Science.gov

Sample records for accounting policy choice

  1. Making "Right" Choices? An Ethnographic Account of Creativity, Performativity and Personalised Learning Policy, Concepts and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Dennis; Dovemark, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    This article uses ethnographic research from two Year 8 classes in two middle-sized secondary schools about a kilometre apart in a Swedish west-coast town to examine how new policies for personalised learning have developed in practice, in the performative cultures of modern schools in a commodity society. One school stands in a predominantly…

  2. Public Accountability & Private-School Choice: A Policy Toolkit from the Thomas B. Fordham Institute. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2014

    2014-01-01

    As voucher and tax-credit scholarship programs have expanded in recent years, another promising development has been the incorporation, into more such programs, of provisions that hold participating private schools to account for their students' performance. The newest and largest voucher programs, such as those in Louisiana and Indiana, have gone…

  3. In-State Tuition Policies under the Veterans Access, Choice and Accountability Act. ECS Education Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Mary; Sponsler, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring access and affordability to a postsecondary education for veterans and their dependents has long been a focus of federal and state education policy. Developing policy to support educational attainment among these individuals has required state policymakers to address residency requirements for veterans to determine eligibility for…

  4. The Redesignation Dilemma: Challenges and Choices in Fostering Meaningful Accountability for English Learners. Policy Report 2001-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linquanti, Robert

    2001-01-01

    This policy report focuses on the tensions and dilemmas surrounding one of the most common milestones used for defining and measuring English Learners' (ELs) progress: their redesignation or reclassification from limited to fluent English proficient (FEP). Although reclassification can have important consequences for students and for the education…

  5. Educational Accountability and Policy Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lorraine M.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, accountability policies have become more prominent in public K-12 education and have changed how teaching and learning are organized. It is less clear the extent to which these policies have altered the politics of education. This article begins to address that question through the lens of policy feedback. It identifies…

  6. 14 CFR Section 2 - General Accounting Policies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Accounting Policies Section 2 Section 2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... General Accounting Provisions Section 2 General Accounting Policies...

  7. Key policy choices in groundwater quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Batie, S.S.; Diebel, P.L. )

    1990-01-01

    The fundamental policy choice of who has the right to do what to whom is a pivotal issue of governance. Over the last few decades, the answer to that question has become more restrictive to those who own and use natural resources as inputs into production processes. Increasingly, the beneficiaries of new policy initiatives are those who desire higher protection of groundwater quality. With respect to groundwater management, policy design increasingly reflects such diverse interests as agriculturists, industrialists, homeowners, local government officials and state officials. Policy design is becoming complex, in part because of this diversity and in part because scientific uncertainty hampers informed policy design. No umbrella federal legislation exists for managing groundwater resources. EPA's role has been mainly an advisory one on groundwater issues. The difficulties and responsibilities of protecting groundwater thus remain with the states. For the near future, it is the states that will address key policy choices with respect to groundwater quality management issues.

  8. A decision network account of reasoning about other people's choices

    PubMed Central

    Jern, Alan; Kemp, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The ability to predict and reason about other people's choices is fundamental to social interaction. We propose that people reason about other people's choices using mental models that are similar to decision networks. Decision networks are extensions of Bayesian networks that incorporate the idea that choices are made in order to achieve goals. In our first experiment, we explore how people predict the choices of others. Our remaining three experiments explore how people infer the goals and knowledge of others by observing the choices that they make. We show that decision networks account for our data better than alternative computational accounts that do not incorporate the notion of goal-directed choice or that do not rely on probabilistic inference. PMID:26010559

  9. Standards-Based Accountability Systems. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleman, Jan

    This policy brief summarizes research results and provides guidance regarding decisions associated with school accountability. Unlike previous notions of accountability, a standards-based system examines outputs, such as student performance and graduation rates, as well as inputs like the amount of instructional time or the number of books in the…

  10. McCain Emphasizes School Choice, Accountability, but Lacks Specifics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Buried deep within the campaign Web site of Senator John McCain, the Arizona Republican explains the principles that define his K-12 agenda: choice, accountability, and teacher quality. But his 25-year congressional record and statements in his current campaign do give a glimpse of what Senator McCain--better known for his views on defense and…

  11. Educational Choice: Practical Policy Questions. Occasional Paper Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    First, Patricia F.

    The consideration of school choice plans raises policy questions for school administrators. This paper addresses pragmatic concerns about definitions and policy questions related to educational finance. Interdistrict choice, emphasizing families' right to choose among existing public schools, raises questions regarding transportation and…

  12. Policy Expansion of School Choice in the American States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kenneth K.; Langevin, Warren E.

    2007-01-01

    This research study explores the policy expansion of school choice within the methodological approach of event history analysis. The first section provides a comparative overview of state adoption of public school choice laws. After creating a statistical portrait of the contemporary landscape for school choice, the authors introduce event history…

  13. School Choice or Schools' Choice? Managing in an Era of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on a year and a half of ethnographic research in three New York City small high schools, this study examines the role of the school in managing school choice and asks what social processes are associated with principals' disparate approaches. Although district policy did not allow principals to select students based on their performance,…

  14. Choice Heats Up. Policy Update Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsler, Mary

    This update provides an overview of school-choice models and issues as they were defined in 1992. It describes how intra- and inter-district programs work and the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of a choice plan. Tensions in the choice debate center around the issues of diversity versus commonality, competition versus efficiency, and…

  15. School Choice in Suburbia: The Impact of Choice Policies on the Potential for Suburban Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Jennifer Jellison; Frankenberg, Erica; Diem, Sarah; Welton, Anjale D.

    2013-01-01

    The bulk of research on the implementation of school choice policies has focused on how choice has been implemented in urban school systems. As of 2007, however, suburban students comprised more than one fourth (29%) of all students engaging in some form of public school choice in the United States. This article examines the implementation of…

  16. School Choice and Social Controversy: Politics, Policy, and Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugarman, Stephen D., Ed.; Kemerer, Frank R., Ed.

    The essays in this collection provide analysis designed to be helpful to all sides of the school choice debate and to those charged with designing and implementing school choice programs. Discussion of the types, politics, and consequences of school choice is followed by discussion of the implications for school finance, accountability, and…

  17. Imperatives for "Right" Educational Choices in Swedish Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puaca, Goran

    2014-01-01

    The present article is based on a critical semiotic investigation of the Swedish Long-Term Survey on economic development. It aims to examine how recent Swedish policy trends bring specific economic, political and social processes together to form a system of meaning for both motivation and regulation over individuals' educational choices.…

  18. Relevance of methodological choices for accounting of land use change carbon fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongratz, Julia; Hansis, Eberhard; Davis, Steven

    2015-04-01

    To understand and potentially steer how humans shape land-climate interactions it is important to accurately attribute greenhouse gas fluxes from land use and land cover change (LULCC) in space and time. However, such accounting of carbon fluxes from LULCC generally requires choosing from multiple options of how to attribute the fluxes to regions and to LULCC activities. Applying a newly-developed and spatially-explicit bookkeeping model, BLUE ("bookkeeping of land use emissions"), we quantify LULCC carbon fluxes and attribute them to land-use activities and countries by a range of different accounting methods. We present results with respect to a Kyoto Protocol-like ``commitment'' accounting period, using land use emissions of 2008-12 as example scenario. We assess the effect of accounting methods that vary (1) the temporal evolution of carbon stocks, (2) the state of the carbon stocks at the beginning of the period, (3) the temporal attribution of carbon fluxes during the period, and (4) treatment of LULCC fluxes that occurred prior to the beginning of the period. We show that the methodological choices result in grossly different estimates of carbon fluxes for the different attribution definitions. The global net flux in the accounting period varies between 4.3 Pg(C) uptake and 15.2 Pg(C) emissions, depending on the accounting method. Regional results show different modes of variation. This finding has implications for both political and scientific considerations: Not all methodological choices are currently specified under the UNFCCC treaties on land use, land-use change and forestry. Yet, a consistent accounting scheme is crucial to assure comparability of individual LULCC activities, quantify their relevance for the global annual carbon budget, and assess the effects of LULCC policies.

  19. Uncertainty-accounting environmental policy and management of water systems.

    PubMed

    Baresel, Christian; Destouni, Georgia

    2007-05-15

    Environmental policies for water quality and ecosystem management do not commonly require explicit stochastic accounts of uncertainty and risk associated with the quantification and prediction of waterborne pollutant loads and abatement effects. In this study, we formulate and investigate a possible environmental policy that does require an explicit stochastic uncertainty account. We compare both the environmental and economic resource allocation performance of such an uncertainty-accounting environmental policy with that of deterministic, risk-prone and risk-averse environmental policies under a range of different hypothetical, yet still possible, scenarios. The comparison indicates that a stochastic uncertainty-accounting policy may perform better than deterministic policies over a range of different scenarios. Even in the absence of reliable site-specific data, reported literature values appear to be useful for such a stochastic account of uncertainty.

  20. Do Accountability Policies Push Teachers Out?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Richard; Merrill, Lisa; May, Henry

    2016-01-01

    The impact of accountability on U.S. schools, for good or ill, is a subject of debate and research. The authors recently studied an aspect of accountability that had previously received little attention. They asked, do accountability reforms affect public schools' ability to retain their teachers? By analyzing data from the Schools and Staffing…

  1. 42 CFR 457.226 - Fiscal policies and accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fiscal policies and accountability. 457.226 Section 457.226 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Claims; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.226 Fiscal policies and accountability. A State...

  2. 45 CFR 302.14 - Fiscal policies and accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 CFR part 74. ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiscal policies and accountability. 302.14 Section... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.14 Fiscal policies and accountability. The State plan...

  3. 42 CFR 457.226 - Fiscal policies and accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fiscal policies and accountability. 457.226 Section 457.226 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Claims; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.226 Fiscal policies and accountability. A State...

  4. 45 CFR 302.14 - Fiscal policies and accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 CFR part 74. ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Fiscal policies and accountability. 302.14 Section... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.14 Fiscal policies and accountability. The State plan...

  5. 42 CFR 433.32 - Fiscal policies and accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fiscal policies and accountability. 433.32 Section 433.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Administration Provisions § 433.32 Fiscal policies and accountability. A State plan must provide that...

  6. 42 CFR 457.226 - Fiscal policies and accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fiscal policies and accountability. 457.226 Section 457.226 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Claims; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.226 Fiscal policies and accountability. A State...

  7. 42 CFR 457.226 - Fiscal policies and accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fiscal policies and accountability. 457.226 Section 457.226 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Claims; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.226 Fiscal policies and accountability. A State...

  8. 45 CFR 302.14 - Fiscal policies and accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 CFR part 74. ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fiscal policies and accountability. 302.14 Section... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.14 Fiscal policies and accountability. The State plan...

  9. 42 CFR 433.32 - Fiscal policies and accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fiscal policies and accountability. 433.32 Section 433.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Administration Provisions § 433.32 Fiscal policies and accountability. A State plan must provide that...

  10. 42 CFR 433.32 - Fiscal policies and accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fiscal policies and accountability. 433.32 Section 433.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Administration Provisions § 433.32 Fiscal policies and accountability. A State plan must provide that...

  11. 42 CFR 433.32 - Fiscal policies and accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fiscal policies and accountability. 433.32 Section 433.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Administration Provisions § 433.32 Fiscal policies and accountability. A State plan must provide that...

  12. 42 CFR 457.226 - Fiscal policies and accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiscal policies and accountability. 457.226 Section 457.226 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Claims; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.226 Fiscal policies and accountability. A State...

  13. 45 CFR 302.14 - Fiscal policies and accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 CFR part 74. ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fiscal policies and accountability. 302.14 Section... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.14 Fiscal policies and accountability. The State plan...

  14. 45 CFR 302.14 - Fiscal policies and accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 CFR part 74. ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Fiscal policies and accountability. 302.14 Section... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.14 Fiscal policies and accountability. The State plan...

  15. 42 CFR 433.32 - Fiscal policies and accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiscal policies and accountability. 433.32 Section 433.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Administration Provisions § 433.32 Fiscal policies and accountability. A State plan must provide that...

  16. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  17. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  18. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  19. Policy as Numbers: Ac/Counting for Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an account and a critique of the rise of the contemporary policy as numbers phenomenon and considers its effects on policy and for educational research. Policy as numbers is located within the literatures on numbers in politics and the statistics/state relationship and, while recognising the longevity of the latter…

  20. Assessment and Accountability across the 50 States. CPRE Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goertz, Margaret E.; Duffy, Mark C.

    This policy brief summarizes a longer report about state assessment and accountability systems in all 50 states. It examines the extent to which state policies meet the intent of federal policy, particularly Title I programs. It asks, "How are states measuring student performance and reporting it to the general public?" and "How are states holding…

  1. A Comparison of State Alternative Education Accountability Policies and Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlessman, Amy; Hurtado, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this policy study was to report descriptive research on state-level policy and frameworks for accountability systems of alternative education in the United States. The six states; California, Colorado, Texas, Florida, Oklahoma, and North Carolina; identified in the 2010 Jobs for the Futures policy analysis of alternative education…

  2. Accountability in American Higher Education. Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Kevin, Ed.; Schneider, Mark, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Three years after U.S. Secretary of Education Margaret Spelling's national commission on higher education, and nearly a decade after No Child Left Behind revolutionized k-12 accountability, there is little agreement on what accountability in higher education should look like. While more students are enrolling in (and failing to complete)…

  3. The Impact of Irish Policy and Legislation on How Adults with Learning Disabilities Make Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Eileen; Griffiths, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This paper reflects the impact of policy and legislation in the context of how adults with learning disabilities make choices. Following an overview of policies which have improved choice for people with learning disability in the United Kingdom, this paper reviews "choice" in current Irish policy and legislation. This paper, while…

  4. NUDGING FOR HEALTH: ON PUBLIC POLICY AND DESIGNING CHOICE ARCHITECTURE

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Muireann

    2013-01-01

    There have been recent policy moves aimed at encouraging individuals to lead healthier lives. The Cabinet Office has set up a ‘nudge unit’ with health as one of its priorities and behavioural approaches have started to be integrated into health-related domestic policy in a number of areas. Behavioural research has shown that that the way the environment is constructed can shape a person's choices within it. Thus, it is hoped that, by using insights from such research, people can be nudged towards making decisions which are better for their health. This article outlines how nudges can be conceived of as part of an expanding arsenal of health-affecting regulatory tools being used by the Government and addresses some concerns which have been expressed regarding behavioural research-driven regulation and policy. In particular, it makes the case that, regardless of new regulatory and policy strategies, we cannot escape the myriad of influences which surround us. As such, we can view our health-affecting decisions as already being in some sense shaped and constructed. Further, it argues we may in fact have reason to prefer sets of health-affecting options which have been intentionally designed by the state, rather than those that stem from other sources or result from random processes. Even so, in closing, this article draws attention to the largely unanswered questions about how behavioural research translates into policy and regulatory initiatives. PMID:24081425

  5. Consequential Validity of Accountability Policy: Public Understanding of Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Curtis; Knoeppel, Robert C.; Lindle, Jane Clark

    2015-01-01

    Educational accountability policy rests heavily on the assessments used to influence teaching, learning, and school improvement. A long-debated aspect of assessment use, consequential validity, plays an important role in public interpretation of assessment use whether for individual students or for state policy. The purpose of this survey study…

  6. Factors Affecting Students' Career Choice in Accounting: The Case of a Turkish University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uyar, Ali; Güngörmüs, Ali Haydar; Kuzey, Cemil

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the reasons that influence students' career choices in accounting. In order to determine these reasons, a questionnaire survey has been employed. The empirical findings can be divided into two categories. First, students who have a desire to work in accounting field assume that accounting field provides good job…

  7. Disruptive Behavior: An Empirical Evaluation of School Misconduct and Market Accountability. School Choice Issues in Depth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Greg; Carr, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Opponents of school choice argue that private schools are not "accountable" because they are not subject to detailed oversight by a regulatory bureaucracy. They claim private school employees can be expected to engage in abusive and criminal behavior more frequently. School choice supporters respond that parents hold private schools accountable…

  8. Asymmetric discounting in intertemporal choice: a query-theory account.

    PubMed

    Weber, E U; Johnson, E J; Milch, K F; Chang, H; Brodscholl, J C; Goldstein, D G

    2007-06-01

    People are impatient and discount future rewards more when they are asked to delay consumption than when they are offered the chance to accelerate consumption. The three experiments reported here provide a process-level account for this asymmetry, with implications for designing decision environments that promote less impulsivity. In Experiment 1, a thought-listing procedure showed that people decompose discount valuation into two queries. Whether one considers delayed or accelerated receipt of a gift certificate influences the order in which memory is queried to support immediate versus delayed consumption, and the order of queries affects the relative number of patient versus impatient thoughts. Relative frequency and clustering of impatient thoughts predicts discounting and mediates the discounting asymmetry. Experiment 2 implicated query order causally: When participants listed reasons for immediate versus delayed consumption in the order used spontaneously in acceleration and delay decisions, the discounting asymmetry was replicated; reversing the order in which reasons were listed eliminated the asymmetry. The results of Experiment 3, which used an implicit-memory task, support a memory-interference account of the effect of query order.

  9. Markets in Education: The Impact of School Choice Policies in One Market Context in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Tim; Strathdee, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The publication of "Trading in Futures" and "When Schools Compete" helped give empirical support to the view that choice policies increased differences between schools. However, dispute about this research and changes in policy mean that our understanding of the impact of school choice policies in New Zealand remains partial. This paper aims to…

  10. The Performing School: The Effects of Market & Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falabella, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Market and accountability educational reforms have proliferated around the globe, along with high expectations of solving countries' school quality deficits and inequities. In this paper I develop an analytical framework from a critical sociology angle for analyzing the effects of these policies within schools. First I discuss conceptually…

  11. Limited English Proficient Students: Increased Accountability Under NCLB. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Laura; Kim, Jimmy; Sunderman, Gail

    2005-01-01

    This policy brief provides information for practitioners and policymakers on how the NCLB requirements affect LEP students and their schools and explores some of the unintended consequences of the legislation. Although both Title I and Title III of NCLB apply to LEP students, this brief focuses on the accountability provisions outlined in Title I,…

  12. Restructuring Accountability: Educative Policy Research into a Politically Incorrect Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Reynold J. S.

    The current literature on school restructuring emphasizes cooperative learning, collaborative planning, teacher empowerment, and participative policy making. This literature tends to set aside client and technical perspectives and to exhibit a professional view, which deems accountability to be a politically incorrect issue. The literature on…

  13. Policy Lessons from Children's Allowances for Children's Savings Accounts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curley, Jami; Sherraden, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Examines the history and current structure of "children's allowances" (cash grants from the government to families with children) around the world and particularly in the United States, to provide a framework for children's savings accounts--long-term savings and asset accumulation for all children. Considers public policy directions for these…

  14. School Choice Policies and Racial Segregation: Where White Parents' Good Intentions, Anxiety, and Privilege Collide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roda, Allison; Wells, Amy Stuart

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of school choice research has shown that when school choice policies are not designed to racially or socioeconomically integrate schools, that is, are "colorblind" policies, they generally manage to do the opposite, leading to greater stratification and separation of students by race and ethnicity across schools and programs. Since…

  15. On the Policy Structure and Orientation of Governing the School Choice Problem in China's Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Zhi-yong

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes the nature of the basic education, and points out that the scarcity, disparity and exclusiveness to a certain degree form the inner reasons of school choice in China. In review of the policy evolution of governing the school choice problems, and analyzing the policy framework of the current stage, the paper holds that expanding…

  16. The Rise of School Choice in Education Funding Reform: An Analysis of Two Policy Moments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Joel

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to the analysis of the global spread of support for school choice and to the understanding of how a particular form of policy development reflects and cements this support. It maps the growing dominance of school choice within a reconfiguration of politics, policy making, and research. To establish the nature of this…

  17. Choosing for Quality or Inequality: Current Perspectives on the Implementation of School Choice Policy in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunar, Nihad

    2010-01-01

    A policy of school choice has, in various shapes, been implemented in educational systems across the world during the last decades. Drawing on various empirical and theoretical sources, the aim of this article is to distinguish the key defining elements of the Swedish school choice policy and to present and discuss some of its outcomes in terms of…

  18. Evaluating School Choice Policies: A Response to Harry Brighouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    In his writings on school choice and educational justice, Harry Brighouse presents normative evaluations of various choice systems. This paper responds to Brighouse's claim that it is inadequate to criticise these evaluations with reference to empirical data concerning the effects of school choice.

  19. Freedom and School Choice in American Education. Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Greg, Ed.; Thompson, C. Bradley, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Leading intellectual figures in the school reform movement, all of them favoring approaches centered around the value of competition and choice, outline different visions for the goal of choice-oriented educational reform and the best means for achieving it. This volume takes the reader inside the movement to empower parents with choice, airing…

  20. Accountability and health systems: toward conceptual clarity and policy relevance.

    PubMed

    Brinkerhoff, Derick W

    2004-11-01

    Improved accountability is often called for as an element in improving health system performance. At first glance, the notion of better accountability seems straightforward, but it contains a high degree of complexity. If accountability is to be more than an empty buzzword, conceptual and analytical clarity is required. This article elaborates a definition of accountability in terms of answerability and sanctions, and distinguishes three types of accountability: financial, performance and political/democratic. An analytic framework for mapping accountability is proposed that identifies linkages among health sector actors and assesses capacity to demand and supply information and exercise oversight and sanctions. The article describes three accountability purposes: reducing abuse, assuring compliance with procedures and standards, and improving performance/learning. Using an accountability lens can: (1) help to generate a system-wide perspective on health sector reform, (2) identify connections among individual improvement interventions, and (3) reveal gaps requiring policy attention. These results can enhance system performance, improve service delivery and contribute to sound policymaking. PMID:15459162

  1. The Challenges of No Child Left Behind: Understanding the Issues of Excellence, Accountability, and Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irons, E. Jane; Harris, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 25 years a major shift in political ideology has refocused educational politics from equality issues to issues relating to excellence, accountability, and choice. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Act (ESEA) first passed in 1965. NCLB legislation is a continuation of the educational…

  2. Dual choice health insurance policy: a proposal and a cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Joseph; Ives, Jeffrey C

    2009-01-01

    The central issue in the current health care reform is cost. No health care reform can be successful without putting a rein on cost while maintaining a high quality of health care service. We believe one approach to solving the cost and quality issue is to allow patients the option to choose resources that are currently underutilized. Traditional health insurance plans offer consumers limited choice in that coverage is often denied when patients choose complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments, even though the economic and social cost of treating certain conditions with alternative medicine may be more favorable than with conventional medicine. This article proposes a Dual Choice health insurance plan that would cover the cost of alternative medicines for certain medical conditions in the first stage. Should the alternative treatment turn out to be less effective, patients have the option to switch to conventional treatment in the second stage. Not only does this policy provide patients with more choices than in traditional plans, it will also likely provide significant cost savings while taking into account uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of CAM. By virtue of the wider choice offered to patients and lower cost, which is illustrated by a 2x2 effectiveness matrix, the authors think that insurance companies will be successful offering such an innovative insurance plan and will even out-compete companies offering only traditional plans. Furthermore, there will be substantial benefits that go beyond the cost savings. With both cost savings and patient welfare being central in the health care reform being proposed by the Obama administration, the dual choice plan offers considerable benefits.

  3. Foreign Policy Choices for Americans: A Nonpartisan Guide for Voters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy L., Ed.; And Others

    Eighteen foreign policy topics are presented in this book to provide voters, officeholders, candidates, students, and teachers with background information, facts, and U.S. foreign policies. A fact list, historical background information, current administration policy, and policy alternatives are described for most of these topics. Part 1 discusses…

  4. Choice and compassion at the end of life: A critical analysis of recent English policy discourse.

    PubMed

    Borgstrom, Erica; Walter, Tony

    2015-07-01

    End of life care in England has recently been framed by two very different discourses. One (connected to advance care planning) promotes personal choice, the other promotes compassionate care; both are prominent in professional, policy and media settings. The article outlines the history of who promoted each discourse from 2008 to early 2015, when, why and how and this was done. Each discourse is then critically analysed from a standpoint that takes account of bodily decline, structural constraints, and human relationality. We focus on the biggest group of those nearing the end of their life, namely frail very old people suffering multiple conditions. In their care within contemporary healthcare organisations, choice becomes a tick box and compassion a commodity. Informed choice, whether at the end of life or in advance of it, does not guarantee the death the person wants, especially for those dying of conditions other than cancer and in the absence of universally available skilled and compassionate care. Enabling healthcare staff to provide compassionate, relational care, however, implies reversing the philosophical, political and financial direction of healthcare in the UK and most other Anglophone countries. PMID:25989003

  5. Hopes and Realities of Public Health Accountability Policies

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Robert; Price, Alex; Deber, Raisa B.; Manson, Heather; Scott, Fran

    2014-01-01

    Holding local boards of health accountable presents challenges related to governance and funding arrangements. These challenges result in (a) multiple accountability pressures, (b) population health outcomes whose change is measureable only over long time periods and (c) board of health activity that is often not the key immediate direct contributor to achieving desired outcomes. We examined how well these challenges are addressed in Ontario, Canada at early stages of implementation of a new accountability policy. Findings reveal that senior and middle management are open to being held accountable to the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC), but are more oriented to local boards of health and local/regional councils. These managers perceive the MOHLTC system as compliance oriented, and find internal accountability systems most helpful for performance improvement. Like health-care system accountability metrics, performance indicators are largely focused on structures and processes owing to the challenges of attributing population health outcomes to public health unit (PHU) activities. MOHLTC is in the process of responding to these challenges. PMID:25305391

  6. Hopes and realities of public health accountability policies.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Robert; Price, Alex; Deber, Raisa B; Manson, Heather; Scott, Fran

    2014-09-01

    Holding local boards of health accountable presents challenges related to governance and funding arrangements. These challenges result in (a) multiple accountability pressures, (b) population health outcomes whose change is measureable only over long time periods and (c) board of health activity that is often not the key immediate direct contributor to achieving desired outcomes. We examined how well these challenges are addressed in Ontario, Canada at early stages of implementation of a new accountability policy. Findings reveal that senior and middle management are open to being held accountable to the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC), but are more oriented to local boards of health and local/regional councils. These managers perceive the MOHLTC system as compliance oriented, and find internal accountability systems most helpful for performance improvement. Like health-care system accountability metrics, performance indicators are largely focused on structures and processes owing to the challenges of attributing population health outcomes to public health unit (PHU) activities. MOHLTC is in the process of responding to these challenges. PMID:25305391

  7. Proving the Viability of a School Choice Voucher. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Scott

    2015-01-01

    A recent Pioneer Institute report written by Ken Ardon and Cara Stilling Candal, "Modeling Urban Scholarship Vouchers in Massachusetts," explores the viability of a school choice voucher program in the Commonwealth. Nationally, school choice has been shown to improve parent satisfaction and student achievement, reduce racial segregation,…

  8. 76 FR 60357 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... implementing Executive Order No. 12866 (October 4, 1993, 58 FR 51735). OMB policy guidelines are issued under... and 48 CFR Ch. 1 Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting... Procurement Policy (OFPP) Policy Letters, and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting...

  9. Accounting for substitution and spatial heterogeneity in a labelled choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Lizin, S; Brouwer, R; Liekens, I; Broeckx, S

    2016-10-01

    Many environmental valuation studies using stated preferences techniques are single-site studies that ignore essential spatial aspects, including possible substitution effects. In this paper substitution effects are captured explicitly in the design of a labelled choice experiment and the inclusion of different distance variables in the choice model specification. We test the effect of spatial heterogeneity on welfare estimates and transfer errors for minor and major river restoration works, and the transferability of river specific utility functions, accounting for key variables such as site visitation, spatial clustering and income. River specific utility functions appear to be transferable, resulting in low transfer errors. However, ignoring spatial heterogeneity increases transfer errors. PMID:27372251

  10. Accounting for substitution and spatial heterogeneity in a labelled choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Lizin, S; Brouwer, R; Liekens, I; Broeckx, S

    2016-10-01

    Many environmental valuation studies using stated preferences techniques are single-site studies that ignore essential spatial aspects, including possible substitution effects. In this paper substitution effects are captured explicitly in the design of a labelled choice experiment and the inclusion of different distance variables in the choice model specification. We test the effect of spatial heterogeneity on welfare estimates and transfer errors for minor and major river restoration works, and the transferability of river specific utility functions, accounting for key variables such as site visitation, spatial clustering and income. River specific utility functions appear to be transferable, resulting in low transfer errors. However, ignoring spatial heterogeneity increases transfer errors.

  11. Enhancing Accountability in Schools: What Can Choice and Contracting Contribute? Education Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; LaRocque, Norman

    2007-01-01

    This note claims that contracting in education can be employed for initiatives of varying sizes and across a range of services. For policy-makers, contracting represents an effective means of introducing accountability in the education system. Contracting can also insulate governments from some of the criticism leveled at privatization. Moreover,…

  12. Multiple carbon accounting to support just and effective climate policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steininger, Karl W.; Lininger, Christian; Meyer, Lukas H.; Muñoz, Pablo; Schinko, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Negotiating reductions in greenhouse gas emission involves the allocation of emissions and of emission reductions to specific agents, and notably, within the current UN framework, to associated countries. As production takes place in supply chains, increasingly extending over several countries, there are various options available in which emissions originating from one and the same activity may be attributed to different agents along the supply chain and thus to different countries. In this way, several distinct types of national carbon accounts can be constructed. We argue that these accounts will typically differ in the information they provide to individual countries on the effects their actions have on global emissions; and they may also, to varying degrees, prove useful in supporting the pursuit of an effective and just climate policy. None of the accounting systems, however, prove 'best' in achieving these aims under real-world circumstances; we thus suggest compiling reliable data to aid in the consistent calculation of multiple carbon accounts on a global level.

  13. Urban America: Policy Choices for Los Angeles and the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, James B., Ed.; And Others

    This volume presents 13 essays on urban problems in the United States, particularly in Los Angeles (California) following the 1992 riots, and policy options for the future. Part 1 addresses policies of the past three decades; Part 2 looks at children, youth, and families; Part 3 discusses crime and criminal justice; and Part 4 examines public…

  14. School Choice Policies and Outcomes: Empirical and Philosophical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Walter, Ed.; Lubienski, Christopher, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Perhaps no school reform has generated as much interest and controversy in recent years as the proposal to have parents select their children's schools. Opponents of school choice fear that rolling back the government's role will lead to profit-driven financial scandals, sectarianism, and increased class and racial isolation. School choice…

  15. Post choice information integration as a causal determinant of confidence: Novel data and a computational account.

    PubMed

    Moran, Rani; Teodorescu, Andrei R; Usher, Marius

    2015-05-01

    Confidence judgments are pivotal in the performance of daily tasks and in many domains of scientific research including the behavioral sciences, psychology and neuroscience. Positive resolution i.e., the positive correlation between choice-correctness and choice-confidence is a critical property of confidence judgments, which justifies their ubiquity. In the current paper, we study the mechanism underlying confidence judgments and their resolution by investigating the source of the inputs for the confidence-calculation. We focus on the intriguing debate between two families of confidence theories. According to single stage theories, confidence is based on the same information that underlies the decision (or on some other aspect of the decision process), whereas according to dual stage theories, confidence is affected by novel information that is collected after the decision was made. In three experiments, we support the case for dual stage theories by showing that post-choice perceptual availability manipulations exert a causal effect on confidence-resolution in the decision followed by confidence paradigm. These finding establish the role of RT2, the duration of the post-choice information-integration stage, as a prime dependent variable that theories of confidence should account for. We then present a novel list of robust empirical patterns ('hurdles') involving RT2 to guide further theorizing about confidence judgments. Finally, we present a unified computational dual stage model for choice, confidence and their latencies namely, the collapsing confidence boundary model (CCB). According to CCB, a diffusion-process choice is followed by a second evidence-integration stage towards a stochastic collapsing confidence boundary. Despite its simplicity, CCB clears the entire list of hurdles.

  16. School Autonomy and Accountability in Thailand: Does the Gap between Policy Intent and Implementation Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Arcia, Gustavo; Macdonald, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article contrasts policy intent and policy implementation in school autonomy and accountability. The analysis uses a conceptual framework based on the interaction between school autonomy, student assessment, and accountability as elements of a closed system. The article analyzes the implementation of school autonomy and accountability policy,…

  17. US policy in the Balkans: A Hobson`s choice

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, S.J.; Johnson, W.T.; Tilford, E.H.

    1995-08-28

    At this writing, the strategic balance may have shifted in the ongoing war in the former Yugoslavia, and the region could be on the verge of a settlement. But, the window of opportunity may be fleeting, and the failures and frustrations of the past four years temper any optimism that conflict in the former Yugoslavia will end quickly or completely. If this opening passes without an end to the fighting, the United States may have to reassess its fundamental policy objectives-and the ways and means to achieve them-if peace is to be effected in the Balkans. The intent of this report, therefore, is to analyze and assess existing policies, to identify any conflicts or contradictions that may stymie U.S. efforts to bring about a peaceful resolution of the crisis, and to offer potential solutions. The report does not offer an ambitious criticism of policy or an expert`s solution to an intractable problem. Its more modest goal is to examine current policy within a context that fits Bosnia into the larger pattern of U.S. interests and policy. In this manner, the report offers a broader framework for the strategic decisions that may face the United States in the not so distant future.

