009-06-14

    Since 1996, the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC - formerly known as K-26), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have been cooperating under the cooperative Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program between the Russian Federation and the U.S. Governments. Since MCC continues to operate a reactor for steam and electricity production for the site and city of Zheleznogorsk which results in production of the weapons grade plutonium, one of the goals of the MPC&A program is to support implementation of an expanded comprehensive nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) program. To date MCC has completed upgrades identified in the initial gap analysis and documented in the site MC&A Plan and is implementing additional upgrades identified during an update to the gap analysis. The scope of these upgrades includes implementation of MCC organization structure relating to MC&A, establishing material balance area structure for special nuclear materials (SNM) storage and bulk processing areas, and material control functions including SNM portal monitors at target locations. Material accounting function upgrades include enhancements in the conduct of physical inventories, limit of error inventory difference procedure enhancements, implementation of basic computerized accounting system for four SNM storage areas, implementation of measurement equipment for improved accountability reporting, and both new and revised site-level MC&A procedures. This paper will discuss the implementation of MC&A upgrades at MCC based on the requirements established in the comprehensive MC&A plan developed by the Mining and Chemical Combine as part of the MPC&A Program.

  3. Mobile detection assessment and response systems (MDARS): a force protection physical security operational success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoop, Brian; Johnston, Michael; Goehring, Richard; Moneyhun, Jon; Skibba, Brian

    2006-05-01

    MDARS is a Semi-autonomous unmanned ground vehicle with intrusion detection & assessment, product & barrier assessment payloads. Its functions include surveillance, security, early warning, incident first response and product and barrier status primarily focused on a depot/munitions security mission at structured/semi-structured facilities. MDARS is in Systems Development and Demonstration (SDD) under the Product Manager for Force Protection Systems (PM-FPS). MDARS capabilities include semi-autonomous navigation, obstacle avoidance, motion detection, day and night imagers, radio frequency tag inventory/barrier assessment and audio challenge and response. Four SDD MDARS Patrol Vehicles have been undergoing operational evaluation at Hawthorne Army Depot, NV (HWAD) since October 2004. Hawthorne personnel were trained to administer, operate and maintain the system in accordance with the US Army Military Police School (USAMPS) Concept of Employment and the PM-FPS MDARS Integrated Logistic Support Plan. The system was subjected to intensive periods of evaluation under the guidance and control of the Army Test and Evaluation Center (ATEC) and PM-FPS. Significantly, in terms of User acceptance, the system has been under the "operational control" of the installation performing security and force protection missions in support of daily operations. This evaluation is intended to assess MDARS operational effectiveness in an operational environment. Initial observations show that MDARS provides enhanced force protection, can potentially reduce manpower requirements by conducting routine tasks within its design capabilities and reduces Soldier exposure in the initial response to emerging incidents and situations. Success of the MDARS program has been instrumental in the design and development of two additional robotic force protection programs. The first was the USAF Force Protection Battle Lab sponsored Remote Detection Challenge & Response (REDCAR) concept demonstration

  4. Estimations of soil fertility in physically degraded agricultural soils through selective accounting of fine earth and gravel fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraja, Mavinakoppa S.; Bhardwaj, Ajay Kumar; Prabhakara Reddy, G. V.; Srinivasamurthy, Chilakunda A.; Kumar, Sandeep

    2016-06-01

    Soil fertility and organic carbon (C) stock estimations are crucial to soil management, especially that of degraded soils, for productive agricultural use and in soil C sequestration studies. Currently, estimations based on generalized soil mass (hectare furrow basis) or bulk density are used which may be suitable for normal agricultural soils, but not for degraded soils. In this study, soil organic C, available nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P2O5) and available potassium (K2O), and their stocks were estimated using three methods: (i) generalized soil mass (GSM, 2 million kg ha-1 furrow soil), (ii) bulk-density-based soil mass (BDSM) and (iii) the proportion of fine earth volume (FEV) method, for soils sampled from physically degraded lands in the eastern dry zone of Karnataka State in India. Comparative analyses using these methods revealed that the soil organic C, N, P2O and K2O stocks determined by using BDSM were higher than those determined by the GSM method. The soil organic C values were the lowest in the FEV method. The GSM method overestimated soil organic C, N, P2O and K2O by 9.3-72.1, 9.5-72.3, 7.1-66.6 and 9.2-72.3 %, respectively, compared to FEV-based estimations for physically degraded soils. The differences among the three methods of estimation were lower in soils with low gravel content and increased with an increase in gravel volume. There was overestimation of soil organic C and soil fertility with GSM and BDSM methods. A reassessment of methods of estimation was, therefore, attempted to provide fair estimates for land development projects in degraded lands.

  5. Perceptions of Physical Inspections as a Tool to Protect Housing Quality and Promote Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Holtzen, Holly; Klein, Elizabeth G; Keller, Brittney; Hood, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Physical inspections that assess how well affordable housing properties meet quality and safety standards help to ensure that low-income tenants live in a healthy built environment. This study was part of a larger Health Impact Assessment (HIA) conducted between January 2012 and November 2013 to inform policymakers about the potential health consequences of a proposed policy decision to align the physical inspections required by housing funding agencies, which would result in a reduction of the frequency of physical inspections. Key informant interviews (n=18) of property managers and tenants were used to explore the inspection process, identification of housing quality issues, and potential effects on the health of affordable housing tenants and the impact on property management practices. Results indicate that physical inspection frequency may be an important trigger for property managers and tenants to adhere to proper maintenance schedules. PMID:27180694

  6. High School Youth and Suicide Risk: Exploring Protection Afforded through Physical Activity and Sport Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Miller, M. David; Pigg, R. Morgan, Jr.; Dodd, Virginia J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death for adolescents. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate that the adolescent suicide rate increased 18% between 2003 and 2004. Sport may represent a promising protective factor against adolescent suicide. This study examined the relative risk of…

  7. Individual and familial risk and protective correlates of physical and psychological peer victimization.

    PubMed

    Boel-Studt, Shamra; Renner, Lynette M

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the association between youth characteristics, parenting behavior, and family violence and risk of physical and/or psychological peer victimization using a sample of 856 adolescents aged 10-17. Additionally, we examined whether the relation between parenting behaviors and victimization was moderated by age and gender. Data for this study were drawn from the first wave of the Developmental Victimization Survey. The results revealed unique associations between youth and familial correlates and odds for experiencing physical, psychological, and both types of victimization. Gender was found to be a statistically significant moderator of the relation between parental monitoring and odds of experiencing both physical and psychological peer victimization. Implications for bully prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:23973207

  8. Preparation of UV-protective kefiran/nano-ZnO nanocomposites: physical and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi, Iman; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Mousavi, Mohammad; Yousefi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of ZnO nanoparticles (ZN) as a UV-protective agent of kefiran biopolymers. Our results showed that with increasing ZN content, the tensile strength, elongation at break, and tensile energy to break the kefiran film and nanocomposites also increased. Kefiran nanocomposites with a ZN content higher than 2% produced a UV-protective film with good visual properties, low sensibility to water, and low water-vapor permeability. The thermal properties of all specimens, analyzed by DSC, showed that the ZN content had a negative effect on Tg and a positive effect on nanocomposites' melting point. TEM, SEM micrography and XRD spectrum analysis confirmed the hypothesis that ZNs act like a ball bearing, making movement of kefiran chains easier and increasing elongation at break, while simultaneously decreasing the Tg of kefiran nanocomposites. PMID:25108056

  9. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2014-07-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation's electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments. PMID:25685516

  10. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2013-01-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation’s electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments. PMID:25685516

  11. Protective Factors, Physical Abuse, and Purging from Community-Wide Surveys of Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Luster, Tom; Jank, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    Examined relationship between physical abuse and purging through a survey of 100,236 females ages 12 to 18. Investigated other influences on resiliency such as age, ethnicity, family structure and support, parental education, school climate, sexual abuse, religiosity, and other adult support. Found statistical correlations between bulimia and…

  12. Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: Associations with Preadolescent Physical Abuse and Selected Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzinger, Suzanne; Rosario, Margaret; Feldman, Richard S.; Ng-Mak, Daisy S.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether preadolescent physical abuse raises the risk of adolescent suicidal behavior, to examine potential mediators and moderators of the relationship between preadolescent abuse and adolescent suicidality, and to examine whether distal (preadolescent) risk factors add to proximal (adolescent) factors in predicting…

  13. Legal Protection for School Children: Separating Psychological Abuse from Physical Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    The inflicting of emotional distress, mental distress, or mental injury on another person constitutes psychological abuse, whether or not accompanied by physical harm. If intentional psychological abuse causes harm, it could be actionable as a tort. While the latitude allowed teachers in selecting teaching methods may make the intentionality of…

  14. Creating a Comprehensive, Efficient, and Sustainable Nuclear Regulatory Structure: A Process Report from the U.S. Department of Energy's Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Troy L.; O'Brien, Patricia E.; Hazel, Michael J.; Tuttle, John D.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Schlegel, Steven C.

    2010-08-11

    With the congressionally mandated January 1, 2013 deadline for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program to complete its transition of MPC&A responsibility to the Russian Federation, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) management directed its MPC&A program managers and team leaders to demonstrate that work in ongoing programs would lead to successful and timely achievement of these milestones. In the spirit of planning for successful project completion, the NNSA review of the Russian regulatory development process confirmed the critical importance of an effective regulatory system to a sustainable nuclear protection regime and called for an analysis of the existing Russian regulatory structure and the identification of a plan to ensure a complete MPC&A regulatory foundation. This paper describes the systematic process used by DOE’s MPC&A Regulatory Development Project (RDP) to develop an effective and sustainable MPC&A regulatory structure in the Russian Federation. This nuclear regulatory system will address all non-military Category I and II nuclear materials at State Corporation for Atomic Energy “Rosatom,” the Federal Service for Ecological, Technological, and Nuclear Oversight (Rostechnadzor), the Federal Agency for Marine and River Transport (FAMRT, within the Ministry of Transportation), and the Ministry of Industry and Trade (Minpromtorg). The approach to ensuring a complete and comprehensive nuclear regulatory structure includes five sequential steps. The approach was adopted from DOE’s project management guidelines and was adapted to the regulatory development task by the RDP. The five steps in the Regulatory Development Process are: 1) Define MPC&A Structural Elements; 2) Analyze the existing regulatory documents using the identified Structural Elements; 3) Validate the analysis with Russian colleagues and define the list of documents to be developed; 4) Prioritize and

  15. Moderate physical exercise reduces parasitaemia and protects colonic myenteric neurons in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Neide M; Santos, Franciele d N; Toledo, Max Jean d O; Moraes, Solange M F d; Araujo, Eduardo J d A; Sant'Ana, Debora d M G; Araujo, Silvana M d

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of moderate physical exercise on the myenteric neurons in the colonic intestinal wall of mice that had been infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitology and immunological aspects of the mice were considered. Forty-day-old male Swiss mice were divided into four groups: Trained Infected (TI), Sedentary Infected (SI), Trained Control (TC), and Sedentary Control (SC). The TC and TI were subjected to a moderate physical exercise program on a treadmill for 8 weeks. Three days after finishing exercise, the TI and SI groups were inoculated with 1,300 blood trypomastigotes of the Y strain-T. cruzi. After 75 days of infection results were obtained. Kruskal-Wallis or Analyze of variance (Tukey post hoc test) at 5% level of significance was performed. Moderate physical exercise reduced both the parasite peak (day 8 of infection) and total parasitemia compared with the sedentary groups (P < 0.05). This activity also contributed to neuronal survival (P < 0.05). Exercise caused neuronal hypertrophy (P < 0.05) and an increase in the total thickness of the intestinal wall (P < 0.05). The TI group exhibited an increase in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (P > 0.05). In trained animals, the number of goblet cells was reduced compared with sedentary animals (P < 0.05). Physical exercise prevented the formation of inflammatory foci in the TI group (P < 0.05) and increased the synthesis of TNF-α (P < 0.05) and TGF-β (P > 0.05). The present results demonstrated the benefits of moderate physical exercise, and reaffirmed the possibility of that it may contribute to improving clinical treatment in Chagas' disease patients. PMID:24205797

  16. Evaluation of the siblings of physically abused children: a comparison of child protective services caseworkers and child abuse physicians.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Melissa A; Squires, Janet; Zuckerbraun, Noel S; Berger, Rachel P

    2010-05-01

    Current theories suggest that all children in a home are at risk for physical abuse, when one child is abused. However, little evidence exists to guide decisions regarding the medical management of siblings of physically abused children (contact children [CC]). This study sought to compare child protective services (CPS) caseworkers' and child abuse physicians' (CAP) recommendations regarding the need for medical evaluation of CC in case scenarios of unequivocal physical abuse. In all cases, caseworkers and physicians disagreed on which CC warranted a medical evaluation. In addition, 25% of caseworkers did not think that physicians should make recommendations on the need for medical evaluation of CC. The findings of the authors suggest that the home visit is a critical part of the decision-making process for caseworkers and that it often acts as a substitute for a medical evaluation. Caseworkers indicated that visible injury to the contact child and severity of injury to the index child were among the most important factors in deciding which CC need a medical evaluation. Although caseworkers and physicians disagree on certain issues related to the evaluation of CC, it is clear that limited resources should be directed at CC at highest risk for physical abuse. PMID:20147344

  17. PERINATAL MALNUTRITION AND THE PROTECTIVE ROLE OF THE PHYSICAL TRAINING ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM.

    PubMed

    Moreno Senna, Sueli; Ferraz, José Cândido; Leandro, Carol Góis

    2015-01-01

    Developing organisms have the ability to cope with environmental demands through physiologic and morphologic adaptations. Early life malnutrition has been recognized as an environmental stimulus that is related with down-regulation of immune responses. Some of these effects are explained by the epigenetics and the programming of hormones and cytokines impairing the modulation of the immune cells in response to environmental stimuli. Recently, it has been demonstrated that these effects are not deterministic and current environment, such as physical activity, can positively influence the immune system. Here, we discuss the effects of perinatal malnutrition on the immune system and how it can be modulated by physical training. The mechanism includes the normalization of some hormones concentrations related to growth and metabolism such as leptin, IGF-1 and glucocorticoids. PMID:26319808

  18. Physical Activity Protects the Human Brain against Metabolic Stress Induced by a Postprandial and Chronic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Pruimboom, Leo; Raison, Charles L.; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, it has become clear that chronic systemic low-grade inflammation is at the root of many, if not all, typically Western diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome. While much focus has been given to sedentary lifestyle as a cause of chronic inflammation, it is less often appreciated that chronic inflammation may also promote a sedentary lifestyle, which in turn causes chronic inflammation. Given that even minor increases in chronic inflammation reduce brain volume in otherwise healthy individuals, the bidirectional relationship between inflammation and sedentary behaviour may explain why humans have lost brain volume in the last 30,000 years and also intelligence in the last 30 years. We review evidence that lack of physical activity induces chronic low-grade inflammation and, consequently, an energy conflict between the selfish immune system and the selfish brain. Although the notion that increased physical activity would improve health in the modern world is widespread, here we provide a novel perspective on this truism by providing evidence that recovery of normal human behaviour, such as spontaneous physical activity, would calm proinflammatory activity, thereby allocating more energy to the brain and other organs, and by doing so would improve human health. PMID:26074674

