Science.gov

Sample records for accounts payable judgments

  1. 17 CFR 256.232 - Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accounts payable. 256.232... SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 7. Current and Accrued Liabilities § 256.232 Accounts payable. This account...

  2. 17 CFR 256.232 - Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounts payable. 256.232... SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 7. Current and Accrued Liabilities § 256.232 Accounts payable. This account...

  3. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... payable. 367.2320 Section 367.2320 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2320 Account 232,...

  4. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... payable. 367.2320 Section 367.2320 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2320 Account 232,...

  5. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... payable. 367.2320 Section 367.2320 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2320 Account 232,...

  6. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... payable. 367.2320 Section 367.2320 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2320 Account 232,...

  7. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... payable. 367.2320 Section 367.2320 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2320 Account 232,...

  8. 47 CFR 32.4000 - Current accounts and notes payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Current accounts and notes payable. 32.4000 Section 32.4000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES....4000 Current accounts and notes payable. (a) This account shall include: (1) All amounts currently...

  9. 47 CFR 32.4000 - Current accounts and notes payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Current accounts and notes payable. 32.4000 Section 32.4000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES....4000 Current accounts and notes payable. (a) This account shall include: (1) All amounts currently...

  10. 47 CFR 32.4000 - Current accounts and notes payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Current accounts and notes payable. 32.4000 Section 32.4000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES....4000 Current accounts and notes payable. (a) This account shall include:(1) All amounts currently...

  11. 47 CFR 32.4000 - Current accounts and notes payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Current accounts and notes payable. 32.4000 Section 32.4000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES....4000 Current accounts and notes payable. (a) This account shall include:(1) All amounts currently...

  12. 47 CFR 32.4000 - Current accounts and notes payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Current accounts and notes payable. 32.4000 Section 32.4000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES....4000 Current accounts and notes payable. (a) This account shall include:(1) All amounts currently...

  13. 18 CFR 367.2310 - Account 231, Notes payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... payable. 367.2310 Section 367.2310 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2310 Account 231,...

  14. 18 CFR 367.2410 - Account 241, Tax collections payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... collections payable. 367.2410 Section 367.2410 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2410 Account 241,...

  15. 18 CFR 367.2410 - Account 241, Tax collections payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... collections payable. 367.2410 Section 367.2410 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2410 Account 241,...

  16. 18 CFR 367.2310 - Account 231, Notes payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... payable. 367.2310 Section 367.2310 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2310 Account 231,...

  17. 18 CFR 367.2310 - Account 231, Notes payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... payable. 367.2310 Section 367.2310 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2310 Account 231,...

  18. 18 CFR 367.2410 - Account 241, Tax collections payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... collections payable. 367.2410 Section 367.2410 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2410 Account 241,...

  19. 18 CFR 367.2410 - Account 241, Tax collections payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... collections payable. 367.2410 Section 367.2410 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2410 Account 241,...

  20. 18 CFR 367.2310 - Account 231, Notes payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... payable. 367.2310 Section 367.2310 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2310 Account 231,...

  1. 18 CFR 367.2410 - Account 241, Tax collections payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... collections payable. 367.2410 Section 367.2410 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2410 Account 241,...

  2. 18 CFR 367.2310 - Account 231, Notes payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... payable. 367.2310 Section 367.2310 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2310 Account 231,...

  3. 17 CFR 256.234 - Accounts payable to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... companies. 256.234 Section 256.234 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 7. Current and Accrued Liabilities § 256.234 Accounts payable...

  4. Processing Accounts Payable Invoices. Student Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElveen, Peggy C.

    Supporting performance objective 38 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on processing accounts payable invoices are included in this packet, which is one of a series. The student materials include ten invoices and receiving documents and…

  5. On-Line Purchasing/Accounts Payable at the University of Michigan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Robert E.; Block, Roxana L.

    An integrated data base system providing online services to purchasing and accounts payable, which was implemented at the University of Michigan, is described. The system was designed to use online IMS transactions for data entry and inquiry and IMS batch reporting programs. With the implementation of the system, departmental and vendor inquiries…

  6. 75 FR 76036 - Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise Disbursement Divisions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise Disbursement Divisions, and Payroll Department Within the Shared Service Center, Bensalem, PA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To...

  7. 18 CFR 367.2340 - Account 234, Accounts payable to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities §...

  8. 18 CFR 367.2340 - Account 234, Accounts payable to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities §...

  9. 18 CFR 367.2340 - Account 234, Accounts payable to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities §...

  10. 18 CFR 367.2340 - Account 234, Accounts payable to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities §...

  11. 18 CFR 367.2340 - Account 234, Accounts payable to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities §...

  12. 18 CFR 367.2330 - Account 233, Notes payable to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities §...

  13. 18 CFR 367.2330 - Account 233, Notes payable to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities §...

  14. 18 CFR 367.2330 - Account 233, Notes payable to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities §...

  15. 18 CFR 367.2330 - Account 233, Notes payable to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities §...

  16. 18 CFR 367.2330 - Account 233, Notes payable to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities §...

  17. Accounting for Occurrences: A New View of the Use of Contingency Information in Causal Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    When people make causal judgments from contingency information, a principal aim is to account for occurrences of the outcome. When 2 causes are under consideration, the capacity of either to account for occurrences is judged from how likely the cause is to be present when the outcome occurs and from the rate at which the outcome occurs when that…

  18. Assessment, Accountability and the Classroom: A Community of Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Mark

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, the author attempts to help the reader see beyond the current state of affairs in terms of the relationship between classroom assessment and accountability and to consider some wider perspectives and possibilities. Hopefully, this will also help the reader step into the spirit of the discussion that is inherent in the chapters…

  19. Children's Narrative Accounts and Judgments of Their Own Peer-Exclusion Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainryb, Cecilia; Komolova, Masha; Brehl, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    Although exclusion is commonly thought of as a form of relational or social aggression, it often reflects attempts at maintaining friendships, drawing group boundaries, and optimizing group functioning and can thus also be considered an inevitable feature of normative social interactions. This study examines the narrative accounts and judgments of…

  20. Dual-processing accounts of reasoning, judgment, and social cognition.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan St B T

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews a diverse set of proposals for dual processing in higher cognition within largely disconnected literatures in cognitive and social psychology. All these theories have in common the distinction between cognitive processes that are fast, automatic, and unconscious and those that are slow, deliberative, and conscious. A number of authors have recently suggested that there may be two architecturally (and evolutionarily) distinct cognitive systems underlying these dual-process accounts. However, it emerges that (a) there are multiple kinds of implicit processes described by different theorists and (b) not all of the proposed attributes of the two kinds of processing can be sensibly mapped on to two systems as currently conceived. It is suggested that while some dual-process theories are concerned with parallel competing processes involving explicit and implicit knowledge systems, others are concerned with the influence of preconscious processes that contextualize and shape deliberative reasoning and decision-making. PMID:18154502

  1. The influence of accounts and remorse on mock jurors' judgments of offenders.

    PubMed

    Jehle, Alayna; Miller, Monica K; Kemmelmeier, Markus

    2009-10-01

    Defendants often provide accounts that minimize their responsibility for the accused offense. Jurors attribute responsibility to defendants and decide legal outcomes based on the given account. The current research examined the effects of accounts (i.e., excuse, justification, denial, and no explanation) and the defendant's remorse display (i.e., remorseful, remorseless) on mock jurors' judgments. Participants acquitted the defendant in the denial condition most often and recommended the most lenient punishment in the justification condition. The remorseful defendant was found guilty more frequently than the remorseless defendant in the no explanation and (marginally) excuse conditions. Limitations and future research are discussed. PMID:19082696

  2. Traceable accounts of subjective probability judgments in the IPCC and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, P. G.

    2012-12-01

    One of the major sources of controversy surrounding the reports of the IPCC has been the characterization of uncertainty. Although arguably the IPCC has paid more attention to the process of uncertainty analysis and communication than any comparable assessment body, its efforts to achieve consistency have produced mixed results. In particular, the extensive use of subjective probability assessment has attracted widespread criticism. Statements such as "Average Northern Hemisphere temperatures during the second half of the 20th century were very likely higher than during any other 50-year period in the last 500 years" are ubiquitous (one online database lists nearly 3000 such claims), and indeed are the primary way in which its key "findings" are reported. Much attention is drawn to the precise quantitative definition of such statements (e.g., "very likely" means >90% probability, vs. "extremely likely" which means >95% certainty). But there is no process by which the decision regarding the choice of such uncertainty level for a given finding is formally made or reported, and thus they are easily by disputed by anyone, expert or otherwise, who disagrees with the assessment. In the "Uncertainty Guidance Paper" for the Third Assessment Report, Richard Moss and Steve Schneider defined the concept of a "traceable account," which gave exhaustive detail regarding how one ought to provide documentation of such an uncertainty assessment. But the guidance, while appearing straightforward and reasonable, in fact was an unworkable recipe, which would have taken near-infinite time if used for more than a few key results, and would have required a different structuring of the text than the conventional scientific assessment. And even then it would have left a gap when it came to the actual provenance of any such specific judgments, because there simply is no formal step at which individuals turn their knowledge of the evidence on some finding into a probability judgment. The

  3. 32 CFR 536.120 - Claims payable as maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims payable as maritime claims. 536.120 Section 536.120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.120 Claims payable as maritime claims....

  4. 32 CFR 536.120 - Claims payable as maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable as maritime claims. 536.120 Section 536.120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.120 Claims payable as maritime claims....

  5. 29 CFR 4022.6 - Annuity payable for total disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annuity payable for total disability. 4022.6 Section 4022.6... § 4022.6 Annuity payable for total disability. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, an... on account of the total and permanent disability of a participant which is expected to last for...

  6. 29 CFR 4022.6 - Annuity payable for total disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annuity payable for total disability. 4022.6 Section 4022.6... § 4022.6 Annuity payable for total disability. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... terms of a plan on account of the total and permanent disability of a participant which is expected...

  7. 29 CFR 4022.6 - Annuity payable for total disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annuity payable for total disability. 4022.6 Section 4022.6... § 4022.6 Annuity payable for total disability. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, an... on account of the total and permanent disability of a participant which is expected to last for...

  8. 29 CFR 4022.6 - Annuity payable for total disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annuity payable for total disability. 4022.6 Section 4022.6... § 4022.6 Annuity payable for total disability. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, an... on account of the total and permanent disability of a participant which is expected to last for...

  9. 29 CFR 4022.6 - Annuity payable for total disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annuity payable for total disability. 4022.6 Section 4022.6... § 4022.6 Annuity payable for total disability. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... terms of a plan on account of the total and permanent disability of a participant which is expected...

  10. A Model for Stochastic Drift in Memory Strength to Account for Judgments of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikstrom, Sverker; Jonsson, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has shown that judgments of learning (JOLs) made immediately after encoding have a low correlation with actual cued-recall performance, whereas the correlation is high for delayed judgments. In this article, the authors propose a formal theory describing the stochastic drift of memory strength over the retention interval to…

  11. A Dual Criterion Account of the Development of Linguistic Judgment in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, William E.; Lipko, Amanda R.

    2008-01-01

    Preschool-age children were hypothesized to use one of two criteria, cue recognition or target generation, to make several linguistic judgments. When deciding whether a word is one they know, for example, some were expected to consider whether they recognized its sound form (cue recognition), whereas others were expected to consider whether a…

  12. 22 CFR 23.1 - Remittances made payable to the Department of State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remittances made payable to the Department of State. 23.1 Section 23.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE FEES AND FUNDS FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING § 23.1 Remittances made payable to the Department of State. Except as otherwise specified in this...

  13. 32 CFR 536.76 - Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act. 536.76 Section 536.76 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.76 Claims not payable under the...

  14. 32 CFR 536.76 - Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act. 536.76 Section 536.76 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.76 Claims not payable under the...

  15. 32 CFR 536.76 - Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act. 536.76 Section 536.76 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.76 Claims not payable under the...

  16. 32 CFR 536.76 - Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act. 536.76 Section 536.76 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.76 Claims not payable under the...

  17. 32 CFR 536.76 - Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act. 536.76 Section 536.76 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.76 Claims not payable under the...

  18. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims payable under the Military Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  19. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  20. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims payable under the Military Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  1. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  2. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  3. 32 CFR 842.32 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... clothing items carried on an individual issue supply account. (Clothing not carried on an individual issue supply account which is stolen or clothing lost or damaged in transit may be considered as a payable item... is an item acquired, possessed, shipped, or stored in violation of any U.S. Armed Force directive...

  4. 32 CFR 842.32 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... clothing items carried on an individual issue supply account. (Clothing not carried on an individual issue supply account which is stolen or clothing lost or damaged in transit may be considered as a payable item... is an item acquired, possessed, shipped, or stored in violation of any U.S. Armed Force directive...

  5. Effects of parietal TMS on somatosensory judgments challenge interhemispheric rivalry accounts.

    PubMed

    Eshel, Neir; Ruff, Christian C; Spitzer, Bernhard; Blankenburg, Felix; Driver, Jon

    2010-10-01

    Interplay between the cerebral hemispheres is vital for coordinating perception and behavior. One influential account holds that the hemispheres engage in rivalry, each inhibiting the other. In the somatosensory domain, a seminal paper claimed to demonstrate such interhemispheric rivalry, reporting improved tactile detection sensitivity on the right hand after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the right parietal lobe (Seyal, Ro, & Rafal, 1995). Such improvement in tactile detection ipsilateral to TMS could follow from interhemispheric rivalry, if one assumes that TMS disrupted cortical processing under the coil and thereby released the other hemisphere from inhibition. Here we extended the study by Seyal et al. (1995) to determine the effects of right parietal TMS on tactile processing for either hand, rather than only the ipsilateral hand. We performed two experiments applying TMS in the context of median-nerve stimulation; one experiment required somatosensory detection, the second somatosensory intensity discrimination. We found different TMS effects on detection versus discrimination, but neither set of results followed the prediction from hemispheric rivalry that enhanced performance for one hand should invariably be associated with impaired performance for the other hand, and vice-versa. Our results argue against a strict rivalry interpretation, instead suggesting that parietal TMS can provide a pedestal-like increment in somatosensory response. PMID:20678510

  6. 32 CFR 842.32 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufactured home. (r) It is a loss of use of personal property. (s) It is an attorney or agent fee. (t) It is.... These claims may be payable through Accounting and Finance as a travel expense. (z) It is a cost...

  7. 32 CFR 842.32 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufactured home. (r) It is a loss of use of personal property. (s) It is an attorney or agent fee. (t) It is.... These claims may be payable through Accounting and Finance as a travel expense. (z) It is a cost...

  8. 17 CFR 256.233 - Notes payable to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... companies. 256.233 Section 256.233 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 7. Current and Accrued Liabilities § 256.233 Notes payable...

  9. The Development of a General Associative Learning Account of Skill Acquisition in a Relative Arrival-Time Judgment Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Shayne; Neal, Andrew; Humphreys, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    Current theory assumes that individuals only use information from the immediate environment to perform relative arrival-time judgment tasks. This article presents a theoretical analysis of the memory requirements of this task. The authors present an analysis of the inputs to the memory system and the processes that map those inputs onto outputs.…

  10. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims payable. 750.43 Section 750.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Military Claims Act § 750.43 Claims payable. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim for personal injury, death, or damage or loss of real...

  11. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims payable. 750.43 Section 750.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Military Claims Act § 750.43 Claims payable. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim for personal injury, death, or damage or loss of real...

  12. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims payable. 750.43 Section 750.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Military Claims Act § 750.43 Claims payable. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim for personal injury, death, or damage or loss of real...

  13. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims payable. 750.43 Section 750.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Military Claims Act § 750.43 Claims payable. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim for personal injury, death, or damage or loss of real...

  14. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims payable. 750.43 Section 750.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Military Claims Act § 750.43 Claims payable. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim for personal injury, death, or damage or loss of real...

  15. 32 CFR 536.121 - Claims not payable as maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the United States, are contrary to public policy, or are otherwise contrary to the basic intent of the... inhabitants of unfriendly foreign countries or by individuals considered to be unfriendly to the United States... ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.121 Claims not payable as maritime...