  18. Choice.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jay

    2008-09-01

    Understanding how and why analysands make the choices they do is central to both the clinical and the theoretical projects of psychoanalysis. And yet we know very little about the process of choice or about the relationship between choices and motives. A striking parallel is to be found between the ways choice is narrated in ancient Greek texts and the experience of analysts as they observe patients making choices in everyday clinical work. Pursuing this convergence of classical and contemporary sensibilities will illuminate crucial elements of the various meanings of choice, and of the way that these meanings change over the course of psychoanalytic treatment.

  19. Choice.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jay

    2008-09-01

    Understanding how and why analysands make the choices they do is central to both the clinical and the theoretical projects of psychoanalysis. And yet we know very little about the process of choice or about the relationship between choices and motives. A striking parallel is to be found between the ways choice is narrated in ancient Greek texts and the experience of analysts as they observe patients making choices in everyday clinical work. Pursuing this convergence of classical and contemporary sensibilities will illuminate crucial elements of the various meanings of choice, and of the way that these meanings change over the course of psychoanalytic treatment. PMID:18802123

  20. School Choice Policy: Seeking to Balance Educational Efficiency and Equity. A Comparative Analysis of 20 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauri, Triin; Põder, Kaire

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the degree of choice in education systems has increased in most countries. Still, the variation of choice policies across countries is substantial. The authors ask under what combinations of conditions (i.e. institutional features of education systems) choice policy succeeds in balancing educational efficiency and equity. Using…

  1. Not Plain Sailing: Malaysia's Language Choice in Policy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Azirah

    2009-01-01

    This paper focusses on language and education issues in Malaysia as they have unfolded in the context of nation building, societal multilingualism and globalization from independence to the present day. The paper first examines the origin and nature of language and medium-of-instruction policies in Malaysia and the rationale for them. Secondly, it…

  2. Continuing the School Choice March: Policies to Promote Family K-12 Education Investment. Backgrounder. No. 2683

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lindsey M.; Sheffield, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Coverdell education savings accounts (ESAs), created through the federal tax code, allow families to save money tax-free for K-12 and higher education expenses. Lifting the cap on contributions to Coverdell accounts would provide greater access to school choice options by allowing families to invest more money in their children's education.…

  3. Relevance of methodological choices for accounting of land use change carbon fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansis, Eberhard; Davis, Steven J.; Pongratz, Julia

    2015-08-01

    Accounting for carbon fluxes from land use and land cover change (LULCC) generally requires choosing from multiple options of how to attribute the fluxes to regions and to LULCC activities. Applying a newly developed and spatially explicit bookkeeping model BLUE (bookkeeping of land use emissions), we quantify LULCC fluxes and attribute them to land use activities and countries by a range of different accounting methods. We present results with respect to a Kyoto Protocol-like "commitment" accounting period, using land use emissions of 2008-2012 as an example scenario. We assess the effect of accounting methods that vary (1) the temporal evolution of carbon stocks, (2) the state of the carbon stocks at the beginning of the period, (3) the temporal attribution of carbon fluxes during the period, and (4) treatment of LULCC fluxes that occurred prior to the beginning of the period. We show that the methodological choices result in grossly different estimates of carbon fluxes for the different attribution definitions.

  4. Government Accountability Reports and Public Education Policy: Studying Political Actors' Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Timothy Ross

    2013-01-01

    This study asks how government accountability reports are used to influence public education policy. Government accountability reports, called "audits" in Utah, prove to be useful tools for examining education policy. Using a collective case study design examining Utah's Class Size Reduction (CSR) policy, government accountability…

  5. Using decision pathway surveys to inform climate engineering policy choices.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Robin; Satterfield, Terre; Hasell, Ariel

    2016-01-19

    Over the coming decades citizens living in North America and Europe will be asked about a variety of new technological and behavioral initiatives intended to mitigate the worst impacts of climate change. A common approach to public input has been surveys whereby respondents' attitudes about climate change are explained by individuals' demographic background, values, and beliefs. In parallel, recent deliberative research seeks to more fully address the complex value tradeoffs linked to novel technologies and difficult ethical questions that characterize leading climate mitigation alternatives. New methods such as decision pathway surveys may offer important insights for policy makers by capturing much of the depth and reasoning of small-group deliberations while meeting standard survey goals including large-sample stakeholder engagement. Pathway surveys also can help participants to deepen their factual knowledge base and arrive at a more complete understanding of their own values as they apply to proposed policy alternatives. The pathway results indicate more fully the conditional and context-specific nature of support for several "upstream" climate interventions, including solar radiation management techniques and carbon dioxide removal technologies.

  6. Using decision pathway surveys to inform climate engineering policy choices

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Robin; Satterfield, Terre; Hasell, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Over the coming decades citizens living in North America and Europe will be asked about a variety of new technological and behavioral initiatives intended to mitigate the worst impacts of climate change. A common approach to public input has been surveys whereby respondents’ attitudes about climate change are explained by individuals’ demographic background, values, and beliefs. In parallel, recent deliberative research seeks to more fully address the complex value tradeoffs linked to novel technologies and difficult ethical questions that characterize leading climate mitigation alternatives. New methods such as decision pathway surveys may offer important insights for policy makers by capturing much of the depth and reasoning of small-group deliberations while meeting standard survey goals including large-sample stakeholder engagement. Pathway surveys also can help participants to deepen their factual knowledge base and arrive at a more complete understanding of their own values as they apply to proposed policy alternatives. The pathway results indicate more fully the conditional and context-specific nature of support for several “upstream” climate interventions, including solar radiation management techniques and carbon dioxide removal technologies. PMID:26729883

  7. Using decision pathway surveys to inform climate engineering policy choices.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Robin; Satterfield, Terre; Hasell, Ariel

    2016-01-19

    Over the coming decades citizens living in North America and Europe will be asked about a variety of new technological and behavioral initiatives intended to mitigate the worst impacts of climate change. A common approach to public input has been surveys whereby respondents' attitudes about climate change are explained by individuals' demographic background, values, and beliefs. In parallel, recent deliberative research seeks to more fully address the complex value tradeoffs linked to novel technologies and difficult ethical questions that characterize leading climate mitigation alternatives. New methods such as decision pathway surveys may offer important insights for policy makers by capturing much of the depth and reasoning of small-group deliberations while meeting standard survey goals including large-sample stakeholder engagement. Pathway surveys also can help participants to deepen their factual knowledge base and arrive at a more complete understanding of their own values as they apply to proposed policy alternatives. The pathway results indicate more fully the conditional and context-specific nature of support for several "upstream" climate interventions, including solar radiation management techniques and carbon dioxide removal technologies. PMID:26729883

  8. Innovations in Arizona's Accountability Policies and Frameworks for Alternative Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlessman, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This study presents Arizona's innovations in academic accountability policy and academic accountability frameworks for alternative schools. A timeline of statutes and regulations including the State Board of Education approved alternative school definition provides Arizona's context for alternative school accountability policy and…

  9. Teachers' Responses to Policy Implementation: Interactions of New Accountability Policies and Culturally Relevant Pedagogy in Urban School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Helen H.

    This paper explores how new accountability policies interact with culturally relevant teaching at the classroom level. When teachers are under the constraints of accountability and student testing policies, are they able to adopt and practice culturally relevant pedagogy in their classrooms? Previous research indicates that high-stakes…

  10. Accounting for Attribute-Level Non-Attendance in a Health Choice Experiment: Does it Matter?

    PubMed

    Erdem, Seda; Campbell, Danny; Hole, Arne Risa

    2015-07-01

    An extensive literature has established that it is common for respondents to ignore attributes of the alternatives within choice experiments. In most of the studies on attribute non-attendance, it is assumed that respondents consciously (or unconsciously) ignore one or more attributes of the alternatives, regardless of their levels. In this paper, we present a new line of enquiry and approach for modelling non-attendance in the context of investigating preferences for health service innovations. This approach recognises that non-attendance may not just be associated with attributes but may also apply to the attribute's levels. Our results show that respondents process each level of an attribute differently: while attending to the attribute, they ignore a subset of the attribute's levels. In such cases, the usual approach of assuming that respondents either attend to the attribute or not, irrespective of its levels, is erroneous and could lead to misguided policy recommendations. Our results indicate that allowing for attribute-level non-attendance leads to substantial improvements in the model fit and has an impact on estimated marginal willingness to pay and choice predictions.

  11. Effect of selected psychological characteristics upon choice-shift patterns found within hierarchical groups of public accountants.

    PubMed

    Kent, D Donald; Arnold, Donald F; Nydegger, Rudy V

    2002-08-01

    The goals of this study were to examine, first, the relationship between choice shift and three psychological variables (social desirability, locus of control, and moral reasoning) and, second, the influence of these and subjects' employment position on the choice-shift phenomenon within the context of a professional accounting setting. The sample of 60 subjects (four auditors per group, each holding different employment ranks within their firms, yielding 15 groups, each from a different small to medium size CPA firm), participated in three group decision-making tasks related to common accounting and auditing risk-assessment issues. The exercise consisted of three iterations of a standard choice-shift exercise followed by three standardized tests to mcasure the selected psychological characteristics. Analysis indicated that choice shifts were not significantly affected by subjects' psychological characteristics. Instead, subjects' position in an organization influenced choice shift, and the higher the position, the less absolute shift shown.

  12. Policy Burdens, Accountability and Soft Budget Constraint of Chinese HEIs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Jianhai

    2008-01-01

    Policy burdens of HEIs (higher education institutions) lead to the soft budget constraint (SBC) and the excessive loans of HEIs. Since information asymmetry and incentive are incompatible, policy burdens will result in the adverse selection of the president, and the excessive loans and low efficiency of HEIs. When HEIs are with policy burdens, the…

  13. The Struggle for School Choice Policy after Zelman: Regulation vs. the Free Market. Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omand, H. Lillian

    Private school regulation is a growing concern among school choice proponents. This paper uses a national survey of private schools to analyze the potential effects of various regulations. More than 1,000 schools answered questions about their willingness to participate in school choice programs if they had to comply with particular regulations.…

  14. Uneven Playing Field: Demographic Differences and High School "Choice" in Philadelphia. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research for Action, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Every fall, eighth graders participate in the School District of Philadelphia's high school application and admissions process, vying for spots in a tiered system of public high schools across the city. This policy brief looks at disparities in the students who are successful in exercising school "choice" in the District's high school selection…

  15. Private Education: Studies in Choice and Public Policy. Yale Studies on Nonprofit Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Daniel C.

    Private education and comparisons between private and public education at the collegiate and elementary/secondary levels are discussed in 11 articles. Attention is directed to relationships between private choice and public policy as they affect the quality, finance, governance, mission, and division of labor in a cross-national, interdisciplinary…

  16. Financing Early Care and Education: Funding and Policy Choices in a Changing Fiscal Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clothier, Steffanie; Clemens, Beth; Poppe, Julie

    Because of an increasingly challenging fiscal climate, state lawmakers are faced with making tough financial decisions regarding their early childhood systems. This document describes and examines various funding sources used when making decisions about possible early childhood initiatives combined with policy choices that may be considered in…

  17. Efficiency and Equity within European Education Systems and School Choice Policy: Bridging Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poder, Kaire; Kerem, Kaie; Lauri, Triin

    2013-01-01

    We seek out the good institutional features of the European choice policies that can enhance both equity and efficiency at the system level. For causality analysis we construct the typology of 28 European educational systems by using fuzzy-set analysis. We combine five independent variables to indicate institutional features of school choice…

  18. Externalities and School Enrollment Policy: A Supply-Side Analysis of School Choice in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Kat Sonia

    2010-01-01

    This article is an in-progress examination of the current landscape of school choice in a well-known case of universal decentralization: New Zealand's public school system. Using a supply-side analysis of the implications of a specific policy--school enrollment schemes--this author seeks to test hypotheses about zoning and self-preservation using…

  19. [Influenza A from the rational choice theory: proposals for decision making in prevention policies].

    PubMed

    Peña, Francisco Garrido; Fernández, Luís Andrés López; García, Eugenia Gil

    2009-01-01

    This article is a reflection on the social uncertainty caused by Influenza A and on the consequences that it can have on decision making in health promotion policies. We use concepts and metaphors of the Rational Choice Theory, among them, the "in gratitude effect" or the "distrust effect", as we analyse how these can become obstacles for the efficiency of prevention policies. Then, we focus on the information asymmetry of the principal-agent relationship, and we propose measures to diminish the "moral risk" that they cause. We finish by advancing some proposals for designing lines and strategies of action in health promotion policies.

  20. Education Savings Accounts: A Promising Way Forward on School Choice. WebMemo. No. 3382

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lindsey M.

    2011-01-01

    Across the country, states are enacting and expanding school choice options for families. This year alone, 12 states and the District of Columbia have implemented new school choice options for children or expanded existing options, leading The Wall Street Journal to label 2011 "The Year of School Choice." Among the many school choice advances in…

  1. Special Education & School Choice: The Complex Effects of Small Schools, School Choice and Public High School Policy in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessen, Sarah Butler

    2013-01-01

    This article begins to unpack the complex effects of the policies of both the small schools and choice on students with special needs. Drawing on qualitative data collected throughout the 2008-2009 academic year and a range of quantitative data from New York City's public high schools, the author shows that while small schools and choice are…

  2. The fallacy of choice in the common law and NHS policy.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Ingrid

    2013-06-01

    Neither the English courts nor the National Health Service (NHS) have been immune to the modern mantra of patient choice. This article examines whether beneath the rhetoric any form of real choice is endorsed either in law or in NHS policy. I explore the case law on 'consent', look at choice within the NHS and highlight the dilemmas that a mismatch of language and practice poses for clinicians. Given the variance in interpretation and lack of consistency for the individual patient I argue for a semantic change that obviates the use of 'choice', focussing instead on the options for treatment that are available and accessible, with due acknowledgement of individual patient preferences, without raising unfettered and false expectations.

  3. The "Policy Cycle": A Ball by Ball Account.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Richard; Troyna, Barry

    1994-01-01

    Concerned with Stephen Ball's theoretical and empirical contribution to contemporary "education policy sociology," this article examines the efficacy of his theoretical eclecticism, highlighting incompatibilities in his interpretation and application of certain social and political theorists. Ball's representation of the policy cycle, as applied…

  4. Validity Theory: Reform Policies, Accountability Testing, and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    2016-01-01

    Educational policies such as Race to the Top in the USA affirm a central role for testing systems in government-driven reform efforts. Such reform policies are often referred to as the global education reform movement (GERM). Changes observed with the GERM style of testing demand socially engaged validity theories that include consequential…

  5. Measuring the Alignment between States' Finance and Accountability Policies: The Opportunity Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della Sala, Matthew R.; Knoeppel, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The research described in this paper expands on attempts to conceptualize, measure, and evaluate the degree to which states have aligned their finance systems with their respective accountability policies. State education finance and accountability policies serve as levers to provide equal educational opportunities for all students--scholars have…

  6. A bed too far. The implementation of freedom of choice policy in the NHS.

    PubMed

    García-Lacalle, Javier

    2008-07-01

    Freedom of hospital choice has become a popular policy among the European public health services to ensure better patient rights, reduce waiting times and improve efficiency and quality in public hospitals. The English National Health Service has recently adopted this policy. This organisation needs to introduce important reforms in order to implement this policy, in particular in the information that it provides to patients. This paper presents the Andalusian Health Service (SAS) initiative in the disclosure of information, based on patient surveys, so it can be understood by patients. Andalusia implemented a freedom of choice policy 10 years ago. This paper also studies how SAS hospitals are scored by patients and how the quality of hospitals may affect their choice. Regression analyses indicate that two hospital dimensions, a 'human dimension' and a 'facilities dimension', significantly explain how patients assess the quality of the Andalusian hospitals. Nonetheless, these two dimensions do not explain the reputation of the hospitals, a main aspect when choosing a hospital, to the same extent. The lessons provided by looking at the SAS experience may give an insightful knowledge on whether patients in England will finally opt for the best hospitals. PMID:18078681

  7. High-Stakes Choice: Achievement and Accountability in the Nation's Oldest Urban Voucher Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Carlson, Deven E.; Fleming, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the impact of a high-stakes testing and reporting requirement on students using publicly funded vouchers to attend private schools. We describe how such a policy was implemented during the course of a previously authorized multi-year evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program, which provided us with data on voucher…

  8. Social Justice in Australian Higher Education Policy: An Historical and Conceptual Account of Student Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Trevor; Tranter, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a synoptic account of historically changing conceptions and practices of social justice in Australian higher education policy. It maps the changes in this policy arena, beginning with the period following the Second World War and concluding with an analysis of the most recent policy proposals of the Bradley Review.…

  9. Crafting Coherence from Complex Policy Messages: Educators' Perceptions of Special Education and Standards-Based Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jennifer Lin; Bray, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    Federal special education and accountability policies requires that educators individualize instruction for students with disabilities, while simultaneously ensuring that the vast majority of these students meet age-based grade-level standards and assessment targets. In this paper, we examine this dynamic interplay between policies through…

  10. Carbon accounting of forest bioenergy: from model calibrations to policy options (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamers, P.

    2013-12-01

    Programs to stimulate biomass use for the production of heating/cooling and electricity have been implemented in many countries as part of their greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies. Critiques claim however that the use of forest biomass, e.g. as a replacement of hard-coal in large-scale power plants or mineral oil fuelled residential heating boilers, countervails carbon saving and thus also climate change mitigation strategies, at least in the short-term, as forest biomass combustion releases previously stored biogenic carbon back into the atmosphere. While there seems general agreement that carbon emitted from bioenergy combustion was and will again be sequestered from the atmosphere given a sustainable biomass management system, there is inherent concern that carbon release and sequestration rates may not be in temporal balance with each other and eventually jeopardize mid-century carbon/temperature/climate targets. So far, biomass carbon accounting systems (including those that are part of regulatory standards) have not incorporated this potential temporal imbalance or ';carbon debt'. The potential carbon debt caused by wood harvest and the resulting time spans needed to reach pre-harvest carbon levels (payback) or those of a reference case (parity) have become important parameters for climate and bioenergy policy developments. The present range of analyses however varies in assumptions, regional scopes, and conclusions. Policy makers are confronted with this portfolio while needing to address the temporal carbon aspect in current regulations. In order to define policies for our carbon constrained world, it is critical to better understand the dimensions and regional differences of these carbon cycles. This paper/presentation discusses to what extent and under which circumstances (i.e. bioenergy systems) a temporal forest carbon imbalance could jeopardize future temperature and eventually climate targets. It further reviews the current state of

  11. 42 CFR 600.710 - Fiscal policies and accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... certification. Obtain an annual certification from the BHP trustees, the State's chief financial officer, or... accordance with OMB Circular A-133, and must follow the cost accounting principles in OMB Circular A-87....

  12. Markets, modernisation and national interest: three faces of patient choice policy in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Hasan Hüseyin; Hughes, David; Yıldırım, Türkan

    2011-03-01

    This article discusses three faces of patient choice policy in a developing country, Turkey. As part of its wider health transformation programme (HTP), Turkey has created a purchaser/provider system in which a single public purchaser channels funding to a range of public and private hospitals, and patients--in theory at least--are given significant freedoms to choose their hospital and physician. At the same time, marketisation has been softened by an emphasis on the creation of 'human-centred' services, resulting in a variety of initiatives to enhance patient rights and using a similar rhetoric to that employed in modernising 'third-way' reforms in countries such as the United Kingdom. We argue that neither markets nor modernisation fully explain the specifics of Turkish choice policy, which is also driven by the strong political imperative arising from Turkey's proximity to the European Union and its accession ambitions. Europeanisation represents an approach to markets softened by social solidarity, and gives the Turkish reforms a very different profile from neo-liberal reforms implemented in other middle income countries. However, in practice, medical workforce shortages, the uneven distribution of resources across the nation, and the lack of systematic information on provider outcomes limit the scope of choice for much of the population. In this situation, a planned allocation of resources to support equity of provision has advantages over a system where resource flows to providers are determined by individual patient choices.

  13. A systematic method of accountability. Sound policies allow facilities to account for the level of charity care they provide.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, H H; Weiss, S J; Melichar, C

    1992-11-01

    Charity care policies can help hospitals accurately determine, define, and account for the level of charity care they provide. This information will help hospitals budget appropriately and measure trends that will ultimately affect the organization's viability. State governments, the federal government, and the Internal Revenue Service are more closely scrutinizing not-for-profit hospitals' tax-exempt status. As a result, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) has revised its requirement to report on charity care. To meet the AICPA's requirement, healthcare providers must develop their own definition of charity and determine criteria for providing care free or at a reduced rate. Setting policies to support the organization's definition of charity is necessary for the development of internal systems that promote the early identification of individuals seeking healthcare who will be unable to pay for services. Several policy implications may result from the facility's charity care determination process. For example, patients exhibiting extreme hardship might still be eligible to receive charity care even though their income and assets exceed the hospital's income guidelines. An organization planning to develop a charity care policy must first thoroughly assess its current charity care practices and cost accounting capabilities. Obtaining input from all the departments involved in the development of the charity care policy is necessary to make the transition as smooth as possible.

  14. A systematic method of accountability. Sound policies allow facilities to account for the level of charity care they provide.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, H H; Weiss, S J; Melichar, C

    1992-11-01

    Charity care policies can help hospitals accurately determine, define, and account for the level of charity care they provide. This information will help hospitals budget appropriately and measure trends that will ultimately affect the organization's viability. State governments, the federal government, and the Internal Revenue Service are more closely scrutinizing not-for-profit hospitals' tax-exempt status. As a result, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) has revised its requirement to report on charity care. To meet the AICPA's requirement, healthcare providers must develop their own definition of charity and determine criteria for providing care free or at a reduced rate. Setting policies to support the organization's definition of charity is necessary for the development of internal systems that promote the early identification of individuals seeking healthcare who will be unable to pay for services. Several policy implications may result from the facility's charity care determination process. For example, patients exhibiting extreme hardship might still be eligible to receive charity care even though their income and assets exceed the hospital's income guidelines. An organization planning to develop a charity care policy must first thoroughly assess its current charity care practices and cost accounting capabilities. Obtaining input from all the departments involved in the development of the charity care policy is necessary to make the transition as smooth as possible. PMID:10122079

  15. The Relationship between Time Allocated for Science in Elementary Schools and State Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, student achievement results from mathematics and reading are always included in high-stakes accountability calculations. Because of this, it has been argued that other subjects have been minimized due to assessment and accountability policies. In this study, the accountability practices of states were differentiated into…

  16. An Historical Account of the Bilingual Education Policy in Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Bienvenu, Elena; Prewitt-Diaz, Joseph O.

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of bilingual education programs in Peru. The first part of the paper consists of a general discussion of Peruvian history and the problem of native language suppression under Spanish colonialism and, later, a Spanish dominant independent government. Educational policies and the…

  17. The development of international health policies--accountability intact?

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, I

    2000-09-01

    International health governance as it exists today is facing major structural challenges in view of globalization, the increased transfer of international health risks and the mounting challenge of health inequalities worldwide. As a consequence the capacity of nation states to ensure population health and to address major health determinants has been weakened. This paper explores health as an exemplary field to illustrate that we have entered a new era of public policy which is defined by increasing overlaps between domestic and foreign policy, multilateral and bilateral strategies and national and international interest. Cross border spill overs and externalities of national actions need to move into the core of public policy at the national and global level within a new rules based system. A new perspective on global health governance is further necessitated through the increased number of players in the global health arena. The organizational form that is emerging is based on networks and is characterized by shifting alliances and blurred lines of responsibility. The paper explores the emerging paradox of state sovereignty and makes a set of proposals to pool state sovereignty on health and structure the myriad of networks. Particular attention is given to the role of the World Health Organization within this process of change and adjustment. In using a framework from international relations analysis the paper explores how nation states are socialized into accepting new norms, values and perceptions of interest with regard to national and international health and what challenges emerge for the WHO in "inventing" global health policy. PMID:10972440

  18. Accounting for Money. Supervising: Economic and Financial Aspects. The Choice Series #70. A Self Learning Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bainbridge, Dennis

    This student guide is intended to assist persons employed as supervisors in accounting for money. Discussed in the first four sections are the following topics: the need for accounts; financial accounting (basics of financial accounting, creditors and debtors, assets and liabilities, and balance sheets); cost and management accounting (company,…

  19. Rethinking forest carbon assessments to account for policy institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Andrew; Keith, Heather; Lindenmayer, David

    2015-10-01

    There has been extensive debate about whether the sustainable use of forests (forest management aimed at producing a sustainable yield of timber or other products) results in superior climate outcomes to conservation (maintenance or enhancement of conservation values without commercial harvesting). Most of the relevant research has relied on consequential life-cycle assessment (LCA), with the results tending to show that sustainable use has lower net greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions than conservation in the long term. However, the literature cautions that results are sensitive to forest- and market-related contextual factors: the carbon density of the forests, silvicultural and wood processing practices, and the extent to which wood products and forest bioenergy displace carbon-intensive alternatives. Depending on these issues, conservation can be better for the climate than sustainable use. Policy institutions are another key contextual factor but, so far, they have largely been ignored. Using a case study on the Southern Forestry Region (SFR) of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, we show how policy institutions can affect the assessed outcomes from alternative forest management strategies. Our results highlight the need for greater attention to be paid to policy institutions in forest carbon research.

  20. Can You Pick Out the Accountant? Students' Interests and Career Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacko, Harsha E.

    1991-01-01

    Discriminant analysis showed that 97 accounting and hospitality management majors could be identified by their Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory scores. Academic Comfort scores found accounting students more comfortable in the academic environment. Accounting students preferred more introverted activities. (JOW)

  1. Accountability for Equity: Can State Policy Leverage Social Justice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skrla, Linda; Scheurich, James Joseph; Johnson, Joseph F., Jr.; Koschoreck, James W.

    2001-01-01

    Presenting evidence of widespread racism in schools and its negative effect on children of color, authors argue for the use of state accountability systems to achieve educational equity and social justice for racial minorities. Results of Texas achievement test showing a narrowing of academic achievement gap between whites and minorities are cited…

  2. New Assessments for Improved Accountability. Policy Brief 2011-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton Project, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, educational reforms have increased efforts to hold teachers and schools accountable for student test scores. Schools without significant progress on test scores have been subject to reductions in funding and even replacement of school leadership. The purpose of these actions is to increase student achievement by raising…

  3. School Leadership and Teachers' Motivation To Implement Accountability Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Kenneth; Steinbach, Rosanne; Jantzi, Doris

    2002-01-01

    Guided by a synthesis of theory on human motivation and evidence about teachers' motivation to implement school reform, study aims to better understand the responses of teachers and school administrators to government accountability initiatives and to assess the extent to which leadership practices had a bearing on those responses. (Contains 65…

  4. A Taxonomy of Accountable Care Organizations for Policy and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Shortell, Stephen M; Wu, Frances M; Lewis, Valerie A; Colla, Carrie H; Fisher, Elliott S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop an exploratory taxonomy of Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) to describe and understand early ACO development and to provide a basis for technical assistance and future evaluation of performance. Data Sources/Study Setting Data from the National Survey of Accountable Care Organizations, fielded between October 2012 and May 2013, of 173 Medicare, Medicaid, and commercial payer ACOs. Study Design Drawing on resource dependence and institutional theory, we develop measures of eight attributes of ACOs such as size, scope of services offered, and the use of performance accountability mechanisms. Data are analyzed using a two-step cluster analysis approach that accounts for both continuous and categorical data. Principal Findings We identified a reliable and internally valid three-cluster solution: larger, integrated systems that offer a broad scope of services and frequently include one or more postacute facilities; smaller, physician-led practices, centered in primary care, and that possess a relatively high degree of physician performance management; and moderately sized, joint hospital–physician and coalition-led groups that offer a moderately broad scope of services with some involvement of postacute facilities. Conclusions ACOs can be characterized into three distinct clusters. The taxonomy provides a framework for assessing performance, for targeting technical assistance, and for diagnosing potential antitrust violations. PMID:25251146

  5. Choice School Accountability: A Consensus of Views in Ohio and Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dunk, Emily

    In the cities of Cleveland, Ohio, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, more than 4,500 students are receiving public money in the form of scholarships and vouchers to attend private schools. The Milwaukee school choice program began in 1989, and the Cleveland scholarship program began in 1996. These school choice programs have spurred much debate, with…

  6. The impacts of recent smoking control policies on individual smoking choice: the case of Japan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This article comprehensively examines the impact of recent smoking control policies in Japan, increases in cigarette taxes and the enforcement of the Health Promotion Law, on individual smoking choice by using multi-year and nationwide individual survey data to overcome the analytical problems of previous Japanese studies. In the econometric analyses, I specify a simple binary choice model based on a random utility model to examine the effects of smoking control policies on individual smoking choice by employing the instrumental variable probit model to control for the endogeneity of cigarette prices. The empirical results show that an increase in cigarette prices statistically significantly reduces the smoking probability of males by 1.0 percent and that of females by 1.4 to 2.0 percent. The enforcement of the Health Promotion Law has a statistically significant effect on reducing the smoking probability of males by 15.2 percent and of females by 11.9 percent. Furthermore, an increase in cigarette prices has a statistically significant negative effect on the smoking probability of office workers, non-workers, male manual workers, and female unemployed people, and the enforcement of the Health Promotion Law has a statistically significant effect on decreasing the smoking probabilities of office workers, female manual workers, and male non-workers. JEL classification C25, C26, I18 PMID:23497490

  7. The Turbulent Policy Environment in Education: Implications for School Administration and Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowson, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines turbulence in U.S. education, explaining how today's changing educational policy environment causes new frustrations. Suggests that federal, state, local, and site- level are current sources of indecision and struggle that have implications for today's choice of direction concerning inquiry and leadership for public education. Discusses…

  8. The Rules of Engagement: Examining the Limits of Standards and Accountability Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easley, Jacob, II.

    2013-01-01

    Standards and accountability policies are central elements of school reform agendas aimed at equalizing students' access to quality education and closing the achievement gap. Yet, such policies have failed to yield the expected, large scale results. One explanation may be found in the embedded zones of wishful thinking. Two particular zones…

  9. Partisan Differences on Higher Education Accountability Policy: A Multi-State Study of Elected State Legislators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Andrew Q.

    2014-01-01

    Public institutions in the United States face a policy challenge to adapt to accountability expectations among a variety of stakeholders (Bogue & Hall, 2012; Thelin, 2004; Richardson & Martinez, 2009). Among the major stakeholders are state legislators who hold fiscal and policy influence over public institutions, but these leaders have…

  10. High Stakes Accountability and Policy Implementation: Teacher Decision Making in Bilingual Classrooms in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Deborah; Rangel, Virginia Snodgrass

    2011-01-01

    This article contributes to an emerging body of literature on the impact of high stakes testing accountability policies on implementation and teaching practice. It uses a theory of implementation, sense-making, to highlight the process by which policy and context shape teacher decision making. We focus on teachers in bilingual classrooms in an…

  11. States Moving from Accreditation to Accountability. Accreditation: State School Accreditation Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wixom, Micah Ann

    2014-01-01

    Accreditation policies vary widely among the states. Since Education Commission of the States last reviewed public school accreditation policies in 1998, a number of states have seen their legislatures take a stronger role in accountability--resulting in a move from state-administered accreditation systems to outcomes-focused state accountability…

  12. Increasing the Transparency of Stated Choice Studies for Policy Analysis: Designing Experiments to Produce Raw Response Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sur, Dipika; Cook, Joseph; Chatterjee, Susmita; Deen, Jacqueline; Whittington, Dale

    2007-01-01

    We believe a lack of transparency undermines both the credibility of, and interest in, stated choice studies among policy makers. Unlike articles reporting the results of contingent valuation studies, papers in the stated choice literature rarely present simple tabulations of raw response data (that is, a table or graph showing the percentage of…

  13. When Accountability Strategies Collide: Do Policy Changes That Raise Accountability Standards Also Erode Public Satisfaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Rebecca; Saultz, Andrew; Snyder, Jeffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    No Child Left Behind (NCLB) requires that two accountability strategies--raising standards and public pressure through publicizing performance data--be implemented simultaneously. However, when coupled, they may produce an inappropriate consequence for public opinion. The public may misunderstand the drop in achievement that occurs when the bar is…

  14. Policy Trends and Tensions in Accountability for Educational Management and Services in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaafar, Sonia Ben; Anderson, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Accountability structures and processes have become such an integral part of education policy development and implementation that Ranson (2003) argues, "accountability is no longer merely an important instrument or component within the system, but constitutes the system itself" (p. 459). This argument is supported by the growth of an orientation…

  15. Community-Based School Finance and Accountability: A New Era for Local Control in Education Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez Heilig, Julian; Ward, Derrick R.; Weisman, Eric; Cole, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Top-down accountability policies have arguably had very limited impact over the past 20 years. Education stakeholders are now contemplating new forms of bottom-up accountability. In 2013, policymakers in California enacted a community-based approach that creates the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) process for school finance to increase…

  16. The Politics of Public Accountability: Implications for Centralized Music Education Policy Development and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsley, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses accountability issues that affect music education policy and implementation in the neoliberal education system. Using examples from education reform in Ontario, Canada, the author argues that two forms of accountability imbalances fostered by the neoliberal state--hierarchical answerability over communicative reason and…

  17. 22 CFR 1003.1 - General policies, conditions of disclosure, accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions. 1003.1 Section 1003.1 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN... disclosure, accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions. (a) The Inter-American Foundation will... only where an important public policy need for such exemption has been determined pursuant to...

