Science.gov

Sample records for accounting standard setting

  1. The Standards-Setting Process in Accounting: Lessons for Education and Workplace Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Donna; Bailey, Thomas R.

    This report presents the experiences and outcomes of accounting standards-setters who have, in many cases, been successful in establishing a national, uniform system of certification for public accountants. An executive summary appears first. The report begins with two sections that examine the evolution of accounting into a 20th-century…

  2. Standards-Setting Procedures in Accountability Research: Impacts of Conceptual Frameworks and Mapping Procedures on Passing Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, LihShing; Pan, Wei; Austin, James T.

    Standard-setting research has yielded a rich array of more than 50 standard-setting procedures, but practitioners are likely to be confused about which to use. By synthesizing the accumulated research on standard setting and progress monitoring, this study developed a three-dimensional taxonomy for conceptualizing and operationalizing the various…

  3. 77 FR 43542 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards Pension Harmonization Rule AGENCY: Cost Accounting... correcting amendments. SUMMARY: The Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting...

  4. Government Accounting Standards: Past, Present and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmer, W. Gary

    1993-01-01

    States that government accounting is the product of mixing together budget-oriented and accounting-oriented voices. Presents a history of governmental accounting including the groups involved. An organization chart describes the current standard-setting structure. Accomplishments that improve reporting operations results are listed. (MLF)

  5. Standardized Testing and School Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the use of standardized tests to hold schools accountable. The history of testing for accountability is reviewed, and it is shown that currently between-school differences account for less than 10% of the variance in student scores, in part because the progress of individuals is small compared to the spread of achievement…

  6. A Guide to American Accounting Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Karen

    1988-01-01

    Describes the different bodies that have been responsible for setting standards for the American accounting profession. The discussion covers the roles of these bodies, their publications, and methods of access to these publications. A listing of major accounting organizations, publications, and tools for access is provided. (eight references)…

  7. 76 FR 81295 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Accounting Standard (CAS) 412, ``Composition and Measurement of Pension Cost,'' and CAS 413, ``Adjustment and Allocation of Pension Cost.'' This revision will harmonize the measurement and period assignment of the... cost objectives in accordance with CAS, and the measurement and period assignment requirements...

  8. Setting the Cleaning Standard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    1998-01-01

    Explains how well-defined cleaning and maintenance standards helped a community school system resolve problems with custodial staff apportionments. Cleaning time, frequency, and cleanliness levels are combined to create a formula that helps economize custodial care. (GR)

  9. Standards and Standard Setting and the Post School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the role of standards and standard setting in shaping the expansion of post school education in highly unequal society. It draws on an account of the debates and policies on standards in the UK from the 1980's to today and the wider lessons that can be learned from them. It argues that relying on any type of standards…

  10. 76 FR 53378 - Cost Accounting Standards: Accounting for Insurance Costs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... the measurement and allocation of the cost of infrequent and difficult to predict events. The FAR at... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Accounting for Insurance Costs AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board (Board), Office of Federal Procurement Policy...

  11. 76 FR 49365 - Cost Accounting Standards: Elimination of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9903 Cost Accounting Standards: Elimination of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Contracts and Subcontracts Executed and Performed... Budget (OMB), Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards Board...

  12. 77 FR 202 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updated Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting References

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... 9000-AM00 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updated Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting... accounting standards owing to the Financial Accounting Standards Board's Accounting Standards Codification of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. DATES: Effective Date: February 2, 2012. FOR FURTHER...

  13. Developing a New Standard for Governmental Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Clifford W.

    1987-01-01

    The Government Accounting Standards Board's current Measurement Focus and Basis of Accounting Project has identified alternatives in financial resources accounting that will reduce the opportunity for political, budgetary, or other pressures to allow school districts to shift the burden of providing current-year's services to future-year's…

  14. 76 FR 8989 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updated Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting References

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... 9000-AM00 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updated Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting... to amend the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to update references to authoritative accounting standards owing to the Financial Accounting Standards Board's (FASB's) Accounting Standards...

  15. 77 FR 69422 - Cost Accounting Standards: Revision of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Contracts...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9903 Cost Accounting Standards: Revision of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Contracts and Subcontracts for the Acquisition of Commercial... Accounting Standards (CAS) Board. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The OFPP and CAS Board invite...

  16. 76 FR 61660 - Cost Accounting Standards: Clarification of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Firm...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Cost Accounting Standards.'' Included in the provision was a revision to paragraph (2)(B) of Section 26... Accounting Standards by covered Government contractors and subcontractors, consistent with the provisions of... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9903 Cost Accounting Standards: Clarification...

  17. Setting Emissions Standards Based on Technology Performance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In setting national emissions standards, EPA sets emissions performance levels rather than mandating use of a particular technology. The law mandates that EPA use numerical performance standards whenever feasible in setting national emissions standards.

  18. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Accounting Services Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These Illinois skill standards for the accounting services cluster are intended to serve as a guide to workforce preparation program providers as they define content for their programs and to employers as they establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. They could also serve as a mechanism for communication among education,…

  19. Accountability Pressure, Academic Standards, and Educational Triage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauen, Douglas Lee; Gaddis, S. Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether educational accountability promotes educational triage. This study exploits a natural experiment in North Carolina in which standards increased first in math in 2006 and second in reading in 2008 to determine whether an increase in educational standards caused an increase in educational triage at the expense of…

  20. Accounting Standards: What Do They Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Jerry B.

    1992-01-01

    Four recent and proposed changes in national school accounting standards have significant policy implications for colleges and universities. These changes address (1) standards regarding postemployment benefits other than pensions, (2) depreciation, (3) financial report format, and (4) contributions and pledges made to the school. Governing boards…

  1. Standards, Testing, and Accountability: Misguided Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, James

    2011-01-01

    There are many factors affecting student achievement. It is misguided and a waste of time and effort to pursue the failed policies of more standards, tests, and accountability. The primary problems relative to student achievement are mainly societal. Rather than more failed policies, what our nation needs is a discussion about national values,…

  2. Standards-Based Accountability in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of standards-based accountability (SBA) interventions aimed at improving school performance often focuses on the testing component, at the expense of capacity building. This was the case in South Africa when a SBA programme was instituted by government in 2000, which was accompanied by substantial rises in senior certificate…

  3. Setting the bar: Standards for ecosystem services

    PubMed Central

    Polasky, Stephen; Tallis, Heather; Reyers, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Progress in ecosystem service science has been rapid, and there is now a healthy appetite among key public and private sector decision makers for this science. However, changing policy and management is a long-term project, one that raises a number of specific practical challenges. One impediment to broad adoption of ecosystem service information is the lack of standards that define terminology, acceptable data and methods, and reporting requirements. Ecosystem service standards should be tailored to specific use contexts, such as national income and wealth accounts, corporate sustainability reporting, land-use planning, and environmental impact assessments. Many standard-setting organizations already exist, and the research community will make the most headway toward rapid uptake of ecosystem service science by working directly with these organizations. Progress has been made in aligning with existing organizations in areas such as product certification and sustainability reporting, but a major challenge remains in mainstreaming ecosystem service information into core public and private use contexts, such as agricultural and energy subsidy design, national income accounts, and corporate accounts. PMID:26082540

  4. Setting the bar: Standards for ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Polasky, Stephen; Tallis, Heather; Reyers, Belinda

    2015-06-16

    Progress in ecosystem service science has been rapid, and there is now a healthy appetite among key public and private sector decision makers for this science. However, changing policy and management is a long-term project, one that raises a number of specific practical challenges. One impediment to broad adoption of ecosystem service information is the lack of standards that define terminology, acceptable data and methods, and reporting requirements. Ecosystem service standards should be tailored to specific use contexts, such as national income and wealth accounts, corporate sustainability reporting, land-use planning, and environmental impact assessments. Many standard-setting organizations already exist, and the research community will make the most headway toward rapid uptake of ecosystem service science by working directly with these organizations. Progress has been made in aligning with existing organizations in areas such as product certification and sustainability reporting, but a major challenge remains in mainstreaming ecosystem service information into core public and private use contexts, such as agricultural and energy subsidy design, national income accounts, and corporate accounts.

  5. 48 CFR 30.101 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION General 30.101 Cost Accounting Standards. (a... Accounting Standards (CAS) and to disclose in writing and follow consistently their cost accounting...

  6. 48 CFR 30.101 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION General 30.101 Cost Accounting Standards. (a... Accounting Standards (CAS) and to disclose in writing and follow consistently their cost accounting...

  7. 48 CFR 30.101 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION General 30.101 Cost Accounting Standards. (a... Accounting Standards (CAS) and to disclose in writing and follow consistently their cost accounting...

  8. 48 CFR 9903.101 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards. 9903.101 Section 9903.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE General 9903.101 Cost Accounting Standards. Public Law 100-679 (41...

  9. 48 CFR 30.101 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION General 30.101 Cost Accounting Standards. (a) 41 U.S.C. chapter 15, Cost Accounting Standards,requires certain contractors and subcontractors...

  10. 48 CFR 9903.307 - Cost Accounting Standards Preambles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards Preambles. 9903.307 Section 9903.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Rules and Regulations 9903.307 Cost Accounting Standards...

  11. 48 CFR 1699.70 - Cost accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost accounting standards... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS Cost Accounting Standards 1699.70 Cost accounting standards. With respect to all experience-rated contracts...

  12. 48 CFR 9903.307 - Cost Accounting Standards Preambles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost Accounting Standards Preambles. 9903.307 Section 9903.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Rules and Regulations 9903.307 Cost Accounting Standards...

  13. 48 CFR 1699.70 - Cost accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost accounting standards... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS Cost Accounting Standards 1699.70 Cost accounting standards. With respect to all experience-rated contracts...

  14. 48 CFR 9903.101 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost Accounting Standards. 9903.101 Section 9903.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE General 9903.101 Cost Accounting Standards. Public Law 100-679 (41...

  15. 48 CFR 1699.70 - Cost accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Cost accounting standards... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS Cost Accounting Standards 1699.70 Cost accounting standards. With respect to all experience-rated contracts...

  16. 48 CFR 9903.307 - Cost Accounting Standards Preambles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards Preambles. 9903.307 Section 9903.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Rules and Regulations 9903.307 Cost Accounting Standards...

  17. 48 CFR 9903.101 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards. 9903.101 Section 9903.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE General 9903.101 Cost Accounting Standards. Public Law 100-679 (41...

  18. 47 CFR 32.16 - Changes in accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Changes in accounting standards. 32.16 Section... SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.16 Changes in accounting standards. (a) The company's records and accounts shall be adjusted to apply new accounting...

  19. 47 CFR 32.16 - Changes in accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Changes in accounting standards. 32.16 Section... SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.16 Changes in accounting standards. (a) The company's records and accounts shall be adjusted to apply new accounting...

  20. 47 CFR 32.16 - Changes in accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Changes in accounting standards. 32.16 Section... SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.16 Changes in accounting standards. (a) The company's records and accounts shall be adjusted to apply new accounting...

  1. 47 CFR 32.16 - Changes in accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Changes in accounting standards. 32.16 Section... SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.16 Changes in accounting standards. (a) The company's records and accounts shall be adjusted to apply new accounting...

  2. 47 CFR 32.16 - Changes in accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes in accounting standards. 32.16 Section... SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.16 Changes in accounting standards. (a) The company's records and accounts shall be adjusted to apply new accounting...

  3. Setting Standards and Primary School Teachers' Experiences of the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherman, Vanessa; Zimmerman, Lisa; Howie, Sarah J.; Bosker, Roel

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, very few standard-setting exercises are carried out in education and, if they are, teachers are not involved in their execution. As a result, there is no clear understanding of what the standard is and how it was arrived at. This situation is compounded when teachers are held accountable when learners do not meet the prescribed…

  4. Setting Standards in Australian Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson-Whiteside, Scott

    2012-01-01

    In view of recent legislation to introduce the Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency in Australia, greater emphasis is being placed on the notion of standards in higher education. A standards-based audit or assessment implies that institutions need to demonstrate performance or achievement against a set of explicit thresholds. This…

  5. 75 FR 20363 - Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 38, Accounting for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 38, Accounting for Federal Oil and Gas Resources AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board ACTION: Notice....

  6. Education through telemedicine networks: setting quality standards.

    PubMed

    Shershneva, Marianna B; Olson, Curtis A

    2005-01-01

    Quality standards for educational programming have received limited attention in telemedicine. We selected five sets of standards from the distance education literature established by: (1) the American Council on Education; (2) the American Distance Education Consortium; (3) the Council of Regional Accrediting Commissions; (4) the Distance Education and Training Council; (5) the Innovations in Distance Education Project. The standards were reviewed to determine the purposes they were intended to serve and the process by which they were established. The content of the five sets of standards were summarized around the 'four commonplaces' of education: learner, teacher, curriculum and context. Four major findings emerged. First, none of the sets of standards addresses all of the issues that are potentially relevant to telemedicine education; all emphasize certain topics while neglecting others. Second, there are some important aspects of telemedicine that are not addressed at all, such as patient confidentiality. Third, the standards generally provide a framework for defining high quality in distance education, leaving to those at the local level the task of deciding how a standard applies in their setting. Finally, the standards reviewed have many elements that could potentially apply to telemedicine education. Setting quality standards for education through telemedicine requires a systematic approach and a means for continuous improvement of those standards.

  7. 48 CFR 52.230-2 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards....230-2 Cost Accounting Standards. As prescribed in 30.201-4(a), insert the following clause: Cost Accounting Standards (MAY 2012) (a) Unless the contract is exempt under 48 CFR 9903.201-1 and 9903.201-2,...

  8. 48 CFR 52.230-2 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards....230-2 Cost Accounting Standards. As prescribed in 30.201-4(a), insert the following clause: Cost Accounting Standards (OCT 2010) (a) Unless the contract is exempt under 48 CFR 9903.201-1 and 9903.201-2,...

  9. 48 CFR 52.230-2 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards....230-2 Cost Accounting Standards. As prescribed in 30.201-4(a), insert the following clause: Cost Accounting Standards (MAY 2012) (a) Unless the contract is exempt under 48 CFR 9903.201-1 and 9903.201-2,...

  10. 48 CFR 12.214 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards. 12.214 Section 12.214 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Items 12.214 Cost Accounting Standards. Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) do not apply to contracts...

  11. 48 CFR 12.214 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards. 12.214 Section 12.214 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Items 12.214 Cost Accounting Standards. Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) do not apply to contracts...

  12. 48 CFR 52.230-2 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards....230-2 Cost Accounting Standards. As prescribed in 30.201-4(a), insert the following clause: Cost Accounting Standards (MAY 2014) (a) Unless the contract is exempt under 48 CFR 9903.201-1 and 9903.201-2,...

  13. 48 CFR 12.214 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards. 12.214 Section 12.214 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Items 12.214 Cost Accounting Standards. Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) do not apply to contracts...

  14. 48 CFR 52.230-2 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards....230-2 Cost Accounting Standards. As prescribed in 30.201-4(a), insert the following clause: Cost Accounting Standards (OCT 2010) (a) Unless the contract is exempt under 48 CFR 9903.201-1 and 9903.201-2,...

  15. 48 CFR 12.214 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards. 12.214 Section 12.214 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Items 12.214 Cost Accounting Standards. Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) do not apply to contracts...

  16. 14 CFR 1274.919 - Cost principles and accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Cost principles and accounting standards... principles and accounting standards. Cost Principles and Accounting Standards July 2002 The expenditure of... implemented by FAR Parts 30, 31, and 48 CFR part 99. (If the Recipient is a consortium which includes...

  17. 14 CFR 1274.919 - Cost principles and accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost principles and accounting standards... principles and accounting standards. Cost Principles and Accounting Standards July 2002 The expenditure of... implemented by FAR Parts 30, 31, and 48 CFR part 99. (If the Recipient is a consortium which includes...

  18. 14 CFR 1274.919 - Cost principles and accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost principles and accounting standards... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.919 Cost principles and accounting standards. Cost Principles and Accounting Standards July 2002 The expenditure...

  19. Using Latent Class Analysis To Set Academic Performance Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Richard S.

    The use of latent class analysis for establishing student performance standards was studied. Latent class analysis (LCA) is an established procedure for investigating the latent structure of a set of data. LCA presumes that groups, classes, or respondents differ qualitatively from one another, and that these differences account for all of the…

  20. AACSB Standards and Accounting Faculty's Intellectual Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, B. Brian; Quddus, Munir

    2008-01-01

    The authors performed a content analysis of intellectual contribution portfolios of accounting faculty at various business schools that Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International recently accredited. The results showed a significant divergence in faculty research (e.g., areas, topics) and their teaching assignments. This…

  1. 48 CFR 9904.406 - Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period. 9904.406 Section 9904.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET...

  2. 48 CFR 9904.406 - Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period. 9904.406 Section 9904.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET...

  3. 48 CFR 9904.406 - Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period. 9904.406 Section 9904.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET...

  4. 48 CFR 9904.406 - Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period. 9904.406 Section 9904.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET...

  5. Accountability Pressure, Academic Standards, and Educational Triage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauen, Douglas Lee; Gaddis, S. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite common conceptions, evidence on whether No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has had adverse effects for low achieving students is mixed. We hypothesize that the incentive to shift attention away from the lowest achieving students increases with the rigor of state standards. Using panel data from students in North Carolina, we exploit two natural…

  6. Nominees Set High Standards, Support Student Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Carla

    2003-01-01

    Describes the winner and other nominees for the "Administrator of the Year" award presented nationally by the Journalism Education Association. Explains that W. Charles Dill, Don Senti, Juan Gonzales, Christy Slagle, Linda Quinn, Gary Davis, and Lucinda Lee Katz all set high standards, valued student press rights, and supported students. (PM)

  7. Teaching Undergraduate Accounting Majors How to Interpret the Accounting Standards Codification: An Alternative to Research Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toerner, Michael C.; Swindle, C. Bruce; Burckel, Daryl V.

    2014-01-01

    Professional accountants regularly search the FASB'S Accounting Standards Codification to find answers to financial accounting questions. Accounting educators know this and frequently use research cases in an attempt to help students begin developing this ability. But many students struggle with these cases because they have not been taught how to…

  8. 48 CFR 1699.70 - Cost accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost accounting standards. 1699.70 Section 1699.70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS Cost...

  9. 48 CFR 1699.70 - Cost accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost accounting standards. 1699.70 Section 1699.70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS Cost...

  10. 5 CFR 950.203 - Public accountability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS Eligibility Provisions § 950.203 Public accountability standards. (a) To... accrual and any other methods of accounting are not acceptable) in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and that an audit of its fiscal operations is completed annually by an...

  11. FASB issues new accounting standards for business combinations.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Christian; Travers, Mary Ann K

    2010-06-01

    Accounting Standard Codification Topic 958 (formerly Financial Accounting Standards Board Statement No. 164), Not-for-Profit Entities: Mergers and Acquisitions, applies to mergers and acquisitions as early as Jan. 1, 2010, for calendar-year entities. Not-for-profit organizations need to move to fair value accounting, with a focus on the valuation of intangible assets. Noncompliance could cause a hospital's auditors to issue a qualified report, which could lead to difficulties obtaining bank and bond financing.

  12. What's New: Update on GASB and Accounting Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrone, Robert S.; Scharle, Robert E.

    1996-01-01

    Updates the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) statements, which pronounce upon and provide guidance in accounting and financial reporting for state and local governmental entities. Describes the development of GASB's governmental finance-reporting model project and identifies five components of internal control. One figure and two…

  13. Coping with Standards, Tests, and Accountability: Voices from the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatthorn, Allan A., Ed.; Fontana, Jean, Ed.

    This book presents the views of teachers, teacher educators, and administrators who write about accountability, testing, and standards programs. The chapters are: (1) "From Policy to Practice: The Research" (Allan A. Glatthorn); (2) "New York's Test-Driven Standards" (Jean Fontana); (3) "Voices from a Native American…

  14. Social Moderation, Assessment and Assuring Standards for Accounting Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watty, Kim; Freeman, Mark; Howieson, Bryan; Hancock, Phil; O'Connell, Brendan; de Lange, Paul; Abraham, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Evidencing student achievement of standards is a growing imperative worldwide. Key stakeholders (including current and prospective students, government, regulators and employers) want confidence that threshold learning standards in an accounting degree have been assured. Australia's new higher education regulatory environment requires that student…

  15. FASB (Financial Accounting Standards Board) issues new accounting rules for debt and equity securities.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, A; Bayou, M E

    1994-10-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) recently issued a new statement that requires all companies to change their methods of accounting for debt and equity securities. Rather than allowing organizations to use a historical cost approach in accounting for such financial instruments, FASB Statement No. 115 requires organizations to adopt a market value approach. The provisions of this statement will affect significantly organizations in the healthcare industry that have large investment portfolios.

  16. Standardizing an End-to-end Accounting Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Edward; Kazz, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Currently there are no space system standards available for space agencies to accomplish end-to-end accounting. Such a standard does not exist for spacecraft operations nor for tracing the relationship between the mission planning activities, the command sequences designed to perform those activities, the commands formulated to initiate those activities and the mission data and specifically the mission data products created by those activities. In order for space agencies to cross-support one another for data accountability/data tracing and for inter agency spacecraft to interoperate with each other, an international CCSDS standard for end-to-end data accountability/tracing needs to be developed. We will first describe the end-to-end accounting service model and functionality that supports the service. This model will describe how science plans that are ultimately transformed into commands can be associated with the telemetry products generated as a result of their execution. Moreover, the interaction between end-to-end accounting and service management will be explored. Finally, we will show how the standard end-to-end accounting service can be applied to a real life flight project i.e., the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter project.

  17. 75 FR 64684 - Cost Accounting Standards: Elimination of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... accounting practices used by Government contractors in the measurement, assignment and allocation of costs to... acknowledged that, in absence of the applicability of CAS, the cost measurement and allocation rules under FAR... CAS, FAR Part 31, including its cost measurement, assignment, and allocation rules, would still...

  18. 76 FR 50117 - Commission Rules and Forms Related to the FASB's Accounting Standards Codification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... FASB's Accounting Standards Codification AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Final rule... to the FASB Accounting Standards Codification\\TM\\ (``FASB Codification'').\\1\\ The technical... Accounting Standards Codification'' is a registered trademark of the Financial Accounting Foundation....

  19. Accountability Shovedown: Resisting the Standards Movement in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, J. Amos

    2002-01-01

    Identifies and discusses several reasons why the proliferation of standards for early childhood education is harmful to children and teachers: Pressure on children and teachers, narrowing of experience, accountability as punishment, teacher deprofessionalization, performance over learning, individual devaluation, corporate mentality. (Contains 34…

  20. 14 CFR 1274.919 - Cost principles and accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost principles and accounting standards. 1274.919 Section 1274.919 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... Government funds by the Recipient and the allowability of costs recognized as a resource contribution by...

  1. How to Integrate International Financial Reporting Standards into Accounting Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    It is expected the SEC will require U.S. domestic companies to prepare and file their annual 10Ks in accordance with international financial reporting standards (IFRS) by 2016. Given the probability that the FASB-IASB convergence project (i.e., Norwalk Agreement) will continue subsequent to mandatory adoption, US accounting programs will be…

  2. After Common Core, States Set Rigorous Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paul E.; Barrows, Samuel; Gift, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In spite of Tea Party criticism, union skepticism, and anti-testing outcries, the campaign to implement Common Core State Standards (otherwise known as Common Core) has achieved phenomenal success in statehouses across the country. Since 2011, 45 states have raised their standards for student proficiency in reading and math, with the greatest…

  3. Setting and Reviewing Standards to Control Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to set national air quality standards for particulate matter, and to periodically review the standards to ensure that they provide adequate health and environmental protection, updating those standards as necessary.

  4. When Accountability Strategies Collide: Do Policy Changes That Raise Accountability Standards Also Erode Public Satisfaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Rebecca; Saultz, Andrew; Snyder, Jeffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    No Child Left Behind (NCLB) requires that two accountability strategies--raising standards and public pressure through publicizing performance data--be implemented simultaneously. However, when coupled, they may produce an inappropriate consequence for public opinion. The public may misunderstand the drop in achievement that occurs when the bar is…

  5. Setting standards for medical writing in orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Mauffrey, Cyril; Scarlat, Marius M; Pećina, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Once the privilege of few clinical scholars in the field of orthopaedics, medical writing has become a must for career advancement. The number of papers submitted and published yearly has increased steadily, and with the development of the Internet, manuscript and journals have become easily accessible. Medical writing has risen to become a discipline in itself, with rules and standards. However, heterogeneity in the quality of papers submitted still prevails, with large variations in both form and content. With countries such as China and India submitting an exponential number of manuscripts, it is important and helpful that standards of medical writing be emphasised to help writers who do not always have the required support to produce an outstanding manuscript. In this paper, we summarise what may become standards for medical writing in the field of orthopaedics.

  6. 75 FR 48336 - Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 39, Subsequent Events...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 39, Subsequent Events: Codification of Accounting and Financial Reporting Standards Contained in the AICPA Statement...

  7. 75 FR 18208 - Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 37, Social Insurance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 37, Social... AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Notice. Board Action: Pursuant to 31...

  8. Setting the Standard: XML on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawlins, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Explains what XML (Extensible Markup Language) is; where to find it in a few years (everywhere from Web pages, to database management systems, to common campus applications); issues that will make XML somewhat of an experimental strategy in the near term; and the importance of decision-makers being abreast of XML trends in standards, tools…

  9. Setting new sights for standards lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2008-03-01

    It may be best known as the home of the world's first atomic clock, which led to a new definition of the second. But the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), which develops and maintains the country's measurement standards, was in fact founded in 1900 to promote links between science and commerce. That tradition, which saw staff at the lab also inventing radar, early computers and modern network packet switching, is something that John Pethica - NPL's new chief scientist - is keen to build on.

  10. Setting, Evaluating, and Maintaining Certification Standards with the Rasch Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Martin E.; Wright, Benjamin D.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the standard setting procedures or the American Board of Preventive Medicine for their Core Test, this article describes how Rasch measurement can facilitate using test content judgments in setting a standard. Rasch measurement can then be used to evaluate and improve the precision of the standard and to hold it constant across time.…

  11. Setting Performance Standards through Two-Stage Judgmental Policy Capturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    A performance-standard setting procedure termed judgmental policy capturing (JPC) and its application are described. A study involving 12 panelists demonstrated the feasibility of the JPC method for setting performance standards for classroom teachers seeking certification from the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. (SLD)

  12. Construct Maps as a Foundation for Standard Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.

    2013-01-01

    Construct maps are tools that display how the underlying achievement construct upon which one is trying to set cut-scores is related to other information used in the process of standard setting. This article reviews what construct maps are, uses construct maps to provide a conceptual framework to view commonly used standard-setting procedures (the…

  13. Setting the Standard for Industrial Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Williams, Robert; Perry, Wayne; Li, Tienan

    2007-06-01

    Industrial motor-driven systems use more than 2194 billionkWh annually on a global basis and offer one of the largest opportunitiesfor energy savings.1 The International Energy Agency estimates thatoptimization of motor driven systems could reduce global electricitydemand by 7 percent through the application of commercially availabletechnologies and using well-tested engineering practices. Yet manyindustrial firms remain either unaware of or unable to achieve theseenergy savings. The same factors that make it so challenging to achieveand sustain energy efficiency in motor-driven systems (complexity,frequent changes) apply to the production processes that they support.Yet production processes typically operate within a narrow band ofacceptable performance. These processes are frequently incorporated intoISO 9000/14000 quality and environmental management systems, whichrequire regular, independent audits to maintain ISO certification, anattractive value for international trade. It is our contention that acritical step in achieving and sustaining energy efficiency ofmotor-driven systems specifically, and industrial energy efficiencygenerally, is the adoption of a corporate energy management standard thatis consistent with current industrial quality and environmentalmanagement systems such as ISO. Several energy management standardscurrently exist (US, Denmark, Ireland, Sweden) and specifications(Germany, Netherlands) others are planned (China, Spain, Brazil, Korea).This paper presents the current status of energy management standardsdevelopment internationally, including an analysis of their sharedfeatures and differences, in terms of content, promulgation, andimplementation. The purpose of the analysis is to describe the currentstate of "best practices" for this emerging area of energy efficiencypolicymaking and tosuggest next steps toward the creation of a trulyinternational energy management standard that is consistent with the ISOprinciples of measurement

  14. 49 CFR 1200.2 - Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). 1200.2 Section 1200.2 Transportation... COMMERCE ACT § 1200.2 Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial... Financial Accounting Standards by the FASB, and provided that the Office of Economics,...

  15. 49 CFR 1200.2 - Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). 1200.2 Section 1200.2 Transportation... COMMERCE ACT § 1200.2 Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial... Financial Accounting Standards by the FASB, and provided that the Office of Economics,...

  16. 49 CFR 1200.2 - Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). 1200.2 Section 1200.2 Transportation... COMMERCE ACT § 1200.2 Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial... Financial Accounting Standards by the FASB, and provided that the Office of Economics,...

  17. Situating Standard Setting within Argument-Based Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgiou, Spiros; Tannenbaum, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Although there has been substantial work on argument-based approaches to validation as well as standard-setting methodologies, it might not always be clear how standard setting fits into argument-based validity. The purpose of this article is to address this lack in the literature, with a specific focus on topics related to argument-based…

  18. Investigating the Decision-Making Process of Standard Setting Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing interest of the language testing community in standard setting, primarily due to the use of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR-Council of Europe, 2001), the participants' decision-making process in the CEFR standard setting context remains unexplored. This study attempts to fill in this gap by analyzing these…

  19. Commentary on "Construct Maps as a Foundation for Standard Setting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Neal M.; Tiemann, Gail C.; Loughran, Jessica T.

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this article comment on "Construct Maps as a Foundation for Standard Setting," by Adam E. Wyse (this issue) in which Wyse presents construct maps, a visual display of a variety of sources of evidence that support standard-setting decisions, and shows how this approach could be used with a variety of existing…

  20. Peer pressure and public reporting within healthcare setting: improving accountability and health care quality in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Specchia, Maria Lucia; Veneziano, Maria Assunta; Cadeddu, Chiara; Ferriero, Anna Maria; Capizzi, Silvio; Ricciardi, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, the need of public reporting of health outcomes has acquired a great importance. The public release of performance results could be a tool for improving health care quality and many attempts have been made in order to introduce public reporting programs within the health care context at different levels. It would be necessary to promote the introduction of a standardized set of outcome and performance measures in order to improve quality of health care services and to make health care providers aware of the importance of transparency and accountability.

  1. How to set up and use a Twitter account professionally.

    PubMed

    Chudleigh, Meriel; Jones, Ray

    2016-11-02

    Rationale and key points This article encourages nurses to use Twitter to engage in professional discussions, share information and raise awareness of alternative views to enhance practice and patient care. Twitter is an online social media service that enables users to send and read 140-character messages called tweets. » Twitter is free and accessible across multiple platforms and devices, providing immediate contact with professionals, organisations and the public worldwide. » Many healthcare professionals use Twitter to share ideas and information. » Responsible use of Twitter creates opportunities to access information, discuss issues and challenge misconceptions to support professional nursing behaviours. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How you could develop your use of Twitter for professional learning and interaction with healthcare professionals and others. 2. How you could support a colleague to use Twitter for the first time.

  2. A Study on Financial Reporting Standards and Accounting Quality- Evidence from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Cheng-Hwai

    2013-02-01

    According to institutional theorists, the forms and business models of corporation are mainly shaped by factors such as politics, regulations, social norms and cultures. This paper examines how the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and institutional environment influence the accounting quality, in response to the threat of political extraction in China. We took mainland China as an example instead in our study, following the accounting quality definition of Barth et al. [2], we found that the developments of Chinese government performance audit are conspicuously different by region; to reflect such differences, we elaborated our research by dividing mainland China into 31 categories (provinces or cities). We set 2003-2010 as the time horizon for this study. After testing the Regression model, our empirical research achieved two conclusions: 1) IFRS adoption in China should significantly improve the accounting quality, and 2) IFRS and institutional environment should synthetically influence the quality of accounting as well.

  3. A Generalizability Theory Approach to Standard Error Estimates for Bookmark Standard Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Guemin; Lewis, Daniel M.

    2008-01-01

    The bookmark standard-setting procedure is an item response theory-based method that is widely implemented in state testing programs. This study estimates standard errors for cut scores resulting from bookmark standard settings under a generalizability theory model and investigates the effects of different universes of generalization and error…

  4. Connotative Meanings of Student Performance Labels Used in Standard Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Winona M.; Stapleton, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the connotation of performance labels used in standard setting. For example, do the performance labels "basic," "proficient," and "advanced" hold different connotations than "limited knowledge," "satisfactory," and "distinguished"? If these…

  5. J-2X Engine Continues to Set Standards

    NASA Video Gallery

    Testing of the next-generation J-2X rocket engine continues to set standards. Last fall, the engine attained 100 percent power in just its fourth test and became the fastest U.S. rocket engine to a...

  6. A gold standard set of mechanistically diverse enzyme superfamilies.

    PubMed

    Brown, Shoshana D; Gerlt, John A; Seffernick, Jennifer L; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2006-01-01

    Superfamily and family analyses provide an effective tool for the functional classification of proteins, but must be automated for use on large datasets. We describe a 'gold standard' set of enzyme superfamilies, clustered according to specific sequence, structure, and functional criteria, for use in the validation of family and superfamily clustering methods. The gold standard set represents four fold classes and differing clustering difficulties, and includes five superfamilies, 91 families, 4,887 sequences and 282 structures.

  7. A gold standard set of mechanistically diverse enzyme superfamilies

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Shoshana D; Gerlt, John A; Seffernick, Jennifer L; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2006-01-01

    Superfamily and family analyses provide an effective tool for the functional classification of proteins, but must be automated for use on large datasets. We describe a 'gold standard' set of enzyme superfamilies, clustered according to specific sequence, structure, and functional criteria, for use in the validation of family and superfamily clustering methods. The gold standard set represents four fold classes and differing clustering difficulties, and includes five superfamilies, 91 families, 4,887 sequences and 282 structures. PMID:16507141

  8. Achievement, attributions, self-efficacy, and goal setting by accounting undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pi-Yueh; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2010-02-01

    Correlations were examined between two measures of accounting self-efficacy achievement goal setting, attributions, and scores on the Accounting Practice Achievement Test, obtained 1 yr. apart for 124 freshmen in junior college. Analysis indicated favorable attribution contributed to a higher mean score on accounting self-efficacy. Students with higher perceived self-efficacy performed better on the proficiency tests. Those with higher self-efficacy also set higher goals for subsequent achievement tests. Moreover, students who set higher achievement goals performed better. Goal setting mediated the relation of initial self-efficacy with subsequent test performance. However, the amount of variance accounted for by self-efficacy was small. An effective method for enhancing performance on an accounting achievement test might be to increase beneficial attributions, self-efficacy in accounting, and to encourage setting reasonable achievement goals.

  9. The Objective Borderline Method: A Probabilistic Method for Standard Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz; Poole, Phillippa; Jones, Philip; Wilkinson, Tim

    2015-01-01

    A new probability-based standard setting technique, the Objective Borderline Method (OBM), was introduced recently. This was based on a mathematical model of how test scores relate to student ability. The present study refined the model and tested it using 2500 simulated data-sets. The OBM was feasible to use. On average, the OBM performed well…

  10. 76 FR 28434 - Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 40, Definitional Changes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 40, Definitional Changes Related to Deferred Maintenance and Repairs: Amending Statement of Federal Financial...

  11. 77 FR 69441 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Cost Accounting Standards Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Cost Accounting Standards Administration AGENCY: Department of Defense...: Under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act, the Regulatory Secretariat will be submitting to... approved information collection requirement concerning cost accounting standards administration....