  19. Physical fitness as a protective factor for cognitive impairment in a prospective population-based study in Germany.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Christine; Erickson, Kirk I; Toro, Pablo; Schröder, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the predictive effects of subjective measures of physical activity (PA) and objective measures of physical fitness (PF) on dementia risk, Participants of the prospective population-based ILSE-study (*1930-1932; 12-year follow-up) were examined at three examination waves (t1 : 1993/94; t2 : 1997/98; t3 : 2005/07). 381 subjects of the original cohort (n = 500) were re-examined at t3. 29% of the subjects who were cognitively healthy at baseline received the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 7% of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Subjects were screened for physical and mental health using medical interviews, physical, and neuropsychological examinations. Participants completed a questionnaire on their current and past PA at t1. Subjects were classified as physically active if they reported a regular sport activity for at least 2 hours per week in the past year. Muscular strength (handgrip) and motor coordination (balance) served as objective indicators of PF. Subjects who passed the balance-test at t1 had a reduced risk of developing MCI/AD at t3 (OR = 0.35, 95%CI 0.19-0.66, p < 0.01) and performed significantly better on various neuropsychological measures. Muscular strength or subjective reports of PA did not predict MCI/AD development. Our results confirm the hypothesis that PF acts as a protective factor for the development of cognitive disorders. In our study, context, motor coordination served as a better predictor than muscular strength or self-rated PA. Since subjects with cognitive disorders due to cerebral and/or systemic disorders were excluded from the analyses, our findings suggest that the effect of skill-related PF extends beyond the reduction of cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:21694450

  20. A Novel Physical Approach for Cationic–Thiolate Protected Fluorescent Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Yohei; Lee, Chaiyathat; Yonezawa, Tetsu

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on the synthesis of cationically charged fluorescent gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) is limited because the electrostatic repulsion between cationic ligands on the surface of NP hinders the formation of small Au NPs (usually less than ca. 2 nm) during nucleation in solvents. We herein propose a novel methodology for a synthesis of water-dispersible, cationic–thiolate protected fluorescent Au NPs by the sputtering of Au into liquid matrix containing thiolate ligands. By controlling mercaptan concentration the size and photophysical characteristics of Au NPs were directly controlled, resulting in near IR fluorescence with a 0.9% of absolute quantum yield. Cationically charged fluorescent metal NPs are promising, especially in biological fields, and this work provides a novel methodology towards the synthesis of a new series of functional metal NPs. PMID:26482644

  1. Summary report on transportation of nuclear fuel materials in Japan : transportation infrastructure, threats identified in open literature, and physical protection regulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John Russell; Ouchi, Yuichiro; Furaus, James Phillip; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2008-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of three detailed studies of the physical protection systems for the protection of nuclear materials transport in Japan, with an emphasis on the transportation of mixed oxide fuel materials1. The Japanese infrastructure for transporting nuclear fuel materials is addressed in the first section. The second section of this report presents a summary of baseline data from the open literature on the threats of sabotage and theft during the transport of nuclear fuel materials in Japan. The third section summarizes a review of current International Atomic Energy Agency, Japanese and United States guidelines and regulations concerning the physical protection for the transportation of nuclear fuel materials.

  2. Is the Diagnosis of Physical Abuse Changed when Child Protective Services Consults a Child Abuse Pediatrics Subspecialty Group as a Second Opinion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderst, James; Kellogg, Nancy; Jung, Inkyung

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize the changes regarding the diagnosis of physical abuse provided to Child Protective Services (CPS) when CPS asks a Child Abuse Pediatrics (CAP) specialty group for a second opinion and works in concert with that CAP group. Methods: Subjects were reported to CPS for suspected physical abuse and were first evaluated by a…

  3. A physically meaningful equivalent circuit network model of a lithium-ion battery accounting for local electrochemical and thermal behaviour, variable double layer capacitance and degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Srbik, Marie-Therese; Marinescu, Monica; Martinez-Botas, Ricardo F.; Offer, Gregory J.

    2016-09-01

    A novel electrical circuit analogy is proposed modelling electrochemical systems under realistic automotive operation conditions. The model is developed for a lithium ion battery and is based on a pseudo 2D electrochemical model. Although cast in the framework familiar to application engineers, the model is essentially an electrochemical battery model: all variables have a direct physical interpretation and there is direct access to all states of the cell via the model variables (concentrations, potentials) for monitoring and control systems design. This is the first Equivalent Circuit Network -type model that tracks directly the evolution of species inside the cell. It accounts for complex electrochemical phenomena that are usually omitted in online battery performance predictors such as variable double layer capacitance, the full current-overpotential relation and overpotentials due to mass transport limitations. The coupled electrochemical and thermal model accounts for capacity fade via a loss in active species and for power fade via an increase in resistive solid electrolyte passivation layers at both electrodes. The model's capability to simulate cell behaviour under dynamic events is validated against test procedures, such as standard battery testing load cycles for current rates up to 20 C, as well as realistic automotive drive cycle loads.

  4. Protective Effects of Physical Exercise in Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry; Rolland, Yves; de Souto Barreto, Philipe

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are devastating, frequent, and still incurable neurodegenerative diseases that manifest as cognitive and motor disorders. Epidemiological data support an inverse relationship between the amount of physical activity (PA) undertaken and the risk of developing these two diseases. Beyond this preventive role, exercise may also slow down their progression. Several mechanisms have been suggested for explaining the benefits of PA in the prevention of AD. Aerobic physical exercise (PE) activates the release of neurotrophic factors and promotes angiogenesis, thereby facilitating neurogenesis and synaptogenesis, which in turn improve memory and cognitive functions. Research has shown that the neuroprotective mechanisms induced by PE are linked to an increased production of superoxide dismutase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor, and a reduction in the production of free radicals in brain areas such as the hippocampus, which is particularly involved in memory. Other mechanisms have also been reported in the prevention of PD. Exercise limits the alteration in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and contributes to optimal functioning of the basal ganglia involved in motor commands and control by adaptive mechanisms involving dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission. AD and PD are expansive throughout our ageing society, and so even a small impact of nonpharmacological interventions, such as PA and exercise, may have a major impact on public health. PMID:26174783

  5. Protective Effects of Physical Exercise in Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Yves; de Souto Barreto, Philipe

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are devastating, frequent, and still incurable neurodegenerative diseases that manifest as cognitive and motor disorders. Epidemiological data support an inverse relationship between the amount of physical activity (PA) undertaken and the risk of developing these two diseases. Beyond this preventive role, exercise may also slow down their progression. Several mechanisms have been suggested for explaining the benefits of PA in the prevention of AD. Aerobic physical exercise (PE) activates the release of neurotrophic factors and promotes angiogenesis, thereby facilitating neurogenesis and synaptogenesis, which in turn improve memory and cognitive functions. Research has shown that the neuroprotective mechanisms induced by PE are linked to an increased production of superoxide dismutase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor, and a reduction in the production of free radicals in brain areas such as the hippocampus, which is particularly involved in memory. Other mechanisms have also been reported in the prevention of PD. Exercise limits the alteration in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and contributes to optimal functioning of the basal ganglia involved in motor commands and control by adaptive mechanisms involving dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission. AD and PD are expansive throughout our ageing society, and so even a small impact of nonpharmacological interventions, such as PA and exercise, may have a major impact on public health. PMID:26174783

  6. Physical restraint and the protection of the human rights of immigration detainees in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Pickles, Hilary; Norton, Emma; Ginn, Emma; Schleicher, Theresa

    2015-08-01

    Immigration detainees, like prisoners, are entitled to the same standard of healthcare as non-detained patients. When hospital attendance or admission is required, the priority for custodial staff (who for purposes of this article we refer to as 'escorts') is to prevent absconding. For that reason, they may wish to use physical restraints, such as handcuffs, and remain with the detainee at all times. This can be degrading for the patient and breach their human rights. Clinicians have professional obligations to all their patients and must object to any restraint methods that risk damaging the patient's right to confidentiality, treatment, health or the therapeutic relationship itself. The starting presumption is that restraints ought not to be used during treatment and only in the most exceptional cases ought escorts to be present during clinical examination or treatment. PMID:26407381

  7. Physical Effects of Buckwheat Extract on Biological Membrane In Vitro and Its Protective Properties.

    PubMed

    Włoch, Aleksandra; Strugała, Paulina; Pruchnik, Hanna; Żyłka, Romuald; Oszmiański, Jan; Kleszczyńska, Halina

    2016-04-01

    Buckwheat is a valuable source of many biologically active compounds and nutrients. It has properties that reduce blood cholesterol levels, and so reduces the risk of atherosclerosis, seals the capillaries, and lowers blood pressure. The aim of the study was to determine quantitative and qualitative characteristics of polyphenols contained in extracts from buckwheat husks and stalks, the biological activity of the extracts, and biophysical effects of their interaction with the erythrocyte membrane, treated as a model of the cell. An analysis of the extract's composition has shown that buckwheat husk and stalk extracts are a rich source of polyphenolic compounds, the stalk extracts showing more compounds than the husk extract. The study allowed to determine the location which incorporated polyphenols occupy in the erythrocyte membrane and changes in the membrane properties caused by them. It was found that the extracts do not induce hemolysis of red blood cells, causing an increase in osmotic resistance of erythrocytes. They affect mainly the hydrophilic region by changing the degree of order of the polar heads of lipids, but do little to change the fluidity of the membrane and its hydration. The results showed also that polyphenolic substances included in the extracts well protect the membranes of red blood cells against oxidation and exhibit anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:26581904

  8. Does physical interstimulus variance account for early electrophysiological face sensitive responses in the human brain? Ten lessons on the N170.

    PubMed

    Rossion, Bruno; Jacques, Corentin

    2008-02-15

    A recent event-related potential (ERP) study (Thierry G., Martin, C.D., Downing, P., Pegna, A.J. 2007. Controlling for interstimulus perceptual variance abolishes N170 face selectivity. Nature Neuroscience, 10, 505-11) claimed that the larger occipito-temporal N170 response to pictures of faces than other categories -- the N170 effect -- is due to a methodological artifact in stimulus selection, specifically, a greater interstimulus physical variance between pictures of objects than faces in previous ERP studies which, when controlled, eliminates this N170 effect. This statement casts doubts on the validity of the conclusions reached by a whole tradition of electrophysiological experiments published over the past 15 years and questions the very interest of using the N170 to probe the time course of face processes in the human brain. Here we claim that this physical variance factor is ill-defined by Thierry et al. and cannot account for previous observations of a smaller N170 amplitude to nonface objects than faces without latency increase and component "smearing". Most importantly, this factor was controlled in previous studies that reported robust N170 effects. We demonstrate that the absence of N170 effect in the study of Thierry et al. is due to methodological flaws in the reported experiments, most notably measuring the N170 at the wrong electrode sites. Moreover, the authors attributed a modulation of N170 amplitude in their study to a differential interstimulus physical variance while it probably reflects a biased comparison of different quality sets of individual images. Here, by taking Thierry et al.'s study as an exemplar case of what should not be done in ERP research of visual categorization processes, we provide clarifications on a number of methodological and theoretical issues about the N170 and its largest amplitude to faces. More generally, we discuss the potential role of differential visual homogeneity of object categories as well as low

  9. Very early-initiated physical rehabilitation protects against ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengyue; Zhang, Qi; Pu, Hongjian; Wu, Yi; Bai, Yulong; Vosler, Peter S; Chen, Jun; Shi, Hong; Gao, Yanqin; Hu, Yongshan

    2012-01-01

    Recent clinical data suggest that very early initiated physical rehabilitation (VEIPR) within 24 hours after stroke may reduce morbidity. However, there is limited evidence to support the beneficial effects of VEIPR and the underlying mechanisms are yet unknown. The present study investigated the effect of VEIPR on brain damage, inflammation, and neurobehavioral outcomes following cerebral ischemia. Rats that underwent transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI) were randomly assigned to VEIPR or non-exercise (NE) groups. VEIPR was induced 24 hours after the insult by initiating treadmill training for a maximum of 14 days while the NE group remained sedentary in their cages during this period. The results indicated that VEIPR significantly improved recovery of functional behavior as measured by neurological score, foot fault test, and Morris water maze performance. We also demonstrated that VEIPR significantly reduced infarct volume, brain water content, BBB damage, and acute inflammatory response. In summary, our results provide novel evidence that VEIPR confers marked neuroprotection against experimental stroke by attenuating pro-inflammatory reactions, brain edema, BBB damage, and cognitive and behavioral deficits. PMID:22652654

  10. Bosonic anomalies, induced fractional quantum numbers, and degenerate zero modes: The anomalous edge physics of symmetry-protected topological states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juven C.; Santos, Luiz H.; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2015-05-01

    The boundary of symmetry-protected topological states (SPTs) can harbor new quantum anomaly phenomena. In this work, we characterize the bosonic anomalies introduced by the 1+1D non-onsite-symmetric gapless edge modes of (2+1)D bulk bosonic SPTs with a generic finite Abelian group symmetry (isomorphic to G =∏iZNi=ZN1×ZN2×ZN3×⋯ ). We demonstrate that some classes of SPTs (termed "Type II") trap fractional quantum numbers (such as fractional ZN charges) at the 0D kink of the symmetry-breaking domain walls, while some classes of SPTs (termed "Type III") have degenerate zero energy modes (carrying the projective representation protected by the unbroken part of the symmetry), either near the 0D kink of a symmetry-breaking domain wall, or on a symmetry-preserving 1D system dimensionally reduced from a thin 2D tube with a monodromy defect 1D line embedded. More generally, the energy spectrum and conformal dimensions of gapless edge modes under an external gauge flux insertion (or twisted by a branch cut, i.e., a monodromy defect line) through the 1D ring can distinguish many SPT classes. We provide a manifest correspondence from the physical phenomena, the induced fractional quantum number, and the zero energy mode degeneracy to the mathematical concept of cocycles that appears in the group cohomology classification of SPTs, thus achieving a concrete physical materialization of the cocycles. The aforementioned edge properties are formulated in terms of a long wavelength continuum field theory involving scalar chiral bosons, as well as in terms of matrix product operators and discrete quantum lattice models. Our lattice approach yields a regularization with anomalous non-onsite symmetry for the field theory description. We also formulate some bosonic anomalies in terms of the Goldstone-Wilczek formula.