  18. The Impact of High-Stakes Accountability Policies on Native American Learners: Evidence from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Teresa L.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines research on the impacts of high-stakes accountability policies in the USA--in particular, the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001--on Native American learners. NCLB's goals are laudable: close the achievement gap by making schools accountable for learning among all student groups, and by ensuring that all students are…

  19. Does public reporting measure up? Federalism, accountability and child-care policy in Canada.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lynell; Findlay, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    Governments in Canada have recently been exploring new accountability measures within intergovernmental relations. Public reporting has become the preferred mechanism in a range of policy areas, including early learning and child-care, and the authors assess its effectiveness as an accountability measure. The article is based on their experience with a community capacity-building project that considers the relationship between the public policy, funding and accountability mechanisms under the federal/provincial/territorial agreements related to child-care. The authors argue that in its current form, public reporting has not lived up to its promise of accountability to citizens. This evaluation is based on the standards that governments have set for themselves under the federal/provincial/territorial agreements, as well as guidelines set by the Public Sector Accounting Board, an independent body that develops accounting standards over time through consultation with governments.

  20. Air quality impacts of climate mitigation: UK policy and passenger vehicle choice.

    PubMed

    Mazzi, Eric A; Dowlatabadi, Hadi

    2007-01-15

    In 2001-2002 the UK began taxing vehicles according to CO2 emission rates. Since then, there has been a significant increase in consumer choice of small cars and diesel engines. We estimate CO2 reductions and air quality impacts resulting from UK consumers switching from petrol to diesel cars from 2001 to 2020. Annual reductions of 0.4 megatons (Mt) of CO2 and 1 million barrels of oil are estimated from switching to diesels. However, diesels emit higher levels of particulate matter estimated to result in 90 deaths annually (range 20-300). We estimate 570, 460, and 0 additional deaths per Mt of CO2 abated, for Euro III, Euro IV, and post-Euro IV emission class vehicles, respectively. CO2 policies are suspected to have contributed substantially to diesel growth, but the magnitude of impact has yet to be quantified rigorously. To the extent that CO2 policies contribute to diesel growth, coordinating CO2 controls with tightening of emission standards would save lives. This research shows that climate policy, while reducing fuel use and CO2, does not always ensure ancillary health benefits. Lessons from the UK can help inform policies designed elsewhere which strive to balance near-term ambient air quality and health with long-term climate mitigation.

  1. True Private Choice: A Practical Guide to School Choice after Zelman v. Simmons-Harris. Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gryphon, Marie

    In 2002, the Supreme court upheld an Ohio school choice program designed to help children leave Cleveland's failing public schools. This paper explains the history of the Cleveland program upheld in Zelman v. Simmons-Harris, describing the rules that the Supreme Court established for school choice. It includes examples and strategy to help…

  2. “Accommodating” smoke‐free policies: tobacco industry's Courtesy of Choice programme in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-01-01

    Objective To understand the implementation and effects of the Courtesy of Choice programme designed to “accommodate” smokers as an alternative to smoke‐free polices developed by Philip Morris International (PMI) and supported by RJ Reynolds (RJR) and British American Tobacco (BAT) since the mid‐1990s in Latin America. Methods Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, BAT “social reports”, news reports and tobacco control legislation. Results Since the mid‐1990s, PMI, BAT and RJR promoted Accommodation Programs to maintain the social acceptability of smoking. As in other parts of the world, multinational tobacco companies partnered with third party allies from the hospitality industry in Latin America. The campaign was extended from the hospitality industry (bars, restaurants and hotels) to other venues such as workplaces and airport lounges. A local public relations agency, as well as a network of engineers and other experts in ventilation systems, was hired to promote the tobacco industry's programme. The most important outcome of these campaigns in several countries was the prevention of meaningful smoke‐free policies, both in public places and in workplaces. Conclusions Courtesy of Choice remains an effective public relations campaign to undermine smoke‐free policies in Latin America. The tobacco companies' accommodation campaign undermines the implementation of measures to protect people from second‐hand smoke called for by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, perpetuating the exposure to tobacco smoke in indoor enclosed environments. PMID:17897975

  3. National greenhouse-gas accounting for effective climate policy on international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kander, Astrid; Jiborn, Magnus; Moran, Daniel D.; Wiedmann, Thomas O.

    2015-05-01

    National greenhouse-gas accounting should reflect how countries’ policies and behaviours affect global emissions. Actions that contribute to reduced global emissions should be credited, and actions that increase them should be penalized. This is essential if accounting is to serve as accurate guidance for climate policy. Yet this principle is not satisfied by the two most common accounting methods. Production-based accounting used under the Kyoto Protocol does not account for carbon leakage--the phenomenon of countries reducing their domestic emissions by shifting carbon-intensive production abroad. Consumption-based accounting (also called carbon footprinting) does not credit countries for cleaning up their export industries, and it also punishes some types of trade that could contribute to more carbon efficient production worldwide. We propose an improvement to consumption-based carbon accounting that takes technology differences in export sectors into account and thereby tends to more correctly reflect how national policy changes affect total global emissions. We also present empirical results showing how this new measure redraws the global emissions map.

  4. Policy interventions to improve rural retention among neurosurgeons in Iran: A discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Sima; Arab, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health workforce shortages in rural and remote areas are a global challenge that almost every health system has to deal with. This study aimed to discover neurosurgeons’ job preferences and propose policy interventions that could possibly increase their retention in rural, remote, or underserved areas. Methods: A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted in November 2014 with a sample of Iranian neurosurgeons selected from five contrary’s provinces representing the geographical diversity. Job attributes included income, dual practice opportunities, workload, proximity to family, clinical infrastructure, housing, educational facilities, and work location. Probit regression model was used to estimate the importance of different job attributes and examine the extent to which neurosurgeons were willing to tradeoff between monetary and nonmonetary attributes. Results: Findings indicated that increased salary, permission to undertake dual practice and access to adequate clinical infrastructure were the most important retention policies. Provision of subsidized housing and educational facilities also increased neurosurgeons’ attraction and retention in rural areas. Conclusion: A range of policy interventions focusing on both monetary and nonmonetary incentives are required to increase neurosurgeons’ retention in rural, remote, or underserved areas. PMID:26885340

  5. Energy, environment, and policy choices: Summer institutes for science and social studies educators

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, E.A.; Chiodo, J.J.; Gerber, B.L.

    1997-06-01

    The Center for Energy Education (CEE) is a partnership linking the University of Oklahoma, Close Up Foundation and Department of Energy. Based upon the theme of energy, environment and public policy, the CEE`s main purposes are to: (1) educate teachers on energy sources, environmental issues and decisionmaking choices regarding public policy; (2) develop interdisciplinary curricula that are interactive in nature (see attachments); (3) disseminate energy education curricula; (4) serve as a resource center for a wide variety of energy education materials; (5) provide a national support system for teachers in energy education; and (6) conduct research in energy education. The CEE conducted its first two-week experimentially-based program for educators during the summer of 1993. Beginning at the University of Oklahoma, 57 teachers from across the country examined concepts and issues related to energy and environment, and how the interdependence of energy and environment significantly influences daily life. During the second week of the institute, participants went to Washington, D.C. to examine the processes used by government officials to make critical decisions involving interrelationships among energy, environment and public policy. Similar institutes were conducted during the summers of 1994 and 1995 resulting in nearly 160 science and social studies educators who had participated in the CEE programs. Collectively the participants represented 36 states, the Pacific Territories, Puerto Rico, and Japan.

  6. The Policy of Choice: Expanding Student Options in Higher Education. The New Millennium Project on Higher Education Costs, Pricing, and Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Alisa Federico

    This report discusses what college choice means and how it works. Exploring in some detail the various definitions of choice, the report reveals what is known about the factors that influence students decisions, and the current status of choice. The analysis focuses on choice in relation to federal need-based financial aid policy. Higher education…

  7. 14 CFR 385.21 - Authority of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. 385.21 Section 385.21 Aeronautics and Space... of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. The Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration, has...

  8. 14 CFR 385.21 - Authority of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. 385.21 Section 385.21 Aeronautics and Space... of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. The Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration, has...

  9. 14 CFR 385.21 - Authority of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. 385.21 Section 385.21 Aeronautics and Space... of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. The Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration, has...

  10. 14 CFR 385.21 - Authority of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. 385.21 Section 385.21 Aeronautics and Space... of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. The Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration, has...

  11. 14 CFR 385.21 - Authority of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration. The Chief, Accounting Division, Office of Budget and Policy, Federal Transit Administration, has authority... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority of the Chief, Accounting...

  12. Negative Opinion of Company Environment Mediates Career Choice of Accountancy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, David Yoon Kin; Tong, Xue Fa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore accountancy students' pre-employment decisions as regards pursuing a career after completing an internship. The paper aims to analyse the mediating effect of aspects of students' training experience in firms as direct/indirect factors which influence their career decisions.…

  13. Choice and Community: The Racial, Economic, and Religious Context of Parental Choice in Cleveland. A Buckeye Institute Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.

    The Cleveland Scholarship Program (CSP), Cleveland, Ohio, is one of the school choice options available to families in the city. This report provides a snapshot of the CSP at the start of the 1999-2000 school year. Despite the claims of critics, the CSP contributes to racial integration in the city by providing families with access to private…

  14. Accountability Policies and Teacher Decision Making: Barriers to the Use of Data to Improve Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Debra; Louis, Karen Seashore; Schroeder, Roger G.

    2004-01-01

    One assumption underlying accountability policies is that results from standardized tests and other sources will be used to make decisions about school and classroom practice. We explore this assumption using data from a longitudinal study of nine high schools nominated as leading practitioners of Continuous Improvement (CI) practices. We use the…

  15. Do Accountability Policy Sanctions Influence Teacher Motivation? Lessons from Chicago's Low-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnigan, Kara S.; Gross, Betheny

    2007-01-01

    The federal No Child Left Behind Act and previous performance-based accountability policies are based on a theoretical assumption that sanctions will motivate school staff to perform at higher levels and focus attention on student outcomes. Using data from Chicago, this article draws on expectancy and incentive theories to examine whether…

  16. The States and Public Higher Education Policy: Affordability, Access, and Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Donald E., Ed.

    The selections in this volume explore the debates surrounding issues of affordability, access, and accountability in higher education. The contributors identify these issues as the three key policy issues facing public higher education in the opening years of the new century. Following an introduction, "The Changing Dynamics of Affordability,…

  17. Where Charter School Policy Fails: The Problems of Accountability and Equity. Sociology of Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Amy Stuart, Ed.

    This collection of papers suggests that the laissez-faire policies of charter school reform often exacerbate existing inequalities in U.S. schools. It is based on a study of 10 urban, suburban, and rural school districts and 17 diverse charter schools in California, focusing on accountability and equity to explore how charter school policies…

  18. A Research Review of the Impact of Accountability Policies on Teachers' Workplace Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mausethagen, Solvi

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews research on changes in teachers' workplace relations in a policy context that increasingly emphasizes accountability. The findings indicate that a greater focus on testing and student performance often leads to less attention to the caring and relational aspects of teachers' work. Prevailing and enduring ideas about teachers'…

  19. 76 FR 70037 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... / Thursday, November 10, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET 5 CFR Chapter III 48 CFR Chapter 1 Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda of Federal Activities; Withdrawal AGENCY: Office of...

  20. 38 CFR 1.576 - General policies, conditions of disclosure, accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General policies, conditions of disclosure, accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions. 1.576 Section 1.576 Pensions... (including the Executive Office of the President), or any independent regulatory agency. (2) The...

  1. Historicizing and Contextualizing Global Policy Discourses: Test- and Standards-Based Accountabilities in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This paper in commenting on the contributions to this special number demonstrates the necessity of historicizing and contextualizing the rise of test- and standards-based modes of accountability in contemporary education policy globally. Both are imperative for understanding specific national manifestations of what has become a globalized…

  2. Advocacy, Assessment and Accountability: Using Policy to Impact Practice in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorson, Kevin; Mitchell, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Physical education teachers and programs are affected by increasing accountability demands. The purpose of this article is to explain Ohio's journey from advocacy for state physical education academic content standards to state-level policy that led to the development of state-wide assessments and data reporting on each school's report card. The…

  3. Market Accountability in Schools: Policy Reforms in England, Germany, France and Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattei, Paola

    2012-01-01

    This article concentrates on the policy reforms of schools in England, Germany, France and Italy, from 1988 to 2009, with a focus on the introduction of market accountability. Pressing demands for organisational change in schools, shaped by the objectives of "efficiency" and competition, which were introduced in England in the 1980s, have been…

  4. California Accountability Policy and Intensification: A Quantitative Study of Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, William Ray

    2012-01-01

    The problem addressed by this study is the impact of the current high-stakes accountability policy on the work of teachers, and whether this impact has created an environment of intensification. Research has shown that intensification manifests itself in teachers' feeling a loss of autonomy, a de-professionalization of their working…

  5. Neoliberal Accountability and the Politics of Boys' Underachievement: Steering Policy by Numbers in the Ontario Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Wayne; Rezai-Rashti, Goli

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a particular critique of policy-making processes related to addressing the gender achievement gap in the Ontario context. The focus is on tracing the effects of a neoliberal regime of accountability in terms of the designation of boys as a disadvantaged group alongside other minority groups who have historically faced…

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis and policy choices: investing in health systems.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, C. J.; Kreuser, J.; Whang, W.

    1994-01-01

    The role of health systems infrastructure in studies of cost-effectiveness analysis and health resource allocation is discussed, and previous health sector cost-effectiveness analyses are cited. Two substantial difficulties concerning the nature of health system costs and the policy choices are presented. First, the issue of health system infrastructure can be addressed by use of computer models such as the Health Resource Allocation Model (HRAM) developed at Harvard, which integrates cost-effectiveness and burden of disease data. It was found that a model which allows for expansion in health infrastructure yields nearly 40% more total DALYs for a hypothetical sub-Saharan African country than a model which neglects infrastructure expansion. Widespread use of cost-effectiveness databases for resource allocations in the health sector will require the cost-effectiveness analyses shift from reporting costs to reporting production functions. Second, three distinct policy questions can be treated using these tools, each necessitating its own inputs and constraints: allocations when given a fixed budget and health infrastructure, or when given resources for marginal expansion, or when given a politically constrained situation of expanding resources. Confusion concerning which question is being addressed must be avoided through development of a consistent and rigorous approach to using cost-effectiveness data for informing resource allocations. PMID:7923545

  7. Renewable generation technology choice and policies in a competitive electricity supply industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Ashok

    Renewable energy generation technologies have lower externality costs but higher private costs than fossil fuel-based generation. As a result, the choice of renewables in the future generation mix could be affected by the industry's future market-oriented structure because market objectives based on private value judgments may conflict with social policy objectives toward better environmental quality. This research assesses how renewable energy generation choices would be affected in a restructured electricity generation market. A multi-period linear programming-based model (Resource Planning Model) is used to characterize today's electricity supply market in the United States. The model simulates long-range (2000-2020) generation capacity planning and operation decisions under alternative market paradigms. Price-sensitive demand is used to simulate customer preferences in the market. Dynamically changing costs for renewables and a two-step load duration curve are used. A Reference Case represents the benchmark for a socially-optimal diffusion of renewables and a basis for comparing outcomes under alternative market structures. It internalizes externality costs associated with emissions of sulfur dioxide (SOsb2), nitrous oxides (NOsbx), and carbon dioxide (COsb2). A Competitive Case represents a market with many generation suppliers and decision-making based on private costs. Finally, a Market Power Case models the extreme case of market power: monopoly. The results suggest that the share of renewables would decrease (and emissions would increase) considerably in both the Competitive and the Market Power Cases with respect to the Reference Case. The reduction is greater in the Market Power Case due to pricing decisions under existing supply capability. The research evaluates the following environmental policy options that could overcome market failures in achieving an appropriate level of renewable generation: COsb2 emissions tax, SOsb2 emissions cap, renewable

  8. Public policies, private choices: Consumer desire and the practice of energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deumling, Reuben Alexander

    Refrigerator energy consumption has been the subject of regulatory attention in the US for some thirty years. Federal product standards, energy labels, and a variety of programs to get consumers to discard their existing refrigerators sooner and buy new, more energy efficient ones have transformed the refrigerator landscape and changed how many of us think about refrigerators. The results of these policies are celebrated as a successful model for how to combine regulatory objectives and consumer preferences in pursuit of environmental outcomes where everyone wins. Yet per capita refrigerator energy consumption today remains (much) higher in the US than anywhere else, in part because energy efficiency overlooks the ways behavior, habit, emulation, social norms, advertising, and energy efficiency policies themselves shape energy consumption patterns. To understand these dynamics I investigate how people replacing their refrigerators through a state-sponsored energy efficiency program make sense of the choices facing them, and how various types of information designed to aid in this process (Consumer Reports tests, Energy Guide labels, rebate programs) frame the issue of responsible refrigerator consumption. Using interviews and archival research I examine how this information is used to script the choice of a refrigerator, whose priorities shape the form and content of these cues, and what the social meanings generated by and through encounters with refrigerators and energy efficiency are. I also helped build a model for estimating historic refrigerator energy consumption in the US, to measure the repercussions of refrigerator energy inefficiency. My focus in this dissertation is on the ways the pursuit of energy efficiency improvements for domestic refrigerators intersects with and sometimes reinforces escalating demand for energy. My research suggests that the practice of pursuing energy efficiency improvements in refrigerators subordinates the issue of

  9. An associative account of how the obesogenic environment biases adolescents' food choices.

    PubMed

    Watson, P; Wiers, R W; Hommel, B; Ridderinkhof, K R; de Wit, S

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and children are the targets of much food advertising, the majority of which is for unhealthy snacks. Although the effects of advertising on food preferences and consummatory behavior are well documented, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still limited. The present study investigates an associative (ideomotor) mechanism by which exposure to rewarding (snack) outcomes may activate behavior that previously resulted in these rewards. Specifically, we used a computerized task to investigate whether exposing adolescents to food pictures directly, or to Pavlovian cues predictive of those food pictures, would bias their subsequent responses towards the presented/signaled food. Furthermore, we assessed whether this effect was particularly pronounced with palatable, high-calorie snacks (crisps and chocolate) relative to low-calorie snacks (tomatoes and cucumber). In two experiments, adolescents learnt that certain key presses would yield particular food pictures - some high calorie and others low calorie - before learning Pavlovian associations between cues (cartoon monsters) and these same food pictures. Subsequently, in a response-priming test, we examined the extent to which the food pictures and Pavlovian cues spontaneously primed the previously associated response. The results show that we replicated, in adolescents, previous demonstrations of ideomotor response priming in adults: food pictures biased responding towards the response that previously yielded them, and this effect transferred to the Pavlovian cues. Furthermore, the priming effect was significantly stronger for high-calorie rewards than for low-calorie. These findings indicate that the ideomotor mechanism plays an important role in the detrimental effect of our obesogenic environment, with its plethora of unhealthy food reminders, on adolescents' food-related choices.

  10. An associative account of how the obesogenic environment biases adolescents' food choices.

    PubMed

    Watson, P; Wiers, R W; Hommel, B; Ridderinkhof, K R; de Wit, S

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and children are the targets of much food advertising, the majority of which is for unhealthy snacks. Although the effects of advertising on food preferences and consummatory behavior are well documented, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still limited. The present study investigates an associative (ideomotor) mechanism by which exposure to rewarding (snack) outcomes may activate behavior that previously resulted in these rewards. Specifically, we used a computerized task to investigate whether exposing adolescents to food pictures directly, or to Pavlovian cues predictive of those food pictures, would bias their subsequent responses towards the presented/signaled food. Furthermore, we assessed whether this effect was particularly pronounced with palatable, high-calorie snacks (crisps and chocolate) relative to low-calorie snacks (tomatoes and cucumber). In two experiments, adolescents learnt that certain key presses would yield particular food pictures - some high calorie and others low calorie - before learning Pavlovian associations between cues (cartoon monsters) and these same food pictures. Subsequently, in a response-priming test, we examined the extent to which the food pictures and Pavlovian cues spontaneously primed the previously associated response. The results show that we replicated, in adolescents, previous demonstrations of ideomotor response priming in adults: food pictures biased responding towards the response that previously yielded them, and this effect transferred to the Pavlovian cues. Furthermore, the priming effect was significantly stronger for high-calorie rewards than for low-calorie. These findings indicate that the ideomotor mechanism plays an important role in the detrimental effect of our obesogenic environment, with its plethora of unhealthy food reminders, on adolescents' food-related choices. PMID:26482282

  11. A review of the application and contribution of discrete choice experiments to inform human resources policy interventions.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, Mylene; Blaauw, Duane

    2009-01-01

    Although the factors influencing the shortage and maldistribution of health workers have been well-documented by cross-sectional surveys, there is less evidence on the relative determinants of health workers' job choices, or on the effects of policies designed to address these human resources problems. Recently, a few studies have adopted an innovative approach to studying the determinants of health workers' job preferences. In the absence of longitudinal datasets to analyse the decisions that health workers have actually made, authors have drawn on methods from marketing research and transport economics and used Discrete Choice Experiments to analyse stated preferences of health care providers for different job characteristics. We carried out a literature review of studies using discrete choice experiments to investigate human resources issues related to health workers, both in developed and developing countries. Several economic and health systems bibliographic databases were used, and contacts were made with practitioners in the field to identify published and grey literature. Ten studies were found that used discrete choice experiments to investigate the job preferences of health care providers. The use of discrete choice experiments techniques enabled researchers to determine the relative importance of different factors influencing health workers' choices. The studies showed that non-pecuniary incentives are significant determinants, sometimes more powerful than financial ones. The identified studies also emphasized the importance of investigating the preferences of different subgroups of health workers. Discrete choice experiments are a valuable tool for informing decision-makers on how to design strategies to address human resources problems. As they are relatively quick and cheap survey instruments, discrete choice experiments present various advantages for informing policies in developing countries, where longitudinal labour market data are seldom

  12. State Public Policies and the Racial/Ethnic Stratification of College Access and Choice in the State of Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura W.; Steele, Patricia; Woda, Susan; Hibbert, Taifa

    2005-01-01

    This study uses descriptive analyses of data from multiple sources to examine changes during the 1990s in the racial/ethnic stratification of college access and choice in Maryland and to explore state public policies that may have influenced changes in the demand for and supply of higher education for students of different racial/ethnic groups…

  13. Dealing with correlated choices: how a spin-glass model can help political parties select their policies.

    PubMed

    Moore, M A; Katzgraber, Helmut G

    2014-10-01

    Starting from preferences on N proposed policies obtained via questionnaires from a sample of the electorate, an Ising spin-glass model in a field can be constructed from which a political party could find the subset of the proposed policies which would maximize its appeal, form a coherent choice in the eyes of the electorate, and have maximum overlap with the party's existing policies. We illustrate the application of the procedure by simulations of a spin glass in a random field on scale-free networks. PMID:25375448

  14. Dealing with correlated choices: How a spin-glass model can help political parties select their policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. A.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2014-10-01

    Starting from preferences on N proposed policies obtained via questionnaires from a sample of the electorate, an Ising spin-glass model in a field can be constructed from which a political party could find the subset of the proposed policies which would maximize its appeal, form a coherent choice in the eyes of the electorate, and have maximum overlap with the party's existing policies. We illustrate the application of the procedure by simulations of a spin glass in a random field on scale-free networks.

  15. Dealing with correlated choices: how a spin-glass model can help political parties select their policies.

    PubMed

    Moore, M A; Katzgraber, Helmut G

    2014-10-01

    Starting from preferences on N proposed policies obtained via questionnaires from a sample of the electorate, an Ising spin-glass model in a field can be constructed from which a political party could find the subset of the proposed policies which would maximize its appeal, form a coherent choice in the eyes of the electorate, and have maximum overlap with the party's existing policies. We illustrate the application of the procedure by simulations of a spin glass in a random field on scale-free networks.

  16. Medicare program; clarification of Medicare's accrual basis of accounting policy--HCFA. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1995-06-27

    This final rule revises the Medicare regulations to clarify the concept of "accrual basis of accounting" to indicate that expenses must be incurred by a provider of health care services before Medicare will pay its share of those expenses. This rule does not signify a change in policy but, rather, incorporates into the regulations Medicare's longstanding policy regarding the circumstances under which we recognize, for the purposes of program payment, a provider's claim for costs for which it has not actually expended funds during the current cost reporting period. PMID:10143395

  17. Deciding Who Decides Questions at the Intersection of School Finance Reform Litigation and Standards-Based Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Superfine, Benjamin Michael

    2009-01-01

    Courts hearing school finance reform cases have recently begun to consider several issues related to standards-based accountability policies. This convergence of school finance reform litigation and standards-based accountability policies represents a chance for the courts to reallocate decision-making authority for each type of reform across the…

  18. Accounting for health in climate change policies: a case study of Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Georgina; Bowen, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Background Climate change is expected to affect the health of most populations in the coming decades, having the greatest impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged people in the world. The Pacific islands, including Fiji, are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Objective The three major health impacts of climate change in Fiji explored in this study were dengue fever, diarrhoeal disease, and malnutrition, as they each pose a significant threat to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent the Fiji National Climate Change Policy, and a selection of relevant sectoral policies, account for these human health effects of climate change. Design The study employed a three-pronged policy analysis to evaluate: 1) the content of the Fijian National Climate Change Policy and to what extent health was incorporated within this; 2) the context within which the policy was developed; 3) the relevant processes; and 4) the actors involved. A selection of relevant sectoral policies were also analysed to assess the extent to which these included climate change and health considerations. Results The policy analysis showed that these three health impacts of climate change were only considered to a minor extent, and often indirectly, in both the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and the corresponding National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, as well as the Public Health Act. Furthermore, supporting documents in relevant sectors including water and agriculture made no mention of climate change and health impacts. Conclusions The projected health impacts of climate change should be considered as part of reviewing the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, and the Public Health Act. In the interest of public health, this should include strategies for combating dengue fever, malnutrition, and water-borne disease. Related sectoral policies in water and agriculture should also be revised to

  19. More than Grades: How Choice Boosts Parental Involvement and Benefits Children. Policy Analysis, No. 383.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasallo, Philip

    A review of the research on school choice programs at city, state, and national levels indicates that choice schools support parents' involvement in their children's studies, encourage parents' participation in meaningful school activities, and engender greater satisfaction. Choice schools do so to a significantly greater degree than do…

  20. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, David J., Ed.

    This monograph, prepared to assist Georgia elementary principals to better understand accountability and its implications for educational improvement, sets forth many of the theoretical and philosophical bases from which accountability is being considered. Leon M. Lessinger begins this 5-paper presentation by describing the need for accountability…

  1. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  2. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Controversy surrounding the accountability movement is related to how the movement began in response to dissatisfaction with public schools. Opponents see it as one-sided, somewhat mean-spirited, and a threat to the professional status of teachers. Supporters argue that all other spheres of the workplace have accountability systems and that the…

  3. Reforming Districts through Choice, Autonomy, Equity, and Accountability: An Overview of the Voluntary Public School Choice Directors Meeting. Portfolio School Districts Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Betheny; Lake, Robin

    2011-01-01

    In February 2011, the Center on Reinventing Public Education (CRPE) convened a conference to help districts implementing school choice under the U.S. Department of Education's Voluntary Public School Choice program. The conference, sponsored by the Department of Education, provided grantees access to the most current knowledge from district and…

  4. Patient and nurse preferences for nurse handover—using preferences to inform policy: a discrete choice experiment protocol

    PubMed Central

    Spinks, Jean; Chaboyer, Wendy; Bucknall, Tracey; Tobiano, Georgia; Whitty, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Nursing bedside handover in hospital has been identified as an opportunity to involve patients and promote patient-centred care. It is important to consider the preferences of both patients and nurses when implementing bedside handover to maximise the successful uptake of this policy. We outline a study which aims to (1) identify, compare and contrast the preferences for various aspects of handover common to nurses and patients while accounting for other factors, such as the time constraints of nurses that may influence these preferences.; (2) identify opportunities for nurses to better involve patients in bedside handover and (3) identify patient and nurse preferences that may challenge the full implementation of bedside handover in the acute medical setting. Methods and analysis We outline the protocol for a discrete choice experiment (DCE) which uses a survey design common to both patients and nurses. We describe the qualitative and pilot work undertaken to design the DCE. We use a D-efficient design which is informed by prior coefficients collected during the pilot phase. We also discuss the face-to-face administration of this survey in a population of acutely unwell, hospitalised patients and describe how data collection challenges have been informed by our pilot phase. Mixed multinomial logit regression analysis will be used to estimate the final results. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by a university ethics committee as well as two participating hospital ethics committees. Results will be used within a knowledge translation framework to inform any strategies that can be used by nursing staff to improve the uptake of bedside handover. Results will also be disseminated via peer-reviewed journal articles and will be presented at national and international conferences. PMID:26560060

  5. The effectiveness of policy on consumer choices for private road passenger transport emissions reductions in six major economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercure, J.-F.; Lam, A.

    2015-06-01

    The effectiveness of fiscal policy to influence vehicle purchases for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset and analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of price, engine size and emissions distributions. We argue that choices and aggregate elasticities of substitution can be predicted using this data, enabling us to evaluate the effectiveness of potential fiscal and technological change policies on fleet-year emissions reductions. We provide tools to do so based on the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We find that markets differ significantly between nations, and that correlations between engine sizes, emissions and prices exist strongly in some markets and not strongly in others. We furthermore find that markets for unconventional engine technologies have patchy coverages of varying levels. These findings are interpreted in terms of policy strategy.

  6. The Policies, Politics, and Players in the North Carolina Parental School Choice Voucher Debate: Why Wisconsin Said Yes, but North Carolina Says No

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haire, Rita C.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the education policies, political dynamics, and key players in Wisconsin (WI) and North Carolina (NC) to develop a theory to explain how a targeted parental school choice voucher policy was legislated in WI but not in NC. The study seeks to offer a theoretical policy framework that explains the absence of a targeted…

  7. Factors influencing physicians’ choice of workplace: systematic review of drivers of attrition and policy interventions to address them

    PubMed Central

    El Koussa, Maria; Atun, Rifat; Bowser, Diana; Kruk, Margaret E

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The movement of skilled physicians from the public to the private sector is a key constraint to achieving universal health coverage and is currently affecting health systems worldwide. This systematic review aims to assess factors influencing physicians’ choice of workplace, and policy interventions for retaining physicians in the public sector. Methods Five literature databases were searched. Studies were included in the review if they focused on at least one of the following criteria: (i) incentives or motivators for retaining physicians in the public sector, (ii) pull factors that encouraged physicians to move to the private sector, (iii) push factors that forced physicians to leave the public sector, (iv) policy interventions or case studies that addressed physician retention in the public sector, and (v) qualitative reviews of policy interventions that were implemented in different health system settings. Results Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Six major themes that affected physicians’ choice of workplace were identified including: financial incentives, career development, infrastructure and staffing, professional work environment, workload and autonomy. The majority of the studies suggested that the use of financial incentives was a motivator in retaining physicians in the public sector. The review also identified policy interventions including: regulatory controls, incentives and management reforms. Regulatory controls and incentives were the two most frequently reported policy interventions. Conclusion While factors affecting physicians’ choice of workplace are country specific, financial incentives and professional development are core factors. Other factors are highly influenced by context, and thus, it would be useful for future cross–country research to use standardized data collection tools, allowing comparison of contextual factors as well as the examination of how context affects physician retention in the public

  8. Factors influencing physicians’ choice of workplace: systematic review of drivers of attrition and policy interventions to address them

    PubMed Central

    El Koussa, Maria; Atun, Rifat; Bowser, Diana; Kruk, Margaret E

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The movement of skilled physicians from the public to the private sector is a key constraint to achieving universal health coverage and is currently affecting health systems worldwide. This systematic review aims to assess factors influencing physicians’ choice of workplace, and policy interventions for retaining physicians in the public sector. Methods Five literature databases were searched. Studies were included in the review if they focused on at least one of the following criteria: (i) incentives or motivators for retaining physicians in the public sector, (ii) pull factors that encouraged physicians to move to the private sector, (iii) push factors that forced physicians to leave the public sector, (iv) policy interventions or case studies that addressed physician retention in the public sector, and (v) qualitative reviews of policy interventions that were implemented in different health system settings. Results Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Six major themes that affected physicians’ choice of workplace were identified including: financial incentives, career development, infrastructure and staffing, professional work environment, workload and autonomy. The majority of the studies suggested that the use of financial incentives was a motivator in retaining physicians in the public sector. The review also identified policy interventions including: regulatory controls, incentives and management reforms. Regulatory controls and incentives were the two most frequently reported policy interventions. Conclusion While factors affecting physicians’ choice of workplace are country specific, financial incentives and professional development are core factors. Other factors are highly influenced by context, and thus, it would be useful for future cross–country research to use standardized data collection tools, allowing comparison of contextual factors as well as the examination of how context affects physician retention in the public

  9. High Pressure Reform: Examining Urban Schools' Response to Multiple School Choice Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Jennifer Jellison; Carkhum, Rian; Rangel, Virginia Snodgrass

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several decades, policymakers have sought to address the problem of school failure by exposing traditional public schools to competitive market forces. In this analysis, we examine how two traditional public schools in a "high pressure/high choice" urban school cluster in Texas responded to a number of overlapping choice policies…

  10. Educational Choice--Thinking It Through. Insights on Educational Policy and Practice Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Joyce S.