  16. 37 CFR 255.2 - Royalty payable under compulsory license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty payable under... CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY PAYABLE UNDER COMPULSORY LICENSE FOR MAKING AND DISTRIBUTING PHONORECORDS § 255.2 Royalty payable under compulsory...

  17. 20 CFR 234.46 - Amount of the RLS payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount of the RLS payable. 234.46 Section 234...-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.46 Amount of the RLS payable. The gross RLS amount is... this chapter, respectively.) The amount of the RLS payable is equal to the gross RLS minus the sum...

  18. 20 CFR 234.46 - Amount of the RLS payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Amount of the RLS payable. 234.46 Section 234...-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.46 Amount of the RLS payable. The gross RLS amount is... this chapter, respectively.) The amount of the RLS payable is equal to the gross RLS minus the sum...

  19. 20 CFR 234.46 - Amount of the RLS payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Amount of the RLS payable. 234.46 Section 234...-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.46 Amount of the RLS payable. The gross RLS amount is... this chapter, respectively.) The amount of the RLS payable is equal to the gross RLS minus the sum...

  20. 20 CFR 234.46 - Amount of the RLS payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount of the RLS payable. 234.46 Section 234...-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.46 Amount of the RLS payable. The gross RLS amount is... this chapter, respectively.) The amount of the RLS payable is equal to the gross RLS minus the sum...

  1. 20 CFR 234.46 - Amount of the RLS payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount of the RLS payable. 234.46 Section 234...-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.46 Amount of the RLS payable. The gross RLS amount is... this chapter, respectively.) The amount of the RLS payable is equal to the gross RLS minus the sum...

  2. "Righteous minds" in health care: measurement and explanatory value of social intuitionism in accounting for the moral judgments in a sample of U.S. physicians.

    PubMed

    Tilburt, Jon C; James, Katherine M; Jenkins, Sarah M; Antiel, Ryan M; Curlin, Farr A; Rasinski, Kenneth A

    2013-01-01

    The broad diversity in physicians' judgments on controversial health care topics may reflect differences in religious characteristics, political ideologies, and moral intuitions. We tested an existing measure of moral intuitions in a new population (U.S. physicians) to assess its validity and to determine whether physicians' moral intuitions correlate with their views on controversial health care topics as well as other known predictors of these intuitions such as political affiliation and religiosity. In 2009, we mailed an 8-page questionnaire to a random sample of 2000 practicing U.S. physicians from all specialties. The survey included the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ30), along with questions on physicians' judgments about controversial health care topics including abortion and euthanasia (no moral objection, some moral objection, strong moral objection). A total of 1032 of 1895 (54%) physicians responded. Physicians' overall mean moral foundations scores were 3.5 for harm, 3.3 for fairness, 2.8 for loyalty, 3.2 for authority, and 2.7 for sanctity on a 0-5 scale. Increasing levels of religious service attendance, having a more conservative political ideology, and higher sanctity scores remained the greatest positive predictors of respondents objecting to abortion (β = 0.12, 0.23, 0.14, respectively, each p<0.001) as well as euthanasia (β = 0.08, 0.17, and 0.17, respectively, each p<0.001), even after adjusting for demographics. Higher authority scores were also significantly negatively associated with objection to abortion (β = -0.12, p<0.01), but not euthanasia. These data suggest that the relative importance physicians place on the different categories of moral intuitions may predict differences in physicians' judgments about morally controversial topics and may interrelate with ideology and religiosity. Further examination of the diversity in physicians' moral intuitions may prove illustrative in describing and addressing moral differences that

  3. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Biodiesel producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for all biodiesel production from... rates. Unless otherwise determined by CCC, gross payable units for biodiesel production from eligible inputs will be calculated as follows: (1) For APP, by dividing the gallons of increased biodiesel by...

  4. 32 CFR 751.7 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims not payable. 751.7 Section 751.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS PERSONNEL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Claims Against the United States § 751.7 Claims not payable. (a) Losses in unassigned quarters in the United States. Claims for property damaged...

  5. 32 CFR 751.7 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims not payable. 751.7 Section 751.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS PERSONNEL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Claims Against the United States § 751.7 Claims not payable. (a) Losses in unassigned quarters in the United States. Claims for property damaged...

  6. 32 CFR 751.7 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims not payable. 751.7 Section 751.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS PERSONNEL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Claims Against the United States § 751.7 Claims not payable. (a) Losses in unassigned quarters in the United States. Claims for property damaged...

  7. 45 CFR 506.3 - Rate of benefits payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rate of benefits payable. 506.3 Section 506.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) FOREIGN CLAIMS SETTLEMENT COMMISSION OF... Citizens § 506.3 Rate of benefits payable. Detention benefits awarded to a civilian American citizen...

  8. 10 CFR 603.1105 - Advance payments or payable milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance payments or payable milestones. 603.1105 Section 603.1105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT... projected budget for completing the milestone; and (2) Adjust future payable milestones, as needed,...

  9. 10 CFR 603.1105 - Advance payments or payable milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advance payments or payable milestones. 603.1105 Section 603.1105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Post-Award Administration § 603.1105 Advance payments or payable milestones. The contracting officer must: (a) For any expenditure-based TIA...

  10. 38 CFR 17.197 - Amount of aid payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to States for Care of Veterans in State Homes § 17.197 Amount of aid payable. The amount of aid payable to a recognized State home shall be at the per diem rates established by title 38 U.S.C., section 1741(a)(1) for domiciliary care; and section 1741(a)(3) for hospital care. In no case shall...

  11. What Happened to Intelligent Judgment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2011-01-01

    In so many cases, hours spent focused on documenting accountability to standards actually decreases the possibility for quality improvements through genuine reflection, self-examination, and the exercise of intelligent judgment. Focusing only on ratings and requirements narrows one's thinking and exemplifies the tendency toward stagnation. The…

  12. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Controversy surrounding the accountability movement is related to how the movement began in response to dissatisfaction with public schools. Opponents see it as one-sided, somewhat mean-spirited, and a threat to the professional status of teachers. Supporters argue that all other spheres of the workplace have accountability systems and that the…

  13. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  14. Arkansas' Curriculum Guide. Competency Based Computerized Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. Div. of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This guide contains the essential parts of a total curriculum for a one-year secondary-level course in computerized accounting. Addressed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the complete accounting cycle, computer operations for accounting, computerized accounting and general ledgers, computerized accounts payable,…

  15. Utilitarian moral judgment in psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kruepke, Michael; Zeier, Joshua; Newman, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathic behavior is characteristically amoral, but to date research studies have largely failed to identify any systematic differences in moral judgment capability between psychopaths and non-psychopaths. In this study, we investigate whether significant differences in moral judgment emerge when taking into account the phenotypic heterogeneity of the disorder through a well-validated distinction between psychopathic subtypes. Three groups of incarcerated participants [low-anxious psychopaths (n = 12), high-anxious psychopaths (n = 12) and non-psychopaths (n = 24)] completed a moral judgment test involving hypothetical dilemmas. The moral dilemmas featured ‘personal’ (i.e. involving direct physical harm) or ‘impersonal’ (i.e. involving indirect or remote harm) actions. Compared to non-psychopaths, both groups of psychopaths were significantly more likely to endorse the impersonal actions. However, only the low-anxious psychopaths were significantly more likely to endorse the personal harms when commission of the harm would maximize aggregate welfare—the ‘utilitarian’ choice. High-anxious psychopaths and non-psychopaths did not significantly differ in their personal moral judgments. These results provide novel laboratory evidence of abnormal moral judgment in psychopaths, as well as additional support for the importance of considering psychopathic subtypes. PMID:21768207

  16. Utilitarian moral judgment in psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Koenigs, Michael; Kruepke, Michael; Zeier, Joshua; Newman, Joseph P

    2012-08-01

    Psychopathic behavior is characteristically amoral, but to date research studies have largely failed to identify any systematic differences in moral judgment capability between psychopaths and non-psychopaths. In this study, we investigate whether significant differences in moral judgment emerge when taking into account the phenotypic heterogeneity of the disorder through a well-validated distinction between psychopathic subtypes. Three groups of incarcerated participants [low-anxious psychopaths (n = 12), high-anxious psychopaths (n = 12) and non-psychopaths (n = 24)] completed a moral judgment test involving hypothetical dilemmas. The moral dilemmas featured 'personal' (i.e. involving direct physical harm) or 'impersonal' (i.e. involving indirect or remote harm) actions. Compared to non-psychopaths, both groups of psychopaths were significantly more likely to endorse the impersonal actions. However, only the low-anxious psychopaths were significantly more likely to endorse the personal harms when commission of the harm would maximize aggregate welfare-the 'utilitarian' choice. High-anxious psychopaths and non-psychopaths did not significantly differ in their personal moral judgments. These results provide novel laboratory evidence of abnormal moral judgment in psychopaths, as well as additional support for the importance of considering psychopathic subtypes. PMID:21768207

  17. Marking as Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Val

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of assessment which has received little attention compared with perennial concerns, such as standards or reliability, is the role of judgment in marking. This paper explores marking as an act of judgment, paying particular attention to the nature of judgment and the processes involved. It brings together studies which have explored…

  18. 10 CFR 603.1105 - Advance payments or payable milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 603.1105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT... projected budget for completing the milestone; and (2) Adjust future payable milestones, as needed, if... milestone payment of Federal funds). For this example, the contracting officer should adjust...

  19. 32 CFR 842.50 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims not payable. 842.50 Section 842.50 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Military Claims Act (10 U.S.C. 2733) § 842.50 Claims not payable. Exclusions listed in § 842.50 (a) through (l) of this part,...

  20. 24 CFR 203.550 - Escrow accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... payable from the escrow account must not be charged to the mortgagor unless it can be shown that the... from the account on a periodic basis throughout the period during which the account is maintained. (d... of prepayment in full, sums in the escrow account to pay the mortgage insurance premiums shall...

  1. Inference of trustworthiness from intuitive moral judgments.

    PubMed

    Everett, Jim A C; Pizarro, David A; Crockett, M J

    2016-06-01

    Moral judgments play a critical role in motivating and enforcing human cooperation, and research on the proximate mechanisms of moral judgments highlights the importance of intuitive, automatic processes in forming such judgments. Intuitive moral judgments often share characteristics with deontological theories in normative ethics, which argue that certain acts (such as killing) are absolutely wrong, regardless of their consequences. Why do moral intuitions typically follow deontological prescriptions, as opposed to those of other ethical theories? Here, we test a functional explanation for this phenomenon by investigating whether agents who express deontological moral judgments are more valued as social partners. Across 5 studies, we show that people who make characteristically deontological judgments are preferred as social partners, perceived as more moral and trustworthy, and are trusted more in economic games. These findings provide empirical support for a partner choice account of moral intuitions whereby typically deontological judgments confer an adaptive function by increasing a person's likelihood of being chosen as a cooperation partner. Therefore, deontological moral intuitions may represent an evolutionarily prescribed prior that was selected for through partner choice mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27054685

  2. 20 CFR 10.738 - Under what circumstances are benefits payable in LEO claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what circumstances are benefits payable in LEO claims? 10.738 Section 10.738 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS... circumstances are benefits payable in LEO claims? (a) Benefits are payable when an officer is injured...

  3. 22 CFR 19.11-7 - Annuity payable to surviving child or children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Annuity payable to surviving child or children... payable to surviving child or children. (a) If a participant who has at least 18 months of civilian..., annuities are payable to a surviving child or children, as defined in § 19.2(e) as follows: (1)...

  4. 22 CFR 19.11-7 - Annuity payable to surviving child or children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Annuity payable to surviving child or children... payable to surviving child or children. (a) If a participant who has at least 18 months of civilian..., annuities are payable to a surviving child or children, as defined in § 19.2(e) as follows: (1)...

  5. 22 CFR 19.11-7 - Annuity payable to surviving child or children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annuity payable to surviving child or children... payable to surviving child or children. (a) If a participant who has at least 18 months of civilian..., annuities are payable to a surviving child or children, as defined in § 19.2(e) as follows: (1)...

  6. 22 CFR 19.11-7 - Annuity payable to surviving child or children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Annuity payable to surviving child or children... payable to surviving child or children. (a) If a participant who has at least 18 months of civilian..., annuities are payable to a surviving child or children, as defined in § 19.2(e) as follows: (1)...

  7. 22 CFR 19.11-7 - Annuity payable to surviving child or children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Annuity payable to surviving child or children... payable to surviving child or children. (a) If a participant who has at least 18 months of civilian..., annuities are payable to a surviving child or children, as defined in § 19.2(e) as follows: (1)...

  8. 26 CFR 1.453-3 - Purchaser evidences of indebtedness payable on demand or readily tradable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... exchange A's basis in the corporation X stock is $900,000. The promissory note is payable at the rate of... note provides for the payment of interest at the rate of 10 percent per year also payable on July 1 of... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purchaser evidences of indebtedness payable...

  9. 20 CFR 234.41 - Persons to whom an RLS is payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Persons to whom an RLS is payable. 234.41... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.41 Persons to whom an RLS is payable. After the death of an employee, the RLS is payable, in the following order, to: beneficiaries designated by...

  10. 20 CFR 234.41 - Persons to whom an RLS is payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Persons to whom an RLS is payable. 234.41... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.41 Persons to whom an RLS is payable. After the death of an employee, the RLS is payable, in the following order, to: beneficiaries designated by...

  11. 20 CFR 234.41 - Persons to whom an RLS is payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Persons to whom an RLS is payable. 234.41... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.41 Persons to whom an RLS is payable. After the death of an employee, the RLS is payable, in the following order, to: beneficiaries designated by...

  12. 20 CFR 234.41 - Persons to whom an RLS is payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Persons to whom an RLS is payable. 234.41... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.41 Persons to whom an RLS is payable. After the death of an employee, the RLS is payable, in the following order, to: beneficiaries designated by...

  13. 20 CFR 234.41 - Persons to whom an RLS is payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Persons to whom an RLS is payable. 234.41... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.41 Persons to whom an RLS is payable. After the death of an employee, the RLS is payable, in the following order, to: beneficiaries designated by...

  14. 12 CFR 5.66 - Dividends payable in property other than cash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dividends payable in property other than cash..., POLICIES, AND PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Payment of Dividends § 5.66 Dividends payable in property... payable in property, with the approval of the OCC. Even though the property distributed has...

  15. 12 CFR 5.66 - Dividends payable in property other than cash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dividends payable in property other than cash..., POLICIES, AND PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Payment of Dividends § 5.66 Dividends payable in property... payable in property, with the approval of the OCC. Even though the property distributed has...

  16. 12 CFR 5.66 - Dividends payable in property other than cash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dividends payable in property other than cash..., POLICIES, AND PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Payment of Dividends § 5.66 Dividends payable in property... payable in property, with the approval of the OCC. Even though the property distributed has...

  17. 12 CFR 5.66 - Dividends payable in property other than cash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dividends payable in property other than cash..., POLICIES, AND PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Payment of Dividends § 5.66 Dividends payable in property... payable in property, with the approval of the OCC. Even though the property distributed has...

  18. Time and Moral Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Renata S.; Hertwig, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Do moral judgments hinge on the time available to render them? According to a recent dual-process model of moral judgment, moral dilemmas that engage emotional processes are likely to result in fast deontological gut reactions. In contrast, consequentialist responses that tot up lives saved and lost in response to such dilemmas would require…

  19. 12 CFR 330.10 - Revocable trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... are commonly referred to as living trusts or family trusts. (Example 1: Account Owner “A” has a living... beneficiary in more than one revocable trust account, whether it be a payable-on-death account or living trust account, does not increase the total coverage amount.) (Example 3: Account Owner “A” establishes a...

  20. 29 CFR 4043.22 - Amendment decreasing benefits payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amendment decreasing benefits payable. 4043.22 Section 4043.22 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS REPORTABLE EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.22 Amendment decreasing...

  1. 29 CFR 4043.22 - Amendment decreasing benefits payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TERMINATIONS REPORTABLE EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.22 Amendment decreasing benefits payable. (a) Reportable event. A reportable event occurs... contributions with respect to any participant may be decreased. (b) Waivers. Notice is waived for this event....

  2. 29 CFR 4043.22 - Amendment decreasing benefits payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TERMINATIONS REPORTABLE EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.22 Amendment decreasing benefits payable. (a) Reportable event. A reportable event occurs... contributions with respect to any participant may be decreased. (b) Waivers. Notice is waived for this event....