  12. Communication in a medical setting: can standards be improved?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Do standards exist to improve communication in a medical setting? What are the minimal requirements to make our communication with patients and their family clear and simple? International literature, as well as psychology, philosophy, and even our brain structure offer ways to improve communication. We reflected about what is preventing effective communication in the medical setting and how/from where should we set about improving it. PMID:23295153

  13. 76 FR 60357 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... derived from 41 U.S.C. 1501. Cost Accounting Standards are rules governing the measurement, assignment... and 48 CFR Ch. 1 Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting... Procurement Policy (OFPP) Policy Letters, and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting...

  14. 77 FR 75259 - Joint Report: Differences in Accounting and Capital Standards Among the Federal Banking Agencies...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... Joint Report: Differences in Accounting and Capital Standards Among the Federal Banking Agencies; Report... of the U.S. Senate describing differences between the capital and accounting standards used by the... Regarding Differences in Accounting and Capital Standards Among the Federal Banking Agencies...

  15. 77 FR 33735 - Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 43

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 43 AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Notice. Board Action: Pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 3511(d), the...

  16. 78 FR 2673 - Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards 44

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards 44 AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Notice. Board Action: Pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 3511(d), the...

  17. 76 FR 53377 - Cost Accounting Standards; Allocation of Home Office Expenses to Segments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards; Allocation of... Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards Board (Board). ACTION: Notice of Discontinuation of Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards (CAS)...

  18. 77 FR 26278 - Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 42

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 42 AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Notice. Board Action: Pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 3511(d), the...

  19. 14 CFR § 1274.919 - Cost principles and accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost principles and accounting standards. Â... principles and accounting standards. Cost Principles and Accounting Standards July 2002 The expenditure of... implemented by FAR Parts 30, 31, and 48 CFR part 99. (If the Recipient is a consortium which includes...

  20. 48 CFR 52.230-6 - Administration of Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Clauses 52.230-6 Administration of Cost Accounting Standards. As prescribed in 30.201-4(d)(1), insert the following clause: Administration of Cost Accounting Standards (JUN 2010) For the purpose of administering the Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) requirements under this contract, the Contractor shall take...

  1. 48 CFR 52.230-1 - Cost Accounting Standards Notices and Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 52.230-1 Cost Accounting Standards Notices and Certification. As prescribed in 30.201-3, insert the following provisions: Cost Accounting Standards Notices and Certification (OCT 2008... from the Cost Accounting Standards clause under the provisions of 48 CFR 9903.201-2(b) and...

  2. 77 FR 27550 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Revision of Cost Accounting Standards Threshold

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... Regulation; Revision of Cost Accounting Standards Threshold AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General... revise the threshold for applicability of cost accounting standards in order to implement a recent rule of the Cost Accounting Standards Board and statutory requirements. DATES: Effective Date: May...

  3. Standards-Based Accountability as a Tool for Making a Difference in Student Learning. A State and an Institutional Perspective on Standards-Based Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Judy R.

    This paper examines Florida's standards-driven performance assessment, emphasizing teacher preparation, and touching on K-12 accountability. Florida's educational reform and accountability efforts are driven by the Florida System of School Improvement and Accountability document. The system is derived from state goals similar to the national Goals…

  4. Accountability. State Implementation of Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly; Mira, Mary Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    All of the 15 states in this study have recently been involved in school accountability system reform. Since 2011, the states have taken advantage of a federal program to give them flexibility around certain accountability requirements of the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001 (NCLB), the most recent reauthorization of the Elementary and…

  5. Using PISA as an International Benchmark in Standard Setting.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gary W; Jiang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    This study describes how the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) can be used to internationally benchmark state performance standards. The process is accomplished in three steps. First, PISA items are embedded in the administration of the state assessment and calibrated on the state scale. Second, the international item calibrations are then used to link the state scale to the PISA scale through common item linking. Third, the statistical linking results are used as part of the state standard setting process to help standard setting panelists determine how high their state standards need to be in order to be internationally competitive. This process was carried out in Delaware, Hawaii, and Oregon, in three subjects-science, mathematics and reading with initial results reported by Phillips and Jiang (2011). An in depth discussion of methods and results are reported in this article for one subject (mathematics) and one state (Hawaii).

  6. 49 CFR 1200.2 - Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Financial Accounting Standards by the FASB, and provided that the Office of Economics, Environmental... regulations, the Office of Economics, Environmental Analysis, and Administration shall issue an Accounting... ASC. The ASC issued by the Office of Economics, Environmental Analysis, and Administration will...

  7. 49 CFR 1200.2 - Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Financial Accounting Standards by the FASB, and provided that the Office of Economics, Environmental... regulations, the Office of Economics, Environmental Analysis, and Administration shall issue an Accounting... ASC. The ASC issued by the Office of Economics, Environmental Analysis, and Administration will...

  8. Quantifying uncertainty of determination by standard additions and serial dilutions methods taking into account standard uncertainties in both axes.

    PubMed

    Hyk, Wojciech; Stojek, Zbigniew

    2013-06-18

    The analytical expressions for the calculation of the standard uncertainty of the predictor variable either extrapolated or interpolated from a calibration line that takes into account uncertainties in both axes have been derived and successfully verified using the Monte Carlo modeling. These expressions are essential additions to the process of the analyte quantification realized with either the method of standard additions (SAM) or the method of serial dilutions (MSD). The latter one has been proposed as an alternative approach to the SAM procedure. In the MSD approach instead of the sequence of standard additions, the sequence of solvent additions to the spiked sample is performed. The comparison of the calculation results based on the expressions derived to their equivalents obtained from the Monte Carlo simulation, applied to real experimental data sets, confirmed that these expressions are valid in real analytical practice. The estimation of the standard uncertainty of the analyte concentration, quantified via either SAM or MSD or simply a calibration curve, is of great importance for the construction of the uncertainty budget of an analytical procedure. The correct estimation of the standard uncertainty of the analyte concentration is a key issue in the quality assurance in the instrumental analysis.

  9. 75 FR 31749 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... the speed of the Codex standard-setting process, consider the Codex Strategic Plan and the capacity of... of a proposal for a re-evaluation process of substances in light of new data and new scientific... guidelines for the production, processing, labeling and marketing of organically produced foods (CAC/ GL...

  10. Setting a Standard on the Pilot National Board Dental Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Gene A.; DeMarais, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Norm-referenced and criterion-referenced approaches were used to set a minimum passing score for Part II of the pilot National Board Dental Examination. Standards and associated failure rates were found similar for both approaches. This and the advantages of the former approach suggest it is an appropriate method. (Author/MSE)

  11. Implementing Digital Reference Services: Setting Standards and Making It Real.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankes, R. David, Ed.; McClure, Charles R., Ed.; Gross, Melissa, Ed.; Pomerantz, Jeffrey, Ed.

    The chapters in this volume, originally presented at the Third Annual Virtual Reference Desk (VRD) conference, "Setting Standards and Making It Real," (Orlando, Florida, November 2001), were organized, revised, and updated to reflect current technology and practice. The VRD conference and the ideas in this book represent the cutting edge…

  12. The Role of Construct Maps in Standard Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael T.; Tannenbaum, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors observe in this commentary that construct maps can help standard-setting panels to make realistic and internally consistent recommendations for performance-level descriptions (PLDs) and cut-scores, but the benefits may not be realized if policymakers do not fully understand the rationale for the recommendations provided by the…

  13. Guidelines for Selecting a Standard Setting Panel for Licensure Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses panels for standard setting and presents 10 guidelines for the selection of panel members for such studies. Panel members should themselves hold the license for which they are producing a cutting score, and they must be familiar with the requirements of the profession and the characteristics of the candidates. (SLD)

  14. A Comparison of Bookmark and Angoff Standard Setting Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çetin, Sevda; Gelbal, Selahattin

    2013-01-01

    In this research, the cut score of a foundation university was re-calculated with bookmark method and with Angoff method, each of which is a standard setting method; and the cut scores found were compared with the current proficiency score. Thus, the final cut score was found to be 27.87 with the cooperative work of 17 experts through the Angoff…

  15. An introduction to standard setting methods in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Puryer, J; O'Sullivan, D

    2015-10-09

    The aim of this paper is to give readers an overview of contemporary standard setting methods used within dental education, and to provide a better understanding of the subject. We hope that it will be of benefit not just to those in academic dentistry, but all practitioners involved with both undergraduate and postgraduate assessment.

  16. Consistency of Standard Setting in an Augmented State Testing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lissitz, Robert W.; Wei, Hua

    2008-01-01

    In this article we address the issue of consistency in standard setting in the context of an augmented state testing program. Information gained from the external NRT scores is used to help make an informed decision on the determination of cut scores on the state test. The consistency of cut scores on the CRT across grades is maintained by forcing…

  17. Extending Participation in Standard Setting: An Online Judging Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    In order for standard setting to retain public confidence, it will be argued there are two important requirements. One is that the judges' allocation of students to performance bands would yield results broadly consistent with the expectation of the wider educational community. Secondly, in the absence of any change in educational performance,…

  18. Standards, Assessments, and Accountability. Education Policy White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Lorrie, Ed.; Hannaway, Jane, Ed.; Baker, Eva, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Standards-based education reform has a more than 20-year history. A standards-based vision was enacted in federal law under the Clinton administration with the 1994 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) and carried forward under the Bush administration with the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001. In a recent…

  19. International Review of Frameworks for Standard Setting & Labeling Development

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Khanna, Nina Zheng; Fridley, David; Romankiewicz, John

    2012-09-01

    As appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs reach a broader geographic and product scope, a series of sophisticated and complex technical and economic analyses have been adopted by different countries in the world to support and enhance these growing S&L programs. The initial supporting techno-economic and impact analyses for S&L development make up a defined framework and process for setting and developing appropriate appliance efficiency standards and labeling programs. This report reviews in-depth the existing framework for standards setting and label development in the well-established programs of the U.S., Australia and the EU to identify and evaluate major trends in how and why key analyses are undertaken and to understand major similarities and differences between each of the frameworks.

  20. Psychological assessment in XLMR: a proposal for setting international standards.

    PubMed

    Fisch, G S

    2000-01-01

    The need for an agreed upon set of standards for assessing individuals with XLMR was made quite evident this past year at the Fragile X and XLMR Workshop in Strasbourg. Several affected individuals from different families may have been incorrectly diagnosed as MR. Many factors can have a negative affect on IQ testing. As a result, evaluating individuals with cognitive deficits can be problematic. To be effective, psychological assessments must produce uniform results that are consistent with the definition of MR. Therefore, to foster international research in XLMR. I propose a two-stage standardized protocol. To determine which tests may be suitable. I review an assortment of instruments for psychological assessment at each stage, noting their strengths and weaknesses. Afterward, I present a set of standardized protocols based on age and language ability.

  1. 75 FR 47900 - Joint Report: Differences in Accounting and Capital Standards Among the Federal Banking Agencies...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Joint Report: Differences in Accounting and Capital... States Senate describing differences between the capital and accounting standards used by the agencies... Accounting and Capital Standards Among the Federal Banking Agencies Introduction The Office of...

  2. Trusting Description: Authenticity, Accountability, and Archival Description Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeil, Heather

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that one of the purposes of archival description is to establish grounds for presuming the authenticity of the records being described. The article examines the implications of this statement by examining the relationship between and among authenticity, archival description, and archival accountability, assessing how this…

  3. Alignment of Standards and Assessments as an Accountability Criterion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Marca, Paul M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the concept of alignment and the role it plays in assessment and accountability systems. Discusses some methodological issues affecting the study of alignment and explores the relationship between alignment and test score interpretation. Alignment is not only a methodological requirement but also an ethical requirement.…

  4. 78 FR 42521 - Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards 45 and Scheduled Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards 45 and Scheduled Public Hearing AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Notice. Board...

  5. Setting standards for radiation protection: A time for change

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, H.W.; Hickman, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1950, the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommended that ``certain radiation effects are irreversible and cumulative.`` Furthermore, the ICRP ``strongly recommended that every effort be made to reduce exposures to all types of ionizing radiations to the lowest possible level.`` Then in 1954, the ICRP published its assumption that human response to ionizing radiation was linear with dose, together with the recommendation that exposures be kept as low as practicable. These concepts are still the foundation of radiation protection policy today, even though, as Evans has stated, ``The linear non-threshold (LNT) model was adopted specifically on a basis of mathematical simplicity, not from radio-biological data.... Groups responsible for setting standards for radiation protection should be abreast of new developments and new data as they are published; however, this does not seem to be the case. For example, there have been many reports in scientific, peer-reviewed, and other publications during the last three decades that have shown the LNT model and the policy of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) to be invalid. However, none of these reports has been refuted or even discussed by standard-setting groups. We believe this mandates a change in the standard-setting process.

  6. 48 CFR 9904.401 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs. 9904.401 Section 9904.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF...

  7. 48 CFR 9904.401 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs. 9904.401 Section 9904.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF...

  8. 48 CFR 9904.401 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs. 9904.401 Section 9904.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF...

  9. 48 CFR 9904.401 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs. 9904.401 Section 9904.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF...

  10. 48 CFR 9904.412 - Cost accounting standard for composition and measurement of pension cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard for composition and measurement of pension cost. 9904.412 Section 9904.412 Federal Acquisition... accounting standard for composition and measurement of pension cost....

  11. The Effects of Increased Accountability Standards on Graduation Rates for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mitzi Lee

    2012-01-01

    This research sought to determine if unintended effects of increased accountability standards on graduation rates for students with disabilities existed. Data from one southeastern state were utilized in order to determine if graduation rates were impacted as a result of higher accountability standards. In addition, administrator attitudes on…

  12. Discourse Surrounding the International Education Standards for Professional Accountants (IES): A Content Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugahara, Satoshi; Wilson, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The development and implementation of the International Education Standards (IES) for professional accountants is currently an important issue in accounting education and for educators interested in a shift toward international education standards more broadly. The purpose of this study is to investigate professional and research discourse…

  13. 48 CFR 970.5232-5 - Liability with respect to cost accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cost accounting standards. 970.5232-5 Section 970.5232-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Provisions and Contract Clauses for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5232-5 Liability with respect to cost accounting standards. As prescribed in 970.3270(a)(5), insert the following clause: Liability...

  14. The Effect of International Financial Reporting Standards Convergence on U. S. Accounting Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Homer L.; Waldrup, Bobby E.; Shea, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Major changes are coming to U.S. financial accounting and accounting education as U. S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and international financial reporting standards (IFRS) converge within the next few years. In 2008, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) published a proposed "road map" for the potential…

  15. 75 FR 3509 - Public Company Accounting Oversight Board; Order Approving Proposed Rules on Auditing Standard No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... COMMISSION Public Company Accounting Oversight Board; Order Approving Proposed Rules on Auditing Standard No..., 2009, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (the ``Board'' or the ``PCAOB'') filed with the... accounting firm to ``provide a concurring or second partner review and approval of audit report (and...

  16. Setting Standards for Medically-Based Running Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Heather K.; Herman, Daniel C.; Lear-Barnes, Leslie; Barnes, Robert; Chen, Cong; Greenberg, Scott; Vincent, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Setting standards for medically based running analyses is necessary to ensure that runners receive a high-quality service from practitioners. Medical and training history, physical and functional tests, and motion analysis of running at self-selected and faster speeds are key features of a comprehensive analysis. Self-reported history and movement symmetry are critical factors that require follow-up therapy or long-term management. Pain or injury is typically the result of a functional deficit above or below the site along the kinematic chain. PMID:25014394

  17. Standard Specimen Reference Set: Pancreatic — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The primary objective of the EDRN Pancreatic Cancer Working Group Proposal is to create a reference set consisting of well-characterized serum/plasma specimens to use as a resource for the development of biomarkers for the early detection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The testing of biomarkers on the same sample set permits direct comparison among them; thereby, allowing the development of a biomarker panel that can be evaluated in a future validation study. Additionally, the establishment of an infrastructure with core data elements and standardized operating procedures for specimen collection, processing and storage, will provide the necessary preparatory platform for larger validation studies when the appropriate marker/panel for pancreatic adenocarcinoma has been identified.

  18. An Evaluation of the Application of the Cost Accounting Standards: A case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    contract reviewers over the application of Cost Accounting Standards. The company, which for the sake of anonymity will be called American Electronics...AD-A245 271 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC ELECT. JAN 29 1992 D D THESIS AN EVALUATION OF THE APPLICATION OF THE COST ACCOUNTING ... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS: A CASE STUDY (UNCLASSIFIED) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Lemler, Bruce Neil 13a TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (year

  19. Decentralized health care priority-setting in Tanzania: evaluating against the accountability for reasonableness framework.

    PubMed

    Maluka, Stephen; Kamuzora, Peter; San Sebastiån, Miguel; Byskov, Jens; Olsen, Øystein E; Shayo, Elizabeth; Ndawi, Benedict; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2010-08-01

    Priority-setting has become one of the biggest challenges faced by health decision-makers worldwide. Fairness is a key goal of priority-setting and Accountability for Reasonableness has emerged as a guiding framework for fair priority-setting. This paper describes the processes of setting health care priorities in Mbarali district, Tanzania, and evaluates the descriptions against Accountability for Reasonableness. Key informant interviews were conducted with district health managers, local government officials and other stakeholders using a semi-structured interview guide. Relevant documents were also gathered and group priority-setting in the district was observed. The results indicate that, while Tanzania has a decentralized public health care system, the reality of the district level priority-setting process was that it was not nearly as participatory as the official guidelines suggest it should have been. Priority-setting usually occurred in the context of budget cycles and the process was driven by historical allocation. Stakeholders' involvement in the process was minimal. Decisions (but not the reasoning behind them) were publicized through circulars and notice boards, but there were no formal mechanisms in place to ensure that this information reached the public. There were neither formal mechanisms for challenging decisions nor an adequate enforcement mechanism to ensure that decisions were made in a fair and equitable manner. Therefore, priority-setting in Mbarali district did not satisfy all four conditions of Accountability for Reasonableness; namely relevance, publicity, appeals and revision, and enforcement. This paper aims to make two important contributions to this problematic situation. First, it provides empirical analysis of priority-setting at the district level in the contexts of low-income countries. Second, it provides guidance to decision-makers on how to improve fairness, legitimacy, and sustainability of the priority-setting process.

  20. Achievable standard of care in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Luo, C

    2000-11-01

    The gap between rich and resource-poor countries has continued to grow as reproductive care providers integrate interventions to limit mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in a manner consistent with existing information. There are two major reasons for this difference: access to prophylactic antiretroviral therapy (ARV) for HIV-infected pregnant mothers and availability of alternative feeding for babies. In resource-poor settings, these options are beyond reach for the majority of the women. Infant and under-five mortality rates from other infections are high in these settings and breastfeeding remains the norm. Answering the question, What is an achievable standard of care in resource-poor settings? still remains a major challenge today. Dialogue has begun in most resource-poor settings to address the key elements in the package of interventions to reduce MTCT of HIV. These elements include the following: (1) overall prevention of HIV in mothers and fathers; (2) provision of good-quality voluntary testing and counseling (VCT) in antenatal clinics; (3) a comprehensive package of interventions during pregnancy, during labor, and after delivery, including screening for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), family planning, and--where possible--ARVs; (4) provision of infant and maternal nutrition within the socioeconomic realities; (5) advocacy and program communication; and (6) other supportive measures, including community mobilization to address issues such as stigmatization of and violence against HIV-infected women. This paper discusses the challenges faced by most resource-poor settings in integrating some of these activities into reproductive care services.

  1. Cost accounting models used for price-setting of health services: an international review.

    PubMed

    Raulinajtys-Grzybek, Monika

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the article was to present and compare cost accounting models which are used in the area of healthcare for pricing purposes in different countries. Cost information generated by hospitals is further used by regulatory bodies for setting or updating prices of public health services. The article presents a set of examples from different countries of the European Union, Australia and the United States and concentrates on DRG-based payment systems as they primarily use cost information for pricing. Differences between countries concern the methodology used, as well as the data collection process and the scope of the regulations on cost accounting. The article indicates that the accuracy of the calculation is only one of the factors that determine the choice of the cost accounting methodology. Important aspects are also the selection of the reference hospitals, precise and detailed regulations and the existence of complex healthcare information systems in hospitals.

  2. Calibration of the HAO standard opal filter set. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Streete, J.L.

    1989-10-01

    Solar radiation attenuators called opal filters have been used for several decades to calibrate photographic film in instruments used to measure the brightness of the solar corona. The primary component used in fabricating these filters is opal glass. New measurements of the transmittance of the HAO fundamental standard set of opal filters were begun in September, 1988. Since nearly two decades had passed from the time of the last calibration measurements, there was concern that the transmittance of the filters might have changed. Another motivation for recalibrating the opal filters was the desire to know the transmittance values in spectral regions above and below those used in 1970. The spectral regions chosen were 450 nm, 550 nm, 650 nm and 800 nm. Comparisons of transmittance are made with the previous values, and new transmittance values are given.

  3. Setting and Reviewing Standards to Control Ozone Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ozone standards are part of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), which limit air pollution to protect health and the environment. Standards are periodically reviewed and updated, and air quality across the U.S. is measured against them.

  4. 48 CFR 52.230-5 - Cost Accounting Standards-Educational Institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... final agreement on price as shown on the subcontractor's signed Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards... Clauses 52.230-5 Cost Accounting Standards—Educational Institution. As prescribed in 30.201-4(e),...

  5. The Impact of International Financial Reporting Standards on Accounting Curriculum in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yallapragada, RamMohan R.; Toma, Alfred G.; Roe, C. William

    2011-01-01

    According to the time line presently specified by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), business firms in the United States (US) should switch from the existing US accounting reporting guidelines of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by the year 2014. The US business…

  6. The Impact of Additional Quality Standards upon Future Accounting Faculty and the Accreditation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinstein, Alan; Schroeder, Richard G.

    1986-01-01

    Reports on the results of a four-stage research project that was designed to (1) analyze the academic and professional qualifications of accounting faculties; (2) assess the impact of the new interpretation of the research capability standard on accounting programs; and (3) determine the degree of compliance with the professional certification…

  7. 75 FR 3236 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... and the provision at 52.230-5 include pertinent rules and regulations related to the Cost Accounting... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration AGENCIES: Department of...-0129). SUMMARY: Under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35),...

  8. 78 FR 13675 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... accounting practice change, the total potential impact of the change on contracts containing a CAS provision... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration AGENCY: Department of Defense...: Under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act, the Regulatory Secretariat will be submitting...

  9. 25 CFR 543.23 - What are the minimum internal control standards for audit and accounting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and accounting? 543.23 Section 543.23 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.23 What are the... SICS, the gaming operation should review, and consider incorporating, other external standards such...

  10. 25 CFR 543.23 - What are the minimum internal control standards for audit and accounting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and accounting? 543.23 Section 543.23 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.23 What are the... SICS, the gaming operation should review, and consider incorporating, other external standards such...

  11. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  12. Adopting Cut Scores: Post-Standard-Setting Panel Considerations for Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisinger, Kurt F.; McCormick, Carina M.

    2010-01-01

    Standard-setting studies utilizing procedures such as the Bookmark or Angoff methods are just one component of the complete standard-setting process. Decision makers ultimately must determine what they believe to be the most appropriate standard or cut score to use, employing the input of the standard-setting panelists as one piece of information…

  13. A Study of the Impact of the Lack of a Cost Accounting Standards Board.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    California 00 ,: SE P 9 7 THESIS SE& A STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF THE LACK OF A COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD by James F. Sumner, III June 1987 Thesis...O’ATON COSA1. CODES 16 SuB,*CT j’J.45 Comr~nue n- p.ono ol neeeterV ani denltiy by flO(k f1LrmbCr) E,) ROUP StA IRucost accounting , cost accounting ...standards, CostJ GR~uP Accounting Standards Board, Procurement, Pensions 3 48srR Cont’lut o revrs ’CV𔃻 Motur anCC d de~ntilv by booch nuP"OterJ -This

  14. 7 CFR 28.107 - Original cotton standards and reserve sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Original cotton standards and reserve sets. 28.107... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.107 Original cotton standards and reserve sets....

  15. 7 CFR 28.107 - Original cotton standards and reserve sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original cotton standards and reserve sets. 28.107... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.107 Original cotton standards and reserve sets....

  16. 7 CFR 28.107 - Original cotton standards and reserve sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Original cotton standards and reserve sets. 28.107... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.107 Original cotton standards and reserve sets....

  17. 7 CFR 28.107 - Original cotton standards and reserve sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Original cotton standards and reserve sets. 28.107... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.107 Original cotton standards and reserve sets....

  18. 7 CFR 28.107 - Original cotton standards and reserve sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Original cotton standards and reserve sets. 28.107... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.107 Original cotton standards and reserve sets....

  19. Cost accounting methodologies in price setting of acute inpatient services in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Gaal, Peter; Stefka, Nóra; Nagy, Júlia

    2006-08-01

    On the basis of documentary analysis and interviews with decision makers, this paper discusses the cost accounting methodologies used for price setting of inpatient services in the Hungarian health care system focusing on sector of acute inpatient care, which is financed through the Hungarian adaptation of Diagnosis Related Groups since 1993. Hungary has a quite sophisticated DRG system, which had a deep impact on the efficiency of the acute inpatient care sector. Nevertheless, the system requires continuous maintenance, where the cooperation of hospitals, as well as the minimisation of political influence are critical success factors.

  20. What Is Essential in Standard Setting and Construct Maps? Commentary on Adam E. Wyse's "Construct Maps as a Foundation for Standard Setting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, E. Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In this article, E. Matthew Schulz responds to Adam Wyse's article, "Construct Maps as a Foundation for Standard Setting." In doing so, he asserts that one of the most important ideas in Wyse's work is that information used in standard setting needs to be better represented through the use of graphics. However, he's not…

  1. Teacher-Prep Accreditor Appoints Panel to Set Performance Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    An external panel that includes several prominent critics of teacher education has been tapped to craft the performance standards for the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP), the new organization's leaders announced last week. Among the standards under consideration: how programs ensure that candidates know their content;…

  2. ISO 9001:2000--setting the standard for quality management.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, M E

    2001-04-01

    How will you approach the next quality management initiative? This article offers an introduction to the ISO 9001:2000 quality management system standards that can be applied to the HIM industry and how these standards can improve your department's policies and procedures.

  3. Setting a New Standard with a Common Career Technical Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folkers, Dean R.

    2011-01-01

    The pursuit of common educational expectations, or standards, among the states has long been a conversation met with strong opinions--for and against. However, it seems clear that high standards and consistency are both critical characteristics to have in educational programs. The task to achieve such is certainly not expected to be easy. Using…

  4. Standard Specimen Reference Set: Breast — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The primary objective of this study is to assemble a well-characterized set of blood specimens to test biomarkers that, in conjunction with mammography, can detect and discriminate breast cancer. These samples will be divided to provide “sets” of specimens that can be tested in a number of different laboratories. Since tests will be performed on the same sets of samples, the data will be directly comparable and decisions regarding which biomarker or set of biomarkers have value in breast cancer detection can be made. These sets will reside at a National Cancer Institute facility at Frederick, MD.

  5. Comparison of Web-Based and Face-to-Face Standard Setting Using the Angoff Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Irvin R.; Tannenbaum, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Web-based standard setting holds promise for reducing the travel and logistical inconveniences of traditional, face-to-face standard setting meetings. However, because there are few published reports of setting standards via remote meeting technology, little is known about the practical potential of the approach, including technical feasibility of…

  6. Science and Art of Setting Performance Standards and Cutoff Scores in Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Weimo

    2013-01-01

    Setting standards and cutoff scores is essential to any measurement and evaluation practice. Two evaluation frameworks, norm-referenced (NR) and criterion-referenced (CR), have often been used for setting standards. Although setting fitness standards based on the NR evaluation is relatively easy as long as a nationally representative sample can be…

  7. Standard Setting to an International Reference Framework: Implications for Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Gad S.; Geranpayeh, Ardeshir; Khalifa, Hanan; Buckendahl, Chad W.

    2013-01-01

    Standard setting theory has largely developed with reference to a typical situation, determining a level or levels of performance for one exam for one context. However, standard setting is now being used with international reference frameworks, where some parameters and assumptions of classical standard setting do not hold. We consider the…

  8. A Type-Theoretic Account of Standard ML 1996 (Version 1).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-10

    A Type-Theoretic Account of Standard ML 1996 (Version 1) Chris Stone Robert Harper May 10, 1996 CMU-CS-96-136 School of Computer Science Carnegie...Conjectures 84 2 1 Overview This document consists of a type-theoretic account of a variant of Stan- dard ML (Revised 1996). The approach taken here is to...The handling of references and exceptions is similar to Harper’s account of polymorphic references [Har93]. We expect this to be much more amenable

  9. The Issue of Range Restriction in Bookmark Standard Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.

    2015-01-01

    This article uses data from a large-scale assessment program to illustrate the potential issue of range restriction with the Bookmark method in the context of trying to set cut scores to closely align with a set of college and career readiness benchmarks. Analyses indicated that range restriction issues existed across different response…

  10. 76 FR 32933 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... of Nutrition and Health Claims. Mandatory Nutrition Labeling. Guidelines for the Production... on Certain Mushrooms. Proposed draft Codex Standard for Canned Bamboo Shoots. The Committee continues... risk. In this process, work undertaken in this field at national, regional, and international...

  11. Standards Set for Quality Programs in Vocational Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Harold R.

    1977-01-01

    Reports the progress of a project which completed a model designed to validate categories of standards for quality agricultural/agribusiness education. The development of the model and its implementation and dissemination procedures are described. (BM)

  12. Responding to Colleagues: Setting Standards in Multiple-Section Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyasere, Marla Mudar

    1984-01-01

    Demand for college composition courses has made it necessary to adopt departmental standards to ensure fairness to students and to faculty. This fairness doctrine promises that certain minimum requirements are being established and are being met. (MLW)

  13. Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A.; Frazier, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    As a vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international treaty establishing ballast water discharge standards based on the number of viable organisms per volume of ballast discharge for different organism size classes. Concerns that the IMO standards are not sufficiently protective have initiated several state and national efforts in the United States to develop more stringent standards. We evaluated seven approaches to establishing discharge standards for the >50-μm size class: (1) expert opinion/management consensus, (2) zero detectable living organisms, (3) natural invasion rates, (4) reaction–diffusion models, (5) population viability analysis (PVA) models, (6) per capita invasion probabilities (PCIP), and (7) experimental studies. Because of the difficulty in synthesizing scientific knowledge in an unbiased and transparent fashion, we recommend the use of quantitative models instead of expert opinion. The actual organism concentration associated with a “zero detectable organisms” standard is defined by the statistical rigor of its monitoring program; thus it is not clear whether such a standard is as stringent as other standards. For several reasons, the natural invasion rate, reaction–diffusion, and experimental approaches are not considered suitable for generating discharge standards. PVA models can be used to predict the likelihood of establishment of introduced species but are limited by a lack of population vital rates for species characteristic of ballast water discharges. Until such rates become available, PVA models are better suited to evaluate relative efficiency of proposed standards rather than predicting probabilities of invasion. The PCIP approach, which is based on historical invasion rates at a regional scale, appears to circumvent many of the indicated problems

  14. Historicizing and Contextualizing Global Policy Discourses: Test- and Standards-Based Accountabilities in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This paper in commenting on the contributions to this special number demonstrates the necessity of historicizing and contextualizing the rise of test- and standards-based modes of accountability in contemporary education policy globally. Both are imperative for understanding specific national manifestations of what has become a globalized…

  15. 76 FR 70037 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... / Thursday, November 10, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET 5 CFR Chapter III 48 CFR Chapter 1 Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda of Federal Activities; Withdrawal AGENCY: Office of...

  16. 78 FR 40665 - Cost Accounting Standards: CAS 413 Pension Adjustments for Extraordinary Events

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... Adjustments for Extraordinary Events AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board, Office of Federal Procurement... Staff Discussion Paper (SDP) on CAS 413 Pension Adjustments for Extraordinary Events. This is the first... extraordinary events'' in the subject line. To ensure seating due to space constraints, potential attendees...

  17. 75 FR 9493 - Commission Statement in Support of Convergence and Global Accounting Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... Accepted Accounting Principles (``U.S. GAAP'') and International Financial Reporting Standards (``IFRS... incorporating IFRS into the financial reporting system for U.S. issuers. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Eloise.... As a step toward this goal, we continue to encourage the convergence of U.S. GAAP and IFRS and...

  18. The Rules of Engagement: Examining the Limits of Standards and Accountability Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easley, Jacob, II.

    2013-01-01

    Standards and accountability policies are central elements of school reform agendas aimed at equalizing students' access to quality education and closing the achievement gap. Yet, such policies have failed to yield the expected, large scale results. One explanation may be found in the embedded zones of wishful thinking. Two particular zones of…

  19. 48 CFR 9904.409 - Cost accounting standard-depreciation of tangible capital assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-depreciation of tangible capital assets. 9904.409 Section 9904.409 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST...—depreciation of tangible capital assets....

  20. The Social Organization of School Counseling in the Era of Standards-Based Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Alexander C.

    2011-01-01

    The reform policies of standards-based accountability, as outlined in NCLB, impede the functioning of school counseling programs and the delivery of services to students. Although recent studies have focused on the transformation of the school counseling profession, a gap exists in the literature with regard to how the experiences of school…

  1. Variation in assessment and standard setting practices across UK undergraduate medicine and the need for a benchmark

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The principal aim of this study is to provide an account of variation in UK undergraduate medical assessment styles and corresponding standard setting approaches with a view to highlighting the importance of a UK national licensing exam in recognizing a common standard. Methods Using a secure online survey system, response data were collected during the period 13 - 30 January 2014 from selected specialists in medical education assessment, who served as representatives for their respective medical schools. Results Assessment styles and corresponding choices of standard setting methods vary markedly across UK medical schools. While there is considerable consensus on the application of compensatory approaches, individual schools display their own nuances through use of hybrid assessment and standard setting styles, uptake of less popular standard setting techniques and divided views on norm referencing. Conclusions The extent of variation in assessment and standard setting practices across UK medical schools validates the concern that there is a lack of evidence that UK medical students achieve a common standard on graduation. A national licensing exam is therefore a viable option for benchmarking the performance of all UK undergraduate medical students. PMID:26520472

  2. 78 FR 37505 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... for Hydrocyanic Acid for Cassava Flour and Gari (transfer from commodity standards to the General... Edible Cassava Flour, Gari and Sweet Cassava To be considered at Step 5/8: Proposed draft Maximum Levels... and Barley), including Sampling Plans, and in Flour, Semolina, Meal and Flakes Derived from...

  3. Global vision systems regulatory and standard setting activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiana, Carlo; Münsterer, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    A number of committees globally, and the Regulatory Agencies they support, are active delivering and updating performance standards for vision system: Enhanced, Synthetic and Combined, as they apply to both Fixed Wing and, more recently, Rotorcraft operations in low visibility. We provide an overview of each committee's present and past work, as well as an update of recent activities and future goals.

  4. Setting the Standard: Role Definition for a Secondary Literacy Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMeglio, Rachele A.; Mangin, Melinda M.

    2010-01-01

    This case introduces Karen, a middle school literacy coach attempting to navigate the myriad tasks she performs. As she aims to satisfy everyone's needs Karen struggles to prioritize and focus her work. The accompanying teaching notes utilize the International Reading Association's "Standards for Middle and High School Literacy Coaches" to…

  5. Quality specifications and standard-setting for stoma care patients.

    PubMed

    Primer, M A

    1995-12-01

    Quality specifications can be used as an information resource by purchasers of health care. The nature of service provision and nursing care can be positively influenced by the formalisation of standards and quality specifications. Auditing is essential in the ongoing evaluation of a quality system.