  11. A Comparison of the Safety Analysis Process and the Generation IV Proliferation Resistance/Physical Protection Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. Bjornard; M. D. Zentner

    2006-05-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a vehicle for the cooperative international development of future nuclear energy systems. The Generation IV program has established primary objectives in the areas of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability, and Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP). In order to help meet the latter objective a program was launched in December 2002 to develop a rigorous means to assess nuclear energy systems with respect to PR&PP. The study of Physical Protection of a facility is a relatively well established methodology, but an approach to evaluate the Proliferation Resistance of a nuclear fuel cycle is not. This paper will examine the Proliferation Resistance (PR) evaluation methodology being developed by the PR group, which is largely a new approach and compare it to generally accepted nuclear facility safety evaluation methodologies. Safety evaluation methods have been the subjects of decades of development and use. Further, safety design and analysis is fairly broadly understood, as well as being the subject of federally mandated procedures and requirements. It is therefore extremely instructive to compare and contrast the proposed new PR evaluation methodology process with that used in safety analysis. By so doing, instructive and useful conclusions can be derived from the comparison that will help to strengthen the PR methodological approach as it is developed further. From the comparison made in this paper it is evident that there are very strong parallels between the two processes. Most importantly, it is clear that the proliferation resistance aspects of nuclear energy systems are best considered beginning at the very outset of the design process. Only in this way can the designer identify and cost effectively incorporate intrinsic features that might be difficult to implement at some later stage. Also, just like safety, the process to implement proliferation resistance should be a dynamic

  12. Does childhood adversity account for poorer mental and physical health in second-generation Irish people living in Britain? Birth cohort study from Britain (NCDS)

    PubMed Central

    Das-Munshi, Jayati; Clark, Charlotte; Dewey, Michael E; Leavey, Gerard; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Prince, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Worldwide, the Irish diaspora experience elevated mortality and morbidity across generations, not accounted for through socioeconomic position. The main objective of the present study was to assess if childhood disadvantage accounts for poorer mental and physical health in adulthood, in second-generation Irish people. Design Analysis of prospectively collected birth cohort data, with participants followed to midlife. Setting England, Scotland and Wales. Participants Approximately 17 000 babies born in a single week in 1958. Six per cent of the cohort were of second-generation Irish descent. Outcomes Primary outcomes were common mental disorders assessed at age 44/45 and self-rated health at age 42. Secondary outcomes were those assessed at ages 23 and 33. Results Relative to the rest of the cohort, second-generation Irish children grew up in marked material and social disadvantage, which tracked into early adulthood. By midlife, parity was reached between second-generation Irish cohort members and the rest of the sample on most disadvantage indicators. At age 23, Irish cohort members were more likely to screen positive for common mental disorders (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.94). This had reduced slightly by midlife (OR 1.27; 95% CI 0.96 to 1.69). Although at age 23 second-generation cohort members were just as likely to report poorer self-rated health (OR 1.06; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.43), by midlife this difference had increased (OR 1.25; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.60). Adjustment for childhood and early adulthood adversity fully attenuated differences in adult health disadvantages. Conclusions Social and material disadvantage experienced in childhood continues to have long-range adverse effects on physical and mental health at midlife, in second-generation Irish cohort members. This suggests important mechanisms over the life-course, which may have important policy implications in the settlement of migrant families. PMID:23457320

  13. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  14. Randomly Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.; Geppert, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    The accountability debate tends to devolve into a battle between the pro-testing and anti-testing crowds. When it comes to the design of a school accountability system, the devil is truly in the details. A well-designed accountability plan may go a long way toward giving school personnel the kinds of signals they need to improve performance.…

  15. School Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Williamson M., Ed.; Walberg, Herbert J., Ed.

    This book presents the perspectives of experts from the fields of history, economics, political science, and psychology on what is known about accountability, what still needs to be learned, what should be done right now, and what should be avoided in devising accountability systems. The common myths about accountability are dispelled and how it…

  16. Colorful Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrick, C. Shane

    2006-01-01

    As instructors of accounting, we should take an abstract topic (at least to most students) and connect it to content known by students to help increase the effectiveness of our instruction. In a recent semester, ordinary items such as colors, a basketball, and baseball were used to relate the subject of accounting. The accounting topics of account…

  17. Can physical exercise have a protective effect in an animal model of sleep-related movement disorder?

    PubMed

    Esteves, Andrea M; Lopes, Cleide; Frank, Miriam K; Arida, Ricardo M; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether physical exercise (PE) has a protective effect in an experimental animal model of sleep-related movement disorder (A11 dopaminergic nuclei lesions with 6-OHDA). Rats were divided into four groups (Control PE-CTRL/PE, SHAM/PE, A11 lesion/NPE, A11 lesion/PE). Two experiments were performed: (1) the rats underwent PE before (2 weeks) and after (4 weeks) the A11 lesion; and (2) the rats underwent PE only after (4 weeks) the A11 lesion. Electrode insertion surgery was performed and sleep analyses were conducted over a period of 24h (baseline and after PE) and analyzed in 6 blocks of 4h. The results demonstrated that the A11 lesion produced an increased percentage of wakefulness in the final block of the dark period (3-7am) and a significant enhancement of the number of limb movements (LM) throughout the day. Four weeks of PE was important for reducing the number of LMs in the A11 lesion group in the rats that performed PE before and after the A11 lesion. However, in the analysis of the protective effect of PE on LM, the results showed that the number of LMs was lower at baseline in the group that had performed 2 weeks of PE prior to the A11 lesion than in the group that had not previously performed PE. In conclusion, these findings consistently demonstrate that non-pharmacological manipulations had a beneficial effect on the symptoms of sleep-related movement disorder. PMID:26923163

  18. Challenges to Integration of Safety and Reliability with Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    H. Khalil; P. F. Peterson; R. Bari; G. -L. Fiorini; T. Leahy; R. Versluis

    2012-07-01

    The optimization of a nuclear energy system's performance requires an integrated consideration of multiple design goals - sustainability, safety and reliability (S&R), proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP), and economics - as well as careful evaluation of trade-offs for different system design and operating parameters. Design approaches motivated by each of the goal areas (in isolation from the other goal areas) may be mutually compatible or in conflict. However, no systematic methodology approach has yet been developed to identify and maximize synergies and optimally balance conflicts across the possible design configurations and operating modes of a nuclear energy system. Because most Generation IV systems are at an early stage of development, design, and assessment, designers and analysts are only beginning to identify synergies and conflicts between PR&PP, S&R, and economics goals. The close coupling between PR&PP and S&R goals has motivated early attention within the Generation IV International Forum to their integrated consideration to facilitate the optimization of their effects and the minimization of potential conflicts. This paper discusses the status of this work.

  19. Pathway Aggregation in the Risk Assessment of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP) of Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aldemir, Tunc; Denning, Richard; Catalyurek, Umit; Yilmaz, Alper; Yue, Meng; Cheng, Lap-Yan

    2015-01-23

    The framework for Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR & PP) evaluation is to define a set of challenges, to obtain the system responses, and to assess the outcomes. The assessment of outcomes heavily relies on pathways, defined as sequences of events or actions that could potentially be followed by a State or a group of individuals in order to achieve a proliferation objective, with the defined threats as initiating events. There may be large number of segments connecting pathway stages (e.g. acquisition, processing, and fabrication for PR) which can lead to even larger number of pathways or scenarios through possible different combinations of segment connections, each with associated probabilities contributing to the overall risk. Clustering of these scenarios in specified stage attribute intervals is important for their tractable analysis and outcome assessment. A software tool for scenario generation and clustering (OSUPR) is developed that utilizes the PRCALC code developed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory for scenario generation and the K- means, mean shift and adaptive mean shift algorithms as possible clustering schemes. The results of the study using the Example Sodium Fast Breeder as an example system show that clustering facilitates the probabilistic or deterministic analysis of scenarios to identify system vulnerabilities and communication of the major risk contributors to stakeholders. The results of the study also show that the mean shift algorithm has the most potential for assisting the analysis of the scenarios generated by PRCALC.

  20. Aloe vera bathing improved physical and humoral protection in breeding stock after induced spawning in matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    PubMed

    Zanuzzo, Fábio S; Zaiden, Sérgio F; Senhorini, José A; Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni M; Urbinati, Elisabeth C

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we show that induced spawning causes stress, an intense loss of epithelia and immunosuppression, decreasing physical and humoral protection in fish, effects that were prevented or improved in fish bathed with Aloe vera. A. vera has several medicinal properties, including wound healing and immunostimulatory effects, which we observed in this study. Fish bathed with A. vera had a higher number of epidermal goblet cells and, in general, an improved wound healing rate compared with the control after induced spawning. These effects might be related to (1) the stimulation of leukocyte activity, represented here by the increased leukocyte respiratory activity triggered by A. vera (leukocytes are recognized as playing an important role in wound repair); (2) the antimicrobial properties of A. vera, which decrease wound infection and accelerate the healing process; and (3) several mechanisms that explain the healing effect of A. vera (increased collagen synthesis, rate of epithelialization, and anti-inflammatory and moisturizing effects). Our results also suggest that caution is necessary during the induced spawning process, especially during stripping, and A. vera bathing is recommended after intensive aquaculture operations. PMID:25703714

  1. Ways of improvement of methodological approaches to the assessment of the effectiveness of physical protection systems of nuclear facilities in consideration of modern requirements and threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasenko, E. A.; Nikienko, A. V.; Demyanuk, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    Methodological approaches to the assessment of the effectiveness of physical protection systems developed by Russian and foreign researchers are reviewed. Some ways of improvement of these approaches are offered. They consider tactics overview, application of two-person rule, aspects of inherent safety of nuclear materials, proposals on the use of test reliability data.

  2. The Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies Is Related to Reduced Risk in Heavy Drinking College Students with Poorer Mental and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of health status (physical, mental, and social health) and the relationships between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., avoiding drinking games, setting consumption limits, or having a designated driver) and alcohol use and negative consequences in a sample…

  3. The McColgan Case: Increasing Public Awareness of Professional Responsibility for Protecting Children from Physical and Sexual Abuse in the Republic of Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sgroi, Suzanne M.

    1999-01-01

    Presents the author's impressions of testifying as an expert witness in a civil liability suit, the first of its kind in the Republic of Ireland, in 1998. The suit was brought by four adults siblings against professionals who did not protect them from severe childhood physical and sexual abuse by their father. Litigation strategy, the outcome of…

  4. CEBAF beam loss accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Ursic, R.; Mahoney, K.; Hovater, C.; Hutton, A.; Sinclair, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a beam loss accounting system for the CEBAF electron accelerator. This system samples the beam curent throughout the beam path and measures the beam current accurately. Personnel Safety and Machine Protection systems use this system to turn off the beam when hazardous beam losses occur.

  5. Accountability Overboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chieppo, Charles D.; Gass, James T.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that special interest groups opposed to charter schools and high-stakes testing have hijacked Massachusetts's once-independent board of education and stand poised to water down the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) tests and the accountability system they support. President Barack Obama and Massachusetts…

  6. Accounting Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication identifies 20 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of accounting specialist, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 20 units are as follows:…

  7. Physical activity as a protective factor against depressive symptoms in older Chinese veterans in the community: result from a national cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wen-Jin; Tan, Ji-Ping; Yi, Fang; Zou, Yong-Ming; Gao, Ya; Zhao, Yi-Ming; Wang, Lu-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity is generally considered to be effective in reducing the prevalence of depression and promoting remission of its symptoms. However, large-scale epidemiological research on this issue is lacking in older Chinese adults. We performed a nationwide epidemiological survey to determine the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in older Chinese veterans in the community, with adjustment for potential confounders. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of 9,676 community-dwelling older Chinese veterans. Depressive symptoms were identified using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Physical activity was self-reported using a one-year physical activity questionnaire. Information about covariates was obtained by questionnaire-based interview. Relationships between study variables and symptoms of depression were estimated using unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results The median age was 82.29 (interquartile range 80.25–84.60) years. In total, 81.84% of the study participants engaged in physical activity that was predominantly light in intensity. In unadjusted analyses, physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased likelihood of depressive symptoms (5.43% versus 18.83%, P<0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression with adjustment and controlling for confounders, physical activity was still inversely associated with depressive symptoms and was the only independent protective factor (odds ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.44–0.72, P<0.0001) among the associated factors in this study. In a univariate general linear model, there was a significant difference in Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score between subjects participating in active physical activity and those who did not (F=59.07, P<0.0001). Conclusion This study found an inverse relationship between physical activity and symptoms of depression in older Chinese veterans in

  8. Physical Disability and Suicidal Ideation: A Community-Based Study of Risk/Protective Factors for Suicidal Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, David; Turner, R. Jay; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Although the significance of poor physical health for suicide risk is well established, the potential relevance of physical disability, as distinct from diseases and traumas that give rise to disability, has received little attention. Prior evidence suggests the possible utility of the stress process theoretical model for understanding variations…

  9. Sexual victimization of youth with a physical disability: an examination of prevalence rates, and risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Johnson, Katrin; Eisner, Manuel P; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2014-11-01

    Children with disabilities have been shown to be at greater risk of victimization than those without. Although much of the research combines disability of any type into a single disability category, recent evidence suggests that not all types of disabilities are equally associated with victimization. To date, little knowledge exists about the victimization of youth with physical disabilities. This study used data from a national school-based survey of adolescents (n = 6,749, mean age = 15.41, SD = .66) in Switzerland to investigate sexual victimization (SV) among physically disabled youth. Two subtypes of SV were differentiated: contact SV, including penetration or touching/kissing, and non-contact SV, such as exhibitionism, verbal harassment, exposure to sexual acts, or cyber SV. A total of 360 (5.1%) youth self-identified as having a physical disability. Lifetime prevalence rates for contact SV were 25.95% for girls with a physical disability (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29 compared with able-bodied girls), 18.50% for boys with physical disability (OR = 2.78 compared with able-bodied boys), and 22.35% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.74 compared with able-bodied youth). For non-contact SV, the lifetime prevalence was 48.11% for girls with a physical disability (OR = 1.44 compared with able-bodied girls), 31.76% for boys with physical disability (OR = 1.95 compared with able-bodied boys), and 40.28% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.67 compared with able-bodied youth). After controlling for other risk factors, physical disability was a significant predictor of contact and non-contact SV for boys, but not for girls. PMID:24870960

  10. 40 CFR 97.51 - Establishment of accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Establishment of accounts. 97.51 Section 97.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... System § 97.51 Establishment of accounts. (a) Compliance accounts and overdraft accounts. Upon receipt...

  11. 40 CFR 97.51 - Establishment of accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Establishment of accounts. 97.51 Section 97.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... System § 97.51 Establishment of accounts. (a) Compliance accounts and overdraft accounts. Upon receipt...

  12. How positive emotions build physical health: perceived positive social connections account for the upward spiral between positive emotions and vagal tone.

    PubMed

    Kok, Bethany E; Coffey, Kimberly A; Cohn, Michael A; Catalino, Lahnna I; Vacharkulksemsuk, Tanya; Algoe, Sara B; Brantley, Mary; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2013-07-01

    The mechanisms underlying the association between positive emotions and physical health remain a mystery. We hypothesize that an upward-spiral dynamic continually reinforces the tie between positive emotions and physical health and that this spiral is mediated by people's perceptions of their positive social connections. We tested this overarching hypothesis in a longitudinal field experiment in which participants were randomly assigned to an intervention group that self-generated positive emotions via loving-kindness meditation or to a waiting-list control group. Participants in the intervention group increased in positive emotions relative to those in the control group, an effect moderated by baseline vagal tone, a proxy index of physical health. Increased positive emotions, in turn, produced increases in vagal tone, an effect mediated by increased perceptions of social connections. This experimental evidence identifies one mechanism-perceptions of social connections-through which positive emotions build physical health, indexed as vagal tone. Results suggest that positive emotions, positive social connections, and physical health influence one another in a self-sustaining upward-spiral dynamic. PMID:23649562

  13. Effectiveness of nanometer-sized extracellular matrix layer-by-layer assembled films for a cell membrane coating protecting cells from physical stress.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Atsushi; Matsusaki, Michiya; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2013-06-18

    In recent approaches to tissue engineering, cells face various stresses from physical, chemical, and environmental stimuli. For example, coating cell membranes with nanofilms using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly requires many cycles of centrifugation, causing physical (gravity) stress. Damage to cell membranes can cause the leakage of cytosol molecules or sometimes cell death. Accordingly, we evaluated the effectiveness of LbL films prepared on cell membranes in protecting cells from physical stresses. After two steps of LbL assembly using Tris-HCl buffer solution without polymers or proteins (four centrifugation cycles including washing), hepatocyte carcinoma (HepG2) cells showed extremely high cell death and the viability was ca. 15%. Their viability ultimately decreased to 6% after 9 steps of LbL assembly (18 cycles of centrifugation), which is the typical number of steps involved in preparing LbL nanofilms. However, significantly higher viability (>85%) of HepG2 cells was obtained after nine steps of LbL assembly employing fibronectin (FN)-gelatin (G) or type IV collagen (Col IV)-laminin (LN) solution combinations, which are typical components of an extracellular matrix (ECM), to fabricate 10-nm-thick LbL films. When LbL films of synthetic polymers created via electrostatic interactions were employed instead of the ECM films described above, the viability of the HepG2 cells after the same nine steps slightly decreased to 61%. The protective effects of LbL films were strongly dependent on their thickness, and the critical thickness was >5 nm. Surprisingly, a high viability of over 85% was achieved even under extreme physical stress conditions (10,000 rpm). We evaluated the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) during the LbL assembly processes to clarify the protective effect, and a reduction in LDH leakage was clearly observed when using FN-G nanofilms. Moreover, the LbL films do not inhibit cell growth during cell culturing, suggesting that these coated cells

  14. 17 CFR 300.104 - Trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trust accounts. 300.104... A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of âseparateâ Customers of Sipc Members § 300.104 Trust accounts. (a) A trust account held with a member shall be deemed...

  15. 17 CFR 300.104 - Trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trust accounts. 300.104... A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of âseparateâ Customers of Sipc Members § 300.104 Trust accounts. (a) A trust account held with a member shall be deemed...