    Before charging blindly into the issues of implementing educational choice programs, states and local districts need to stop and think about direction for efforts to improve and restructure education. Recent research shows that the most successful choice systems are tailored to their community's needs. Among the plans that have been implemented…

  11. Parental Choice and Language-of-Instruction Policies and Practices in Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemppainen, Raija; Ferrin, Scott Ellis

    2002-01-01

    Examines how language-of-instruction choice affects Estonian Russian-speaking minority students following legislation requiring Estonian-only secondary education. Research indicates that Russian-speaking choice parents selecting Estonian-speaking schools differ from nonchoice Russian-speaking parents in resourcefulness. Despite Soviet-era…

  12. School Choice: Economic and Fiscal Perspectives. Policy Report PR-B12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addonizio, Michael

    This paper applies economic concepts to several school choice issues, identifying various market and public school choice proposals as alternative mechanisms for generating and distributing the economic benefits of education. Private benefits redound directly to those educated or their parents; external, or public, benefits redound to other…

  13. Frictions between Formal Education Policy and Actual School Choice: Case Studies in an International Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teelken, Christine; Driessen, Geert; Smit, Frederik

    2005-01-01

    This contribution is based on comparative case studies of secondary schools in England, the Netherlands and Scotland. The authors conclude that although opportunities for school choice are offered in a formal sense in each of the locations studied, in certain cases choice is not particularly encouraged. In order to explain this disparity between…

  14. Russia's Uncertain Transition: Challenges for U.S. Policy. Revised. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lhowe, Mary, Ed.

    This unit is part of a continuing series on current foreign policy issues. The first section asks students to join the debate on U.S. policy toward Russia and its neighbors in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Background readings provide information to help students address policy issues and include: (1) "Two Centuries of U.S.-Russian Relations"; (2)…

  15. The Indiana Choice Scholarship Program: Legal Challenges, Program Expansion, and Participation. Informing Policy and Improving Practice. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cierniak, Katherine; Billick, Rebecca; Ruddy, Anne-Maree

    2015-01-01

    School choice programs can take a variety of forms, from the provision of various public school options, such as charter schools, to programs which provide funds to offset the cost of students' attendance at a private school. The provision of funds is most often accomplished in two ways: through the provision of state educational funds to be used…

  16. Historic Australian Conceptualisations of English, Literacy and Multimodality in Policy and Curriculum and Conflicts with Educational Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Joy; Kimber, Kay; Wyatt-Smith, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Attainment of functional English literacy skills by all students has been a focus of Australian national policy since the 1989 Hobart Declaration (MCEETYA, 1989). This focus underpins current educational accountability policy enacted through the National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN). The Adelaide and Melbourne Declarations…

  17. Accountability in Teenage Dating Violence: A Comparative Examination of Adult Domestic Violence and Juvenile Justice Systems Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosky, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    Unlike in the adult criminal justice system, where domestic violence policies hold perpetrators accountable for their violence, the juvenile justice system rarely addresses teenage dating violence. Although the adult criminal justice system has pursued policies toward intimate partner violence grounded on a "zero tolerance" ideology, the juvenile…

  18. Making Performance Accountability Work: English Lessons for U.S. Community Colleges: An Achieving the Dream Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaquette, Ozan

    2006-01-01

    Most states have experimented with performance accountability as a way to drive improvement in public higher education institutions and systems. However, efforts to implement performance funding in the United States have yielded mixed results. This policy brief describes the reforms that dramatically changed the policy landscape in England and…

  19. School Accountability, Autonomy, Choice, and the Level of Student Achievement: International Evidence from PISA 2003. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wobmann, Ludger; Ludemann, Elke; Schutz, Gabriela; West, Martin R.

    2007-01-01

    Accountability, autonomy, and choice play a leading role in recent school reforms in many countries. This report provides new evidence on whether students perform better in school systems that have such institutional measures in place. We implement an internationally comparative approach within a rigorous micro-econometric framework that accounts…

  20. Accountability for All: Results from a Study on Accountability Policies Affecting Students with Disabilities Educated in Special Schools and Settings. Topical Review Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Stacey J.; Papadopoulou, Eleni; McLaughlin, Margaret J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this topical review is to examine the current state of accountability policies that impact students with disabilities who are educated in special schools and settings. For the purpose of this review, special schools and settings are defined as public or private settings outside of comprehensive K-12 school buildings. This review…

  1. Developing and testing a positive theory of instrument choice: Renewable energy policy in the fifty American states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciocirlan, Cristina E.

    The environmental economics literature consistently suggests that properly designed and implemented economic incentives are superior to command-and-control regulation in reducing pollution. Economic incentives, such as green taxes, cap-and-trade programs, tax incentives, are able to reduce pollution in a cost-effective manner, provide flexibility to industry and stimulate innovation in cleaner technologies. In the past few decades, both federal and state governments have shown increased use of economic incentives in environmental policy. Some states have embraced them in an active manner, while others have failed to do so. This research uses a three-step analysis. First, it asks why some states employ more economic incentives than others to stimulate consumption of renewable energy by the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. Second, it asks why some states employ stronger incentives than others. And third, it asks why certain states employ certain instruments, such as electricity surcharges, cap-and-trade programs, tax incentives or grants, while others do not. The first two analyses were conducted using factor analysis and multiple regression analysis, while the third analysis employed logistic regression models to analyze the data. Data for all three analyses were obtained from a combination of primary and secondary sources. To address these questions, a theory of instrument choice at the state level, which includes both internal and external determinants of policy-making, was developed and tested. The state level of analysis was chosen. States have proven to be pioneers in designing policies to address greenhouse gases (see, for instance, the recent cap-and-trade legislation passed in California). The theory was operationalized with the help of four models: needs/responsiveness, interest group influence, professionalism/capacity and innovation-and-diffusion. The needs/responsiveness model suggests that states tend to choose more and stronger economic

  2. Teacher Accountability in Australia: Current Policies and Practices and Their Relation to the Improvement of Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinhenz, Elizabeth; Ingvarson, Lawrence

    2004-01-01

    The strong link between teacher quality and student learning outcomes calls for effective systems of teacher accountability. School systems in all Australian states have established policies and practices to raise levels of teacher accountability, but it remains doubtful whether they have the capacity to deliver on teacher quality assurance or…

  3. Using National Education Accounts to Help Address the Global Learning Crisis. Global Views. Policy Paper 2011-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Gaag, Jacques; Abetti, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    This policy brief outlines how national education accounts (NEAs) are created, and why they are a vast improvement over current financial tracking systems in the education sector. Examples from the health sector illustrate the benefits of national accounts for improving public services, and their ubiquity highlights the poor state of affairs of…

  4. Consumer choice in home- and community-based long-term care: policy implications for decisionally incapacitated consumers.

    PubMed

    Kapp, M B

    2001-01-01

    There is a strong national and international movement to enhance the role of consumer choice, control, and direction regarding important aspects of publicly financed home- and community-based long-term care. The research project described in this article set out to examine, with a particular focus on Ohio, policy-relevant issues pertaining to how choices about publicly financed home- and community-based long-term care are actually made, implemented, and monitored under a consumer direction model, but when the care recipient is unable to act as an autonomous, independent consumer selecting rationally among various home- and community-based long-term care options competing for the consumer's business in the marketplace.

  5. Policy Choice for Urban Low-carbon transportation in Beijing: Scenario Analysis Based on LEAP model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Beijing is a fast developing megacity with serious traffic problems, such as high energy consumption, high CO2 emission and traffic congestion. The coming 13th Five-Year Plan for Beijing economic and social development will focus on the low-carbon transportation policy to achieve the urban traffic sustainable development. In order to improve the feasibility of urban low-carbon transportation policies, this paper analyzes the future trends of CO2 emissions from transportation of Beijing. Firstly, five policies scenarios are developed according to the coming Beijing 13th Five-Year Plan, including the "Business As Usual (BAU)", the "Public Transportation Priority(PTP)", the "New Energy Vehicle(NEV)", the "Active Transportation(AT)", the "Private Car Regulation(PCR)" and the "Hybrid Policy(HP)". Then the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System(LEAP model) framework is adopted to estimate CO2 emission under given policies scenarios up to year 2020 and analyze the implications. The results demonstrate that the low-carbon transportation policies can reduce CO2 emission effectively. Specifically, the "Hybrid Policy(HP)" has the best performance. In terms of single policy effect, the "Private Car Regulation(PCR)" comes first followed by the "Public Transportation Priority(PTP)".

  6. How Parental and School Responses to Choice Policies Reconfigure a Rural Education Market in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Rosemary; Blackmore, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Market principles now dominate the education and social policies of many Anglophone countries, including Australia, but articulate differentially within specific contexts. Existing historical legacies, local economic and social conditions, and geographical settings interact with federal and state funding and transport policies to shape the nature…

  7. Current Issues: Critical Policy Choices Facing the Nation and the World. 1999 Edition [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Alexandria, VA.

    This student text and teacher's guide feature current events and policy issues that are in discussion today. The books offer background on important domestic and foreign policy issues and present arguments from both sides of key issues. The books are divided into three sections. Section 1, "The Federal Government," contains: (1) "The Clinton…

  8. Current Issues: Critical Policy Choices Facing the Nation and the World. 1998 Edition [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Alexandria, VA.

    This student text and teacher's guide feature current events and policy issues that are in discussion today. The books offer background on important domestic and foreign policy issues and present arguments from both sides of key issues. The books are divided into three sections. Section 1, "The Federal Government," contains: (1) "The Clinton…

  9. Current Issues: Critical Policy Choices Facing the Nation and the World. 2000 Edition [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Alexandria, VA.

    This student text and teacher's guide feature current events and policy issues that are in discussion today. The books offer background on important domestic and foreign policy issues and present arguments from both sides of key issues. The books are divided into three sections. Section 1, "The Federal Government," contains: (1) "The Clinton…

  10. Global Environmental Problems: Implications for U.S. Policy. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Foreign Policy Development.

    This unit is designed to help high schools students to explore the relationship between U.S. foreign policy and the global environment. At the core of the unit is a framework of four distinct options that allows students to consider a range of alternatives for U.S. policy toward global environmental problems. Using this framework, students are…

  11. A Value-Critical Choice Analysis of a Policy to Prevent Suicide in Veterans and Service Members.

    PubMed

    Schuman, Donna L; Schuman, Donald L

    2016-10-01

    A few years after the advent of the Global War on Terror, veteran and service member suicide emerged on the national forefront as a public health issue of significant concern. This social policy analysis applies a value-critical choice model to the military suicide prevention provisions mandated by Section 2 of Exec. Order No. 13625 (2012): Improving Access to Mental Health Services for Veterans, Service Members, and Military Families. Results reveal that the suicide prevention provisions mandated by the order have not been fully and effectively implemented and the goal of reducing military suicide remains elusive. PMID:27254385

  12. Policy statement--Child abuse, confidentiality, and the health insurance portability and accountability act.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    The federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 has significantly affected clinical practice, particularly with regard to how patient information is shared. HIPAA addresses the security and privacy of patient health data, ensuring that information is released appropriately with patient or guardian consent and knowledge. However, when child abuse or neglect is suspected in a clinical setting, the physician may determine that release of information without consent is necessary to ensure the health and safety of the child. This policy statement provides an overview of HIPAA regulations with regard to the role of the pediatrician in releasing or reviewing patient health information when the patient is a child who is a suspected victim of abuse or neglect. This statement is based on the most current regulations provided by the US Department of Health and Human Services and is subject to future changes and clarifications as updates are provided. PMID:20026490

  13. Holding Policy-Makers to Account: Exploring "Soft" and "Hard" Policy and the Implications for Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kerry J.; Chan, Jacqueline Kin-sang; Fok, Ping Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Curriculum implementation as both an educational practice and a policy conundrum has been the focus of academic research since the 1970s. A new perspective is taken in this article by borrowing from the literature on policy implementation in multilevel systems of government. The concepts of "hard" and "soft" policy are used to show that…

  14. The Market for School Choice in Indiana. AEI Education Policy Working Paper 2012-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2012-01-01

    The Indiana Choice Scholarship Program has the potential to be the largest school voucher program in the country. Though the authorizing legislation capped enrollment in the program at 7,500 for its first year (the 2011-12 school year), that cap was increased to 15,000 for this year, and will be removed for all subsequent years. With careful…

  15. Better Choices: Charter Incubation as a Strategy for Improving the Charter School Sector. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ableidinger, Joe; Kowal, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The twenty years since Minnesota passed the nation's first charter school law have seen a great expansion in school choice, with charters operating in all but ten states and enrolling nearly two million students nationwide. Yet while parents now enjoy more schooling options for their children, a disappointing number of charter schools fail to…

  16. School Choice Issues in Indiana: Sifting through the Rhetoric. Education Policy Brief. Volume 9, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billick, Rebecca L.; Hiller, Stephen C.; Spradlin, Terry E.

    2011-01-01

    This year Indiana joined over a dozen other states in adopting Friedman's principles by passing what many believe to be the most comprehensive school choice program in the country. With the enactment of three key bills (HEA 1001, HEA 1003, and HEA 1004), Indiana parents may now take advantage of a school expenditure tax deduction, school…

  17. U.S. Trade Policy: Competing in a Global Economy [and] Teacher's Resource Book. Revised. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. Inst. for International Studies.

    This unit weighs the choices and tradeoffs involved in the interdependence of trade and the goals of U.S. trade policy. The first section of the first booklet is designed to introduce students to how the global economic system developed in the decades after World War II. Part 2 illustrates the impact of trade policy on the lives of four Americans,…

  18. Reliving the History of Compensatory Education: Policy Choices, Bureaucracy, and the Politicized Role of Science in the Evolution of Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Barbara; Zigler, Edward

    2012-01-01

    In this article, Edward Zigler, interviewed by Barbara Beatty, talks about a turning point in the history of Head Start that reveals how policy choices, bureaucracy, and science came together when he was told to phase out the program in 1970. New to Washington, Zigler learned that President Richard M. Nixon's domestic policy advisor Daniel Patrick…

  19. The Impact of Governmental and Institutional Language Policy and Practices on the Individual's Choice of the Instructional Medium in Schools in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Peter tim-kui

    To help resolve the language of instruction dilemma in Hong Kong schools, this paper examines the hypothetical effect of government, business, and university language policy and practice on individuals' choice of intructional medium. While government policy has always allowed schools and students to choose either Chinese or English, most have…

  20. School Choice and Educational Privatization Initiatives in the 106th and 107th Congresses: An Analysis of Policy Formation and Political Ideologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBray-Pelot, Elizabeth H.

    2007-01-01

    This article is a policy analysis that considers how the policy option of using federal programs to promote educational choice was proposed and debated in the 106th and 107th Congresses. This debate was part of the reauthorization of Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) between 1999 and 2001. Over the past 20 years,…

  1. Explaining local authority choices on public hospital provision in the 1930s: a public policy hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Neville, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This article summarises the findings of recent work on local authority public hospital services in England and Wales in the inter-war years and identifies the lack of a robust hypothesis to explain the variations found, particularly one that would explain the actions of county councils as well as county boroughs. Using public policy techniques on a group of local authorities in the far South West it proposes that variations can be explained by an understanding of the deep core beliefs of councillors, their previous experience of 'commissioner' and 'provider' roles, and the availability or otherwise of a dedicated policy entrepreneur to promote change. PMID:23752983

  2. Explaining Local Authority Choices on Public Hospital Provision in the 1930s: A Public Policy Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This article summarises the findings of recent work on local authority public hospital services in England and Wales in the inter-war years and identifies the lack of a robust hypothesis to explain the variations found, particularly one that would explain the actions of county councils as well as county boroughs. Using public policy techniques on a group of local authorities in the far South West it proposes that variations can be explained by an understanding of the deep core beliefs of councillors, their previous experience of ‘commissioner’ and ‘provider’ roles, and the availability or otherwise of a dedicated policy entrepreneur to promote change. PMID:23752983

  3. Education Stakeholders' Translation and Sense-Making of Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werts, Amanda B.; Della Sala, Matt; Lindle, Jane; Horace, Jennifer M.; Brewer, Curtis; Knoeppel, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Scholars of education policy have consistently found that the capacity, beliefs, and values of local actors affect the relative success or failure of policy implementation. This article examines stakeholders' perceptions of education policy in South Carolina to consider the relationship between interpretations of education policy and…

  4. Language Choice and Language Policies in Filipino-Malaysian Families in Multilingual Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumanig, Francisco Perlas; David, Maya Khemlani; Shanmuganathan, Thilagavathi

    2013-01-01

    Personal, social, cultural, economic, and political factors influence the language/s used by family members in the home domain. This study examines how family language policies are planned and developed in Filipino-Malaysian families in Malaysia. The language used at home in such mixed or exogamous marriages is also influenced by the ethnicity of…

  5. "Making the Difficult Choice": Understanding Georgia's Test-Based Grade Retention Policy in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    The author uses Bourdieu's concepts of field, capital, and habitus to analyze how students, parents, teachers, and administrators are responding to Georgia's test-based grade retention policy in reading at one Georgia elementary school. In this multiple case study, the author interviewed, observed, and collected documents regarding ten fifth…

  6. Changing Higher Education by Converging Policy-Packages: Education Choices and Student Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Dennis; Puaca, Goran

    2014-01-01

    The past two decades of higher education research in Europe describe new managerial and neoliberal turns in governance policies that have brought shifts in the way institutions of higher education are defined and run, justify their existence and practices and recruit and educate students. The expansion of higher education is often lifted as a key…

  7. Increasing Participation in No Child Left Behind School Choice. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernez, Georges; Li, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This is one in a series of policy briefs on key education issues prepared by the RAND Corporation for the Obama administration. No Child Left Behind gave students in low-performing schools the opportunity to switch schools, but only a small percentage of eligible students exercise the option. The low rate of uptake is due to operational issues and…

  8. Escaping IDEA: Freeing Parents, Teachers, and Students through Deregulation and Choice. Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gryphon, Marie; Salisbury, David

    This policy analysis of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in the context of current reauthorization efforts concludes that IDEA's central failure is the complex and adversarial process required to determine the size and nature of each disabled child's entitlement to special services through the Individualized Education Program…

  9. Contextual Supports and Barriers to Academic Choices: A Policy-Capturing Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahling, Jason J.; Thompson, Mindi N.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we use an experimental methodology called policy capturing to examine the effects of contextual barriers and supports on students' decisions to change academic majors. Consistent with Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), we found that information about family supportiveness, peer supportiveness, financial status, and job market…

  10. Does School Policy Affect Housing Choices? Evidence from the End of Desegregation in Charlotte-Mecklenburg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebowitz, David D.; Page, Lindsay C.

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether the legal decision to grant unitary status to the Charlotte-Mecklenburg school district, which led to the end of race-conscious student assignment policies, increased the probability that families with children enrolled in the district would move to neighborhoods with a greater proportion of student residents of the same race as…

  11. Policy Directions for U. S. Agriculture; Long-Range Choices in Farming and Rural Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Marion

    A comprehensive view of agriculture is presented in this volume written to aid critical re-examination of long-range agricultural policy. Farm people, rural institutions and services, rural towns, the spatial organization of agriculture, and its capital structure, in addition to the usual subjects of agricultural output, demand, trade, price, and…

  12. Economic Choices for Educational Policy in Africa. Research Publication No. 88.1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBel, Phillip

    In many countries in Africa today formal education is in a state of crisis. While curricular reform continues to serve as an ongoing source of public policy debate, African leaders are confronting increasing difficulty in allotting educational resources to meet present and future levels of demand. The paralysis that has been unfolding is one…

  13. Insurer policies create barriers to health care access and consumer choice.

    PubMed

    Hansen-Turton, Tine; Ritter, Ann; Rothman, Nancy; Valdez, Brian

    2006-01-01

    A national survey shows that most insurance companies refuse to credential nurse practitioners in nurse-managed health centers as primary care providers. These prohibitive policies along with weak federal and state laws threaten the long-term sustainability of nurse-managed health centers as safety net health care providers, and the ability for nurse practitioners to become an accepted primary health care source in the United States. PMID:16967891

  14. The Impact of Near-term Climate Policy Choices on Technology and Emissions Transition Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Eom, Jiyong; Edmonds, James A.; Krey, Volker; Johnson, Nils; Longden, Thomas; Luderer, Gunnar; Riahi, Keywan; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of delays associated with currently formulated climate policies (compared to optimal policies) for long-term transition pathways to limit climate forcing to 450ppm CO2e on the basis of the AMPERE Work Package 2 model comparison study. The paper highlights the critical importance of the 2030-2050 period for ambitious mitigation strategies. In this period, the most rapid shift to non-greenhouse gas emitting technology occurs. In the delayed response emissions mitigation scenarios, an even faster transition rate in this period is required to compensate for the additional emissions before 2030. Our physical deployment measures indicate that, without CCS, technology deployment rates in the 2030-2050 period would become considerably high. Yet the presence of CCS greatly alleviates the challenges to the transition particularly after the delayed climate policies. The results also highlight the critical role that bioenergy and CO2 capture and storage (BECCS) could play. If this technology is available, transition pathways exceed the emissions budget in the mid-term, removing the excess with BECCS in the long term. Excluding either BE or CCS from the technology portfolio implies that emission reductions need to take place much earlier.

  15. Taking Charge of Choice: How Charter School Policy Contexts Matter. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smrekar, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Against the backdrop of urban school politics, in which mayors play increasingly powerful and pivotal roles, the current study examines the origins and implications of mayoral control of charter school authorization and accountability in Indianapolis (see Henig & Rich, 2004; Wong & Shen, 2007). In contrast to analyses of mayoral takeovers of urban…

  16. Public attitudes toward risk tradeoffs in energy policy choices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lindell, M.K.; Earle, T.C.

    1980-06-01

    The emphasis that will be placed on each of a number of energy policy alternatives will be determined by the tradeoffs among many factors. Important among these factors are public preferences for different levels of power availability and risk to health and safety. Also important in determining support for energy alternatives is public perception of the consequences of those policies. To assess public perception and evaluation of these factors, a number of respondents were selected to answer questions about these issues. Respondents' judgements of the acceptability of thirty-six hypothetical energy policies were analyzed using two complementary methods, discriminant analysis and judgement analysis. The first method is a statistical procedure that examines how well task variables discriminate among groups of respondents. The second method is a procedure which is used to construct models that describe the judgement processes used by respondents. Results of the discriminant analysis showed that differences among respondents' judgements were strongly related to the TECH dimension but only weakly affected by RISK and PA. On the TECH dimension, antinuclear respondents indicated relative acceptance of conservation and solar and relative rejection of nuclear and coal. Although pronuclear respondents showed slightly greater support of nuclear and coal than conservation and solar. The six clusters differed most strongly on nuclear, followed by conservation and solar, then coal. The PA dimension had more effect on the judgements of pronuclear respondents than on the judgements of antinuclear respondents. The analysis of the data indicated that the judgements of pro- and antinuclear respondents were better fit by separate models. The antinuclear respondents placed a slightly greater weight on the more RISK part of the RISK dimension relative to the PA dimension.

  17. Empowerment and Accountability in Implementing a "No-Fee School" Policy: A Challenge for School Governing Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marishane, R. N.

    2013-01-01

    Empowerment, accountability and redress are prime objectives of school funding in the new South Africa. This is facilitated through the National Norms and Standards for School Funding. The application of the norms has led to the development of a "no-fee school" policy aimed at exempting poor parents from payment of school fees. The…

  18. Annotated Bibliography on School Finance: Policy and Political Issues; Federal Government; State Issues; Non-Public Schools; Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gipson, Joella

    Limited to periodical literature, this annotated bibliography on school finance contains 81 references grouped in 5 categories: (1) policy and politica issues, (2) federal government, (3) state issues, (4) aid to nonpublic schools, and (5) accountability. Following the bibliographic citations, annotations range from 4 to 15 lines and conclude by…

  19. Making Health System Performance Measurement Useful to Policy Makers: Aligning Strategies, Measurement and Local Health System Accountability in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Veillard, Jeremy; Huynh, Tai; Ardal, Sten; Kadandale, Sowmya; Klazinga, Niek S.; Brown, Adalsteinn D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the experience of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care in enhancing its stewardship and performance management role by developing a health system strategy map and a strategy-based scorecard through a process of policy reviews and expert consultations, and linking them to accountability agreements. An evaluation of the implementation and of the effects of the policy intervention has been carried out through direct policy observation over three years, document analysis, interviews with decision-makers and systematic discussion of findings with other authors and external reviewers. Cascading strategies at health and local health system levels were identified, and a core set of health system and local health system performance indicators was selected and incorporated into accountability agreements with the Local Health Integration Networks. despite the persistence of such challenges as measurement limitations and lack of systematic linkage to decision-making processes, these activities helped to strengthen substantially the ministry's performance management function. PMID:21286268

  20. Gas prices and fuel efficiency in the U.S. automobile industry: Policy implications of endogenous product choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramlich, Jacob Pleune

    I develop, estimate, and utilize an economic model of the U.S. automobile industry. I do so to address policy questions concerning automotive fuel efficiency (the relationship between gasoline used and distance traveled). Fuel efficiency has played a prominent role in our domestic energy policy for over 30 years. Recently it has received even more attention due to rising gas prices and concern over the environment and energy dependence. The model gives quantitative predictions for market fuel efficiency at various gas prices and taxes. The model makes contributions that are both methodological and policy based, and the two chapters of the dissertation focus on each in turn. The first chapter discusses the economic model of the U.S. automobile industry. The model allows firms to choose the fuel efficiency of their new vehicles, which allows me to predict fuel efficiency responses to policy and market conditions. These predictions were not possible with previous economic models which held fuel efficiency fixed. In the model, consumers care more about fuel efficiency when gas prices are high, and firms face a technological tradeoff between providing fuel efficiency and other quality. The level of the gas price, therefore, working through consumer demand, shifts firms' optimal locations along this technology frontier. Demand is nested logit, supply is differentiated products oligopoly, and data are from the U.S. automobile market from 1971-2007. In addition to endogenizing product choice, I also contribute to the modeling literature by relaxing restrictive identifying assumptions and obtaining more realistic estimates of fuel efficiency preference. The model predicts sales declines and compositions from the summer of 2008 with reasonable success. The second chapter discusses two counterfactual policy scenarios: maintained summer 2008 gas prices, and achieving 35 mpg (miles per gallon). At 3.43 per gallon (the summer 2008 price, 23% above 2007), the model predicts

  1. Smoking at the workplace: Effects of genetic and environmental causal accounts on attitudes towards smoking employees and restrictive policies

    PubMed Central

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Zuckerman, Miron; Duberstein, Paul

    2014-01-01

    People hold diverse beliefs regarding the etiologies of individual and group differences in behaviors which, in turn, might affect their attitudes and behaviors. It is important to establish how perceived etiologies for smoking might affect the effectiveness of policy initiatives and prevention efforts. The present study assessed whether exposure to genetic vs. environmental accounts for smoking affects attitudes towards a) workplace-related smoking policies and b) smokers at the workplace. Results indicate that exposure to a genetic explanation led to stronger objections to a smoking restrictive policy compared with a non-genetic explanation. Additionally, participants in the genetic condition were more accepting of a smoker in the workplace than in the environmental condition. Evidently, beliefs about the etiology of smoking influence a range of attitudes related to smokers and smoking related policies. PMID:25530710

  2. The Heterogeneous Effects of Cigarette Prices on Brand Choice in China: Implications for Tobacco Control Policy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; White, Justin S.; Hu, Teh-wei; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Jiang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background China has long kept its tobacco taxes below international standards. The Chinese government has cited as two rationales against raising tobacco tax, namely the unfair burden it places on low-income smokers and the ability of consumers to switch to cheaper brands. Objective This study examines how different socioeconomic subgroups of Chinese smokers switch brands in response to cigarette price changes. Methods We model smokers’ choice of cigarette tier as a function of tier-specific prices. We examine heterogeneous responses to prices by estimating mixed logit models for different income and education subgroups that allow for random variation in smokers’ preferences. We use data from three waves of the longitudinal ITC China Survey, collected in six large Chinese cities between 2006 and 2009. Findings Low-income and less educated smokers are considerably more likely to switch tiers (including both up-trading and down-trading) than are their high-socioeconomic status (SES) counterparts. For those in the second-to-lowest tier, a ¥1 ($0.16, or roughly 25%) rise in prices increases the likelihood of switching tiers by 5.6% points for low-income smokers and 7.2% points for less educated smokers, compared to 1.6% and 3.0% points for the corresponding high-SES groups. Low-income and less educated groups are also more likely to trade down compared to their high-SES counterparts. Conclusion Only a small percentage of low-income and less educated Chinese smokers switched to cheaper brands in response to price increases. Hence, the concern of the Chinese government that a cigarette tax increase will lead to large-scale brand switching is not supported by this study. PMID:25855642

  3. Why metrics matter: evaluating policy choices for reactive nitrogen in the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

    PubMed

    Birch, Melissa B L; Gramig, Benjamin M; Moomaw, William R; Doering, Otto C; Reeling, Carson J

    2011-01-01

    Despite major efforts, the reduction of reactive nitrogen (Nr) using traditional metrics and policy tools for the Chesapeake Bay has slowed in recent years. In this article, we apply the concept of the Nitrogen Cascade to the chemically dynamic nature and multiple sources of Nr to examine the temporal and spatial movement of different forms of Nr through multiple ecosystems and media. We also demonstrate the benefit of using more than the traditional mass fluxes to set criteria for action. The use of multiple metrics provides additional information about where the most effective intervention point might be. Utilizing damage costs or mortality metrics demonstrates that even though the mass fluxes to the atmosphere are lower than direct releases to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, total damage costs to all ecosystems and health are higher because of the cascade of Nr and the associated damages, and because they exact a higher human health cost. Abatement costs for reducing Nr releases into the air are also lower. These findings have major implications for the use of multiple metrics and the additional benefits of expanding the scope of concern beyond the Bay itself and support improved coordination between the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts while restoring the Chesapeake Bay.

  4. Accountability Policy, School Organization, and Classroom Practice: Partial Recoupling and Educational Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, John B.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the links between high stakes testing policies, school organization processes, and instructional practice using data from a study of K-5 and K-8 schools in Chicago. He argues that although the policy environment penetrates the classroom, this penetration is partial--stronger on some aspects of instruction than…

  5. 78 FR 34550 - Funding and Fiscal Affairs, Loan Policies and Operations, and Funding Operations; Accounting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... on April 9, 2013 (78 FR 21035) is effective June 3, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael T. Wilson, Policy Analyst, Office of Regulatory Policy, Farm Credit Administration, McLean, VA 22102-5090... Credit Administration, McLean, Virginia 22102-5090, (703) 883-4431, TTY (703) 883-4056....

  6. The Ironies of School Choice: Empowering Parents and Reconceptualizing Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson Beal, Heather K.; Hendry, Petra Munro

    2012-01-01

    School choice policy, especially as embedded in No Child Left Behind, assumes that empowering parents with choice will improve education by holding schools accountable and will reenergize democratic participation in public education. While parents are seen as critical change agents, little research documents how engaging in school choice affects…

  7. Critical Analysis of Accountability Policy in Alternative Schools: Implications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmer, Lynn M.; Madsen, Jean; Torres, Mario S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The expansion of alternative education, globally, has coincided with a shift towards greater accountability for ensuring educational access and opportunity, high academic standards and increased graduation rates. While studies suggest the pervasive influence of accountability may be redefining how school leaders provide meaningful…

  8. School Accountability in the Digital Age. Keeping Pace with K-12 Digital Learning. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, John; Pape, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Public schools in the United States operate under state accountability systems that vary by state and are meant to measure individual school performance against criteria determined by state policymakers. The purpose of these systems is to hold each school accountable for increasing student performance. However, it has become clear that a single…

  9. To Be Accountable in Neoliberal Times: An Exploration of Educational Policy in Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles, Enma Campozano; Simons, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    The ascendancy of neoliberal modes of governing has caused a shift in accountability practices in the public sector, including in the field of education. This shift can be observed in the accountability regimes introduced into education systems around the world. They reflect a strong focus on quality assurance/control and efficiency in order for…

  10. Policy Recommendations: Effective Accountability Mechanisms for New York State's English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aung, Khin Mai; Alvarez, Gisela

    2012-01-01

    In September 2011, the New York State Department of Education convened a School and District Accountability Think Tank to provide public input regarding the creation of a second generation educational accountability system for the State's Elementary and Secondary Education Act waiver application. The Asian American Legal Defense and Education…

  11. Heterogeneity in general practitioners' preferences for quality improvement programs: a choice experiment and policy simulation in France.