  6. A Comparison of Approaches for Setting Proficiency Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffler, Stephen L.

    This research compared the cut-off scores estimated from an empirical procedure (Contrasting group method) to those determined from a more theoretical process (Nedelsky method). A methodological and statistical framework was also provided for analysis of the data to obtain the most appropriate standard using the empirical procedure. Data were…

  7. Setting Academic Performance Standards: MCAS vs. PARCC. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    The Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) high school test is administered to all Bay State students--both those intending to enroll in college and the many with no such intention. The MCAS high school test is a retrospectively focused standards-based achievement test, designed to measure how well students have mastered the material…

  8. 76 FR 40908 - Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards 41, Deferral of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards 41, Deferral of the Effective Date of SFFAS 38, Accounting for Federal Oil and Gas Resources, and Issuance...

  9. 48 CFR 9905.502 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by educational institutions. 9905.502 Section... PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.502 Cost accounting standard—consistency in...

  10. 48 CFR 9905.501 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by educational institutions. 9905.501 Section 9905... PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.501 Cost accounting standard—consistency in...

  11. Peculiarities of the Application of Income Tax Standards by the Subsidiary Company in the Russian Accounting Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ermakova, Natalya A.; Gudshatullaeva, Elena M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the application practice of accounting regulation provision of subsidiary company "Accounting of settlements on income tax" (AR 18/02) and correlation of methodology of formed indicators with standards of International Accounting Standards (IAS) 12 "Income taxes" at formation of the…

  12. ASTM standard only sets minimum site assessment criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Lehnertz, P. ); Lipscomb, R. )

    1993-08-01

    No environmental legislation has created more anxiety about environmental liability than the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). By applying such concepts as strict, joint and several liability, the statute greatly magnifies the potential legal and financial risks associated with participation in a hazardous waste site. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM; Philadelphia) in June 1992 drafted ASTM 50.02, a working document titled Subcommittee on environmental assessments for commercial real estate.'' The society's membership approved the document in April. Considering ASTM's record of establishing industry standards in a variety of areas, the document may become the de facto standard for environmental assessments. As such, it would represent the minimum effort required to establish exercise of due diligence in assessing property before purchase.

  13. Setting a protective PM standard: A view from the frontline

    SciTech Connect

    John Paul; Eddie Terrill

    2006-06-15

    Several aspects of the US EPA's recent proposal to revise the particulate matter (PM) standards deeply concern state and local air agencies and their representatives with the State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators and the Association of Local Air Pollution Control Offices (STAPPA and ALAPCO). STAPPA and ALAPCO urge EPA to follow the recommendations of its appointed scientific experts and lower the annual average standard to 13 or 14 {mu}mg/m{sup 3} in addition to lowering the daily standard to 35 {mu}m/m{sup 3}. Unless EPA strengthens its proposal consistent with the recommendations of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC), STAPPA and ALAPCO are extremely concerned that we will continue to see significant increased premature mortality and adverse health effects throughout the country. For the reasons described in the article STAPPA and ALAPCO urge EPA to eliminate the exemptions for agriculture, mining and rural windblown dust. STAPPA and ALAPCO are troubled that EPA has ignored any commitment to funding the proposed coarse PM network scheduled for deployment in Fiscal Year (FY) 2008. EPA has estimated that the capital costs of this monitoring network could easily exceed US$ 14 million, with annual operating expenses of approximately US$ 13 million. State and local agencies will simply not be able to assume these significant costs. 33 refs.

  14. 76 FR 28036 - Request for Comments and Announcement of Workshop on Standard-Setting Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... patent rights during the standard- setting process, the implications of a patent holder's commitment to... consumers and the legal, academic, and business communities on the issues to be explored in this project. As... standard setting when standards incorporate technologies that are protected by intellectual property...

  15. Optimal tooth numbers for compact standard spur gear sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Coy, J. J.; Townsend, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    The design of a standard gear mesh is treated with the objective of minimizing the gear size for a given ratio, pinion torque, and allowable tooth strength. Scoring, pitting fatigue, bending fatigue, and the kinematic limits of contact ratio and interference are considered. A design space is defined in terms of the number of teeth on the pinion and the diametral pitch. This space is then combined with the objective function of minimum center distance to obtain an optimal design region. This region defines the number of pinion teeth for the most compact design. The number is a function of the gear ratio only. A design example illustrating this procedure is also given.

  16. A Standardized Reference Data Set for Vertebrate Taxon Name Resolution.

    PubMed

    Zermoglio, Paula F; Guralnick, Robert P; Wieczorek, John R

    2016-01-01

    Taxonomic names associated with digitized biocollections labels have flooded into repositories such as GBIF, iDigBio and VertNet. The names on these labels are often misspelled, out of date, or present other problems, as they were often captured only once during accessioning of specimens, or have a history of label changes without clear provenance. Before records are reliably usable in research, it is critical that these issues be addressed. However, still missing is an assessment of the scope of the problem, the effort needed to solve it, and a way to improve effectiveness of tools developed to aid the process. We present a carefully human-vetted analysis of 1000 verbatim scientific names taken at random from those published via the data aggregator VertNet, providing the first rigorously reviewed, reference validation data set. In addition to characterizing formatting problems, human vetting focused on detecting misspelling, synonymy, and the incorrect use of Darwin Core. Our results reveal a sobering view of the challenge ahead, as less than 47% of name strings were found to be currently valid. More optimistically, nearly 97% of name combinations could be resolved to a currently valid name, suggesting that computer-aided approaches may provide feasible means to improve digitized content. Finally, we associated names back to biocollections records and fit logistic models to test potential drivers of issues. A set of candidate variables (geographic region, year collected, higher-level clade, and the institutional digitally accessible data volume) and their 2-way interactions all predict the probability of records having taxon name issues, based on model selection approaches. We strongly encourage further experiments to use this reference data set as a means to compare automated or computer-aided taxon name tools for their ability to resolve and improve the existing wealth of legacy data.

  17. 48 CFR 9905.501 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by educational institutions. 9905.501 Section 9905... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.501 Cost accounting standard—consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by educational institutions....

  18. 48 CFR 9905.502 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by educational institutions. 9905.502 Section... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.502 Cost accounting standard—consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by educational institutions....

  19. 48 CFR 9905.502 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by educational institutions. 9905.502 Section... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.502 Cost accounting standard—consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by educational institutions....

  20. 48 CFR 9905.501 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by educational institutions. 9905.501 Section 9905... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.501 Cost accounting standard—consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by educational institutions....

  1. 48 CFR 9905.501 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by educational institutions. 9905.501 Section 9905... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.501 Cost accounting standard—consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by educational institutions....

  2. Standardised Radon Index: a normalisation of radon data-sets in terms of standard normal variables.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, Robin; Holt, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence which indicates that radon emissions from rocks, soils and groundater can provide a diagnostic tool for some geophysical phenomena, e.g. tidal deformations and earthquakes. In this context, it is often informative to compare two radon data-sets, e.g. variations in radon concentrations in different locations. However, this can be complicated, e.g. by the use of different detectors, radon concentrations being orders of magnitude different or different non-linear responses of radon emissions to common or similar stimuli. Some of these factors can be taken into account by moving-averages and other de-noising techniques and normalisation of data sets to, e.g. unit mean. However, such techniques do not address different non-linearities. We propose a Standardised Radon Index (SRI), an adaptation of Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) methodologies under development at the University of Northampton to radon-data. SPIs were first proposed by McKee et al. in 1993, and can be summarised as a normalisation of precipitation data in terms of standard normal random variables. In effect, variations in the data are presented in terms of probabilities thereby revealing periods of relative drought or anti-drought and the same SPI in different data-sets represents the same relative drought/anti-drought across different precipitation regimes. In the case of radon, this normalisation in terms of standard normal variables allows variations in different data-sets to be compared in terms of probability of occurrence: if two different non-linear radon responses to some stimulus are equally probable, this is revealed directly by the SRIs. This facilitates some types of analysis and comparison, and initial results will be presented.

  3. Setting risk-informed environmental standards for Bacillus anthracis spores.

    PubMed

    Hong, Tao; Gurian, Patrick L; Ward, Nicholas F Dudley

    2010-10-01

    In many cases, human health risk from biological agents is associated with aerosol exposures. Because air concentrations decline rapidly after a release, it may be necessary to use concentrations found in other environmental media to infer future or past aerosol exposures. This article presents an approach for linking environmental concentrations of Bacillus. anthracis (B. anthracis) spores on walls, floors, ventilation system filters, and in human nasal passages with human health risk from exposure to B. anthracis spores. This approach is then used to calculate example values of risk-informed concentration standards for both retrospective risk mitigation (e.g., prophylactic antibiotics) and prospective risk mitigation (e.g., environmental clean up and reoccupancy). A large number of assumptions are required to calculate these values, and the resulting values have large uncertainties associated with them. The values calculated here suggest that documenting compliance with risks in the range of 10(-4) to 10(-6) would be challenging for small diameter (respirable) spore particles. For less stringent risk targets and for releases of larger diameter particles (which are less respirable and hence less hazardous), environmental sampling would be more promising.

  4. The role of Health Impact Assessment in the setting of air quality standards: An Australian perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Harris, Patrick

    2013-11-15

    The approaches used for setting or reviewing air quality standards vary from country to country. The purpose of this research was to consider the potential to improve decision-making through integration of HIA into the processes to review and set air quality standards used in Australia. To assess the value of HIA in this policy process, its strengths and weaknesses were evaluated aligned with review of international processes for setting air quality standards. Air quality standard setting programmes elsewhere have either used HIA or have amalgamated and incorporated factors normally found within HIA frameworks. They clearly demonstrate the value of a formalised HIA process for setting air quality standards in Australia. The following elements should be taken into consideration when using HIA in standard setting. (a) The adequacy of a mainly technical approach in current standard setting procedures to consider social determinants of health. (b) The importance of risk assessment criteria and information within the HIA process. The assessment of risk should consider equity, the distribution of variations in air quality in different locations and the potential impacts on health. (c) The uncertainties in extrapolating evidence from one population to another or to subpopulations, especially the more vulnerable, due to differing environmental factors and population variables. (d) The significance of communication with all potential stakeholders on issues associated with the management of air quality. In Australia there is also an opportunity for HIA to be used in conjunction with the NEPM to develop local air quality standard measures. The outcomes of this research indicated that the use of HIA for air quality standard setting at the national and local levels would prove advantageous. -- Highlights: • Health Impact Assessment framework has been applied to a policy development process. • HIA process was evaluated for application in air quality standard setting.

  5. Lining up: The Relationship between the Common Core State Standards and Five Sets of Comparison Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David T.; Drummond, Kathryn V.; de Gonzalez, Alicia; Seburn, Mary; Stout, Odile; Rooseboom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    In June 2010, the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices (NGA Center) and the Council of Chief State School Offices (CCSSO) released the Common Core State Standards. The stated aim of the Common Core standards is to define the knowledge and skills students should achieve in order to graduate from high school ready to succeed in a…

  6. Standards Setting and Federal Information Policy: The Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gegner, Karen E.; Veeder, Stacy B.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the standards process used for developing the Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES) and its possible impact on national communication and information policies. Discusses the balance between national security and law enforcement concerns versus privacy rights and economic competitiveness in the area of foreign trade and export controls. (67…

  7. Comparing Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark Standard Setting Methods in the Context of English Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Mingchuan

    2013-01-01

    The Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark method for setting standards on educational assessment are currently two of the most popular standard-setting methods. However, there is no research into the comparability of these two methods in the context of language assessment. This study compared results from the Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark methods as applied to…

  8. Diagnostic Profiles: A Standard Setting Method for Use with a Cognitive Diagnostic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaggs, Gary; Hein, Serge F.; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the Diagnostic Profiles (DP) standard setting method for setting a performance standard on a test developed from a cognitive diagnostic model (CDM), the outcome of which is a profile of mastered and not-mastered skills or attributes rather than a single test score. In the DP method, the key judgment task for panelists is a…

  9. 42 CFR 431.610 - Relations with standard-setting and survey agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relations with standard-setting and survey agencies. 431.610 Section 431.610 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... ADMINISTRATION Relations With Other Agencies § 431.610 Relations with standard-setting and survey agencies....

  10. 42 CFR 431.610 - Relations with standard-setting and survey agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relations with standard-setting and survey agencies. 431.610 Section 431.610 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... ADMINISTRATION Relations With Other Agencies § 431.610 Relations with standard-setting and survey agencies....

  11. Effect of Content Knowledge on Angoff-Style Standard Setting Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Melissa J.; Mee, Janet; Clauser, Brian E.; Winward, Marcia; Clauser, Jerome C.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence to support the credibility of standard setting procedures is a critical part of the validity argument for decisions made based on tests that are used for classification. One area in which there has been limited empirical study is the impact of standard setting judge selection on the resulting cut score. One important issue related to…

  12. How Good Is Good Enough? Educational Standard Setting and Its Effect on African American Test Takers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caines, Jade; Engelhard, George, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Standard setting (the process of establishing minimum passing scores on high-stakes exams) is a highly evaluative and policy-driven process. It is a common belief that standard setting panels should be diverse and representative. There is concern, however, that panelists with varying characteristics may differentially influence the results of the…

  13. Radio Astronomers Set New Standard for Accurate Cosmic Distance Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    estimate of the age of the universe. In order to do this, you need an unambiguous, absolute distance to another galaxy. We are pleased that the NSF's VLBA has for the first time determined such a distance, and thus provided the calibration standard astronomers have always sought in their quest for accurate distances beyond the Milky Way," said Morris Aizenman, Executive Officer of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Division of Astronomical Sciences. "For astronomers, this measurement is the golden meter stick in the glass case," Aizenman added. The international team of astronomers used the VLBA to measure directly the motion of gas orbiting what is generally agreed to be a supermassive black hole at the heart of NGC 4258. The orbiting gas forms a warped disk, nearly two light-years in diameter, surrounding the black hole. The gas in the disk includes water vapor, which, in parts of the disk, acts as a natural amplifier of microwave radio emission. The regions that amplify radio emission are called masers, and work in a manner similar to the way a laser amplifies light emission. Determining the distance to NGC 4258 required measuring motions of extremely small shifts in position of these masers as they rotate around the black hole. This is equivalent to measuring an angle one ten-thousandth the width of a human hair held at arm's length. "The VLBA is the only instrument in the world that could do this," said Moran. "This work is the culmination of a 20-year effort at the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics to measure distances to cosmic masers," said Irwin Shapiro, Director of that institution. Collection of the data for the NGC 4258 project was begun in 1994 and was part of Herrnstein's Ph.D dissertation at Harvard University. Previous observations with the VLBA allowed the scientists to measure the speed at which the gas is orbiting the black hole, some 39 million times more massive than the Sun. They did this by observing the amount of change in the

  14. 48 CFR 9904.402 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose. 9904.402 Section 9904.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF...

  15. 48 CFR 9904.402 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose. 9904.402 Section 9904.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF...

  16. 48 CFR 9904.402 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose. 9904.402 Section 9904.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF...

  17. 48 CFR 9904.402 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose. 9904.402 Section 9904.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF...

  18. Deciding Who Decides Questions at the Intersection of School Finance Reform Litigation and Standards-Based Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Superfine, Benjamin Michael

    2009-01-01

    Courts hearing school finance reform cases have recently begun to consider several issues related to standards-based accountability policies. This convergence of school finance reform litigation and standards-based accountability policies represents a chance for the courts to reallocate decision-making authority for each type of reform across the…

  19. Speech-language caseloads in the schools: a workload analysis approach to setting caseload standards.

    PubMed

    Cirrin, Frank; Bird, Ann; Biehl, Larry; Disney, Sally; Estomin, Ellen; Rudebusch, Judy; Schraeder, Trici; Whitmire, Kathleen

    2003-08-01

    This article highlights key concepts of the recently revised policy documents of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association on workload and caseload size for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in schools. A major premise is that the total workload activities required and performed by school-based SLPs must be taken into account to set appropriate and reasonable caseload standards. Current policies and practices used to define caseloads appear to be inadequate to ensure caseloads that allow enough time for the provision of quality services. In this article we describe school-based SLPs' workload, including the expanded roles and responsibilities that are mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and other legislation. We consider the available research on the effects of large caseloads on the service options chosen by SLPs, treatment outcomes for students, and SLP attrition and burnout. Finally, we present an approach for analyzing a SLP's total workload activities, along with a discussion of how that analysis can be used to help determine caseload standards consistent with meeting the intent of IDEA and the needs of students with disabilities.

  20. Improving district level health planning and priority setting in Tanzania through implementing accountability for reasonableness framework: Perceptions of stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2006, researchers and decision-makers launched a five-year project - Response to Accountable Priority Setting for Trust in Health Systems (REACT) - to improve planning and priority-setting through implementing the Accountability for Reasonableness framework in Mbarali District, Tanzania. The objective of this paper is to explore the acceptability of Accountability for Reasonableness from the perspectives of the Council Health Management Team, local government officials, health workforce and members of user boards and committees. Methods Individual interviews were carried out with different categories of actors and stakeholders in the district. The interview guide consisted of a series of questions, asking respondents to describe their perceptions regarding each condition of the Accountability for Reasonableness framework in terms of priority setting. Interviews were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Documentary data were used to support, verify and highlight the key issues that emerged. Results Almost all stakeholders viewed Accountability for Reasonableness as an important and feasible approach for improving priority-setting and health service delivery in their context. However, a few aspects of Accountability for Reasonableness were seen as too difficult to implement given the socio-political conditions and traditions in Tanzania. Respondents mentioned: budget ceilings and guidelines, low level of public awareness, unreliable and untimely funding, as well as the limited capacity of the district to generate local resources as the major contextual factors that hampered the full implementation of the framework in their context. Conclusion This study was one of the first assessments of the applicability of Accountability for Reasonableness in health care priority-setting in Tanzania. The analysis, overall, suggests that the Accountability for Reasonableness framework could be an important tool for improving priority-setting processes in the

  1. Evidence-Based Standard Setting: Establishing a Validity Framework for Cut Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClarty, Katie Larsen; Way, Walter D.; Porter, Andrew C.; Beimers, Jennifer N.; Miles, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Performance standards are a powerful way to communicate K-12 student achievement (e.g., proficiency) and are the cornerstone of standards-based reform. As education reform shifts the focus to college and career readiness, approaches for setting performance standards need to be revised. We argue that the focus on assessing student readiness can…

  2. AICPA standard aids in detecting risk factors for fraud. American Institute of Certified Public Accountants.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, A; Dery, R J

    1999-10-01

    The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants' Statement on Auditing Standards (SAS) No. 82, Consideration of Fraud in a Financial Statement Audit, requires independent auditors to obtain reasonable assurance that financial statements are free of material mis-statements caused by error or fraud. SAS No. 82 provides guidance for independent auditors to use to help detect and document risk factors related to potential fraud. But while SAS No. 82 suggests how auditors should assess the potential for fraud, it does not expand their detection responsibility. Accordingly, financial managers should discuss thoroughly with auditors the scope and focus of an audit as a means to further their compliance efforts.

  3. CLAIM (CLinical Accounting InforMation)--an XML-based data exchange standard for connecting electronic medical record systems to patient accounting systems.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinqiu; Takada, Akira; Tanaka, Koji; Sato, Junzo; Suzuki, Muneou; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Daimon, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Nakashima, Yusei; Araki, Kenji; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2005-08-01

    With the evolving and diverse electronic medical record (EMR) systems, there appears to be an ever greater need to link EMR systems and patient accounting systems with a standardized data exchange format. To this end, the CLinical Accounting InforMation (CLAIM) data exchange standard was developed. CLAIM is subordinate to the Medical Markup Language (MML) standard, which allows the exchange of medical data among different medical institutions. CLAIM uses eXtensible Markup Language (XML) as a meta-language. The current version, 2.1, inherited the basic structure of MML 2.x and contains two modules including information related to registration, appointment, procedure and charging. CLAIM 2.1 was implemented successfully in Japan in 2001. Consequently, it was confirmed that CLAIM could be used as an effective data exchange format between EMR systems and patient accounting systems.

  4. Using the Many-Facet Rasch Model to Evaluate Standard-Setting Judgments: Setting Performance Standards for Advanced Placement® Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaliski, Pamela; Wind, Stefanie A.; Engelhard, George, Jr.; Morgan, Deanna; Plake, Barbara; Reshetar, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    The Many-Facet Rasch (MFR) Model is traditionally used to evaluate the quality of ratings on constructed response assessments; however, it can also be used to evaluate the quality of judgments from panel-based standard setting procedures. The current study illustrates the use of the MFR Model by examining the quality of ratings obtained from a…

  5. Patient Core Data Set. Standard for a longitudinal health/medical record.

    PubMed

    Renner, A L; Swart, J C

    1997-01-01

    Blue Chip Computers Company, in collaboration with Wright State University-Miami Valley College of Nursing and Health, with support from the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service, completed Small Business innovative Research research to design a comprehensive integrated Patient information System. The Wright State University consultants undertook the development of a Patient Core Data Set (PCDS) in response to the lack of uniform standards of minimum data sets, and lack of standards in data transfer for continuity of care. The purpose of the Patient Core Data Set is to develop a longitudinal patient health record and medical history using a common set of standard data elements with uniform definitions and coding consistent with Health Level 7 (HL7) protocol and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. The PCDS, intended for transfer across all patient-care settings, is essential information for clinicians, administrators, researchers, and health policy makers.

  6. Setting and Reviewing Standards to Control Carbon Monoxide (CO) Pollution in Outdoor Air

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA sets National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for CO to protect public health and to protect public welfare. The Clean Air Act also requires EPA to periodically review and revise them if appropriate.

  7. Districts Weigh Benefits and Drawbacks of Setting Up Student E-Mail Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Some school districts hoping to improve communication and student engagement in learning are taking a step many educators still view warily: providing students with their own e-mail accounts. However, making e-mail a regular part of students' school lives raises a host of concerns about inappropriate use. In addition, many teachers doubt that the…

  8. Criterion-Referenced Standard-Setting in Certification and Licensure: Defining the Minimally Competent Candidate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Alexandria S.; Holmes, Susan E.

    Discrepancies among the standards produced by different criterion-referenced standard-setting techniques may be the result of a failure to adequately define the minimally competent candidate. Current research in this area is reviewed in terms of three categories: studies in which no formal assistance in conceptualization is given to judges,…

  9. An Examination of the Replicability of Angoff Standard Setting Results within a Generalizability Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clauser, Jerome C.; Margolis, Melissa J.; Clauser, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of stable standard setting results over panels or occasions is an important part of the validity argument for an established cut score. Unfortunately, due to the high cost of convening multiple panels of content experts, standards often are based on the recommendation from a single panel of judges. This approach implicitly assumes that…

  10. Comparing Panelists' Understanding of Standard Setting across Multiple Levels of an Alternate Science Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Mary A.; Lyon, Steven R.; Heh, Peter; Zigmond, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale assessment programs, including alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS), must provide evidence of technical quality and validity. This study provides information about the technical quality of one AA-AAS by evaluating the standard setting for the science component. The assessment was designed to have…

  11. Setting Standards for English Foreign Language Assessment: Methodology, Validation, and a Degree of Arbitrariness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffin-Richards, Simon P.; Pant, Hans Anand; Koller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Cut-scores were set by expert judges on assessments of reading and listening comprehension of English as a foreign language (EFL), using the bookmark standard-setting method to differentiate proficiency levels defined by the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR). Assessments contained stratified item samples drawn from extensive item…

  12. National Set of Hydrogen Codes and Standards for the US (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkin, C. H.

    2009-09-16

    The US has a national set of codes and standards that address the use of hydrogen technologies. These documents are published by several organizations and are not all directly adopted by government authorities. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has acted as the central organizing group to identify these documents and present them as a coherent and integrated set of requirements.

  13. Results of Iterative Standards-Setting Procedures for a Performance-Based System for Renewable Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofton, Glenda G.; And Others

    This report presents the results of an initial, iterative performance standards-setting (SS) task of a comprehensive on-the-job statewide teacher assessment system--the System for Teaching and Learning Assessment and Review (STAR). The 1990-91 STAR assesses and makes inferences about the quality of teaching and learning on sets of assessment…

  14. Mind the Gap: Accounting Information Systems Curricula Development in Compliance with IFAC Standards in a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleqab, Mahmoud Mohmad Ahmad; Nurunnabi, Mohammad; Adel, Dalia

    2015-01-01

    The authors examine the consistency between the current practices in designing and teaching accounting information systems (AIS) curricula and the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) requirements for International Education Practice Statement 2 and International Education Standards 2. Utilizing a survey and interviews data in Jordan,…

  15. 25 CFR 543.14 - What are the minimum internal control standards for patron deposit accounts and cashless systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... patron deposit accounts and cashless systems? 543.14 Section 543.14 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING...) The patron must appear at the gaming operation in person, at a designated area of accountability,...

  16. 25 CFR 543.14 - What are the minimum internal control standards for patron deposit accounts and cashless systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... patron deposit accounts and cashless systems? 543.14 Section 543.14 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING...) The patron must appear at the gaming operation in person, at a designated area of accountability,...

  17. Ensuring Accountability for All Children in an Era of Standards-Based Reform: Alternate Achievement Standards. Policy Symposium Proceedings (Arlington, VA, February 4-6, 2004).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Policy Reform Research Institute, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Educational Policy Reform Research Institute (EPRRI) and the US Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) held a policy symposium entitled "Ensuring Accountability for All Children in an Era of Standards-Based Reform: Alternate Achievement Standards" February 4-6, 2004 at the Crystal City Marriott in Arlington,…

  18. RANKED SET SAMPLING FOR ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH: ACCOUNTING FOR THE TOTAL COSTS OF SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers aim to design environmental studies that optimize precision and allow for generalization of results, while keeping the costs of associated field and laboratory work at a reasonable level. Ranked set sampling is one method to potentially increase precision and reduce ...

  19. Negotiating Dual Accountability Systems: Strategic Responses of Big Picture Schools to State-Mandated Standards and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchman, Sara P.

    2012-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 mandated that states implement standards and test-based accountability systems. In theory, local educators are free to select the means for teaching the standards so long as students achieve a predetermined proficiency level on the exams. What is unclear, however, is how this theory plays out in schools…

  20. Standards-Based Accountability under No Child Left Behind: Experiences of Teachers and Administrators in Three States. MG-589-NSF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Marsh, Julie A.; McCombs, Jennifer Sloan; Robyn, Abby; Russell, Jennifer; Naftel, Scott; Barney, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Since 2001-2002, standards-based accountability (SBA) provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) have shaped the work of public school teachers and administrators in the United States. NCLB requires each state to develop content and achievement standards in several subjects, administer tests to measure students' progress toward…

  1. Starworld: Preparing Accountants for the Future: A Case-Based Approach to Teach International Financial Reporting Standards Using ERP Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragan, Joseph M.; Savino, Christopher J.; Parashac, Paul; Hosler, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    International Financial Reporting Standards now constitute an important part of educating young professional accountants. This paper looks at a case based process to teach International Financial Reporting Standards using integrated Enterprise Resource Planning software. The case contained within the paper can be used within a variety of courses…

  2. Production of a filtered and standardized surface flux data set for FIFE 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiser, Mark D.; Sellers, Piers J.

    1995-12-01

    A filtered and standardized surface heat flux data set, which includes net radiation (Rn), latent heat flux (λE), sensible heat flux (H), and ground heat flux (G), was produced from an analysis of field measurements taken by a network of 16 Bowen ratio and 6 eddy correlation instruments deployed during the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment in 1987 (FIFE 1987). The objective was to produce time series of flux data that could be used for studies involving surface-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) models operating in the inverse mode (see Sellers et al. 1992b). To be useful for this work, erroneous flux data had to be identified and systematic instrument-related differences between the net radiation values reported by flux stations had to be accounted for. The following procedures were carried out on the original data sets as contributed by individual FIFE scientists: (1) A flag (IDATA) was assigned to unreliable flux data as defined by the presence of anomalies ("spikes") in the sensible and latent heat flux time series, discontinuities generated when the temperature and humidity profiles crossed over at dawn and dusk, and data points isolated by the erasure of neighboring unreliable data. In addition, Bowen ratio data were also considered to be unreliable whenever the surface energy budget was reported as nonzero (Rn + λE + H + G ≠ 0). (2) A simple procedure was used to adjust the net radiation values reported by two of the Bowen ratio stations to appear as if they were using the same type of net radiometer as most of the other Bowen ratio stations deployed in FIFE 1987. Corresponding changes were made to the associated sensible and latent heat fluxes for these two stations; the ground heat fluxes were left unchanged. At one eddy correlation site (site 26), the sensible and latent heat fluxes were suspected to be systematically underestimated; these were proportionately increased to match the site net

  3. Benchmarks of improved complete basis set extrapolation schemes designed for standard CCSD(T) atomization energies.

    PubMed

    Feller, David

    2013-02-21

    Simple modifications of complete basis set extrapolation formulas chosen from the literature are examined with respect to their abilities to reproduce a diverse set of 183 reference atomization energies derived primarily from very large basis set standard, frozen core coupled-cluster singles, doubles plus perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) with the aug-cc-pVnZ basis sets. This reference set was augmented with a few larger chemical systems treated with explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12b using a quadruple zeta quality basis set followed by extrapolation to complete basis set limit. Tuning the extrapolation formula parameters for the present reference set resulted in substantial reductions in the error metrics. In the case of the best performing approach, the aVnZ extrapolated results are equivalent to or better than results obtained from raw aV(n + 3)Z basis set calculations. To the extent this behavior holds for molecules outside the reference set, it represents an improvement of at least one basis set level over the original formulations and a further significant reduction in the amount of computer time needed to accurately approximate the basis set limit.

  4. Can standards be set for reliable measurements of thermal contact conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snaith, B.; Ocallaghan, P. W.; Probert, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Problems encountered in the search for accurate experimental contact conductance measurements are reviewed. The factors examined include specimen geometry and physical details, apparatus design, temperature measurement procedures, test schedules, experimental errors, and the comprehensiveness of reporting. It is pointed out that a lack of set standards has led to an unsatisfactory state of the art despite the large amount of experimental research accomplished. Recommendations on how to overcome the problems discussed are presented together with an outline of a standard test procedure.

  5. Development and evaluation of a set of group delay standards. [deep space tracking station calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Beatty, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A set of cable assemblies serving as group delay standards having nominal delays of 15, 30, and 60 nsec are described. Various types of measurements were performed on the cable standards, including impedance, microwave phase shift, RF pulse burst delay, modulation pulsed delay, and envelope phase shift measurements. The results of these tests are given, and various sources of error are discussed, in particular, dispersion and internal reflections.

  6. Developing Archive Information Packages for Data Sets: Early Experiments with Digital Library Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerr, R. E.; Yang, M.; Gooyabadi, M.; Lee, C.

    2008-12-01

    The key to interoperability between systems is often metadata, yet metadata standards in the digital library and data center communities have evolved separately. In the data center world NASA's Directory Interchange Format (DIF), the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM), and most recently the international Geographic Information: Metadata (ISO 19115:2003) are used for descriptive metadata at the data set level to allow catalog interoperability; but use of anything other than repository- based metadata standards for the individual files that comprise a data set is rare, making true interoperability, at the data rather than data set level, across archives difficult. While the Open Archival Information Systems (OAIS) Reference Model with its call for creating Archive Information Packages (AIP) containing not just descriptive metadata but also preservation metadata is slowly being adopted in the community, the PREservation Metadata Implementation Strategies (PREMIS) standard, the only extant OAIS- compliant preservation metadata standard, has scarcely even been recognized as being applicable to the community. The digital library community in the meantime has converged upon the Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS) for interoperability between systems as evidenced by support for the standard by digital library systems such as Fedora and Greenstone. METS is designed to allow inclusion of other XML-based standards as descriptive and administrative metadata components. A recent Stanford study suggests that a combination of METS with included FGDC and PREMIS metadata could work well for individual granules of a data set. However, some of the lessons learned by the data center community over the last 30+ years of dealing with digital data are 1) that data sets as a whole need to be preserved and described and 2) that discovery and access mechanisms need to be hierarchical. Only once a user has reviewed a data set description and determined

  7. Set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmerge, D.; Francis, O.

    2006-01-01

    The set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008 were assessed at the Walferdange Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics (WULG) in Luxembourg. Analysis of the data indicates that the instrument performed within the specifications of the manufacturer. For A10-008, the average set standard deviation was (1.6 0.6) ??Gal (1Gal ??? 1 cm s -2), the average repeatability was (2.9 1.5) ??Gal, and the average offset compared to absolute gravimeter FG5-216 was (3.2 3.5) ??Gal. ?? 2006 BIPM and IOP Publishing Ltd.

  8. How States Can Hold Schools Accountable: The Strong Schools Model of Standards-Based Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sarah R.

    Few states have overcome the political and practical obstacles to implementing a clear, feasible, comprehensive accountability system. The University of Washington's Center on Reinventing Public Education reviewed experiences from state accountability efforts. Workable accountability systems focus on results, clarify goals and roles, and…

  9. Evaluation of the Standard Setting on the 2005 Grade 12 National Assessment of Educational Progress Mathematics Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Hauger, Jeffrey B.; Wells, Craig S.; Shea, Christine; Zenisky, April L.

    2009-01-01

    The National Assessment Governing Board used a new method to set achievement level standards on the 2005 Grade 12 NAEP Math test. In this article, we summarize our independent evaluation of the process used to set these standards. The evaluation data included observations of the standard-setting meeting, observations of advisory committee meetings…

  10. Critical Factors to Consider in Evaluating Standard-Setting Studies to Map Language Test Scores to Frameworks of Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Cho, Yeonsuk

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we consolidate and present in one place what is known about quality indicators for setting standards so that stakeholders may be able to recognize the signs of standard-setting quality. We use the context of setting standards to associate English language test scores with language proficiency descriptions such as those presented…

  11. Accounting for baryonic effects in cosmic shear tomography: determining a minimal set of nuisance parameters using PCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eifler, Tim; Krause, Elisabeth; Dodelson, Scott; Zentner, Andrew R.; Hearin, Andrew P.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2015-12-01

    Systematic uncertainties that have been subdominant in past large-scale structure (LSS) surveys are likely to exceed statistical uncertainties of current and future LSS data sets, potentially limiting the extraction of cosmological information. Here we present a general framework (Principal Component Analysis - PCA - marginalization) to consistently incorporate systematic effects into a likelihood analysis. This technique naturally accounts for degeneracies between nuisance parameters and can substantially reduce the dimension of the parameter space that needs to be sampled. As a practical application, we apply PCA marginalization to account for baryonic physics as an uncertainty in cosmic shear tomography. Specifically, we use COSMOLIKE to run simulated likelihood analyses on three independent sets of numerical simulations, each covering a wide range of baryonic scenarios differing in cooling, star formation, and feedback mechanisms. We simulate a Stage III (Dark Energy Survey) and Stage IV (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope/Euclid) survey and find a substantial bias in cosmological constraints if baryonic physics is not accounted for. We then show that PCA marginalization (employing at most three to four nuisance parameters) removes this bias. Our study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain robust, precise constraints on the dark energy equation of state even in the presence of large levels of systematic uncertainty in astrophysical processes. We conclude that the PCA marginalization technique is a powerful, general tool for addressing many of the challenges facing the precision cosmology programme.