  16. 12 CFR 1030.4 - Account disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Account disclosures. 1030.4 Section 1030.4 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 1030.4 Account disclosures. (a) Delivery of account disclosures. (1) Account opening. (i) General. A...

  17. 12 CFR 1030.4 - Account disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Account disclosures. 1030.4 Section 1030.4 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 1030.4 Account disclosures. (a) Delivery of account disclosures—(1) Account opening. (i) General. A...

  18. 12 CFR 1030.4 - Account disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Account disclosures. 1030.4 Section 1030.4 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 1030.4 Account disclosures. (a) Delivery of account disclosures—(1) Account opening. (i) General. A...

  19. Enhancing the Material Control & Accounting Measurement System at the State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering named after A.I. Leypunsky

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, Carolynn P.; Bezhunov, Gennady M.; Bogdanov, Sergey A.; Gorbachev, Vyacheslav M.; Ryazanov, Boris G.; Talanov, Vladimir V.

    2012-07-11

    Nuclear material control and accounting (NMCA) system is improving under cooperation with USA national laboratories. Standard reference materials (RMs) and measurement techniques certified at IPPE level are required for: instrument calibration, verification measurements of parameters of items and materials, measurement error estimation, and quality control measurements. We present the main results for development of nuclear RMs for two uranium strata and the results for certification of three measurement techniques (MT) for U-235 mass fraction in uranium and U-235 mass in items. We present the results for developing measurement techniques for Pu-239 in PuO{sub 2}.

  20. Pre-service Elementary School Teachers' Ability to Account for the Operation of Simple Physical Systems Using the Energy Conservation Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadouris, Nicos; Hadjigeorgiou, Angela; Constantinou, Constantinos P.

    2014-12-01

    Energy is recognized as a core idea in science and, hence, a significant learning objective of science education. The effective promotion of this learning objective posits that teachers themselves possess sound conceptual understanding. This is needed for enabling them to organize effective learning environments for their students. In this study, we report on the results of an empirical investigation of teachers' understanding of energy. In particular, the focus is placed on pre-service teachers' ability to employ energy as a framework for analyzing the operation of physical systems. We have collected data from 198 pre-service teachers through three open-ended tasks that involved the application of the energy conservation principle to simple physical systems. The results corroborate the claim made in the literature that teachers typically do not possess functional, coherent understanding of this principle. Most importantly, the data serve to identify and document specific difficulties that hamper attempts to use energy for the analysis of the operation of physical systems. The difficulties we were able to document lend support to the idea that it is important to introduce the idea of energy degradation alongside the conservation of energy principle. The findings of this study have implications for the design of preparation programs for teachers, about energy. The findings also provide insights into the limitations of conventional teaching of energy, to which the participants had been exposed as students, in fostering coherent understanding of energy conservation.

  1. Effects of lifetime stress exposure on mental and physical health in young adulthood: How stress degrades and forgiveness protects health.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Loren; Shields, Grant S; Dorn, Gabriel; Slavich, George M

    2016-06-01

    To examine risk and resilience factors that affect health, lifetime stress exposure histories, dispositional forgiveness levels, and mental and physical health were assessed in 148 young adults. Greater lifetime stress severity and lower levels of forgiveness each uniquely predicted worse mental and physical health. Analyses also revealed a graded Stress × Forgiveness interaction effect, wherein associations between stress and mental health were weaker for persons exhibiting more forgiveness. These data are the first to elucidate the interactive effects of cumulative stress severity and forgiveness on health, and suggest that developing a more forgiving coping style may help minimize stress-related disorders. PMID:25139892

  2. 20th International Training Course (ITC-20) on the physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials evaluation report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, Amanda Ann

    2008-09-01

    The goal of this evaluation report is to provide the information necessary to improve the effectiveness of the ITC provided to the International Atomic Energy Agency Member States. This report examines ITC-20 training content, delivery methods, scheduling, and logistics. Ultimately, this report evaluates whether the course provides the knowledge and skills necessary to meet the participants needs in the protection of nuclear materials and facilities.

  3. Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection Accountability Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Posey, Bill [R-FL-8

    2013-02-01

    10/29/2013 Hearings Held by the Subcommittee on Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit Prior to Referral. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. [Personnel requirements of medical radiation physics in radiotherapy in comparison to the current guidelines "radiation protection in medicine" : Special consideration of intensity-modulated radiation therapy].

    PubMed

    Leetz, H-K; Eipper, H H; Gfirtner, H; Schneider, P; Welker, K

    2014-08-01

    In 1994 and 1998 reports on staffing levels in medical radiation physics for radiation therapy were published by the "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Medizinische Physik" (DGMP, German Society for Medical Physics). Because of the technical and methodological progress, changes in recommended qualifications of staff and new governmental regulations, it was necessary to establish new staffing levels. The data were derived from a new survey in clinics. Some of the previously established results from the old reports were adapted to the new conditions by conversion.The staffing requirements were normalized to main components as in the earlier reports resulting in a simple method for calculation of staffing levels. The results were compared with the requirements in the "Richtlinie Strahlenschutz in der Medizin" (guidelines on radiation protection in medicine) and showed satisfactory agreement. PMID:24805160

  5. Physical Environmental Adversity and the Protective Role of Maternal Monitoring in Relation to Early Child Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supplee, Lauren H.; Unikel, Emily B.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    Research on the development of externalizing behaviors during early childhood has focused on child and parenting factors. Fewer studies have investigated effects of aversive features of the micro-level physical environment, such as overcrowding and chaos in the home, and the macro-level environment, such as neighborhood quality. This study extends…

  6. Nuclear material accounting software for Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, M.; Ewing, T.; Lindley, R.; McWilliams, C.; Roche, C.; Sakunov, I.; Walters, G.

    1999-07-26

    Among the needs identified during initial surveys of nuclear facilities in Ukraine was improved accounting software for reporting material inventories to the regulatory body. AIMAS (Automated Inventory/Material Accounting System) is a PC-based application written in Microsoft Access that was jointly designed by an US/Ukraine development team. The design is highly flexible and configurable, and supports a wide range of computing infrastructure needs and facility requirements including situations where networks are not available or reliable. AIMAS has both English and Russian-language options for displays and reports, and it operates under Windows 3.1, 95, or NT 4.0{trademark}. AIMAS functions include basic physical inventory tracking, transaction histories, reporting, and system administration functions (system configuration, security, data backup and recovery). Security measures include multilevel password access control, all transactions logged with the user identification, and system administration control. Interfaces to external modules provide nuclear fuel burn-up adjustment and barcode scanning capabilities for physical inventory taking. AIMAS has been installed at Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR), South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant (SUNPP), Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT), Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy and Industry (SINEI), and the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety/Nuclear Regulatory Administration (MEPNS/NRA). Facility specialists are being trained to use the application to track material movement and report to the national regulatory authority.

  7. A historical review of portable health physics instruments and their use in radiation protection programs at Hanford, 1944 through 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, W.P.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Kress, M.L.; Swinth, K.L.; Corbit, C.D.; Zuerner, L.V.; Fleming, D.M.; DeHaven, H.W.

    1989-09-01

    This historical review covers portable health physics instruments at Hanford from an applications viewpoint. The review provides information on specific instruments and on the general kinds of facility work environments in which the instruments have been and are being used. It provides a short, modestly technical explanation of the types of nuclear radiations, the way radiation units are quantified, and the types of nuclear radiations, the way radiation units are quantified, and the types of detection media used in portable health physics instruments. This document does not, however, cover the history of the entire Hanford program that was required to develop and/or modify the subject instruments. 11 refs., 34 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Historical Account And Branching To Rarefied Gas Dynamics Of Atomic and Molecular Beams : A Continuing And Fascinating Odyssey Commemorated By Nobel Prizes Awarded To 23 Laureates In Physics And Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campargue, Roger

    2005-05-01

    This Historical Account derived in part from D. R. Herschbach was presented as an opening lecture of the Molecular Beam Session organized at the 24th International Symposium on Rarefied Gas Dynamics held in Bari, Italy, in July 2004. The emphasis is on the impressive results due to the molecular beam techniques in the last century. The first section summarizes the historical beam experiments performed by 14 Nobel Prize laureates having used the thermally effusive sources to establish the basic principles of Modern Physics. The second section is on the branching of Molecular Beams to Rarefied Gas Dynamics having permitted to investigate the physics of supersonic free jets and transform the molecular beam techniques. Finally, the last section relates the spectacular molecular beam experiments in helium free jet ultracooling, molecular spectroscopy, chemical reaction dynamics, clustering and modification of low density matter, and biomolecule mass spectrometry, rewarded by nine Nobel Prizes in Chemistry from 1986 to 2002.

  9. Methodology for Assessing the Status of a Physical Protection System on the Basis of Agency Inspections and Site Self-Assessments in Rosatom

    SciTech Connect

    Piskarev, Alexandr S.; Babkin, Vladimir; Izmaylov, Alexandr V.; Kulikovsky, Mikhail; Matveev, V.A; Shull, Douglas; Livingston, Linwood H.

    2010-08-11

    The Methodology presents general approaches to the assessment of PPS status including criteria and indicators of such assessment and procedures for evaluating different aspects of physical protection, taking into consideration the significance of the criteria. The regulation includes specific methods of the application of the criteria for the evaluation of different aspects of physical protection (PP), as well as for the comprehensive assessment of the PPS status in the form of text, tables, diagrams and examples. The Methodology is intended to facilitate agency inspections and site self-assessments of PPS at a NS as well as evaluation of their results. This regulation was approved by Rosatom Headquarters in October 2008 and is currently used in the process of agency PP inspections. The Methodology was discussed by Rosatom PP specialists, who take part in agency inspections and site self-assessments, at a workshop in Moscow, June 2009, and was presented at the 4th MPC&A Conference in Obninsk, October 2009. This paper presents the methodology and its practical application during Rosatom agency inspections and site self-assessments.

  10. Operational Radiation Protection in High-Energy Physics Accelerators: Implementation of ALARA in Design and Operation of Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fasso, A.; Rokni, S.; /SLAC

    2011-06-30

    It used to happen often, to us accelerator radiation protection staff, to be asked by a new radiation worker: ?How much dose am I still allowed?? And we smiled looking at the shocked reaction to our answer: ?You are not allowed any dose?. Nowadays, also thanks to improved training programs, this kind of question has become less frequent, but it is still not always easy to convince workers that staying below the exposure limits is not sufficient. After all, radiation is still the only harmful agent for which this is true: for all other risks in everyday life, from road speed limits to concentration of hazardous chemicals in air and water, compliance to regulations is ensured by keeping below a certain value. It appears that a tendency is starting to develop to extend the radiation approach to other pollutants (1), but it will take some time before the new attitude makes it way into national legislations.

  11. Models accounting for intention-behavior discordance in the physical activity domain: a user's guide, content overview, and review of current evidence.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Yao, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern among researchers with the limited effectiveness and yet subsequent stagnation of theories applied to physical activity (PA). One of the most highlighted areas of concern is the established gap between intention and PA, yet the considerable use of models that assume intention is the proximal antecedent of PA. The objective of this review was to: 1) provide a guide and thematic analysis of the available models that include constructs that address intention-behavior discordance and 2) highlight the evidence for these structures in the PA domain. A literature search was conducted among 13 major databases to locate relevant models and PA studies published before August 2014. Sixteen models were identified and nine overall themes for post-intentional constructs were created. Of the 16 models, eight were applied to 36 PA studies. Early evidence supported maintenance self-efficacy, behavioral regulation strategies, affective judgments, perceived control/opportunity, habit, and extraversion as reliable predictors of post-intention PA. Several intention-behavior discordance models exist within the literature, but are not used frequently. Further efforts are needed to test these models, preferably with experimental designs. PMID:25890238

  12. 40 CFR 96.51 - Establishment of accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Establishment of accounts. 96.51 Section 96.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.51 Establishment of accounts. (a) Compliance accounts and...

  13. 40 CFR 96.51 - Establishment of accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Establishment of accounts. 96.51 Section 96.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.51 Establishment of accounts. (a) Compliance accounts and...

  14. Accounting protesting and warm glow bidding in Contingent Valuation surveys considering the management of environmental goods--an empirical case study assessing the value of protecting a Natura 2000 wetland area in Greece.

    PubMed

    Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2013-11-30

    Based on a Contingent Valuation survey aiming to reveal the willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation of a wetland area in Greece, we show how protest and warm glow motives can be taken into account when modeling WTP. In a sample of more than 300 respondents, we find that 54% of the positive bids are rooted to some extent in warm glow reasoning while 29% of the zero bids can be classified as expressions of protest rather than preferences. In previous studies, warm glow bidders are only rarely identified while protesters are typically identified and excluded from further analysis. We test for selection bias associated with simple removal of both protesters and warm glow bidders in our data. Our findings show that removal of warm glow bidders does not significantly distort WTP whereas we find strong evidence of selection bias associated with removal of protesters. We show how to correct for such selection bias by using a sample selection model. In our empirical sample, using the typical approach of removing protesters from the analysis, the value of protecting the wetland is significantly underestimated by as much as 46% unless correcting for selection bias. PMID:24091158

  15. 17 CFR 300.101 - Individual accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individual accounts. 300.101... A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of âseparateâ Customers of Sipc Members § 300.101 Individual accounts. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these...

  16. 40 CFR 97.56 - Account error.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Account error. 97.56 Section 97.56... Account error. The Administrator may, at his or her sole discretion and on his or her own motion, correct any error in any NOX Allowance Tracking System account. Within 10 business days of making...

  17. 17 CFR 300.101 - Individual accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual accounts. 300.101... A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of âseparateâ Customers of Sipc Members § 300.101 Individual accounts. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these...

  18. 40 CFR 97.56 - Account error.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Account error. 97.56 Section 97.56... Account error. The Administrator may, at his or her sole discretion and on his or her own motion, correct any error in any NOX Allowance Tracking System account. Within 10 business days of making...

  19. Improving the Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting of CO{sub 2} Sequestered in Geologic Systems with Multicomponent Seismic Technology and Rock Physics Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Alkan, Engin; DeAngelo, Michael; Hardage, Bob; Sava, Diana; Sullivan, Charlotte; Wagner, Donald

    2012-12-31

    concept that the same weight must be given to S-wave sequences and facies as is given to P-wave sequences and facies. This philosophy differs from the standard practice of depending on only conventional P-wave seismic stratigraphy to characterize reservoir units. The fundamental physics of elastic wavefield seismic stratigraphy is that S- wave modes sense different sequences and facies across some intervals than does a P-wave mode because S-wave displacement vectors are orthogonal to P- wave displacement vectors and thus react to a different rock fabric than do P waves. Although P and S images are different, both images can still be correct in terms of the rock fabric information they reveal.

  20. 40 CFR 97.427 - Account error.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Account error. 97.427 Section 97.427 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Annual Trading Program §...

  1. 40 CFR 97.427 - Account error.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Account error. 97.427 Section 97.427 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Annual Trading Program §...

  2. 40 CFR 97.427 - Account error.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Account error. 97.427 Section 97.427 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Annual Trading Program §...

  3. 40 CFR 97.527 - Account error.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Account error. 97.527 Section 97.527 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program §...

  4. 40 CFR 97.527 - Account error.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Account error. 97.527 Section 97.527 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program §...

  5. 40 CFR 97.527 - Account error.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Account error. 97.527 Section 97.527 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program §...

  6. 4 CFR 21.4 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protective orders. 21.4 Section 21.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES BID PROTEST REGULATIONS § 21.4 Protective orders. (a) At the request of... copies of documents omitting protected information. Because a protective order serves to facilitate...

  7. 4 CFR 21.4 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective orders. 21.4 Section 21.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES BID PROTEST REGULATIONS § 21.4 Protective orders. (a) At the request of a party or on its own initiative, GAO may issue a protective order controlling the treatment of protected information. Such...