    PubMed

    Ammi, Mehdi; Peyron, Christine

    2016-12-01

    Despite increasing popularity, quality improvement programs (QIP) have had modest and variable impacts on enhancing the quality of physician practice. We investigate the heterogeneity of physicians' preferences as a potential explanation of these mixed results in France, where the national voluntary QIP - the CAPI - has been cancelled due to its unpopularity. We rely on a discrete choice experiment to elicit heterogeneity in physicians' preferences for the financial and non-financial components of QIP. Using mixed and latent class logit models, results show that the two models should be used in concert to shed light on different aspects of the heterogeneity in preferences. In particular, the mixed logit demonstrates that heterogeneity in preferences is concentrated on the pay-for-performance component of the QIP, while the latent class model shows that physicians can be grouped in four homogeneous groups with specific preference patterns. Using policy simulation, we compare the French CAPI with other possible QIPs, and show that the majority of the physician subgroups modelled dislike the CAPI, while favouring a QIP using only non-financial interventions. We underline the importance of modelling preference heterogeneity in designing and implementing QIPs. PMID:27637834

  12. 76 FR 67025 - Statement of Antitrust Enforcement Policy Regarding Accountable Care Organizations Participating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... earlier this year, 76 FR 21,894 (Apr. 19, 2011), in two significant respects. First, the entire final... Financial Relationships (Phase II), 69 FR 16,094 (Mar. 26, 2004). \\29\\ See Appendix to the Policy Statement... Which They Have Financial Relationships (Phase II), 69 FR 16,094 (Mar. 26, 2004). 3. Separately for...

  13. Science Education and Test-Based Accountability: Reviewing Their Relationship and Exploring Implications for Future Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kevin J. B.

    2012-01-01

    Assuming that quality science education plays a role in economic growth within a country, it becomes important to understand how education policy might influence science education teaching and learning. This integrative research review draws on Cooper's methodology (Cooper, 1982; Cooper & Hedges, 2009) to synthesize empirical findings on the…

  14. Does Universal Primary Education Policy Weaken Decentralisation? Participation and Accountability Frameworks in East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaoka, Yuichi; Nishimura, Mikiko

    2010-01-01

    This article critically reflects upon the "divides" among actors within two currently popular education policies in low-income countries: decentralisation and Universal Primary Education (UPE). Current literatures suggest that the existing decentralisation framework tends to overlook the "divides" among actors that often impede the implementation…

  15. Systems of Accountability as a Technology of Governmentality: Policy, Preparation, and Inclusive Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFrance, Denise LaVoie

    2013-01-01

    Neoliberal ideology frames the discourse of the current political rhetoric of education as an economic investment in the preparation of students to compete in a global economy. These discourses that emanate from policymakers shape the construct of schooling and control the trajectory of education in the US. As education policy becomes centralized,…

  16. 75 FR 36381 - Office of Energy Policy and Innovation; Request for Comments Regarding Rates, Accounting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... contracted-for storage capacity to arbitrage differences in peak and off-peak energy prices. The Commission... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Office of Energy Policy and Innovation; Request for Comments Regarding...

  17. Sustainability science: accounting for nonlinear dynamics in policy and social-ecological systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resilience is an emergent property of complex systems. Understanding resilience is critical for sustainability science, as linked social-ecological systems and the policy process that governs them are characterized by non-linear dynamics. Non-linear dynamics in these systems mean...

  18. Hybridisation or Ousterisation? The Case of Local Accountability Policy in Finnish Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paananen, Maiju; Lipponen, Lasse; Kumpulainen, Kristiina

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the analytic concept of imaginary, this study investigates policy hybridisation in the Finnish early childhood education. Specifically, it illuminates how the interplay between different imaginaries enabled the neoliberal imaginary to oust the social-democratic imaginary through a tripartite process in a case of local productivity…

  19. Updated: SREB States Transform School Accountability with "NCLB" Waivers. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decuir, Erica

    2014-01-01

    This latest brief updates education leaders on the key policies the 13 (Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia) Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states plan to implement under federal waivers to No Child Left Behind. It details,…

  20. Public Policy and Hispanic-Serving Institutions: From Invention to Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental premise for creating the Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) designation assumes that a critical mass of students motivates an institution to change how it operates to better serve these students to degree attainment. Increasing Hispanic degree attainment is in the national interest, and programs created by public policy to support…

  1. Bayesian deterministic decision making: a normative account of the operant matching law and heavy-tailed reward history dependency of choices

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Hiroshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

    2014-01-01

    The decision making behaviors of humans and animals adapt and then satisfy an “operant matching law” in certain type of tasks. This was first pointed out by Herrnstein in his foraging experiments on pigeons. The matching law has been one landmark for elucidating the underlying processes of decision making and its learning in the brain. An interesting question is whether decisions are made deterministically or probabilistically. Conventional learning models of the matching law are based on the latter idea; they assume that subjects learn choice probabilities of respective alternatives and decide stochastically with the probabilities. However, it is unknown whether the matching law can be accounted for by a deterministic strategy or not. To answer this question, we propose several deterministic Bayesian decision making models that have certain incorrect beliefs about an environment. We claim that a simple model produces behavior satisfying the matching law in static settings of a foraging task but not in dynamic settings. We found that the model that has a belief that the environment is volatile works well in the dynamic foraging task and exhibits undermatching, which is a slight deviation from the matching law observed in many experiments. This model also demonstrates the double-exponential reward history dependency of a choice and a heavier-tailed run-length distribution, as has recently been reported in experiments on monkeys. PMID:24624077

  2. Policy efforts used to develop awareness aimed at increased students' scientific literacy and career choices in mathematics, science and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, Frank Albert

    The lack of an adequate supply of human resources in science and engineering has been well documented. Efforts from a number of agencies, such as the National Science Foundation, have been implemented to alleviate this national problem. However, it is unclear what concerted efforts state agencies are taking to increase the number of African American students' scientific literacy, and career choices in science and engineering. The purpose of this study was to select a talent pool of African American students who are academically able to pursue a career in a math-based major. The selection of this talent pool lead to the recommendation of an encouragement process model to be used by the Tennessee Board of Regents (TBR) system to encourage the selectees of this talent pool to enter math-based programs at TBR universities. An integrated literature review was conducted. This review includes perspectives on national, state, and local educational policy decisions which affect educational purposes, institutional governance and secondary-postsecondary linkages. Existing TBR system data were analyzed and tabulated. This tabulated data along with the recommended model will be offered to the TBR system for possible adoption. The results of these data support the methodological notion that there are an appreciable number of potential TBR system African American students academically able to enter math related majors who, however, may be reluctant to choose a career direction in a math-based career field. Implications of this study and suggestions for further research are discussed. On an applied level, the study might suggest to other states ways in which to deal with similar problems.

  3. The District Effect: Systemic Responses to High Stakes Accountability Policies in Six Southern States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opfer, V. Darleen; Henry, Gary T.; Mashburn, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    High stakes accountability (HSA) reforms were enacted in state after state and federally through the No Child Left Behind law, based on the belief that incentives that have consequences attached are effective ways to motivate educators to improve student performance. Our focus for this article is on school district level responses to HSA reforms…

  4. Intersections of Accountability and Special Education: The Social Justice Implications of Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Villarreal, Felicia; Nichols, Sharon L.

    2016-01-01

    High-stakes testing accountability has wreaked havoc on America's public schools. Since the passage of NCLB in 2001, virtually every public school student has experienced the pressures of preparing for, practicing, and taking standardized state exams, the results of which have had significant consequences for their schools, teachers, and…

  5. The Influence of Finance and Accountability Policies on Location of New York State Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bifulco, Robert; Buerger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This article identifies a set of location incentives created by New York's charter school financing and accountability provisions. We then use regression models to examine the location of charter schools across and within districts. We find that charter schools (1) are significantly more likely to locate in districts with high operating expenses…

  6. Decision Making under Multiple Accountability Policies: A Study of Genesee County's High School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Keith Newton

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to understand which aspects of current school accountability measures cause high school principals the most concern and what specific actions they were taking to address their concerns. This study took place in Genesee County Michigan. The primary method of data collection was semi-structured interviews. Thirteen traditional high…

  7. Learning from NCLB: School Responses to Accountability Pressure and Student Subgroup Performance. Policy Brief. RB-54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbaum, Elliot H.; Weiss, Michael J.; Beaver, Jessica K.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to the mandatory testing and reporting required by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), school improvement efforts were shown to lack coherence (Newman, Smith, Allensworth, & Bryk, 2001) and often included conflicting programs (Hatch, 2002). Part of the theory of performance-based accountability in general, and NCLB in particular, was…

  8. Innovative Public Engagement Practices and Partnerships: Lifting Stakeholder Voices in Education Accountability Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Monica; Brewer, Curtis; Knoeppel, Robert; Witte, James; Pargas, Roy; Lindle, Jane Clark

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, due to increasing stakeholder dissatisfaction with assessment results and school report cards, South Carolina revised its 1998 Educational Accountability Act and required public engagement with stakeholders including parents/guardians, educators, business and community leaders, and taxpayers. The legislation created partnerships between…

  9. Linking Instructional Productivity Measures and Fiscal Policy: Accountability in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Beatrice

    This study examined the efforts of Southeastern Louisiana University, a mid-sized public university, to address demands for accountability and the need to generate and evaluate data linking instructional productivity, academic planning, and fiscal policymaking. The study reports the reactions of university administrators and academic leaders to…

  10. The ghosts of user fees past: Exploring accountability for victims of a 30-year economic policy mistake.

    PubMed

    Rowden, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Today, there is an unmistakable shift in international consensus away from private health financing, including the use of user fees toward public financing mechanisms (notably tax financing), to achieve universal health coverage (UHC). This is, however, much the same as an earlier consensus reached at the WHO"s World Health Assembly at Alma-Ata in 1978. When considering the full circle journey from Alma-Ata in 1978 to today's re-emerging support for UHC, it is worth taking stock and reflecting on how and why the international health community took this nearly three decade detour and how such misguided policies as user fees came to be so widely implemented during the intervening period. It is important for the international health community to ensure that steps are taken to compensate victims and determine accountability for those responsible. Victims of user fees suffered violations of their human right to health as enshrined in Universal Declaration, ICESCR, and a number of other human rights treaties, and yet still cannot avail themselves of remedies, such as those provided by international and regional human rights fora or the various United Nations treaty-monitoring bodies, and the responsible institutions and individuals have thus far remained unaccountable. This lack of accountability suggests a degree of impunity for international organizations and health economists dispensing with health policy advice. Such a lack of accountability should be noted with concern by the international health community as it increasingly relies on the advice and direction of health economists. Steps must be taken to provide survivors of user fees with compensation and hold those responsible to account.

  11. The ghosts of user fees past: Exploring accountability for victims of a 30-year economic policy mistake.

    PubMed

    Rowden, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Today, there is an unmistakable shift in international consensus away from private health financing, including the use of user fees toward public financing mechanisms (notably tax financing), to achieve universal health coverage (UHC). This is, however, much the same as an earlier consensus reached at the WHO"s World Health Assembly at Alma-Ata in 1978. When considering the full circle journey from Alma-Ata in 1978 to today's re-emerging support for UHC, it is worth taking stock and reflecting on how and why the international health community took this nearly three decade detour and how such misguided policies as user fees came to be so widely implemented during the intervening period. It is important for the international health community to ensure that steps are taken to compensate victims and determine accountability for those responsible. Victims of user fees suffered violations of their human right to health as enshrined in Universal Declaration, ICESCR, and a number of other human rights treaties, and yet still cannot avail themselves of remedies, such as those provided by international and regional human rights fora or the various United Nations treaty-monitoring bodies, and the responsible institutions and individuals have thus far remained unaccountable. This lack of accountability suggests a degree of impunity for international organizations and health economists dispensing with health policy advice. Such a lack of accountability should be noted with concern by the international health community as it increasingly relies on the advice and direction of health economists. Steps must be taken to provide survivors of user fees with compensation and hold those responsible to account. PMID:25006085

  12. School Choice and Equity: Current Policies in OECD Countries and a Literature Review. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 66

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musset, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    This literature review on school choice analyses the impact of choice schemes on students and on school systems focusing on equity. Reviewing the evidence can be difficult, as the literature is often fragmented and inconclusive, and the political importance of this research often results in high-profile attention given to individual studies rather…

  13. U.S. Trade Policy: Competing in a Global Economy. Choices for the 21st Century. Alternatives for Public Debate and Policy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Foreign Policy Development.

    This document contains a student text, teacher outline, and lesson plan that places beliefs and values at the center of the national discussion on trade policy. The focus of the unit is particularly relevant with the emergence of U.S. trade policy as a vital public issue. In 1993, two key elements of U.S. trade policy--the North American Free…

  14. Teacher Identity and Agency in School Worlds: Beyond the All-Good/All-Bad Discourse on Accountability-Explicit Curriculum Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Kris

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on case studies of three elementary school teachers in a diverse urban school setting in Texas, the author explores the varied ways teachers actively read accountability-related curriculum policies and then respond to these policies. Rooted in classroom observations and extensive teacher interviews, the author examines issues of teacher…

  15. Ensuring Accountability for All Children in an Era of Standards-Based Reform: Alternate Achievement Standards. Policy Symposium Proceedings (Arlington, VA, February 4-6, 2004).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Policy Reform Research Institute, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Educational Policy Reform Research Institute (EPRRI) and the US Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) held a policy symposium entitled "Ensuring Accountability for All Children in an Era of Standards-Based Reform: Alternate Achievement Standards" February 4-6, 2004 at the Crystal City Marriott in Arlington,…

  16. Effects of state-level firearm seller accountability policies on firearm trafficking.

    PubMed

    Webster, Daniel W; Vernick, Jon S; Bulzacchelli, Maria T

    2009-07-01

    Criminals illegally obtaining firearms represent a great risk to many urban residents. This cross-sectional study of 54 US cities uses data on state laws governing gun sales, a survey of law enforcement agencies' practices to promote compliance with gun sales laws, and crime gun trace data to examine associations between these policies and practices with gun trafficking indicators. Higher levels of local gun ownership were linked with greater intrastate gun trafficking. Regression models estimate that comprehensive regulation and oversight of gun dealers and state regulation of private sales of handguns were each associated with significantly lower levels of intrastate gun trafficking. Discretionary permit-to-purchase licensing laws' negative association with intrastate trafficking disappeared when local gun ownership is controlled. The effects of these relatively restrictive gun purchase laws on trafficking may be mediated by the laws' lowering of gun ownership. Relatively low prevalence of gun ownership may also be a prerequisite for passage of discretionary purchase. We observed no effect on intrastate trafficking of laws limiting handgun sales to a maximum of one per person per month. PMID:19479382

  17. Medicare program; revision to accrual basis of accounting policy--HCFA. Proposed rule.

    PubMed

    1998-05-18

    Current policy provides that payroll taxes a provider becomes obligated to remit to governmental agencies are included in allowable costs under Medicare only in the cost reporting period in which payment (upon which the payroll taxes are based) is actually made to an employee. Therefore, for payroll accrued in one year but not paid until the next year, the associated payroll taxes on the payroll are not an allowable cost until the next year. This proposed rule would make one exception, in the situation where payment would be made to the employee in the current year but for the fact the regularly scheduled payment date is after the end of the year. In that case, the rule would require allowance in the current year of accrued taxes on payroll that is accrued through the end of the year but not paid until the beginning of the next year, thus allowing accrued taxes on end-of-the year payroll in the same year that the accrual of the payroll itself is allowed. The effect of this proposal is not on the allowability of cost but rather only on the timing of payment; that is, the cost of payroll taxes on and-of-the-year payroll would be allowable in the current period rather than in the following period. PMID:10179345

  18. Pro-Choice Versus Pro-Life: The Relationship Between State Abortion Policy and Child Well-Being in the United States.

    PubMed

    Medoff, Marshall

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, pro-choice supporters contend that the desire of pro-life supporters to protect the life of the fetus ends at birth and that thereafter they ignore the health and well-being of infants and children. This study examines the question of whether infants and children fare better in U.S. states that have the most restrictive abortion laws. Eighteen indicators of infant/child health, family, economic, and educational status are analyzed. The empirical evidence finds that states with the most antiabortion policies are also the same states that have significantly lower indicators of infant/child well-being. This supports the contention by pro-choice supporters that efforts by pro-life supporters to protect the life of the fetus end at birth.

  19. Pro-Choice Versus Pro-Life: The Relationship Between State Abortion Policy and Child Well-Being in the United States.

    PubMed

    Medoff, Marshall

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, pro-choice supporters contend that the desire of pro-life supporters to protect the life of the fetus ends at birth and that thereafter they ignore the health and well-being of infants and children. This study examines the question of whether infants and children fare better in U.S. states that have the most restrictive abortion laws. Eighteen indicators of infant/child health, family, economic, and educational status are analyzed. The empirical evidence finds that states with the most antiabortion policies are also the same states that have significantly lower indicators of infant/child well-being. This supports the contention by pro-choice supporters that efforts by pro-life supporters to protect the life of the fetus end at birth. PMID:24245932

  20. The Best Choice for a Prosperous Texas: A Texas-Style Personal Income Tax. Policy Brief No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Public Policy Priorities, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Part one of this trilogy of policy briefs explains the challenge facing Texas in funding public education. This policy brief explains why a Texas-style personal income tax is the best way to meet the needs of Texas. Only a personal income tax can significantly reduce reliance on property taxes--cutting the school operations tax from $1.50 to…

  1. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue is devoted to discussions of early childhood policy issues. "Creating a Shared Vision: How Policy Affects Early Childhood Care and Development" (Judith L. Evans) defines policy, discusses the motivation for changing or creating national policy and the process for changing such policies, and provides a sample design for an early…

  2. Menopause as a long-term risk to health: implications of general practitioner accounts of prevention for women's choice and decision-making.

    PubMed

    Murtagh, Madeleine J; Hepworth, Julie

    2003-03-01

    Over the past two decades medical researchers and modernist feminist researchers have contested the meaning of menopause. In this article we examine various meanings of menopause in major medical and feminist literature and the construction of menopause in a semi-structured interview study of general practitioners in rural South Australia. Three discursive themes are identified in these interviews; (i) .the hormonal menopause - symptoms, risk, prevention; (ii). the informed menopausal woman; and (iii). decision-making and hormone replacement therapy. By using the discourse of prevention, general practitioners construct menopause in relation to women's health care choices, empowerment and autonomy. We argue that the ways in which these concepts are deployed by general practitioners in this study produces and constrains the options available to women. The implications of these general practitioner accounts are discussed in relation to the proposition that medical and feminist descriptions of menopause posit alternative but equally-fixed truths about menopause and their relationship with the range of responses available to women at menopause. Social and cultural explanations of disease causality (c.f. Germov 1998, Hardey 1998) are absent from the new menopause despite their being an integral part of the framework of the women's health movement and health promotion drawn on by these general practitioners. Further, the shift of responsibility for health to the individual woman reinforces practice claims to empower women, but oversimplifies power relations and constructs menopause as a site of self-surveillance. The use of concepts from the women's health movement and health promotion have nevertheless created change in both the positioning of women as having 'choices' and the positioning of some general practitioners in terms of greater information provision to women and an attention to the woman's autonomy. In conclusion, we propose that a new menopause has evolved

  3. Schools' Responses to Voucher Policy: Participation Decisions and Early Implementation Experiences in the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Megan J.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the supply side of voucher programs, despite schools' central role in program effectiveness. Using survey and interview data on the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program (ICSP), I analyze schools' participation decisions and early implementation experiences to understand better how schools respond to program regulations. I find…

  4. The Relationship between Environmental Free-Choice Learning and Students' Learning, Attitudes, and Policy Views about Waterways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Benjamin C.; Olson, Joanne K.; Holtz, James D.; Colbert, James T.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental free-choice learning is a strategy that has been shown to have positive short-term impacts upon participants' attitudes and understanding of desired educational outcomes. However, longitudinal studies in this area are rare due to difficulties inherent in data collection and vast differences in participants in these kinds of…

  5. Global Environmental Problems: Implications for U.S. Policy [and] Teacher's Resource Book. Revised. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. Inst. for International Studies.

    This unit weighs the choices and tradeoffs involved in protecting the environment. The first section of the first booklet is designed to introduce students to the most significant global environmental problems. Part 2 explores humanity's impact on the environment while part 3 examines environmental issues from the political dimension as a…

  6. Special Issue: College Choice and Access to College: Moving Policy, Research, and Practice to the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergerson, Amy Aldous, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    College choice has been a topic of investigation for many years. Since the 1990 publication of Michael Paulsen's ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report on student enrollment behaviors, hundreds of publications have explored the processes through which students determine whether and where to go to college and the factors that influence these processes.…

  7. Making choices impairs subsequent self-control: a limited-resource account of decision making, self-regulation, and active initiative.

    PubMed

    Vohs, Kathleen D; Baumeister, Roy F; Schmeichel, Brandon J; Twenge, Jean M; Nelson, Noelle M; Tice, Dianne M

    2008-05-01

    The current research tested the hypothesis that making many choices impairs subsequent self-control. Drawing from a limited-resource model of self-regulation and executive function, the authors hypothesized that decision making depletes the same resource used for self-control and active responding. In 4 laboratory studies, some participants made choices among consumer goods or college course options, whereas others thought about the same options without making choices. Making choices led to reduced self-control (i.e., less physical stamina, reduced persistence in the face of failure, more procrastination, and less quality and quantity of arithmetic calculations). A field study then found that reduced self-control was predicted by shoppers' self-reported degree of previous active decision making. Further studies suggested that choosing is more depleting than merely deliberating and forming preferences about options and more depleting than implementing choices made by someone else and that anticipating the choice task as enjoyable can reduce the depleting effect for the first choices but not for many choices.

  8. Healthier Choices and Increased Participation in a Middle School Lunch Program: Effects of Nutrition Policy Changes in San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Wojcicki, Janet M.; Heyman, Melvin B.

    2006-01-01

    In order to address overall nutritional health, including increases in numbers of overweight children and adolescents, the San Francisco Unified School District implemented a progressive nutrition policy beginning in August 2003. We review this policy and focus on its impact on school and district revenues and students’ participation in the federally subsidized school lunch program. We examined changes in menu items and the consequent effects of these changes on student eating patterns and school revenues at Aptos Middle School in San Francisco. This case study and additional district data show that provision of healthy menu options led to increased student participation in the federal school lunch program. PMID:16873747

  9. On the choice of farm management practices after the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Erwin; Sinabell, Franz

    2007-02-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was fundamentally reformed in 2003. From 2005, farmers will receive decoupled income support payments instead of production premiums if basic standards for environment, food safety, animal health and welfare are met. Farmers are likely to adjust production and management practices to the new policy framework. We describe how this reform fits into the EU strategy of making agricultural production more environmentally friendly by concentrating on the financial aspects of the reforms. Using an agricultural sector model for Austria, we show that the reform will further decrease agricultural outputs, reduce farm inputs, lessen nitrogen surpluses and make environmentally friendly management practices more attractive for farmers.

  10. Educational Policy-Making in Post-Communist Ukraine as an Example of Emerging Governmentality: Discourse Analysis of Curriculum Choice and Assessment Policy Documents (1999-2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimyar, Olena

    2008-01-01

    Educational policy-making in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is still building upon the ambivalences and uncertainties of post-communist transformation. The international support, expertise and discourses--coupled with communist legacies, stalled democratic developments and national discourses--produce unique effects on education in…

  11. Children and Choices: The Effect of Macro Language Policy on the Individual Agency of Transnational Parents in Brussels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Mensel, Luk

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, research on language policy has shifted from a top-down approach toward the inclusion of micro-political aspects and ethnographic approaches. In studies of bilingualism and bilingual acquisition the role of parents and parenting has always been mentioned as an important (although somewhat peripheral) factor. In this paper, our…

  12. Title III Accountability Policies and Outcomes for K-12: Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives for English Language Learner Students in Southeast Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly S.; Dufford-Melendez, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This report details Title III accountability policies and outcomes for K-12 English language learner (ELL) students for school year 2007/08 in the six Southeast Region states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina) under the Title III annual measurable achievement objectives (AMAO) provision of the No Child…

  13. Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contributions to wildlife habitat, management issues, challenges and policy choices--an annotated bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.; Vandever, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The following bibliography presents brief summaries of documents relevant to Conservation Reserve Program relations to wildlife habitat, habitat management in agriculturally dominated landscapes, and conservation policies potentially affecting wildlife habitats in agricultural ecosystems. Because the literature summaries furnished provide only sweeping overviews, users are urged to obtain and evaluate those papers appearing useful to obtain a more complete understanding of study findings and their implications to conservation in agricultural ecosystems. The bibliography contains references to reports that reach beyond topics that directly relate to the Conservation Reserve Program. Sections addressing grassland management and landowner surveys/opinions, for example, furnish information useful for enhancing development and administration of conservation policies affecting lands beyond those enrolled in conservation programs. Some sections of the bibliography (for example, agricultural conservation policy, economics, soils) are far from inclusive of all relevant material written on the subject. Hopefully, these sections will serve as fundamental introductions to related issues. In a few instances, references may be presented in more than one section of the bibliography. For example, individual papers specifically addressing both non-game and game birds are included in respective sections of the bibliography. Duplication of citations and associated notes has, however, been kept to a minimum.

  14. Devolution, Choice, and Accountability in the Provision of Public Education in British Columbia: A Critical Analysis of the "School Amendment Act" of 2002 (Bill 34)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Gerald; Paquette, Jerald

    2008-01-01

    This critical policy study provides an understanding of the different actors--individuals, interest groups, and other organizations--involved in influencing and defining, through their narratives what public education in BC ought to be, thus capturing the core intellectual dispositions that informed and determined the kind of policy problems that…

  15. Budget Development, Budget Monitoring, Accounting and Financial Reporting: A Self-Assessment Guide for School District Fiscal Policy Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    A school district's governing board, superintendent, and business manager should work as an effective fiscal policy team with good communication. This self-assessment guide is designed to assist in the overall evaluation of fiscal policy team communication. Four sections (budget development, budget monitoring, financial reporting, and…

  16. Charting Russia's Future in the Post-Soviet Era. Eighth Edition. Teacher Resource Book [and Student Text]. Public Policy Debate in the Classroom. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sarah Cleveland

    Russia struggle with questions of identity and economic stability sine ending its Cold War relationship with the United States. In this unit students are asked to see the world through Russian eyes and to contemplate Russian choices in the areas of economic development, political organization, and foreign policy. The unit focuses on three distinct…

  17. Why medical savings accounts deserve a closer look.

    PubMed

    Jensen, G A; Morlock, R J

    1994-01-01

    Dismissed as a luxury only for the young or wealthy, medical savings accounts could be used by a majority of Americans--who are neither poor or chronically ill--to make cost-conscious choices about their health care. Current federal tax laws and insurers' inability to sell catastrophic group coverage policies pose obstacles to their widespread use and should be removed.

  18. Accountability and the Federal Role: A Third Way on ESEA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling-Hammond, Linda; Hill, Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    In summer of 2014, two groups of scholars and policy experts met separately to rethink educational accountability. These groups came from what most would consider different "camps" on school reform--one focused on transforming teaching for "deeper learning" and the other focused on choice as a means for leveraging school…

  19. Choice as a Global Language in Local Practice: A Mixed Model of School Choice in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Chin-Ju

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses school choice policy as an example to demonstrate how local actors adopt, mediate, translate, and reformulate "choice" as neo-liberal rhetoric informing education reform. Complex processes exist between global policy about school choice and the local practice of school choice. Based on the theoretical sensibility of…

  20. New Department of Energy policy and guidance for cost-effectiveness in nuclear materials control and accountability programs

    SciTech Connect

    Van Ryn, G.L.; Zack, N.R.

    1994-10-01

    Recent Department of Energy (DOE) initiatives have given Departmental nuclear facilities the opportunity to take more credit for certain existing safeguards and security systems in determining operational program protection requirements. New policies and guidance are coupled with these initiatives to enhance systems performance in a cost effective and efficient manner as well as to reduce operational costs. The application of these methods and technologies support safety, the reduction of personnel radiation exposure, emergency planning, and inspections by international teams. This discussion will review guidance and policies that support advanced systems and programs to decrease lifetime operational costs without increasing risk.

  1. Hispanic Youth in Boston: In Search of Opportunities and Accountability. A Report by the Boston Latino Youth Policy Analysis Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hispanic Office of Planning and Evaluation, Inc., Boston, MA.

    This report discusses the school-to-work transition process of Hispanic youth in Boston. The report was prepared in response to the high rates of unemployment and participation in low-paying service sector jobs by Hispanics and was funded by a grant from the Hispanic Policy Development Project as part of a national effort to identify key public…

  2. School Board and Superintendent Accountability: A Policy Analysis regarding the Implementation of the Ralph M. Brown Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Craig Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The Ralph M. Brown Act's enforcement language implies striking a proper balance between school public officials and the public at large. This study of The Brown Act's enforcement provisions is presented in the context of school districts. The investigation focused on the following overarching question: Does a policy analysis support a finding that…

  3. Historical Construction and Australian Catholic Education: Accounting for School Funding Policy from the Cultural Politics of Australian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furtado, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to explain why the policy history of school funding in regard to Australian Catholic Education looks and sounds the way it does today through the production of a genealogy of the subject. The questions addressed are, first, why has the funding of Catholic schools in Australia become an occluded historical site since the 1970s,…

  4. A policy analysis of adult literacy promotion in the Third World: An accounting of promises made and promises fulfilled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhola, H. S.

    1985-09-01

    To the individual, literacy has promised a new mentality, a new social definition, and new economic capacities. At the collective level, literacy has promised modernization of institutions, democratization of political systems, and cultural renewal of societies in the Third World. Have the promises of literacy been fulfilled? The processes of policy formulation, policy analysis and policy assessment are essentially social processes and a search for `proof' of the effects of literacy is naive, to say the least. What we need is a position on literacy promotion that is plausible, credible and probable, and thereby compelling for action. While both the enthusiasts for literacy and the sceptics continue to draw different conclusions from the same research and experience, a consensus is emerging that the question `Why Literacy?' should now be laid to rest. The question to ask now should be: `How Literacy?' In regard to the question of `How Literacy?', there are two basic positions: Should literacy be taught within the specific small-frame of the selective and intensive approach to literacy, with the provision of basic needs? Or, should literacy be taught within a large-frame of literacy as a `potential added', on a mass-scale and with the political orientation? This paper clearly opts for literacy as generative rather than merely instrumental.

  5. Energy Choices and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Joseph L.

    1975-01-01

    Congressman Joseph L. Fisher's main concern is how to best bring together, balance off, and compromise energy, the environment, and the economy. Presented are alternatives for the immediate future (next two to three years), for the next ten years, and for planning beyond 1985. (BT)

  6. Differentiated Accountability Policy and School Improvement Plans: A Look at Professional Development and Inclusive Practices for Exceptional Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Marsha; Black, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) of 2004 and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 (NCLB) require that students with disabilities have equal access to general education curricula and contexts. Florida's Differentiated Accountability Program (DAP) is designed to support educators in meeting IDEA and NCLB…

  7. Accountability in Higher Education: Are There "Fatal Errors" Embedded in Current U.S. Policy Affecting Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantham, Marilyn H.