  3. 29 CFR 4043.22 - Amendment decreasing benefits payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TERMINATIONS REPORTABLE EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.22 Amendment decreasing benefits payable. (a) Reportable event. A reportable event occurs... contributions with respect to any participant may be decreased. (b) Waivers. Notice is waived for this event....

  4. 29 CFR 4043.22 - Amendment decreasing benefits payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TERMINATIONS REPORTABLE EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.22 Amendment decreasing benefits payable. (a) Reportable event. A reportable event occurs... contributions with respect to any participant may be decreased. (b) Waivers. Notice is waived for this event....

  5. 5 CFR 531.221 - Maximum payable rate rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... authority under 5 CFR part 535, movement from a non-GS pay system, or termination of grade or pay retention under 5 CFR part 536. (Note: Special rules for GM employees are provided in § 531.247.) A payable rate...) In applying this section, an agency must treat a critical position pay rate under 5 CFR part 535...

  6. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (a) For ethanol, producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for only their ethanol production from eligible inputs that exceeds, for the program year to date, their total comparable production at all locations as compared to the comparable portion of the previous year. Producers of...

  7. 20 CFR 606.34 - Reports of interest payable. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports of interest payable. 606.34 Section 606.34 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TAX CREDITS UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Interest on Advances § 606.34 Reports of interest...

  8. 23 CFR 668.107 - Federal share payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... those on Federal roads under 23 CFR part 668, subpart B), resulting from a single natural disaster or a... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal share payable. 668.107 Section 668.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS...

  9. 23 CFR 668.107 - Federal share payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... those on Federal roads under 23 CFR part 668, subpart B), resulting from a single natural disaster or a... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal share payable. 668.107 Section 668.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS...

  10. 23 CFR 668.107 - Federal share payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... those on Federal roads under 23 CFR part 668, subpart B), resulting from a single natural disaster or a... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal share payable. 668.107 Section 668.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS...

  11. 23 CFR 668.107 - Federal share payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... those on Federal roads under 23 CFR part 668, subpart B), resulting from a single natural disaster or a... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal share payable. 668.107 Section 668.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS...

  12. 23 CFR 668.107 - Federal share payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... those on Federal roads under 23 CFR part 668, subpart B), resulting from a single natural disaster or a... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal share payable. 668.107 Section 668.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS...

  13. 10 CFR 603.1105 - Advance payments or payable milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advance payments or payable milestones. 603.1105 Section 603.1105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT... point is 44% ($40,000 out of the total $90,000 expended, with the balance provided by the...

  14. 10 CFR 603.1105 - Advance payments or payable milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advance payments or payable milestones. 603.1105 Section 603.1105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT... point is 44% ($40,000 out of the total $90,000 expended, with the balance provided by the...

  15. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.7 Gross payable units... prior bioenergy production shall assume that production history for program purposes. For example: in FY 2002, Producer A produced 1,000 gallons of bioenergy in plant 1 and Producer B produced 500,000...

  16. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.7 Gross payable units... prior bioenergy production shall assume that production history for program purposes. For example: in FY 2002, Producer A produced 1,000 gallons of bioenergy in plant 1 and Producer B produced 500,000...

  17. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.7 Gross payable units... prior bioenergy production shall assume that production history for program purposes. For example: in FY 2002, Producer A produced 1,000 gallons of bioenergy in plant 1 and Producer B produced 500,000...

  18. 46 CFR 282.20 - Amount of subsidy payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of subsidy payable. 282.20 Section 282.20 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY FOR LINER VESSELS ENGAGED IN ESSENTIAL SERVICES IN THE...

  19. 46 CFR 282.20 - Amount of subsidy payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATORS OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY FOR LINER VESSELS ENGAGED IN ESSENTIAL SERVICES IN THE FOREIGN COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.20 Amount of subsidy payable. (a) Daily... represents the cost differential between the subsidized vessel and its foreign-flag competition. A daily...

  20. 5 CFR 531.221 - Maximum payable rate rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... authority under 5 CFR part 535, movement from a non-GS pay system, or termination of grade or pay retention under 5 CFR part 536. (Note: Special rules for GM employees are provided in § 531.247.) A payable rate...) In applying this section, an agency must treat a critical position pay rate under 5 CFR part 535...

  1. Judgments of learning as memory modifiers.

    PubMed

    Soderstrom, Nicholas C; Clark, Colin T; Halamish, Vered; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon

    2015-03-01

    A frequent procedure used to study how individuals monitor their own learning is to collect judgments of learning (JOLs) during acquisition, considered to be important, in part, because such judgments are assumed to guide how individuals allocate their future learning resources. In such research, however, a tacit assumption is frequently made: Namely, that asking for such metacognitive judgments does not affect the learning process per se. In 3 experiments, the present research addressed the accuracy of this assumption and tested a possible account--based on aspects of Koriat's cue-utilization approach to JOLs (Koriat, 1997) and de Winstanley, Bjork, and Bjork's (1996) transfer-appropriate multifactor account of generation effects--for why the mere act of making JOLs might enhance later memory for the information so judged. Potential implications of the present findings for the future conduction of research using metacognitive measures as well as for students studying for exams is discussed. PMID:25528101

  2. Educational Judgment: Linking the Actor and the Spectator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, David; Wiens, John R.

    2002-01-01

    Recommends moving from debates between spectators and actors about knowledge and practice to discussions about how all educators can foster good judgment, outlining Aristotle's and Kant's accounts of judgment, which ultimately privilege spectators, and introducing Arendt's work. Arendt linked thinking and acting without privileging either in her…

  3. Contextual determinants of pain judgments.

    PubMed

    Martel, M O; Thibault, P; Roy, C; Catchlove, R; Sullivan, M J L

    2008-10-31

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of variations in contextual features of a physically demanding lifting task on the judgments of others' pain. Healthy undergraduates (n=98) were asked to estimate the pain experience of chronic pain patients who were filmed while lifting canisters at different distances from their body. Of interest was whether contextual information (i.e., lifting posture) contributed to pain estimates beyond the variance accounted for by pain behavior. Results indicated that the judgments of others' pain varied significantly as a function of the contextual features of the pain-eliciting task; observers estimated significantly more pain when watching patients lifting canisters positioned further away from the body than canisters closest from the body. Canister position contributed significant unique variance to the prediction of pain estimates even after controlling for observers' use of pain behavior as a basis of pain estimates. Correlational analyses revealed that greater use of the contextual features when judging others' pain was related to a lower discrepancy (higher accuracy) between estimated and self-reported pain ratings. Results also indicated that observers' level of catastrophizing was associated with more accurate pain estimates. The results of a regression analysis further showed that observers' level of catastrophizing contributed to the prediction of the accuracy of pain estimates over and above the variance accounted for by the utilisation of contextual features. Discussion addresses the processes that might underlie the utilisation of contextual features of a pain-eliciting task when estimating others' pain. PMID:18701219

  4. Caseworker judgments and substantiation.

    PubMed

    Cross, Theodore P; Casanueva, Cecilia

    2009-02-01

    Substantiation can have an important effect on what interventions are pursued for children investigated for maltreatment, but researchers lack knowledge about how the decision to substantiate is made. Using information from 4,515 children from a national probability study of children investigated for maltreatment, this study examined how caseworker judgments of harm, risk, and evidence predicted substantiation. The substantiation rate was 29.9%, but the majority of cases were substantiated when caseworkers reported at least moderate harm, at least moderate risk, and/or probably to clearly sufficient evidence. Each judgment variable significantly predicted substantiation in a multivariable model, with evidence the strongest predictor. Child gender and age were significant predictors beyond harm, risk, and evidence, suggesting that other judgments also influence substantiation. In 9 of 100 cases, reports were not substantiated despite moderate to severe harm. Thus, substantiation is generally based on judgments of harm, risk, and evidence but not exclusively. The findings underline previous researchers' conclusions that substantiation is a flawed measure of child maltreatment and suggest that policy and practice related to substantiation are due for a fresh appraisal by state child welfare service agencies. PMID:18794302

  5. Variability of Creativity Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caroff, Xavier; Besancon, Maud

    2008-01-01

    The Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT), developed by Amabile [Amabile, T.M. (1982). "Social psychology of creativity: A consensual assessment technique." "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology," 43, 997-1013], is frequently used to evaluate the creativity of productions. Judgments obtained with CAT are usually reliable and valid.…

  6. Time and moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Suter, Renata S; Hertwig, Ralph

    2011-06-01

    Do moral judgments hinge on the time available to render them? According to a recent dual-process model of moral judgment, moral dilemmas that engage emotional processes are likely to result in fast deontological gut reactions. In contrast, consequentialist responses that tot up lives saved and lost in response to such dilemmas would require cognitive control to override the initial response. Cognitive control, however, takes time. In two experiments, we manipulated the time available to arrive at moral judgments in two ways: by allotting a fixed short or large amount of time, and by nudging people to answer swiftly or to deliberate thoroughly. We found that faster responses indeed lead to more deontological responses among those moral dilemmas in which the killing of one to save many necessitates manhandling an innocent person and in which this action is depicted as a means to an end. Thus, our results are the first demonstration that inhibiting cognitive control through manipulations of time alters moral judgments. PMID:21354557

  7. Judgments of Associative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maki, William S.

    2007-01-01

    Judgments of associative memory (JAM) were indexed by ratings given to pairs of cue and response words. The normed probabilities, p(response|cue), were obtained from free association norms. The ratings were linearly related to the probabilities. The JAM functions were characterized by high intercepts (approximately 50 on a 100 point scale) and…

  8. 7 CFR 1770.15 - Supplementary accounts required of all borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall be cleared monthly to the primary plant and maintenance accounts in accordance with percentages... appropriate primary plant and maintenance accounts on a pro-rata basis related to the original charges to... account to the appropriate primary plant depreciation reserve account. 4010.11 4010.11 Accounts Payable...

  9. 7 CFR 1770.15 - Supplementary accounts required of all borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... shall be cleared monthly to the primary plant and maintenance accounts in accordance with percentages... appropriate primary plant and maintenance accounts on a pro-rata basis related to the original charges to... account to the appropriate primary plant depreciation reserve account. 4010.11 4010.11 Accounts Payable...

  10. Judgments about Judgments: The Dissociation of Consideration Price and Transaction Commitment Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janiszewski, Chris; Lichtenstein, Donald R.; Belyavsky, Julia

    2008-01-01

    There are many contexts in which people make judgments about prior judgments. For example, Internet shopping bots (e.g., NexTag.com) allow consumers to search for products and, if the price is too high, list a price at which they would consider making the purchase (i.e., base judgment). If the price drops to this level, the vendor generates an…

  11. 13 CFR 120.223 - Subsidy recoupment fee payable to SBA by Borrower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsidy recoupment fee payable to SBA by Borrower. 120.223 Section 120.223 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Policies Specific to 7(a) Loans Fees for Guaranteed Loans § 120.223 Subsidy recoupment fee payable to SBA by Borrower. (a)...

  12. 13 CFR 120.223 - Subsidy recoupment fee payable to SBA by Borrower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SBA by Borrower. 120.223 Section 120.223 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... payable to SBA by Borrower. (a) The subsidy recoupment fee is payable to SBA when: (1) Loan has a maturity of 15 years or more. (2) Borrower makes a voluntary prepayment (or several prepayments in...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1360 - Veterans Administration pension or compensation payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterans Administration pension or... Veterans Administration pension or compensation payable. (a) Before we determine and certify payment. If we are informed by the Veterans Administration that a pension or compensation is payable to you before...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1360 - Veterans Administration pension or compensation payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Veterans Administration pension or... Veterans Administration pension or compensation payable. (a) Before we determine and certify payment. If we are informed by the Veterans Administration that a pension or compensation is payable to you before...

  15. 34 CFR 682.512 - Determination of amount payable on a claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., or from August 19, 1972 through February 28, 1973, the amount payable on a valid claim is equal to... 18, 1972, or after February 28, 1973, the amount payable on a valid claim is equal to the unpaid...) Payment of interest. If the guarantee covers unpaid interest, the payment of a valid claim covers...

  16. 22 CFR 92.69 - Charges payable to foreign officials, witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Charges payable to foreign officials, witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters. 92.69 Section 92.69 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Depositions and Letters Rogatory § 92.69 Charges payable...

  17. 5 CFR 531.247 - Maximum payable rate rule for GM employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum payable rate rule for GM... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Determining Rate of Basic Pay Special Rules for Gm Employees § 531.247 Maximum payable rate rule for GM employees. (a) A rate received by a GM employee may qualify as...

  18. 38 CFR 3.1008 - Accrued benefits payable to foreign beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accrued benefits payable to foreign beneficiaries. 3.1008 Section 3.1008 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Accrued § 3.1008 Accrued benefits payable to...

  19. 78 FR 8985 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... Register of January 15, 2013 (78 FR 2881), a final rule amending PBGC's regulation on Benefits Payable in... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for... prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in February 2013. This...

  20. 31 CFR 355.12 - What requirements apply if the check is payable to two or more persons?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirements apply if the check is payable to two or more persons? 355.12 Section 355.12 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... payable to two or more persons? If the fiscal agency check is payable to two or more persons,...

  1. College Bibliocentre Acquisition and Accounting System Description Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Bibliocentre, Don Mills (Ontario).

    The Acquisition and Accounting System is a complex designed to perform all functions in the following areas: (1) ordering; (2) receipt, shipment and cancellation; (3) accounts payable, (4) invoicing, (5) order status, (6) inventory, (7) college budgeting and (8) management information reports. Some of the benefits that accrue from the system are:…

  2. Disgust as Embodied Moral Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Schnall, Simone; Haidt, Jonathan; Clore, Gerald L.; Jordan, Alexander H.

    2008-01-01

    How, and for whom, does disgust influence moral judgment? In 4 experiments participants made moral judgments while experiencing extraneous feelings of disgust. Disgust was induced in Experiment 1 by exposure to a bad smell, in Experiment 2 by working in a disgusting room, in Experiment 3 by recalling a physically disgusting experience, and in Experiment 4 through a video induction. In each case, the results showed that disgust can increase the severity of moral judgments relative to controls. Experiment 4 found that disgust had a different effect on moral judgment than did sadness. In addition, Experiments 2-4 showed that the role of disgust in severity of moral judgments depends on participants’ sensitivity to their own bodily sensations. Taken together, these data indicate the importance - and specificity - of gut feelings in moral judgments. PMID:18505801

  3. Semantic prosody and judgment.

    PubMed

    Hauser, David J; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-07-01

    Some words tend to co-occur exclusively with a positive or negative context in natural language use, even though such valence patterns are not dictated by definitions or are part of the words' core meaning. These words contain semantic prosody, a subtle valenced meaning derived from co-occurrence in language. As language and thought are heavily intertwined, we hypothesized that semantic prosody can affect evaluative inferences about related ambiguous concepts. Participants inferred that an ambiguous medical outcome was more negative when it was caused, a verb with negative semantic prosody, than when it was produced, a synonymous verb with no semantic prosody (Studies 1a, 1b). Participants completed sentence fragments in a manner consistent with semantic prosody (Study 2), and semantic prosody affected various other judgments in line with evaluative inferences (estimates of an event's likelihood in Study 3). Finally, semantic prosody elicited both positive and negative evaluations of outcomes across a large set of semantically prosodic verbs (Study 4). Thus, semantic prosody can exert a strong influence on evaluative judgment. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243765

  4. Accuracy of deception judgments.

    PubMed

    Bond, Charles F; DePaulo, Bella M

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the accuracy of deception judgments, synthesizing research results from 206 documents and 24,483 judges. In relevant studies, people attempt to discriminate lies from truths in real time with no special aids or training. In these circumstances, people achieve an average of 54% correct lie-truth judgments, correctly classifying 47% of lies as deceptive and 61% of truths as nondeceptive. Relative to cross-judge differences in accuracy, mean lie-truth discrimination abilities are nontrivial, with a mean accuracy d of roughly .40. This produces an effect that is at roughly the 60th percentile in size, relative to others that have been meta-analyzed by social psychologists. Alternative indexes of lie-truth discrimination accuracy correlate highly with percentage correct, and rates of lie detection vary little from study to study. Our meta-analyses reveal that people are more accurate in judging audible than visible lies, that people appear deceptive when motivated to be believed, and that individuals regard their interaction partners as honest. We propose that people judge others' deceptions more harshly than their own and that this double standard in evaluating deceit can explain much of the accumulated literature. PMID:16859438

  5. Pitfalls in Teaching Judgment Heuristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepperd, James A.; Koch, Erika J.