  12. Accounting for baryonic effects in cosmic shear tomography: Determining a minimal set of nuisance parameters using PCA

    SciTech Connect

    Eifler, Tim; Krause, Elisabeth; Dodelson, Scott; Zentner, Andrew; Hearin, Andrew; Gnedin, Nickolay

    2014-05-28

    Systematic uncertainties that have been subdominant in past large-scale structure (LSS) surveys are likely to exceed statistical uncertainties of current and future LSS data sets, potentially limiting the extraction of cosmological information. Here we present a general framework (PCA marginalization) to consistently incorporate systematic effects into a likelihood analysis. This technique naturally accounts for degeneracies between nuisance parameters and can substantially reduce the dimension of the parameter space that needs to be sampled. As a practical application, we apply PCA marginalization to account for baryonic physics as an uncertainty in cosmic shear tomography. Specifically, we use CosmoLike to run simulated likelihood analyses on three independent sets of numerical simulations, each covering a wide range of baryonic scenarios differing in cooling, star formation, and feedback mechanisms. We simulate a Stage III (Dark Energy Survey) and Stage IV (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope/Euclid) survey and find a substantial bias in cosmological constraints if baryonic physics is not accounted for. We then show that PCA marginalization (employing at most 3 to 4 nuisance parameters) removes this bias. Our study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain robust, precise constraints on the dark energy equation of state even in the presence of large levels of systematic uncertainty in astrophysical processes. We conclude that the PCA marginalization technique is a powerful, general tool for addressing many of the challenges facing the precision cosmology program.

  13. Standard Setting in Specific-Purpose Language Testing: What Can a Qualitative Study Add?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manias, Elizabeth; McNamara, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the views of nursing and medical domain experts in considering the standards for a specific-purpose English language screening test, the Occupational English Test (OET), for professional registration for immigrant health professionals. Since individuals who score performances in the test setting are often language experts…

  14. The Collegiate Learning Assessment: Setting Standards for Performance at a College or University. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardison, Chaitra M.; Vilamovska, Anna-Marie

    2009-01-01

    The Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) is a measure of how much students' critical thinking improves after attending college or university. This report illustrates how institutions can set their own standards on the CLA using a method that is appropriate for the CLA's unique characteristics. The authors examined evidence of reliability and…

  15. How many standard area diagram sets are needed for accurate disease severity assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard area diagram sets (SADs) are widely used in plant pathology: a rater estimates disease severity by comparing an unknown sample to actual severities in the SADs and interpolates an estimate as accurately as possible (although some SADs have been developed for categorizing disease too). Most ...

  16. Setting and Maintaining GCSE and GCE Grading Standards: The Case for Contextualised Cohort-Referencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Neil Simon

    2012-01-01

    General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) and General Certificate of Education (GCE) grading standards are determined by Awarding Bodies using procedures that adhere to the Code of Practice published by the regulator, Ofqual. Grade boundary marks (cut scores) are set using subject experts' (senior examiners) judgement of the quality of…

  17. Re-Conceptualization of Modified Angoff Standard Setting: Unified Statistical, Measurement, Cognitive, and Social Psychological Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyioke, Ifeoma Chika

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes a design for training, in accordance with probability judgment heuristics principles, for the Angoff standard setting method. The new training with instruction, practice, and feedback tailored to the probability judgment heuristics principles was called the Heuristic training and the prevailing Angoff method training…

  18. The Use of Subsets of Test Questions in an Angoff Standard Setting Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdous, Abdullah; Plake, Barbara

    In the Angoff standard setting procedure, subject matter experts (SMEs) estimate the probability that a hypothetical randomly selected minimally competent candidate will answer correctly each item comprising the test. In many cases, these item performance estimates are made twice, with information shared with SMEs between estimates. This…

  19. 78 FR 1826 - International Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standard-Setting Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... the risks associated with fungi moving on wood commodities; and directed a TAG to report advances on... International Plant Protection Convention, and the North American Plant Protection Organization, and we are... specific information regarding the standard-setting activities of the International Plant...

  20. Examining Rounding Rules in Angoff-Type Standard-Setting Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Reckase, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how different rounding rules and ways of providing Angoff standard-setting judgments affect cut-scores. A simulation design based on data from the National Assessment of Education Progress was used to investigate how rounding judgments to the nearest whole number (e.g., 0, 1, 2, etc.), nearest 0.05, or nearest two decimal…

  1. 45 CFR 205.190 - Standard-setting authority for institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...(AABD) of the Social Security Act includes aid or assistance to individuals in institutions as defined... individual's personal affairs. (3) Provide for cooperative arrangements with the standard-setting authority... discharge the responsibilities of the State agency under this section, including such costs for staff:...

  2. Setting Standards for Complex Performances: An Iterative, Judgmental Policy-Capturing Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    A newly developed performance standard-setting procedure, termed iterative judgmental policy capturing (JPC), is applicable to assessments composed of distinct multidimensional exercises. The procedure is described, and results are reported from the application of JPC in a study involving a panel of 20 teachers and 6 performance exercises. (SLD)

  3. Combining the Best of Two Standard Setting Methods: The Ordered Item Booklet Angoff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Russell W.; Davis-Becker, Susan L.; O'Leary, Lisa S.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a hybrid standard setting method that combines characteristics of the Angoff (1971) and Bookmark (Mitzel, Lewis, Patz & Green, 2001) methods. The proposed approach utilizes strengths of each method while addressing weaknesses. An ordered item booklet, with items sorted based on item difficulty, is used in combination…

  4. Standardized network order sets in rural Ontario: a follow-up report on successes and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Rawn, Andrea; Wilson, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    Unifying, implementing and sustaining a large order set project requires strategic placement of key organizational professionals to provide ongoing user education, communication and support. This article will outline the successful strategies implemented by the Grey Bruce Health Network, Evidence-Based Care Program to reduce length of stay, increase patient satisfaction and increase the use of best practices resulting in quality outcomes, safer practice and better allocation of resources by using standardized Order Sets within a network of 11 hospital sites. Audits conducted in 2007 and again in 2008 revealed a reduced length of stay of 0.96 in-patient days when order sets were used on admission and readmission for the same or a related diagnosis within one month decreased from 5.5% without order sets to 3.5% with order sets.

  5. Average recovery time from a standardized intravenous sedation protocol and standardized discharge criteria in the general dental practice setting.

    PubMed Central

    Lepere, A. J.; Slack-Smith, L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Intravenous sedation has been used in dentistry for many years because of its perceived advantages over general anesthesia, including shorter recovery times. However, there is limited literature available on recovery from intravenous dental sedation, particularly in the private general practice setting. The aim of this study was to describe the recovery times when sedation was conducted in private dental practice and to consider this in relation to age, weight, procedure type, and procedure time. The data were extracted from the intravenous sedation records available with 1 general anesthesia-trained dental practitioner who provides ambulatory sedation services to a number of private general dental practices in the Perth, Western Australia Metropolitan Area. Standardized intravenous sedation techniques as well as clear standardized discharge criteria were utilized. The sedatives used were fentanyl, midazolam, and propofol. Results from 85 patients produced an average recovery time of 19 minutes. Recovery time was not associated with the type or length of dental procedures performed. PMID:15384295

  6. A standard bacterial isolate set for research on contemporary dairy spoilage.

    PubMed

    Trmčić, A; Martin, N H; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M

    2015-08-01

    Food spoilage is an ongoing issue that could be dealt with more efficiently if some standardization and unification was introduced in this field of research. For example, research and development efforts to understand and reduce food spoilage can greatly be enhanced through availability and use of standardized isolate sets. To address this critical issue, we have assembled a standard isolate set of dairy spoilers and other selected nonpathogenic organisms frequently associated with dairy products. This publicly available bacterial set consists of (1) 35 gram-positive isolates including 9 Bacillus and 15 Paenibacillus isolates and (2) 16 gram-negative isolates including 4 Pseudomonas and 8 coliform isolates. The set includes isolates obtained from samples of pasteurized milk (n=43), pasteurized chocolate milk (n=1), raw milk (n=1), cheese (n=2), as well as isolates obtained from samples obtained from dairy-powder production (n=4). Analysis of growth characteristics in skim milk broth identified 16 gram-positive and 13 gram-negative isolates as psychrotolerant. Additional phenotypic characterization of isolates included testing for activity of β-galactosidase and lipolytic and proteolytic enzymes. All groups of isolates included in the isolate set exhibited diversity in growth and enzyme activity. Source data for all isolates in this isolate set are publicly available in the FoodMicrobeTracker database (http://www.foodmicrobetracker.com), which allows for continuous updating of information and advancement of knowledge on dairy-spoilage representatives included in this isolate set. This isolate set along with publicly available isolate data provide a unique resource that will help advance knowledge of dairy-spoilage organisms as well as aid industry in development and validation of new control strategies.

  7. Validation for 2D/3D registration I: A new gold standard data set

    SciTech Connect

    Pawiro, S. A.; Markelj, P.; Pernus, F.; Gendrin, C.; Figl, M.; Weber, C.; Kainberger, F.; Noebauer-Huhmann, I.; Bergmeister, H.; Stock, M.; Georg, D.; Bergmann, H.; Birkfellner, W.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: In this article, the authors propose a new gold standard data set for the validation of two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) and 3D/3D image registration algorithms. Methods: A gold standard data set was produced using a fresh cadaver pig head with attached fiducial markers. The authors used several imaging modalities common in diagnostic imaging or radiotherapy, which include 64-slice computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging using Tl, T2, and proton density sequences, and cone beam CT imaging data. Radiographic data were acquired using kilovoltage and megavoltage imaging techniques. The image information reflects both anatomy and reliable fiducial marker information and improves over existing data sets by the level of anatomical detail, image data quality, and soft-tissue content. The markers on the 3D and 2D image data were segmented using ANALYZE 10.0 (AnalyzeDirect, Inc., Kansas City, KN) and an in-house software. Results: The projection distance errors and the expected target registration errors over all the image data sets were found to be less than 2.71 and 1.88 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The gold standard data set, obtained with state-of-the-art imaging technology, has the potential to improve the validation of 2D/3D and 3D/3D registration algorithms for image guided therapy.

  8. The Nursing Minimum Data Set: abstraction tool for standardized, comparable, essential data.

    PubMed Central

    Werley, H H; Devine, E C; Zorn, C R; Ryan, P; Westra, B L

    1991-01-01

    The Nursing Minimum Data Set (NMDS) represents the first attempt to standardize the collection of essential nursing data. These minimum core data, used on a regular basis by the majority of nurses in the delivery of care across settings, can provide an accurate description of nursing diagnoses, nursing care, and nursing resources used. Collected on an ongoing basis, a standardized nursing data base will enable nurses to compare data across populations, settings, geographic areas, and time. Public health nurses will be able to evaluate and compare services. The purpose of this article is to discuss briefly the following aspects of the NMDS: background including definition, purposes, and elements; availability and reliability of the data; benefits; implications of the NMDS with emphasis on nursing research; and health policy decision making. PMID:2003618

  9. A standard operating protocol (SOP) and minimum data set (MDS) for nursing and medical handover: considerations for flexible standardization in developing electronic tools.

    PubMed

    Turner, Paul; Wong, Ming Chao; Yee, Kwang Chien

    2009-01-01

    As part of Australia's participation in the World Health Organization, the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC) is the leading federal government technical agency involved in the area of clinical handover improvement. The ACSQHC has funded a range of handover improvement projects in Australia including one at the Royal Hobart Hospital (RHH), Tasmania. The RHH project aims to investigate the potential for generalizable and transferable clinical handover solutions throughout the medical and nursing disciplines. More specifically, this project produced an over-arching minimum data set (MDS) and over-arching standardized operating protocol (SOP) based on research work on nursing and medical shift-to-shift clinical handover in general medicine, general surgery and emergency medicine. The over-arching MDS consists of five headings: situational awareness, patient identification, history and information, responsibility and tasks and accountability. The over-arching SOP has five phases: preparation; design; implementation; evaluation; and maintenance. This paper provides an overview of the project and the approach taken. It considers the implications of these standardized operating protocols and minimum data sets for developing electronic clinical handover support tools. Significantly, the paper highlights a human-centred design approach that actively involves medical and nursing staff in data collection, analysis, interpretation, and systems design. This approach reveals the dangers of info-centrism when considering electronic tools, as information emerges as the only factor amongst many others that influence the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical handover.

  10. Factors Influencing Adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Accounting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alzeban, Abdulaziz

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the challenges faced by accounting educators in their attempts to incorporate IFRS materials in their teaching and explores the impact of various factors (instructor's attitude, size of accounting department, teaching load, type of institution, teaching experience and teaching materials) on the time spent on…

  11. Words Correct per Minute: The Variance in Standardized Reading Scores Accounted for by Reading Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jacqueline L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Floyd, Randy G.; Hale, Andrea D.; Neddenriep, Christine; Kirk, Emily P.

    2011-01-01

    The measure words correct per minute (WC/M) incorporates a measure of accurate aloud word reading and a measure of reading speed. The current article describes two studies designed to parse the variance in global reading scores accounted for by reading speed. In Study I, reading speed accounted for more than 40% of the reading composite score…

  12. 48 CFR 52.230-5 - Cost Accounting Standards-Educational Institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Educational Institution. 52.230-5 Section 52.230-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.230-5 Cost Accounting Standards—Educational Institution. As prescribed in 30.201-4(e), insert the following clause: Cost Accounting Standards—Educational Institution (MAY 2012) (a) Unless...

  13. 48 CFR 52.230-5 - Cost Accounting Standards-Educational Institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Educational Institution. 52.230-5 Section 52.230-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.230-5 Cost Accounting Standards—Educational Institution. As prescribed in 30.201-4(e), insert the following clause: Cost Accounting Standards—Educational Institution (MAY 2014) (a) Unless...

  14. 48 CFR 52.230-5 - Cost Accounting Standards-Educational Institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Educational Institution. 52.230-5 Section 52.230-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.230-5 Cost Accounting Standards—Educational Institution. As prescribed in 30.201-4(e), insert the following clause: Cost Accounting Standards—Educational Institution (OCT 2010) (a) Unless...

  15. 48 CFR 52.230-5 - Cost Accounting Standards-Educational Institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Educational Institution. 52.230-5 Section 52.230-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.230-5 Cost Accounting Standards—Educational Institution. As prescribed in 30.201-4(e), insert the following clause: Cost Accounting Standards—Educational Institution (MAY 2012) (a) Unless...

  16. Setting a Minimum Standard of Care in Clinical Trials: Human Rights and Bioethics as Complementary Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Marouf, Fatma E; Esplin, Bryn S

    2015-06-11

    For the past few decades, there has been intense debate in bioethics about the standard of care that should be provided in clinical trials conducted in developing countries. Some interpret the Declaration of Helsinki to mean that control groups should receive the best intervention available worldwide, while others interpret this and other international guidelines to mean the best local standard of care. Questions of justice are particularly relevant where limited resources mean that the local standard of care is no care at all. Introducing human rights law into this complex and longstanding debate adds a new and important perspective. Through non-derogable rights, including the core obligations of the right to health, human rights law can help set a minimum standard of care.

  17. 25 CFR 542.19 - What are the minimum internal control standards for accounting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the deduction. (e) Each gaming operation shall establish internal control systems sufficient to ensure... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.19 What are the minimum internal control standards...

  18. 25 CFR 542.19 - What are the minimum internal control standards for accounting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the deduction. (e) Each gaming operation shall establish internal control systems sufficient to ensure... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.19 What are the minimum internal control standards...

  19. Providing a Helping Hand. Special Report on Standards, Assessment, Accountability, and Interventions. Report #3, Spring 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duttweiler, Patricia Cloud, Ed.

    This series of special reports argues that states must use their newly established, more rigorous standards to (1) provide teachers with the skills and knowledge required to teach to the higher academic standards and (2) provide students with additional opportunities to learn and to achieve the higher standards. This report presents a number of…

  20. The Effects of Project Based Learning on 21st Century Skills and No Child Left Behind Accountability Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Lisa Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine ways "Digital Biographies," a Project Based Learning Unit, developed 21st century skills while simultaneously supporting NCLB accountability standards. The main goal of this study was to inform professional practice by exploring ways to address two separate, seemingly opposing, demands of…

  1. Race to the Top Leaves Children and Future Citizens behind: The Devastating Effects of Centralization, Standardization, and High Stakes Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onosko, Joe

    2011-01-01

    President Barack Obama's Race to the Top (RTT) is a profoundly flawed educational reform plan that increases standardization, centralization, and test-based accountability in our nation's schools. Following a brief summary of the interest groups supporting the plan, who is currently participating in this race, why so many states voluntarily…

  2. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.9 What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system... digits to accommodate the design of the game. (3) Accounting data displayed to the player may be... audit, configuration, recall and test modes; or (ii) Temporarily, during entertaining displays of...

  3. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.9 What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system... digits to accommodate the design of the game. (3) Accounting data displayed to the player may be... audit, configuration, recall and test modes; or (ii) Temporarily, during entertaining displays of...

  4. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.9 What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system... digits to accommodate the design of the game. (3) Accounting data displayed to the player may be... audit, configuration, recall and test modes; or (ii) Temporarily, during entertaining displays of...

  5. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - RDX Standard Data Set 2

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Preston, Daniel N.; Pollard, Colin J.; Warner, Kirstin F.; Sorensen, Daniel N.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Phillips, Jason J.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; Hsu, Peter C.; Reynolds, John G.

    2013-02-20

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of the RDX Type II Class 5 standard, from testing the second time in the Proficiency Test. This RDX testing (Set 2) compared to the first (Set 1) was found to have about the same impact sensitivity, have more BAM friction sensitivity, less ABL friction sensitivity, similar ESD sensitivity, and same DSC sensitivity.

  6. An Analysis of Proposed Changes to Incentivize Facilities Capital Investment through Cost Accounting Standard 409.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Force Institute of Technology, WPAFB, OH II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAMIE AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT OATS September 1982 Department of Commnication and...Exchange Commission’s (SEC) focus was on the financial condition of the corporation as a whole. Neither the SEC nor the IRS were concerned with reporting...Private corporations recognized the need for internal cost center accounting or managerial accounting. Nothing existed to fill the govern- ment’s special

  7. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program — RDX Standard Data Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Preston, Daniel N.; Pollard, Colin J.; Warner, Kirstin F.; Sorensen, Daniel N.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Phillips, Jason J.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; Hsu, Peter C.; Reynolds, John G.

    2013-03-04

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of the RDX Type II Class 5 standard, for a third and fourth time in the Proficiency Test and averaged with the analysis results from the first and second time. The results, from averaging all four sets (1, 2, 3 and 4) of data suggest a material to have slightly more impact sensitivity, more BAM friction sensitivity, less ABL friction sensitivity, similar ESD sensitivity, and same DSC sensitivity, compared to the results from Set 1, which was used previously as the values for the RDX standard in IDCA Analysis Reports.

  8. Determining Optimum C-Field Settings that Minimize Output Frequency Variations in Cesium Atomic Frequency Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    current setting is probably on the order of parts in lo4 in our laboratory environment over the three months during which data were taken; this...hardware and long-term frequency-stability measurements. This work was supported, in part , by the U.S. Air Force Space Systems Division under Contract...Long-Term Stability in Cesium Beam Frequency Standards," IEEE Trans. Ultrasonics , Ferroelectronics, and Frequency Control UFFC-34 [6], 598-601 (Novem

  9. Signal set standardization for the aircraft-store electrical interconnection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautner, D. E.; Perkins, J. R.

    1982-11-01

    The Air Force and Navy are conducting a joint program (Aircraft Armament Interoperable Interface A2I2) to standardize interfaces between aircraft and stores. One product of this joint A2I2 program is a military standard for the Aircraft-Store Electrical Interconnection System (AEIS). This standard, released in July 1981 as MIL-STD-1760, defines the electrical interface between aircraft and stores. As mentioned in the MIL-STD-1760 foreword, the complete AEIS is comprised of electrical, logical, and physical elements. The present MIL-STD-1760 issue addresses only the electrical signal set element. This paper provides an overview on the background for the selected MIL-STD-1760 electrical signal set. Following this overview, application restrictions, application guidelines and various technical issues are discussed for each of the power, digital, high bandwidth and discrete signals of MIL-STD-1760. The discussion covers the electrical signal set characteristics presently defined in MIL-STD-1760 plus clarifications and more rigorous definitions of the electrical signal characteristics expected in a future revision to MIL-STD-1760.

  10. 75 FR 82417 - Public Company Accounting Oversight Board; Order Approving Proposed Rules on Auditing Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... supersede six of the Board's interim auditing standards, are: Auditing Standard (``AS'') No. 8, Audit Risk... Materiality in Planning and Performing an Audit; AS No. 12, Identifying and Assessing Risks of Material... risks of material misstatement in an audit. Assessing and responding to risks underlies the entire...

  11. "Collaboration technology": a case study of innovation in order set and clinical care standardization.

    PubMed

    Yount, Brian; McNamara, Timothy

    2008-11-06

    Effective standardization of clinical processes, which is a growing priority for healthcare provider organizations and networks, requires effective teamwork among clinicians and staff from multidisciplinary backgrounds--often from geographically dispersed facilities--to reach consensus on care practices. Yet, most healthcare provider organizations have no precedence or tools for managing large-scale, sustained, collaborative activities. This presentation explores the human and social implications of technology. It specifically addresses healthcare collaboration and describes how innovative collaboration management technologies can be used in the healthcare industry to accelerate care standardization, order set standardization and other initiatives necessary for successful computerized provider order entry and electronic health record deployments. These topics are explored through presentation of a survey of healthcare executives and a case study of an advanced collaboration application that was adapted and deployed in a partnership between a large healthcare provider organization and a commercial developer of document management and collaboration management technologies.

  12. Failure of Standard Training Sets in the Analysis of Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry Data.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Justin A; Rodeberg, Nathan T; Wightman, R Mark

    2016-03-16

    The use of principal component regression, a multivariate calibration method, in the analysis of in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry data allows for separation of overlapping signal contributions, permitting evaluation of the temporal dynamics of multiple neurotransmitters simultaneously. To accomplish this, the technique relies on information about current-concentration relationships across the scan-potential window gained from analysis of training sets. The ability of the constructed models to resolve analytes depends critically on the quality of these data. Recently, the use of standard training sets obtained under conditions other than those of the experimental data collection (e.g., with different electrodes, animals, or equipment) has been reported. This study evaluates the analyte resolution capabilities of models constructed using this approach from both a theoretical and experimental viewpoint. A detailed discussion of the theory of principal component regression is provided to inform this discussion. The findings demonstrate that the use of standard training sets leads to misassignment of the current-concentration relationships across the scan-potential window. This directly results in poor analyte resolution and, consequently, inaccurate quantitation, which may lead to erroneous conclusions being drawn from experimental data. Thus, it is strongly advocated that training sets be obtained under the experimental conditions to allow for accurate data analysis.

  13. Urban School Finance: Increased Standards and Accountability in Uncertain Economic Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jennifer King; Roellke, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to the funding of urban schools during uncertain economic periods. Includes the complexity of urban school reform, teacher supply and quality in urban schools, nontraditional support for urban schools, and markets and accountability in urban schools. (Contains 36 references.) (PKP)

  14. Alignment of Standards and Assessments as an Accountability Criterion. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Marca, Paul M.

    This digest provides an overview of the concept of alignment and the role it plays in assessment and accountability systems. It also discusses methodological issues affecting the study of alignment and explores the relationship between alignment and test score interpretation. Alignment refers to the degree of match between test content and subject…

  15. Social Accountability of Medical Schools: Do Accreditation Standards Help Promote the Concept?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdalla, Mohamed Elhassan

    2014-01-01

    The social accountability of medical schools is an emerging concept in medical education. This issue calls for the consideration of societal needs in all aspects of medical programmes, including the values of relevance, quality, cost-effectiveness and equity. Most importantly, these needs must be defined collaboratively with people themselves.…

  16. Progress, innovation and regulatory science in drug development: the politics of international standard-setting.

    PubMed

    Abraham, John; Reed, Tim

    2002-06-01

    This paper examines international standard-setting in the toxicology of pharmaceuticals during the 1990s, which has involved both the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory agencies in an organization known as the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The analysis shows that the relationships between innovation, regulatory science and 'progress' may be more complex and controversial than is often assumed. An assessment of the ICH's claims about the implications of 'technical' harmonization of drug-testing standards for the maintenance of drug safety, via toxicological testing, and the delivery of therapeutic progress, via innovation, is presented. By demonstrating that there is not a technoscientific validity for these claims, it is argued that, within the ICH, a discourse of technological innovation and scientific progress has been used by regulatory agencies and prominent parts of the transnational pharmaceutical industry to legitimize the lowering and loosening of toxicological standards for drug testing. The mobilization and acceptance of this discourse are shown to be pivotal to the ICH's transformation of reductions in safety standards, which are apparently against the interests of patients and public health, into supposed therapeutic benefits derived from promises of greater access to more innovative drug products. The evidence suggests that it is highly implausible that these reductions in the standards of regulatory toxicology are consistent with therapeutic progress for patients, and highlights a worrying aspect embedded in the 'technical trajectories' of regulatory science.

  17. Developing standard performance testing procedures for material control and accounting components at a site

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, Carolynn P; Bushlya, Anatoly V; Efimenko, Vladimir F; Ilyanstev, Anatoly; Regoushevsky, Victor I

    2010-01-01

    The condition of a nuclear material control and accountability system (MC&A) and its individual components, as with any system combining technical elements and documentation, may be characterized through an aggregate of values for the various parameters that determine the system's ability to perform. The MC&A system's status may be functioning effectively, marginally or not functioning based on a summary of the values of the individual parameters. This work included a review of the following subsystems, MC&A and Detecting Material Losses, and their respective elements for the material control and accountability system: (a) Elements of the MC&A Subsystem - Information subsystem (Accountancy/Inventory), Measurement subsystem, Nuclear Material Access subsystem, including tamper-indicating device (TID) program, and Automated Information-gathering subsystem; (b) Elements for Detecting Nuclear Material Loses Subsystem - Inventory Differences, Shipper/receiver Differences, Confirmatory Measurements and differences with accounting data, and TID or Seal Violations. In order to detect the absence or loss of nuclear material there must be appropriate interactions among the elements and their respective subsystems from the list above. Additionally this work includes a review of regulatory requirements for the MC&A system component characteristics and criteria that support the evaluation of the performance of the listed components. The listed components had performance testing algorithms and procedures developed that took into consideration the regulatory criteria. The developed MC&A performance-testing procedures were the basis for a Guide for MC&A Performance Testing at the material balance areas (MBAs) of State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF-IPPE).

  18. The Impact of New State Accountability Standards on Algebra I Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Kyle G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study was to determine if a new Algebra I curriculum resulted in improved student performance on the state Algebra I exam. The treatment group consisted of 383 9th grade Algebra I students who received the college-ready standards-based (CRSB) curricula. The control group consisted of 338 9th…

  19. Creating a Standard Set of Metrics to Assess Accuracy of Solar Forecasts: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banunarayanan, V.; Brockway, A.; Marquis, M.; Haupt, S. E.; Brown, B.; Fowler, T.; Jensen, T.; Hamann, H.; Lu, S.; Hodge, B.; Zhang, J.; Florita, A.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative, launched in 2011, seeks to reduce the cost of solar energy systems by 75% from 2010 to 2020. In support of the SunShot Initiative, the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is partnering with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and solar energy stakeholders to improve solar forecasting. Through a funding opportunity announcement issued in the April, 2012, DOE is funding two teams - led by National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and by IBM - to perform three key activities in order to improve solar forecasts. The teams will: (1) With DOE and NOAA's leadership and significant stakeholder input, develop a standardized set of metrics to evaluate forecast accuracy, and determine the baseline and target values for these metrics; (2) Conduct research that yields a transformational improvement in weather models and methods for forecasting solar irradiance and power; and (3) Incorporate solar forecasts into the system operations of the electric power grid, and evaluate the impact of forecast accuracy on the economics and reliability of operations using the defined, standard metrics. This paper will present preliminary results on the first activity: the development of a standardized set of metrics, baselines and target values. The results will include a proposed framework for metrics development, key categories of metrics, descriptions of each of the proposed set of specific metrics to measure forecast accuracy, feedback gathered from a range of stakeholders on the metrics, and processes to determine baselines and target values for each metric. The paper will also analyze the temporal and spatial resolutions under which these metrics would apply, and conclude with a summary of the work in progress on solar forecasting activities funded by DOE.

  20. Comparison study of judged clinical skills competence from standard setting ratings generated under different administration conditions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, William L; Boulet, John; Sandella, Jeanne

    2017-02-21

    When the safety of the public is at stake, it is particularly relevant for licensing and credentialing exam agencies to use defensible standard setting methods to categorize candidates into competence categories (e.g., pass/fail). The aim of this study was to gather evidence to support change to the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation standard setting design and administrative process. Twenty-two video recordings of candidates assessed for clinical competence were randomly selected from the 2014-2015 Humanistic domain test score distribution ranging from the highest to lowest quintile of performance. Nineteen panelists convened at the same site to receive training and practice prior to generating judgments of qualified or not qualified performance to each of the twenty videos. At the end of training, one panel remained onsite to complete their judgments and the second panel was released and given 1 week to observe the same twenty videos and complete their judgments offsite. The two one-sided test procedure established equivalence between panel group means at the 0.05 confidence level, controlling for rater errors within each panel group. From a practical cost-effective and administrative resource perspective, results from this study suggest it is possible to diverge from typical panel groups, who are sequestered the entire time onsite, to larger numbers of panelists who can make their judgments offsite with little impact on judged samples of qualified performance. Standard setting designs having panelists train together and then allowing those to provide judgments yields equivalent ratings and, ultimately, similar cut scores.

  1. A minimal standardization setting for language mapping tests: an Italian example.

    PubMed

    Rofes, Adrià; de Aguiar, Vânia; Miceli, Gabriele

    2015-07-01

    During awake surgery, picture-naming tests are administered to identify brain structures related to language function (language mapping), and to avoid iatrogenic damage. Before and after surgery, naming tests and other neuropsychological procedures aim at charting naming abilities, and at detecting which items the subject can respond to correctly. To achieve this goal, sufficiently large samples of normed and standardized stimuli must be available for preoperative and postoperative testing, and to prepare intraoperative tasks, the latter only including items named flawlessly preoperatively. To discuss design, norming and presentation of stimuli, and to describe the minimal standardization setting used to develop two sets of Italian stimuli, one for object naming and one for verb naming, respectively. The setting includes a naming study (to obtain picture-name agreement ratings), two on-line questionnaires (to acquire age-of-acquisition and imageability ratings for all test items), and the norming of other relevant language variables. The two sets of stimuli have >80 % picture-name agreement, high levels of internal consistency and reliability for imageability and age of acquisition ratings. They are normed for psycholinguistic variables known to affect lexical access and retrieval, and are validated in a clinical population. This framework can be used to increase the probability of reliably detecting language impairments before and after surgery, to prepare intraoperative tests based on sufficient knowledge of pre-surgical language abilities in each patient, and to decrease the probability of false positives during surgery. Examples of data usage are provided. Normative data can be found in the supplementary materials.

  2. The Impact of Examinee Performance Information on Judges' Cut Scores in Modified Angoff Standard-Setting Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Melissa J.; Clauser, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    This research evaluated the impact of a common modification to Angoff standard-setting exercises: the provision of examinee performance data. Data from 18 independent standard-setting panels across three different medical licensing examinations were examined to investigate whether and how the provision of performance information impacted judgments…

  3. Accounting planetary habitability using non standard conditions. Impact on the definition of Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoncini, E.; Delgado-Bonal, A.; Martin-Torres, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    Although during the 1960s, atmospheric disequilibrium has been proposed as a sign of habitability of Earth and, in general, of a planet [1, 2], no calculation has been done until now. In order to provide a first evaluation of Earth's atmospheric disequilibrium, we have developed a new formulation to account for the thermodynamic conditions of a wide range of planetary atmospheres, from terrestrial planets to icy satellites, to hot exoplanets. Using this new formulation, we estimate the departure of different planetary atmospheres from their equilibrium conditions, computing the dissipation of free energy due to all chemical processes [3]. In particular, we focus on the effect of our proposed changes on O2/CO2 chemistry (comparing Io satellite atmosphere and Earth Mesosphere), N2 (Venus, Earth and Titan) and H2O stability on terrestrial planets and exoplanets. Our results have an impact in the definition of Habitable Zone by considering appropriate physical-chemical conditions of planetary atmospheres. References [1] J. E. Lovelock, A physical basis for life detection experiments. Nature, 207, 568-570 (1965). [2] J. E. Lovelock, Thermodynamics and the recognition of alien biospheres. Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B. 189, 167 - 181 (1975). [3] Simoncini E., Delgado-Bonal A., Martin-Torres F.J., Accounting thermodynamic conditions in chemical models of planetary atmospheres. Submitted to Astrophysical Journal.

  4. Refocusing acute psychiatry, performance management, standards and accountability, a new context for mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Harnett, P J; Bowles, N; Coughlan, A

    2009-06-01

    The term 'performance management' has an aversive 'managerial' aspect, is unappealing to many public sector staff and has an 'image problem'. Perhaps as a consequence, it has failed to make a significant impact on Irish public sector workers, notably mental health nurses. In this paper, performance management is introduced and examined within an Irish healthcare context and with reference to its use in other countries. Some of the challenges faced by Irish mental health nurses and the potential benefits of working within a performance managed workplace are discussed. The paper concludes that performance management is likely to increasingly affect nurses, either as active agents or as passive recipients of a change that is thrust on them. The authors anticipate that the performance management 'image problem' will give way to recognition that this is a fundamental change which has the potential to enable health services to change. This change will bring high standards of transparency, worker involvement in decision making, an explicit value base for health services and individual teams. It provides the potential for clear practice standards and high standards of transparency as well as worker welfare in all aspects, including supporting employment and career progression.

  5. Pros and Cons of Using the Informed Basis Set to Account for Hemodynamic Response Variability with Developmental Data.

    PubMed

    Cignetti, Fabien; Salvia, Emilie; Anton, Jean-Luc; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Assaiante, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conventional analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data using the general linear model (GLM) employs a neural model convolved with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF) peaking 5 s after stimulation. Incorporation of a further basis function, namely the canonical HRF temporal derivative, accounts for delays in the hemodynamic response to neural activity. A population that may benefit from this flexible approach is children whose hemodynamic response is not yet mature. Here, we examined the effects of using the set based on the canonical HRF plus its temporal derivative on both first- and second-level GLM analyses, through simulations and using developmental data (an fMRI dataset on proprioceptive mapping in children and adults). Simulations of delayed fMRI first-level data emphasized the benefit of carrying forward to the second-level a derivative boost that combines derivative and nonderivative beta estimates. In the experimental data, second-level analysis using a paired t-test showed increased mean amplitude estimate (i.e., increased group contrast mean) in several brain regions related to proprioceptive processing when using the derivative boost compared to using only the nonderivative term. This was true especially in children. However, carrying forward to the second-level the individual derivative boosts had adverse consequences on random-effects analysis that implemented one-sample t-test, yielding increased between-subject variance, thus affecting group-level statistic. Boosted data also presented a lower level of smoothness that had implication for the detection of group average activation. Imposing soft constraints on the derivative boost by limiting the time-to-peak range of the modeled response within a specified range (i.e., 4-6 s) mitigated these issues. These findings support the notion that there are pros and cons to using the informed basis set with developmental data.