    Some observers of political phenomena are referring to the 1990s as the "age of accountability." Early in the decade of the '90s, articles in periodicals, professional journals and other sources were voicing warnings about increasing public policymaker frustration with higher education and the spreading development and implementation of…

  8. Refashioning Accountability: Toward a "Coordinated" System of Quality Assurance for Higher Education. Policy Papers on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewell, Peter; Wellman, Jane

    As public funds decline and the political climate changes, accountability and quality assurance are important issues for U.S. colleges and universities, and institutional leaders are concerned about a shift away from the established institution-centered structures, toward government-mandated, standards-driven systems. This paper explores the…

  9. Queer(y)ing New Schooling Accountabilities through "My School": Using Butlerian Tools to Think Differently about Policy Performativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowlett, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This article takes the role of provocateur to "queer(y)" the rules of intelligibility surrounding new schooling accountabilities. Butler's work is seldom used outside the arena of gender and sexualities research. A "queer(y)ing" methodology is subsequently applied in a context very different to where it is frequently…

  10. Accountability, Fiscal Management, and Student Achievement in East St. Louis, Illinois 1994-2006: Implications for Urban Educational Reform Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Michael P.; Roseboro, Donyell L.; Hunt, John

    2012-01-01

    This instrumental case study reviews the 1994-2004 period of state financial oversight in East St. Louis, Illinois School District 189, with a secondary review of the initial years of NCLB implementation. Although the oversight panel's fiscal management did generate financial stability, case findings indicate that its accountability processes did…

  11. Multilingual Writing in an Age of Accountability: From Policy to Practice in U.S. High School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Kerry Anne; Gilliland, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the influence of the U.S. accountability- and standards-driven context on the writing experiences of multilingual writers in "New Mainstream" linguistically diverse high school classrooms. Qualitative data from 12 ninth grade subject-matter classes were examined to note how uses of writing in subject-matter classrooms…

  12. Education Outcomes, School Governance and Parents' Demand for Accountability: Evidence from Albania. Policy Research Working Paper 5643

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serra, Danila; Barr, Abigail; Packard, Truman

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which teachers and school directors are held to account may play a central role in determining education outcomes, particularly in developing and transition countries where institutional deficiencies can distort incentives. This paper investigates the relationship between an expanded set of school inputs, including proxies for the…

  13. School Choice in Less Populated Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Tom; Dennison, Bill

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a parental choice case involving a rural (British) school with a 13+ transfer age to determine parents' use of the open enrollment system, effects of transport policy on exercising parental choice, quality of information provided, and factors influencing choice. Transportation was problematic. Four choice factors stood out: teacher…

  14. Learning from School Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paul E., Ed.; Hassel, Bryan C., Ed.

    This volume contains revised versions of 16 essays presented at a conference, "Rethinking School Governance," hosted by Harvard's Program on Education Policy and Governance in June 1997. Part 1, "Introduction," contains two chapters: (1) "School Choice: A Report Card" (Paul E. Peterson); and (2) "The Case for Charter Schools" (Bryan C. Hassel).…

  15. Controlled Free Choice Method: A Proposal for a New Undergraduate Major Selection Policy at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dosarya, Adel S.; Rahman, Syed Masiur

    2006-01-01

    The prevalent undergraduate major selection at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) mostly depends on the student's choice regardless of academic abilities and qualifications. Owing to the adoption of this Free Choice Method (FCM), the number of students will continue to grow and external pressures at the national level may force…

  16. Medicare program; revision to accrual basis of accounting policy. Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), HHS. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1999-09-27

    Medicare policy provides that payroll taxes that a provider becomes obligated to remit to governmental agencies are included in allowable costs only in the cost reporting period in which payment (upon which the payroll taxes are based) is actually made to an employee. Therefore, for payroll accrued in 1 year but not paid until the next year, the associated payroll taxes are not an allowable cost until the next year. This final rule provides for an exception when payment would be made to the employee in the current year but for the fact the regularly scheduled payment date is after the end of the year. In that case, the rule requires allowance in the current year of accrued taxes on payroll that is accrued through the end of the year but not paid until the beginning of the next year, thus allowing accrued taxes on end-of-the year payroll in the same year that the accrual of the payroll itself is allowed. The effect of this rule is not on the allowability of cost but rather only on the timing of payment; that is, the cost of payroll taxes on end-of-the-year payroll is allowable in the current period rather than in the following period. PMID:11010708

  17. Modified mandated choice for organ procurement

    PubMed Central

    Chouhan, P; Draper, H

    2003-01-01

    Presumed consent to organ donation looks increasingly unlikely to be a palatable option for increasing organ procurement in the UK following the publication of the report into events at Alder Hey and elsewhere. Yet, given that the alternative to increasing the number of cadaveric organs available is either to accept a greater number of live donations, or accept that people will continue to die for the want of an organ, public policy makers remain obliged to consider other means of increasing the procurement rate. In this paper, we meet the main objections to mandated choice (namely that it undermines autonomy and that mandated donation is preferable). We have modified the traditional approach to mandated choice to take into account the force of the objection that mandated donation is preferable, by accepting that people can and do make bad decisions about organ donation and proposing that all accompanying public education and information about cadaveric donation should be directed in favour of donation. PMID:12796435

  18. U.S. Trade Policy: Competing in a Global Economy. Teacher's Resource Book [and Student's Guide]. Public Policy Debate in the Classroom. Choices for the 21st Century Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. Inst. for International Studies.

    This curriculum unit helps students explore how U.S. trade relations fit into the country's overall role in the world. The unit is part of a series on current and historical international issues developed by the Choices for the 21st Century Education Project. Choices material places special emphasis on the importance of educating students in their…

  19. Public Sector Policies and Practice, Neo-Liberal Consumerism and Freedom of Choice in Secondary Education: A Case Study of One Area in Kent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Carl; Welsh, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper details the impact of New Labour's neo-liberal social and educational policies on disadvantaged groups in the district of Thanet. It notes that the post-welfare policy responses to social and educational problems reinforce both the disadvantages of deprived groups and the gradient of popularity among secondary schools within the…

  20. From Accountability to Privatization and African American Exclusion: Chicago's "Renaissance 2010"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Pauline; Haines, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes Chicago's new Renaissance 2010 school plan to close public schools and reopen them as choice and charter schools. Grounding the analysis in participatory research methods, the authors argue that Chicago's education accountability policies have laid the groundwork for privatization. They furthermore argue that Renaissance 2010…

  1. The Challenge of Diversity and Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Schools of equal educational quality need not be identical, and the recent trend toward increased choice and diversity in American schooling has if anything made the system more equitable for children who previously had no choice but to attend poorly performing schools. That is not to say that all forms of school choice are good public policy:…

  2. The Fiscal Impact of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: 2010-2011 Update and Policy Options. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation. Report # 22

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costrell, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    This report analyzes the net fiscal impact of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP). The net fiscal benefits of the MPCP have continued to grow. The estimated increase was particularly sharp in FY10, from $37.2 million to $46.7 million. This increase was primarily due to the cut in the voucher amount, while MPS' per pupil revenues continued…

  3. Intertemporal choice in lemurs.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jeffrey R; Mühlhoff, Nelly

    2012-02-01

    Different species vary in their ability to wait for delayed rewards in intertemporal choice tasks. Models of rate maximization account for part of this variation, but other factors such as social structure and feeding ecology seem to underly some species differences. Though studies have evaluated intertemporal choice in several primate species, including Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and apes, prosimians have not been tested. This study investigated intertemporal choices in three species of lemur (black-and-white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata, red ruffed lemurs, Varecia rubra, and black lemurs, Eulemur macaco) to assess how they compare to other primate species and whether their choices are consistent with rate maximization. We offered lemurs a choice between two food items available immediately and six food items available after a delay. We found that by adjusting the delay to the larger reward, the lemurs were indifferent between the two options at a mean delay of 17 s, ranging from 9 to 25 s. These data are comparable to data collected from common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). The lemur data were not consistent with models of rate maximization. The addition of lemurs to the list of species tested in these tasks will help uncover the role of life history and socio-ecological factors influencing intertemporal choices. PMID:22024661

  4. How to do (or not to do) … translation of national health accounts data to evidence for policy making in a low resourced setting.

    PubMed

    Price, Jennifer A; Guinness, Lorna; Irava, Wayne; Khan, Idrish; Asante, Augustine; Wiseman, Virginia

    2016-05-01

    For more than a decade, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank have promoted the international standardization of National Health Accounts (NHA) for reporting global statistics on public, private and donor health expenditure and improve the quality of evidence-based decision-making at country level. A 2010-2012 World Bank review of NHA activity in 50 countries found structural and technical constraints (rather than cost) were key impediments to institutionalizing NHA in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Pilot projects focused resources on data production, neglecting longer-term capacity building for analysing the data, developing ownership among local stakeholders and establishing routine production, utilization and dissemination of NHA data. Hence, genuine institutionalization of NHA in most LMICs has been slow to materialize. International manuals focus on the production of NHA data and do not include practical, incremental and low-cost strategies to guide countries in translating the data into evidence for policy-making. The main aim of this article is to recommend strategies for bridging this divide between production and utilization of NHA data in low-resource settings. The article begins by discussing the origins and purpose of NHA, including factors currently undermining their uptake. The focus then turns to the development and application of strategies to assist LMICs in 'unlocking' the hidden value of their NHA. The article draws on the example of Fiji, a country currently attempting to integrate their NHA data into policy formulation, despite minimal resources, training and familiarity with economic analysis of health systems. Simple, low cost recommendations such as embedding health finance indicators in planning documents, a user-friendly NHA guide for evaluating local health priorities, and sharing NHA data for collaborative research have helped translate

  5. Is Patient Choice the Future of Health Care Systems?

    PubMed Central

    Fotaki, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    Patient and user choice are at the forefront of the debate on the future direction of health and public services provision in many industrialized countries in Europe and elsewhere. It is used both, as a means to achieve desired policy goals in public health care systems such as greater efficiency and improved quality of care, and as a good with its own intrinsic value. However, the evidence suggests that its impact on efficiency and quality is at best a very limited while it might have negative consequences on equity because the pre-existing inequalities of income and education could influence patients’ access to information and, consequently, choices. The paper attempts to introduce multidisciplinary frameworks to account for the social and cultural factors guiding patients’ choices and to explain the rationale, processes and outcomes of decision making in health care. PMID:24596850

  6. Complexity, public reporting, and choice of doctors: a look inside the blackest box of consumer behavior.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Mark; Kanouse, David E; Martino, Steven C; Shaller, Dale; Rybowski, Lise

    2014-10-01

    Health care consumers often make choices that are imperfectly informed and inconsistent with their expressed preferences. Past research suggests that these shortcomings become more pronounced as choices become more complex, through either additional options or more performance metrics. But it is unclear why this is true: Consumer choice remains a "black box" that research has scarcely illuminated. In this article, we identify four pathways through which complexity may impair consumer choice. We examine these pathways using data from an experiment in which consumers (hypothetically) selected a primary care physician. Some of the loss of decision quality accompanying more complex choice sets can be explained by consumers' skills and decision-making style, but even after accounting for these factors, complexity undermines the quality of decision making in ways that cannot be fully explained. We conclude by discussing implications for report designers, sponsors, and policy makers aspiring to promote consumer empowerment and health care quality.

  7. Complexity, public reporting, and choice of doctors: a look inside the blackest box of consumer behavior.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Mark; Kanouse, David E; Martino, Steven C; Shaller, Dale; Rybowski, Lise

    2014-10-01

    Health care consumers often make choices that are imperfectly informed and inconsistent with their expressed preferences. Past research suggests that these shortcomings become more pronounced as choices become more complex, through either additional options or more performance metrics. But it is unclear why this is true: Consumer choice remains a "black box" that research has scarcely illuminated. In this article, we identify four pathways through which complexity may impair consumer choice. We examine these pathways using data from an experiment in which consumers (hypothetically) selected a primary care physician. Some of the loss of decision quality accompanying more complex choice sets can be explained by consumers' skills and decision-making style, but even after accounting for these factors, complexity undermines the quality of decision making in ways that cannot be fully explained. We conclude by discussing implications for report designers, sponsors, and policy makers aspiring to promote consumer empowerment and health care quality. PMID:23999489

  8. Choice Plans: A Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heleen, Owen

    1992-01-01

    Choice plans include private schools (voucher plans, tax credits and deductions, and contract services and charter plans) and public schools (intradistrict choice, interdistrict choice, and statewide choice). Issues spanning both areas are those of curricular choice and residential choice. (SLD)

  9. Comparative Analysis of Demographic and Student Achievement Outcomes of Implementation of the Nclb Public School Choice Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferebee, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    Expanding schooling options for children in low performing schools is one of the major principles of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) policy, representing two reform initiatives for public education school improvement that have dominated the conversations among public education policymakers, test-based accountability and school choice. Given their…

  10. Where Are the Accounting Professors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Jui-Chin; Sun, Huey-Lian

    2008-01-01

    Accounting education is facing a crisis of shortage of accounting faculty. This study discusses the reasons behind the shortage and offers suggestions to increase the supply of accounting faculty. Our suggestions are as followings. First, educators should begin promoting accounting academia as one of the career choices to undergraduate and…

  11. Choice Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Darcy

    2001-01-01

    Describes how the author allows the children to make choices about their art and writing, enabling them to make connections between their own lives and work. Suggests that educators need to provide doorways to the things that give students ideas: books, music, objects, pictures, smells, sounds, and textures. (SG)

  12. Don't Know What You've Got 'Til It's Gone? Skills-Led Qualifications, Secondary School Attainment and Policy Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil; James, David; Last, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    In the name of curriculum breadth and raising standards, recent government policy in England has removed a large number of non-academic qualifications from the list of those that secondary schools can count in league tables, discouraging their use. Most of these were vocational qualifications, but they also include skills-led qualifications. This…

  13. Making Healthy Behaviors the Easy Choice for Employees: A Review of the Literature on Environmental and Policy Changes in Worksite Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn-Marshall, Jennifer L.; Gallant, Mary P.

    2012-01-01

    As employers look for ways to reduce rising health care costs, worksite health promotion interventions are increasingly being used to improve employee health behaviors. An alternative approach to traditional worksite health promotion programs is the implementation of environmental and/or policy changes to encourage employees to adopt healthier…

  14. Policy Challenges for Bilingual and Immersion Education in Australia: Literacy and Language Choices for Users of Aboriginal Languages, Auslan and Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Courcy, Michele

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the author's recent work on political, sociolinguistic and educational aspects of bilingual and immersion education in Australia. Among the cases considered are: the development of a professional position statement on bilingual and immersion education, to be disseminated to policy makers; advising on an Auslan (Australian…

  15. Beyond Policy and Language Choice: An Analysis of Texts in Four Instructional Contexts in East Africa. Special Studies in Comparative Education, Number Eighteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbuyi, Dennis M.

    This study compares the English and Swahili language texts used in the primary grades in Kenya and Tanzania in order to ascertain the role of language in determining the content of instruction and to relate the content of these texts to significant characteristics of governmental educational policy and the values underlying them. The introductory…

  16. Media Choice in Environmental Information Dissemination for Solid Waste Management among Policy Formulators and Implementors: A Case Study of Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akintola, B. A.; Temowo, O. O.; Ajiboye, J. O.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental information has been described as central to the issues of solid waste management and disposal. This study investigated the availability and accessibility of environmental information to the solid waste policy formulators and implementors with regard to the media/channels used for disseminating environmental information to the…

  17. Scientists, Engineers and the Society of Free Choice: Enrollment as Policy and Practice in Swedish Science and Technology Education 1960-1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lövheim, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article portrays the formation of a new problem area within Swedish educational policy in the 1960s, namely the need of scientific manpower and the demands to entice more individuals into studies in science and technology. As a consequence school science was given the mission to be interesting, fun and to change young people's attitudes…

  18. Title III Accountability Policies and Outcomes for K-12: Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives for English Language Learner Students in Southeast Region States. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly S.; Dufford-Melendez, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This report details Title III accountability policies and outcomes for K-12 English language learner (ELL) students for school year 2007/08 in the six Southeast Region states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina) under the Title III annual measurable achievement objectives (AMAO) provision of the No Child…

  19. School Choice Tradeoffs: Liberty, Equity and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, R. Kenneth; Kemerer, Frank R.

    Education policy should encourage liberty and equality of opportunity, political tolerance, respect for diversity, and citizenship. The authors compare current policy that uses family residence to assign students to schools with alternative policies that range from expanding public choice options to school vouchers. They identify the benefits and…

  20. Will Choice Hurt? Compared to What? A School Choice Experiment in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the empirical analysis of the effects of a school choice policy in Estonia. The article shows that relying on markets and giving autonomy to the schools over student selection will produce admission tests, even at the elementary school level. This article's contribution is to show that a school choice policy experiment…

  1. Leasing policies for the extractive resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Johnson, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    Much of the available analysis of policies for the disposal of publicly held resources is based on comparatively straightforward extensions of the neoclassical pricing and allocation theory. As such, these analyses have to a large extent not fully incorporated the fact that firms normally acquire rights to these resources in sealed tender markets. In this paper, a simple bidding model is used to show that the choice of disposal policies can influence the firm's bid and also the public revenues obtained from the sale of the resource. It is additionally shown that the implications of such policy choices are conditioned by the firm's attitudes towards risk. Finally, it is argued that a modification of existing prescriptions may be necessary if a more realistic specification of the disposal problem taking account of the sealed tender market in which rights are obtained, is considered. ?? 1976 Annals of Regional Science.

  2. Changes in the Former Soviet Union: Debating U.S. Aid. Choices for the 21st Century. Alternatives for Public Debate and Policy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Foreign Policy Development.

    This unit of study allows students and teachers to step back from the confusing media reports of the day-to-day turmoil in the former Soviet Union (FSU) and to examine it from a more thoughtful vantage point. The unit focuses on the most important instrument of U.S. policy toward the FSU--economic assistance. At the core of the unit are four…

  3. Choices in health care: the European experience.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Sarah; Dixon, Anna

    2006-07-01

    This paper examines some policies to increase or restrict consumer choice in western European health systems as regards four decisions: choice between public and private insurance; choice of public insurance fund; choice of first contact care provider and choice of hospital. Choice between public and private insurance is limited and arose for historical reasons in Germany. Owing to significant constraints, few people choose the private option. Choice of public insurance fund tends to be exercised by younger and healthier people, the decision to change fund is mainly associated with price and, despite complex risk adjustment mechanisms, it has led to risk selection by funds. Choice of first contact care provider is widespread in Europe. In countries where choice has traditionally been restricted, reforms aim to make services more accessible and convenient to patients. Reforms to restrict direct access to specialists aim to reduce unnecessary and inappropriate care but have been unpopular with the public and professionals. Patients' take up of choice of hospital has been surprisingly low, given their stated willingness to travel. Only where choice is actively supported in the context of long waiting times is take up higher. The objectives, implementation and impact of policies about choice have varied across western Europe. Culture and embedded norms may be significant in determining the extent to which patients exercise choice. PMID:16824264

  4. Professional Capital as Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael; Rincón-Gallardo, Santiago; Hargreaves, Andy

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to clarify and spells out the responsibilities of policy makers to create the conditions for an effective accountability system that produces substantial improvements in student learning, strengthens the teaching profession, and provides transparency of results to the public. The authors point out that U.S. policy makers will need…

  5. Leveraging the water-energy-food nexus for a sustainability transition: Institutional and policy design choices in a fragmented world (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, R.

    2013-12-01

    Given the critical - but often subtle - feedbacks between water, energy, and food security, a nexus approach that integrates management and governance across sectors and scales is increasingly being advocated in research and policy circles. As a first step, such an approach calls for an integrated multi-disciplinary assessment of the externalities across sectors and tradeoffs involved in enhancing security in one sector on the other sectors. Recent research efforts have focused on understanding these tradeoffs, say, through estimating the energy costs of expanding irrigation for greater food security; or estimating the embodied land and water costs in increased energy production. While such efforts have increased awareness about the inter-connectedness of such issues, the fundamental question of how such an understanding influences decision-making and how it can lead to coordinated action towards a transition to more sustainable pathways still remains largely unanswered. The long legacy of sectoral organization of political and bureaucratic structures has led to a fragmentary policy and institutional landscape, on which cross-sectoral public action and coordination poses several challenges. Moreover, poorly defined property rights, imperfect or absent markets, and uncertainty about resource dynamics imply that economic signals about relative scarcity in one sector are not necessarily clear to decision makers in the other sectors. In this study, we examine these issues related to water-energy food nexus in the context of semi-arid groundwater irrigated regions of western and southern India. Using a social-ecological systems framework, we begin by characterizing some of the key inter-dependencies among food, water, and energy at the farm household, village and state level. We then examine the factors that influence decision-making at these levels, and the extent to which these decisions internalize the externalities. Specifically, we examine the role of energy

  6. Determinants of patient choice of healthcare providers: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In several northwest European countries, a demand-driven healthcare system has been implemented that stresses the importance of patient healthcare provider choice. In this study, we are conducting a scoping review aiming to map out what is known about the determinants of patient choice of a wide range of healthcare providers. As far as we know, not many studies are currently available that attempt to draw a general picture of how patients choose a healthcare provider and of the status of research on this subject. This study is therefore a valuable contribution to the growing amount of literature about patient choice. Methods We carried out a specific type of literature review known as a scoping review. Scoping reviews try to examine the breadth of knowledge that is available about a particular topic and therefore do not make selections or apply quality constraints. Firstly, we defined our research questions and searched the literature in Embase, Medline and PubMed. Secondly, we selected the literature, and finally we analysed and summarized the information. Results Our review shows that patients’ choices are determined by a complex interplay between patient and provider characteristics. A variety of patient characteristics determines whether patients make choices, are willing and able to choose, and how they choose. Patients take account of a variety of structural, process and outcome characteristics of providers, differing in the relative importance they attach to these characteristics. Conclusions There is no such thing as the typical patient: different patients make different choices in different situations. Comparative information seems to have a relatively limited influence on the choices made by many patients and patients base their decisions on a variety of provider characteristics instead of solely on outcome characteristics. The assumptions made in health policy about patient choice may therefore be an oversimplification of reality. Several

  7. Retailing policies for generic medicines.

    PubMed

    Narciso, Susana

    2005-06-01

    As there is general disagreement about the way generic medicines should be commercialized, two retailing policies are analyzed, taking into account their effects on the welfare of patients, government, pharmacies and physicians. In the first policy scenario, pharmacies are allowed to substitute generic medicines for branded ones, while in the second, substitution is forbidden. In both cases a pharmacies association is allowed to have a share in the production of generic medicines. The model predicts that under some conditions patients may prefer substitution by pharmacies but when doctors' decisions are binding, they are never "excessively bad". However, the policy choice belongs to the government, which prefers to allow for substitution more often than patients would like. PMID:15912315

  8. Retailing policies for generic medicines.

    PubMed

    Narciso, Susana

    2005-06-01

    As there is general disagreement about the way generic medicines should be commercialized, two retailing policies are analyzed, taking into account their effects on the welfare of patients, government, pharmacies and physicians. In the first policy scenario, pharmacies are allowed to substitute generic medicines for branded ones, while in the second, substitution is forbidden. In both cases a pharmacies association is allowed to have a share in the production of generic medicines. The model predicts that under some conditions patients may prefer substitution by pharmacies but when doctors' decisions are binding, they are never "excessively bad". However, the policy choice belongs to the government, which prefers to allow for substitution more often than patients would like.

  9. Accountability Policy Outcomes Related to No Child Left Behind and Educational Equity for Big5 City Schools in New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Hyejin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the association of NCLB/accountability with educational output and input for New York State, collectively. Focusing on ELA and Math achievement in 4th and 8th grades, this study demonstrated the association of accountability outcomes in three ways: "accountability design, school proficiency level, and…

  10. The Evolution of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Campus 2020: Thinking ahead is a policy in British Columbia (BC), Canada, that attempted to hold universities accountable to performance. Within, I demonstrate how this Canadian articulation of educational accountability intended to develop "governmentality constellations" to control the university and regulate its knowledge output. This research…

  11. Global Environmental Problems: Implications for U.S. Policy. Tenth Edition. Teacher Resource Book [and Student Text]. Public Policy Debate in the Classroom. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sarah Cleveland

    Scientists have increasingly focused attention on far-reaching environmental threats, such as climate change, ozone depletion, and deforestation, that transcend national boundaries. A new concept, global environmental problems, has entered the public arena, particularly in the area of foreign policy and economic matters. This unit explores the…

  12. Global Environmental Problems: Implications for U.S. Policy. Teacher's Resource Book [and Student Guidebook]. Public Policy Debate in the Classroom: Choices for the 21st Century Education Project. 9th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. Inst. for International Studies.

    This teacher resource text and student text are part of a continuing series on current and historical international issues, placing special emphasis on the importance of educating students in their participatory role as citizens. It examines the relationship between public policy in the United States and the ecological health of the planet.…

  13. Which Fish Should I Eat? Perspectives Influencing Fish Consumption Choices

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Anna L.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Mariën, Koenraad; Rheinberger, Christoph M.; Schoeny, Rita; Sunderland, Elsie; Korrick, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices. Objectives: We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories. Methods: We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on advisories targeted at U.S. populations. However, our conclusions apply to groups having similar fish consumption patterns. Discussion: There are many possible combinations of matters related to fish consumption, but few, if any, fish consumption patterns optimize all domains. Fish provides a rich source of protein and other nutrients, but because of contamination by methylmercury and other toxicants, higher fish intake often leads to greater toxicant exposure. Furthermore, stocks of wild fish are not adequate to meet the nutrient demands of the growing world population, and fish consumption choices also have a broad economic impact on the fishing industry. Most guidance does not account for ecological and economic impacts of different fish consumption choices. Conclusion: Despite the relative lack of information integrating the health, ecological, and economic impacts of different fish choices, clear and simple guidance is necessary to effect desired changes. Thus, more comprehensive advice can be developed to describe the multiple impacts of fish consumption. In addition, policy and fishery management inter-ventions will be necessary to ensure long-term availability of fish as an important source of human nutrition. PMID:22534056

  14. The Effects of Health Insurance Coverage on the Math Achievement Trajectories of School Children in Yuma County, Arizona: Implications for Education Accountability Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcy, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    U.S. Federal and state education policies place considerable emphasis on assessing the effects that schools and teachers have on student test score performance. It is important for education policy makers to also consider other factors that can affect student achievement. This study finds that an exogenous school factor, discontinuous health…

  15. Patient Choice Has Become the Standard Practice in Healthcare Provision: It is Time to Extend its Meaning Comment on “Is Patient Choice the Future of Health Care Systems?”

    PubMed Central

    Ewert, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The key argument of this commentary is that patient choice has a broader meaning than suggested by consumerist choice models. In increasingly marketized health care systems with diversified and knowledge-based service arrangements, patients are continuously obliged to choose insurers, physicians or hospitals and treatments—whether they like it or not. However, health care users refer to a wide range of roles and resources while taking health-related decisions. They are patients, consumers and co-producers at the same time. Therefore, as it is argued, healthcare policies have to recognize users’ multiple identities by providing more balanced choice frameworks. In particular, two aspects are crucial: first, opportunities for users to voice worries and concerns and to co-design default options of health care choices; secondly, taking the significance of interpersonal trust in choice-making processes into account. PMID:24596870

  16. Eye Movements in Strategic Choice

    PubMed Central

    Gächter, Simon; Noguchi, Takao; Mullett, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In risky and other multiattribute choices, the process of choosing is well described by random walk or drift diffusion models in which evidence is accumulated over time to threshold. In strategic choices, level‐k and cognitive hierarchy models have been offered as accounts of the choice process, in which people simulate the choice processes of their opponents or partners. We recorded the eye movements in 2 × 2 symmetric games including dominance‐solvable games like prisoner's dilemma and asymmetric coordination games like stag hunt and hawk–dove. The evidence was most consistent with the accumulation of payoff differences over time: we found longer duration choices with more fixations when payoffs differences were more finely balanced, an emerging bias to gaze more at the payoffs for the action ultimately chosen, and that a simple count of transitions between payoffs—whether or not the comparison is strategically informative—was strongly associated with the final choice. The accumulator models do account for these strategic choice process measures, but the level‐k and cognitive hierarchy models do not. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27513881

  17. Scientists, Engineers and the Society of Free Choice: Enrollment as Policy and Practice in Swedish Science and Technology Education 1960-1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lövheim, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    This article portrays the formation of a new problem area within Swedish educational policy in the 1960s, namely the need of scientific manpower and the demands to entice more individuals into studies in science and technology. As a consequence school science was given the mission to be interesting, fun and to change young people's attitudes towards these subjects. In the 1970s and 1980s many initiatives were taken to increase the numbers of applicants at high school and university levels, both within curricular frames and out-of-school activities such as science clubs. Through an approach inspired by governmentality studies, I describe the strategies deployed to remedy the problem as rationalities of liberal governmentality. The actions taken were executed in a way to make school children choose science or technology out of their free will. It was an exercise of power that was not meant to restrain but instead to enable action.

  18. Instructional Innovation, School Choice, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berends, Mark; Penaloza, Roberto V.; Cannata, Marisa; Goldring, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    There is limited empirical research about innovation in various types of schools of choice, although viable choice policies tend to assume clear differentiation amongst schools. Innovation can be conceptualized in many ways and takes place at multiple levels of the school organization. Schools can innovate in terms of the roles and responsibility…

  19. Accountability and Primary Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Mukhi, Shaheena; Barnsley, Jan; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the accountability structures within primary healthcare (PHC) in Ontario; in particular, who is accountable for what and to whom, and the policy tools being used. Ontario has implemented a series of incremental reforms, using expenditure policy instruments, enforced through contractual agreements to provide a defined set of publicly financed services that are privately delivered, most often by family physicians. The findings indicate that reporting, funding, evaluation and governance accountability requirements vary across service provider models. Accountability to the funder and patients is most common. Agreements, incentives and compensation tools have been used but may be insufficient to ensure parties are being held responsible for their activities related to stated goals. Clear definitions of various governance structures, a cohesive approach to monitoring critical performance indicators and associated improvement strategies are important elements in operationalizing accountability and determining whether goals are being met. PMID:25305392

  20. Accountability and primary healthcare.

    PubMed

    Mukhi, Shaheena; Barnsley, Jan; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    This paper examines the accountability structures within primary healthcare (PHC) in Ontario; in particular, who is accountable for what and to whom, and the policy tools being used. Ontario has implemented a series of incremental reforms, using expenditure policy instruments, enforced through contractual agreements to provide a defined set of publicly financed services that are privately delivered, most often by family physicians. The findings indicate that reporting, funding, evaluation and governance accountability requirements vary across service provider models. Accountability to the funder and patients is most common. Agreements, incentives and compensation tools have been used but may be insufficient to ensure parties are being held responsible for their activities related to stated goals. Clear definitions of various governance structures, a cohesive approach to monitoring critical performance indicators and associated improvement strategies are important elements in operationalizing accountability and determining whether goals are being met. PMID:25305392

  1. Nuclear choices

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfson, R.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains part of the series New Liberal Arts, which is intended to make science and technology more accessible to students of the liberal arts. Volume in hand provides a comprehensive, multifaceted examination of nuclear energy, in nontechnical terms. Wolfson explains the basics of nuclear energy and radiation, nuclear power..., and nuclear weapons..., and he invites readers to make their own judgments on controversial nuclear issues. Illustrated with photos and diagrams. Each chapter contains suggestions for additional reading and a glossary. For policy, science, and general collections in all libraries. (ES) Topics contained include Atoms and nuclei. Effects and uses of radiation. Energy and People. Reactor safety. Nuclear strategy. Defense in the nuclear age. Nuclear power, nuclear weapons, and nuclear futures.

  2. Informing food policy: balancing the evidence.

    PubMed

    Gill, M; Johnston, K

    2010-11-01

    The paper considers some of the reasons why governments develop food policies, gives examples of what is in food policies at the Scottish and UK levels and explores ways of effectively providing balanced evidence for policy development. It discusses the challenges of exchanging knowledge between the science and policy communities, given their different languages and cultures, highlighting the need for greater mutual understanding of roles and responsibilities. It draws on experience in the Scottish Government of developing the government's 'Recipe for Success - Scotland's National Food and Drink Policy' through engagement with stakeholders, scientists and analysts and touches on the more complex nature of the Department for International Development's contribution to meeting the first Millennium Development Goal. It compares the need for collation and analysis of existing evidence during the development of policy, with the desirability of providing policy direction for longer-term strategic research and the challenges of connecting the policy expectations with researchable questions. The paper concludes by emphasising the need to focus research in the short-term on mitigation of climate change through decreasing greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production of food, while also taking an account of economic, health and broader environmental sustainability objectives. A further challenge is to communicate complexity and uncertainty in ways which enable decision-makers from the consumer to policy-makers to make informed choices. Longer-term research needs to focus on the opportunities and risks associated with adapting to climate change.