    2005-01-01

    Demonstrations of judgment heuristics typically focus on how heuristics can lead to poor judgments. However, exclusive focus on the negative consequences of heuristics can prove problematic. We illustrate the problem with the representativeness heuristic and present a study (N = 45) that examined how examples influence understanding of the…

  6. Children's Strategies in Numerosity Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luwel, K.; Lemaire, P.; Verschaffel, L.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated age-related differences in strategy use in the context of a numerosity judgment task. Eighty-two participants (37 adults, 20 sixth graders and 25 third graders) had to provide numerosity judgments of grids containing from 1 to 49 coloured squares. The choice/no-choice method was used to obtain unbiased estimates of…

  7. Moral judgment in episodic amnesia.

    PubMed

    Craver, Carl F; Keven, Nazim; Kwan, Donna; Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of episodic thought about the past and future in moral judgment, we administered a well-established moral judgment battery to individuals with hippocampal damage and deficits in episodic thought (insert Greene et al. 2001). Healthy controls select deontological answers in high-conflict moral scenarios more frequently when they vividly imagine themselves in the scenarios than when they imagine scenarios abstractly, at some personal remove. If this bias is mediated by episodic thought, individuals with deficits in episodic thought should not exhibit this effect. We report that individuals with deficits in episodic memory and future thought make moral judgments and exhibit the biasing effect of vivid, personal imaginings on moral judgment. These results strongly suggest that the biasing effect of vivid personal imagining on moral judgment is not due to episodic thought about the past and future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27028169

  8. 76 FR 27889 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in...

  9. 76 FR 21252 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in Terminated...

  10. 76 FR 2578 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in Terminated...

  11. 75 FR 63380 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in Terminated...

  12. 78 FR 49682 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. ] SUMMARY: This final rule amends the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in...

  13. 76 FR 70639 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in...

  14. 77 FR 41270 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in...

  15. 77 FR 22215 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in...

  16. 77 FR 68685 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in...

  17. 76 FR 50413 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in...

  18. 77 FR 62433 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in...

  19. 20 CFR 341.2 - Sum or damages paid or payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.2 Sum or damages paid or payable. (a) The...-Fault” personal-injury protection benefits or any other benefits paid under a health, sickness,...

  20. 20 CFR 341.2 - Sum or damages paid or payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.2 Sum or damages paid or payable. (a) The...-Fault” personal-injury protection benefits or any other benefits paid under a health, sickness,...

  1. 20 CFR 341.2 - Sum or damages paid or payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.2 Sum or damages paid or payable. (a) The...-Fault” personal-injury protection benefits or any other benefits paid under a health, sickness,...

  2. 20 CFR 341.2 - Sum or damages paid or payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.2 Sum or damages paid or payable. (a) The...-Fault” personal-injury protection benefits or any other benefits paid under a health, sickness,...

  3. 20 CFR 341.2 - Sum or damages paid or payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.2 Sum or damages paid or payable. (a) The...-Fault” personal-injury protection benefits or any other benefits paid under a health, sickness,...

  4. 7 CFR 1770.16 - Supplementary accounts required of nonprofit organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... organizations. Class of company Account No. A B Account title Current Assets 1350.1 1350.1 Subscriptions to... Certificates. 1350.4 1350.4 Other Current Assets. Current Liabilities 4130.1 4130.1 Patronage Capital Payable... and nonredeemable certificates. 1350.4 1350.4 Other Current Assets This account shall include...

  5. Audiotactile temporal order judgments.

    PubMed

    Zampini, Massimiliano; Brown, Timothy; Shore, David I; Maravita, Angelo; Röder, Brigitte; Spence, Charles

    2005-03-01

    We report a series of three experiments in which participants made unspeeded 'Which modality came first?' temporal order judgments (TOJs) to pairs of auditory and tactile stimuli presented at varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) using the method of constant stimuli. The stimuli were presented from either the same or different locations in order to explore the potential effect of redundant spatial information on audiotactile temporal perception. In Experiment 1, the auditory and tactile stimuli had to be separated by nearly 80 ms for inexperienced participants to be able to judge their temporal order accurately (i.e., for the just noticeable difference (JND) to be achieved), no matter whether the stimuli were presented from the same or different spatial positions. More experienced psychophysical observers (Experiment 2) also failed to show any effect of relative spatial position on audiotactile TOJ performance, despite having much lower JNDs (40 ms) overall. A similar pattern of results was found in Experiment 3 when silent electrocutaneous stimulation was used rather than vibrotactile stimulation. Thus, relative spatial position seems to be a less important factor in determining performance for audiotactile TOJ than for other modality pairings (e.g., audiovisual and visuotactile). PMID:15698825

  6. The Influence of Mass Media and Interpersonal Communication on Societal and Personal Risk Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Cynthia-Lou.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the influence of mass media, interpersonal channels, and self-efficacy on risk judgment. Confirms that mass media channels influence social-level risk judgments. Finds that personal-level risk was influenced to some degree by mass media channels and that interpersonal channels and self-efficacy account for some variance on social-level…

  7. Hidden Paths from Morality to Cooperation: Moral Judgments Promote Trust and Trustworthiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Brent; Harrell, Ashley; Willer, Robb

    2013-01-01

    Classic sociological solutions to cooperation problems were rooted in the moral judgments group members make about one another's behaviors, but more recent research on prosocial behaviors has largely ignored this foundational work. Here, we extend theoretical accounts of the social effect of moral judgments. Where scholars have emphasized the…

  8. Can model-free reinforcement learning explain deontological moral judgments?

    PubMed

    Ayars, Alisabeth

    2016-05-01

    Dual-systems frameworks propose that moral judgments are derived from both an immediate emotional response, and controlled/rational cognition. Recently Cushman (2013) proposed a new dual-system theory based on model-free and model-based reinforcement learning. Model-free learning attaches values to actions based on their history of reward and punishment, and explains some deontological, non-utilitarian judgments. Model-based learning involves the construction of a causal model of the world and allows for far-sighted planning; this form of learning fits well with utilitarian considerations that seek to maximize certain kinds of outcomes. I present three concerns regarding the use of model-free reinforcement learning to explain deontological moral judgment. First, many actions that humans find aversive from model-free learning are not judged to be morally wrong. Moral judgment must require something in addition to model-free learning. Second, there is a dearth of evidence for central predictions of the reinforcement account-e.g., that people with different reinforcement histories will, all else equal, make different moral judgments. Finally, to account for the effect of intention within the framework requires certain assumptions which lack support. These challenges are reasonable foci for future empirical/theoretical work on the model-free/model-based framework. PMID:26918742

  9. Judgments of Risk Frequencies: Tests of Possible Cognitive Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertwig, Ralph; Pachur, Thorsten; Kurzenhauser, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    How do people judge which of 2 risks claims more lives per year? The authors specified 4 candidate mechanisms and tested them against people's judgments in 3 risk environments. Two mechanisms, availability by recall and regressed frequency, conformed best to people's choices. The same mechanisms also accounted well for the mapping accuracy of…

  10. A person-centered approach to moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Pizarro, David A; Diermeier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Both normative theories of ethics in philosophy and contemporary models of moral judgment in psychology have focused almost exclusively on the permissibility of acts, in particular whether acts should be judged on the basis of their material outcomes (consequentialist ethics) or on the basis of rules, duties, and obligations (deontological ethics). However, a longstanding third perspective on morality, virtue ethics, may offer a richer descriptive account of a wide range of lay moral judgments. Building on this ethical tradition, we offer a person-centered account of moral judgment, which focuses on individuals as the unit of analysis for moral evaluations rather than on acts. Because social perceivers are fundamentally motivated to acquire information about the moral character of others, features of an act that seem most informative of character often hold more weight than either the consequences of the act or whether a moral rule has been broken. This approach, we argue, can account for numerous empirical findings that are either not predicted by current theories of moral psychology or are simply categorized as biases or irrational quirks in the way individuals make moral judgments. PMID:25910382

  11. 5 CFR 839.1004 - Are lost earnings payable if I separated or if the employee died?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are lost earnings payable if I separated or if the employee died? 839.1004 Section 839.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... Contributions to the TSP § 839.1004 Are lost earnings payable if I separated or if the employee died? (a)...

  12. 5 CFR 839.1004 - Are lost earnings payable if I separated or if the employee died?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are lost earnings payable if I separated or if the employee died? 839.1004 Section 839.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... Contributions to the TSP § 839.1004 Are lost earnings payable if I separated or if the employee died? (a)...

  13. 5 CFR 839.1004 - Are lost earnings payable if I separated or if the employee died?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are lost earnings payable if I separated or if the employee died? 839.1004 Section 839.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... Contributions to the TSP § 839.1004 Are lost earnings payable if I separated or if the employee died? (a)...

  14. 5 CFR 839.1004 - Are lost earnings payable if I separated or if the employee died?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Are lost earnings payable if I separated or if the employee died? 839.1004 Section 839.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... Contributions to the TSP § 839.1004 Are lost earnings payable if I separated or if the employee died? (a)...

  15. 5 CFR 839.1004 - Are lost earnings payable if I separated or if the employee died?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Are lost earnings payable if I separated or if the employee died? 839.1004 Section 839.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... Contributions to the TSP § 839.1004 Are lost earnings payable if I separated or if the employee died? (a)...

  16. Continuities and Discontinuities in Accounting Systems: 1998 Survey of ASBO International Membership in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henstock, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    Based on a survey of Association of School Business Officials members, this article focuses on 10 accounting system modules and how respondents felt about their system's operation and integration. Results showed solid continuity among general ledger, accounts payable, and payroll modules and discontinuities among fixed-asset and student accounting…

  17. Striatal dynamics explain duration judgments

    PubMed Central

    Gouvêa, Thiago S; Monteiro, Tiago; Motiwala, Asma; Soares, Sofia; Machens, Christian; Paton, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    The striatum is an input structure of the basal ganglia implicated in several time-dependent functions including reinforcement learning, decision making, and interval timing. To determine whether striatal ensembles drive subjects' judgments of duration, we manipulated and recorded from striatal neurons in rats performing a duration categorization psychophysical task. We found that the dynamics of striatal neurons predicted duration judgments, and that simultaneously recorded ensembles could judge duration as well as the animal. Furthermore, striatal neurons were necessary for duration judgments, as muscimol infusions produced a specific impairment in animals' duration sensitivity. Lastly, we show that time as encoded by striatal populations ran faster or slower when rats judged a duration as longer or shorter, respectively. These results demonstrate that the speed with which striatal population state changes supports the fundamental ability of animals to judge the passage of time. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11386.001 PMID:26641377

  18. Tainting the soul: purity concerns predict moral judgments of suicide.

    PubMed

    Rottman, Joshua; Kelemen, Deborah; Young, Liane

    2014-02-01

    Moral violations are typically defined as actions that harm others. However, suicide is considered immoral even though the perpetrator is also the victim. To determine whether concerns about purity rather than harm predict moral condemnation of suicide, we presented American adults with obituaries describing suicide or homicide victims. While harm was the only variable predicting moral judgments of homicide, perceived harm (toward others, the self, or God) did not significantly account for variance in moral judgments of suicide. Instead, regardless of political and religious views and contrary to explicit beliefs about their own moral judgments, participants were more likely to morally condemn suicide if they (i) believed suicide tainted the victims' souls, (ii) reported greater concerns about purity in an independent questionnaire, (iii) experienced more disgust in response to the obituaries, or (iv) reported greater trait disgust. Thus, suicide is deemed immoral to the extent that it is considered impure. PMID:24333538

  19. 76 FR 14110 - Order Regarding Review of FASB Accounting Support Fee for 2011 Under Section 109 of the Sarbanes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ..., Release No. 63956/February 24, 2011] Order Regarding Review of FASB Accounting Support Fee for 2011 Under... purposes of the securities laws, any accounting principles established by a standard setting body that... standard setting body shall be payable from an annual accounting support fee assessed and collected...

  20. Psychological biases in environmental judgments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.

    1985-04-01

    Faced with a complex environment, all of us resort to cognitive over-simplifications and wishful thinking, in an attempt to achieve an often illusory control over our lives. The resulting biases in judgment may lead to unfortunate decisions, as well as exacerbating disputes over such matters as the interpretation of environmental data. The detrimental effects of such biases are sufficient to warrant greater attention to the phenomenon. As a step in this direction, a variety of cognitive and motivated biases are discussed, together with examples of their effect on environmental judgment.

  1. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Julia F.; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K.; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set. PMID:25071621

  2. Judgment Theory and School Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Candace W.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews criticism of research on judgmental biases in cognitive psychology and recommends using caution in applying the findings of this research to research in school psychology. Provides suggestions regarding the potential of theory in cognitive psychology to reconcile discrepant findings in selected research on special education decision…

  3. Topics in Probabilistic Judgment Aggregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Guanchun

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a compilation of several studies that are united by their relevance to probabilistic judgment aggregation. In the face of complex and uncertain events, panels of judges are frequently consulted to provide probabilistic forecasts, and aggregation of such estimates in groups often yield better results than could have been made…

  4. Processing Goals and Social Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, C. Douglas

    Cognitive psychologists believe that knowledge is multifaceted and that people process more than just semantic content from a stimulus array. To investigate the implications of recall and impression formation processing objectives on the representation of serial order in memory and judgment, subjects participated in two recall and impression…

  5. Relativism, Objectivity and Moral Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partington, Geoffrey

    1979-01-01

    Reaction against the naive moral absolutism of past historical writing has frequently led to unconditional moral and cultural relativism which is equally dangerous. A viable solution is contingent relativism in historical judgments, combining explicit and examinable criteria of human values and concern for contexts of time and place. (Author/SJL)

  6. Predicting Compliance Behavior from Moral Judgment Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froming, William J.; Cooper, Robert G., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Two experiments with college males examined the relationship between moral judgment and compliance in a modified Asch paradigm. Moral judgment was assessed using Kohlberg's dilemmas in one experiment and with Rest's Defining Issues in the second experiment. (Editor/RK)

  7. Multisensory numerosity judgments for visual and tactile stimuli.

    PubMed

    Gallace, Alberto; Tan, Hong Z; Spence, Charles

    2007-05-01

    To date, numerosity judgments have been studied only under conditions of unimodal stimulus presentation. It is therefore unclear whether the same limitations on correctly reporting the number of unimodal visual or tactile stimuli presented in a display might be expected under conditions in which participants have to count stimuli presented simultaneously in two or more different sensory modalities. In Experiment 1, we investigated numerosity judgments using both unimodal and bimodal displays consisting of one to six vibrotactile stimuli (presented over the body surface) and one to six visual stimuli (seen on the body via mirror reflection). Participants had to count the number of stimuli regardless of their modality of presentation. Bimodal numerosity judgments were significantly less accurate than predicted on the basis of an independent modality-specific resources account, thus showing that numerosity judgments might rely on a unitary amodal system instead. The results of a second experiment demonstrated that divided attention costs could not account for the poor performance in the bimodal conditions of Experiment 1. We discuss these results in relation to current theories of cross-modal integration and to the cognitive resources and/or common higher order spatial representations possibly accessed by both visual and tactile stimuli. PMID:17727102

  8. 13 CFR 134.212 - Summary judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CASES BEFORE THE OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Rules of Practice § 134.212 Summary judgment. (a) On motion by a party. At any time before the close of record, a party may move for summary judgment as to... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Summary judgment. 134.212...

  9. Golden Section Relations in Interpersonal Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjafield, John; Green, T. R. G.

    1978-01-01

    A model of the organization of interpersonal judgments, based on the hypothesis that people tend to organize their judgments in Golden Section ratios, was presented. A theory of the process of interpersonal judgment, based on the notion that people judge acquaintances using a Fibonacci-like decision rule, was then developed. A computer simulation…

  10. Engaging Students in Social Judgment Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallard, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Social Judgment Theory is a way to explain when persuasive messages are most likely to succeed and how people make judgments about them. This theory is often covered in communication theory and persuasion courses, but is also applicable when discussing persuasion in basic speech and introductory communication courses. Social Judgment Theory…

  11. 29 CFR 98.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil judgment. 98.920 Section 98.920 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...