  6. Pros and Cons of Using the Informed Basis Set to Account for Hemodynamic Response Variability with Developmental Data

    PubMed Central

    Cignetti, Fabien; Salvia, Emilie; Anton, Jean-Luc; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Assaiante, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conventional analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data using the general linear model (GLM) employs a neural model convolved with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF) peaking 5 s after stimulation. Incorporation of a further basis function, namely the canonical HRF temporal derivative, accounts for delays in the hemodynamic response to neural activity. A population that may benefit from this flexible approach is children whose hemodynamic response is not yet mature. Here, we examined the effects of using the set based on the canonical HRF plus its temporal derivative on both first- and second-level GLM analyses, through simulations and using developmental data (an fMRI dataset on proprioceptive mapping in children and adults). Simulations of delayed fMRI first-level data emphasized the benefit of carrying forward to the second-level a derivative boost that combines derivative and nonderivative beta estimates. In the experimental data, second-level analysis using a paired t-test showed increased mean amplitude estimate (i.e., increased group contrast mean) in several brain regions related to proprioceptive processing when using the derivative boost compared to using only the nonderivative term. This was true especially in children. However, carrying forward to the second-level the individual derivative boosts had adverse consequences on random-effects analysis that implemented one-sample t-test, yielding increased between-subject variance, thus affecting group-level statistic. Boosted data also presented a lower level of smoothness that had implication for the detection of group average activation. Imposing soft constraints on the derivative boost by limiting the time-to-peak range of the modeled response within a specified range (i.e., 4–6 s) mitigated these issues. These findings support the notion that there are pros and cons to using the informed basis set with developmental data. PMID:27471441

  7. Use of standardized source sets for enhanced EMI classification of buried heterogeneous objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubitidze, Fridon; O'Neill, Kevin; Shamatava, Irma; Sun, Keli; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2004-09-01

    Most unexploded ordinance (UXO) are heterogeneous objects containing parts of different metals, e.g., head, body, tail and fins, copper banding, etc. Recently, low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensing, based on the EM diffusion phenomena, has shown considerable progress for the detection and discrimination of UXO. EMI responses are sensitive to the type of metal (conductivity and permeability), to the distance between the sensor and scatterer, and to the coupling effects between different parts of the object. Until now, the simple dipole models used to represent EMI response have neglected the coupling and close proximity effects seen for realistic objects. These factors can interact with the particulars of excitation and observation to produce substantially varied signature patterns for a given object. This means that a key requirement in discrimination/inversion processing is to calculate very fast but very realistic EMI responses for actual target types. This work presents a new discrimination technique based on the standardized excitation approximation (SEA). The SEA seeks to identify objects in terms of their characteristic responses to sets of well defined excitations that can be used to describe any primary (excitation) field. In the new SEA system presented here, the standardized excitations are those produced by a standardized source set (SSS), in particular, fictitious magnetic sources distributed mathematically over a surface surrounding a scatterer. Several numerical results are given to illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed new technique. Finally, the spatial distribution and frequency dependence of responding equivalent sources are analyzed to demonstrate the usefulness of SSS for target discrimination.

  8. Benchmarking the Bethe–Salpeter Formalism on a Standard Organic Molecular Set

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We perform benchmark calculations of the Bethe–Salpeter vertical excitation energies for the set of 28 molecules constituting the well-known Thiel’s set, complemented by a series of small molecules representative of the dye chemistry field. We show that Bethe–Salpeter calculations based on a molecular orbital energy spectrum obtained with non-self-consistent G0W0 calculations starting from semilocal DFT functionals dramatically underestimate the transition energies. Starting from the popular PBE0 hybrid functional significantly improves the results even though this leads to an average −0.59 eV redshift compared to reference calculations for Thiel’s set. It is shown, however, that a simple self-consistent scheme at the GW level, with an update of the quasiparticle energies, not only leads to a much better agreement with reference values, but also significantly reduces the impact of the starting DFT functional. On average, the Bethe–Salpeter scheme based on self-consistent GW calculations comes close to the best time-dependent DFT calculations with the PBE0 functional with a 0.98 correlation coefficient and a 0.18 (0.25) eV mean absolute deviation compared to TD-PBE0 (theoretical best estimates) with a tendency to be red-shifted. We also observe that TD-DFT and the standard adiabatic Bethe–Salpeter implementation may differ significantly for states implying a large multiple excitation character. PMID:26207104

  9. 77 FR 4698 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure and Energy Conservation Standard for Set-Top Boxes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Set-Top Boxes and Network Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... development of test procedures and energy conservation standards for set-top boxes and network equipment. The... relating to set-top boxes and network equipment ] published on December 16, 2011 (76 FR 78174) is...

  10. 48 CFR 9904.414 - Cost accounting standard-cost of money as an element of the cost of facilities capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-cost of money as an element of the cost of facilities capital. 9904.414 Section 9904.414 Federal... STANDARDS 9904.414 Cost accounting standard—cost of money as an element of the cost of facilities capital....

  11. Generating a comprehensive set of standard operating procedures for a biorepository network-The CTRNet experience.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Rebecca; Albert, Monique; Damaraju, Sambasivarao; de Sousa-Hitzler, Jean; Kodeeswaran, Sugy; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Watson, Peter; Schacter, Brent

    2013-12-01

    Despite the integral role of biorepositories in fueling translational research and the advancement of medicine, there are significant gaps in harmonization of biobanking practices, resulting in variable biospecimen collection, storage, and processing. This significantly impacts accurate downstream analysis and, in particular, creates a problem for biorepository networks or consortia. The Canadian Tumour Repository Network (CTRNet; www.ctrnet.ca ) is a consortium of Canadian tumor biorepositories that aims to enhance biobanking capacity and quality through standardization. To minimize the issue of variable biobanking practices throughout its network, CTRNet has developed and maintained a comprehensive set of 45 standard operating procedures (SOPs). There were four key elements to the CTRNet SOP development process: 1) an SOP development team was formed from members across CTRNet to co-produce each SOP; 2) a principal author was appointed with responsibility for overall coordination of the SOP development process; 3) the CTRNet Management Committee (composed of principal investigators for each member biorepository) reviewed/revised each SOP completed by the development team; and 4) external expert reviewers provided feedback and recommendations on each SOP. Once final Management Committee approval was obtained, the ratified SOP was published on the CTRNet website for public access. Since the SOPs were first published on the CTRNet website (June 2008), there have been approximately 15,000 downloads of one or more CTRNet SOPs/Policies by users from over 60 countries. In accordance with biobanking best practices, CTRNet performs an exhaustive review of its SOPs at set intervals, to coincide with each granting cycle. The last revision was completed in May 2012.

  12. Animal production food safety: priority pathogens for standard setting by the World Organisation for Animal Health.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Mylrea, G E; Kahn, S

    2010-12-01

    In this short study, expert opinion and a literature review were used to identify the pathogens that should be prioritised by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for the development of future standards for animal production food safety. Prioritisation was based on a pathogen's impact on human health and amenability to control using on-farm measures. As the OIE mandate includes alleviation of global poverty, the study focused on developing countries and those with 'in-transition' economies. The regions considered were Eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, Africa and South America. Salmonella (from species other than poultry) and pathogenic Escherichia coli were considered to be top priorities. Brucella spp., Echinococcus granulosus and Staphylococcus aureus were also mentioned by experts. As Salmonella, and to a lesser extent pathogenic E. coli, can be controlled by on-farm measures, these pathogens should be considered for prioritisation in future standard setting. On-farm control measures for Brucella spp. will be addressed in 2010-2011 in a review of the OLE Terrestrial Animal/Health Code chapter on brucellosis. In Africa, E. granulosus, the causative agent of hydatidosis, was estimated to have the greatest impact of all pathogens that could potentially be transmitted by food (i.e. via contamination). It was also listed for the Middle East and thought to be of importance by both South American experts consulted. Taenia saginata was thought to be of importance in South America and Africa and by one expert in the Middle East.

  13. Keeping Accountability Systems Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Martha

    2007-01-01

    The standards and accountability movement in education has undeniably transformed schooling throughout the United States. Even before President Bush signed the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act into law in January 2002, mandating annual public school testing in English and math for grades 3-8 and once in high school, most states had already…

  14. A New Standardized Stimulus Set for Studying Need-of-Help Recognition (NeoHelp)

    PubMed Central

    Brielmann, Aenne A.; Stolarova, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the NeoHelp visual stimulus set created to facilitate investigation of need-of-help recognition with clinical and normative populations of different ages, including children. Need-of-help recognition is one aspect of socioemotional development and a necessary precondition for active helping. The NeoHelp consists of picture pairs showing everyday situations: The first item in a pair depicts a child needing help to achieve a goal; the second one shows the child achieving the goal. Pictures of birds in analogue situations are also included. These control stimuli enable implementation of a human-animal categorization task which serves to separate behavioral correlates specific to need-of-help recognition from general differentiation processes. It is a concern in experimental research to ensure that results do not relate to systematic perceptual differences when comparing responses to categories of different content. Therefore, we not only derived the NeoHelp-pictures within a pair from one another by altering as little as possible, but also assessed their perceptual similarity empirically. We show that NeoHelp-picture pairs are very similar regarding low-level perceptual properties across content categories. We obtained data from 60 children in a broad age range (4 to 13 years) for three different paradigms, in order to assess whether the intended categorization and differentiation could be observed reliably in a normative population. Our results demonstrate that children can differentiate the pictures' content regarding both need-of-help category as well as species as intended in spite of the high perceptual similarities. We provide standard response characteristics (hit rates and response times) that are useful for future selection of stimuli and comparison of results across studies. We show that task requirements coherently determine which aspects of the pictures influence response characteristics. Thus, we present NeoHelp, the first open

  15. Comparison of accessions from the UK and US national pear germplasm collections with a standardized set of microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized set of 12 microsatellite markers, previously agreed upon following an ECP/GR workshop in 2006, was used to screen accessions from the UK National Pear Collection at Brogdale and from the US National Pear Germplasm Repository (NCGR), Corvallis. Eight standard varieties were chosen from...

  16. 75 FR 44589 - Health Information Technology: Initial Set of Standards, Implementation Specifications, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... are developed or adopted by voluntary consensus standards bodies to carry out policy objectives or... voluntary consensus standards bodies, namely when doing so would be ``inconsistent with applicable law or... Coordinator standards that have been developed or adopted by voluntary consensus standards bodies. \\1\\...

  17. Adaptation and implementation of standardized order sets in a network of multi-hospital corporations in rural Ontario.

    PubMed

    Meleskie, Jessica; Eby, Don

    2009-01-01

    Standardized, preprinted or computer-generated physician orders are an attractive project for organizations that wish to improve the quality of patient care. The successful development and maintenance of order sets is a major undertaking. This article recounts the collaborative experience of the Grey Bruce Health Network in adapting and implementing an existing set of physician orders for use in its three hospital corporations. An Order Set Committee composed of primarily front-line staff was given authority over the order set development, approval and implementation processes. This arrangement bypassed the traditional approval process and facilitated the rapid implementation of a large number of order sets in a short time period.

  18. Considerations for Using Genetic and Epigenetic Information in Occupational Health Risk Assessment and Standard Setting.

    PubMed

    Schulte, P A; Whittaker, C; Curran, C P

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment forms the basis for both occupational health decision-making and the development of occupational exposure limits (OELs). Although genetic and epigenetic data have not been widely used in risk assessment and ultimately, standard setting, it is possible to envision such uses. A growing body of literature demonstrates that genetic and epigenetic factors condition biological responses to occupational and environmental hazards or serve as targets of them. This presentation addresses the considerations for using genetic and epigenetic information in risk assessments, provides guidance on using this information within the classic risk assessment paradigm, and describes a framework to organize thinking about such uses. The framework is a 4 × 4 matrix involving the risk assessment functions (hazard identification, dose-response modeling, exposure assessment, and risk characterization) on one axis and inherited and acquired genetic and epigenetic data on the other axis. The cells in the matrix identify how genetic and epigenetic data can be used for each risk assessment function. Generally, genetic and epigenetic data might be used as endpoints in hazard identification, as indicators of exposure, as effect modifiers in exposure assessment and dose-response modeling, as descriptors of mode of action, and to characterize toxicity pathways. Vast amounts of genetic and epigenetic data may be generated by high-throughput technologies. These data can be useful for assessing variability and reducing uncertainty in extrapolations, and they may serve as the foundation upon which identification of biological perturbations would lead to a new paradigm of toxicity pathway-based risk assessments.

  19. Medico-legal notes for a new set of standards in the assessment of penal liability in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Montanari Vergallo, Gianluca; Rinaldi, Raffaella; Bersani, Giuseppe; Marinelli, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Negligence liability on the part of a psychiatrist belongs among high-complexity fields, for both the judge and his or her technical consultants. In most instances, there are no scientific grounds in order to ascribe with reasonable certainty liability to medical personnel and nursing staff, while often judges tend to stretch the concept of “protection” to a degree to which the psychiatrist is deemed to have a legal obligation to stave off the development of any adverse consequence which psychic distress may bring upon the patient. The case-records pertaining to suicide are symptomatic of such a tendency on the part of the Supreme Court as to convict healthcare professionals, the lack of incontrovertible evidence notwithstanding. The authors of this paper expound and elaborate on the conditions needed to ascribe liability to the psychiatrist, and the cause and effect relationship between the doctor’s professional behavior and the patient’s eventual suicide. On such basis, several sentences are perused in which the failure to institutionalize, the discharging of a patient, the granting of leaves and an obligation to supervise all come into play, highlighting how suicide is far too complex an outcome to be rationalized into the principle of causality beyond the reasonable doubt, as dictated by the criminal procedure codes, neither can it be kept from happening through the patients’ loss of personal liberty. Within such a legal framework, what becomes apparent is the inadequateness of any set of standardized rules and laws regulating professional liability, and its inability to properly take into account the complexities and peculiarities inherent to psychiatry. Consequently, a proper overhaul of such proceedings appears to be urgent, via a newly devised set of provisions, crafted to provide a new array of undisputable, basic behavioral standards, the breaching of which would entail the sanctioning on the part of the lawful authorities of such violations

  20. Students' Accounts of School-Performance Stress: A Qualitative Analysis of a High-Achieving Setting in Stockholm, Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Låftman, Sara Brolin; Almquist, Ylva B.; Östberg, Viveca

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine students' experiences of school performance as a stressor. Accounts of school-performance stress at both the individual level and in relation to group mechanisms are studied through qualitative interviews with eighth-grade students in a high-performing school in Stockholm, Sweden (n = 49). Using qualitative…

  1. Digital Tomosynthesis of the Chest: Comparison of Patient Exposure Dose and Image Quality between Standard Default Setting and Low Dose Setting

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hye Sun; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the optimum low dose (LD) digital tomosynthesis (DT) setting, and to compared the image quality of the LD DT with that of the standard default (SD) DT. Materials and Methods Nine DT settings, by changing tube voltage, copper filter, and dose ratio, were performed for determining the LD setting. Among combinations of DT setting, a condition providing the lowest radiation dose was determined. Eighty artificial nodules less than 1 cm in diameter (subcentimeter nodules: 40, micronodules less than 4 mm: 40) were attached to a Styrofoam and a diaphragm of the phantom. Among these, 38 nodules were located at the periphery of the lung (thin area) and 42 nodules were located at the paravertebral or sub-diaphragmatic area (thick area). Four observers counted the number of nodules detected in the thick and thin areas. The detection sensitivity in SD and LD settings were calculated separately. Data were analyzed statistically. Results The lowest LD setting was a combination of 100 kVp, 0.3 mm additional copper filter, and a 1 : 5 dose ratio. The effective dose for the LD and SD settings were 62 µSv and 140 µSv, separately. A 56.7% dose reduction was achieved in the LD setting compared with the SD setting. Detection sensitivities were not different between the SD and the LD settings except between observers 1 and 2 for the detection of micronodules in the thick area. Conclusion LD DT can be effective in nodule detection bigger than 4 mm without a significant decrease in image quality compared with SD DT. PMID:23690724

  2. Standardized Tobacco Assessment for Retail Settings (STARS): dissemination and implementation research

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Lisa; Ribisl, Kurt M; Rogers, Todd; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Barker, Dianne M; Sarris Esquivel, Nikie; Loomis, Brett; Crew, Erin; Combs, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Standardized Tobacco Assessment for Retail Settings (STARS) was designed to characterise the availability, placement, promotion and price of tobacco products, with items chosen for relevance to regulating the retail tobacco environment. This study describes the process to develop the STARS instrument and protocol employed by a collaboration of US government agencies, US state tobacco control programmes (TCPs), advocacy organisations, public health attorneys and researchers from the National Cancer Institute's State and Community Tobacco Control (SCTC) Research Initiative. Methods To evaluate dissemination and early implementation experiences, we conducted telephone surveys with state TCP leaders (n=50, response rate=100%), and with individuals recruited via a STARS download registry on the SCTC website. Website registrants were surveyed within 6 months of the STARS release (n=105, response rate=66%) and again after ∼5 months (retention rate=62%). Results Among the state TCPs, 42 reported conducting any retail marketing surveillance, with actual or planned STARS use in 34 of these states and in 12 of the 17 states where marketing surveillance was not previously reported. Within 6 months of the STARS release, 21% of surveyed registrants reported using STARS and 35% were likely/very likely to use it in the next 6 months. To investigate implementation fidelity, we compared data collected by self-trained volunteers and by trained professionals, the latter method being more typically in retail marketing surveillance studies. Results suggest high or moderate reliability for most STARS measures. Conclusion The study concludes with examples of states that used STARS to inform policy change. PMID:27697950

  3. DRASTIC: A STANDARDIZED SYSTEM FOR EVALUATING GROUND WATER POLLUTION USING HYDROGEOLOGIC SETTINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A methodology is described that will allow the pollution potential of any hydrogeologic setting to be systematically evaluated anywhere in the United States. The system has two major portions: the designation of mappable units, termed hydrogeologic settings, and the superposit...

  4. Setting Standards in a Professional Higher Education Course: Defining the Concept of the Minimally Competent Student in Performance-Based Assessment at the Level of Graduation from Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boursicot, Katharine

    2006-01-01

    In this era of audit and accountability, there is an imperative to demonstrate and document that appropriate standards have been set in professional education. In medicine, stakeholders want assurance that graduates have attained the required level of competence to be awarded a provisional licence to practise. To investigate the results of a…

  5. How to do (or not to do) … translation of national health accounts data to evidence for policy making in a low resourced setting.

    PubMed

    Price, Jennifer A; Guinness, Lorna; Irava, Wayne; Khan, Idrish; Asante, Augustine; Wiseman, Virginia

    2016-05-01

    For more than a decade, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank have promoted the international standardization of National Health Accounts (NHA) for reporting global statistics on public, private and donor health expenditure and improve the quality of evidence-based decision-making at country level. A 2010-2012 World Bank review of NHA activity in 50 countries found structural and technical constraints (rather than cost) were key impediments to institutionalizing NHA in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Pilot projects focused resources on data production, neglecting longer-term capacity building for analysing the data, developing ownership among local stakeholders and establishing routine production, utilization and dissemination of NHA data. Hence, genuine institutionalization of NHA in most LMICs has been slow to materialize. International manuals focus on the production of NHA data and do not include practical, incremental and low-cost strategies to guide countries in translating the data into evidence for policy-making. The main aim of this article is to recommend strategies for bridging this divide between production and utilization of NHA data in low-resource settings. The article begins by discussing the origins and purpose of NHA, including factors currently undermining their uptake. The focus then turns to the development and application of strategies to assist LMICs in 'unlocking' the hidden value of their NHA. The article draws on the example of Fiji, a country currently attempting to integrate their NHA data into policy formulation, despite minimal resources, training and familiarity with economic analysis of health systems. Simple, low cost recommendations such as embedding health finance indicators in planning documents, a user-friendly NHA guide for evaluating local health priorities, and sharing NHA data for collaborative research have helped translate

  6. Setting standards and monitoring quality in the NHS 1999-2013: a classic case of goal conflict.

    PubMed

    Littlejohns, Peter; Knight, Alec; Littlejohns, Anna; Poole, Tara-Lynn; Kieslich, Katharina

    2016-07-19

    2013 saw the National Health Service (NHS) in England severely criticized for providing poor quality despite successive governments in the previous 15 years, establishing a range of new institutions to improve NHS quality. This study seeks to understand the contributions of political and organizational influences in enabling the NHS to deliver high-quality care through exploring the experiences of two of the major new organizations established to set standards and monitor NHS quality. We used a mixed method approach: first a cross-sectional, in-depth qualitative interview study and then the application of principal agent modeling (Waterman and Meier broader framework). Ten themes were identified as influencing the functioning of the NHS regulatory institutions: socio-political environment; governance and accountability; external relationships; clarity of purpose; organizational reputation; leadership and management; organizational stability; resources; organizational methods; and organizational performance. The organizations could be easily mapped onto the framework, and their transience between the different states could be monitored. We concluded that differing policy objectives for NHS quality monitoring resulted in central involvement and organizational change. This had a disruptive effect on the ability of the NHS to monitor quality. Constant professional leadership, both clinical and managerial, and basing decisions on best evidence, both technical and organizational, helped one institution to deliver on its remit, even within a changing political/policy environment. Application of the Waterman-Meier framework enabled an understanding and description of the dynamic relationship between central government and organizations in the NHS and may predict when tensions will arise in the future. © 2016 The Authors. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Extending the standard model effective field theory with the complete set of dimension-7 operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Landon

    2014-12-01

    We present a complete list of the independent dimension-7 operators that are constructed using the standard model degrees of freedom and are invariant under the standard model gauge group. This list contains only 20 independent operators, far fewer than the 63 operators available at dimension 6. All of these dimension-7 operators contain fermions and violate lepton number, and 7 of the 20 violate baryon number as well. This result extends the standard model effective field theory and allows a more detailed exploration of the structure and properties of possible deformations from the standard model Lagrangian.

  8. HIPAA administrative simplification: modifications to medical data code set standards to adopt ID-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2009-01-16

    This final rule adopts modifications to two of the code set standards adopted in the Transactions and Code Sets final rule published in the Federal Register pursuant to certain provisions of the Administrative Simplification subtitle of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA). Specifically, this final rule modifies the standard medical data code sets (hereinafter "code sets") for coding diagnoses and inpatient hospital procedures by concurrently adopting the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) for diagnosis coding, including the Official ICD-10-CM Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, as maintained and distributed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), hereinafter referred to as ICD-10-CM, and the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS) for inpatient hospital procedure coding, including the Official ICD-10-PCS Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, as maintained and distributed by the HHS, hereinafter referred to as ICD-10-PCS. These new codes replace the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, Volumes 1 and 2, including the Official ICD-9-CM Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, hereinafter referred to as ICD-9-CM Volumes 1 and 2, and the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, Volume 3, including the Official ICD-9-CM Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, hereinafter referred to as ICD-9-CM Volume 3, for diagnosis and procedure codes, respectively.

  9. Measuring Schools' Efforts to Partner with Parents of Children Served under IDEA: Scaling and Standard Setting for Accountability Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbaum, Batya; Fisher, William P., Jr.; Coulter, W. Alan

    2011-01-01

    Indicator 8 of the State Performance Plan (SPP), developed under the 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004, Public Law 108-446) requires states to collect data and report findings related to schools' facilitation of parent involvement. The Schools' Efforts to Partner with Parents Scale (SEPPS) was…

  10. Density Matters: Review of Approaches to Setting Organism-Based Ballast Water Discharge Standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of their effort to develop national ballast water discharge standards under NPDES permitting, the Office of Water requested that WED scientists identify and review existing approaches to generating organism-based discharge standards for ballast water. Six potential appro...

  11. 75 FR 2013 - Health Information Technology: Initial Set of Standards, Implementation Specifications, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... Unified Medical Language System UNII Unique Ingredient Identifier XML eXtensible Markup Language Table of Contents I. Background A. ONC Background ] B. Interdependencies With Other HITECH Provisions and... Certification Criteria 1. Adopted Certification Criteria 2. Adopted Standards a. Transport Standards b....

  12. Geostatistics as a validation tool for setting ozone standards for durum wheat.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Alessandra; Screpanti, Augusto; Paoletti, Elena

    2010-02-01

    Which is the best standard for protecting plants from ozone? To answer this question, we must validate the standards by testing biological responses vs. ambient data in the field. A validation is missing for European and USA standards, because the networks for ozone, meteorology and plant responses are spatially independent. We proposed geostatistics as validation tool, and used durum wheat in central Italy as a test. The standards summarized ozone impact on yield better than hourly averages. Although USA criteria explained ozone-induced yield losses better than European criteria, USA legal level (75 ppb) protected only 39% of sites. European exposure-based standards protected > or =90%. Reducing the USA level to the Canadian 65 ppb or using W126 protected 91% and 97%, respectively. For a no-threshold accumulated stomatal flux, 22 mmol m(-2) was suggested to protect 97% of sites. In a multiple regression, precipitation explained 22% and ozone explained <0.9% of yield variability.

  13. 21 CFR 10.95 - Participation in outside standard-setting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., product standards, scientific protocols, compliance criteria, ingredient specifications, labeling, or... scientific and technological information, will permit revision on the basis of new information, and will be... Freedom of Information (ELEM-1029). (i) American Association of Food Hygiene Veterinarians (AAFHV)....

  14. PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES FOR SETTING NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverrse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-bas...

  15. Mycotoxin risk assessment for the purpose of setting international regulatory standards.

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia

    2004-08-01

    The 2003 Council for Agricultural Science and Technology Mycotoxin report states that one 21st century goal is the development of uniform regulations worldwide for foodborne mycotoxin contamination. This study informs that endeavor by a risk assessment and economic analysis of two important mycotoxins: fumonisins and aflatoxins. The goals are to identify the nations that would be most heavily impacted by tighter mycotoxin regulations, examine costs and benefits as a function of regulatory stringency, and address risk-risk tradeoffs between health benefits and economic losses from compliance with those regulations. Among industrial nations, the United States would experience the heaviest economic losses from more precautionary mycotoxin standards. Environmental conditions in the developing world, however, are more conducive to mycotoxin accumulation in crops. Contrary to concerns expressed among policymakers, the less developed countries that would likely experience the greatest loss from tighter mycotoxin standards are not sub-Saharan African nations, but China and Argentina. If a fumonisin standard of 0.5 mg/kg were adopted worldwide, total export losses from fumonisins in corn may exceed 300 million dollars annually: 3-fold higher than if the less stringent U.S. standard of 2 mg/kg were adopted. Likewise, export losses from aflatoxins in peanuts may exceed 450 million dollars under the current EU regulatory standard of 4 microg/kg: almost 5-fold higher than if the U.S. standard of 20 microg/kg were adopted. Stricter standards are unlikely to improve health significantly. In developing nations such as China where hepatitis B and C are prevalent, tighter aflatoxin standards may increase health risks until improved control methods for aflatoxins are found, as high-quality crops may be exported instead of being consumed domestically.

  16. The Impact of Setting the Standards of Health Promoting Hospitals on Hospital Indicators in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mohammad; Khosravi, Ahmad; Riyahi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals play a critical role in the health promotion of the society. This study aimed to determine the impact of establishing standards of health promoting hospitals on hospital indicators in Shahroud. This applied study was a quasi-experimental one which was conducted in 2013. Standards of health promoting hospitals were established as an intervention procedure in the Fatemiyeh hospital. Parameters of health promoting hospitals were compared in intervention and control hospitals before and after of intervention (6 months). The data were analyzed using chi-square and t-test. With the establishment of standards for health promotion hospitals, standard scores in intervention and control hospitals were found to be 72.26 ± 4.1 and 16.26 ± 7.5, respectively. T-test showed a significant difference between the mean scores of the hospitals under study (P = 0.001).The chi-square test also showed a significant relationship between patient satisfaction before and after the intervention so that patients’ satisfaction was higher after the intervention (P = 0.001). Commenting on the short-term or long-term positive impacts of establishing standards of health promoting hospitals on all hospital indicators is a bit difficult but preliminary results show the positive impact of the implementation of standards in case hospitals which has led to the improvement of many indicators in the hospital. PMID:27959930

  17. The Challenge of Child Day Care Needs and Improved Federal and State Approaches to Day Care Standard Setting and Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costin, Lela B.; And Others

    This paper examines child day care needs and ways that federal and state approaches to day care standard setting and enforcement might be improved. Chapter I documents the magnitude of child day care needs, citing Department of Labor, Census, and other survey statistics on the numbers of children needing day care and the number of day care centers…

  18. A Report of a Standard Setting Method for Alternate Assessments for Students with Significant Disabilities. Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Barbara; Mead, Ronald; Payne, David

    This report describes one approach toward setting standards to determine performance level cut scores for an alternative assessment for students with disabilities. First, it considers requirements for inclusion of students with disabilities in educational assessments under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The proposed methodology…

  19. 40 CFR 1065.5 - Overview of this part 1065 and its relationship to the standard-setting part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overview of this part 1065 and its relationship to the standard-setting part. 1065.5 Section 1065.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Applicability and...

  20. 40 CFR 1066.5 - Overview of this part 1066 and its relationship to the standard-setting part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overview of this part 1066 and its relationship to the standard-setting part. 1066.5 Section 1066.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Applicability and...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.5 - Overview of this part 1065 and its relationship to the standard-setting part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overview of this part 1065 and its relationship to the standard-setting part. 1065.5 Section 1065.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Applicability and...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.5 - Overview of this part 1065 and its relationship to the standard-setting part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overview of this part 1065 and its relationship to the standard-setting part. 1065.5 Section 1065.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Applicability and...

  3. 40 CFR 1066.5 - Overview of this part 1066 and its relationship to the standard-setting part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overview of this part 1066 and its relationship to the standard-setting part. 1066.5 Section 1066.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Applicability and...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.5 - Overview of this part 1065 and its relationship to the standard-setting part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overview of this part 1065 and its relationship to the standard-setting part. 1065.5 Section 1065.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Applicability and...

  5. 40 CFR 1066.5 - Overview of this part 1066 and its relationship to the standard-setting part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overview of this part 1066 and its relationship to the standard-setting part. 1066.5 Section 1066.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Applicability and...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.5 - Overview of this part 1065 and its relationship to the standard-setting part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overview of this part 1065 and its relationship to the standard-setting part. 1065.5 Section 1065.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Applicability and...

  7. Standard Setting for Next Generation TOEFL Academic Speaking Test (TAST): Reflections on the ETS Panel of International Teaching Assistant Developers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papajohn, Dean

    2006-01-01

    While many institutions have utilized TOEFL scores for international admissions for many years, a speaking section has never before been a required part of TOEFL until the development of the iBT/Next Generation TOEFL. So institutions will need to determine how to set standards for the speaking section of TOEFL, also known as TOEFL Academic…

  8. Conversion of Proportion-Correct Standard-Setting Judgments to Cutoff Scores on the Item Response Theory Theta Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtz, Gregory M.; Jones, J. Patrick; Jones, Christian N.

    2008-01-01

    This study compares the efficacy of different strategies for translating item-level, proportion-correct standard-setting judgments into a theta-metric test cutoff score for use with item response theory (IRT) scoring, using Monte Carlo methods. Simulated Angoff-type ratings, consisting of 1,000 independent 75 Item x13 Rater matrices, were…

  9. 76 FR 78174 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure and Energy Conservation Standard for Set-Top Boxes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... and Technology Assessment on the DOE Set-Top Box and Network Equipment Appliance Standards Web site... between analog and digital tuners? Should streaming STBs (e.g., streaming video from a web- based service... of this proceeding, including the transcript from the public meeting, available on the DOE Web...

  10. Accounting Technology Associate Degree. Louisiana Technical Education Program and Course Standards. Competency-Based Postsecondary Curriculum Outline from Bulletin 1822.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document outlines the curriculum of Louisiana's accounting technology associate degree program, which is a 6-term (77-credit hour) competency-based program designed to prepare students for employment as accounting technicians providing technical administrative support to professional accountants and other financial management personnel.…

  11. Accountability in Family Discourse: Socialization into Norms and Standards and Negotiation of Responsibility in Italian Dinner Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterponi, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article explores morality as situated activity and approaches the discursive practice of accountability in Italian family dinner conversations as an avenue for understanding the construction of moral behaviour in everyday interpersonal interaction. The article focuses in particular on "vicarious" accounts, namely accounts, or…

  12. Search for the standard model Higgs Boson produced in association with top quarks using the full CDF data set.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Álvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Compostella, G; Connors, J; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Funakoshi, Y; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kim, Y J; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Klimenko, S; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lecompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lin, C-J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Mastrandrea, P; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Prokoshin, F; Pranko, A; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Riddick, T; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Soha, A; Sorin, V; Song, H; Squillacioti, P; Stancari, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Varganov, A; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R L; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Wick, F; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2012-11-02

    A search is presented for the standard model Higgs boson produced in association with top quarks using the full Run II proton-antiproton collision data set, corresponding to 9.45 fb(-1), collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. No significant excess over the expected background is observed, and 95% credibility-level upper bounds are placed on the cross section σ(ttH → lepton + missing transverse energy+jets). For a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV/c(2), we expect to set a limit of 12.6 and observe a limit of 20.5 times the standard model rate. This represents the most sensitive search for a standard model Higgs boson in this channel to date.

  13. Health information technology: initial set of standards, implementation specifications, and certification criteria for electronic health record technology. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2010-01-13

    The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is issuing this interim final rule with a request for comments to adopt an initial set of standards, implementation specifications, and certification criteria, as required by section 3004(b)(1) of the Public Health Service Act. This interim final rule represents the first step in an incremental approach to adopting standards, implementation specifications, and certification criteria to enhance the interoperability, functionality, utility, and security of health information technology and to support its meaningful use. The certification criteria adopted in this initial set establish the capabilities and related standards that certified electronic health record (EHR) technology will need to include in order to, at a minimum, support the achievement of the proposed meaningful use Stage 1 (beginning in 2011) by eligible professionals and eligible hospitals under the Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs.

  14. "Back then" and "nowadays": social transition narratives in accounts of injecting drug use in an East European setting.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Tim; Bivol, Stela

    2012-02-01

    Whereas most research investigating drug use transitions narrows its analyses around the individual and their decision-making, we explore how personal narratives of drug transition interplay with broader narratives of social and economic change in a 'transition society' of post-Soviet Europe. Informed by narrative theory, we draw upon analyses of 42 audio-recorded qualitative interviews conducted in the city of Balti, Moldova, in late 2009, with people with current and recent experience of injecting drug use. Accounts of drug transition connect with stories of shifting socio-economic conditions, drug markets, drug law enforcement practices, and social relationships across generations. Participants cast themselves as the 'transition generation', juxtaposing 'their' time of drug initiation "back then" with "nowadays". We find that personal stories of drug initiation, transition and career are told in relation to a meta-narrative of social transition. Whereas 'back then', drug use was depicted as 'natural', 'home-produced', embedded in social relations, and symbolically valuable, in the post-transition narrative of 'now', this culture of drug use has become disrupted, through the internationalisation of drug markets, the individualisation of social relations, the weakening of social ties and trust relations, flux in moral boundaries, and shifting social values of drug use. The meta-narrative of social transition serves to bridge biographical adaptation as collective experience. This helps to moderate the social harms linked to the 'becoming other' constituted by drug injecting, and bridge the effects of rationed expectation that can characterise post-Soviet transitions. We suggest that the narrative of transition offers a cultural script that says "transition is to blame".

  15. Setting Performance Standards for the VAL-ED: Assessment of Principal Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Andrew; Goldring, Ellen; Elliott, Stephen; Murphy, Joseph; Polikoff, Morgan; Cravens, Xiu

    2008-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education is a 360 assessment of principals' learning-centered leadership behaviors. The instrument was designed to provide formative and summative assessment to principals on the leadership behaviors most important to student learning. The purpose of this report is to describe the standard-setting…

  16. Density matters: Review of approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee II,; Frazier,; Ruiz,

    2010-01-01

    As part of their effort to develop national ballast water discharge standards under NPDES permitting, the Office of Water requested that WED scientists identify and review existing approaches to generating organism-based discharge standards for ballast water. Six potential approaches were identified and the utility and uncertainties of each approach was evaluated. During the process of reviewing the existing approaches, the WED scientists, in conjunction with scientists at the USGS and Smithsonian Institution, developed a new approach (per capita invasion probability or "PCIP") that addresses many of the limitations of the previous methodologies. THE PCIP approach allows risk managers to generate quantitative discharge standards using historical invasion rates, ballast water discharge volumes, and ballast water organism concentrations. The statistical power of sampling ballast water for both the validation of ballast water treatment systems and ship-board compliance monitoring with the existing methods, though it should be possible to obtain sufficient samples during treatment validation. The report will go to a National Academy of Sciences expert panel that will use it in their evaluation of approaches to developing ballast water discharge standards for the Office of Water.