  8. Physics-Based Simulation and Experiment on Blast Protection of Infill Walls and Sandwich Composites Using New Generation of Nano Particle Reinforced Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irshidat, Mohammad

    A critical issue for the development of nanotechnology is our ability to understand, model, and simulate the behavior of small structures and to make the connection between nano structure properties and their macroscopic functions. Material modeling and simulation helps to understand the process, to set the objectives that could guide laboratory efforts, and to control material structures, properties, and processes at physical implementation. These capabilities are vital to engineering design at the component and systems level. In this research, experimental-computational-analytical program was employed to investigate the performance of the new generation of polymeric nano-composite materials, like nano-particle reinforced elastomeric materials (NPREM), for the protection of masonry structures against blast loads. New design tools for using these kinds of materials to protect Infill Walls (e.g. masonry walls) against blast loading were established. These tools were also extended to cover other type of panels like sandwich composites. This investigation revealed that polymeric nano composite materials are strain rate sensitive and have large amount of voids distributed randomly inside the materials. Results from blast experiments showed increase in ultimate flexural resistance achieved by both unreinforced and nano reinforced polyurea retrofit systems applied to infill masonry walls. It was also observed that a thin elastomeric coating on the interior face of the walls could be effective at minimizing the fragmentation resulting from blast. More conclusions are provided with recommended future research.

  9. 40 CFR 96.13 - Account certificate of representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Account certificate of representation... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Authorized Account Representative for NOX Budget Sources § 96.13 Account certificate of representation. (a) A complete account certificate of representation for a NOX authorized account...

  10. 40 CFR 97.13 - Account certificate of representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Account certificate of representation... Authorized Account Representative for NOX Budget Sources § 97.13 Account certificate of representation. (a) A complete account certificate of representation for a NOX authorized account representative or an...

  11. 18 CFR 701.311 - Accounting for disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... longer, after the disclosure for which the accounting is made. (b) Access to accounting. (1) Except for... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for... ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.311 Accounting for disclosures. (a) Maintenance of an accounting....

  12. 40 CFR 97.157 - Closing of general accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closing of general accounts. 97.157... Tracking System § 97.157 Closing of general accounts. (a) The CAIR authorized account representative of a general account may submit to the Administrator a request to close the account, which shall include...

  13. 40 CFR 96.57 - Closing of general accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closing of general accounts. 96.57... NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.57 Closing of general accounts. (a) The NOX authorized account representative of a general account may instruct the Administrator to close the account by submitting a...

  14. 40 CFR 97.357 - Closing of general accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closing of general accounts. 97.357... Allowance Tracking System § 97.357 Closing of general accounts. (a) The CAIR authorized account representative of a general account may submit to the Administrator a request to close the account, which...

  15. 40 CFR 96.57 - Closing of general accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closing of general accounts. 96.57... NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.57 Closing of general accounts. (a) The NOX authorized account representative of a general account may instruct the Administrator to close the account by submitting a...

  16. 40 CFR 97.257 - Closing of general accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closing of general accounts. 97.257... Tracking System § 97.257 Closing of general accounts. (a) The CAIR authorized account representative of a general account may submit to the Administrator a request to close the account, which shall include...

  17. 40 CFR 97.57 - Closing of general accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closing of general accounts. 97.57... System § 97.57 Closing of general accounts. (a) The NOX authorized account representative of a general account may instruct the Administrator to close the account by submitting a statement requesting...

  18. 18 CFR 701.311 - Accounting for disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accounting for... ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.311 Accounting for disclosures. (a) Maintenance of an accounting. (1....303 except § 701.303(c)(1) and (2), an accounting will be made. (2) The accounting will record (i)...

  19. 18 CFR 701.311 - Accounting for disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accounting for... ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.311 Accounting for disclosures. (a) Maintenance of an accounting. (1....303 except § 701.303(c)(1) and (2), an accounting will be made. (2) The accounting will record (i)...

  20. 18 CFR 701.311 - Accounting for disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Accounting for... ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.311 Accounting for disclosures. (a) Maintenance of an accounting. (1....303 except § 701.303(c)(1) and (2), an accounting will be made. (2) The accounting will record (i)...

  1. 18 CFR 701.311 - Accounting for disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accounting for... ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.311 Accounting for disclosures. (a) Maintenance of an accounting. (1....303 except § 701.303(c)(1) and (2), an accounting will be made. (2) The accounting will record (i)...

  2. U.S. national nuclear material control and accounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S; Terentiev, V G

    1998-12-01

    Issues related to nuclear material control and accounting and illegal dealing in these materials were discussed at the April 19--20, 1996 Moscow summit meeting (G7 + Russia). The declaration from this meeting reaffirmed that governments are responsible for the safety of all nuclear materials in their possession and for the effectiveness of the national control and accounting system for these materials. The Russian delegation at this meeting stated that ''the creation of a nuclear materials accounting, control, and physical protection system has become a government priority''. Therefore, in order to create a government nuclear material control and accounting system for the Russian Federation, it is critical to study the structure, operating principles, and regulations supporting the control and accounting of nuclear materials in the national systems of nuclear powers. In particular, Russian specialists have a definite interest in learning about the National Nuclear Material Control and Accounting System of the US, which has been operating successfully as an automated system since 1968.

  3. Insider Threat - Material Control and Accountability Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H; Roche, Charles T

    2011-01-01

    The technical objectives of nuclear safeguards are (1) the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown and (2) the deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards and security program must address both outsider threats and insider threats. Outsider threats are primarily addressed by the physical protection system. Insider threats can be any level of personnel at the site including passive or active insiders that could attempt protracted or abrupt diversion. This could occur by an individual acting alone or by collusion between an individual with material control and accountability (MC&A) responsibilities and another individual who has responsibility or control within both the physical protection and the MC&A systems. The insider threat is one that must be understood and incorporated into the safeguards posture. There have been more than 18 documented cases of theft or loss of plutonium or highly enriched uranium. The insider has access, authority, and knowledge, as well as a set of attributes, that make him/her difficult to detect. An integrated safeguards program is designed as a defense-in-depth system that seeks to prevent the unauthorized removal of nuclear material, to provide early detection of any unauthorized attempt to remove nuclear material, and to rapidly respond to any attempted removal of nuclear material. The program is also designed to support protection against sabotage, espionage, unauthorized access, compromise, and other hostile acts that may cause unacceptable adverse impacts on national security, program continuity, the health and safety of employees, the public, or the environment. Nuclear MC&A play an essential role in the capabilities of an integrated safeguards system to deter and detect theft or diversion of nuclear material. An integrated safeguards system with

  4. Physical and immunogenic stability of spray freeze-dried influenza vaccine powder for pulmonary delivery: comparison of inulin, dextran, or a mixture of dextran and trehalose as protectants.

    PubMed

    Murugappan, Senthil; Patil, Harshad P; Kanojia, Gaurav; ter Veer, Wouter; Meijerhof, Tjarko; Frijlink, Henderik W; Huckriede, Anke; Hinrichs, Wouter L J

    2013-11-01

    One of the advantages of dry influenza vaccines over conventional liquid influenza vaccines is that they can be used for alternative routes of administration. Previous studies showed that spray freeze-drying is an excellent technique to prepare vaccine containing powders for pulmonary delivery (J.P. Amorij, V. Saluja, A.H. Petersen, W.L.J. Hinrichs, A. Huckriede, H.W. Frijlink, Pulmonary delivery of an inulin-stabilized influenza subunit vaccine prepared by spray-freeze drying induces systemic, mucosal humoral as well as cell-mediated immune responses in BALB/c mice, Vaccine 25 (2007) 8707-8717; S.A. Audouy, G. van der Schaaf, W.L.J. Hinrichs, H.W. Frijlink, J. Wilschut, A. Huckriede. Development of a dried influenza whole inactivated virus vaccine for pulmonary immunization, Vaccine (2011)). The aim of this study was to investigate the physical and immunogenic stability of spray freeze-dried whole inactivated virus influenza vaccine prepared by using inulin, dextran, and a mixture of dextran and trehalose as protectants. Physical and biochemical characteristics of the vaccine powder were maintained at temperatures up to 30 °C for 3 months. In addition, in vivo data indicate that also, the immunogenic properties of the vaccine were maintained under these storage conditions. On the other hand, in vivo results also revealed that subtle changes in powder characteristics were induced during storage at 30 °C. However, laser diffraction measurements showed that problems associated with these subtle changes can be overcome by using dry powder inhalers with an efficient powder dispersing capacity. PMID:23933147

  5. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI and smoking status before and after prostate cancer diagnosis in the ProtecT trial: opportunities for lifestyle modification.

    PubMed

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2015-09-15

    Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0-9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week(-1) (IQR 15-35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as "working" occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03-3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as "managerial or professional." Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29-4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes. PMID:25761662

  6. Nuclear material control and accounting safeguards in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Woltermann, H.A.; Rudy, C.R.; Rakel, D.A.; DeVer, E.A.

    1982-07-01

    Material control and accounting (MC and A) of special nuclear material (SNM) must supplement physical security to protect SNM from unlawful use such as terrorist activities. This article reviews MC and A safeguards of SNM in the United States. The following topics are covered: a brief perspective and history of MC and A safeguards, current MC and A practices, measurement methods for SNM, historical MC and A performance, a description of near-real-time MC and A systems, and conclusions on the status of MC and A in the United States.

  7. 40 CFR 97.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. 97.50 Section 97.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Tracking System § 97.50 NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. (a) Nature and function of...

  8. 40 CFR 73.34 - Recordation in accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recordation in accounts. 73.34 Section 73.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Tracking System § 73.34 Recordation in accounts. (a) After...

  9. 40 CFR 73.34 - Recordation in accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation in accounts. 73.34 Section 73.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Tracking System § 73.34 Recordation in accounts. (a) After...

  10. 40 CFR 73.34 - Recordation in accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recordation in accounts. 73.34 Section 73.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Tracking System § 73.34 Recordation in accounts. (a) After...

  11. 40 CFR 73.34 - Recordation in accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recordation in accounts. 73.34 Section 73.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Tracking System § 73.34 Recordation in accounts. (a) After...

  12. 40 CFR 96.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. 96.50 Section 96.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.50 NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. (a) Nature...

  13. 40 CFR 97.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. 97.50 Section 97.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Tracking System § 97.50 NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. (a) Nature and function of...

  14. 40 CFR 96.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. 96.50 Section 96.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.50 NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. (a) Nature...

  15. 40 CFR 73.34 - Recordation in accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recordation in accounts. 73.34 Section 73.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Tracking System § 73.34 Recordation in accounts. (a) After...

  16. 40 CFR 96.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. 96.50 Section 96.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.50 NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. (a) Nature...

  17. 40 CFR 97.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. 97.50 Section 97.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Tracking System § 97.50 NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. (a) Nature and function of...

  18. 4 CFR 21.4 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protective orders. 21.4 Section 21.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES BID PROTEST REGULATIONS § 21.4 Protective orders. (a) At the request of a party or on its own initiative, GAO may issue a protective order controlling the treatment...

  19. 4 CFR 21.4 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Protective orders. 21.4 Section 21.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES BID PROTEST REGULATIONS § 21.4 Protective orders. (a) At the request of a party or on its own initiative, GAO may issue a protective order controlling the treatment...

  20. 14 CFR Sec. 2-5 - Revenue and accounting practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Revenue and accounting practices. Sec. 2-5... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-5 Revenue and accounting practices. (a) Revenue accounting practices... physically verify the reliability of its passenger revenue accounting practice at least once each...

  1. 14 CFR Sec. 2-5 - Revenue and accounting practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revenue and accounting practices. Sec. 2-5... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-5 Revenue and accounting practices. (a) Revenue accounting practices... physically verify the reliability of its passenger revenue accounting practice at least once each...

  2. Accountability and External Ethical Constraints in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, H. Paul, III

    This paper provides a critique of the culture of self-regulation in higher education, in the context of recent public concerns about accountability in higher education. It discusses the role of the professor within academe, the role of tenure in protecting academic freedom, and the need to address issues of faculty accountability. It then examines…

  3. Material control and accountability alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    1991-08-12

    Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations governing material control and accountability in nuclear facilities have become more restrictive in the past decade, especially in areas that address the insider threat. As the insider threat receives greater credibility, regulations have been strengthened to increase the probability of detecting insider activity and to prevent removal of a significant quantity of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) from areas under control of the protective force.

  4. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI and smoking status before and after prostate cancer diagnosis in the ProtecT trial: Opportunities for lifestyle modification

    PubMed Central

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2015-01-01

    Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0–9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week−1 (IQR 15–35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as “working” occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03–3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as “managerial or professional.” Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29–4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes. What’s new? Does cancer diagnosis lead individuals to consider making healthy lifestyle changes? These authors studied men diagnosed with prostate

  5. Holding Accountability to Account. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Holding Accountability to Account: How Scholarship and Experience in Other Fields Inform Exploration of Performance Incentives in Education"--a paper presented at the National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference in February--Richard Rothstein, a research associate at the Economic Policy Institute, argues educational…

  6. Accountability, California Style: Counting or Accounting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Michael; Higgins, Jennifer; Raczek, Anastasia

    2004-01-01

    Across the nation and at nearly all levels of our educational system, efforts to hold schools accountable for student learning dominate strategies for improving the quality of education. At both the national and state level, student testing stands at the center of educational accountability programs, such that schools are effectively held…

  7. International Accounting and the Accounting Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laribee, Stephen F.

    The American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) has been instrumental in internationalizing the accounting curriculum by means of accreditation requirements and standards. Colleges and universities have met the AACSB requirements either by providing separate international accounting courses or by integrating international topics…

  8. 40 CFR 96.257 - Closing of general accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closing of general accounts. 96.257... CAIR SO2 Allowance Tracking System § 96.257 Closing of general accounts. (a) The CAIR authorized account representative of a general account may submit to the Administrator a request to close the...

  9. 40 CFR 96.157 - Closing of general accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closing of general accounts. 96.157... CAIR NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.157 Closing of general accounts. (a) The CAIR authorized account representative of a general account may submit to the Administrator a request to close the...

  10. A Harmonious Accounting Duo?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schapperle, Robert F.; Hardiman, Patrick F.

    1992-01-01

    Accountants have urged "harmonization" of standards between the Governmental Accounting Standards Board and the Financial Accounting Standards Board, recommending similar reporting of like transactions. However, varying display of similar accounting events does not necessarily indicate disharmony. The potential for problems because of differing…

  11. Comparison between the measured and calculated reactivity in measuring the effectiveness of the emergency protection at the stage of physical start-up of unit no. 3 at the Kalinin nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kavun, O. Yu.; Popykin, A. I.; Shevchenko, R. A. Shevchenko, S. A.

    2012-12-15

    This paper presents comparisons between the effectiveness of the emergency protection under both stationary and nonstationary formulations calculated with the use of the RADUGA-7.5 package and experimental data obtained in measuring the 'weight' of the emergency protection in the process of physical start-up of the VVER-1000 reactor of unit no. 3 of the Kalinin NPP. On the basis of the results obtained, recommendations are given on comparing the measured and calculated reactivity and parameters determined by using its value.

  12. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation and downstream activation of the ERK/STAT3/RANKL signaling cascade in osteoblasts accounts for the protective effects of estradiol on ethanol-induced bone loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bone loss occurs with chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption in males and cycling females as a result of increased bone resorption. We have demonstrated that in vivo estradiol treatment can reverse this effect. However, the molecular mechanisms of EtOH-induced bone loss and of estrogen protection are la...

  13. 31 CFR 212.6 - Rules and procedures to protect benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE GARNISHMENT OF ACCOUNTS...) to conduct distinct account reviews. (c) No challenge of protection. A protected amount...

  14. 31 CFR 212.6 - Rules and procedures to protect benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE GARNISHMENT OF ACCOUNTS...) to conduct distinct account reviews. (c) No challenge of protection. A protected amount...

  15. 31 CFR 212.6 - Rules and procedures to protect benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE GARNISHMENT OF ACCOUNTS...) to conduct distinct account reviews. (c) No challenge of protection. A protected amount...