  12. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  13. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by...

  14. 31 CFR 19.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Civil judgment. 19.920 Section 19.920... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  15. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  16. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  17. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision, settlement, stipulation, other disposition which creates a...

  18. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor Regulations... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  19. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision, settlement, stipulation, other disposition which creates a...

  20. 31 CFR 19.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Civil judgment. 19.920 Section 19.920... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  1. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor Regulations... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  2. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  3. 29 CFR 98.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil judgment. 98.920 Section 98.920 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...

  4. 31 CFR 19.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil judgment. 19.920 Section 19.920... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  5. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  6. 31 CFR 19.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil judgment. 19.920 Section 19.920... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  7. 29 CFR 98.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Civil judgment. 98.920 Section 98.920 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...

  8. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor Regulations... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  9. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  10. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  11. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  12. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor Regulations... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  13. 29 CFR 98.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Civil judgment. 98.920 Section 98.920 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...

  14. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  15. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... ON GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction,...

  16. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  17. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  18. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  19. 29 CFR 98.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Civil judgment. 98.920 Section 98.920 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...

  20. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor Regulations... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  1. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  2. 7 CFR 3017.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 3017.920 Section 3017.920 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 3017.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction,...

  3. 31 CFR 19.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 19.920 Section 19.920... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  4. 78 FR 2881 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  5. 78 FR 28490 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  6. 76 FR 41689 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  7. 20 CFR 416.261 - What are special SSI cash benefits and when are they payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are special SSI cash benefits and when... Work Despite A Disabling Impairment § 416.261 What are special SSI cash benefits and when are they payable. Special SSI cash benefits are benefits that we may pay you in lieu of regular SSI...

  8. 23 CFR 668.207 - Federal share payable from emergency fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal share payable from emergency fund. 668.207 Section 668.207 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS EMERGENCY RELIEF PROGRAM Procedures for Federal Agencies for Federal Roads §...

  9. 23 CFR 668.207 - Federal share payable from emergency fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal share payable from emergency fund. 668.207 Section 668.207 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS EMERGENCY RELIEF PROGRAM Procedures for Federal Agencies for Federal Roads §...

  10. 23 CFR 668.207 - Federal share payable from emergency fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal share payable from emergency fund. 668.207 Section 668.207 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS EMERGENCY RELIEF PROGRAM Procedures for Federal Agencies for Federal Roads §...

  11. 23 CFR 668.207 - Federal share payable from emergency fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal share payable from emergency fund. 668.207 Section 668.207 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS EMERGENCY RELIEF PROGRAM Procedures for Federal Agencies for Federal Roads §...

  12. 23 CFR 668.207 - Federal share payable from emergency fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal share payable from emergency fund. 668.207 Section 668.207 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS EMERGENCY RELIEF PROGRAM Procedures for Federal Agencies for Federal Roads §...

  13. 7 CFR 3.47 - Offset against amounts payable from Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Fund) in accordance with regulations codified at 5 CFR 831.1801 through 831.1808. Upon receipt of such... Retirement and Disability Fund. 3.47 Section 3.47 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Administrative Offset § 3.47 Offset against amounts payable from Civil Service Retirement...

  14. 31 CFR 359.17 - When is interest payable on Series I savings bonds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When is interest payable on Series I savings bonds? 359.17 Section 359.17 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE FISCAL SERVICE OFFERING OF UNITED...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1361 - Federal benefit payable other than by Veterans Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Veterans Administration. 404.1361 Section 404.1361 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the... Federal benefit payable other than by Veterans Administration. (a) Before we determine and certify...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1360 - Veterans Administration pension or compensation payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Veterans Administration pension or...-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the... Veterans Administration pension or compensation payable. (a) Before we determine and certify payment. If...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1360 - Veterans Administration pension or compensation payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Veterans Administration pension or...-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the... Veterans Administration pension or compensation payable. (a) Before we determine and certify payment. If...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1361 - Federal benefit payable other than by Veterans Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Veterans Administration. 404.1361 Section 404.1361 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the... Federal benefit payable other than by Veterans Administration. (a) Before we determine and certify...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1360 - Veterans Administration pension or compensation payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Veterans Administration pension or...-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the... Veterans Administration pension or compensation payable. (a) Before we determine and certify payment. If...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1361 - Federal benefit payable other than by Veterans Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Veterans Administration. 404.1361 Section 404.1361 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the... Federal benefit payable other than by Veterans Administration. (a) Before we determine and certify...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1361 - Federal benefit payable other than by Veterans Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Veterans Administration. 404.1361 Section 404.1361 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the... Federal benefit payable other than by Veterans Administration. (a) Before we determine and certify...

  2. 13 CFR 108.1130 - Leverage fees payable by NMVC Company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Company. 108.1130 Section 108.1130 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW... Information About Obtaining Leverage § 108.1130 Leverage fees payable by NMVC Company. There is no fee for the issuance of Debentures by a NMVC Company....

  3. 20 CFR 416.542 - Underpayments-to whom underpaid amount is payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Underpayments-to whom underpaid amount is payable. 416.542 Section 416.542 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... will be paid in installments. (2) If an underpaid recipient whose drug addiction or alcoholism is...

  4. 77 FR 28477 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. The interest assumptions in the... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in...

  5. 78 FR 11093 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. The interest assumptions in the regulation are also... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates...

  6. 75 FR 69588 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. PBGC uses the interest assumptions in... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for...-Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in December...

  7. 78 FR 68739 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. The interest assumptions in the... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates...

  8. 77 FR 8730 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... covered by title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. The interest assumptions in... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates...

  9. 77 FR 48855 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. The interest assumptions in the regulation... 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits... to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in September 2012....

  10. 77 FR 2015 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in February 2012. The interest assumptions are used for paying benefits under terminating...

  11. 77 FR 74353 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. The interest assumptions in the regulation... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates...

  12. 76 FR 8649 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. PBGC uses the interest assumptions in... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for...-Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in March...

  13. 78 FR 42009 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. The interest assumptions in the regulation are also... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates...

  14. 76 FR 63836 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ...-employer plans covered by title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. The interest... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates...

  15. 78 FR 22192 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in May 2013. The interest assumptions are used for paying benefits under terminating single-employer...

  16. 78 FR 62426 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. The interest assumptions in the regulation... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates...

  17. 20 CFR 416.261 - What are special SSI cash benefits and when are they payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are special SSI cash benefits and when are they payable. 416.261 Section 416.261 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Eligibility Special Provisions for People...

  18. 20 CFR 416.261 - What are special SSI cash benefits and when are they payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are special SSI cash benefits and when are they payable. 416.261 Section 416.261 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Eligibility Special Provisions for People...

  19. 20 CFR 416.261 - What are special SSI cash benefits and when are they payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are special SSI cash benefits and when are they payable. 416.261 Section 416.261 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Eligibility Special Provisions for People...

  20. Consensus in personality judgments at zero acquaintance.

    PubMed

    Albright, L; Kenny, D A; Malloy, T E

    1988-09-01

    This research focused on the target effect on a perceiver's judgments of personality when the perceiver and the target are unacquainted. The perceiver was given no opportunity to interact with the target, a condition we refer to as zero acquaintance. We reasoned that in order to make personality judgments, perceivers would use the information available to them (physical appearance). Consensus in personality judgments would result, then, from shared stereotypes about particular physical appearance characteristics. Results from three separate studies with 259 subjects supported this hypothesis. On two of the five dimensions (extraversion and conscientiousness) on which subjects rated each other, a significant proportion of variance was due to the stimulus target. Consensus on judgments of extraversion appears to have been largely mediated by judgments of physical attractiveness. Across the three studies there was also evidence that the consensus in judgments on these two dimensions had some validity, in that they correlated with self-judgments on those two dimensions. PMID:3171912

  1. 17 CFR 240.15c3-3a - Exhibit A-Formula for determination of customer and PAB account reserve requirements of brokers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Regulation T (12 CFR 220.7(f)) or similar accounts carried on behalf of another broker or dealer, must be... balances and other credit balances in customers' security accounts. (See Note A) XXX 2. Monies borrowed collateralized by securities carried for the accounts of customers (See Note B) XXX 3. Monies payable...

  2. An Instructional Model for Preparing Accounting/Computing Clerks in Michigan Secondary School Office Education Programs, Part I and Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskovis, L. Michael; McKitrick, Max O.

    Outlined in this two-part document is a model for the implementation of a business-industry oriented program designed to provide high school seniors with updated training in the skills and concepts necessary for developing competencies in entry-level and second-level accounting jobs that involve accounts receivable, accounts payable, and payroll…

  3. Assisting the High Administrative Court in Restricting Too Broad a Concept of Academic Judgment.

    PubMed

    Cardao-Pito, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    I have received substantial monetary compensation and a formal apology from my first doctoral school, and a Ph.D. from another university. This essay describes my personal view on discussing the boundaries of academic judgment and research supervision with the ombudsman agency for higher education, and at the High Administrative Court of England and Wales. The Court's judicial doctrine addresses substantial research accountability matters. It clarifies that although the Court and ombudsman agency must not interfere with academic judgment, not everything done by an academic can be considered as academic judgment. A Ph.D. supervisor can seriously fail to perform his/her duties. PMID:26192821

  4. Judgment Evading Foreign States Accountability Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Mack, Connie [R-FL-14

    2011-05-06

    11/29/2012 Forwarded by Subcommittee to Full Committee in the Nature of a Substitute (Amended) by Voice Vote . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Trusting Our Judgment: Measurement and Accountability for Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, David

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Education policymakers across the country face an urgent problem: we know there is wide disparity in teacher effectiveness, but we lack meaningful tools to identify and reward the most effective teachers or to ensure that the least effective improve or leave the classroom. Purpose: This article considers the value of the…

  6. Do social utility judgments influence attentional processing?

    PubMed

    Shore, Danielle M; Heerey, Erin A

    2013-10-01

    Research shows that social judgments influence decision-making in social environments. For example, judgments about an interaction partners' trustworthiness affect a variety of social behaviors and decisions. One mechanism by which social judgments may influence social decisions is by biasing the automatic allocation of attention toward certain social partners, thereby shaping the information people acquire. Using an attentional blink paradigm, we investigate how trustworthiness judgments alter the allocation of attention to social stimuli in a set of two experiments. The first experiment investigates trustworthiness judgments based solely on a social partner's facial appearance. The second experiment examines the effect of trustworthiness judgments based on experienced behavior. In the first, strong appearance-based judgments (positive and negative) enhanced stimulus recognizability but did not alter the size of the attentional blink, suggesting that appearance-based social judgments enhance face memory but do not affect pre-attentive processing. However, in the second experiment, in which judgments were based on behavioral experience rather than appearance, positive judgments enhanced pre-attentive processing of trustworthy faces. This suggests that a stimulus's potential benefits, rather than its disadvantages, shape the automatic distribution of attentional resources. These results have implications for understanding how appearance- and behavior-based social cues shape attention distribution in social environments. PMID:23887150

  7. 75 FR 2437 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Valuing and Paying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Valuing and Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer...

  8. 75 FR 49407 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Valuing and Paying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Valuing and Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer...

  9. Annual Percentage Rate and Annual Effective Rate: Resolving Confusion in Intermediate Accounting Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicknair, David; Wright, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of confusion in intermediate accounting textbooks regarding the annual percentage rate (APR) and annual effective rate (AER) is presented. The APR and AER are briefly discussed in the context of a note payable and correct formulas for computing each is provided. Representative examples of the types of confusion that we found is presented…

  10. Accounting for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Cooperative Accountability Project.

    This publication reports on two Regional Educational Accountability Conferences on Techniques sponsored by the Cooperative Accountability Project. Accountability is described as an "emotionally-charged issue" and an "operationally demanding concept." Overviewing accountability, major speakers emphasized that accountability is a means toward…

  11. How "situational" is judgment in situational judgment tests?

    PubMed

    Krumm, Stefan; Lievens, Filip; Hüffmeier, Joachim; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A; Bendels, Hanna; Hertel, Guido

    2015-03-01

    Whereas situational judgment tests (SJTs) have traditionally been conceptualized as low-fidelity simulations with an emphasis on contextualized situation descriptions and context-dependent knowledge, a recent perspective views SJTs as measures of more general domain (context-independent) knowledge. In the current research, we contrasted these 2 perspectives in 3 studies by removing the situation descriptions (i.e., item stems) from SJTs. Across studies, the traditional contextualized SJT perspective was not supported for between 43% and 71% of the items because it did not make a significant difference whether the situation description was included or not for these items. These results were replicated across construct domains, samples, and response instructions. However, there was initial evidence that judgment in SJTs was more situational when (a) items measured job knowledge and skills and (b) response options denoted context-specific rules of action. Verbal protocol analyses confirmed that high scorers on SJTs without situation descriptions relied upon general rules about the effectiveness of the responses. Implications for SJT theory, research, and design are discussed. PMID:25111248

  12. No Absolutism Here: Harm Predicts Moral Judgment 30× Better Than Disgust-Commentary on Scott, Inbar, & Rozin (2016).

    PubMed

    Gray, Kurt; Schein, Chelsea

    2016-05-01

    Moral absolutism is the idea that people's moral judgments are insensitive to considerations of harm. Scott, Inbar, and Rozin (2016, this issue) claim that most moral opponents to genetically modified organisms are absolutely opposed-motivated by disgust and not harm. Yet there is no evidence for moral absolutism in their data. Perceived risk/harm is the most significant predictor of moral judgments for "absolutists," accounting for 30 times more variance than disgust. Reanalyses suggest that disgust is not even a significant predictor of the moral judgments of absolutists once accounting for perceived harm and anger. Instead of revealing actual moral absolutism, Scott et al. find only empty absolutism: hypothetical, forecasted, self-reported moral absolutism. Strikingly, the moral judgments of so-called absolutists are somewhat more sensitive to consequentialist concerns than those of nonabsolutists. Mediation reanalyses reveal that moral judgments are most proximally predicted by harm and not disgust, consistent with dyadic morality. PMID:27217244

  13. Passage of Time Judgments Are Not Duration Judgments: Evidence from a Study Using Experience Sampling Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Wearden, John

    2016-01-01

    This study examined relations between passage of time judgments and duration judgments (DJs) in everyday life, in young and elderly people, with an Experience Sampling Method. The DJs were assessed by verbal estimation and interval production measures. The results showed no difference between young and elderly people in judgments of rate of passage of time, a result contrary to the conventional idea that time passes more quickly as we get older. There were also no significant relation between the judgment of passage of time and the judgments of durations. In addition, the significant predictors of individual differences in the judgment of passage of time (emotion states and focus of attention on the current activity) were not predictors of judgment of durations. In sum, passages of time judgments are not related to DJs. PMID:26925006

  14. Sentence durations and accentedness judgments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Z. S.; Stockmal, Verna; Markus, Dace

    2003-04-01

    Talkers in a second language can frequently be identified as speaking with a foreign accent. It is not clear to what degree a foreign accent represents specific deviations from a target language versus more general characteristics. We examined the identifications of native and non-native talkers by listeners with various amount of knowledge of the target language. Native and non-native speakers of Latvian provided materials. All the non-native talkers spoke Russian as their first language and were long-term residents of Latvia. A listening test, containing sentences excerpted from a short recorded passage, was presented to three groups of listeners: native speakers of Latvian, Russians for whom Latvian was a second language, and Americans with no knowledge of either of the two languages. The listeners were asked to judge whether each utterance was produced by a native or non-native talker. The Latvians identified the non-native talkers very accurately, 88%. The Russians were somewhat less accurate, 83%. The American listeners were least accurate, but still identified the non-native talkers at above chance levels, 62%. Sentence durations correlated with the judgments provided by the American listeners but not with the judgments provided by native or L2 listeners.