  17. 21 CFR 10.95 - Participation in outside standard-setting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES General Administrative Procedures § 10.95... precludes service as the deciding official on the standard involved if it should later come before FDA. The... will not involve establishment of certification or specific approval of individual products or...

  18. Introducing Creativity in the Ensemble Setting: National Standards Meet Comprehensive Musicianship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores realistic ways with which ensemble conductors can facilitate the conceptual acquisition of their students via creative activities. Creativity, as included in the National Standards, is presented through the "eyes" of comprehensive musicianship. (Contains 2 figures, 2 tables, and 9 notes.)

  19. Are You Gainfully Employed? Setting Standards for For-Profit Degrees. Education Sector Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ben

    2010-01-01

    For-profit higher education institutions have grown by leaps and bounds in recent years, largely free of federal regulation. That freedom would be significantly curtailed if the gainful employment standard takes effect. Vocational training programs would be judged by the ratio of the debt that graduates assume relative to their current earnings…

  20. Setting the Standard for Teaching as a Profession: A Conversation with Arthur Wise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Beverly

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Arthur Wise has had a long and distinguished career working for teacher quality and professionalism, school finance reform, and advancement of educational research. As the president of the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, he directed that organization's development of performance-based standards and assessments and has…

  1. Setting the Standard: The Characteristics & Consequences of Alternative Student Promotional Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labaree, David F.

    Examining student promotion standards in American education, the author reviews the origins and history of the shift between merit promotion (which advances students based on demonstrated skill competence) and social promotion (which advances students in response to their social needs). Case studies of promotional policies are provided for schools…

  2. Setting out the (Un) Welcome Mat: A Portrayal of Immigration in State Standards for American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journell, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This article frames history education as a social construction designed to create a national identity through the inclusion, exclusion, and treatment of various societal groups. Using this lens, the author analyzes curriculum standards from nine states that annually assess student knowledge of American history to better understand the depiction of…

  3. National Board Certification: Setting High Standards for Teaching, Learning, and Schools--An Administrator's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakowski, Nancy J.

    1999-01-01

    Presents one administrator's perspective on the importance of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS), describing the history of NBPTS certification in Colorado, discussing her experiences as a school administrator supporting teachers through NBPTS certification, examining the NBPTS's five core propositions, describing the…

  4. The development of an international standard problem set for thermal code evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    During a preparatory meeting in Paris on June 21--22, 1979, interest was expressed by most Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) member countries in exchanging information and experience on various aspects of spent fuel transportation. The result of this meeting was the establishment of working groups under the auspices of the Committee on Reactor Physics (CRP) in the areas of heat transfer, criticality, and shielding. The heat transfer group was established to define a set of cask-like thermal problems and to provide solutions. The problems set and its solutions are available to benchmark computer codes. 14 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Alternative Approaches to Setting Performance Standards for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, Albert E.; Linn, Robert L.; Bohrnstedt, George W.

    2012-01-01

    The judgmental approaches used by the Governing Board to set National Assessment of Educational Progress achievement levels have been the subject of a great deal of controversy and have sometimes led to results that were considered "unreasonable." The NCES requirement that the achievement levels be used on a trial basis and be…

  6. Handbook on Quality Child Care for Young Children: Settings Standards and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baglin, Carol Ann, Ed.; Bender, Michael, Ed.

    Intended primarily for professionals teaching early childhood and infant intervention courses, this handbook presents an overview of child care as both a support to families and an economic necessity, meeting changing and dynamic needs. Child care settings and types of care are discussed, along with quality indicators, licensing, and provider…

  7. 21 CFR 10.95 - Participation in outside standard-setting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-setting activities established by the Freedom of Information Staff (HFI-35). (3) The availability for... established by the Freedom of Information Staff (HFI-35). (3) The availability for public disclosure of... activities established by the Freedom of Information Staff (HFI-35): (i) American Association of Food...

  8. 21 CFR 10.95 - Participation in outside standard-setting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-setting activities established by the Freedom of Information Staff (HFI-35). (3) The availability for... established by the Freedom of Information Staff (HFI-35). (3) The availability for public disclosure of... activities established by the Freedom of Information Staff (HFI-35): (i) American Association of Food...

  9. A Body of Work Standard-Setting Method with Construct Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Bunch, Michael B.; Deville, Craig; Viger, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a novel variation of the Body of Work method that uses construct maps to overcome problems of transparency, rater inconsistency, and scores gaps commonly occurring with the Body of Work method. The Body of Work method with construct maps was implemented to set cut-scores for two separate K-12 assessment programs in a large…

  10. Documenting Disabilities in Postsecondary Settings: Diagnosticians' Understanding of Legal Regulations and Diagnostic Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Gordon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students with learning disability and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses are applying for accommodations in postsecondary education and employment settings. However, students' documentation of these conditions is often substandard. One possible reason for this is that clinicians have failed to apply…

  11. Setting Academic Performance Standards: MCAS vs. PARCC. Technical Report. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Political realities dictate that, as with any tests, passing scores on those developed by the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) will be set at a level that avoids having an unacceptable number of students fail. Since Massachusetts is by far the highest performing of the states that remain in the PARCC…

  12. The application of genetic information for regulatory standard setting under the clean air act: a decision-analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Alison C; Corrales, Mark A; Kramer, C Bradley; Faustman, Elaine M

    2008-08-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released an "Interim Policy on Genomics," stating a commitment to developing guidance on the inclusion of genetic information in regulatory decision making. This statement was followed in 2004 by a document exploring the potential implications. Genetic information can play a key role in understanding and quantifying human susceptibility, an essential step in many of the risk assessments used to shape policy. For example, the federal Clean Air Act (CAA) requires EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants at levels to protect even sensitive populations from adverse health effects with an adequate margin of safety. Asthmatics are generally regarded as a sensitive population, yet substantial research gaps in understanding genetic susceptibility and disease have hindered quantitative risk analysis. This case study assesses the potential role of genomic information regarding susceptible populations in the NAAQS process for fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) under the CAA. In this initial assessment, we model the contribution of a single polymorphism to asthma risk and mortality risk; however, multiple polymorphisms and interactions (gene-gene and gene-environment) are known to play key roles in the disease process. We show that the impact of new information about susceptibility on estimates of population risk or average risk derived from large epidemiological studies depends on the circumstances. We also suggest that analysis of a single polymorphism, or other risk factor such as health status, may or may not change estimates of individual risk enough to alter a particular regulatory decision, but this depends on specific characteristics of the decision and risk information. We also show how new information about susceptibility in the context of the NAAQS for PM(2.5) could have a large impact on the estimated distribution of individual risk. This would occur if a group were

  13. A proposed set of metrics for standardized outcome reporting in the management of low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Clement, R Carter; Welander, Adina; Stowell, Caleb; Cha, Thomas D; Chen, John L; Davies, Michelle; Fairbank, Jeremy C; Foley, Kevin T; Gehrchen, Martin; Hagg, Olle; Jacobs, Wilco C; Kahler, Richard; Khan, Safdar N; Lieberman, Isador H; Morisson, Beth; Ohnmeiss, Donna D; Peul, Wilco C; Shonnard, Neal H; Smuck, Matthew W; Solberg, Tore K; Stromqvist, Bjorn H; Hooff, Miranda L Van; Wasan, Ajay D; Willems, Paul C; Yeo, William; Fritzell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Outcome measurement has been shown to improve performance in several fields of healthcare. This understanding has driven a growing interest in value-based healthcare, where value is defined as outcomes achieved per money spent. While low back pain (LBP) constitutes an enormous burden of disease, no universal set of metrics has yet been accepted to measure and compare outcomes. Here, we aim to define such a set. Patients and methods An international group of 22 specialists in several disciplines of spine care was assembled to review literature and select LBP outcome metrics through a 6-round modified Delphi process. The scope of the outcome set was degenerative lumbar conditions. Results Patient-reported metrics include numerical pain scales, lumbar-related function using the Oswestry disability index, health-related quality of life using the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire, and questions assessing work status and analgesic use. Specific common and serious complications are included. Recommended follow-up intervals include 6, 12, and 24 months after initiating treatment, with optional follow-up at 3 months and 5 years. Metrics for risk stratification are selected based on pre-existing tools. Interpretation The outcome measures recommended here are structured around specific etiologies of LBP, span a patient’s entire cycle of care, and allow for risk adjustment. Thus, when implemented, this set can be expected to facilitate meaningful comparisons and ultimately provide a continuous feedback loop, enabling ongoing improvements in quality of care. Much work lies ahead in implementation, revision, and validation of this set, but it is an essential first step toward establishing a community of LBP providers focused on maximizing the value of the care we deliver. PMID:25828191

  14. Ethical issues in tissue banking for research: the prospects and pitfalls of setting international standards.

    PubMed

    Maschke, Karen J; Murray, Thomas H

    2004-01-01

    Bauer, Taub, and Parsi's review of an international sample of standards on informed consent, confidentiality, commercialization, and quality of research in tissue banking reveals that no clear national or international consensus exists for these issues. The authors' response to the lack of uniformity in the meaning, scope, and ethical significance of the policies they examined is to call for the creation of uniform ethical guidelines. This raises questions about whether harmonization should consist of voluntary international standards or international regulations that include an official oversight mechanism and sanctions for noncompliance, and about who should participate in the harmonization process. Moreover, the normative assumptions and political dynamics that shape global policymaking need to be addressed. This commentary explores the policy implications and normative questions raised by the idea of international ethical guidelines for the use of biotechnologies and biotechnological resources such as stored samples of human tissue.

  15. Linked Data for Fighting Global Hunger:Experiences in setting standards for Agricultural Information Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Thomas; Keizer, Johannes

    FAO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, has the global goal to defeat hunger and eliminate poverty. One of its core functions is the generation, dissemination and application of information and knowledge. Since 2000, the Agricultural InformationManagement Standards (AIMS) activity in FAO's Knowledge Exchange and Capacity Building Division has promoted the use of Semantic Web standards to improve information sharing within a global network of research institutes and related partner organizations. The strategy emphasizes the use of simple descriptive metadata, thesauri, and ontologies for integrating access to information from a wide range of sources for both scientific and non-expert audiences. An early adopter of Semantic Web technology, the AIMS strategy is evolving to help information providers in nineteen language areas use modern Linked Data methods to improve the quality of life in developing rural areas, home to seventy percent of the world's poor and hungry people.

  16. Standards for digital photography in cranio-maxillo-facial surgery--Part II: Additional picture sets and avoiding common mistakes.

    PubMed

    Schaaf, Heidrun; Streckbein, Philipp; Ettorre, Giovanni; Lowry, John C; Mommaerts, Maurice Y; Howaldt, Hans-Peter

    2006-10-01

    As stated in the first part of this publication standardized clinical photographs are essential for planning, documentation and demonstration of surgical procedures in craniomaxillofacial surgery (Ettorre et al., 2006). This article expands the previously defined standards in facial digital photography. Additional picture sets for special topics are introduced and some common mistakes are discussed. Guidance for the prevention of pitfalls is provided and the photographic principles are reviewed. Finally the authors give recommendations for dealing with structured data storage and protection of medical photographs. The use of asset management systems such as Cumulus and Portfolio is introduced and recommended.

  17. Standards for digital photography in cranio-maxillo-facial surgery--part II: additional picture sets and avoiding common mistakes.

    PubMed

    Schaaf, Heidrun; Streckbein, Philipp; Ettorre, Giovanni; Lowry, John C; Mommaerts, Maurice Y; Howaldt, Hans-Peter

    2006-09-01

    As stated in the first part of this publication standardized clinical photographs are essential for planning, documentation and demonstration of surgical procedures in cranio-maxillo-facial surgery (Ettorre et al., 2006). This article expands the previously defined standards in facial digital photography. Additional picture sets for special topics are introduced and some common mistakes are discussed. Guidance for the prevention of pitfalls is provided and the photographic principles are reviewed. Finally the authors give recommendations for dealing with structured data storage and protection of medical photographs. The use of asset management systems such as Cumulus and Portfolio is introduced and recommended.

  18. The DIsgust-RelaTed-Images (DIRTI) database: Validation of a novel standardized set of disgust pictures.

    PubMed

    Haberkamp, Anke; Glombiewski, Julia Anna; Schmidt, Filipp; Barke, Antonia

    2017-02-01

    Selecting appropriate stimuli is a major challenge of affective research. Although several standardized databases for affective pictures exist, none of them focus on discrete emotions such as disgust. Validated pictures inducing discrete emotions are still limited, and this presents a problem for researchers interested in studying different facets of disgust. In this paper, we introduce the DIsgust-RelaTed-Images (DIRTI) picture set. The set consists of 240 disgust-inducing pictures divided into six categories (food, animals, body products, injuries/infections, death, and hygiene). Additionally, we included 60 matched neutral pictures (10 per category). All pictures were rated by 200 participants on nine-point rating scales measuring disgust, fear, valence, and arousal. The present validation study covered a wide age range (18-75 years) with a balanced number of participants in each decade of life. For each picture, we provide separate ratings on the four scales for men and women. In addition to the original pictures, we also provide a luminance-matched version for experiments that require control of the physical properties of the pictures. The standardized DIRTI picture set allows researchers to chose from a wide set of disgust-inducing pictures and may enhance researchers' ability to draw comparisons between studies on disgust. (Download DIRTI picture set: http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.167037).

  19. Setting Global Standards for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation: The 2016 ISSCR Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Daley, George Q; Hyun, Insoo; Apperley, Jane F; Barker, Roger A; Benvenisty, Nissim; Bredenoord, Annelien L; Breuer, Christopher K; Caulfield, Timothy; Cedars, Marcelle I; Frey-Vasconcells, Joyce; Heslop, Helen E; Jin, Ying; Lee, Richard T; McCabe, Christopher; Munsie, Megan; Murry, Charles E; Piantadosi, Steven; Rao, Mahendra; Rooke, Heather M; Sipp, Douglas; Studer, Lorenz; Sugarman, Jeremy; Takahashi, Masayo; Zimmerman, Mark; Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2016-06-14

    The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) presents its 2016 Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation (ISSCR, 2016). The 2016 guidelines reflect the revision and extension of two past sets of guidelines (ISSCR, 2006; ISSCR, 2008) to address new and emerging areas of stem cell discovery and application and evolving ethical, social, and policy challenges. These guidelines provide an integrated set of principles and best practices to drive progress in basic, translational, and clinical research. The guidelines demand rigor, oversight, and transparency in all aspects of practice, providing confidence to practitioners and public alike that stem cell science can proceed efficiently and remain responsive to public and patient interests. Here, we highlight key elements and recommendations in the guidelines and summarize the recommendations and deliberations behind them.

  20. A new standardized set of ecological pictures for experimental and clinical research on visual object processing.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Maria Pia; Vannucci, Manila; Righi, Stefania

    2004-06-01

    A new set of 174 pictures in black-and-white, coloured and spatially filtered versions, taken from photographs of real objects belonging to different semantic categories, was realised for experimental and clinical research on visual object processing. Two samples, one of English speakers and one of Italian speakers, were tested in order to provide the normative data for each picture, in both black-and-white and coloured versions, in relation to familiarity, visual complexity and name agreement.

  1. Setting Enlistment Standards and Matching Recruits to Jobs Using Job Performance Criteria.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    than 30,000, the number assumed to be available based on the FY77-FYBO data (see text ). bFixed marginal (Category IV NHS set to zero). better...Manpower, Instal- lat ions and I ogistics under (Contract M I)A903-X:-(’-00417. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Fernandez...performance data to generate optimal matches yielded only small improvements in performance-5 to 6 percent-relative to what the Army achieved, regardless of

  2. Regional cooperation in energy efficiency standard-setting and labeling in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Wiel, Stephen; Van Wie McGrory, Laura

    2003-08-04

    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) was established in 2001 by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The goals of NAEWG are to foster communication and cooperation on energy-related matters of common interest, and to enhance North American energy trade and interconnections consistent with the goal of sustainable development, for the benefit of all three countries. At its outset, NAEWG established teams to address different aspects of the energy sector. One, the Energy Efficiency Expert Group, undertook activity in three areas: (1) analyzing commonalities and differences in the test procedures of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, and identifying specific products for which the three countries might consider harmonization; (2) exploring possibilities for increased mutual recognition of laboratory test results; and (3) looking at possibilities for enhanced cooperation in the Energy Star voluntary endorsement labeling program. To support NAEWG's Expert Group on Energy Efficiency (NAEWG-EE), USDOE commissioned Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, representing the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), to prepare a resource document comparing current standards, labels, and test procedure regulations in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The resulting document identified 46 energy-using products for which at least one of the three countries has energy efficiency regulations. Three products--refrigerators/freezers, room air conditioners, and integral horsepower three-phase electric motors--have identical minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and test procedures in the three countries. Ten other products have different MEPS and test procedures, but have the near-term potential for harmonization. NAEWG-EE is currently working to identify mechanisms for mutual recognition of test results. With consultative support from the United States and Canada through NAEWG-EE, Mexico is exploring possibilities for

  3. Relating a Reading Comprehension Test to the CEFR Levels: A Case of Standard Setting in Practice with Focus on Judges and Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueras, Neus; Kaftandjieva, Felianka; Takala, Sauli

    2013-01-01

    The article addresses some problems and options in setting standards on language tests and examinations. More specifically, it reports on a set of three workshops conducted in the European context where standard setting in language education typically concerns linking tests and examinations to the Council of Europe's "Common European…

  4. Comparison of cost determination of both resource consumption accounting and time-driven activity-based costing systems in a healthcare setting.

    PubMed

    Özyapıcı, Hasan; Tanış, Veyis Naci

    2016-06-02

    Objective The aim of the present study was to explore the differences between resource consumption accounting (RCA) and time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) systems in determining the costs of services of a healthcare setting.Methods A case study was conducted to calculate the unit costs of open and laparoscopic gall bladder surgeries using TDABC and RCA.Results The RCA system assigns a higher cost both to open and laparoscopic gall bladder surgeries than TDABC. The total cost of unused capacity under the TDABC system is also double that in RCA.Conclusion Unlike TDABC, RCA calculates lower costs for unused capacities but higher costs for products or services in a healthcare setting in which fixed costs make up a high proportion of total costs.What is known about the topic? TDABC is a revision of the activity-based costing (ABC) system. RCA is also a new costing system that includes both the theoretical advantages of ABC and the practical advantages of German costing. However, little is known about the differences arising from application of TDABC and RCA.What does this paper add? There is no study comparing both TDABC and RCA in a single case study based on a real-world healthcare setting. Thus, the present study fills this gap in the literature and it is unique in the sense that it is the first case study comparing TDABC and RCA for open and laparoscopic gall bladder surgeries in a healthcare setting.What are the implications for practitioners? This study provides several interesting results for managers and cost accounting researchers. Thus, it will contribute to the spread of RCA studies in healthcare settings. It will also help the implementers of TDABC to revise data concerning the cost of unused capacity. In addition, by separating costs into fixed and variable, the paper will help managers to create a blended (combined) system that can improve both short- and long-term decisions.

  5. Reconciling science and policy in setting federal drinking water standards--four states' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hutcheson, M S; Dupuy, C J; Matyas, B; McGeorge, L; Vanderslice, R

    1995-08-01

    After almost 20 years of experience with implementing the Safe Drinking Water Act and eight with Amendments to the Act, the individual states within the United States have gained valuable experience while trying to reconcile the legal mandates provided by the statutes with the science underlying them. This paper presents four different topics illustrating the problems of reconciling these two issues in the regulation of toxic chemicals in drinking waters. It presents these from the perspectives of the states of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Jersey and offers suggestions for improved program efficiency based on considerations of comparative human health risks. The approach and schedule for controlling toxic chemicals used through 1994 are first examined and a recommendation is made for more flexibility in the rate at which chemicals are regulated. Recent U.S. EPA proposals to more stringently control radon in drinking waters are presented in the context of all sources of radon exposures, illustrating the intersection of science, laws, and economic consequences of regulatory initiatives. Inhalation and dermal exposures as a result of using chemically contaminated drinking waters are then discussed with the suggestion of the possible underprotectiveness of some present standards. Finally, the difficulty faced by the states and federal government in the control of naturally occurring arsenic exposures through drinking water is also presented and an argument is made for more local flexibility in the application of health-based standards.

  6. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - Statistical Analysis of RDX Standard Data Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Preston, Daniel N.; Pollard, Colin J.; Warner, Kirstin F.; Sorensen, Daniel N.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Phillips, Jason J.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; Hsu, Peter C.; Reynolds, John G.

    2015-10-30

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a Proficiency Test for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are statistical analyses of the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of the RDX Type II Class 5 standard. The material was tested as a well-characterized standard several times during the proficiency study to assess differences among participants and the range of results that may arise for well-behaved explosive materials. The analyses show that there are detectable differences among the results from IDCA participants. While these differences are statistically significant, most of them can be disregarded for comparison purposes to assess potential variability when laboratories attempt to measure identical samples using methods assumed to be nominally the same. The results presented in this report include the average sensitivity results for the IDCA participants and the ranges of values obtained. The ranges represent variation about the mean values of the tests of between 26% and 42%. The magnitude of this variation is attributed to differences in operator, method, and environment as well as the use of different instruments that are also of varying age. The results appear to be a good representation of the broader safety testing community based on the range of methods, instruments, and environments included in the IDCA Proficiency Test.

  7. Accurate dispersion interactions from standard density-functional theory methods with small basis sets.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Iain D; Dilabio, Gino A

    2010-06-21

    B971, PBE and PBE1 density functionals with 6-31G(d) basis sets are shown to accurately describe the binding in dispersion bound dimers. This is achieved through the use of dispersion-correcting potentials (DCPs) in conjunction with counterpoise corrections. DCPs resemble and are applied like conventional effective core potentials that can be used with most computational chemistry programs without code modification. Rather, DCPs are implemented by simple appendage to the input files for these types of programs. Binding energies are predicted to within ca. 11% and monomer separations to within ca. 0.06 A of high-level wavefunction data using B971/6-31G(d)-DCP. Similar results are obtained for PBE and PBE1 with the 6-31G(d) basis sets and DCPs. Although results found using the 3-21G(d) are not as impressive, they never-the-less show promise as a means of initial study for a wide variety of dimers, including those dominated by dispersion, hydrogen-bonding and a mixture of interactions. Notable improvement is found in comparison to M06-2X/6-31G(d) data, e.g., mean absolute deviations for the S22-set of dimers of ca. 13.6 and 16.5% for B971/6-31G(d)-DCP and M06-2X, respectively. However, it should be pointed out that the latter data were obtained using a larger integration grid size since a smaller grid results in different binding energies and geometries for simple dispersion-bound dimers such as methane and ethene.

  8. Free, brief, and validated: Standardized instruments for low-resource mental health settings

    PubMed Central

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Stewart, Rebecca E.; Walsh, Lucia; Lucas, Steven; Downey, Margaret Mary; Jackson, Kamilah; Fernandez, Tara; Mandell, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based assessment has received little attention despite its critical importance to the evidence-based practice movement. Given the limited resources in the public sector, it is necessary for evidence-based assessment to utilize tools with established reliability and validity metrics that are free, easily accessible, and brief. We review tools that meet these criteria for youth and adult mental health for the most prevalent mental health disorders to provide a clinical guide and reference for the selection of assessment tools for public sector settings. We also discuss recommendations for how to move forward the evidence-based assessment agenda. PMID:25642130

  9. Isolation gowns in health care settings: Laboratory studies, regulations and standards, and potential barriers of gown selection and use

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc Balci, F. Selcen

    2016-01-01

    Although they play an important role in infection prevention and control, textile materials and personal protective equipment (PPE) used in health care settings are known to be one of the sources of cross-infection. Gowns are recommended to prevent transmission of infectious diseases in certain settings; however, laboratory and field studies have produced mixed results of their efficacy. PPE used in health care is regulated as either class I (low risk) or class II (intermediate risk) devices in the United States. Many organizations have published guidelines for the use of PPE, including isolation gowns, in health care settings. In addition, the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation published a guidance document on the selection of gowns and a classification standard on liquid barrier performance for both surgical and isolation gowns. However, there is currently no existing standard specific to isolation gowns that considers not only the barrier resistance but also a wide array of end user desired attributes. As a result, infection preventionists and purchasing agents face several difficulties in the selection process, and end users have limited or no information on the levels of protection provided by isolation gowns. Lack of knowledge about the performance of protective clothing used in health care became more apparent during the 2014 Ebola epidemic. This article reviews laboratory studies, regulations, guidelines and standards pertaining to isolation gowns, characterization problems, and other potential barriers of isolation gown selection and use. PMID:26391468

  10. Combined search for the standard model Higgs boson decaying to a bb pair using the full CDF data set.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Álvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M E; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Funakoshi, Y; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D T; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kim, Y J; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Klimenko, S; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lin, C-J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Mastrandrea, P; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Prokoshin, F; Pranko, A; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Riddick, T; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Soha, A; Sorin, V; Song, H; Squillacioti, P; Stancari, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Varganov, A; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R L; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Wick, F; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2012-09-14

    We combine the results of searches for the standard model (SM) Higgs boson based on the full CDF Run II data set obtained from sqrt[s]=1.96  TeV pp collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.45  fb(-1). The searches are conducted for Higgs bosons that are produced in association with a W or Z boson, have masses in the range 90-150  GeV/c(2), and decay into bb pairs. An excess of data is present that is inconsistent with the background prediction at the level of 2.5 standard deviations (the most significant local excess is 2.7 standard deviations).

  11. Legal and ethical standards for protecting women's human rights and the practice of conscientious objection in reproductive healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Zampas, Christina

    2013-12-01

    The practice of conscientious objection by healthcare workers is growing across the globe. It is most common in reproductive healthcare settings because of the religious or moral values placed on beliefs as to when life begins. It is often invoked in the context of abortion and contraceptive services, including the provision of information related to such services. Few states adequately regulate the practice, leading to denial of access to lawful reproductive healthcare services and violations of fundamental human rights. International ethical, health, and human rights standards have recently attempted to address these challenges by harmonizing the practice of conscientious objection with women's right to sexual and reproductive health services. FIGO ethical standards have had an important role in influencing human rights development in this area. They consider regulation of the unfettered use of conscientious objection essential to the realization of sexual and reproductive rights. Under international human rights law, states have a positive obligation to act in this regard. While ethical and human rights standards regarding this issue are growing, they do not yet exhaustively cover all the situations in which women's health and human rights are in jeopardy because of the practice. The present article sets forth existing ethical and human rights standards on the issue and illustrates the need for further development and clarity on balancing these rights and interests.

  12. The accountability for reasonableness approach to guide priority setting in health systems within limited resources – findings from action research at district level in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement, which facilitate agreement on priority-setting decisions and gain support for their implementation. This paper focuses on the assessment of AFR within the project REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT). Methods This intervention study applied an action research methodology to assess implementation of AFR in one district in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, respectively. The assessments focused on selected disease, program, and managerial areas. An implementing action research team of core health team members and supporting researchers was formed to implement, and continually assess and improve the application of the four conditions. Researchers evaluated the intervention using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. Results The values underlying the AFR approach were in all three districts well-aligned with general values expressed by both service providers and community representatives. There was some variation in the interpretations and actual use of the AFR in the decision-making processes in the three districts, and its effect ranged from an increase in awareness of the importance of fairness to a broadened engagement of health team members and other stakeholders in priority setting and other decision-making processes. Conclusions District stakeholders were able to take greater charge of closing the gap between nationally set planning and the local realities and demands of the served communities within the limited resources at hand. This study thus indicates that the operationalization of the four broadly defined and linked conditions is both possible and seems to

  13. Defining a standard set of patient-centred outcomes for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Mak, Kimberley S; van Bommel, Annelotte C M; Stowell, Caleb; Abrahm, Janet L; Baker, Matthew; Baldotto, Clarissa S; Baldwin, David R; Borthwick, Diana; Carbone, David P; Chen, Aileen B; Fox, Jesme; Haswell, Tom; Koczywas, Marianna; Kozower, Benjamin D; Mehran, Reza J; Schramel, Franz M; Senan, Suresh; Stirling, Robert G; van Meerbeeck, Jan P; Wouters, Michel W J M; Peake, Michael D

    2016-09-01

    In lung cancer, outcome measurement has been mostly limited to survival. Proper assessment of the value of lung cancer treatments, and the performance of institutions delivering care, requires more comprehensive measurement of standardised outcomes.The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement convened an international, multidisciplinary working group of patient representatives, medical oncologists, surgeons, radiation oncologists, pulmonologists, palliative care specialists, registry experts and specialist nurses to review existing data and practices. Using a modified Delphi method, the group developed a consensus recommendation ("the set") on the outcomes most essential to track for patients with lung cancer, along with baseline demographic, clinical and tumour characteristics (case-mix variables) for risk adjustment.The set applies to patients diagnosed with nonsmall cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Our working group recommends the collection of the following outcomes: survival, complications during or within 6 months of treatment and patient-reported domains of health-related quality of life including pain, fatigue, cough and dyspnoea. Case-mix variables were defined to improve interpretation of comparisons.We defined an international consensus recommendation of the most important outcomes for lung cancer patients, along with relevant case-mix variables, and are working to support adoption and reporting of these measures globally.

  14. Searching for the Norm in a System of Absolutes: A Case Study of Standards-Based Accountability Reform in Pre-Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The emergence of standards-based accountability reforms in early childhood education has created new challenges for the field. This article presents findings from a case study that explored how stakeholders in a large urban pre-kindergarten program struggled to implement an assessment tool that aligned the normative academic…

  15. Health-risk based approach to setting drinking water standards for long-term space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macler, Bruce A.; Dunsky, Elizabeth C.

    1992-01-01

    In order to develop plausible and appropriate drinking water contaminant standards for longer-term NASA space missions, such as those planned for the Space Exploration Initiative, a human health risk characterization was performed using toxicological and exposure values typical of space operations and crew. This risk characterization showed that the greatest acute waterborne health concern was from microbial infection leading to incapacitating gastrointestinal illness. Ingestion exposure pathways for toxic materials yielded de minimus acute health risks unlikely to affect SEI space missions. Risks of chronic health problems were within acceptable public health limits. Our analysis indicates that current Space Station Freedom maximum contamination levels may be unnecessarily strict. We propose alternative environmental contaminant values consistent with both acceptable short and long-term crew health safety.

  16. A Harmonious Accounting Duo?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schapperle, Robert F.; Hardiman, Patrick F.

    1992-01-01

    Accountants have urged "harmonization" of standards between the Governmental Accounting Standards Board and the Financial Accounting Standards Board, recommending similar reporting of like transactions. However, varying display of similar accounting events does not necessarily indicate disharmony. The potential for problems because of…

  17. Standardized method to quantify the variation in voxel value distribution in patient-simulated CBCT data sets

    PubMed Central

    Gotfredsen, E; Wenzel, A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To suggest a standardized method to assess the variation in voxel value distribution in patient-simulated CBCT data sets and the effect of time between exposures (TBE). Additionally, a measurement of reproducibility, Aarhus measurement of reproducibility (AMORe), is introduced, which could be used for quality assurance purposes. Methods: Six CBCT units were tested [Cranex® 3D/CRAN (Soredex Oy, Tuusula, Finland); Scanora® 3D/SCAN (Soredex Oy); NewTom™ 5G/NEW5 (QR srl, Verona, Italy); i-CAT/ICAT (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA); 3D Accuitomo FPD80/ACCU (Morita, Kyoto, Japan); and NewTom VG/NEWV (QR srl)]. Two sets of volumetric data of a wax-imbedded dry human skull (containing a titanium implant) were acquired by each CBCT unit at two sessions on separate days. Each session consisted 21 exposures: 1 “initial” followed by a 30-min interval (initial data set), 10 acquired with 30-min TBE (data sets 1–10) and 10 acquired with 15-min TBE (data sets 11–20). CBCT data were exported as digital imaging and communications in medicine files and converted to text files containing x, y and z positions and grey shade for each voxel. Subtractions were performed voxel-by-voxel in two set-ups: (1) between two consecutive data sets and (2) between any subsequent data set and data set 1. The mean grey shade variation for each voxel was calculated for each unit/session. Results: The largest mean grey shade variation was found in the subtraction set-up 2 (27–447 shades of grey, depending on the unit). Considering subtraction set-up 1, the highest variation was seen for NEW5, between data sets 1 and the initial. Conclusions: Discrepancies in voxel value distribution were found by comparing the initial examination of the day with the subsequent examinations. TBE had no predictable effect on the variation of CBCT-derived voxel values. AMORe ranged between 0 and 64. PMID:25354021

  18. Implementing standardized, inter-unit communication in an international setting: handoff of patients from emergency medicine to internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Kamna S; Peterson, Susan M; Elabd, Mohamed Moheb; Regan, Linda; Anton, Xavier; Al-Natour, Basil Ali; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Scheulen, James; Stewart de Ramirez, Sarah A

    2017-02-03

    Standardized handoffs may reduce communication errors, but research on handoff in community and international settings is lacking. Our study at a community hospital in the United Arab Emirates characterizes existing handoff practices for admitted patients from emergency medicine (EM) to internal medicine (IM), develops a standardized handoff tool, and assesses its impact on communication and physician perceptions. EM physicians completed a survey regarding handoff practices and expectations. Trained observers utilized a checklist based on the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model to observe 40 handoffs. EM and IM physicians collaboratively developed a written tool encouraging bedside handoff of admitted patients. After the intervention, surveys of EM physicians and 40 observations were subsequently repeated. 77.5% of initial observed handoffs occurred face-to-face, with 42.5% at bedside, and in four different languages. Most survey respondents considered face-to-face handoff ideal. Respondents noted 9-13 patients suffering harm due to handoff in the prior month. After handoff tool implementation, 97.5% of observed handoffs occurred face-to-face (versus 77.5%, p = 0.014), with 82.5% at bedside (versus 42.5%, p < 0.001), and all in English. Handoff was streamlined from 7 possible pathways to 3. Most post-intervention survey respondents reported improved workflow (77.8%) and safety (83.3%); none reported patient harm. Respondents and observers noted reduced inefficiency (p < 0.05). Our standardized tool increased face-to-face and bedside handoff, positively impacted workflow, and increased perceptions of safety by EM physicians in an international, non-academic setting. Our three-step approach can be applied towards developing standardized, context-specific inter-specialty handoff in a variety of settings.

  19. Deriving Daytime Variables From the AmeriFlux Standard Eddy Covariance Data Set

    SciTech Connect

    van Ingen, Catharine; Agarwal, Deborah A.; Humphrey, Marty; Li, Jie

    2008-12-06

    A gap-filled, quality assessed eddy covariance dataset has recently become available for the AmeriFluxnetwork. This dataset uses standard processing and produces commonly used science variables. This shared dataset enables robust comparisons across different analyses. Of course, there are many remaining questions. One of those is how to define 'during the day' which is an important concept for many analyses. Some studies have used local time — for example 9am to 5pm; others have used thresholds on photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). A related question is how to derive quantities such as the Bowen ratio. Most studies compute the ratio of the averages of the latent heat (LE) and sensible heat (H). In this study, we use different methods of defining 'during the day' for GPP, LE, and H. We evaluate the differences between methods in two ways. First, we look at a number of statistics of GPP. Second, we look at differences in the derived Bowen ratio. Our goal is not science per se, but rather informatics in support of the science.