  16. NASA Accountability Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    NASA is piloting fiscal year (FY) 1997 Accountability Reports, which streamline and upgrade reporting to Congress and the public. The document presents statements by the NASA administrator, and the Chief Financial Officer, followed by an overview of NASA's organizational structure and the planning and budgeting process. The performance of NASA in four strategic enterprises is reviewed: (1) Space Science, (2) Mission to Planet Earth, (3) Human Exploration and Development of Space, and (4) Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology. Those areas which support the strategic enterprises are also reviewed in a section called Crosscutting Processes. For each of the four enterprises, there is discussion about the long term goals, the short term objectives and the accomplishments during FY 1997. The Crosscutting Processes section reviews issues and accomplishments relating to human resources, procurement, information technology, physical resources, financial management, small and disadvantaged businesses, and policy and plans. Following the discussion about the individual areas is Management's Discussion and Analysis, about NASA's financial statements. This is followed by a report by an independent commercial auditor and the financial statements.

  17. Protective Face Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mask to protect the physically impaired from injuries to the face and head has been developed by Langley Research Center. It is made of composite materials, usually graphite or boron fibers woven into a matrix. Weighs less than three ounces.

  18. Accountability: A Mosaic Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Teri

    1977-01-01

    The problems involved in definition, implementation and control of accountability processes are discussed. It is stated that "...emotional involvement in accountability is one of the most difficult aspects to deal with, the chief emotion being fear". (Author/RW)

  19. LMAL Accounting Office 1936

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1936-01-01

    Accounting Office: The Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory's accounting office, 1936, with photographs of the Wright brothers on the wall. Although the Lab was named after Samuel P. Langley, most of the NACA staff held the Wrights as their heroes.

  20. Protection - Principles and practice.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, G. S.; Denning, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The protection mechanisms of computer systems control the access to objects, especially information objects. The principles of protection system design are formalized as a model (theory) of protection. Each process has a unique identification number which is attached by the system to each access attempted by the process. Details of system implementation are discussed, taking into account the storing of the access matrix, aspects of efficiency, and the selection of subjects and objects. Two systems which have protection features incorporating all the elements of the model are described.

  1. Managerial Accounting. Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plachta, Leonard E.

    This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course in managerial accounting. The study guide is intended for use by students in conjuction with a separate textbook, Horngren's "Accounting for Management Control: An Introduction," and a workbook, Curry's "Student Guide to Accounting for Management…

  2. The Accounting Capstone Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Henry; Norris, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Capstone courses in accounting programs bring students experiences integrating across the curriculum (University of Washington, 2005) and offer unique (Sanyal, 2003) and transformative experiences (Sill, Harward, & Cooper, 2009). Students take many accounting courses without preparing complete sets of financial statements. Accountants not only…

  3. Accounting & Computing Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avani, Nathan T.; And Others

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching a competency-based accounting and computing course that is designed to prepare students for employability in the following occupational areas: inventory control clerk, invoice clerk, payroll clerk, traffic clerk, general ledger bookkeeper, accounting clerk, account information clerk,…

  4. Intelligent Accountability in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Onora

    2013-01-01

    Systems of accountability are "second order" ways of using evidence of the standard to which "first order" tasks are carried out for a great variety of purposes. However, more accountability is not always better, and processes of holding to account can impose high costs without securing substantial benefits. At their worst,…

  5. Accounting Education in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Karen F.; Reed, Ronald O.; Greiman, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Almost on a daily basis new accounting rules and laws are put into use, creating information that must be known and learned by the accounting faculty and then introduced to and understood by the accounting student. Even with the 150 hours of education now required for CPA licensure, it is impossible to teach and learn all there is to learn. Over…

  6. 75 FR 25981 - Cost Accounting Standards: Harmonization of Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413 With the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ...The Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards Board (Board), invites public comments concerning the harmonization of Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413 with the Pension Protection Act (PPA) of 2006. The PPA amended the minimum funding requirements for defined benefit pension plans. The PPA required the Board to harmonize with PPA the CAS applicable to the......

  7. 40 CFR 97.12 - Changing NOX authorized account representative and alternate NOX authorized account...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Changing NOX authorized account representative and alternate NOX authorized account representative; changes in owners and operators. 97.12... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Authorized...

  8. 40 CFR 97.12 - Changing NOX authorized account representative and alternate NOX authorized account...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changing NOX authorized account representative and alternate NOX authorized account representative; changes in owners and operators. 97.12... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Authorized...

  9. Termination of Safeguards for Accountable Nuclear Materials at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Holzemer; Alan Carvo

    2012-04-01

    Termination of safeguards ends requirements of Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) and thereby removes the safeguards basis for applying physical protection requirements for theft and diversion of nuclear material, providing termination requirements are met as described. Department of Energy (DOE) M 470.4 6 (Nuclear Material Control and Accountability [8/26/05]) stipulates: 1. Section A, Chapter I (1)( q) (1): Safeguards can be terminated on nuclear materials provided the following conditions are met: (a) 'If the material is special nuclear material (SNM) or protected as SNM, it must be attractiveness level E and have a measured value.' (b) 'The material has been determined by DOE line management to be of no programmatic value to DOE.' (c) 'The material is transferred to the control of a waste management organization where the material is accounted for and protected in accordance with waste management regulations. The material must not be collocated with other accountable nuclear materials.' Requirements for safeguards termination depend on the safeguards attractiveness levels of the material. For attractiveness level E, approval has been granted from the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE ID) to Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) Safeguards and Security (S&S). In some cases, it may be necessary to dispose of nuclear materials of attractiveness level D or higher. Termination of safeguards for such materials must be approved by the Departmental Element (this is the DOE Headquarters Office of Nuclear Energy) after consultation with the Office of Security.

  10. 10 CFR 835.1202 - Accountable sealed radioactive sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accountable sealed radioactive sources. 835.1202 Section 835.1202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1202 Accountable sealed radioactive sources. (a) Each accountable sealed radioactive...

  11. 10 CFR 835.1202 - Accountable sealed radioactive sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accountable sealed radioactive sources. 835.1202 Section 835.1202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1202 Accountable sealed radioactive sources. (a) Each accountable sealed radioactive...

  12. 10 CFR 835.1202 - Accountable sealed radioactive sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accountable sealed radioactive sources. 835.1202 Section 835.1202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1202 Accountable sealed radioactive sources. (a) Each accountable sealed radioactive...

  13. 10 CFR 835.1202 - Accountable sealed radioactive sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accountable sealed radioactive sources. 835.1202 Section 835.1202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1202 Accountable sealed radioactive sources. (a) Each accountable sealed radioactive...

  14. 10 CFR 835.1202 - Accountable sealed radioactive sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accountable sealed radioactive sources. 835.1202 Section 835.1202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1202 Accountable sealed radioactive sources. (a) Each accountable sealed radioactive...

  15. 40 CFR 35.936-14 - Force account work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14 Section... Force account work. (a) A grantee must secure the project officer's prior written approval for use of the force account method for (1) any step 1 or step 2 work in excess of $10,000; (2) any...

  16. 40 CFR 35.936-14 - Force account work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14 Section... Force account work. (a) A grantee must secure the project officer's prior written approval for use of the force account method for (1) any step 1 or step 2 work in excess of $10,000; (2) any...

  17. 40 CFR 35.936-14 - Force account work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14 Section... Force account work. (a) A grantee must secure the project officer's prior written approval for use of the force account method for (1) any step 1 or step 2 work in excess of $10,000; (2) any...

  18. 40 CFR 35.936-14 - Force account work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14 Section... Force account work. (a) A grantee must secure the project officer's prior written approval for use of the force account method for (1) any step 1 or step 2 work in excess of $10,000; (2) any...

  19. 40 CFR 73.38 - Closing of accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closing of accounts. 73.38 Section 73...) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Tracking System § 73.38 Closing of accounts. (a) General... close the general account by submitting an allowance transfer, pursuant to § 73.50 and §...

  20. 40 CFR 73.38 - Closing of accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closing of accounts. 73.38 Section 73...) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Tracking System § 73.38 Closing of accounts. (a) General... close the general account by submitting an allowance transfer, pursuant to § 73.50 and §...

  1. 40 CFR 35.936-14 - Force account work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Force account work. (a) A grantee must secure the project officer's prior written approval for use of the force account method for (1) any step 1 or step 2 work in excess of $10,000; (2) any sewer... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14...

  2. 40 CFR 73.30 - Allowance tracking system accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowance tracking system accounts. 73.30 Section 73.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Tracking System § 73.30 Allowance tracking...

  3. 40 CFR 73.30 - Allowance tracking system accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowance tracking system accounts. 73.30 Section 73.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Tracking System § 73.30 Allowance tracking...

  4. 40 CFR 73.30 - Allowance tracking system accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowance tracking system accounts. 73.30 Section 73.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Tracking System § 73.30 Allowance tracking...

  5. 40 CFR 73.30 - Allowance tracking system accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowance tracking system accounts. 73.30 Section 73.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Tracking System § 73.30 Allowance tracking...

  6. 40 CFR 73.30 - Allowance tracking system accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowance tracking system accounts. 73.30 Section 73.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Tracking System § 73.30 Allowance tracking...

  7. Physical urticarias.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, T

    1994-05-01

    Chronic urticaria can be produced by a number of stimuli that cause mast cell mediator release. Patients with urticaria caused by physical agents account for roughly one-fifth of all cases of chronic urticaria. There are about 20 different types of physical urticaria. Two forms, dermographism and cholinergic urticaria, are quite common and represent more than two-thirds of all cases of physically caused urticaria. More than one agent may precipitate urticaria in a given individual. Urticarial response can be easily reproduced in the sensitive patient and, generally, lasts less than one hour. Systemic features such as flushing, dizziness, headaches, and even hypotension, may occur during severe episodes. Identification of the causative physical agent is necessary for effective therapy. PMID:8172038

  8. Computerizing the Accounting Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, John F.; England, Thomas G.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of computers in college accounting courses. Argues that the success of new efforts in using computers in teaching accounting is dependent upon increasing instructors' computer skills, and choosing appropriate hardware and software, including commercially available business software packages. (TW)

  9. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  10. The Choreography of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2006-01-01

    The prevailing performance discourse in education claims school improvements can be achieved through transparent accountability procedures. The article identifies how teachers generate performances of their work in order to satisfy accountability demands. By identifying sources of teachers' knowledge that produce choreographed performances, I…

  11. Teaching Accounting with Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaoul, Jean

    This paper addresses the numerous ways that computers may be used to enhance the teaching of accounting and business topics. It focuses on the pedagogical use of spreadsheet software to improve the conceptual coverage of accounting principles and practice, increase student understanding by involvement in the solution process, and reduce the amount…

  12. Leadership for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    2001-01-01

    This document explores issues of leadership for accountability and reviews five resources on the subject. These include: (1) "Accountability by Carrots and Sticks: Will Incentives and Sanctions Motivate Students, Teachers, and Administrators for Peak Performance?" (Larry Lashway); (2) "Organizing Schools for Teacher Learning" (Judith Warren…

  13. Accountability in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chippendale, P. R., Ed.; Wilkes, Paula V., Ed.

    This collection of papers delivered at a conference on accountability held at Darling Downs Institute of Advanced Education in Australia examines the meaning of accountability in education for teachers, lecturers, government, parents, administrators, education authorities, and the society at large. In Part 1, W. G. Walker attempts to answer the…

  14. The Accountability Illusion: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  15. The Accountability Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glisson, Charles

    1975-01-01

    Author discusses accountability controversy concerning effectiveness of social services. Turem's mechanistic and Gruber's organic models of accountability are compared and an alternate open system model of organization is offered which combines positive aspects of Turem's and Gruber's models as well as adds other constructive elements to them. (SE)

  16. The Accountability Illusion: Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  17. The Evolution of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Campus 2020: Thinking ahead is a policy in British Columbia (BC), Canada, that attempted to hold universities accountable to performance. Within, I demonstrate how this Canadian articulation of educational accountability intended to develop "governmentality constellations" to control the university and regulate its knowledge output. This research…

  18. The Accountability Illusion: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  19. Responsible and accountable.

    PubMed

    Woodrow, Philip

    2006-03-01

    Healthcare assistants are valuable members of the multi-disciplinary team, using many skills outlined in previous articles in this series. But anyone exceeding the limits of their skills can cause harm and may be called to account. This article explains how everyone is accountable. PMID:16538993

  20. The Accountability Illusion: Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  1. Accountability and primary healthcare.

    PubMed

    Mukhi, Shaheena; Barnsley, Jan; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    This paper examines the accountability structures within primary healthcare (PHC) in Ontario; in particular, who is accountable for what and to whom, and the policy tools being used. Ontario has implemented a series of incremental reforms, using expenditure policy instruments, enforced through contractual agreements to provide a defined set of publicly financed services that are privately delivered, most often by family physicians. The findings indicate that reporting, funding, evaluation and governance accountability requirements vary across service provider models. Accountability to the funder and patients is most common. Agreements, incentives and compensation tools have been used but may be insufficient to ensure parties are being held responsible for their activities related to stated goals. Clear definitions of various governance structures, a cohesive approach to monitoring critical performance indicators and associated improvement strategies are important elements in operationalizing accountability and determining whether goals are being met. PMID:25305392

  2. Accountability and Primary Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Mukhi, Shaheena; Barnsley, Jan; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the accountability structures within primary healthcare (PHC) in Ontario; in particular, who is accountable for what and to whom, and the policy tools being used. Ontario has implemented a series of incremental reforms, using expenditure policy instruments, enforced through contractual agreements to provide a defined set of publicly financed services that are privately delivered, most often by family physicians. The findings indicate that reporting, funding, evaluation and governance accountability requirements vary across service provider models. Accountability to the funder and patients is most common. Agreements, incentives and compensation tools have been used but may be insufficient to ensure parties are being held responsible for their activities related to stated goals. Clear definitions of various governance structures, a cohesive approach to monitoring critical performance indicators and associated improvement strategies are important elements in operationalizing accountability and determining whether goals are being met. PMID:25305392

  3. "There's nothing I can't do – I just put my mind to anything and I can do it": a qualitative analysis of how children with chronic disease and their parents account for and manage physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Fereday, Jennifer; MacDougall, Colin; Spizzo, Marianne; Darbyshire, Philip; Schiller, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper reports the findings of a South Australian qualitative, exploratory study of children and young people living with a chronic disease, and their perceptions and experiences of physical activity. The perceptions and experiences of their parents were also explored. The chronic diseases were type 1 diabetes, asthma and cystic fibrosis. Methods Multiple qualitative data collection techniques were used to elicit the children and young people's perspectives and experiences of physical activity, including focus groups, maps, photos and 'traffic light posters'. The children's parents were interviewed separately to ascertain their views of their child's participation in physical activities. Results Children and young people described their active participation in a wide variety of physical activities including organised sports and play, but made very little mention of any negative influence or impact due to their disease. Their parents' stories described the diligent background planning and management undertaken to enable their child to participate in a wide range of physical activities. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that for these children and young people, having a chronic disease was not perceived as a barrier to participation in organised sport and recreational activities. They were physically active and perceived themselves to be no different from their peers. Their positive beliefs were shared by their parents and the level of participation described was enabled by the high level of parental support and background planning involved in managing their child's health care needs. PMID:19117528

  4. Study of methods to enhance the control and protection of classified documents

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    For many years, the protection and control of classified documents has been a concern of administrative and management personnel. Recent thefts of documents has increased this concern and has led to high level committee investigations into improved classified document protection techniques. Better methods must be found to improve classified document protection and control systems. From preliminary investigations, it was determined that there is not one technique or method that alone would provide adequate protection of classified documents. Instead, a systematic approach that would utilize several components must be used. These components would limit the unauthorized access to classified documents, improve the accountability of documents, increase the protection of documents during transfers, protest classified documents against unauthorized reproduction, protect classified documents against unauthorized removal from a security area, and verify that documents that have been flagged for destruction are actually physically destroyed. This study investigates several techniques that could be implemented in each of these six areas. 8 refs.