  15. Judgment Confidence and Judgment Accuracy of Teachers in Judging Self-Concepts of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praetorius, Anna-Katharina; Berner, Valerie-Danielle; Zeinz, Horst; Scheunpflug, Annette; Dresel, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Accurate teacher judgments of student characteristics are considered to be important prerequisites for adaptive instruction. A theoretically important condition for putting these judgments into operation is judgment confidence. Using a German sample of 96 teachers and 1,388 students, the authors examined how confident teachers are in their…

  16. Nurses' Judgment as They Care for Persons Who Exhibit Impaired Judgment: A Phenomenonological Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doona, Mary Ellen

    1995-01-01

    A study looked at the process by which psychiatric nurses (n=6) make judgments as they care for people with impaired judgment. Results revealed an overarching theme--judgment as personal responsibility--and four major themes: closeness to clinical data, critical reflection, respect for one's knowledge and ignorance, and the existential nature of…

  17. 20 CFR 404.403 - Reduction where total monthly benefits exceed maximum family benefits payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... benefits payable on the record, we disregard the $120.00 we cannot pay the wife. This allows us to increase... all such insured individuals, or (2) The last figure in column V of the applicable table in (or deemed... determined under §§ 404.251(a)(1) or 404.251(b)(1), the monthly maximum equals the maximum in the last...

  18. Influence of Graphical METARS on Pilots' Weather Judgment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, Joseph T.; Latorella, Kara A.; Baldwin, Carryl L.

    2005-01-01

    VFR flight into IMC conditions accounts for over 10% of general aviation fatalities each year. Recent research suggests that pilots may not properly assess weather conditions. New graphical weather information systems (GWISs) may positively or negatively influence pilot weather-related judgments. Since GWIS information is not always current it may not be veritical. In the current investigation twenty-four GA pilots made visibility and ceiling estimates of simulated weather conditions either with or without a GWIS display. Pilots generally overestimated weather conditions and their judgments were influenced by the GWIS. The results revealed an interaction between ceiling and visibility that suggests a new model for understanding VFR flight into IMC. The current results suggest an important area for future research into understanding pilots decisions to continue into deteriorating weather conditions. Results are discussed in terms of advancing aviation decision making models for understanding VFR into IMC flight, and the design of GWIS symbology to foster accurate assessments.

  19. Grammaticality Judgments and Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    1991-01-01

    A critical examination of grammaticality judgment tasks in second-language acquisition research focuses on the theoretical assumptions underlying such tasks and describes an investigation indicating that grammaticality judgment tasks elicit a particular kind of performance that needs to be better understood before being used as a basis for…

  20. Law, Judgment, and Catholic Social Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skotnicki, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    There is a recurrent conflict concerning law and judgment in the Catholic tradition. The tension between the manner in which just punitive judgments are to be rendered and the possibility of judging justly, if at all, is found frequently in Scripture and in Church history. This paper will give an overview of the dynamics of this tension in…

  1. Moral Judgments of Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    1989-01-01

    Reports on a study of moral judgments in aggressive and nonaggressive children. Assessed moral judgment by presenting the children with stories of moral conflict in everyday life using peer rating. Results showed significant differences according to gender and no constant level of moral reasoning was measured in either aggressive or nonaggressive…

  2. The Psychology of Judgment for Outdoor Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Kent

    Judgment is the process of making decisions with incomplete information concerning either the outcomes or the decision factors. Sound judgment that leads to good decisions is an essential skill needed by adventure education and outdoor leadership professionals. Cognitive psychology provides several theories and insights concerning the accuracy of…

  3. The Truth and Bias Model of Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Tessa V.; Kenny, David A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model for the general study of how the truth and biases affect human judgment. In the truth and bias model, judgments about the world are pulled by 2 primary forces, the truth force and the bias force, and these 2 forces are interrelated. The truth and bias model differentiates force and value, where the force is the strength of…

  4. 32 CFR 1602.13 - Judgmental Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judgmental Classification. 1602.13 Section 1602.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.13 Judgmental Classification. A classification action relating to a registrant's claim...

  5. 40 CFR 194.26 - Expert judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements...: (i) Individuals who are members of the team of investigators requesting the judgment or the team of... organizational level, a supervisory role or who are supervised by those who will utilize the judgment were...

  6. 40 CFR 194.26 - Expert judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements... expert judgment elicitation comports with the level of knowledge required by the questions or issues... judgment elicitation comports with the level and variety of knowledge required by the questions or...

  7. 5 CFR 919.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil judgment. 919.920 Section 919.920 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.920 Civil judgment. Civil...

  8. 5 CFR 919.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil judgment. 919.920 Section 919.920 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.920 Civil judgment. Civil...

  9. 5 CFR 919.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil judgment. 919.920 Section 919.920 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.920 Civil judgment. Civil...

  10. 5 CFR 919.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil judgment. 919.920 Section 919.920 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.920 Civil judgment. Civil...

  11. Judgments of Learning as Memory Modifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderstrom, Nicholas C.; Clark, Colin T.; Halamish, Vered; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon

    2015-01-01

    A frequent procedure used to study how individuals monitor their own learning is to collect judgments of learning (JOLs) during acquisition, considered to be important, in part, because such judgments are assumed to guide how individuals allocate their future learning resources. In such research, however, a tacit assumption is frequently made:…

  12. 5 CFR 919.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 919.920 Section 919.920 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.920 Civil judgment. Civil...

  13. 24 CFR 203.369 - Deficiency judgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... State law to obtain a deficiency judgment. (b) Mortgages insured before March 28, 1988. For mortgages... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deficiency judgments. 203.369... SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Claim Procedure § 203.369...

  14. A comparison of the multimemory and detection theories of know and remember recognition judgments.

    PubMed

    Xu, M; Bellezza, F S

    2001-09-01

    Know and remember recognition judgments were made in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1 either 3 (new, know, remember) or 4 (new, guess, know, remember) judgment alternatives were used. Also, the recognition test was either immediate, delayed 2 days, or delayed 1 week. In Experiment 2 the proportion of test items that were studied items was either .20, .50, or .80. Predictions were made from 2 multimemory theories regarding how proportions of know and remember judgments would change with these manipulations. Predictions were also made from 2 detection theories regarding the values of memory sensitivity and judgment criteria. The results supported the revised detection theory, which assumes unequal variances for studied and unstudied items, more than the multimemory theories. Furthermore, general processing tree versions of the 2 multimemory models were created including guessing processes. These extended models were shown to be inadequate in accounting for the data from the 2 experiments. PMID:11550748

  15. Good things don't come easy (to mind): explaining framing effects in judgments of truth.

    PubMed

    Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the general phenomenon of a positive-negative-asymmetry was extended to judgments of truth. That is, negatively framed statements were shown to receive substantially higher truth ratings than formally equivalent statements framed positively. However, the cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown, so far. In the current work, two potential accounts are introduced and tested against each other in three experiments: On the one hand, negative framing may induce increased elaboration and thereby persuasion. Alternatively, negative framing could yield faster retrieval or generation of evidence and thus influence subjective veracity via experiential fluency. Two experiments drawing on response latencies and one manipulating the delay between information acquisition and judgment provide support for the fluency-based account. Overall, results replicate and extend the negatively-biased framing effect in truth judgments and show that processing fluency may account for it. PMID:21768064

  16. Temporal order judgment in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Jaśkowski, Piotr; Rusiak, Patrycja

    2008-01-01

    Hari et al. (Brain 174:1373-1380, 2001) demonstrated that dyslexics showed a sluggish attention capture in both visual hemifields. Additionally, they indicated a left-right asymmetry in the perception of temporal order of two visual stimuli (they performed worse than controls only if the stimulus in the left hemifield preceded that in right hemifield). They suggested that a left-sided minineglect is associated with dyslexia. We hypothesized that if a kind of neglect syndrome is responsible for the asymmetry they found, dyslexics should not only show a left-right asymmetry in temporal order judgment of two laterally presented stimuli but also perform equally well as controls when the stimuli are vertically aligned. Our results indicated that in both tasks dyslexics performed generally worse than normal readers. The results suggest that dyslexics suffer from a more general problem of order discrimination. PMID:17028891

  17. True and false memories, parietal cortex, and confidence judgments.

    PubMed

    Urgolites, Zhisen J; Smith, Christine N; Squire, Larry R

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory). Accordingly, it has often been difficult to know whether a finding is related to memory confidence or memory accuracy. In the current study, participants made recognition memory judgments with confidence ratings in response to previously studied scenes and novel scenes. The left hippocampus and 16 other brain regions distinguished true and false memories when confidence ratings were different for the two conditions. Only three regions (all in the parietal cortex) distinguished true and false memories when confidence ratings were equated. These findings illustrate the utility of taking confidence ratings into account when identifying brain regions associated with true and false memories. Neural correlates of true and false memories are most easily interpreted when confidence ratings are similar for the two kinds of memories. PMID:26472645

  18. Inability and Obligation in Moral Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Buckwalter, Wesley; Turri, John

    2015-01-01

    It is often thought that judgments about what we ought to do are limited by judgments about what we can do, or that “ought implies can.” We conducted eight experiments to test the link between a range of moral requirements and abilities in ordinary moral evaluations. Moral obligations were repeatedly attributed in tandem with inability, regardless of the type (Experiments 1–3), temporal duration (Experiment 5), or scope (Experiment 6) of inability. This pattern was consistently observed using a variety of moral vocabulary to probe moral judgments and was insensitive to different levels of seriousness for the consequences of inaction (Experiment 4). Judgments about moral obligation were no different for individuals who can or cannot perform physical actions, and these judgments differed from evaluations of a non-moral obligation (Experiment 7). Together these results demonstrate that commonsense morality rejects the “ought implies can” principle for moral requirements, and that judgments about moral obligation are made independently of considerations about ability. By contrast, judgments of blame were highly sensitive to considerations about ability (Experiment 8), which suggests that commonsense morality might accept a “blame implies can” principle. PMID:26296206

  19. 20 CFR 10.410 - Who is entitled to compensation in case of death, and what are the rates of compensation payable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... what are the rates of compensation payable in death cases? (a) If there is no child entitled to... will continue until death. (b) If there is a child entitled to compensation, the compensation for the... death, and what are the rates of compensation payable in death cases? 10.410 Section 10.410...

  20. 41 CFR 303-70.4 - May we pay death-related expenses under this chapter if the same expenses are payable under other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... expenses under this chapter if the same expenses are payable under other laws of the United States? 303-70... expenses under this chapter if the same expenses are payable under other laws of the United States? No... OF EXPENSES CONNECTED WITH THE DEATH OF CERTAIN EMPLOYEES 70-AGENCY REQUIREMENTS FOR PAYMENT......

  1. 41 CFR 303-70.4 - May we pay death-related expenses under this chapter if the same expenses are payable under other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... expenses under this chapter if the same expenses are payable under other laws of the United States? 303-70... expenses under this chapter if the same expenses are payable under other laws of the United States? No... OF EXPENSES CONNECTED WITH THE DEATH OF CERTAIN EMPLOYEES 70-AGENCY REQUIREMENTS FOR PAYMENT......

  2. 41 CFR 303-70.4 - May we pay death-related expenses under this chapter if the same expenses are payable under other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... expenses under this chapter if the same expenses are payable under other laws of the United States? 303-70... expenses under this chapter if the same expenses are payable under other laws of the United States? No... OF EXPENSES CONNECTED WITH THE DEATH OF CERTAIN EMPLOYEES 70-AGENCY REQUIREMENTS FOR PAYMENT......

  3. 41 CFR 303-70.4 - May we pay death-related expenses under this chapter if the same expenses are payable under other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... expenses under this chapter if the same expenses are payable under other laws of the United States? 303-70... expenses under this chapter if the same expenses are payable under other laws of the United States? No... OF EXPENSES CONNECTED WITH THE DEATH OF CERTAIN EMPLOYEES 70-AGENCY REQUIREMENTS FOR PAYMENT......

  4. Better, Stronger, Faster Self-Serving Judgment, Affect Regulation, and the Optimal Vigilance Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Roese, Neal J.; Olson, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-serving judgments, in which the self is viewed more favorably than other people, are ubiquitous. Their dynamic variation within individuals may be explained in terms of the regulation of affect. Self-serving judgments produce positive emotions, and threat increases self-serving judgments (a compensatory pattern that restores affect to a set point or baseline). Perceived mutability is a key moderator of these judgments; low mutability (i.e., the circumstance is closed to modification) triggers a cognitive response aimed at affect regulation, whereas high mutability (i.e., the circumstance is open to further modification) activates direct behavioral remediation. Threats often require immediate response, whereas positive events do not. Because of this brief temporal window, an active mechanism is needed to restore negative (but not positive) affective shifts back to a set point. Without this active reset, an earlier threat would make the individual less vigilant toward a new threat. Thus, when people are sad, they aim to return their mood to baseline, often via self-serving judgments. We argue that asymmetric homeostasis enables optimal vigilance, which establishes a coherent theoretical account of the role of self-serving judgments in affect regulation. PMID:18552989

  5. Assessing Veterinary and Animal Science Students' Moral Judgment Development on Animal Ethics Issues.

    PubMed

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    Little has been done to assess veterinarians' moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues. Following development of the VetDIT, a new moral judgment measure for animal ethics issues, this study aimed to refine and further validate the VetDIT, and to identify effects of teaching interventions on moral judgment and changes in moral judgment over time. VetDIT-V1 was refined into VetDIT-V2, and V3 was developed as a post-intervention test to prevent repetition. To test these versions for comparability, veterinary and animal science students (n=271) were randomly assigned to complete different versions. The VetDIT discriminates between stages of moral judgment, condensed into three schemas: Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), and Universal Principles (UP). There were no differences in the scores for MN and UP between the versions, and we equated PI scores to account for differences between versions. Veterinary science students (n=130) who completed a three-hour small-group workshop on moral development theory and ethical decision making increased their use of UP in moral reasoning, whereas students (n=271) who received similar information in a 50-minute lecture did not. A longitudinal comparison of matched first- and third-year students (n=39) revealed no moral judgment development toward greater use of UP. The VetDIT is therefore useful for assessing moral judgment of animal and human ethics issues in veterinary and other animal-related professions. Intensive small-group workshops using moral development knowledge and skills, rather than lectures, are conducive to developing veterinary students' moral judgment. PMID:26200702

  6. The Development of Same and Different Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Joanna; Beilin, Harry

    1975-01-01

    Presents two experiments which investigated whether there is a shift with age in the relative speed and difficulty of same versus different judgments. Subjects included preschoolers, third graders, and college students. (SDH)

  7. Examining corporate reputation judgments with generalizability theory.

    PubMed

    Highhouse, Scott; Broadfoot, Alison; Yugo, Jennifer E; Devendorf, Shelba A

    2009-05-01

    The researchers used generalizability theory to examine whether reputation judgments about corporations function in a manner consistent with contemporary theory in the corporate-reputation literature. University professors (n = 86) of finance, marketing, and human resources management made repeated judgments about the general reputations of highly visible American companies. Minimal variability in the judgments is explained by items, time, persons, and field of specialization. Moreover, experts from the different specializations reveal considerable agreement in how they weigh different aspects of corporate performance in arriving at their global reputation judgments. The results generally support the theory of the reputation construct and suggest that stable estimates of global reputation can be achieved with a small number of items and experts. PMID:19450013

  8. Biofunctional Understanding and Judgment of Size.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zheng; Lee, Yang; Yuan, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that the meaningfulness of the material increases judged size, whereas symmetry decreases size judgments. These findings have been interpreted in terms of information processing, with a greater quantity of information leading to a judgment of larger size. An alternative view based on biofunctional understanding theory emphasizes the quality of affordance-triggered biological activity as reported and observed in attitudes toward playing sports, effortless understanding, knowledge-in-action, meditative wisdom, and body-mind cycle of adaptation. This alternative implies that affordance biofunctional activity is naturally size-diminishinging as it moves toward coherence and size-expanding as it moves away from coherence influencing judgments of size accordingly. Here we tested this hypothesis in the realm of sensorimotor integration. Our first experiment showed that phonologically unpronounced or symmetric symbols elicit smaller size judgments than phonologically pronounced and asymmetric symbols. Next, we manipulated the quantity of meaning with the affordance (possibilities for biofunctional activity) orthogonally in a second experiment; results indicated that meaning affects size judgments only in the absence of phonological information. We conclude that the biofunctional activity affordance may be responsible for observed differences in size judgment. PMID:27047438

  9. Biofunctional Understanding and Judgment of Size

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zheng; Lee, Yang; Yuan, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that the meaningfulness of the material increases judged size, whereas symmetry decreases size judgments. These findings have been interpreted in terms of information processing, with a greater quantity of information leading to a judgment of larger size. An alternative view based on biofunctional understanding theory emphasizes the quality of affordance-triggered biological activity as reported and observed in attitudes toward playing sports, effortless understanding, knowledge-in-action, meditative wisdom, and body–mind cycle of adaptation. This alternative implies that affordance biofunctional activity is naturally size-diminishinging as it moves toward coherence and size-expanding as it moves away from coherence influencing judgments of size accordingly. Here we tested this hypothesis in the realm of sensorimotor integration. Our first experiment showed that phonologically unpronounced or symmetric symbols elicit smaller size judgments than phonologically pronounced and asymmetric symbols. Next, we manipulated the quantity of meaning with the affordance (possibilities for biofunctional activity) orthogonally in a second experiment; results indicated that meaning affects size judgments only in the absence of phonological information. We conclude that the biofunctional activity affordance may be responsible for observed differences in size judgment. PMID:27047438

  10. The truth and bias model of judgment.

    PubMed

    West, Tessa V; Kenny, David A

    2011-04-01

    We present a new model for the general study of how the truth and biases affect human judgment. In the truth and bias model, judgments about the world are pulled by 2 primary forces, the truth force and the bias force, and these 2 forces are interrelated. The truth and bias model differentiates force and value, where the force is the strength of the attraction and the value is the location toward which the judgment is attracted. The model also makes a formal theoretical distinction between bias and moderator variables. Two major classes of biases are discussed: biases that are measured with variables (e.g., assumed similarity) and directional bias, which refers to the extent to which judgments are pulled toward 1 end of the judgment continuum. Moderator variables are conceptualized as variables that affect the accuracy and bias forces but that do not affect judgments directly. We illustrate the model with 4 examples. We discuss the theoretical, empirical, methodological, measurement, and design implications of the model. PMID:21480740

  11. Grammaticality Judgment as a Function of Explicit and Implicit Instruction in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winitz, Harris

    1996-01-01

    Investigated whether the methodologies of explicit and implicit language instruction account for differences in the identification of grammatically well-formed sentences for college students of Spanish. Results showed that students receiving implicit instruction scored significantly higher in a grammaticality judgment test than those receiving…

  12. 5 CFR 838.1111 - Amounts subject to child abuse judgment enforcement orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amounts subject to child abuse judgment... Under the Child Abuse Accountability Act Availability of Funds § 838.1111 Amounts subject to child abuse... child abuse enforcement orders only if all of the conditions necessary for payment of the...