  20. Evaluation of the causal framework used for setting national ambient air quality standards.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Julie E; Prueitt, Robyn L; Sax, Sonja N; Bailey, Lisa A; Rhomberg, Lorenz R

    2013-11-01

    Abstract A scientifically sound assessment of the potential hazards associated with a substance requires a systematic, objective and transparent evaluation of the weight of evidence (WoE) for causality of health effects. We critically evaluated the current WoE framework for causal determination used in the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) assessments of the scientific data on air pollutants for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) review process, including its methods for literature searches; study selection, evaluation and integration; and causal judgments. The causal framework used in recent NAAQS evaluations has many valuable features, but it could be more explicit in some cases, and some features are missing that should be included in every WoE evaluation. Because of this, it has not always been applied consistently in evaluations of causality, leading to conclusions that are not always supported by the overall WoE, as we demonstrate using EPA's ozone Integrated Science Assessment as a case study. We propose additions to the NAAQS causal framework based on best practices gleaned from a previously conducted survey of available WoE frameworks. A revision of the NAAQS causal framework so that it more closely aligns with these best practices and the full and consistent application of the framework will improve future assessments of the potential health effects of criteria air pollutants by making the assessments more thorough, transparent, and scientifically sound.

  1. A model for environmental risk-assessment and standard setting based on biomagnification in terrestrial toppredators

    SciTech Connect

    Jongbloed, R.H.; Luttik, R.

    1994-12-31

    A model was developed to estimate soil quality standards based on secondary poisoning of toppredators. Three trophic levels were considered: plants and invertebrates on the first, small birds and mammals on the second, and raptorial birds and beasts on the third trophic level. Six chemicals were selected: DDT, dieldrin, lindans, pentachlorophenol, cadmium and methyl mercury. The maximum permissible concentration of a chemical in the soil (MPC{sub soil}) was calculated with: MPC{sub soil} = NOEC{sub species of concern}/ BAF{sub food species of concern}. The BAF{sub food species of concern} is the bioaccumulation factor representing the ratio between concentration in the food of the species of concern and concentration in soil. The NOEC{sub species of concern} is the no-observed effect concentration of toppredators in the field estimated from laboratory toxicity data by application of several correction factors. Literature data were evaluated for five potentially important correction factors: caloric content and assimilation efficiency of food types, metabolic rate, pollutant assimilation efficiency and species sensitivity. BAFs and NOECs were treated as stochastic variables. It was demonstrated that species feeding on birds and small carnivorous mammals are to a higher extent exposed to contaminants than species feeding on herbivorous mammals. For highly lipophilic compounds attention should be paid to toppredators, whereas for other chemicals attention may be focused on worm-eating birds and mammals.

  2. Defining a standard set of patient-centred outcomes for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    van Bommel, Annelotte C.M.; Stowell, Caleb; Abrahm, Janet L.; Baker, Matthew; Baldotto, Clarissa S.; Baldwin, David R.; Borthwick, Diana; Carbone, David P.; Chen, Aileen B.; Fox, Jesme; Haswell, Tom; Koczywas, Marianna; Kozower, Benjamin D.; Mehran, Reza J.; Schramel, Franz M.; Senan, Suresh; Stirling, Robert G.; van Meerbeeck, Jan P.; Wouters, Michel W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In lung cancer, outcome measurement has been mostly limited to survival. Proper assessment of the value of lung cancer treatments, and the performance of institutions delivering care, requires more comprehensive measurement of standardised outcomes. The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement convened an international, multidisciplinary working group of patient representatives, medical oncologists, surgeons, radiation oncologists, pulmonologists, palliative care specialists, registry experts and specialist nurses to review existing data and practices. Using a modified Delphi method, the group developed a consensus recommendation (“the set”) on the outcomes most essential to track for patients with lung cancer, along with baseline demographic, clinical and tumour characteristics (case-mix variables) for risk adjustment. The set applies to patients diagnosed with nonsmall cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Our working group recommends the collection of the following outcomes: survival, complications during or within 6 months of treatment and patient-reported domains of health-related quality of life including pain, fatigue, cough and dyspnoea. Case-mix variables were defined to improve interpretation of comparisons. We defined an international consensus recommendation of the most important outcomes for lung cancer patients, along with relevant case-mix variables, and are working to support adoption and reporting of these measures globally. PMID:27390281

  3. Validation of five minimally obstructive methods to estimate physical activity energy expenditure in young adults in semi-standardized settings.

    PubMed

    Schneller, Mikkel B; Pedersen, Mogens T; Gupta, Nidhi; Aadahl, Mette; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-03-13

    We compared the accuracy of five objective methods, including two newly developed methods combining accelerometry and activity type recognition (Acti4), against indirect calorimetry, to estimate total energy expenditure (EE) of different activities in semi-standardized settings. Fourteen participants performed a standardized and semi-standardized protocol including seven daily life activity types, while having their EE measured by indirect calorimetry. Simultaneously, physical activity was quantified by an ActivPAL3, two ActiGraph GT3X+'s and an Actiheart. EE was estimated by the standard ActivPAL3 software (ActivPAL), ActiGraph GT3X+ (ActiGraph) and Actiheart (Actiheart), and by a combination of activity type recognition via Acti4 software and activity counts per minute (CPM) of either a hip- or thigh-worn ActiGraph GT3X+ (AGhip + Acti4 and AGthigh + Acti4). At group level, estimated physical activities EE by Actiheart (MSE = 2.05) and AGthigh + Acti4 (MSE = 0.25) were not significantly different from measured EE by indirect calorimetry, while significantly underestimated by ActiGraph, ActivPAL and AGhip + Acti4. AGthigh + Acti4 and Actiheart explained 77% and 45%, of the individual variations in measured physical activity EE by indirect calorimetry, respectively. This study concludes that combining accelerometer data from a thigh-worn ActiGraph GT3X+ with activity type recognition improved the accuracy of activity specific EE estimation against indirect calorimetry in semi-standardized settings compared to previously validated methods using CPM only.

  4. Financing Higher Standards in Public Education: The Importance of Accounting for Educational Costs. Policy Brief, No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncombe, William; Yinger, John

    This policy brief explains why performance focus and educational cost indexes must go hand in hand, discusses alternative methods for estimating educational cost indexes, and shows how these costs indexes can be incorporated into a performance-based state aid program. A shift to educational performance standards, whether these standards are…

  5. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - RDX Type II Class 5 Standard, Data Set 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Preston, Daniel N.; Pollard, Colin J.; Warner, Kirstin F.; Sorenson, Daniel N.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Moran, Jesse S.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; Hsu, Peter C.; Whipple, Richard E.; Reynolds, John G.

    2011-04-11

    This document describes the results of the first reference sample material—RDX Type II Class 5—examined in the proficiency study for small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing of explosive materials for the Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program. The IDCA program is conducting proficiency testing on homemade explosives (HMEs). The reference sample materials are being studied to establish the accuracy of traditional explosives safety testing for each performing laboratory. These results will be used for comparison to results from testing HMEs. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), ultimately will put the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The results of the study will add SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature, potentially suggest new guidelines and methods for HME testing, and possibly establish what are the needed accuracies in SSST testing to develop safe handling practices. Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and scanning calorimetry analysis of a reference sample of RDX Type II Class 5. The results from each participating testing laboratory are compared using identical test material and preparation methods wherever possible. Note, however, the test procedures differ among the laboratories. These results are then compared to historical data from various sources. The performers involved are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Air Force Research Laboratory/ RXQL (AFRL), Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (IHD-NSWC), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to understand how to compare results when test protocols are not identical.

  6. Evaluation of true maximal oxygen uptake based on a novel set of standardized criteria.

    PubMed

    Midgley, Adrian W; Carroll, Sean; Marchant, David; McNaughton, Lars R; Siegler, Jason

    2009-04-01

    In this study, criteria are used to identify whether a subject has elicited maximal oxygen uptake. We evaluated the validity of traditional maximal oxygen uptake criteria and propose a novel set of criteria. Twenty athletes completed a maximal oxygen uptake test, consisting of an incremental phase and a subsequent supramaximal phase to exhaustion (verification phase). Traditional and novel maximal oxygen uptake criteria were evaluated. Novel criteria were: oxygen uptake plateau defined as the difference between modelled and actual maximal oxygen uptake >50% of the regression slope of the individual oxygen uptake-workrate relationship; as in the first criterion, but for maximal verification oxygen uptake; and a difference of

  7. Taking a Step Forward in Public Health Finance: Establishing Standards for a Uniform Chart of Accounts Crosswalk.

    PubMed

    Honoré, Peggy A; Leider, Jonathon P; Singletary, Vivian; Ross, David A

    2015-01-01

    In its 2012 report on the current and future states of public health finance, the Institute of Medicine noted, with concern, the relative lack of capacity for practitioners and researchers alike to make comparisons between health department expenditures across the country. This is due in part to different accounting systems, service portfolios, and state- or agency-specific reporting requirements. The Institute of Medicine called for a uniform chart of accounts, perhaps building on existing efforts such as the Public Health Uniform National Data Systems (PHUND$). Shortly thereafter, a group was convened to work with public health practitioners and researchers to develop a uniform chart of accounts crosswalk. A year-long process was undertaken to create the crosswalk. This commentary discusses that process, challenges encountered along the way and provides a draft crosswalk in line with the Foundational Public Health Services model that, if used by health departments, could allow for meaningful comparisons between agencies.

  8. Ensuring that the competent are truly competent: an overview of common methods and procedures used to set standards on high-stakes examinations.

    PubMed

    De Champlain, André F

    2004-01-01

    Determining whether or not an examinee has met an adequate standard of performance constitutes a central task for licensure and certification bodies. Consequently, standard setting is a key activity for all certification and licensing testing programs. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of methods that have been proposed for set a passing standard on an examination. First, the distinction between norm-referenced and criterion-referenced methods for setting a standard will be outlined. Then, both test-centered and examinee-centered methods for setting a passing standard will be explicated. The importance of factoring in the consequences of adopting a standard will also be illustrated via the Hofstee method. In the concluding section, important issues pertaining to the selection of panelists as well as the validation of the standard will be addressed briefly.

  9. 13 CFR 120.463 - Regulatory accounting-What are SBA's regulatory accounting requirements for SBA Supervised Lenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... basis in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) as promulgated by the Financial... set forth in FASB Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 15, Accounting by Debtors and... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regulatory accounting-What are...

  10. The Impact of State and Federal Accountability Standards upon the Implementation of Inclusion in Johnston County, NC High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Rex Ivan

    2012-01-01

    As student accountability models have become the norm in the United States, first in individual states such as North Carolina and then throughout the nation with No Child Left Behind (NCLB), the implementation of inclusion as a curriculum delivery model for students with disabilities has been explored. The purpose of this study was to examine how…

  11. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (2) Credit balances must have sufficient digits to accommodate the design of the game. (3) Accounting data displayed to the player may be incremented or decremented using visual effects, but the internal..., during entertaining displays of game results. (2) Progressive prizes may be added to the player's...

  12. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (2) Credit balances must have sufficient digits to accommodate the design of the game. (3) Accounting data displayed to the player may be incremented or decremented using visual effects, but the internal..., during entertaining displays of game results. (2) Progressive prizes may be added to the player's...

  13. Consistency of Angoff-Based Standard-Setting Judgments: Are Item Judgments and Passing Scores Replicable across Different Panels of Experts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Kannan, Priya

    2015-01-01

    Angoff-based standard setting is widely used, especially for high-stakes licensure assessments. Nonetheless, some critics have claimed that the judgment task is too cognitively complex for panelists, whereas others have explicitly challenged the consistency in (replicability of) standard-setting outcomes. Evidence of consistency in item judgments…

  14. An Empirical Examination of the Impact of Group Discussion and Examinee Performance Information on Judgments Made in the Angoff Standard-Setting Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clauser, Brian E.; Harik, Polina; Margolis, Melissa J.; McManus, I. C.; Mollon, Jennifer; Chis, Liliana; Williams, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have compared the Angoff standard-setting procedure to other standard-setting methods, but relatively few studies have evaluated the procedure based on internal criteria. This study uses a generalizability theory framework to evaluate the stability of the estimated cut score. To provide a measure of internal consistency, this…

  15. Estimating the Minimum Number of Judges Required for Test-Centred Standard Setting on Written Assessments. Do Discussion and Iteration Have an Influence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowell, S. L.; Fewtrell, R.; McLaughlin, P. J.

    2008-01-01

    Absolute standard setting procedures are recommended for assessment in medical education. Absolute, test-centred standard setting procedures were introduced for written assessments in the Liverpool MBChB in 2001. The modified Angoff and Ebel methods have been used for short answer question-based and extended matching question-based papers,…

  16. Inflation Accounting Methods and their Effectiveness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    accounting and current cost accounting are explained as the major inflation accounting methods. Inflation accounting standards announced in the United...inflation accounting, constant purchasing power accounting, constant dollar accounting, current cost accounting , current value.

  17. Continuing to Hold the Test Maker Accountable: The ISLLC Standards and the New York State School District Leadership Licensure Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markson, Craig; Inserra, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of school leadership candidates' perceptions of their level of training in the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium Standards (ISLLC) with their scores on Parts I and II of the New York State School District Leader (SDL) licensure assessments. The New York State assessments were…

  18. How Californians View Education Standards, Testing and Accountability: Results from the Third PACE/USC Rossier Poll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plank, David N.; Brewer, Dominic J.; Polikoff, Morgan; Hall, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    California is in the midst of sweeping education changes. The state is rolling out the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and a new system of assessments. Voters approved a temporary statewide tax increase that will provide additional funding to schools after years of spending cuts. The Legislature adopted a new system for funding schools (the…

  19. Standardization of a geo-referenced fishing data set for the Indian Ocean bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (1952-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibawa, Teja A.; Lehodey, Patrick; Senina, Inna

    2017-02-01

    Geo-referenced catch and fishing effort data of the bigeye tuna fisheries in the Indian Ocean over 1952-2014 were analyzed and standardized to facilitate population dynamics modeling studies. During this 62-year historical period of exploitation, many changes occurred both in the fishing techniques and the monitoring of activity. This study includes a series of processing steps used for standardization of spatial resolution, conversion and standardization of catch and effort units, raising of geo-referenced catch into nominal catch level, screening and correction of outliers, and detection of major catchability changes over long time series of fishing data, i.e., the Japanese longline fleet operating in the tropical Indian Ocean. A total of 30 fisheries were finally determined from longline, purse seine and other-gears data sets, from which 10 longline and 4 purse seine fisheries represented 96 % of the whole historical geo-referenced catch. Nevertheless, one-third of total nominal catch is still not included due to a total lack of geo-referenced information and would need to be processed separately, accordingly to the requirements of the study. The geo-referenced records of catch, fishing effort and associated length frequency samples of all fisheries are available at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.864154.

  20. Setting a New Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2009-01-01

    Degrees earned, one measure of academic achievement and increasingly a required ticket for getting a well-paying job in this country, are up in all ethnic groups, according to the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) and a more narrowly focused report released this spring by the National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher…

  1. Standardization of seismic tomographic models and earthquake focal mechanisms data sets based on web technologies, visualization with keyhole markup language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postpischl, Luca; Danecek, Peter; Morelli, Andrea; Pondrelli, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    We present two projects in seismology that have been ported to web technologies, which provide results in Keyhole Markup Language (KML) visualization layers. These use the Google Earth geo-browser as the flexible platform that can substitute specialized graphical tools to perform qualitative visual data analyses and comparisons. The Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES) Tomographic Earth Model Repository contains data sets from over 20 models from the literature. A hierarchical structure of folders that represent the sets of depths for each model is implemented in KML, and this immediately results into an intuitive interface for users to navigate freely and to compare tomographic plots. The KML layer for the European-Mediterranean Regional Centroid-Moment Tensor Catalog displays the focal mechanism solutions or moderate-magnitude Earthquakes from 1997 to the present. Our aim in both projects was to also propose standard representations of scientific data sets. Here, the general semantic approach of an XML framework has an important impact that must be further explored, although we find the KML syntax to more emphasis on aspects of detailed visualization. We have thus used, and propose the use of, Javascript Object Notation (JSON), another semantic notation that stems from the web-development community that provides a compact, general-purpose, data-exchange format.

  2. Gay-Straight Alliances Vary on Dimensions of Youth Socializing and Advocacy: Factors Accounting for Individual and Setting-Level Differences

    PubMed Central

    Poteat, V. Paul; Scheer, Jillian R.; Marx, Robert A.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Yoshikawa, Hiro

    2016-01-01

    Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) are school-based youth settings that could promote health. Yet, GSAs have been treated as homogenous without attention to variability in how they operate or to how youth are involved in different capacities. Using a systems perspective, we considered two primary dimensions along which GSAs function to promote health: providing socializing and advocacy opportunities. Among 448 students in 48 GSAs who attended six regional conferences in Massachusetts (59.8% LGBQ; 69.9% White; 70.1% cisgender female), we found substantial variation among GSAs and youth in levels of socializing and advocacy. GSAs were more distinct from one another on advocacy than socializing. Using multilevel modeling, we identified group and individual factors accounting for this variability. In the socializing model, youth and GSAs that did more socializing activities did more advocacy. In the advocacy model, youth who were more actively engaged in the GSA as well as GSAs whose youth collectively perceived greater school hostility and reported greater social justice efficacy did more advocacy. Findings suggest potential reasons why GSAs vary in how they function in ways ranging from internal provisions of support, to visibility raising, to collective social change. The findings are further relevant for settings supporting youth from other marginalized backgrounds and that include advocacy in their mission. PMID:25855133

  3. An Analysis of the Implementation of the Standard Accounting, Budgeting and Reporting System (SABRS) in the 4th Marine Division.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    request, itemized shopping list for General Services Administration (GSA), Direct Supply Support Control ( DSSC ), Serve Mart, or Mili- tary Standard...a Marine Corps DSSC are listed on a mechanized Daily Stock Fund Expense Listing resulting in a credit in the same total amount of the list- ing on...These documents may be generated by fund administra- tors, DSSC , purchasing and contracting, or disbursing. Validations and edits will be performed

  4. Quantifying, displaying and accounting for heterogeneity in the meta-analysis of RCTs using standard and generalised Q statistics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinical researchers have often preferred to use a fixed effects model for the primary interpretation of a meta-analysis. Heterogeneity is usually assessed via the well known Q and I2 statistics, along with the random effects estimate they imply. In recent years, alternative methods for quantifying heterogeneity have been proposed, that are based on a 'generalised' Q statistic. Methods We review 18 IPD meta-analyses of RCTs into treatments for cancer, in order to quantify the amount of heterogeneity present and also to discuss practical methods for explaining heterogeneity. Results Differing results were obtained when the standard Q and I2 statistics were used to test for the presence of heterogeneity. The two meta-analyses with the largest amount of heterogeneity were investigated further, and on inspection the straightforward application of a random effects model was not deemed appropriate. Compared to the standard Q statistic, the generalised Q statistic provided a more accurate platform for estimating the amount of heterogeneity in the 18 meta-analyses. Conclusions Explaining heterogeneity via the pre-specification of trial subgroups, graphical diagnostic tools and sensitivity analyses produced a more desirable outcome than an automatic application of the random effects model. Generalised Q statistic methods for quantifying and adjusting for heterogeneity should be incorporated as standard into statistical software. Software is provided to help achieve this aim. PMID:21473747

  5. Identification of a Set of Conserved Eukaryotic Internal Retention Time Standards for Data-independent Acquisition Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Sarah J.; Rost, Hannes; Rosenberger, George; Collins, Ben C.; Malmström, Lars; Amodei, Dario; Venkatraman, Vidya; Raedschelders, Koen; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2015-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of retention time (RT) in liquid chromatography-based mass spectrometry data facilitates peptide identification, quantification, and multiplexing in targeted and discovery-based workflows. Retention time prediction is particularly important for peptide analysis in emerging data-independent acquisition (DIA) experiments such as SWATH-MS. The indexed RT approach, iRT, uses synthetic spiked-in peptide standards (SiRT) to set RT to a unit-less scale, allowing for normalization of peptide RT between different samples and chromatographic set-ups. The obligatory use of SiRTs can be costly and complicates comparisons and data integration if standards are not included in every sample. Reliance on SiRTs also prevents the inclusion of archived mass spectrometry data for generation of the peptide assay libraries central to targeted DIA-MS data analysis. We have identified a set of peptide sequences that are conserved across most eukaryotic species, termed Common internal Retention Time standards (CiRT). In a series of tests to support the appropriateness of the CiRT-based method, we show: (1) the CiRT peptides normalized RT in human, yeast, and mouse cell lysate derived peptide assay libraries and enabled merging of archived libraries for expanded DIA-MS quantitative applications; (2) CiRTs predicted RT in SWATH-MS data within a 2-min margin of error for the majority of peptides; and (3) normalization of RT using the CiRT peptides enabled the accurate SWATH-MS-based quantification of 340 synthetic isotopically labeled peptides that were spiked into either human or yeast cell lysate. To automate and facilitate the use of these CiRT peptide lists or other custom user-defined internal RT reference peptides in DIA workflows, an algorithm was designed to automatically select a high-quality subset of datapoints for robust linear alignment of RT for use. Implementations of this algorithm are available for the OpenSWATH and Skyline platforms. Thus, CiRT peptides can

  6. [COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY FOR ACCOUNTING OF CONFOUNDERS IN THE RISK ASSESSMENT IN COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE BASE OF THE METHOD OF STANDARDIZATION].

    PubMed

    Shalaumova, Yu V; Varaksin, A N; Panov, V G

    2016-01-01

    There was performed an analysis of the accounting of the impact of concomitant variables (confounders), introducing a systematic error in the assessment of the impact of risk factors on the resulting variable. The analysis showed that standardization is an effective method for the reduction of the shift of risk assessment. In the work there is suggested an algorithm implementing the method of standardization based on stratification, providing for the minimization of the difference of distributions of confounders in groups on risk factors. To automate the standardization procedures there was developed a software available on the website of the Institute of Industrial Ecology, UB RAS. With the help of the developed software by numerically modeling there were determined conditions of the applicability of the method of standardization on the basis of stratification for the case of the normal distribution on the response and confounder and linear relationship between them. Comparison ofresults obtained with the help of the standardization with statistical methods (logistic regression and analysis of covariance) in solving the problem of human ecology, has shown that obtaining close results is possible if there will be met exactly conditions for the applicability of statistical methods. Standardization is less sensitive to violations of conditions of applicability.

  7. Allele frequencies of the new European Standard Set (ESS) loci in a population of Apulia (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Piglionica, M; Baldassarra, S Lonero; Giardina, E; Tonino Marsella, L; Resta, N; Dell'Erba, A

    2013-02-01

    Allele frequencies of five miniSTRs loci (D1S1656, D2S441, D12S391, D10S1248 and D22S1045) included in the new European Standard Set (ESS) were calculated from a sample of 150 unrelated individuals from Apulia, a Region of Southern Italy. Two different PCR Amplification Kits were used, in order to evaluate the concordance of the genotypes. The results obtained with the two kits showed no differences in all genotype profiles. No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was detected at either locus. Moreover genetic analysis using Fst estimation showed no evidence for differentiation at the five new loci between Apulia and Italian populations. The high levels of polymorphisms of the analyzed markers in the Apulian population allow to confirm that these markers are useful tools in paternity and forensic analysis from degraded DNA samples.

  8. Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Olson, Christine K; Iwamoto, Martha; Perkins, Kiran M; Polen, Kara N D; Hageman, Jeffrey; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Igbinosa, Irogue I; Khan, Sumaiya; Honein, Margaret A; Bell, Michael; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-03-25

    Zika virus transmission was detected in the Region of the Americas (Americas) in Brazil in May 2015, and as of March 21, 2016, local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus had been reported in 32 countries and territories in the Americas, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.* Most persons infected with Zika virus have a mild illness or are asymptomatic. However, increasing evidence supports a link between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes (1), and a possible association between recent Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported (2). Although Zika virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of Aedes species of mosquitoes, sexual transmission also has been documented (3). Zika virus RNA has been detected in a number of body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, and amniotic fluid (3-5), and whereas transmission associated with occupational exposure to these body fluids is theoretically possible, it has not been documented. Although there are no reports of transmission of Zika virus from infected patients to health care personnel or other patients, minimizing exposures to body fluids is important to reduce the possibility of such transmission. CDC recommends Standard Precautions in all health care settings to protect both health care personnel and patients from infection with Zika virus as well as from blood-borne pathogens (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]) (6). Because of the potential for exposure to large volumes of body fluids during the labor and delivery process and the sometimes unpredictable and fast-paced nature of obstetrical care, the use of Standard Precautions in these settings is essential to prevent possible transmission of Zika virus from patients to health care personnel.

  9. Setting site-specific water-quality standards by using tissue residue criteria and bioaccumulation data. Part 1. Methodology.

    PubMed

    Toll, John E; Tear, Lucinda M; DeForest, David K; Brix, Kevin V; Adams, William J

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a method for determining site-specific water-quality standards (SSWQSs) for substances regulated based on tissue residues. The method uses a multisite regression model to solve for the conditional prior probability density function (PDF) on water concentration, given that tissue concentration equals a tissue residue threshold. The method then uses site-specific water and tissue concentration data to update the probabilities on a Monte Carlo sample of the prior PDF by using Bayesian Monte Carlo analysis. The resultant posterior PDF identifies the water concentration that, if met at the site, would provide a desired level of confidence of meeting the tissue residue threshold contingent on model assumptions. This allows for derivation of a SSWQS. The method is fully reproducible, statistically rigorous, and easily implemented. A useful property of the method is that the model is sensitive to the amount of site-specific data available, that is, a more conservative or protective number (water concentration) is derived when the data set is small or the variance is large. Likewise, as the site water concentration increases above the water-quality standard, more site-specific information is needed to demonstrate a safe concentration at the site. A companion paper demonstrates the method by using selenium as an example.

  10. Setting a standard: the limulus amebocyte lysate assay and the assessment of microbial contamination on spacecraft surfaces.

    PubMed

    Morris, Heather C; Monaco, Lisa A; Steele, Andrew; Wainwright, Norm

    2010-10-01

    Historically, colony-forming units as determined by plate cultures have been the standard unit for microbiological analysis of environmental samples, medical diagnostics, and products for human use. However, the time and materials required make plate cultures expensive and potentially hazardous in the closed environments of future NASA missions aboard the International Space Station and missions to other Solar System targets. The Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay is an established method for ensuring the sterility and cleanliness of samples in the meat-packing and pharmaceutical industries. Each of these industries has verified numerical requirements for the correct interpretation of results from this assay. The LAL assay is a rapid, point-of-use, verified assay that has already been approved by NASA Planetary Protection as an alternate, molecular method for the examination of outbound spacecraft. We hypothesize that standards for molecular techniques, similar to those used by the pharmaceutical and meat-packing industries, need to be set by space agencies to ensure accurate data interpretation and subsequent decision making. In support of this idea, we present research that has been conducted to relate the LAL assay to plate cultures, and we recommend values obtained from these investigations that could assist in interpretation and analysis of data obtained from the LAL assay.

  11. Emerging analytical methods to determine gluten markers in processed foods--method development in support of standard setting.

    PubMed

    Weber, Dorcas; Cléroux, Chantal; Godefroy, Samuel Benrejeb

    2009-09-01

    The availability of analytical methods to detect and determine levels of markers of priority allergens in foods is of the utmost importance to support standard setting initiatives, the development of compliance and enforcement activities, as well as to provide guidance to industry on implementation of quality control practices, ensuring the effectiveness of allergen-related sanitation techniques. This paper describes the development and implementation of a mass-spectrometry-based technique to determine markers for individual sources of gluten in beer products. This methodology was shown to answer the requirements of Health Canada's proposed labeling standard for individual gluten source declaration, in order to achieve its policy objectives (i.e., protection of sensitive consumers, while promoting choice). Minimal sample work-up was required and the results obtained by ELISA were further complemented using the LC-MS/MS method. This paper aims to demonstrate the feasibility of alternative techniques to ELISA-based methodologies to determine allergen and gluten markers in food.

  12. Principles and Recommendations for Standardizing the Use of the Next-Generation Sequencing Variant File in Clinical Settings.

    PubMed

    Lubin, Ira M; Aziz, Nazneen; Babb, Lawrence J; Ballinger, Dennis; Bisht, Himani; Church, Deanna M; Cordes, Shaun; Eilbeck, Karen; Hyland, Fiona; Kalman, Lisa; Landrum, Melissa; Lockhart, Edward R; Maglott, Donna; Marth, Gabor; Pfeifer, John D; Rehm, Heidi L; Roy, Somak; Tezak, Zivana; Truty, Rebecca; Ullman-Cullere, Mollie; Voelkerding, Karl V; Worthey, Elizabeth; Zaranek, Alexander W; Zook, Justin M

    2017-03-15

    A national workgroup convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identified principles and made recommendations for standardizing the description of sequence data contained within the variant file generated during the course of clinical next-generation sequence analysis for diagnosing human heritable conditions. The specifications for variant files were initially developed to be flexible with regard to content representation to support a variety of research applications. This flexibility permits variation with regard to how sequence findings are described and this depends, in part, on the conventions used. For clinical laboratory testing, this poses a problem because these differences can compromise the capability to compare sequence findings among laboratories to confirm results and to query databases to identify clinically relevant variants. To provide for a more consistent representation of sequence findings described within variant files, the workgroup made several recommendations that considered alignment to a common reference sequence, variant caller settings, use of genomic coordinates, and gene and variant naming conventions. These recommendations were considered with regard to the existing variant file specifications presently used in the clinical setting. Adoption of these recommendations is anticipated to reduce the potential for ambiguity in describing sequence findings and facilitate the sharing of genomic data among clinical laboratories and other entities.

  13. Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Transplantation: A Global Initiative to Develop a Core Outcome Set for Trials in Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Allison; Budde, Klemens; Gill, John; Josephson, Michelle A.; Marson, Lorna; Pruett, Timothy L.; Reese, Peter P.; Rosenbloom, David; Rostaing, Lionel; Warrens, Anthony N.; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C.; Crowe, Sally; Harris, Tess; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Manns, Braden; Tugwell, Peter; Van Biesen, Wim; Wheeler, David C.; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.; Evangelidis, Nicole; Sautenet, Benedicte; Howell, Martin; Chapman, Jeremy R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although advances in treatment have dramatically improved short-term graft survival and acute rejection in kidney transplant recipients, long-term graft outcomes have not substantially improved. Transplant recipients also have a considerably increased risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and infection, which all contribute to appreciable morbidity and premature mortality. Many trials in kidney transplantation are short-term, frequently use unvalidated surrogate endpoints, outcomes of uncertain relevance to patients and clinicians, and do not consistently measure and report key outcomes like death, graft loss, graft function, and adverse effects of therapy. This diminishes the value of trials in supporting treatment decisions that require individual-level multiple tradeoffs between graft survival and the risk of side effects, adverse events, and mortality. The Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Transplantation initiative aims to develop a core outcome set for trials in kidney transplantation that is based on the shared priorities of all stakeholders. Methods This will include a systematic review to identify outcomes reported in randomized trials, a Delphi survey with an international multistakeholder panel (patients, caregivers, clinicians, researchers, policy makers, members from industry) to develop a consensus-based prioritized list of outcome domains and a consensus workshop to review and finalize the core outcome set for trials in kidney transplantation. Conclusions Developing and implementing a core outcome set to be reported, at a minimum, in all kidney transplantation trials will improve the transparency, quality, and relevance of research; to enable kidney transplant recipients and their clinicians to make better-informed treatment decisions for improved patient outcomes. PMID:27500269

  14. Role of science and judgment in setting national ambient air quality standards: how low is low enough?

    PubMed

    McClellan, Roger O

    2012-06-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires listing as criteria air pollutants those pollutants that arise from multiple sources and are found across the United States. The original list included carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, photochemical oxidants (later regulated as ozone), and hydrocarbons. Later, the listing of hydrocarbons was revoked and lead was listed. The CAA requires the EPA Administrator to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for these pollutants using the "latest scientific knowledge" at levels that, in the judgment of the Administrator, are "requisite to protect public health" while "allowing an adequate margin of safety" without considering the cost of implementing the NAAQS. The NAAQS are set using scientific knowledge to inform the Administrator's policy judgments on each NAAQS. Recently, there has been increasing tension and debate over the role of scientific knowledge versus policy judgment in the setting of NAAQS. This paper reviews key elements of this debate drawing on the opinion of Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer, in Whitman v. American Trucking Associations, to resolve the conundrum posed by the CAA language. I conclude that scientists should carefully distinguish between their interpretations of scientific knowledge on specific pollutants and their personal preferences as to a given policy outcome (i.e., specific level and form of the NAAQS), recognizing that these are policy judgments as to acceptable levels of risk if the science does not identify a threshold level below which there are no identifiable health risks. These policy judgments are exclusively delegated by the CAA to the EPA Administrator who needs to articulate the basis for their policy judgments on the level and form of the NAAQS and associated level of acceptable risk.

  15. Accounting for uncertainty in the historical response rate of the standard treatment in single-arm two-stage designs based on Bayesian power functions.

    PubMed

    Matano, Francesca; Sambucini, Valeria

    2016-11-01

    In phase II single-arm studies, the response rate of the experimental treatment is typically compared with a fixed target value that should ideally represent the true response rate for the standard of care therapy. Generally, this target value is estimated through previous data, but the inherent variability in the historical response rate is not taken into account. In this paper, we present a Bayesian procedure to construct single-arm two-stage designs that allows to incorporate uncertainty in the response rate of the standard treatment. In both stages, the sample size determination criterion is based on the concepts of conditional and predictive Bayesian power functions. Different kinds of prior distributions, which play different roles in the designs, are introduced, and some guidelines for their elicitation are described. Finally, some numerical results about the performance of the designs are provided and a real data example is illustrated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. 25 CFR 543.5 - How does a gaming operation apply to use an alternate minimum standard from those set forth in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does a gaming operation apply to use an alternate minimum standard from those set forth in this part? 543.5 Section 543.5 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II...

  17. 25 CFR 543.5 - How does a gaming operation apply to use an alternate minimum standard from those set forth in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How does a gaming operation apply to use an alternate minimum standard from those set forth in this part? 543.5 Section 543.5 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II...

  18. Early Childhood Educator and Administrator Surveys on the Use of Assessments and Standards in Early Childhood Settings. REL 2014-019

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Clare W.; O'Dwyer, Laura; Cook, Kyle DeMeo

    2014-01-01

    The Early Childhood Educator Survey and the Early Childhood Administrator Survey allow users to collect consistent data on the use of child assessments and learning standards in early childhood learning settings. Each survey includes modules on educator/administrator background information, assessment use, and learning standards implementation.…

  19. A Response to "Setting Reasonable and Useful Performance Standards" in the National Academy of Sciences'"Grading the Nation's Report Card."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Ronald K.; Brennan, Robert L.; Brown, William; Dodd, Barbara; Forsyth, Robert A.; Mehrens, William A.; Nellhaus, Jeff; Reckase, Mark; Rindone, Douglas; van der Linden, Wim J.; Zwick, Rebecca

    2000-01-01

    Responds to a negative evaluation of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and asserts that a review of the evidence for the NAEP performance standards indicates that there is support for the current approach to NAEP standard setting. Considers the scholarship of the NAS evaluation…

  20. 76 FR 14110 - Order Regarding Review of FASB Accounting Support Fee for 2011 Under Section 109 of the Sarbanes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ..., Release No. 63956/February 24, 2011] Order Regarding Review of FASB Accounting Support Fee for 2011 Under... purposes of the securities laws, any accounting principles established by a standard setting body that... standard setting body shall be payable from an annual accounting support fee assessed and collected...