  5. Human Resource Accounting System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerullo, Michael J.

    1974-01-01

    Main objectives of human resource accounting systems are to satisfy the informational demands made by investors and by operating managers. The paper's main concern is with the internal uses of a human asset system. (Author)

  6. Valerenic Acid Protects Against Physical and Psychological Stress by Reducing the Turnover of Serotonin and Norepinephrine in Mouse Hippocampus-Amygdala Region.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyo Young; Yoo, Dae Young; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Choi, Jung Hoon; Yoo, Miyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Hwang, In Koo

    2015-12-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that a Valeriana officinalis extract could attenuate increases in serum corticosterone levels in a mouse model of physical and psychological stress. In addition, our results showed that the extract could modulate serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) turnover in the hippocampus and amygdala region. In this study, we intended to investigate the effects of valerenic acid (VA), the main component of V. officinalis extract, on corticosterone levels in serum in normal mice and monoamine turnover in hippocampus-amygdala homogenates in a mouse model of physical and psychological stress. To determine the minimum dose of VA for antianxiety effect, eight-week-old ICR mice were orally administered VA (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg/0.3 mL) once daily for 3 weeks to probe for immobility time and serum corticosterone levels. At a VA dose of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, animals showed a decrease in the duration of immobility time and serum corticosterone levels. To confirm the antianxiety effect of VA, eight-week-old ICR mice received VA at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, orally, once daily for 3 weeks, before being subjected to physical or psychological stress for 3 days, in a specially designed communication box, followed by estimation of levels of monoamines and their metabolites in the hippocampus-amygdala region. In conclusion, VA administration at 0.5 mg/kg can mitigate the physical and psychological stress response by decreasing the turnover of 5-HT to 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and NE to 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol sulfate in the hippocampus and amygdala. PMID:26177123

  7. Computerized accounting methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of the research performed under the Task Order on computerized accounting methods in a period from 03 August to 31 December 1994. Computerized nuclear material accounting methods are analyzed and evaluated. Selected methods are implemented in a hardware-software complex developed as a prototype of the local network-based CONMIT system. This complex has been put into trial operation for test and evaluation of the selected methods at two selected ``Kurchatov Institute`` Russian Research Center (``KI`` RRC) nuclear facilities. Trial operation is carried out since the beginning of Initial Physical Inventory Taking in these facilities that was performed in November 1994. Operation of CONMIT prototype system was demonstrated in the middle of December 1994. Results of evaluation of CONMIT prototype system features and functioning under real operating conditions are considered. Conclusions are formulated on the ways of further development of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. The most important conclusion is a need to strengthen computer and information security features supported by the operating environment. Security provisions as well as other LANL Client/Server System approaches being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory are recommended for selection of software and hardware components to be integrated into production version of CONMIT system for KI RRC.

  8. Risk and protective factors for physical and sexual abuse of children and adolescents in Africa: a review and implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E; Mhlongo, Elsinah L

    2015-01-01

    There is now conclusive evidence of the major and long-lasting negative effects of physical and sexual abuse on children. Within Africa, studies consistently report high rates of child abuse, with prevalence as high as 64%. However, to date, there has been no review of factors associated with physical and sexual child abuse and polyvictimization in Africa. This review identified 23 quantitative studies, all of which showed high levels of child abuse in varying samples of children and adults. Although studies were very heterogeneous, a range of correlates of abuse at different levels of the Model of Ecologic Development were identified. These included community-level factors (exposure to bullying, sexual violence, and rural/urban location), household-level factors (poverty, household violence, and non-nuclear family), caregiver-level factors (caregiver illness in particular AIDS and mental health problems, caregiver changes, family functioning, parenting, caregiver-child relationship, and substance abuse), and child-level factors (age, disability, physical health, behavior, and gender). These findings identify key associated factors that are potential foci of child abuse prevention interventions. In addition, there is a clear need for further rigorous longitudinal research into predictive factors and culturally relevant interventions. PMID:24648489

  9. Ethical Practice Under Accountable Care.

    PubMed

    Graber, Abraham D; Bhandary, Asha; Rizzo, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) are a key mechanism of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). ACOs will influence incentives for providers, who must understand these changes to make well-considered treatment decisions. Our paper defines an ethical framework for physician decisions and action within ACOs. Emerging ethical pressures providers will face as members of an ACO were classified under major headings representing three of the four principles of bioethics: autonomy, beneficence, and justice (no novel conflicts with non-maleficence were identified). Conflicts include a bias against transient populations, a motive to undertreat conditions lacking performance measures, and the mandate to improve population health incentivizing life intrusions. After introducing and explaining each conflict, recommendations are offered for how providers ought to precede in the face of novel ethical choices. Our description of novel ethical choices will help providers know what to expect and our recommendations can guide providers in choosing well. PMID:26002491

  10. Ethical accountability in the cyberspace

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, K.L.; Strohmaier, M.

    1994-12-31

    Conformance with ethical behavior consists of adherence to the standards of conduct for any given group. When standards are not formalized, there can exist ethical disparity from which many diverse problems can result. These problems are especially evident in the cyberspace. Within the cyberspace, the {open_quote}given group{close_quote} is culturally and ethnically diverse. As such, it $8 difficult to hold the individuals to a nonformalized set of standards. Several important issues need to be addressed in order to balance each individual`s dual needs for freedom of expression and protection in the cyberspace. These issues include development of formalized standards, a general protocol for cross- cultural interaction, and ethical accountability.

  11. Accounting for the environment.

    PubMed

    Lutz, E; Munasinghe, M

    1991-03-01

    Environmental awareness in the 1980s has led to efforts to improve the current UN System of National Accounts (SNA) for better measurement of the value of environmental resources when estimating income. National governments, the UN, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank are interested in solving this issue. The World Bank relies heavily on national aggregates in income accounts compiled by means of the SNA that was published in 1968 and stressed gross domestic product (GDP). GDP measures mainly market activity, but it takes does not consider the consumption of natural capital, and indirectly inhibits sustained development. The deficiencies of the current method of accounting are inconsistent treatment of manmade and natural capital, the omission of natural resources and their depletion from balance sheets, and pollution cleanup costs from national income. In the calculation of GDP pollution is overlooked, and beneficial environmental inputs are valued at zero. The calculation of environmentally adjusted net domestic product (EDP) and environmentally adjusted net income (ENI) would lower income and growth rate, as the World Resources Institute found with respect to Indonesia for 1971-84. When depreciation for oil, timber, and top soil was included the net domestic product (NDP) was only 4% compared with a 7.1% GDP. The World Bank has advocated environmental accounting since 1983 in SNA revisions. The 1989 revised Blue Book of the SNA takes environment concerns into account. Relevant research is under way in Mexico and Papua New Guinea using the UN Statistical Office framework as a system for environmentally adjusted economic accounts that computes EDP and ENI and integrates environmental data with national accounts while preserving SNA concepts. PMID:12285741

  12. Thinking about Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Accountability is a key component of healthcare reforms, in Canada and internationally, but there is increasing recognition that one size does not fit all. A more nuanced understanding begins with clarifying what is meant by accountability, including specifying for what, by whom, to whom and how. These papers arise from a Partnership for Health System Improvement (PHSI), funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), on approaches to accountability that examined accountability across multiple healthcare subsectors in Ontario. The partnership features collaboration among an interdisciplinary team, working with senior policy makers, to clarify what is known about best practices to achieve accountability under various circumstances. This paper presents our conceptual framework. It examines potential approaches (policy instruments) and postulates that their outcomes may vary by subsector depending upon (a) the policy goals being pursued, (b) governance/ownership structures and relationships and (c) the types of goods and services being delivered, and their production characteristics (e.g., contestability, measurability and complexity). PMID:25305385

  13. Cathodic protection: Theory and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, V.; Booker, C.J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents an account of cathodic protection. It covers the advances made over the past decade, both in terms of understanding the complexity of the systems to which cathodic protection has been applied and assuring the reliability of the designs which have evolved. It shows how computer-validated design is superseding empirical design. The use of field gradient measurements for current output, acoustic transmission of potential data, and monitoring and surveying of cathodic protection systems are included.

  14. 17 CFR 17.01 - Identification of special accounts, volume threshold accounts, and omnibus accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accounts, volume threshold accounts, and omnibus accounts. 17.01 Section 17.01 Commodity and Securities..., CLEARING MEMBERS, AND FOREIGN BROKERS § 17.01 Identification of special accounts, volume threshold accounts... in § 17.02(b). (b) Identification of volume threshold accounts. Each clearing member shall...

  15. 18 CFR 367.9040 - Account 904, Uncollectible accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 904... GAS ACT Operation and Maintenance Expense Chart of Accounts § 367.9040 Account 904, Uncollectible accounts. This account must be charged with amounts sufficient to provide for losses from...

  16. Excel in the Accounting Curriculum: Perceptions from Accounting Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandran Rackliffe, Usha; Ragland, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Public accounting firms emphasize the importance of accounting graduates being proficient in Excel. Since many accounting graduates often aspire to work in public accounting, a question arises as to whether there should be an emphasis on Excel in accounting education. The purpose of this paper is to specifically look at this issue by examining…

  17. A Pariah Profession? Some Student Perceptions of Accounting and Accountancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Roy; Murphy, Vivienne

    1995-01-01

    Existing literature and a survey of 106 undergraduate accounting students in the United Kingdom were analyzed for perceptions of the accounting profession and the academic discipline of accounting. Results suggest that among accounting and nonaccounting students alike, there exist coexisting perceptions of accounting as having high status and low…

  18. Planning for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuneo, Tim; Bell, Shareen; Welsh-Gray, Carol

    1999-01-01

    Through its Challenge 2000 program, Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network's 21st Century Education Initiative has been working with K-12 schools to improve student performance in literature, math, and science. Clearly stated standards, appropriate assessments, formal monitoring, critical friends, and systemwide accountability are keys to success.…

  19. Accountability Measures Report, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota University System, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This document is a tool for demonstrating that the University System is meeting the "flexibility with accountability" expectations of SB 2003 passed by the 2001 Legislative Assembly. The 2007 report reflects some of the many ways North Dakota University System (NDUS) colleges and universities are developing the human capital needed to create a…

  20. Accountability Measures Report, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota University System, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This document is a valuable tool for demonstrating that the University System is meeting the "flexibility with accountability" expectations of SB 2003 passed by the 2001 Legislative Assembly. The 2006 report reflects some of the many ways North Dakota University System (NDUS) colleges and universities are developing the human capital needed to…

  1. Accounting Forms. Instructor's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itter, Pat

    Supporting performance objective of the 16 V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Bookkeeper Catalog, this instructor's manual contains copies of accounting forms which can be used to make spirit masters or transparencies. (This module is the first in a set of ten on bookkeeping [CE 019 480-489].) Twenty forms grouped under…

  2. Viewpoints on Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Innovators Press, Tucson, AZ.

    This booklet contains five papers which examine the activities, successes, and pitfalls encountered by educators who are introducing accountability techniques into instructional programs where they did not exist in the past. The papers are based on actual programs and offer possible solutions in the areas considered, which are 1) performance…

  3. Accounting 202, 302.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide consists of guidelines for conducting two secondary-level introductory accounting courses. Intended for vocational business education students, the courses are designed to introduce financial principles and practices important to personal and business life, to promote development of clerical and bookkeeping skills sufficient…

  4. Accountability: A Rationale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brademas, John

    1974-01-01

    The idea of accountability has by now been interpreted in ways which are different enough from one another to have permitted a certain ambiguity to creep into the notion in its present use within the educational community. The principal purpose of this report is, therefore, to try to set forth some clearer statement of what the idea of…

  5. Democracy, Accountability, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Meira

    2011-01-01

    Educational standards, assessments, and accountability systems are of immense political moment around the world. But there is no developed theory exploring the role that these systems should play within a democratic polity in particular. On the one hand, well-designed standards are public goods, supported by assessment and accountability…

  6. Student Attendance Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitas, Joseph M.

    In response to state legislation authorizing procedures for changes in academic calendars and measurement of student workload in California community colleges, this manual from the Chancellor's Office provides guidelines for student attendance accounting. Chapter 1 explains general items such as the academic calendar, admissions policies, student…

  7. Accounting for What Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joseph O.; Ferran, Joan E.; Martin, Katharine Y.

    2003-01-01

    No Child Left Behind legislation makes it clear that outside evaluators determine what gets taught in the classroom. It is important to ensure they measure what truly counts in school. This fact is poignantly and sadly true for the under funded, poorly resourced, "low performing" schools that may be hammered by administration accountants in the…

  8. Educational Accounting Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Sam B.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" reviews the functions, procedures, and reports with which school business officials must be familiar in order to interpret and make decisions regarding the school district's financial position. Among the accounting functions discussed are financial management, internal auditing, annual…

  9. Assessment and Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    Discusses six books that give a range of perspectives on the issues of assessment and accountability, from the use of standardized reading tests to creating student and professional portfolios. States that these books will provide teachers with the knowledge to make sound assessment decisions and with practical suggestions to document student and…

  10. The Accountability Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, John; Dahlin, Michael; Xiang, Yun; McCahon, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states have leeway to: (1) Craft their own academic standards, select their own tests, and define…

  11. Accountability in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumke, Glenn S.

    Since education has become big business, the reactions of the academic community to social change are of immense political and social effect. Therefore, before higher education can deal with the question of accountability, it has to define the role of the college or university in relation to society. One alternative is that the campus operate as…

  12. Fiscal Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Housing and Community Development, Sacramento. Indian Assistance Program.

    Written in simple, easy to understand form, the manual provides a vehicle for the untrained person in bookkeeping to control funds received from grants for Indian Tribal Councils and Indian organizations. The method used to control grants (federal, state, or private) is fund accounting, designed to organize rendering services on a non-profit…

  13. Measurements and material accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, G.A. )

    1989-11-01

    The DOE role for the NBL in safeguarding nuclear material into the 21st century is discussed. Development of measurement technology and reference materials supporting requirements of SDI, SIS, AVLIS, pyrochemical reprocessing, fusion, waste storage, plant modernization program, and improved tritium accounting are some of the suggested examples.

  14. Professional Capital as Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael; Rincón-Gallardo, Santiago; Hargreaves, Andy

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to clarify and spells out the responsibilities of policy makers to create the conditions for an effective accountability system that produces substantial improvements in student learning, strengthens the teaching profession, and provides transparency of results to the public. The authors point out that U.S. policy makers will need…

  15. Accountability for Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Productivity gains in higher education won't be made just by improving cost effectiveness or even performance. They need to be documented, communicated, and integrated into a strategic agenda to increase attainment. This requires special attention to "accountability" for productivity, meaning public presentation and communication of evidence about…

  16. Legal responsibility and accountability.

    PubMed

    Cox, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Shifting boundaries in healthcare roles have led to anxiety among some nurses about their legal responsibilities and accountabilities. This is partly because of a lack of education about legal principles that underpin healthcare delivery. This article explains the law in terms of standards of care, duty of care, vicarious liability and indemnity insurance. PMID:20583648

  17. Sun protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... age spots are caused by exposure to the sun. The two types of sun rays that can injure the skin are ultraviolet ... changes is to protect your skin from the sun. This includes using sunscreen and other protective measures. ...