  13. 5 CFR 838.1111 - Amounts subject to child abuse judgment enforcement orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amounts subject to child abuse judgment enforcement orders. 838.1111 Section 838.1111 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Under the Child Abuse Accountability...

  14. 5 CFR 838.1111 - Amounts subject to child abuse judgment enforcement orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amounts subject to child abuse judgment... Under the Child Abuse Accountability Act Availability of Funds § 838.1111 Amounts subject to child abuse... child abuse enforcement orders only if all of the conditions necessary for payment of the...

  15. 5 CFR 838.1111 - Amounts subject to child abuse judgment enforcement orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amounts subject to child abuse judgment... Under the Child Abuse Accountability Act Availability of Funds § 838.1111 Amounts subject to child abuse... child abuse enforcement orders only if all of the conditions necessary for payment of the...

  16. 5 CFR 838.1111 - Amounts subject to child abuse judgment enforcement orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amounts subject to child abuse judgment... Under the Child Abuse Accountability Act Availability of Funds § 838.1111 Amounts subject to child abuse... child abuse enforcement orders only if all of the conditions necessary for payment of the...

  17. Decision-Tree Models of Categorization Response Times, Choice Proportions, and Typicality Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafond, Daniel; Lacouture, Yves; Cohen, Andrew L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present 3 decision-tree models of categorization adapted from T. Trabasso, H. Rollins, and E. Shaughnessy (1971) and use them to provide a quantitative account of categorization response times, choice proportions, and typicality judgments at the individual-participant level. In Experiment 1, the decision-tree models were fit to…

  18. Embodied markedness of parity? Examining handedness effects on parity judgments.

    PubMed

    Huber, Stefan; Klein, Elise; Graf, Martina; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Moeller, Korbinian; Willmes, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    Parity is important semantic information encoded by numbers. Interestingly, there are hand-based effects in parity judgment tasks: right-hand responses are faster for even and left-hand responses for odd numbers. As this effect was initially explained by the markedness of the words even vs. odd and right vs. left, it was denoted as the linguistic markedness of response codes (MARC) effect. In the present study, we investigated whether the MARC effect differs for right and left handers. We conducted a parity judgment task, in which right- and left-handed participants had to decide whether a presented single or two-digit number was odd or even by pressing a corresponding response key. We found that handedness modulated the MARC effect for unit digits. While we replicated a regular MARC effect for right handers, there was no evidence for a MARC effect for left handers. However, closer inspection revealed that the MARC effect in left handers depended on the degree of left-handedness with a reversed MARC effect for most left-handed participants. Furthermore, although parity of tens digits interfered with the processing of unit digits, the MARC effect for tens digits was not modulated by handedness. Our findings are discussed in the light of three different accounts for the MARC effect: the linguistic markedness account, the polarity correspondence principle, and the body-specificity hypothesis. PMID:25394996

  19. The Meta-Analysis of Clinical Judgment Project: Effects of Experience on Judgment Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spengler, Paul M.; White, Michael J.; Aegisdottir, Stefania; Maugherman, Alan S.; Anderson, Linda A.; Cook, Robert S.; Nichols, Cassandra N.; Lampropoulos, Georgios K.; Walker, Blain S.; Cohen, Genna R.; Rush, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and educational experience is one of the most commonly studied variables in clinical judgment research. Contrary to clinicians' perceptions, clinical judgment researchers have generally concluded that accuracy does not improve with increased education, training, or clinical experience. In this meta-analysis, the authors synthesized…

  20. The Link between Accountability and Improvement: The Case of Reporting to Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Viviane; Timperley, Helen

    2000-01-01

    Discusses conditions under which educational accountability might prompt academic improvement, critiquing the logic linking the two; identifying processes influencing the validity of accountability judgment, acceptance of judgment, and probability that it motivates improvement; and analyzing 12 New Zealand primary schools' methods of informing…

  1. 26 CFR 1.673(b)-1 - Income payable to charitable beneficiaries before amendment by Tax Reform Act of 1969).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... any portion of a trust under section 673, even though he has a reversionary interest which will take... the following example: Example. G transfers property in trust with the ordinary income payable to...). However, he is taxed on income for the next 5 years because he has a reversionary interest which will...

  2. 78 FR 35754 - Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION 29 CFR Parts 4022 and 4044 Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Valuing and Paying Benefits AGENCY:...

  3. 75 FR 12121 - Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION 29 CFR Parts 4022 and 4044 Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Valuing and Paying Benefits AGENCY:...

  4. 75 FR 27189 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Valuing and Paying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Valuing and Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. ]...

  5. 78 FR 75897 - Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... / Friday, December 13, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION 29 CFR Parts 4022 and 4044 Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Valuing and Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit...

  6. 75 FR 33688 - Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION 29 CFR Parts 4022 and 4044 Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Valuing and Paying Benefits AGENCY:...

  7. 78 FR 16401 - Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION 29 CFR Parts 4022 and 4044 Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Valuing and Paying Benefits AGENCY:...

  8. 77 FR 14274 - Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... published a final rule document in the Federal Register on September 15, 2011 (at 76 FR 56973), amending its... September 15, 2011 (at 76 FR 56973), amending its regulations on Benefits Payable in Terminated Single... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT...

  9. 77 FR 14275 - Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... published a final rule document in the Federal Register on June 15, 2011 (at 76 FR 34847), amending its... June 15, 2011 (at 76 FR 34847), amending its regulations on Benefits Payable in Terminated Single... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT...

  10. 26 CFR 1.673(b)-1 - Income payable to charitable beneficiaries before amendment by Tax Reform Act of 1969).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... before amendment by Tax Reform Act of 1969). 1.673(b)-1 Section 1.673(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... before amendment by Tax Reform Act of 1969). (a) Pursuant to section 673(b) a grantor is not treated as... trust income payable to University C for the first 3 years because of the application of section...

  11. 26 CFR 1.673(b)-1 - Income payable to charitable beneficiaries before amendment by Tax Reform Act of 1969).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... before amendment by Tax Reform Act of 1969). 1.673(b)-1 Section 1.673(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... before amendment by Tax Reform Act of 1969). (a) Pursuant to section 673(b) a grantor is not treated as... trust income payable to University C for the first 3 years because of the application of section...

  12. 43 CFR 2812.4-2 - Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... permittee for use of road. 2812.4-2 Section 2812.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.4-2 Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road. In the event the United States itself removes forest...

  13. 43 CFR 2812.4-2 - Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... permittee for use of road. 2812.4-2 Section 2812.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.4-2 Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road. In the event the United States itself removes forest...

  14. 43 CFR 2812.4-2 - Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... permittee for use of road. 2812.4-2 Section 2812.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.4-2 Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road. In the event the United States itself removes forest...

  15. 43 CFR 2812.4-2 - Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... permittee for use of road. 2812.4-2 Section 2812.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.4-2 Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road. In the event the United States itself removes forest...

  16. 20 CFR 322.3 - Determining the days with respect to which remuneration is payable or accrues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Determining the days with respect to which remuneration is payable or accrues. 322.3 Section 322.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.3 Determining the days...

  17. 77 FR 15256 - Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ...This final rule amends the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulations on Benefits Payable in Terminated Single- Employer Plans and Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the benefit payments regulation for valuation dates in April 2012 and interest assumptions under the asset allocation regulation for valuation dates in the second quarter......

  18. 75 FR 55966 - Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ...Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulations on Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans and Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans prescribe interest assumptions for valuing and paying certain benefits under terminating single-employer plans. This final rule amends the asset allocation regulation to adopt interest assumptions for plans with valuation dates in the......

  19. 77 FR 35838 - Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ...This final rule amends the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulations on Benefits Payable in Terminated Single- Employer Plans and Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the benefit payments regulation for valuation dates in July 2012 and interest assumptions under the asset allocation regulation for valuation dates in the third quarter of......

  20. 38 CFR 3.812 - Special allowance payable under section 156 of Pub. L. 97-377.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... this section apply to the payment of a special allowance to certain surviving spouses and children of... section. (2) Original or reopened awards to surviving spouses. The monthly payment rate shall be equal to... allowance payable to a surviving spouse shall be increased by the same overall average percentage...

  1. 22 CFR 512.11 - Administrative offset against amounts payable from Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... from Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund. 512.11 Section 512.11 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING... Retirement and Disability Fund. (a) Unless otherwise prohibited by law, Broadcasting Board of Governors may request that monies that are due and payable to a debtor from the Civil Service Retirement and...

  2. 12 CFR 1704.47 - Administrative offset against amounts payable from Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative offset against amounts payable from Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund. 1704.47 Section 1704.47 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT OFHEO ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS DEBT COLLECTION...

  3. 75 FR 6857 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Valuing and Paying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-12

    ... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for... prescribes interest assumptions for valuing and paying certain benefits under terminating single-employer plans. This final rule amends the benefit payments regulation to adopt interest assumptions for...

  4. 75 FR 19542 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Valuing and Paying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for... prescribes interest assumptions for valuing and paying certain benefits under terminating single-employer plans. This final rule amends the benefit payments regulation to adopt interest assumptions for...

  5. 75 FR 41091 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Valuing and Paying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for... prescribes interest assumptions for valuing and paying certain benefits under terminating single-employer plans. This final rule amends the benefit payments regulation to adopt interest assumptions for...

  6. 75 FR 78161 - Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ...This final rule amends Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulations on Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans and Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the benefit payments regulation for valuation dates in January 2011 and interest assumptions under the asset allocation regulation for valuation dates in the first quarter of......

  7. Person memory and judgments: the impact of information that one is told to disregard.

    PubMed

    Wyer, R S; Budesheim, T L

    1987-07-01

    Subjects read a series of behaviors with instructions to form an impression of the person who performed them. In some conditions, subjects were told after reading the behaviors that an administrative error had been made and that certain ones should be disregarded. If the behaviors that subjects were told to disregard were descriptively unrelated to the other behaviors in the series, their influence on trait judgments was greatest when they were presented last. If the behaviors to be disregarded were descriptively inconsistent with the remaining behaviors, their influence was greatest when they were first in the series but subjects were not told to ignore them until after the remaining ones were presented. If the to-be-disregarded behaviors implied the same trait as the remaining ones, they had an influence on trait judgments in both of these conditions. All of these effects were consistently greater when the trait implied by the behaviors to be disregarded was favorable. In fact, when behaviors implied an unfavorable trait, instructions to disregard them often led the behaviors to have a contrast effect on trait judgments. Subjects appeared to base their judgments on implications of the cognitive representations they formed of the person at the time information was first presented. They then adjusted these subjective judgments at the time they reported them to compensate for the influence they perceived the to-be-disregarded information to have, making relatively greater adjustments when this information was unfavorable than when it was favorable. An additional experiment provided further evidence of adjustment processes, but it indicated that subjects also base their judgments on a partial review of the information they have received. A general model of person memory and judgment proposed by Wyer and Unverzagt (1985) provided a satisfactory account of the results of these studies. PMID:3612487

  8. The tacit dimension of clinical judgment.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, G. M.

    1990-01-01

    Two distinct views of the nature of clinical judgment are identified and contrasted. The dominant view that clinical judgment is a fully explicit process is compared to the relatively neglected view that tacit knowledge plays a substantial role in the clinician's mental operations. The tacit dimension of medical thinking is explored at length. The discussion suggests severe limits when applying decision analysis, expert systems, and computer-aided cost-benefit review to medicine. The goals and practices of postgraduate medical education are also examined from this perspective, as are various other implications for the clinician. The paper concludes that it is valuable to explore the nature of medical thinking in order to improve clinical practice and education. Such explorations should, however, take cognizance of the often overlooked tacit dimension of clinical judgment. Possible constraints on the medical applicability of both formal expert systems and heavily didactic instructional programs are considered. PMID:2356625

  9. Causal networks or causal islands? The representation of mechanisms and the transitivity of causal judgment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Samuel G. B.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of mechanisms is critical for causal reasoning. We contrasted two possible organizations of causal knowledge—an interconnected causal network, where events are causally connected without any boundaries delineating discrete mechanisms; or a set of disparate mechanisms—causal islands—such that events in different mechanisms are not thought to be related even when they belong to the same causal chain. To distinguish these possibilities, we used causal transitivity—the inference given A causes B and B causes C that A causes C. Specifically, causal chains schematized as one chunk or mechanism in semantic memory (e.g., exercising, becoming thirsty, drinking water) led to transitive causal judgments. On the other hand, chains schematized as multiple chunks (e.g., having sex, becoming pregnant, becoming nauseous) led to intransitive judgments despite strong intermediate links (Experiments 1–3). Normative accounts of causal intransitivity could not explain these intransitive judgments (Experiments 4–5). PMID:25556901

  10. Exposure Influences Expressive Timing Judgments in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honing, Henkjan; Ladinig, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    This study is concerned with the question whether, and to what extent, listeners' previous exposure to music in everyday life, and expertise as a result of formal musical training, play a role in making expressive timing judgments in music. This was investigated by using a Web-based listening experiment in which listeners with a wide range of…

  11. Constraints on Children's Judgments of Magical Causality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolley, Jacqueline D.; Browne, Cheryl A.; Boerger, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    In 3 studies we addressed the operation of constraints on children's causal judgments. Our primary focus was whether children's beliefs about magical causality, specifically wishing, are constrained by features that govern the attribution of ordinary causality. In Experiment 1, children witnessed situations in which a confederate's wish appeared…

  12. Norm Acquisition, Rational Judgment and Moral Particularism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Moral particularism, defined as the view that moral judgment does not require moral principles, has become prominent both in moral philosophy and in philosophy of education. This article re-examines Nussbaum's case for particularism, based on Sophocles' "Antigone", because her stress on sensitive appreciation of circumstantial specifics is…

  13. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, Andrew M; Eerland, Anita; Zwaan, Rolf A; Magliano, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder), the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder) and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect), which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality). In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments. PMID:26496364

  14. On the Merits of Clinical Judgment: Comment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garb, Howard N.; Grove, William M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on the article by D. Westen and J. Weinberger , which criticized academic clinical psychologists for being cynical about clinical judgment and clinical practice. In the authors' view, it seems unlikely that more than a few academic clinical psychologists believe that they have little to learn from clinical practice or…

  15. Personality judgments from everyday images of faces

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Clare A. M.; Rowley, Lauren E.; Amoaku, Unity T.; Daguzan, Ella; Kidd-Rossiter, Kate A.; Maceviciute, Ugne; Young, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers' faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1000 highly varying “ambient image” face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance, and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big Five judgments were found to separate to some extent: judgments of openness, extraversion, emotional stability, and agreeableness were mainly linked to facial first impressions of approachability, whereas conscientiousness judgments involved a combination of approachability and dominance. In a second study we used average face images to investigate which main cues are used by perceivers to make impressions of the Big Five, by extracting consistent cues to impressions from the large variation in the original images. When forming impressions of strangers from highly varying, naturalistic face photographs, perceivers mainly seem to rely on broad facial cues to approachability, such as smiling. PMID:26579008

  16. Information Sources, Dogmatism, and Judgmental Modifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Huey B.

    This study examined differences in the number of perceptual judgment modifications made by 36 subjects showing different levels of dogmatism when the source of information was manipulated among superior, subordinate, and peer sources. An experimental and a control group were used, and a 2x3 factorial analysis design was developed. Dogmatism was…

  17. Biases in children's and adults' moral judgments.

    PubMed

    Powell, Nina L; Derbyshire, Stuart W G; Guttentag, Robert E

    2012-09-01

    Two experiments examined biases in children's (5/6- and 7/8-year-olds) and adults' moral judgments. Participants at all ages judged that it was worse to produce harm when harm occurred (a) through action rather than inaction (omission bias), (b) when physical contact with the victim was involved (physical contact principle), and (c) when the harm was produced as a direct means to an end rather than as an unintended but foreseeable side effect of the action (intention principle). The youngest participants, however, did not incorporate benefit when making judgments about situations in which harm to one individual resulted in benefit to five individuals. Older participants showed some preference for benefit resulting from action (commission) as opposed to inaction (omission). The findings are discussed in the context of the theory that moral judgments result, in part, from the operation of an inherent, intuitive moral faculty compared with the theory that moral judgments require development of necessary cognitive abilities. PMID:22658413

  18. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT... the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812)....