  1. The Gap Between Clinical Research and Standard of Care: A Review of Frailty Assessment Scales in Perioperative Surgical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Baddigam, Ramya; Wajahn, Jennifer; Sipes, Angela C.; Arias-Morales, Carlos E.; Gastaldo, Nicholas; Bergese, Sergio D.

    2016-01-01

    The elderly population in the United States is increasing exponentially in tandem with risk for frailty. Frailty is described by a clinically significant state where a patient is at risk for developing complications requiring increased assistance in daily activities. Frailty syndrome studied in geriatric patients is responsible for an increased risk for falls, and increased mortality. In efforts to prepare for and to intervene in perioperative complications and general frailty, a universal scale to measure frailty is necessary. Many methods for determining frailty have been developed, yet there remains a need to define clinical frailty and, therefore, the most effective way to measure it. This article reviews six popular scales for measuring frailty and evaluates their clinical effectiveness demonstrated in previous studies. By identifying the most time-efficient, criteria comprehensive, and clinically effective scale, a universal scale can be implemented into standard of care and reduce complications from frailty in both non-surgical and surgical settings, especially applied to the perioperative surgical home model. We suggest further evaluation of the Edmonton Frailty Scale for inclusion in patient care. PMID:27493935

  2. Development of spatial data guidelines and standards: spatial data set documentation to support hydrologic analysis in the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulton, James L.

    1992-01-01

    Spatial data analysis has become an integral component in many surface and sub-surface hydrologic investigations within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Currently, one of the largest costs in applying spatial data analysis is the cost of developing the needed spatial data. Therefore, guidelines and standards are required for the development of spatial data in order to allow for data sharing and reuse; this eliminates costly redevelopment. In order to attain this goal, the USGS is expanding efforts to identify guidelines and standards for the development of spatial data for hydrologic analysis. Because of the variety of project and database needs, the USGS has concentrated on developing standards for documenting spatial sets to aid in the assessment of data set quality and compatibility of different data sets. An interim data set documentation standard (1990) has been developed that provides a mechanism for associating a wide variety of information with a data set, including data about source material, data automation and editing procedures used, projection parameters, data statistics, descriptions of features and feature attributes, information on organizational contacts lists of operations performed on the data, and free-form comments and notes about the data, made at various times in the evolution of the data set. The interim data set documentation standard has been automated using a commercial geographic information system (GIS) and data set documentation software developed by the USGS. Where possible, USGS developed software is used to enter data into the data set documentation file automatically. The GIS software closely associates a data set with its data set documentation file; the documentation file is retained with the data set whenever it is modified, copied, or transferred to another computer system. The Water Resources Division of the USGS is continuing to develop spatial data and data processing standards, with emphasis on standards needed to support

  3. Resources, attitudes and culture: an understanding of the factors that influence the functioning of accountability mechanisms in primary health care settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background District level health system governance is recognised as an important but challenging element of health system development in low and middle-income countries. Accountability is a more recent focus in health system debates. Accountability mechanisms are governance tools that seek to regulate answerability between the health system and the community (external accountability) and/or between different levels of the health system (bureaucratic accountability). External accountability has attracted significant attention in recent years, but bureaucratic accountability mechanisms, and the interactions between the two forms of accountability, have been relatively neglected. This is an important gap given that webs of accountability relationships exist within every health system. There is a need to strike a balance between achieving accountability upwards within the health system (for example through information reporting arrangements) while at the same time allowing for the local level innovation that could improve quality of care and patient responsiveness. Methods Using a descriptive literature review, this paper examines the factors that influence the functioning of accountability mechanisms and relationships within the district health system, and draws out the implications for responsiveness to patients and communities. We also seek to understand the practices that might strengthen accountability in ways that improve responsiveness – of the health system to citizens’ needs and rights, and of providers to patients. Results The review highlights the ways in which bureaucratic accountability mechanisms often constrain the functioning of external accountability mechanisms. For example, meeting the expectations of relatively powerful managers further up the system may crowd out efforts to respond to citizens and patients. Organisational cultures characterized by supervision and management systems focused on compliance to centrally defined outputs and targets

  4. Considerations for Using Genetic and Epigenetic Information in Occupational Health Risk Assessment and Standard Setting

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, P. A.; Whittaker, C.; Curran, C. P.

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment forms the basis for both occupational health decision-making and the development of occupational exposure limits (OELs). Although genetic and epigenetic data have not been widely used in risk assessment and ultimately, standard setting, it is possible to envision such uses. A growing body of literature demonstrates that genetic and epigenetic factors condition biological responses to occupational and environmental hazards or serve as targets of them. This presentation addresses the considerations for using genetic and epigenetic information in risk assessments, provides guidance on using this information within the classic risk assessment paradigm, and describes a framework to organize thinking about such uses. The framework is a 4 × 4 matrix involving the risk assessment functions (hazard identification, dose-response modeling, exposure assessment, and risk characterization) on one axis and inherited and acquired genetic and epigenetic data on the other axis. The cells in the matrix identify how genetic and epigenetic data can be used for each risk assessment function. Generally, genetic and epigenetic data might be used as endpoints in hazard identification, as indicators of exposure, as effect modifiers in exposure assessment and dose-response modeling, as descriptors of mode of action, and to characterize toxicity pathways. Vast amounts of genetic and epigenetic data may be generated by high-throughput technologies. These data can be useful for assessing variability and reducing uncertainty in extrapolations, and they may serve as the foundation upon which identification of biological perturbations would lead to a new paradigm of toxicity pathway-based risk assessments. PMID:26583908

  5. Risk-standardized Acute Admission Rates Among Patients With Diabetes and Heart Failure as a Measure of Quality of Accountable Care Organizations: Rationale, Methods, and Early Results

    PubMed Central

    Spatz, Erica S.; Lipska, Kasia J.; Dai, Ying; Bao, Haikun; Lin, Zhenqiu; Parzynski, Craig S.; Altaf, Faseeha K.; Joyce, Erin K.; Montague, Julia A.; Ross, Joseph S.; Bernheim, Susannah M.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Drye, Elizabeth E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Population-based measures of admissions among patients with chronic conditions are important quality indicators of Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs), yet there are challenges in developing measures that enable fair comparisons among providers. Methods Based on consensus standards for outcome measure development and with expert and stakeholder input on methods decisions, we developed and tested two models of risk-standardized acute admission rates (RSAARs) for patients with diabetes and heart failure using 2010–2012 Medicare claims data. Model performance was assessed with deviance R-squared; score reliability was tested with intraclass correlation coefficient. We estimated RSAARs for 114 Shared Savings Program ACOs in 2012 and we assigned ACOs to 3 performance categories: no different, worse than, and better than the national rate. Results The diabetes and heart failure cohorts included 6.5 and 2.6 million Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) beneficiaries aged ≥65 years, respectively. Risk-adjustment variables were age, comorbidities and condition-specific severity variables, but not socioeconomic status or other contextual factors. We selected hierarchical negative binomial models with the outcome of acute, unplanned hospital admissions per 100 person-years. For the diabetes and heart failure measures respectively, the models accounted for 22% and 12% of the deviance in outcomes and score reliability was 0.89 and 0.77. For the diabetes measure, 51 (44.7%) ACOs were no different, 45 (39.5%) were better, and 18 (15.8%) were worse than the national rate. The distribution of performance for the heart failure measure was: 61 (53.5%);,37 (32.5%) and 16 (14.0%), respectively. Conclusion Measures of RSAARs for patients with diabetes and heart failure meet criteria for scientific soundness and reveal important variation in quality across ACOs. PMID:26918404

  6. The Causal Effect of Student Mobility on Standardized Test Performance: A Case Study with Possible Implications for Accountability Mandates within the Elementary and Secondary Education Act

    PubMed Central

    Selya, Arielle S.; Engel-Rebitzer, Eden; Dierker, Lisa; Stephen, Eric; Rose, Jennifer; Coffman, Donna L.; Otis, Mindy

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a limited case study examining the causal inference of student mobility on standardized test performance, within one middle-class high school in suburban Connecticut. Administrative data were used from a district public high school enrolling 319 10th graders in 2010. Propensity score methods were used to estimate the causal effect of student mobility on Math, Science, Reading, and Writing portions of the Connecticut Academic Performance Test (CAPT), after matching mobile vs. stable students on gender, race/ethnicity, eligibility for free/reduced lunches, and special education status. Analyses showed that mobility was associated with lower performance in the CAPT Writing exam. Follow-up analyses revealed that this trend was only significant among those who were ineligible for free/reduced lunches, but not among eligible students. Additionally, mobile students who were ineligible for free/reduced lunches had lower performance in the CAPT Science exam according to some analyses. Large numbers of students transferring into a school district may adversely affect standardized test performance. This is especially relevant for policies that affect student mobility in schools, given the accountability measures in the No Child Left Behind that are currently being re-considered in the recent Every Student Succeeds Act. PMID:27486427

  7. Quality Standards for Adult Literacy. A Practitioner's Guide to the Accountability Framework for the Adult Literacy Education System and Core Quality Standards for Programs = Normes de qualite pour l'alphabetisation des adultes. Guide de l'alphabetiseuse et de l'alphabetiseur sur le cadre de responsabilisation du Systeme d'alphabetisation des adultes et les normes fondamentales de qualite des programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Training and Adjustment Board, Toronto.

    This guide is intended to answer the questions that literacy practitioners might have about the Accountability Framework and the Core Quality Standards approved by the Ontario Training and Adjustment Board (OTAB). Section I provides a background to development of the framework and standards. Section II focuses on what an accountability framework…

  8. 75 FR 5351 - Proposed Revisions to Accounting Guide for LSC Recipients

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... concepts from the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002; (3) references to the accounting standards codification by... Management Manual and LSC Program Letters; (6) revisions to accounting procedures and internal controls to... the Accounting Guide for LSC Recipients. The Guide sets forth LSC's accounting, financial...

  9. Measuring frequency changes due to microwave power variations as a function of C-field setting in a rubidium frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarosy, E. B.; Johnson, Walter A.; Karuza, Sarunas K.; Voit, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    It has been shown in previous studies that in some cesium frequency standards there exist certain C-field settings that minimize frequency changes that are due to variations in the microwave power. In order to determine whether similar results could be obtained with rubidium (Rb) frequency standards (clocks), we performed a similar study, using a completely automated measurement system, on a commercial Rb standard. From our measurements we found that changing the microwave power to the filter cell resulted in significant changes in frequency, and that the magnitude of these frequency changes at low C-field levels went to zero and decreased as the C-field was increased.

  10. "I Am a Normal Man": A Narrative Analysis of the Accounts of Older People with Down's Syndrome Who Lived in Institutionalised Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer; Dodd, Karen; Vetere, Arlene

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a narrative analysis of the accounts of six older people with Down's syndrome who spent part of their childhood in institutional environments. The study aimed to find out how the participants talked about themselves. Different types of narrative analysis were used, including those of Murray ("Qualitative psychology: a practical guide…

  11. PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON PLANTS AND ECOSYSTEMS AS A BASIS FOR SETTING NATIONAL AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-base...

  12. Combined search for the standard model Higgs boson decaying to bb using the D0 run II data set.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Askew, A; Atkins, S; Augsten, K; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bhat, P C; Bhatia, S; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Bu, X B; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Buszello, C P; Camacho-Pérez, E; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Caughron, S; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapon, E; Chen, G; Chevalier-Théry, S; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Croc, A; Cutts, D; Das, A; Davies, G; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Deterre, C; Devaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Ding, P F; Dominguez, A; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Feng, L; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Garcia-Bellido, A; García-González, J A; García-Guerra, G A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia De La Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hogan, J; Hohlfeld, M; Howley, I; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Ilchenko, Y; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jayasinghe, A; Jeong, M S; Jesik, R; Jiang, P; Johns, K; Johnson, E; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Jung, A W; Juste, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Kiselevich, I; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kulikov, S; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lei, X; Lellouch, J; Li, D; Li, H; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, H; Liu, Y; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lopes de Sa, R; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madar, R; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martínez-Ortega, J; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Miconi, F; Mondal, N K; Mulhearn, M; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nguyen, H T; Nunnemann, T; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Padilla, M; Pal, A; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, Y; Petridis, K; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Prokopenko, N; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Renkel, P; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Ross, A; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Sajot, G; Salcido, P; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shaw, S; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Simak, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, K J; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Soustruznik, K; Stark, J; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Suter, L; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsai, Y-T; Tschann-Grimm, K; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Verkheev, A Y; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vilanova, D; Vokac, P; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Wang, R-J; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weichert, J; Welty-Rieger, L; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yamada, R; Yang, S; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, W; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Youn, S W; Yu, J M; Zennamo, J; Zhao, T; Zhao, T G; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L

    2012-09-21

    We present the results of the combination of searches for the standard model Higgs boson produced in association with a W or Z boson and decaying into bb using the data sample collected with the D0 detector in pp collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We derive 95% C.L. upper limits on the Higgs boson cross section relative to the standard model prediction in the mass range 100 GeV ≤ M(H) ≤ 150 GeV, and we exclude Higgs bosons with masses smaller than 102 GeV at the 95% C.L. In the mass range 120 GeV ≤ M(H) ≤145 GeV, the data exhibit an excess above the background prediction with a global significance of 1.5 standard deviations, consistent with the expectation in the presence of a standard model Higgs boson.

  13. The impact of a standardized order set for the management of non-hip fragility fractures in a Fracture Liaison Service.

    PubMed

    Senay, A; Delisle, J; Giroux, M; Laflamme, G Y; Leduc, S; Malo, M; Nguyen, H; Ranger, P; Fernandes, J C

    2016-12-01

    We analysed the impact of a standardized order set empowering staff nurses to independently manage a Fracture Liaison Service over a 9-month period. Nurses identified between 30 and 70 % of non-hip fragility fractures to the unit in charge of management over time. The latter managed 58 % of referred patients.

  14. Assessing disease severity: accuracy and reliability of rater estimates in relation to number of diagrams in a standard area diagram set

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Error in rater estimates of plant disease severity occur, and standard area diagrams (SADs) help improve accuracy and reliability. The effects of diagram number in a SAD set on accuracy and reliability is unknown. The objective of this study was to compare estimates of pecan scab severity made witho...

  15. A Standard Set of Value-Based Patient-Centered Outcomes for Breast Cancer: The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) Initiative.

    PubMed

    Ong, Wee Loon; Schouwenburg, Maartje G; van Bommel, Annelotte C M; Stowell, Caleb; Allison, Kim H; Benn, Karen E; Browne, John P; Cooter, Rodney D; Delaney, Geoff P; Duhoux, Francois P; Ganz, Patricia A; Hancock, Patricia; Jagsi, Reshma; Knaul, Felicia M; Knip, Anne M; Koppert, Linetta B; Kuerer, Henry M; McLaughin, Sarah; Mureau, Marc A M; Partridge, Ann H; Reid, Dereesa Purtell; Sheeran, Lisa; Smith, Thomas J; Stoutjesdijk, Mark J; Vrancken Peeters, Marie Jeanne T F D; Wengström, Yvonne; Yip, Cheng-Har; Saunders, Christobel

    2016-12-29

    A major challenge in value-based health care is the lack of standardized health outcomes measurements, hindering optimal monitoring and comparison of the quality of health care across different settings globally. The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) assembled a multidisciplinary international working group, comprised of 26 health care providers and patient advocates, to develop a standard set of value-based patient-centered outcomes for breast cancer (BC). The working group convened via 8 teleconferences and completed a follow-up survey after each meeting. A modified 2-round Delphi method was used to achieve consensus on the outcomes and case-mix variables to be included. Patient focus group meetings (8 early or metastatic BC patients) and online anonymized surveys of 1225 multinational BC patients and survivors were also conducted to obtain patients' input. The standard set encompasses survival and cancer control, and disutility of care (eg, acute treatment complications) outcomes, to be collected through administrative data and/or clinical records. A combination of multiple patient-reported outcomes measurement (PROM) tools is recommended to capture long-term degree of health outcomes. Selected case-mix factors were recommended to be collected at baseline. The ICHOM will endeavor to achieve wide buy-in of this set and facilitate its implementation in routine clinical practice in various settings and institutions worldwide.

  16. International Accounting and the Accounting Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laribee, Stephen F.

    The American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) has been instrumental in internationalizing the accounting curriculum by means of accreditation requirements and standards. Colleges and universities have met the AACSB requirements either by providing separate international accounting courses or by integrating international topics…

  17. The Creation of Standard-Setting Videos to Support Faculty Observations of Learner Performance and Entrustment Decisions.

    PubMed

    Calaman, Sharon; Hepps, Jennifer H; Bismilla, Zia; Carraccio, Carol; Englander, Robert; Feraco, Angela; Landrigan, Christopher P; Lopreiato, Joseph O; Sectish, Theodore C; Starmer, Amy J; Yu, Clifton E; Spector, Nancy D; West, Daniel C

    2016-02-01

    Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) provide a framework to standardize medical education outcomes and advance competency-based assessment. Direct observation of performance plays a central role in entrustment decisions; however, data obtained from these observations are often insufficient to draw valid high-stakes conclusions. One approach to enhancing the reliability and validity of these assessments is to create videos that establish performance standards to train faculty observers. Little is known about how to create videos that can serve as standards for assessment of EPAs.The authors report their experience developing videos that represent five levels of performance for an EPA for patient handoffs. The authors describe a process that begins with mapping the EPA to the critical competencies needed to make an entrustment decision. Each competency is then defined by five milestones (behavioral descriptors of performance at five advancing levels). Integration of the milestones at each level across competencies enabled the creation of clinical vignettes that were converted into video scripts and ultimately videos. Each video represented a performance standard from novice to expert. The process included multiple assessments by experts to guide iterative improvements, provide evidence of content validity, and ensure that the authors successfully translated behavioral descriptions and vignettes into videos that represented the intended performance level for a learner. The steps outlined are generalizable to other EPAs, serving as a guide for others to develop videos to train faculty. This process provides the level of content validity evidence necessary to support using videos as standards for high-stakes entrustment decisions.

  18. Intelligent Accountability in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Onora

    2013-01-01

    Systems of accountability are "second order" ways of using evidence of the standard to which "first order" tasks are carried out for a great variety of purposes. However, more accountability is not always better, and processes of holding to account can impose high costs without securing substantial benefits. At their worst,…

  19. Standard Setting and Risk Preference: An Elaboration of the Theory of Achievement Motivation and an Empirical Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhl, Julius

    1978-01-01

    A formal elaboration of the original theory of achievement motivation (Atkinson, 1957; Atkinson & Feather, 1966) is proposed that includes personal standards as determinants of motivational tendencies. The results of an experiment are reported that examines the validity of some of the implications of the elaborated model proposed here. (Author/RK)

  20. The Accounting Capstone Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Henry; Norris, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Capstone courses in accounting programs bring students experiences integrating across the curriculum (University of Washington, 2005) and offer unique (Sanyal, 2003) and transformative experiences (Sill, Harward, & Cooper, 2009). Students take many accounting courses without preparing complete sets of financial statements. Accountants not only…

  1. Ethical accountability in the cyberspace

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, K.L.; Strohmaier, M.

    1994-12-31

    Conformance with ethical behavior consists of adherence to the standards of conduct for any given group. When standards are not formalized, there can exist ethical disparity from which many diverse problems can result. These problems are especially evident in the cyberspace. Within the cyberspace, the {open_quote}given group{close_quote} is culturally and ethnically diverse. As such, it $8 difficult to hold the individuals to a nonformalized set of standards. Several important issues need to be addressed in order to balance each individual`s dual needs for freedom of expression and protection in the cyberspace. These issues include development of formalized standards, a general protocol for cross- cultural interaction, and ethical accountability.

  2. Group versus modified individual standard-setting on multiple-choice questions with the Angoff method for fourth-year medical students in the internal medicine clerkship

    PubMed Central

    Senthong, Vichai; Chindaprasirt, Jarin; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Aekphachaisawat, Noppadol; Chaowattanapanit, Suteeraporn; Limpawattana, Panita; Choonhakarn, Charoen; Sookprasert, Aumkhae

    2013-01-01

    Background The Angoff method is one of the preferred methods for setting a passing level in an exam. Normally, group meetings are required, which may be a problem for busy medical educators. Here, we compared a modified Angoff individual method to the conventional group method. Methods Six clinical instructors were divided into two groups matched by teaching experience: modified Angoff individual method (three persons) and conventional group method (three persons). The passing scores were set by using the Angoff theory. The groups set the scores individually and then met to determine the passing score. In the modified Angoff individual method, passing scores were judged by each instructor and the final passing score was adjusted by the concordance method and reliability index. Results There were 94 fourth-year medical students who took the test. The mean (standard deviation) test score was 65.35 (8.38), with a median of 64 (range 46–82). The three individual instructors took 45, 60, and 60 minutes to finish the task, while the group spent 90 minutes in discussion. The final passing score in the modified Angoff individual method was 52.18 (56.75 minus 4.57) or 52 versus 51 from the standard group method. There was not much difference in numbers of failed students by either method (four versus three). Conclusion The modified Angoff individual method may be a feasible way to set a standard passing score with less time consumed and more independent rather than group work by instructors. PMID:24101890

  3. Accounting Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prickett, Charlotte

    This curriculum guide describes the accounting curriculum in the following three areas: accounting clerk, bookkeeper, and nondegreed accountant. The competencies and tasks complement the Arizona validated listing in these areas. The guide lists 24 competencies for nondegreed accountants, 10 competencies for accounting clerks, and 11 competencies…

  4. Teaching communication skills in clinical settings: comparing two applications of a comprehensive program with standardized and real patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Communication is important for the quality of clinical practice, and programs have been implemented to improve healthcare providers’ communication skills. However, the consistency of programs teaching communication skills has received little attention, and debate exists about the application of acquired skills to real patients. This study inspects whether (1) results from a communication program are replicated with different samples, and (2) results with standardized patients apply to interviews with real patients. Methods A structured, nine-month communication program was applied in two consecutive years to two different samples of healthcare professionals (25 in the first year, 20 in the second year). Results were assessed at four different points in time, each year, regarding participants’ confidence levels (self-rated), basic communication skills in interviews with standardized patients, and basic communication skills in interviews with real patients. Data were analyzed using GLM Repeated-Measures procedures. Results Improvements were statistically significant in both years in all measures except in simulated patients’ assessment of the 2008 group. Differences between the two samples were non-significant. Differences between interviews with standardized and with real patients were also non-significant. Conclusions The program’s positive outcomes were replicated in different samples, and acquired skills were successfully applied to real-patient interviews. This reinforces this type of program structure as a valuable training tool, with results translating into real situations. It also adds to the reliability of the assessment instruments employed, though these may need adaptation in the case of real patients. PMID:24886341

  5. Demonstration of the frequency offset errors introduced by an incorrect setting of the Zeeman/magnetic field adjustment on the cesium beam frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    The fine frequency setting of a cesium beam frequency standard is accomplished by adjusting the C field control with the appropriate Zeeman frequency applied to the harmonic generator. A novice operator in the field, even when using the correct Zeeman frequency input, may mistakenly set the C field to any one of seven major Beam I peaks (fingers) represented by the Ramsey curve. This can result in frequency offset errors of as much as 2.5 parts in ten to the tenth. The effects of maladjustment are demonstrated and suggestions are discussed on how to avoid the subtle traps associated with C field adjustments.

  6. OSHA's approach to risk assessment for setting a revised occupational exposure standard for 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed

    Grossman, E A; Martonik, J

    1990-06-01

    In its 1980 benzene decision [Industrial Union Department, ALF-CIO v. American Petroleum Institute, 448 U.S. 607 (1980)], the Supreme Court ruled that "before he can promulgate any permanent health or safety standard, the Secretary [of Labor] is required to make a threshold finding that a place of employment is unsafe--in the sense that significant risks are present and can be lessened by a change in practices" (448 U.S. at 642). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has interpreted this to mean that whenever possible, it must quantify the risk associated with occupational exposure to a toxic substance at the current permissible exposure limit (PEL). If OSHA determines that there is significant risk to workers' health at its current standard, then it must quantify the risk associated with a variety of alternative standards to determine at what level, if any, occupational exposure to a substance no longer poses a significant risk. For rulemaking on occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene, there are two studies that are suitable for quantitative risk assessment. One is a mouse inhalation bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP), and the other is a rat inhalation bioassay conducted by Hazelton Laboratories Europe. Of the four risk assessments that have been submitted to OSHA, all four have used the mouse and/or rat data with a variety of models to quantify the risk associated with occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene. In addition, OSHA has performed its own risk assessment using the female mouse and female rat data and the one-hit and multistage models.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Development of a 24-locus multiplex system to incorporate the core loci in the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) and the European Standard Set (ESS).

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Shen, Hongying; Tian, Huaizhou; Jin, Ping; Jiang, Xianhua

    2014-01-01

    The 24-locus multiplex system allows co-amplification and fluorescent detection of 24 loci (23 STR loci and Amelogenin), including STR loci in the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) and the ESS (European Standard Set) as well as five additional loci (D2S1338, D6S1043, D19S433, Penta D and Penta E) commonly used in commercial kits. It facilitates data sharing and minimizes adventitious matches within national or between international DNA databases. Additionally, the system can amplify directly from blood and buccal samples spotted on filter paper and swabs and reduce the cycling time to less than one hour and a half. Primers, internal size standard, allelic ladders and matrix standard set were designed and created in-house with a design strategy to work in this multiplex. Developmental validation experiments followed the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) and the Chinese National Standard (GA/T815-2009) guidelines. The system was evaluated by species specificity, sensitivity, stability, precision and accuracy, case-type samples, population, mixture and PCR-based studies. The results demonstrate that the 24-locus multiplex system is a robust and reliable identification assay as required for forensic DNA typing and databasing.

  8. Comparing Geologic Data Sets Collected by Planetary Analog Traverses and by Standard Geologic Field Mapping: Desert Rats Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Wanda; Evans, Cynthia; Gruener, John; Eppler, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Geologic mapping involves interpreting relationships between identifiable units and landforms to understand the formative history of a region. Traditional field techniques are used to accomplish this on Earth. Mapping proves more challenging for other planets, which are studied primarily by orbital remote sensing and, less frequently, by robotic and human surface exploration. Systematic comparative assessments of geologic maps created by traditional mapping versus photogeology together with data from planned traverses are limited. The objective of this project is to produce a geologic map from data collected on the Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) 2010 analog mission using Apollo-style traverses in conjunction with remote sensing data. This map is compared with a geologic map produced using standard field techniques.

  9. Bilateral comparison on the calibration of a set of F1 mass standards between IBMETRO (Bolivia) and INTI (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quille, Ruben; Sanchez, Jorge; Escalante, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Mass calibration is an important activity for National Metrology Institutes (NMIs), due to the amount of measurements on scientific, industrial and legal activities that have traceability to the national mass standards of each country. In order to evaluate the stated uncertainty and degree of equivalence between INTI-Argentina and IBMETRO-Bolivia on mass calibration a bilateral comparison was agreed between both laboratories. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  10. 41 CFR 301-71.2 - What are the standard data elements and when must they be captured on a travel accounting system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... data elements and when must they be captured on a travel accounting system? 301-71.2 Section 301-71.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS General § 301-71.2 What...

  11. 41 CFR 301-71.2 - What are the standard data elements and when must they be captured on a travel accounting system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... data elements and when must they be captured on a travel accounting system? 301-71.2 Section 301-71.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS General § 301-71.2 What...

  12. 41 CFR 301-71.2 - What are the standard data elements and when must they be captured on a travel accounting system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... data elements and when must they be captured on a travel accounting system? 301-71.2 Section 301-71.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS General § 301-71.2 What...

  13. 41 CFR 301-71.2 - What are the standard data elements and when must they be captured on a travel accounting system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... data elements and when must they be captured on a travel accounting system? 301-71.2 Section 301-71.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS General § 301-71.2 What...

  14. 41 CFR 301-71.2 - What are the standard data elements and when must they be captured on a travel accounting system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... data elements and when must they be captured on a travel accounting system? 301-71.2 Section 301-71.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS General § 301-71.2 What...

  15. Estimation of a Self-Consistent Set of Radiobiological Parameters From Hypofractionated Versus Standard Radiation Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pedicini, Piernicola; Strigari, Lidia; Benassi, Marcello

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To determine a self-consistent set of radiobiological parameters in prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A method to estimate intrinsic radiosensitivity (α), fractionation sensitivity (α/β), repopulation doubling time, number of clonogens, and kick-off time for accelerated repopulation of prostate cancer has been developed. Based on the generalized linear-quadratic model and without assuming the isoeffective hypothesis, the potential applications of the method were investigated using the clinical outcome of biochemical relapse-free survival recently reviewed in the literature. The strengths and limitations of the method, regarding the fitted parameters and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), are also discussed. Results: Our best estimate of α/β is 2.96 Gy (95% CI 2.41-3.53 Gy). The corresponding α value is 0.16 Gy{sup −1} (95% CI 0.14-0.18 Gy{sup −1}), which is compatible with a realistic number of clonogens: 6.5 × 10{sup 6} (95% CI 1.5 × 10{sup 6}-2.1 × 10{sup 7}). The estimated cell doubling time is 5.1 days (95% CI 4.2-7.2 days), very low if compared with that reported in the literature. This corresponds to the dose required to offset the repopulation occurring in 1 day of 0.52 Gy/d (95% CI 0.32-0.68 Gy/d). However, a long kick-off time of 31 days (95% CI 22-41 days) from the start of radiation therapy was found. Conclusion: The proposed analytic/graphic method has allowed the fitting of clinical data, providing a self-consistent set of radiobiological parameters for prostate cancer. With our analysis we confirm a low value for α/β with a correspondingly high value of intrinsic radiosensitivity, a realistic average number of clonogens, a long kick-off time for accelerated repopulation, and a surprisingly fast repopulation that suggests the involvement of subpopulations of specifically tumorigenic stem cells during continuing radiation therapy.

  16. Diagnosis of Persistent Fever in the Tropics: Set of Standard Operating Procedures Used in the NIDIAG Febrile Syndrome Study

    PubMed Central

    Alirol, Emilie; Horie, Ninon Seiko; Barbé, Barbara; Lejon, Veerle; Verdonck, Kristien; Gillet, Philippe; Jacobs, Jan; Büscher, Philippe; Kanal, Basudha; Bhattarai, Narayan Raj; El Safi, Sayda; Phe, Thong; Lim, Kruy; Leng, Long; Lutumba, Pascal; Mukendi, Deby; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Boelaert, Marleen; Rijal, Suman; Chappuis, François

    2016-01-01

    In resource-limited settings, the scarcity of skilled personnel and adequate laboratory facilities makes the differential diagnosis of fevers complex [1–5]. Febrile illnesses are diagnosed clinically in most rural centers, and both Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) and clinical algorithms can be valuable aids to health workers and facilitate therapeutic decisions [6,7]. The persistent fever syndrome targeted by NIDIAG is defined as presence of fever for at least one week. The NIDIAG clinical research consortium focused on potentially severe and treatable infections and therefore targeted the following conditions as differential diagnosis of persistent fever: visceral leishmaniasis (VL), human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), enteric (typhoid and paratyphoid) fever, brucellosis, melioidosis, leptospirosis, malaria, tuberculosis, amoebic liver abscess, relapsing fever, HIV/AIDS, rickettsiosis, and other infectious diseases (e.g., pneumonia). From January 2013 to October 2014, a prospective clinical phase III diagnostic accuracy study was conducted in one site in Cambodia, two sites in Nepal, two sites in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and one site in Sudan (clinicaltrials.gov no. NCT01766830). The study objectives were to (1) determine the prevalence of the target diseases in patients presenting with persistent fever, (2) assess the predictive value of clinical and first-line laboratory features, and (3) assess the diagnostic accuracy of several RDTs for the diagnosis of the different target conditions. PMID:27812090

  17. Diagnosis of Persistent Fever in the Tropics: Set of Standard Operating Procedures Used in the NIDIAG Febrile Syndrome Study.

    PubMed

    Alirol, Emilie; Horie, Ninon Seiko; Barbé, Barbara; Lejon, Veerle; Verdonck, Kristien; Gillet, Philippe; Jacobs, Jan; Büscher, Philippe; Kanal, Basudha; Bhattarai, Narayan Raj; El Safi, Sayda; Phe, Thong; Lim, Kruy; Leng, Long; Lutumba, Pascal; Mukendi, Deby; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Boelaert, Marleen; Rijal, Suman; Chappuis, François

    2016-11-01

    In resource-limited settings, the scarcity of skilled personnel and adequate laboratory facilities makes the differential diagnosis of fevers complex [1-5]. Febrile illnesses are diagnosed clinically in most rural centers, and both Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) and clinical algorithms can be valuable aids to health workers and facilitate therapeutic decisions [6,7]. The persistent fever syndrome targeted by NIDIAG is defined as presence of fever for at least one week. The NIDIAG clinical research consortium focused on potentially severe and treatable infections and therefore targeted the following conditions as differential diagnosis of persistent fever: visceral leishmaniasis (VL), human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), enteric (typhoid and paratyphoid) fever, brucellosis, melioidosis, leptospirosis, malaria, tuberculosis, amoebic liver abscess, relapsing fever, HIV/AIDS, rickettsiosis, and other infectious diseases (e.g., pneumonia). From January 2013 to October 2014, a prospective clinical phase III diagnostic accuracy study was conducted in one site in Cambodia, two sites in Nepal, two sites in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and one site in Sudan (clinicaltrials.gov no. NCT01766830). The study objectives were to (1) determine the prevalence of the target diseases in patients presenting with persistent fever, (2) assess the predictive value of clinical and first-line laboratory features, and (3) assess the diagnostic accuracy of several RDTs for the diagnosis of the different target conditions.

  18. Implementing the Science Assessment Standards: Developing and validating a set of laboratory assessment tasks in high school biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Gouranga Chandra

    Very often a number of factors, especially time, space and money, deter many science educators from using inquiry-based, hands-on, laboratory practical tasks as alternative assessment instruments in science. A shortage of valid inquiry-based laboratory tasks for high school biology has been cited. Driven by this need, this study addressed the following three research questions: (1) How can laboratory-based performance tasks be designed and developed that are doable by students for whom they are designed/written? (2) Do student responses to the laboratory-based performance tasks validly represent at least some of the intended process skills that new biology learning goals want students to acquire? (3) Are the laboratory-based performance tasks psychometrically consistent as individual tasks and as a set? To answer these questions, three tasks were used from the six biology tasks initially designed and developed by an iterative process of trial testing. Analyses of data from 224 students showed that performance-based laboratory tasks that are doable by all students require careful and iterative process of development. Although the students demonstrated more skill in performing than planning and reasoning, their performances at the item level were very poor for some items. Possible reasons for the poor performances have been discussed and suggestions on how to remediate the deficiencies have been made. Empirical evidences for validity and reliability of the instrument have been presented both from the classical and the modern validity criteria point of view. Limitations of the study have been identified. Finally implications of the study and directions for further research have been discussed.

  19. Risk Management Practices and Accounting Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Rita Hartung; Yahr, Robert B.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews current school district risk management practices and the related accounting requirements. Summarizes the Governmental Accounting Standards Board's proposed accounting standards and the impact of these on school districts' risk management practices and on their financial statements. (11 references) (MLF)

  20. Randomly Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.; Geppert, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    The accountability debate tends to devolve into a battle between the pro-testing and anti-testing crowds. When it comes to the design of a school accountability system, the devil is truly in the details. A well-designed accountability plan may go a long way toward giving school personnel the kinds of signals they need to improve performance.…