  3. The Evidence on the "Florida Formula" for Education Reform. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Carlo, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    During the late 1990s and 2000s, the State of Florida enacted a set of education reforms spearheaded by Governor Jeb Bush. These policies, which emphasize test-based accountability, competition, and choice, have since become known as the "Florida Formula for education success," or, simply, the "Florida Formula." In recent…

  4. A transparency and accountability framework for high-value inpatient nursing care.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Ellen T

    2010-01-01

    Transparency and accountability are terms that typically refer to activities aimed at measuring and holding providers responsible for their performance through such vehicles as public disclosure of comparative results. Today, transparency and accountability policies are widely accepted strategies to drive quality improvement and stimulate consumer choice. Yet nursing, the single largest health care profession, has not yet been engaged in these policy directions nor considered in their design or implementation. The framework reported here offers nurses and their professional organizations a model for which to advocate for policy change. Hospital and health system executives who have the freedom to establish institutional policies might implement this framework to achieve higher value. This framework provides both the context and components of a system that, if implemented, would measure, report, and reward hospital nursing's contributions to high value. PMID:21158250

  5. Orbitofrontal cortical activity during repeated free choice.

    PubMed

    Campos, Michael; Koppitch, Kari; Andersen, Richard A; Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2012-06-01

    Neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) have been shown to encode subjective values, suggesting a role in preference-based decision-making, although the precise relation to choice behavior is unclear. In a repeated two-choice task, subjective values of each choice can account for aggregate choice behavior, which is the overall likelihood of choosing one option over the other. Individual choices, however, are impossible to predict with knowledge of relative subjective values alone. In this study we investigated the role of internal factors in choice behavior with a simple but novel free-choice task and simultaneous recording from individual neurons in nonhuman primate OFC. We found that, first, the observed sequences of choice behavior included periods of exceptionally long runs of each of two available options and periods of frequent switching. Neither a satiety-based mechanism nor a random selection process could explain the observed choice behavior. Second, OFC neurons encode important features of the choice behavior. These features include activity selective for exceptionally long runs of a given choice (stay selectivity) as well as activity selective for switches between choices (switch selectivity). These results suggest that OFC neural activity, in addition to encoding subjective values on a long timescale that is sensitive to satiety, also encodes a signal that fluctuates on a shorter timescale and thereby reflects some of the statistically improbable aspects of free-choice behavior.

  6. Basic and applied research on choice responding.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, W W; Mazur, J E

    1997-01-01

    Choice responding refers to the manner in which individuals allocate their time or responding among available response options. In this article, we first review basic investigations that have identified and examined variables that influence choice responding, such as response effort and reinforcement rate, immediacy, and quality. We then describe recent bridge and applied studies that illustrate how the results of basic research on choice responding can help to account for human behavior in natural environments and improve clinical assessments and interventions. PMID:9316255

  7. Riverscape and groundwater preservation: a choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Tempesta, T; Vecchiato, D

    2013-12-01

    This study presents a quantitative approach to support policy decision making for the preservation of riverscapes, taking into account the EC Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and the EC Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC) concerning the protection of waters against nitrate pollution from agricultural sources. A choice experiment was applied to evaluate the benefits, as perceived by inhabitants, of the implementation of policies aiming to reduce the concentration of nitrates in groundwater, preserve the riverscape by maintaining a minimum water flow and increasing hedges and woods along the Serio River in central northern Italy. Findings suggested that people were particularly concerned about groundwater quality, probably because it is strongly linked to human health. Nevertheless, it was interesting to observe that people expressed a high willingness to pay for actions that affect the riverscape as a whole (such as the minimum water flow maintenance plus reforestation). This is probably due to the close connection between the riverscape and the functions of the river area for recreation, health purposes, and biodiversity preservation.

  8. Evidence, Methodology, Test-Based Accountability, and Educational Policy: A Scholarly Exchange between Dr. Eric A. Hanushek and Drs. John Robert Warren and Eric Grodsky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Warren, John Robert; Grodsky, Eric

    2012-01-01

    This exchange represents a follow-up to an article on the effects of state high school exit examinations that previously appeared in this journal (Warren, Grodsky, & Kalogrides 2009). That 2009 article was featured prominently in a report by the National Research Council (NRC) that evaluated the efficacy of test-based accountability systems.…

  9. Education Funding and Student Outcomes: A Conceptual Framework for Measurement of the Alignment of State Education Finance and Academic Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoeppel, Robert C.; Della Sala, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    The conceptualization and measurement of education finance equity and adequacy has engaged researchers for more than three decades. At the same time, calls for increased academic accountability and higher student achievement in K-12 public education have reached new levels at both the national and state levels. Aligning these represents an…

  10. Creating a Statewide Educational Data System for Accountability and Improvement: A Comprehensive Information and Assessment System for Making Evidence-Based Change at School, District, and Policy Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felner, Robert D.; Bolton, Natalie; Seitsinger, Anne M.; Brand, Stephen; Burns, Amy

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on one ongoing statewide effort to create a high-quality data reporting and utilization system (i.e., High-Performance Learning Community [HiPlaces] Assessment) to inform educational accountability and improvement efforts system. This effort has undergoing refinement for more than a decade. The article describes the features…

  11. Beyond Labelling: What Strategies Do Nut Allergic Individuals Employ to Make Food Choices? A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Julie; Vasileiou, Konstantina; Gowland, M. Hazel; Raats, Monique M.; Lucas, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Food labelling is an important tool that assists people with peanut and tree nut allergies to avoid allergens. Nonetheless, other strategies are also developed and used in food choice decision making. In this paper, we examined the strategies that nut allergic individuals deploy to make safe food choices in addition to a reliance on food labelling. Methods Three qualitative methods: an accompanied shop, in-depth semi-structured interviews, and the product choice reasoning task – were used with 32 patients that had a clinical history of reactions to peanuts and/or tree nuts consistent with IgE-mediated food allergy. Thematic analysis was applied to the transcribed data. Results Three main strategies were identified that informed the risk assessments and food choice practices of nut allergic individuals. These pertained to: (1) qualities of product such as the product category or the country of origin, (2) past experience of consuming a food product, and (3) sensory appreciation of risk. Risk reasoning and risk management behaviours were often contingent on the context and other physiological and socio-psychological needs which often competed with risk considerations. Conclusions Understanding and taking into account the complexity of strategies and the influences of contextual factors will allow healthcare practitioners, allergy nutritionists, and caregivers to advise and educate patients more effectively in choosing foods safely. Governmental bodies and policy makers could also benefit from an understanding of these food choice strategies when risk management policies are designed and developed. PMID:23383141

  12. 77 FR 43542 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Harmonization Rule. The final rule was published at 76 FR 81296 on December 27, 2011. Generally, the technical... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards Pension Harmonization Rule AGENCY: Cost...

  13. Expanding Choice: Tax Credits and Educational Access in Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II

    2011-01-01

    The past 30 years have seen a steady expansion in the educational choices available to parents as school choice programs have spread around the country. Enabling parents to choose schools that fit their children's unique needs is a win-win-win: Research shows that such school choice policies benefit the children who participate, give traditional…

  14. School Choice and Educational Opportunity: Rationales, Outcomes and Racial Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Porath, Sigal

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the rationales for school choice, and the significance of choice mechanisms for racial disparities in educational opportunities and outcomes. It identifies tensions between liberty-based rationales and equality-based rationales, and surveys research findings on the outcomes of school choice policies, especially with regard to…

  15. School Choice: Today's Scope and Barriers to Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manno, Bruno V.

    2010-01-01

    Few people realize the movement's breadth and the forms in which school choice expansion is manifest. Out of slightly more than 57 million K-12 schoolchildren, almost 29.4 million--nearly 52%--are enrolled in a K-12 school choice option. This article provides an overview of the scope of school choice today and summarizes the political, policy, and…

  16. Similar Performance, but Different Choices: Social Class and Higher Education Choice in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sianou-Kyrgiou, Eleni; Tsiplakides, Iakovos

    2011-01-01

    Higher education choice has been a central theme in sociological research in recent decades, especially following the policies for the widening of participation adopted in many countries. Research has shown a relationship between social class and higher education choice, and this is a reason why the expansion of higher education does not reduce…

  17. Educational Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincoffs, Edmund L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses educational accountability as the paradigm of performance contracting, presents some arguments for and against accountability, and discusses the goals of education and the responsibility of the teacher. (Author/PG)

  18. Student Attendance Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitas, Joseph M.

    In response to state legislation authorizing procedures for changes in academic calendars and measurement of student workload in California community colleges, this manual from the Chancellor's Office provides guidelines for student attendance accounting. Chapter 1 explains general items such as the academic calendar, admissions policies, student…

  19. Curtail Accountability, Cultivate Attainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wraga, William G.

    2011-01-01

    The current test-driven accountability movement, codified in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 ([NCLB] 2002), was a misguided idea that will have the effect not of improving the education of children and youth, but of indicting the public school system of the United States. To improve education in the United States, politicians, policy makers,…

  20. Enabling informed consumer choice in the long-term care insurance market.

    PubMed

    Lutzky, S; Alecxih, L M

    1999-01-01

    Provisions in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) may increase private long-term care insurance sales without imposing substantially more stringent consumer-protection features. The ability of consumers to make informed choices when purchasing this complex product is examined in light of these changes. Data were collected through detailed examinations of policies and interviews with industry experts, insurance companies, agents, consumer groups, and regulators. Because of the complexity of this product, the goals of expanding, consumer choice and ensuring that consumers are able to make informed decisions often work against each other. Mechanisms are discussed through which the government can facilitate informed choice and improve consumer protection. The authors contend that, because the government is providing tax incentives that encourage consumers to purchase the product, it has the responsibility to ensure that consumers understand the long-term care insurance they purchase. PMID:10537980

  1. Consumers, health insurance and dominated choices.

    PubMed

    Sinaiko, Anna D; Hirth, Richard A

    2011-03-01

    We analyze employee health plan choices when the choice set offered by their employer includes a dominated plan. During our study period, one-third of workers were enrolled in the dominated plan. Some may have selected the plan before it was dominated and then failed to switch out of it. However, a substantial number actively chose the dominated plan when they had an unambiguously better choice. These results suggest limitations in the ability of health reform based solely on consumer choice to achieve efficient outcomes and that implementation of health reform should anticipate, monitor and account for this consumer behavior. PMID:21300414

  2. Thinking about Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Accountability is a key component of healthcare reforms, in Canada and internationally, but there is increasing recognition that one size does not fit all. A more nuanced understanding begins with clarifying what is meant by accountability, including specifying for what, by whom, to whom and how. These papers arise from a Partnership for Health System Improvement (PHSI), funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), on approaches to accountability that examined accountability across multiple healthcare subsectors in Ontario. The partnership features collaboration among an interdisciplinary team, working with senior policy makers, to clarify what is known about best practices to achieve accountability under various circumstances. This paper presents our conceptual framework. It examines potential approaches (policy instruments) and postulates that their outcomes may vary by subsector depending upon (a) the policy goals being pursued, (b) governance/ownership structures and relationships and (c) the types of goods and services being delivered, and their production characteristics (e.g., contestability, measurability and complexity). PMID:25305385

  3. Choice in Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Timothy W.; Clinchy, Evans

    There has been much recent debate in both educational and political circles about the utility of choice as a means of improving the educational system. This book argues that any discussion of choice must address choice in public schools. The book is organized into seven chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of choice in public education,…

  4. Medicare program; revision to accrual basis of accounting policy. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA). Final rule.

    PubMed

    1999-09-27

    Medicare policy provides that payroll taxes that a provider becomes obligated to remit to governmental agencies are included in allowable costs only in the cost reporting period in which payment (upon which the payroll taxes are based) is actually made to an employee. Therefore, for payroll accrued in 1 year but not paid until the next year, the associated payroll taxes are not an allowable cost until the next year. This final rule provides for an exception when payment would be made to the employee in the current year but for the fact that regularly scheduled payment date is after the end of the year. In that case, the rule requires allowance in the current year of accrued taxes on payroll that is accrued through the end of the year but not paid until the beginning of the next year, thus allowing accrued taxes on end-of-the year payroll in the same year that the accrual of the payroll itself is allowed. The effect of this rule is not on the allowability of cost but rather only on the timing of payment; that is, the cost of payroll taxes on end-of-the-year payroll is allowable in the current period rather than in the following period. PMID:10915462

  5. Preference reversal in multiattribute choice.

    PubMed

    Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Usher, Marius; Chater, Nick

    2010-10-01

    A central puzzle for theories of choice is that people's preferences between options can be reversed by the presence of decoy options (that are not chosen) or by the presence of other irrelevant options added to the choice set. Three types of reversal effect reported in the decision-making literature, the attraction, compromise, and similarity effects, have been explained by a number of theoretical proposals. Yet a major theoretical challenge is capturing all 3 effects simultaneously. We review the range of mechanisms that have been proposed to account for decoy effects and analyze in detail 2 computational models, decision field theory (Roe, Busemeyer, & Townsend, 2001) and leaky competing accumulators (Usher & McClelland, 2004), that aim to combine several such mechanisms into an integrated account. By simulating the models, we examine differences in the ways the decoy effects are predicted. We argue that the LCA framework, which follows on Tversky's relational evaluation with loss aversion (Tversky & Kahneman, 1991), provides a more robust account, suggesting that common mechanisms are involved in both high-level decision making and perceptual choice, for which LCA was originally developed.

  6. South Africa's Unintended Experiment in School Choice: How the National Education Policy Act, the South Africa Schools Act and the Employment of Educators Act Create the Enabling Conditions for Quasi-Markets in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolman, Stuart; Fleisch, Brahm

    2006-01-01

    School choice is often identified with right-leaning, voucher-happy, market-oriented public school systems like those found in the United States. Thus, the proposition that a social democratic state such as South Africa will offer many primary and secondary school learners far greater choice strikes many as counter-intuitive and implausible. The…

  7. Full cost accounting in the analysis of separated waste collection efficiency: A methodological proposal.

    PubMed

    D'Onza, Giuseppe; Greco, Giulio; Allegrini, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Recycling implies additional costs for separated municipal solid waste (MSW) collection. The aim of the present study is to propose and implement a management tool - the full cost accounting (FCA) method - to calculate the full collection costs of different types of waste. Our analysis aims for a better understanding of the difficulties of putting FCA into practice in the MSW sector. We propose a FCA methodology that uses standard cost and actual quantities to calculate the collection costs of separate and undifferentiated waste. Our methodology allows cost efficiency analysis and benchmarking, overcoming problems related to firm-specific accounting choices, earnings management policies and purchase policies. Our methodology allows benchmarking and variance analysis that can be used to identify the causes of off-standards performance and guide managers to deploy resources more efficiently. Our methodology can be implemented by companies lacking a sophisticated management accounting system. PMID:26613351

  8. Full cost accounting in the analysis of separated waste collection efficiency: A methodological proposal.

    PubMed

    D'Onza, Giuseppe; Greco, Giulio; Allegrini, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Recycling implies additional costs for separated municipal solid waste (MSW) collection. The aim of the present study is to propose and implement a management tool - the full cost accounting (FCA) method - to calculate the full collection costs of different types of waste. Our analysis aims for a better understanding of the difficulties of putting FCA into practice in the MSW sector. We propose a FCA methodology that uses standard cost and actual quantities to calculate the collection costs of separate and undifferentiated waste. Our methodology allows cost efficiency analysis and benchmarking, overcoming problems related to firm-specific accounting choices, earnings management policies and purchase policies. Our methodology allows benchmarking and variance analysis that can be used to identify the causes of off-standards performance and guide managers to deploy resources more efficiently. Our methodology can be implemented by companies lacking a sophisticated management accounting system.

  9. The ABCs of School Choice: The Comprehensive Guide to Every Private School Choice Program in America. 2013 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "The ABCs of School Choice" is the most comprehensive guide to every private school choice program in America, showcasing the voucher, tax-credit scholarship, education savings accounts, and individual tax credit/deduction programs currently operating in 21 states and Washington, D.C. "The ABCs of School Choice" provides policymakers, advocates,…

  10. How Members of the 111th Congress Practice Private School Choice. Backgrounder. No. 2257

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lindsey

    2009-01-01

    Policies that give parents the ability to exercise private-school choice continue to proliferate across the country. On Capitol Hill, however, recent Congresses have not implemented policies to expand private-school choice although many Members of Congress exercise school choice for their own families. A Heritage survey of the members of the 111th…

  11. Linear Deterministic Accumulator Models of Simple Choice

    PubMed Central

    Heathcote, Andrew; Love, Jonathon

    2012-01-01

    We examine theories of simple choice as a race among evidence accumulation processes. We focus on the class of deterministic race models, which assume that the effects of fluctuations in the parameters of the accumulation processes between-choice trials (between-choice noise) dominate the effects of fluctuations occurring while making a choice (within-choice noise) in behavioral data (i.e., response times and choices). The latter deterministic approximation, when combined with the assumption that accumulation is linear, leads to a class of models that can be readily applied to simple-choice behavior because they are computationally tractable. We develop a new and mathematically simple exemplar within the class of linear deterministic models, the Lognormal race (LNR). We then examine how the LNR, and another widely applied linear deterministic model, Brown and Heathcote’s (2008) LBA, account for a range of benchmark simple-choice effects in lexical-decision task data reported by Wagenmakers et al. (2008). Our results indicate that the LNR provides an accurate description of this data. Although the LBA model provides a slightly better account, both models support similar psychological conclusions. PMID:22936920

  12. The Subject of Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    I work selectively with poststructuralist theories in order to give an account of the subject of policy as a constitutive relationship between social policy and the embodied human subject. Drawing on theories of subjectivity, narrative and governmentality, I articulate possibilities for analysing narrated accounts of experience as a mode of…

  13. Refocusing Government-Communications Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Ithiel de Sola; And Others

    In 1976, the Aspen Institute's Program on Communications and Society sponsored a series of Washington staff seminars on communications policy: "Policy Choices for the Information Age,""Government Telecommunications Research and Policy Development,""Problems of Regulating Specialized Telecommunications Common Carriers," and "Public Service Uses of…

  14. Myths of Educational Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Judith

    This book presents concerns and raises questions about the choice programs being proposed and implemented around the United States. It argues that poorly conceived, hastily enacted choice programs may do more harm than good. The demand for educational choice may result in lost opportunities for students (some groups more than others), weakened…

  15. Privatization and Educational Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Myron

    This book describes how and why educational choice movements will affect public education. It uses a public-choice approach to argue that both the supporters and opponents of private and school choice have failed to address several critical issues. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 is devoted to the rationale for contracting out…

  16. Medicare in a consumer-choice environment: competitor or residual program?

    PubMed

    Etheredge, L

    1996-01-01

    The Medicare provisions of the reconciliation bill and President Clinton's proposals would both allow many new health plans to compete for Medicare enrollees and structure a competitive, consumer-choice system. Medicare will enter this new environment with serious shortcomings. The logic of market competition will call for upgrading many aspects of Medicare if it is to be successful. Among Medicare's features that need to be reconsidered are benefits, consumer focus, premium financing, payment policies, provider arrangements, performance accountability, management systems, risk adjustment and market strategies, social mission responsibilities, and research and development. PMID:12856666

  17. Should Reformers Support Education Savings Accounts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladner, Matthew; Smith, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    In this article, "Education Next" talks with Matthew Ladner and Nelson Smith on the topic of Education Savings Accounts (ESAs). ESAs apply the logic of school choice to the ever-expanding realm of education offerings. Rather than simply empowering families to select the school of their choice, ESAs provide families with most or all of…

  18. Educational Choice: New Roles for Board Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Ruth E.

    1990-01-01

    School board members' new leadership roles in planning and implementing school choice programs are described in this article, which draws on the experience of a former Minnesota Commissioner of Education. The first task of the board is to set high expectations in the district and to establish specific policies. Despite the extent of…

  19. 2012 ABCs of School Choice: Rising Tide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPerna, Paul, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    School choice is a common sense idea that gives all parents the power and freedom to choose their child's education, while encouraging healthy competition among schools and other institutions to better serve students' needs and priorities. It is a public policy that allows a parent/guardian or student to choose a district, charter, or private…

  20. Accountability Overboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chieppo, Charles D.; Gass, James T.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that special interest groups opposed to charter schools and high-stakes testing have hijacked Massachusetts's once-independent board of education and stand poised to water down the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) tests and the accountability system they support. President Barack Obama and Massachusetts…

  1. Painless Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. W.; And Others

    The computerized Painless Accountability System is a performance objective system from which instructional programs are developed. Three main simplified behavioral response levels characterize this system: (1) cognitive, (2) psychomotor, and (3) affective domains. Each of these objectives are classified by one of 16 descriptors. The second major…

  2. Accounting Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication identifies 20 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of accounting specialist, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 20 units are as follows:…

  3. "Choice" in health care: what do people really want?

    PubMed

    Lambrew, Jeanne M

    2005-09-01

    Proposals to expand the individual health insurance market and promote health savings accounts are intended to provide consumers with more "choice." The types of choices people prefer, however, are not well understood. This analysis of survey data finds that having a choice of health care providers matters more to people than having a choice of health plans. Dissatisfaction among adults with no choice of providers was more than twice as high as among those with no choice of plan. Moreover, a large majority of Americans who have had experience with employer-based health insurance believe that employers do a good job of selecting quality plans. Two of three preferred an employer-selected set of plans over an employer-funded account that they would use to find coverage on their own. Thus, policymakers should be cautious about embracing the individual market and health savings accounts as a way to improve satisfaction in the system. PMID:16180283

  4. Challenges to the New Republic: Prelude to the War of 1812. Public Policy Debate in the Classroom. Choices for the 21st Century Education Project. [Student Guidebook and] Teacher's Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampmeier, Scott

    This 4-day curriculum unit explores U.S. foreign policy between 1787 and 1812. During this time the United States faced a series of foreign policy challenges that threatened its survival as an independent, constitutional republic. Between 1793 and 1815, a nearly continuous series of wars pitting the French against the British engulfed the European…

  5. The Cuban Missile Crisis: Considering Its Place in Cold War History. Teacher's Resource Book [and Student Text]. Public Policy Debate in the Classroom. Choices for the 21st Century Education Project. 4th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soukup, Nancy, Ed.

    Like no other region on the globe, the Caribbean Basin has served as a testing ground for U.S. foreign policy. Of all the countries in the region, Cuba has been the scene of many of the United States' most riveting foreign policy dramas. The teacher resource book and student text probe the complex, often troubled, relationship between the United…

  6. Australian Policy Activism in Language and Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph, Ed.; Wickert, Rosie, Ed.

    This book presents the dynamics of language and literacy policy activism in Australia. The introduction is "Activists and Policy" (LoBianco, Wickert). Part 1, "From Policy to Anti-Policy" (LoBianco), sets a frame and overarching context of the pattern of Australian language and literacy policy. Part 2 contains accounts of how policy activists…

  7. Competition, Choice and Pupil Achievement. CEE DP 56

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Stephen; Machin, Stephen; Silva, Olmo

    2006-01-01

    The expansion of school choice and greater competition between schools is currently the centrepiece of government educational policy in the UK. There is an increasing emphasis on parents' right to choose their preferred schools, and whilst many parents may value choice itself, the advocates of these market oriented reforms usually argue that the…

  8. Review of "The Education Choice and Competition Index"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, David R.

    2013-01-01

    In this report the Brown Center on Education Policy at the Brookings Institution presents the results of a self-developed Education Choice and Competition Index (ECCI) along with an interactive application that grades large school districts according to the ECCI. The index is composed of 13 pro choice criteria. The authors present the ECCI as a…

  9. Breaking Tradition: Taking Stock of Research on Global School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Beth

    2013-01-01

    School choice policies, as neoliberal reforms, have often been analyzed using the very discourse embedded in neoliberal mentalities. By reviewing the way scholars have conceptualized school choice as a transnational phenomenon, this paper evaluates the extent to which scholarship has attempted to, or succeeded in, overcoming traditional,…

  10. The Education Choice and Competition Index: Background and Results 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Grover J.

    2011-01-01

    Exploring the critical role of school choice in the future of education reform, Grover (Russ) Whitehurst introduces the Education Choice and Competition Index (ECCI), an interactive web application that scores large school districts based on thirteen categories of policy and practice. The intent of the ECCI is to create public awareness of the…

  11. Choice and Social Class of Medical School Students in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sianou-Kyrgiou, Eleni; Tsiplakides, Iakovos

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of literature focuses on choice of studies in the context of policies on widening participation in higher education and graduates' difficulties in the labour market. Drawing on research findings showing a relationship between social class and choice of studies, we conducted a qualitative study on first-year medical students in a…

  12. Parental Choice of School by Rural and Remote Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Parental choice of school is an under-researched area in the Australian educational literature. Moreover, research in this area tends to focus on school choice with respect to government policy and market influences. This paper presents the findings from doctoral research which explored the ways in which parents living in rural and remote areas…

  13. School Choice in an English Village: Living, Loyalty and Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Carl; Hillyard, Sam

    2015-01-01

    In late modernity, the marketisation of public services has become a global policy phenomenon. In the case of schooling, this has resulted in parents discursively positioned as consumers of education making a choice between providers of education. To date the majority of research on parental choice has focused on the urban; this paper is concerned…

  14. School Choice and Market Imperfections: Evidence from Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thieme, Claudio; Treviño, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to inform public policies aimed at improving parental school-choice processes. The study estimates both the utility obtained by parents from different school attributes and the effective utility obtained with the actual school choice made by parents. The difference between both types of utilities provides a panorama on…

  15. Putting the Carnegie Report on School Choice in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domanico, Raymond

    The Center for Educational Innovation (CEI), established by the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research in 1989, views school choice as the best strategy available to improve public schools on a large scale. CEI's approach to school choice involves giving school professionals the freedom to design innovative and distinctive school programs and…

  16. Policymaker's Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, T. D.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.; Williams, E.

    2010-07-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker's guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation. Although the discussion is aimed primarily at decision makers who have decided that a FIT policy best suits their needs, exploration of FIT policies can also help inform a choice among alternative renewable energy policies.

  17. High School Choice in New York City: A Report on the School Choices and Placements of Low-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Lori; Corcoran, Sean; Baker-Smith, Christine

    2013-01-01

    School choice policies, a fixture of efforts to improve public education in many cities, aim to enable families to choose a school that they believe will best meet their child's needs. In New York City, choice and the development of a diverse portfolio of options have played central roles in the Department of Education's high school reform…

  18. High School Choice in New York City: A Report on the School Choices and Placements of Low-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Lori; Corcoran, Sean; Baker-Smith, Christine

    2013-01-01

    School choice policies, a fixture of efforts to improve public education in many cities, aim to enable families to choose a school that they believe will best meet their child's needs. In New York City (NYC), choice and the development of a diverse portfolio of options have played central roles in the Department of Education's high school reform…

  19. Making School Choice Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeArmond, Michael; Jochim, Ashley; Lake, Robin

    2014-01-01

    School choice is increasingly the new normal in urban education. But in cities with multiple public school options, how can civic leaders create a choice system that works for all families, whether they choose a charter or district public school? To answer this question, the Center on Reinventing Public Education (CRPE) researchers surveyed 4,000…

  20. More Choice, Less Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dills, Angela K.; Hernandez-Julian, Rey

    2011-01-01

    Previous research debates whether public school choice improves students' academic outcomes, but there is little examination of its effects on their nonacademic outcomes. We use data from a nationally representative sample of high school students, a previously developed Tiebout choice measure, and metropolitan-level data on teenage arrest rates to…

  1. Latinos and School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastic, Billie; Coronado, Diana Salas

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe how Latino students are underrepresented in public schools of choice. They provide evidence to refute the claim that Latino students who choose to leave assigned public schools enroll in religious schools instead. Charter schools stand out as the type of public schools of choice where Latino students are well represented.…

  2. The Illusion of Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitty, Clyde

    2004-01-01

    Both New Labour and the Conservatives are keen to emphasise choice and diversity in crucial areas of public provision--and particularly with regard to education and health. In this article, "FORUM" co-Editor Clyde Chitty concentrates on recent proposals by the two main parties for promoting greater choice in secondary schooling in England. This…

  3. Your Genes, Your Choices

    MedlinePlus

    Table of Contents Your Genes, Your Choices describes the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues that are ... Nothing could be further from the truth. Your Genes, Your Choices points out how the progress of ...

  4. School Choice Marches forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    One year ago, the "Wall Street Journal" dubbed 2011 "the year of school choice," opining that "this year is shaping up as the best for reformers in a very long time." School-choice laws took great strides in 2011, both in the number of programs that succeeded across states and also in the size and scope of the adopted programs. Yet education…

  5. Choice: The Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagoner, Jennings L., Jr.

    The issue of choice in U.S. education is traced historically. Consideration is given to the purposes of publicly supported education and reasons underlying the historic distinction between public and private education. It is suggested that the issue of choice concerns the rights and obligations of the individual and the state. The relationship…

  6. School Choice Evidence and Its Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrifield, John

    2008-01-01

    Pressing questions about the merits of full-fledged market accountability in K-12 education, and more limited choice programs, have spawned a large scholarly literature. This article assesses what we know from the most prominent studies and the importance of those findings to school system reform discussions. The studies most widely cited in the…

  7. More Choices, Higher Scores, and Worse Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educator, 2010

    2010-01-01

    If there is one thing all educators know and many studies have confirmed for decades, it is that there is no single answer to educational improvement. There are no grounds for the claim made in the past decade that accountability all by itself is a silver bullet, nor for the oft-asserted argument that choice by itself is a panacea. This article…

  8. Haptic choice blindness

    PubMed Central

    Steenfeldt-Kristensen, Catherine; Thornton, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Choice blindness is the failure to notice a mismatch between intention and outcome when making decisions. It is unknown whether choice blindness occurs when participants have extended interaction with real objects. Here, we examined the case when objects could be touched but not seen. Participants examined pairs of common, everyday objects inside a specially constructed box where a silent turntable was used to switch objects between initial choice and later justification. For similar pairs of objects, we found detection rates of around 22%, consistent with previous studies of choice blindness. For pairs consisting of more distinctive exemplars, the detection rate rose to 70%. Our results indicate that choice blindness does occur after haptic interaction with real objects, but is strongly modulated by similarity. PMID:23799197

  9. Career choices among medical students in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, SM Moslehuddin; Majumdar, Md Anwarul Azim; Karim, Rezina; Rahman, Sayeeda; Rahman, Nuzhat

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Information regarding career choices of medical students is important to plan human resources for health, design need-based educational programs, and ensure equitable and quality health care services in a country. Aim The aim of the study is to identify career choices, nature of career, intended practice locations, and reasons for career choices of Bangladesh medical students. Method First-, third-, and fifth-year students of Bangladesh Medical College and Uttara Adhunik Medical College completed a self-report questionnaire on career choices, nature of career, intended practice locations, and reasons for career choices. The students were requested to choose three long-term choices from the given specialties. Results A total of 132 students responded (46 males and 86 females) and response rate was 75%. The popular choices (first choice) among males and females were medical specialty, surgical specialty, obstetrics and gynecology, and general practice. For first, second, and third choices altogether, male students chose surgical specialties and female students preferred medical specialties. The leading reasons for selecting a specialty were personal interest and wide job opportunity. More than 67% of respondents wanted to join private services and about 90% chose major cities as practice locations. About 43% of respondents expressed willingness to practice medicine in Bangladesh, whereas 51% of total respondents wanted to practice abroad. Discussion Majority of students intended to specialize in established clinical specialties and subsequently practice in major cities, and more than half wanted to immigrate to other countries. Basic medical subjects and service-oriented (lifestyle-related) and preventive/social medical specialties were found to be less attractive. If this pattern continues, Bangladesh will suffer a chronic shortage of health personnel in certain specialties and in rural areas. Conclusions Reorientation of health care and medical

  10. Fitting observed and theoretical choices - women's choices about prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Seror, Valerie

    2008-05-01

    Choices regarding prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome - the most frequent chromosomal defect - are particularly relevant to decision analysis, since women's decisions are based on the assessment of their risk of carrying a child with Down syndrome, and involve tradeoffs (giving birth to an affected child vs procedure-related miscarriage). The aim of this study, based on face-to-face interviews with 78 women aged 25-35 with prior experience of pregnancy, was to compare the women' expressed choices towards prenatal diagnosis with those derived from theoretical models of choice (expected utility theory, rank-dependent theory, and cumulative prospect theory). The main finding obtained in this study was that the cumulative prospect model fitted the observed choices best: both subjective transformation of probabilities and loss aversion, which are basic features of the cumulative prospect model, have to be taken into account to make the observed choices consistent with the theoretical ones. PMID:17806133

  11. Accounting practice diversity in the healthcare industry.

    PubMed

    Robbins, W A; Turpin, R

    1993-05-01

    A recent study examining accounting practices currently being used to prepare annual hospital financial statements indicates relatively little diversity, regardless of organizational type or size. The study's findings should interest those concerned with healthcare accounting and financial reporting issues, especially healthcare administrators and members of standards setting boards who participate in accounting policy deliberations. PMID:10145801

  12. 12 CFR 390.290 - Demand accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Demand accounts. 390.290 Section 390.290 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY... Savings Associations § 390.290 Demand accounts. The term demand accounts means non-interest-bearing...

  13. 12 CFR 390.286 - Certificate account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certificate account. 390.286 Section 390.286 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY... Savings Associations § 390.286 Certificate account. The term certificate account means a savings...

  14. 12 CFR 390.286 - Certificate account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certificate account. 390.286 Section 390.286 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY... Savings Associations § 390.286 Certificate account. The term certificate account means a savings...

  15. 12 CFR 390.286 - Certificate account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certificate account. 390.286 Section 390.286 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY... Savings Associations § 390.286 Certificate account. The term certificate account means a savings...

  16. 12 CFR 390.290 - Demand accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Demand accounts. 390.290 Section 390.290 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY... Savings Associations § 390.290 Demand accounts. The term demand accounts means non-interest-bearing...

  17. 12 CFR 390.290 - Demand accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Demand accounts. 390.290 Section 390.290 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY... Savings Associations § 390.290 Demand accounts. The term demand accounts means non-interest-bearing...