  18. A Physically-Modified Saline Suppresses Neuronal Apoptosis, Attenuates Tau Phosphorylation and Protects Memory in an Animal Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Supurna; Watson, Richard; Pahan, Kalipada

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading cause of dementia in the aging population, is characterized by the presence of neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and extensive neuronal apoptosis. Neuritic plaques are mainly composed of aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein while neurofibrillary tangles are composed of the hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Despite intense investigations, no effective therapy is currently available to halt the progression of this disease. Here, we have undertaken a novel approach to attenuate apoptosis and tau phosphorylation in cultured neuronal cells and in a transgenic animal model of AD. RNS60 is a 0.9% saline solution containing oxygenated nanobubbles that is generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille (TCP) flow under elevated oxygen pressure. In our experiments, fibrillar Aβ1-42, but not the reverse peptide Aβ42-1, induced apoptosis and cell death in human SHSY5Y neuronal cells. RNS60, but not NS (normal saline), RNS10.3 (TCP-modified saline without excess oxygen) or PNS60 (saline containing excess oxygen without TCP modification), attenuated Aβ(1–42)-induced cell death. RNS60 inhibited neuronal cell death via activation of the type 1A phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase – Akt – BAD pathway. Furthermore, RNS60 also decreased Aβ(1–42)-induced tau phosphorylation via (PI-3 kinase – Akt)-mediated inhibition of GSK-3β. Similarly, RNS60 treatment suppressed neuronal apoptosis, attenuated Tau phosphorylation, inhibited glial activation, and reduced the burden of Aβ in the hippocampus and protected memory and learning in 5XFAD transgenic mouse model of AD. Therefore, RNS60 may be a promising pharmaceutical candidate in halting or delaying the progression of AD. PMID:25089827

  19. A physically-modified saline suppresses neuronal apoptosis, attenuates tau phosphorylation and protects memory in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Modi, Khushbu K; Jana, Arundhati; Ghosh, Supurna; Watson, Richard; Pahan, Kalipada

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading cause of dementia in the aging population, is characterized by the presence of neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and extensive neuronal apoptosis. Neuritic plaques are mainly composed of aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein while neurofibrillary tangles are composed of the hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Despite intense investigations, no effective therapy is currently available to halt the progression of this disease. Here, we have undertaken a novel approach to attenuate apoptosis and tau phosphorylation in cultured neuronal cells and in a transgenic animal model of AD. RNS60 is a 0.9% saline solution containing oxygenated nanobubbles that is generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille (TCP) flow under elevated oxygen pressure. In our experiments, fibrillar Aβ1-42, but not the reverse peptide Aβ42-1, induced apoptosis and cell death in human SHSY5Y neuronal cells. RNS60, but not NS (normal saline), RNS10.3 (TCP-modified saline without excess oxygen) or PNS60 (saline containing excess oxygen without TCP modification), attenuated Aβ(1-42)-induced cell death. RNS60 inhibited neuronal cell death via activation of the type 1A phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase-Akt-BAD pathway. Furthermore, RNS60 also decreased Aβ(1-42)-induced tau phosphorylation via (PI-3 kinase-Akt)-mediated inhibition of GSK-3β. Similarly, RNS60 treatment suppressed neuronal apoptosis, attenuated Tau phosphorylation, inhibited glial activation, and reduced the burden of Aβ in the hippocampus and protected memory and learning in 5XFAD transgenic mouse model of AD. Therefore, RNS60 may be a promising pharmaceutical candidate in halting or delaying the progression of AD. PMID:25089827

  20. Protection of dopaminergic neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease by a physically-modified saline containing charge-stabilized nanobubbles.

    PubMed

    Khasnavis, Saurabh; Roy, Avik; Ghosh, Supurna; Watson, Richard; Pahan, Kalipada

    2014-03-01

    Neuroinflammation underlies the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite intense investigations, no effective therapy is available to stop its onset or halt its progression. RNS60 is a novel therapeutic containing charge-stabilized nanobubbles in saline, generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille flow under elevated oxygen pressure. Recently, we have delineated that RNS60 inhibits the expression of proinflammatory molecules in glial cells via type 1A phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)-mediated upregulation of IκBα. In this study, we demonstrate that RNS60 inhibited the expression of proinflammatory molecules in cultured microglial cells stimulated by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridium ion (MPP(+)) and in vivo in the nigra of MPTP-intoxicated mice. While investigating the underlying mechanisms, we found that MPTP intoxication rapidly stimulated the activation of type IB PI3K p110γ in the nigra, while suppressing the activation of type IA PI3K p110α/β. Interestingly, RNS60 treatment suppressed the activation of p110γ PI3K, while inducing the activation of p110α/β PI3K in the nigra of MPTP-intoxicated mice. Accordingly, RNS60 treatment increased the level of IκBα and inhibited the activation of NF-κB in the SNpc of MPTP-intoxicated mice. These findings paralleled dopaminergic neuronal protection, normalized striatal neurotransmitters, and improved motor functions in MPTP-intoxicated mice. These results strongly suggest a promising therapeutic role of this simple modified saline in PD and other neuroinflammatory disorders. PMID:24122363

  1. Federal Protective Service Improvement and Accountability Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Thompson, Bennie G. [D-MS-2

    2011-01-05

    01/31/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Emerging Threats, Cybersecurity, and Science and Technology. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection Accountability Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Duffy, Sean P. [R-WI-7

    2013-09-26

    10/29/2013 Hearings Held by the Subcommittee on Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit Prior to Referral. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. FISA Accountability and Privacy Protection Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Leahy, Patrick J. [D-VT

    2013-06-24

    06/24/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5020-5027) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Nuclear Physics Issues in Space Radiation Risk Assessment-The FLUKA Monte Carlo Transport Code Used for Space Radiation Measurement and Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K. T.

    2007-02-12

    The long term human exploration goals that NASA has embraced, requires the need to understand the primary radiation and secondary particle production under a variety of environmental conditions. In order to perform accurate transport simulations for the incident particles found in the space environment, accurate nucleus-nucleus inelastic event generators are needed, and NASA is funding their development. For the first time, NASA is including the radiation problem into the . design of the next manned exploration vehicle. The NASA-funded FLUER-S (FLUKA Executing Under ROOT-Space) project has several goals beyond the improvement of the internal nuclear physics simulations. These include making FLUKA more user-friendly. Several tools have been developed to simplify the use of FLUKA without compromising its accuracy or versatility. Among these tools are a general source input, ability of distributive computing, simplification of geometry input, geometry and event visualization, and standard FLUKA scoring output analysis using a ROOT GUI. In addition to describing these tools we will show how they have been used for space radiation environment data analysis in MARIE, IVCPDS, and EVCPDS. Similar analyses can be performed for future radiation measurement detectors before they are deployed in order to optimize their design. These tools can also be used in the design of nuclear-based power systems on manned exploration vehicles and planetary surfaces. In addition to these space applications, the simulations are being used to support accelerator based experiments like the cross-section measurements being performed at HIMAC and NSRL at BNL.

  5. Iowa Community Colleges Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Community Colleges and Workforce Preparation.

    This document describes account classifications and definitions for the accounting system of the Iowa community colleges. In view of the objectives of the accounting system, it is necessary to segregate the assets of the community college according to its source and intended use. Additionally, the accounting system should provide for accounting by…

  6. 10 CFR 1016.25 - Protective personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective personnel. 1016.25 Section 1016.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 1016.25 Protective personnel. Whenever protective personnel are required by § 1016.23, such protective...

  7. 10 CFR 1016.25 - Protective personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protective personnel. 1016.25 Section 1016.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 1016.25 Protective personnel. Whenever protective personnel are required by § 1016.23, such protective...

  8. 10 CFR 1016.25 - Protective personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protective personnel. 1016.25 Section 1016.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 1016.25 Protective personnel. Whenever protective personnel are required by § 1016.23, such protective...

  9. 10 CFR 1016.25 - Protective personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protective personnel. 1016.25 Section 1016.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 1016.25 Protective personnel. Whenever protective personnel are required by § 1016.23, such protective...

  10. 10 CFR 1016.25 - Protective personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protective personnel. 1016.25 Section 1016.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 1016.25 Protective personnel. Whenever protective personnel are required by § 1016.23, such protective...

  11. Evaluation of accountability measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Cacic, C.G.

    1988-01-01

    The New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) is programmatically responsible to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) for providing independent review and evaluation of accountability measurement technology in DOE nuclear facilities. This function is addressed in part through the NBL Safegaurds Measurement Evaluation (SME) Program. The SME Program utilizes both on-site review of measurement methods along with material-specific measurement evaluation studies to provide information concerning the adequacy of subject accountability measurements. This paper reviews SME Program activities for the 1986-87 time period, with emphasis on noted improvements in measurement capabilities. Continued evolution of the SME Program to respond to changing safeguards concerns is discussed.

  12. Managing global accounts.

    PubMed

    Yip, George S; Bink, Audrey J M

    2007-09-01

    Global account management--which treats a multinational customer's operations as one integrated account, with coherent terms for pricing, product specifications, and service--has proliferated over the past decade. Yet according to the authors' research, only about a third of the suppliers that have offered GAM are pleased with the results. The unhappy majority may be suffering from confusion about when, how, and to whom to provide it. Yip, the director of research and innovation at Capgemini, and Bink, the head of marketing communications at Uxbridge College, have found that GAM can improve customer satisfaction by 20% or more and can raise both profits and revenues by at least 15% within just a few years of its introduction. They provide guidelines to help companies achieve similar results. The first steps are determining whether your products or services are appropriate for GAM, whether your customers want such a program, whether those customers are crucial to your strategy, and how GAM might affect your competitive advantage. If moving forward makes sense, the authors' exhibit, "A Scorecard for Selecting Global Accounts," can help you target the right customers. The final step is deciding which of three basic forms to offer: coordination GAM (in which national operations remain relatively strong), control GAM (in which the global operation and the national operations are fairly balanced), and separate GAM (in which a new business unit has total responsibility for global accounts). Given the difficulty and expense of providing multiple varieties, the vast majority of companies should initially customize just one---and they should be careful not to start with a choice that is too ambitious for either themselves or their customers to handle. PMID:17886487

  13. First-Person Accounts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gribs, H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Personal accounts describe the lives of 2 individuals with deaf-blindness, one an 87-year-old woman who was deaf from birth and became totally blind over a 50-year period and the other of a woman who became deaf-blind as a result of a fever at the age of 7. Managing activities of daily life and experiencing sensory hallucinations are among topics…

  14. 10 CFR 95.31 - Protective personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.31 Protective personnel. Whenever protective personnel... Confidential National Security Information, Confidential Restricted Data or Secret National...

  15. Hospitals' Internal Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K.; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387

  16. Hospitals' internal accountability.

    PubMed

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387

  17. 40 CFR 96.11 - Alternate NOX authorized account representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternate NOX authorized account... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Authorized Account Representative for NOX Budget Sources § 96.11 Alternate...

  18. 40 CFR 97.11 - Alternate NOX authorized account representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternate NOX authorized account... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Authorized Account Representative for NOX Budget Sources § 97.11 Alternate NOX authorized...

  19. 40 CFR 97.82 - NOX authorized account representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX authorized account representative... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Individual Unit Opt-ins. § 97.82 NOX authorized account representative. A unit for which an application for a...

  20. 40 CFR 97.11 - Alternate NOX authorized account representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternate NOX authorized account... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Authorized Account Representative for NOX Budget Sources § 97.11 Alternate NOX authorized...

  1. 40 CFR 96.82 - NOX authorized account representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX authorized account representative... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Individual Unit Opt-ins § 96.82 NOX authorized account representative. A unit for which...

  2. 40 CFR 96.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.50 NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. (a) Nature...

  3. 40 CFR 97.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 97.50 NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. (a) Nature and function of...

  4. 40 CFR 96.82 - NOX authorized account representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX authorized account representative... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Individual Unit Opt-ins § 96.82 NOX authorized account representative. A unit for which...

  5. 40 CFR 96.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.50 NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. (a) Nature...

  6. 40 CFR 97.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 97.50 NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. (a) Nature and function of...

  7. 40 CFR 97.82 - NOX authorized account representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX authorized account representative... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Individual Unit Opt-ins. § 97.82 NOX authorized account representative. A unit for which an application for a...

  8. 40 CFR 96.11 - Alternate NOX authorized account representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternate NOX authorized account... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Authorized Account Representative for NOX Budget Sources § 96.11 Alternate...

  9. 19 CFR 4.62 - Accounting for inward cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accounting for inward cargo. 4.62 Section 4.62 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.62 Accounting for inward...

  10. 19 CFR 4.62 - Accounting for inward cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for inward cargo. 4.62 Section 4.62 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.62 Accounting for inward...

  11. A mechanistic accounting of SOM speciation and kinetics in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, F.; Riley, W. J.; Guerry, N.; Torn, M. S.; Kleber, M.

    2012-12-01

    The nature and dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) are arguably far from being understood and accurately represented in current site, regional, and global land use and climate models. Whereas consolidated models make use of aggregated pools describing SOM with characteristic turnover times such as inert, passive, slow cycling, and fast cycling, or linking the turnover time to the molecular weight of the compound, recent analyses of SOM below the top soil suggest that those approaches only partially capture SOM dynamics, and that SOM stability may largely be determined by biological and chemical protection as well as other environmental factors rather than the molecular structure of the compound and its molecular weight. We introduce here a new paradigm of SOM speciation and kinetics that explicitly decouples the assumed recalcitrance and turnover time from the SOM molecular density and structure in favour of a mechanistic accounting of microbially mediated processes and chemo-physical interactions among the various SOM species and soil environment. These processes include microbial assimilation, respiration and C recycling; depolymerization of solid litter, root exudates, and dead cells into various decomposed SOM groups; and incorporation of soluble SOM species into a protected phase not available to chemical and biological agents. SOM was described by means of functional compounds including mono- and polysaccharides, lignin, amino compounds, organic acids, nucleic acids, lipids, and phenols, each being accounted for by one or more representative species in the model. Fungal and bacterial microbial functional groups were used to characterize depolymerization and respiration rates. The SOM reaction network and characteristics, its mathematical inclusion within the TOUGHREACT framework, and some preliminary results of modeling grasslands and forested ecosystems are presented here. Biogeochemical reaction network of SOC pathways. Steady state vertical contentration

  12. Alkali metal protective garment and composite material

    SciTech Connect

    Ballif, J.L.; Yuan, W.W.

    1980-09-16

    A protective garment and composite material providing satisfactory heat resistance and physical protection for articles and personnel exposed to hot molten alkali metals, such as sodium are described. Physical protection is provided by a continuous layer of nickel foil. Heat resistance is provided by an underlying backing layer of thermal insulation. Overlying outer layers of fireproof woven ceramic fibers are used to protect the foil during storage and handling.

  13. Alkali metal protective garment and composite material

    SciTech Connect

    Ballif, III, John L.; Yuan, Wei W.

    1980-01-01

    A protective garment and composite material providing satisfactory heat resistance and physical protection for articles and personnel exposed to hot molten alkali metals, such as sodium. Physical protection is provided by a continuous layer of nickel foil. Heat resistance is provided by an underlying backing layer of thermal insulation. Overlying outer layers of fireproof woven ceramic fibers are used to protect the foil during storage and handling.

  14. 40 CFR 96.12 - Changing the NOX authorized account representative and the alternate NOX authorized account...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changing the NOX authorized account representative and the alternate NOX authorized account representative; changes in the owners and operators. 96... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION...

  15. 40 CFR 96.12 - Changing the NOX authorized account representative and the alternate NOX authorized account...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Changing the NOX authorized account representative and the alternate NOX authorized account representative; changes in the owners and operators. 96... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION...

  16. 18 CFR 367.1840 - Account 184, Clearing accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accounts. 367.1840 Section 367.1840 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1840 Account 184, Clearing accounts....

  17. 18 CFR 367.1840 - Account 184, Clearing accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accounts. 367.1840 Section 367.1840 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1840 Account 184, Clearing accounts....

  18. 18 CFR 367.1840 - Account 184, Clearing accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accounts. 367.1840 Section 367.1840 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1840 Account 184, Clearing accounts....

  19. 18 CFR 367.1840 - Account 184, Clearing accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accounts. 367.1840 Section 367.1840 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1840 Account 184, Clearing accounts....

  20. 18 CFR 367.1840 - Account 184, Clearing accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... accounts. 367.1840 Section 367.1840 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1840 Account 184, Clearing accounts....