  18. Accounting practice diversity in the healthcare industry.

    PubMed

    Robbins, W A; Turpin, R

    1993-05-01

    A recent study examining accounting practices currently being used to prepare annual hospital financial statements indicates relatively little diversity, regardless of organizational type or size. The study's findings should interest those concerned with healthcare accounting and financial reporting issues, especially healthcare administrators and members of standards setting boards who participate in accounting policy deliberations.

  19. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. An application of the food choice kaleidoscope framework.

    PubMed

    Mueller Loose, S; Jaeger, S R

    2012-12-01

    Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen by whom, when and where can be helpful for manufacturers, dieticians/health care providers, and health policy makers. A descriptive framework - the food choice kaleidoscope (Jaeger et al., 2011) - was applied to self-reported 24h food recall data from a sample of New Zealand consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors. Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in the form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal specific. Furthermore, this study integrates psychographic variables into the 'person' mirror of the food choice kaleidoscope. A measure of habit in beverage choice was obtained from the inter-participant correlation.

  20. Labour Market Motivation and Undergraduates' Choice of Degree Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Peter; Mangan, Jean; Hughes, Amanda; Slack, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Labour market outcomes of undergraduates' choice of subject are important for public policy and for students. Policy interest is indicated by the prominence of "employability" in public discourse and in proposals to concentrate government funding in England in supporting STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and mathematics). As students…

  1. Women’s Preferences for Treatment of Perinatal Depression and Anxiety: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ride, Jemimah; Lancsar, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal depression and anxiety (PNDA) are an international healthcare priority, associated with significant short- and long-term problems for women, their children and families. Effective treatment is available but uptake is suboptimal: some women go untreated whilst others choose treatments without strong evidence of efficacy. Better understanding of women’s preferences for treatment is needed to facilitate uptake of effective treatment. To address this issue, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) was administered to 217 pregnant or postnatal women in Australia, who were recruited through an online research company and had similar sociodemographic characteristics to Australian data for perinatal women. The DCE investigated preferences regarding cost, treatment type, availability of childcare, modality and efficacy. Data were analysed using logit-based models accounting for preference and scale heterogeneity. Predicted probability analysis was used to explore relative attribute importance and policy change scenarios, including how these differed by women’s sociodemographic characteristics. Cost and treatment type had the greatest impact on choice, such that a policy of subsidising effective treatments was predicted to double their uptake compared with the base case. There were differences in predicted uptake associated with certain sociodemographic characteristics: for example, women with higher educational attainment were more likely to choose effective treatment. The findings suggest policy directions for decision makers whose goal is to reduce the burden of PNDA on women, their children and families. PMID:27258096

  2. Women's Preferences for Treatment of Perinatal Depression and Anxiety: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Ride, Jemimah; Lancsar, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal depression and anxiety (PNDA) are an international healthcare priority, associated with significant short- and long-term problems for women, their children and families. Effective treatment is available but uptake is suboptimal: some women go untreated whilst others choose treatments without strong evidence of efficacy. Better understanding of women's preferences for treatment is needed to facilitate uptake of effective treatment. To address this issue, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) was administered to 217 pregnant or postnatal women in Australia, who were recruited through an online research company and had similar sociodemographic characteristics to Australian data for perinatal women. The DCE investigated preferences regarding cost, treatment type, availability of childcare, modality and efficacy. Data were analysed using logit-based models accounting for preference and scale heterogeneity. Predicted probability analysis was used to explore relative attribute importance and policy change scenarios, including how these differed by women's sociodemographic characteristics. Cost and treatment type had the greatest impact on choice, such that a policy of subsidising effective treatments was predicted to double their uptake compared with the base case. There were differences in predicted uptake associated with certain sociodemographic characteristics: for example, women with higher educational attainment were more likely to choose effective treatment. The findings suggest policy directions for decision makers whose goal is to reduce the burden of PNDA on women, their children and families.

  3. Women's Preferences for Treatment of Perinatal Depression and Anxiety: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Ride, Jemimah; Lancsar, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal depression and anxiety (PNDA) are an international healthcare priority, associated with significant short- and long-term problems for women, their children and families. Effective treatment is available but uptake is suboptimal: some women go untreated whilst others choose treatments without strong evidence of efficacy. Better understanding of women's preferences for treatment is needed to facilitate uptake of effective treatment. To address this issue, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) was administered to 217 pregnant or postnatal women in Australia, who were recruited through an online research company and had similar sociodemographic characteristics to Australian data for perinatal women. The DCE investigated preferences regarding cost, treatment type, availability of childcare, modality and efficacy. Data were analysed using logit-based models accounting for preference and scale heterogeneity. Predicted probability analysis was used to explore relative attribute importance and policy change scenarios, including how these differed by women's sociodemographic characteristics. Cost and treatment type had the greatest impact on choice, such that a policy of subsidising effective treatments was predicted to double their uptake compared with the base case. There were differences in predicted uptake associated with certain sociodemographic characteristics: for example, women with higher educational attainment were more likely to choose effective treatment. The findings suggest policy directions for decision makers whose goal is to reduce the burden of PNDA on women, their children and families. PMID:27258096

  4. District of Columbia Public Schools State Accountability Plan. Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The State Accountability Plan submitted on May 1, 2003 and revised on June 3, 2003 details the proposed policies and procedures relating to the District of Columbia Public Schools State Education Agency (DCPS-SEA) Assessment and Accountability Policy. It includes the development, implementation and monitoring of a comprehensive accountability…

  5. A District Wellness Policy: The Gap between Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgeon, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the gap between a federally-mandated wellness policy and its practice in U.S. schools. To address the problem of childhood obesity, the United States government requires school districts to develop a District Wellness Policy (DWP) that promotes a healthy school environment, healthy food choices, nutrition education, and…

  6. Colorado's clean energy choices

    SciTech Connect

    Strawn, N.; Jones, J.

    2000-04-15

    The daily choices made as consumers affect the environment and the economy. Based on the state of today's technology and economics, Colorado consumers can include energy efficiency and renewable energy into many aspects of their lives. These choices include where they obtain electricity, how they use energy at home, and how they transport themselves from one place to another. In addition to outlining how they can use clean energy, Colorado's Clean Energy Choices gives consumers contacts and links to Web sites for where to get more information.

  7. Physiological Evidence for Response Inhibition in Choice Reaction Time Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burle, Boris; Vidal, Frank; Tandonnet, Christophe; Hasbroucq, Thierry

    2004-01-01

    Inhibition is a widely used notion proposed to account for data obtained in choice reaction time (RT) tasks. However, this concept is weakly supported by empirical facts. In this paper, we review a series of experiments using Hoffman reflex, transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography to study inhibition in choice RT tasks. We…

  8. Choice of Major: The Changing (Unchanging) Gender Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sarah E.; Bowen, William G.

    1999-01-01

    Data on major choice and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores show the following: (1) there is a widening gap between life and math/physical sciences in attractiveness to men and women; (2) SAT scores account for only part of the gap; and (3) gender gaps in major choice are attributable to different preferences, expectations, and gender-specific…

  9. Individual Choice and Unequal Participation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voigt, Kristin

    2007-01-01

    Does the unequal participation of non-traditional students in higher education indicate social injustice, even if it can be traced back to individuals' choices? Drawing on luck egalitarian approaches,this article suggests that an answer to this question must take into account the effects of unequal brute luck on educational choices. I use a…

  10. The International System in the 21st Century: Considering the U.S. Role. Third Edition. Teacher Resource Book [and Student Text]. Public Policy Debate in the Classroom. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sarah Cleveland

    Although the attacks of September 11, 2001, present new challenges and priorities for U.S. policy, it is uncertain what direction international relations will take. China's growth and power, Russia's political and economic problems, resentment and corruption in Russia, and global warming effect policymaking. While the war on terrorism may be a…

  11. Managing global accounts.

    PubMed

    Yip, George S; Bink, Audrey J M

    2007-09-01

    Global account management--which treats a multinational customer's operations as one integrated account, with coherent terms for pricing, product specifications, and service--has proliferated over the past decade. Yet according to the authors' research, only about a third of the suppliers that have offered GAM are pleased with the results. The unhappy majority may be suffering from confusion about when, how, and to whom to provide it. Yip, the director of research and innovation at Capgemini, and Bink, the head of marketing communications at Uxbridge College, have found that GAM can improve customer satisfaction by 20% or more and can raise both profits and revenues by at least 15% within just a few years of its introduction. They provide guidelines to help companies achieve similar results. The first steps are determining whether your products or services are appropriate for GAM, whether your customers want such a program, whether those customers are crucial to your strategy, and how GAM might affect your competitive advantage. If moving forward makes sense, the authors' exhibit, "A Scorecard for Selecting Global Accounts," can help you target the right customers. The final step is deciding which of three basic forms to offer: coordination GAM (in which national operations remain relatively strong), control GAM (in which the global operation and the national operations are fairly balanced), and separate GAM (in which a new business unit has total responsibility for global accounts). Given the difficulty and expense of providing multiple varieties, the vast majority of companies should initially customize just one---and they should be careful not to start with a choice that is too ambitious for either themselves or their customers to handle.

  12. Managing global accounts.

    PubMed

    Yip, George S; Bink, Audrey J M

    2007-09-01

    Global account management--which treats a multinational customer's operations as one integrated account, with coherent terms for pricing, product specifications, and service--has proliferated over the past decade. Yet according to the authors' research, only about a third of the suppliers that have offered GAM are pleased with the results. The unhappy majority may be suffering from confusion about when, how, and to whom to provide it. Yip, the director of research and innovation at Capgemini, and Bink, the head of marketing communications at Uxbridge College, have found that GAM can improve customer satisfaction by 20% or more and can raise both profits and revenues by at least 15% within just a few years of its introduction. They provide guidelines to help companies achieve similar results. The first steps are determining whether your products or services are appropriate for GAM, whether your customers want such a program, whether those customers are crucial to your strategy, and how GAM might affect your competitive advantage. If moving forward makes sense, the authors' exhibit, "A Scorecard for Selecting Global Accounts," can help you target the right customers. The final step is deciding which of three basic forms to offer: coordination GAM (in which national operations remain relatively strong), control GAM (in which the global operation and the national operations are fairly balanced), and separate GAM (in which a new business unit has total responsibility for global accounts). Given the difficulty and expense of providing multiple varieties, the vast majority of companies should initially customize just one---and they should be careful not to start with a choice that is too ambitious for either themselves or their customers to handle. PMID:17886487

  13. The Disparity of Principal Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, M. Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This study begins with a review of court cases that have helped shape public education in America. Following the review is an analysis of federal reform in education from 1965 to the present, paired with educational leadership literature to highlight a disparity in what federal mandates and state policies have in place for accountability measures.…

  14. Accounting Procedures for Student Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This two-part handbook presents information on accounting procedures for student organizations, with a focus on the laws, policies, and procedures that affect student body organizations. Part 1 contains information about: (1) legal status of a school's student body organization; (2) principles governing student body finance; (3) administration of…

  15. Accountability--A Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefover, Karen Shade

    1983-01-01

    Asserts that existing accountability policies assume that a single behaviorist theory is the one best system for effective education. Examines the pitfalls of the one-system approach through the examples of John Stuart Mill's utilitarian upbringing and "Gradgrindism" in Charles Dickens' novel "Hard Times." (SK)

  16. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the 19 articles published in the Electronic Journal "Education Policy Analysis Archives" for the year 1996: (1) "The Achievement Crisis Is Real: A Review of 'The Manufactured Crisis'" (Lawrence C. Stedman); (2) "Staff Development Policy: Fuzzy Choices in an Imperfect Market" (Robert T. Stout); (3) "Making Molehills out of…

  17. When health policy and empirical evidence collide: the case of cigarette package warning labels and economic consumer surplus.

    PubMed

    Song, Anna V; Brown, Paul; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-02-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost "pleasure" smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost "consumer surplus." Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health. PMID:24328661

  18. When Health Policy and Empirical Evidence Collide: The Case of Cigarette Package Warning Labels and Economic Consumer Surplus

    PubMed Central

    Song, Anna V.; Brown, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost “pleasure” smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost “consumer surplus.” Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health. PMID:24328661

  19. Action Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman-Peck, Lorraine; Murray, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between action research and policy and the kind of confidence teachers, policy makers and other potential users may have in such research. Many published teacher action research accounts are criticised on the grounds that they do not fully meet the conventional standards for reporting social scientific…

  20. Pricing effects on food choices.

    PubMed

    French, Simone A

    2003-03-01

    Individual dietary choices are primarily influenced by such considerations as taste, cost, convenience and nutritional value of foods. The current obesity epidemic has been linked to excessive consumption of added sugars and fat, as well as to sedentary lifestyles. Fat and sugar provide dietary energy at very low cost. Food pricing and marketing practices are therefore an essential component of the eating environment. Recent studies have applied economic theories to changing dietary behavior. Price reduction strategies promote the choice of targeted foods by lowering their cost relative to alternative food choices. Two community-based intervention studies used price reductions to promote the increased purchase of targeted foods. The first study examined lower prices and point-of-purchase promotion on sales of lower fat vending machine snacks in 12 work sites and 12 secondary schools. Price reductions of 10%, 25% and 50% on lower fat snacks resulted in an increase in sales of 9%, 39% and 93%, respectively, compared with usual price conditions. The second study examined the impact of a 50% price reduction on fresh fruit and baby carrots in two secondary school cafeterias. Compared with usual price conditions, price reductions resulted in a four-fold increase in fresh fruit sales and a two-fold increase in baby carrot sales. Both studies demonstrate that price reductions are an effective strategy to increase the purchase of more healthful foods in community-based settings such as work sites and schools. Results were generalizable across various food types and populations. Reducing prices on healthful foods is a public health strategy that should be implemented through policy initiatives and industry collaborations. PMID:12612165

  1. Accountability in Higher Education: Bridge over Troubled Water?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Jeroen; Currie, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of accountabiity on higher education policies in Europe and the United States. We describe how the accountability movement relates to other policy trends in higher education, providing empirical data on how accountability was implemented and how academics and managers in four universities perceived these policies.…

  2. Choices, choices: the application of multi-criteria decision analysis to a food safety decision-making problem.

    PubMed

    Fazil, A; Rajic, A; Sanchez, J; McEwen, S

    2008-11-01

    In the food safety arena, the decision-making process can be especially difficult. Decision makers are often faced with social and fiscal pressures when attempting to identify an appropriate balance among several choices. Concurrently, policy and decision makers in microbial food safety are under increasing pressure to demonstrate that their policies and decisions are made using transparent and accountable processes. In this article, we present a multi-criteria decision analysis approach that can be used to address the problem of trying to select a food safety intervention while balancing various criteria. Criteria that are important when selecting an intervention were determined, as a result of an expert consultation, to include effectiveness, cost, weight of evidence, and practicality associated with the interventions. The multi-criteria decision analysis approach we present is able to consider these criteria and arrive at a ranking of interventions. It can also provide a clear justification for the ranking as well as demonstrate to stakeholders, through a scenario analysis approach, how to potentially converge toward common ground. While this article focuses on the problem of selecting food safety interventions, the range of applications in the food safety arena is truly diverse and can be a significant tool in assisting decisions that need to be coherent, transparent, and justifiable. Most importantly, it is a significant contributor when there is a need to strike a fine balance between various potentially competing alternatives and/or stakeholder groups.

  3. Stuck in School: How Social Context Shapes School Choice for Inner-City Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condliffe, Barbara F.; Boyd, Melody L.; DeLuca, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: High school choice policies attempt to improve the educational outcomes of poor and minority students by allowing access to high schools beyond neighborhood boundaries. These policies assume that given a choice, families will be able to select a school that supports their child's learning and promotes educational attainment. However,…

  4. School Choice, Student Mobility, and School Quality: Evidence from Post-Katrina New Orleans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Richard O.; Duque, Matthew; McEachin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, school choice policies predicated on student mobility have gained prominence as urban districts address chronically low-performing schools. However, scholars have highlighted equity concerns related to choice policies. The case of post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans provides an opportunity to examine student mobility patterns in…

  5. The OECD as Pivot of the Emerging Global Educational Accountability Regime: How Accountable Are the Accountants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Heinz-Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: PISA has catapulted the OECD- an organization whose mission is the global growth of market economies-to a central role in international education policy making, rivaling and sometimes outdoing the various national governments in influence. While claiming scientific evidence as the basis for the accountability regime it…

  6. Zero Tolerance Policy in Schools: Rationale, Consequences, and Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casella, Ronnie

    2003-01-01

    Discusses theory/policies supporting zero tolerance policy in schools, including rational choice theory in criminology and national crime policies based on deterrence. Potential consequences of zero tolerance policy implementation are described and shown to involve outcomes similar to those identified by researchers studying national crime policy.…

  7. Bilingual Mothers' Language Choice in Child-Directed Speech: Continuity and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Houwer, Annick; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of Family Language Policy in bilingual families is parental language choice. Little is known about the continuity in parental language choice and the factors affecting it. This longitudinal study explores maternal language choice over time. Thirty-one bilingual mothers provided reports of what language(s) they spoke with their…

  8. The bed crisis of winter 1995-1996 in the British NHS: an illustration of accountability issues.

    PubMed

    Young, A P

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the practical complexity of accountability in health care by focusing on a particular crisis affecting one NHS trust in the UK, that of insufficient beds to meet demand. It is presented through the eyes of five middle managers with nursing backgrounds. Although the focus is on their words, their expressions of distress and their awareness of conflict, these lead to a commentary highlighting some of the relationships between theory and practice, policy making and implementation, and, in the final analysis, compulsion and choice. The managers seemed to work within four main patterns of provider accountability: public, professional, pecuniary and personal. These four Ps of accountability created incompatibilities in the accountability process, but the conclusion attempts to draw the threads together to suggest a possible way forward. In order to protect confidentiality, pseudonyms are used for the NHS trust and the interviewees, and some personal details have been disguised.

  9. Assessment and Educational Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Virginia B.

    1975-01-01

    Because of increased access of postsecondary education in the 1950's and 1960's, higher education cost analysis gained importance. Attempts have been made to develop a standard unit cost, but it is hard to see unit cost accounting by itself as a valuable tool for public accountability or policy making. For these purposes a cost-effectiveness ratio…

  10. Choice and conditioned reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Fantino, E; Freed, D; Preston, R A; Williams, W A

    1991-03-01

    A potential weakness of one formulation of delay-reduction theory is its failure to include a term for rate of conditioned reinforcement, that is, the rate at which the terminal-link stimuli occur in concurrent-chains schedules. The present studies assessed whether or not rate of conditioned reinforcement has an independent effect upon choice. Pigeons responded on either modified concurrent-chains schedules or on comparable concurrent-tandem schedules. The initial link was shortened on only one of two concurrent-chains schedules and on only one of two corresponding concurrent-tandem schedules. This manipulation increased rate of conditioned reinforcement sharply in the chain but not in the tandem schedule. According to a formulation of delay-reduction theory, when the outcomes chosen (the terminal links) are equal, as in Experiment 1, choice should depend only on rate of primary reinforcement; thus, choice should be equivalent for the tandem and chain schedules despite a large difference in rate of conditioned reinforcement. When the outcomes chosen are unequal, however, as in Experiment 2, choice should depend upon both rate of primary reinforcement and relative signaled delay reduction; thus, larger preferences should occur in the chain than in the tandem schedules. These predictions were confirmed, suggesting that increasing the rate of conditioned reinforcement on concurrent-chains schedules may have no independent effect on choice.

  11. Measuring improved patient choice.

    PubMed

    Holmes-Rovner, M; Rovner, D R

    2000-08-01

    Patient decision support (PDS) tools or decision aids have been developed as adjuncts to the clinical encounter. Their aim is to support evidence-based patient choice. Clinical trials of PDS tools have used an array of outcome measures to determine efficacy, including knowledge, satisfaction, health status and consistency between patient choice and values. This paper proposes that the correlation between 'subjective expected utility' (SEU) and decision may be the best primary endpoint for trials. SEU is a measure usually used in behavioural decision theory. The paper first describes how decision support tools may use decision analysis to structure the presentation of evidence and guide patient decision-making. Uses of expected utility (EU) are suggested for evaluating PDS tools when improving population health status is the objective. SEU is the theoretically better measure when internal consistency of patient choices is the objective. PMID:11083037

  12. The problem of choice

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Hassan R; Mathur, Shawn; Covarrubias, David; Curcio, Josephine A; Schmidt, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Convictions are a driving force for actions. Considering that every individual has a different set of convictions and larger groups act once a consensus decision is reached, one can see that debate is an inherent exercise in decision-making. This requires a sustainably generated surplus to allow time for intellectual exchange, gathering of information and dissemination of findings. It is essential that the full spectrum of options remain treated equally. At the end of this process, a choice has to be made. Looking back at a later time point, a retrospective analysis sometimes reveals that the choice was neither completely free nor a truly conscious one. Leaving the issue of consequences of a once made decision aside, we wish to contribute to the debate of the problem of choice. PMID:19025607

  13. Choosing health, constrained choices.

    PubMed

    Chee Khoon Chan

    2009-12-01

    In parallel with the neo-liberal retrenchment of the welfarist state, an increasing emphasis on the responsibility of individuals in managing their own affairs and their well-being has been evident. In the health arena for instance, this was a major theme permeating the UK government's White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (2004), which appealed to an ethos of autonomy and self-actualization through activity and consumption which merited esteem. As a counterpoint to this growing trend of informed responsibilization, constrained choices (constrained agency) provides a useful framework for a judicious balance and sense of proportion between an individual behavioural focus and a focus on societal, systemic, and structural determinants of health and well-being. Constrained choices is also a conceptual bridge between responsibilization and population health which could be further developed within an integrative biosocial perspective one might refer to as the social ecology of health and disease.

  14. Does reflection lead to wise choices?

    PubMed Central

    Bortolotti, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Does conscious reflection lead to good decision-making? Whereas engaging in reflection is traditionally thought to be the best way to make wise choices, recent psychological evidence undermines the role of reflection in lay and expert judgement. The literature suggests that thinking about reasons does not improve the choices people make, and that experts do not engage in reflection, but base their judgements on intuition, often shaped by extensive previous experience. Can we square the traditional accounts of wisdom with the results of these empirical studies? Should we even attempt to? I shall defend the view that philosophy and cognitive sciences genuinely interact in tackling questions such as whether reflection leads to making wise choices. PMID:22408385

  15. 48 CFR 9904.411 - Cost accounting standard-accounting for acquisition costs of material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-accounting for acquisition costs of material. 9904.411 Section 9904.411 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT...

  16. 48 CFR 9904.411 - Cost accounting standard-accounting for acquisition costs of material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-accounting for acquisition costs of material. 9904.411 Section 9904.411 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT...

  17. 48 CFR 9904.411 - Cost accounting standard-accounting for acquisition costs of material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-accounting for acquisition costs of material. 9904.411 Section 9904.411 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT...

  18. 48 CFR 9904.411 - Cost accounting standard-accounting for acquisition costs of material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost accounting standard-accounting for acquisition costs of material. 9904.411 Section 9904.411 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT...

  19. 48 CFR 9904.406 - Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period. 9904.406 Section 9904.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET...

  20. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. [and] Teacher's Resource Book. Revised. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. Inst. for International Studies.

    This unit examines the economic and military concerns that have linked the Caribbean and Central America to the United States. The first section of the first booklet reviews the history of U.S. involvement in the region from the mid-1800s to the early 1960s. Part 2 focuses on the Cuban missile crisis of 1962 and presents a day-by-day account of…

  1. 48 CFR 9905.505 - Accounting for unallowable costs-Educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.505 Accounting for unallowable costs—Educational institutions....

  2. 48 CFR 9905.505 - Accounting for unallowable costs-Educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.505 Accounting for unallowable costs—Educational institutions....

  3. 48 CFR 9905.505 - Accounting for unallowable costs-Educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.505 Accounting for unallowable costs—Educational institutions....

  4. Accountability in Education: Implications for Guidance Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessinger, Leon

    An accountability policy is seen as having three basic elements: demonstrated student accomplishment, independent accomplishment audits, and public reports. It requires the regular independent review of results obtained for resources expended. Effects resulting from implementation of such a policy are: (1) the focus of schooling shifts from…

  5. Standards, Testing, and Accountability: Misguided Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, James

    2011-01-01

    There are many factors affecting student achievement. It is misguided and a waste of time and effort to pursue the failed policies of more standards, tests, and accountability. The primary problems relative to student achievement are mainly societal. Rather than more failed policies, what our nation needs is a discussion about national values,…

  6. Special Issue Topic: School Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brogan, Bernard R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Includes "The Choice Movement" (Brogan); "Choice in American Education" (Witte); "Role of Parents in Education" (Mawdsley); "As Arrows in the Hand" (Coons); "Vouchers in Wisconsin" (Underwood); "Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP)" (Grover); "Civil Liberties and the MPCP" (Bolick); "Comments on School Choice" (Jauch); "Two Classes of…

  7. Income and choice between different goods.

    PubMed

    Shurtleff, D; Warren-Boulton, F R; Silberberg, A

    1987-09-01

    In Experiment 1, 3 rats chose between two simultaneously operating variable-interval schedules, one of which provided saccharin water and the other, food. In five conditions, the absolute (and equal) reinforcement rates provided by the pair of equal-valued schedules were manipulated in the range of 36 to 240 per hour. Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1 except that these schedules operated successively, arranged by requiring the rat to stand on the side of the chamber correlated with each schedule. Food/saccharin choice ratios were inversely related to reinforcement rate in both experiments, although this effect was stronger in Experiment 2. When delivery rates were high, preference for food over saccharin often reversed as the session progressed. The results were interpretable in terms of economic accounts of choice (e.g., the minimum-needs hypothesis), as well as in terms of traditional psychological accounts (e.g., matching theory).

  8. National accounts of subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro; Lucas, Richard E

    2015-04-01

    Diener (2000) proposed that National Accounts of Well-Being be created to complement existing economic and social indicators that reflect the quality of life in nations. These national accounts can provide valuable information to policymakers and other leaders. Systematic measurement of subjective well-being provides novel information about the quality of life in societies, and it allows for the accumulation of detailed information regarding the circumstances that are associated with high subjective well-being. Thus, accounts of subjective well-being can help decision makers evaluate policies that improve societies beyond economic development. Progress with well-being accounts has been notable: Prestigious scientific and international institutions have recommended the creation of such national accounts, and these recommendations have been adopted in some form in over 40 nations. In addition, increasing research into policy-relevant questions reveals the importance of the accounts for policy. Psychologists can enlarge their role in the formulation and adoption of policies by actively studying and using accounts of subjective well-being to evaluate and support the policies they believe are needed.

  9. School choice and the search for an educational market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Donald

    1995-05-01

    This article looks at attempts to create markets in schooling by increasing school choice, making particular reference to a study by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) of the impact of choice policies in six countries: Australia, England, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden and the United States. The main policies examined are subsidies to private schools and enhancement of choice between schools within the public sector. The article identifies five kinds of imperfection in school markets in practice: the failure of clear alternatives to present themselves to consumers; the arbitrariness of criteria for choosing; limits to capacity at popular schools; the failure of supply to diversify in response to consumer pressures and the existence of negative externalities. It is argued that these imperfections make it necessary to intervene to maximise the benefits and minimise the risks of school choice.

  10. Climate policy decisions require policy-based lifecycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Bento, Antonio M; Klotz, Richard

    2014-05-20

    Lifecycle analysis (LCA) metrics of greenhouse gas emissions are increasingly being used to select technologies supported by climate policy. However, LCAs typically evaluate the emissions associated with a technology or product, not the impacts of policies. Here, we show that policies supporting the same technology can lead to dramatically different emissions impacts per unit of technology added, due to multimarket responses to the policy. Using a policy-based consequential LCA, we find that the lifecycle emissions impacts of four US biofuel policies range from a reduction of 16.1 gCO2e to an increase of 24.0 gCO2e per MJ corn ethanol added by the policy. The differences between these results and representative technology-based LCA measures, which do not account for the policy instrument driving the expansion in the technology, illustrate the need for policy-based LCA measures when informing policy decision making.

  11. Spills, drills, and accountability

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    NRDC seeks preventive approaches to oil pollution on U.S. coasts. The recent oil spills in Spain and Scotland have highlighted a fact too easy to forget in a society that uses petroleum every minute of every day: oil is profoundly toxic. One tiny drop on a bald eagle`s egg has been known to kill the embryo inside. Every activity involving oil-drilling for it, piping it, shipping it-poses risks that must be taken with utmost caution. Moreover, oil production is highly polluting. It emits substantial air pollution, such as nitrogen oxides that can form smog and acid rain. The wells bring up great quantities of toxic waste: solids, liquids and sludges often contaminated by oil, toxic metals, or even radioactivity. This article examines the following topics focusing on oil pollution control and prevention in coastal regions of the USA: alternate energy sources and accountability of pollutor; ban on offshore drilling as exemplified by the energy policy act; tanker free zones; accurate damage evaluations. Policy of the National Resource Defence Council is articulated.

  12. Saying No to "Choice."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penning, Nick

    1992-01-01

    Name of Bush Administration's choice game is publicly financed vouchers allowing those already sending their children to private and parochial schools to avoid tuition fees at taxpayer expense. Although private schools administer entrance exams, public schools accept every child regardless of academic record, status, or race. U.S. Senate recently…

  13. Finland's energy choices

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffs, E.

    1994-01-01

    In Finland, a decision on a fifth nuclear power plant is stalled for at least two years. This leaves the country with a difficult choice for meeting anticipated electricity demand in the years ahead. This article examines the various energy alternatives of Finland and the political aspects of their energy development.

  14. Choices, Frameworks and Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Roy H.; Islam, Nayeem; Johnson, Ralph; Kougiouris, Panos; Madany, Peter

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for designing operating systems using object-oriented frameworks. A framework can be refined into subframeworks. Constraints specify the interactions between the subframeworks. We describe how we used object-oriented frameworks to design Choices, an object-oriented operating system.

  15. The Choice for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Scott

    2006-01-01

    We are building conventional library space without making the paradigm shift our digital environment requires. The chief obstacles to change lie in our conception of readers as information consumers, in our allegiance to library operations as the drivers of library design, and in the choice made between foundational and non-foundational views of…

  16. Deterministic Walks with Choice

    SciTech Connect

    Beeler, Katy E.; Berenhaut, Kenneth S.; Cooper, Joshua N.; Hunter, Meagan N.; Barr, Peter S.

    2014-01-10

    This paper studies deterministic movement over toroidal grids, integrating local information, bounded memory and choice at individual nodes. The research is motivated by recent work on deterministic random walks, and applications in multi-agent systems. Several results regarding passing tokens through toroidal grids are discussed, as well as some open questions.

  17. The Student Choice Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geis, George L.

    "By 'student choice' we mean a situation in which the behavior (of 'choosing') is not overly determined by the instructional system. That is, the student is presented with a situation in which individual variables...are major determinants of the response emitted..." This definition, found in the first of three sections of this paper, forms the…

  18. Variation, Repetition, and Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abreu-Rodrigues, Josele; Lattal, Kennon A.; dos Santos, Cristiano V.; Matos, Ricardo A.

    2005-01-01

    Experiment 1 investigated the controlling properties of variability contingencies on choice between repeated and variable responding. Pigeons were exposed to concurrent-chains schedules with two alternatives. In the REPEAT alternative, reinforcers in the terminal link depended on a single sequence of four responses. In the VARY alternative, a…

  19. What Are Our Choices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex

    1992-01-01

    Nonpublic school educational choice proposals are largely derived from monetarist economic and social theory and exemplify right-wing privatization goals. The U.S. health care system has plenty of competition among insurers, hospitals, and doctors; but it is the most expensive, least equitable system in the industrial world. The mystical belief…

  20. Interpretations of informed choice in antenatal screening: a cross-cultural, Q-methodology study.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shenaz; Bryant, Louise D; Tizro, Zahra; Shickle, Darren

    2012-04-01

    Informed choice is internationally recognised and accepted as an important aspect of ethical healthcare. In the U.K., NHS antenatal screening policies state that their primary aim is to facilitate reproductive informed choices. These policies, implemented within a multiethnic population, are largely guided by the ethical principle of autonomy. This study was carried out in 2009 in the U.K. and used Q-methodology to explore diversity in the value attached to autonomous informed choice in antenatal screening for genetic disorders and similarities and differences in this value in women from different ethnic origins. Ninety-eight participants of African, British White, Caribbean, Chinese and Pakistani origin completed a 41-statement Q-sort in English, French, Mandarin or Urdu. Q-Factor analysis produced five statistically independent viewpoints of the value of informed choice: choice as an individual right; choice informed by religious values; choice as a shared responsibility; choice advised by health professionals; and choice within the family context. The findings show that women hold a variety of views on the nature of informed choice, and that, contradictory to policies of autonomous informed choice, many women seek and value the advice of health professionals. The findings have implications for the role of health professionals in facilitating informed choice, quality of care and equity of access.