  19. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT... the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812)....

  20. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT... the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812)....

  1. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT... the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812)....

  2. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT... the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812)....

  3. Fatigue, Sleep Loss, and Confidence in Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranski, Joseph V.

    2007-01-01

    Sixty-four adults participated in a study examining the accuracy of metacognitive judgments during 28 hr of sleep deprivation (SD) and continuous cognitive work. Three tasks were studied (perceptual comparison, general knowledge, and mental addition), collectively spanning a range of cognitive abilities and levels of susceptibility to SD.…

  4. Justice Judgments Concerning Grading in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalbert, Claudia; Schneidewind, Ulrike; Saalbach, Annett

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates justice judgments concerning grading. In two studies with secondary students (N[subscript 1]=350 academic-track students; N[subscript 2]=225 intermediate [n=81] and academic-track students [n=144]) attending the 7th to the 12th grade level, participants were presented with vignettes describing three different grading…

  5. Origins and Outcomes of Judgments about Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the importance of judgments about work for the attainment process in the "new economy." Findings show continuing links between social origins and work orientations at age 21/22, as well as significant effects of work orientations on occupational outcomes at age 31/32. Higher socio-economic status background, and stronger self-perceived…

  6. Sequential effects in face-attractiveness judgment.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Aki; Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that current-trial responses are biased toward the response of the preceding trial in perceptual decisionmaking tasks (the sequential effect-Holland and Lockhead, 1968 Perception & Psychophysics 3 409-414). The sequential effect has been widely observed in evaluation of the physical properties of stimuli as well as more complex properties. However, it is unclear whether subjective decisions (e.g., attractiveness judgments) are also susceptible to the sequential effect. Here, we examined whether the sequential effect would occur in face-attractiveness judgments. Forty-eight pictures of male and female faces were presented successively. Participants rated the attractiveness of each face on a 7-point scale. The results showed that the attractiveness rating of a given face assimilated toward the rating of the preceding trial. In a separate experiment, we provided the average attractiveness rating by others for each trial as feedback. The feedback weakened the sequential effect. These findings suggest that attractiveness judgment is also biased toward the preceding judgment, and hence the sequential effect can be extended into the domain of subjective decisionmaking. PMID:22611662

  7. Personality judgments from everyday images of faces.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Clare A M; Rowley, Lauren E; Amoaku, Unity T; Daguzan, Ella; Kidd-Rossiter, Kate A; Maceviciute, Ugne; Young, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers' faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1000 highly varying "ambient image" face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance, and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big Five judgments were found to separate to some extent: judgments of openness, extraversion, emotional stability, and agreeableness were mainly linked to facial first impressions of approachability, whereas conscientiousness judgments involved a combination of approachability and dominance. In a second study we used average face images to investigate which main cues are used by perceivers to make impressions of the Big Five, by extracting consistent cues to impressions from the large variation in the original images. When forming impressions of strangers from highly varying, naturalistic face photographs, perceivers mainly seem to rely on broad facial cues to approachability, such as smiling. PMID:26579008

  8. Moral Appraisals Affect Doing/Allowing Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Fiery; Knobe, Joshua; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2008-01-01

    An extensive body of research suggests that the distinction between doing and allowing plays a critical role in shaping moral appraisals. Here, we report evidence from a pair of experiments suggesting that the converse is also true: moral appraisals affect doing/allowing judgments. Specifically, morally bad behavior is more likely to be construed…

  9. Biases in Children's and Adults' Moral Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Nina L.; Derbyshire, Stuart W. G.; Guttentag, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined biases in children's (5/6- and 7/8-year-olds) and adults' moral judgments. Participants at all ages judged that it was worse to produce harm when harm occurred (a) through action rather than inaction (omission bias), (b) when physical contact with the victim was involved (physical contact principle), and (c) when the harm…

  10. Legitimatizing Violence: Audience Judgments of Television Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark

    This document examines some of the factors involved in individual judgments of television portrayed violent behaviors in an attempt to determine how and why people attach aggressive labels to behaviors and to assess the impact of such decisions. A review of related literature is provided to point out the lack of substantial attention in such…

  11. Critical Thinking and the Art of Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Craig

    "Six Steps of Argument Analysis" is a model for a critical thinking class which illustrates where and how the teacher can break off from the well-ordered sequence of critical thinking skills in order to provide occasions for each student to realize where he or she is making a judgment. Through use of this model the teacher can encourage the…

  12. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Sherrill, Andrew M.; Eerland, Anita; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Magliano, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder), the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder) and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect), which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality). In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments. PMID:26496364

  13. Reflection and Reasoning in Moral Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Joseph M.; Ungar, Leo; Greene, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    While there is much evidence for the influence of automatic emotional responses on moral judgment, the roles of reflection and reasoning remain uncertain. In Experiment 1, we induced subjects to be more reflective by completing the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) prior to responding to moral dilemmas. This manipulation increased utilitarian…

  14. Apprentices' Learning of Occupationally Informed Practical Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Selena

    2015-01-01

    Learning to become trade workers requires developing the ability to make practical workplace-based judgments, often centred around difficult to articulate trade "know-how" or tacit knowledge. Apprentices learn discipline specific ways of doing, thinking, feeling and being from experts, peers and through interactions with occupational…

  15. Probability judgments under ambiguity and conflict

    PubMed Central

    Smithson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Whether conflict and ambiguity are distinct kinds of uncertainty remains an open question, as does their joint impact on judgments of overall uncertainty. This paper reviews recent advances in our understanding of human judgment and decision making when both ambiguity and conflict are present, and presents two types of testable models of judgments under conflict and ambiguity. The first type concerns estimate-pooling to arrive at “best” probability estimates. The second type is models of subjective assessments of conflict and ambiguity. These models are developed for dealing with both described and experienced information. A framework for testing these models in the described-information setting is presented, including a reanalysis of a multi-nation data-set to test best-estimate models, and a study of participants' assessments of conflict, ambiguity, and overall uncertainty reported by Smithson (2013). A framework for research in the experienced-information setting is then developed, that differs substantially from extant paradigms in the literature. This framework yields new models of “best” estimates and perceived conflict. The paper concludes with specific suggestions for future research on judgment and decision making under conflict and ambiguity. PMID:26042081

  16. The Dynamics of Pedagogic Judgment in Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Dayvid

    In the school culture, teachers are often caught between sanctioned instructional behavior and their own judgment; governed by legislated edicts, yet not freed by them to nurture their students. The relationship between pedagogic actions and morally acceptable outcomes, between responsibility to the self and to the students, the school, and the…

  17. Judgment: The Nurse's Key to Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doona, Mary Ellen

    1992-01-01

    Examples of nurses in ancient Greek literature--Euryclea in Homer's "Odyssey," Cilissa in Aeschylus'"Oresteia," and the nurse in Euripides'"Medea"--illustrate the personal commitment in judgment and the obligation of nurses to move from doubt and opinion toward knowledge and certitude. (SK)

  18. Grading: Why You Should Trust Your Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2016-01-01

    Many educators consider grades calculated from statistical algorithms more accurate, objective, and reliable than grades they calculate themselves. But in this research, the authors first asked teachers to use their professional judgment to choose a summary grade for hypothetical students. When the researchers compared the teachers' grade with the…

  19. 24 CFR 203.369 - Deficiency judgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deficiency judgments. 203.369 Section 203.369 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  20. Children's Facial Trustworthiness Judgments: Agreement and Relationship with Facial Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming

    2016-01-01

    This study examined developmental changes in children's abilities to make trustworthiness judgments based on faces and the relationship between a child's perception of trustworthiness and facial attractiveness. One hundred and one 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds, along with 37 undergraduates, were asked to judge the trustworthiness of 200 faces. Next, they issued facial attractiveness judgments. The results indicated that children made consistent trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments based on facial appearance, but with-adult and within-age agreement levels of facial judgments increased with age. Additionally, the agreement levels of judgments made by girls were higher than those by boys. Furthermore, the relationship between trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments increased with age, and the relationship between two judgments made by girls was closer than those by boys. These findings suggest that face-based trait judgment ability develops throughout childhood and that, like adults, children may use facial attractiveness as a heuristic cue that signals a stranger's trustworthiness. PMID:27148111

  1. Differences in moral judgment between nursing students and qualified nurses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Soon; Park, Jin-Hee; Han, Sung-Suk

    2007-05-01

    This longitudinal study examined how nursing students' moral judgment changes after they become qualified nurses working in a hospital environment. The sample used was a group of 80 nursing students attending a university in Suwon, Korea, between 2001 and 2003. By using a Korean version of the Judgment About Nursing Decisions questionnaire, an instrument used in nursing care research, moral judgment scores based on Ketefian's six nursing dilemmas were determined. The results were as follows: (1) the qualified nurses had significantly higher idealistic moral judgment scores than the nursing students; (2) the qualified nurses showed significantly higher realistic moral judgment scores than the nursing students; and (3) when comparing idealistic and realistic moral judgment scores, both the qualified nurses and the nursing students had higher scores for idealistic moral judgment. Further study is recommended to examine changes in moral judgment. PMID:17459815

  2. Children's Facial Trustworthiness Judgments: Agreement and Relationship with Facial Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming

    2016-01-01

    This study examined developmental changes in children's abilities to make trustworthiness judgments based on faces and the relationship between a child's perception of trustworthiness and facial attractiveness. One hundred and one 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds, along with 37 undergraduates, were asked to judge the trustworthiness of 200 faces. Next, they issued facial attractiveness judgments. The results indicated that children made consistent trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments based on facial appearance, but with-adult and within-age agreement levels of facial judgments increased with age. Additionally, the agreement levels of judgments made by girls were higher than those by boys. Furthermore, the relationship between trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments increased with age, and the relationship between two judgments made by girls was closer than those by boys. These findings suggest that face-based trait judgment ability develops throughout childhood and that, like adults, children may use facial attractiveness as a heuristic cue that signals a stranger's trustworthiness. PMID:27148111

  3. 31 CFR 561.201 - Prohibitions or strict conditions with respect to correspondent accounts or payable-through...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... blocked pursuant to the Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferators Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR part 544... Blocked Persons List (“SDN List”). The SDN List is accessible through the following page on the Office of Foreign Assets Control's Web site: http://www.treasury.gov/sdn. Additional information pertaining to...

  4. 77 FR 75447 - Worley Parsons, Accounts Payable, a Subsidiary of Worley Parsons Corporation, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... Register on October 17, 2012 (77 FR 63875). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the... time period due to a shift in services to Malaysia. Information from the company also shows that leased... all workers of the subject firm who were adversely affected by a shift in services to Malaysia. ]...

  5. Computerized accounting for the dental office. Using horizontal applications general ledger software.

    PubMed

    Garsson, B

    1988-01-01

    Remember that computer software is designed for accrual accounting, whereas your business operates and reports income on a cash basis. The rules of tax law stipulate that professional practices may use the cash method of accounting, but if accrual accounting is ever used to report taxable income the government may not permit a switch back to cash accounting. Therefore, always consider the computer as a bookkeeper, not a substitute for a qualified accountant. (Your accountant will have readily accessible payroll and general ledger data available for analysis and tax reports, thanks to the magic of computer processing.) Accounts Payable reports are interfaced with the general ledger and are of interest for transaction detail, open invoice and cash flow analysis, and for a record of payments by vendor. Payroll reports, including check register and withholding detail are provided and interfaced with the general ledger. The use of accounting software expands the use of in-office computers to areas beyond professional billing and insurance form generation. It simplifies payroll recordkeeping; maintains payables details; integrates payables, receivables, and payroll with general ledger files; provides instantaneous information on all aspects of the business office; and creates a continuous "audit-trail" following the entering of data. The availability of packaged accounting software allows the professional business office an array of choices. The person(s) responsible for bookkeeping and accounting should choose carefully, ensuring that any system is easy to use, has been thoroughly tested, and provides at least as much control over office records as has been outlined in this article. PMID:3422198

  6. Using critical evaluation to reappraise plausibility judgments: A critical cognitive component of conceptual change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, D.

    2011-12-01

    Plausibility judgments-although well represented in conceptual change theories (see, for example, Chi, 2005; diSessa, 1993; Dole & Sinatra, 1998; Posner et al., 1982)-have received little empirical attention until our recent work investigating teachers' and students' understanding of and perceptions about human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010, 2011). In our first study with undergraduate students, we found that greater plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate accounted for significantly greater understanding of weather and climate distinctions after instruction, even after accounting for students' prior knowledge (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010). In a follow-up study with inservice science and preservice elementary teachers, we showed that anger about the topic of climate change and teaching about climate change was significantly related to implausible perceptions about human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2011). Results from our recent studies helped to inform our development of a model of the role of plausibility judgments in conceptual change situations. The model applies to situations involving cognitive dissonance, where background knowledge conflicts with an incoming message. In such situations, we define plausibility as a judgment on the relative potential truthfulness of incoming information compared to one's existing mental representations (Rescher, 1976). Students may not consciously think when making plausibility judgments, expending only minimal mental effort in what is referred to as an automatic cognitive process (Stanovich, 2009). However, well-designed instruction could facilitate students' reappraisal of plausibility judgments in more effortful and conscious cognitive processing. Critical evaluation specifically may be one effective method to promote plausibility reappraisal in a classroom setting (Lombardi & Sinatra, in progress). In science education, critical evaluation involves the analysis of how evidentiary

  7. Social Judgment Analysis: Methodology for Improving Interpersonal Communication and Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbaugh, John; Harmon, Joel

    Research has found the Social Judgment Analysis (SJA) approach, with its focus on judgment policy and cognitive feedback, to be a significant factor in developing group member agreement and improving member performance. A controlled experiment was designed to assess the relative quality of the judgment making process provided by SJA.…

  8. Style and Spectator Judgment in Fisher Ames's Jay Treaty Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manolescu, Beth Innocenti

    1998-01-01

    Describes reflective spectator judgment with respect to political judgment and rhetorical theory, and then proposes a method of stylistic analysis that may help to identify discursive features enabling reflective spectator judgment. Illustrates these discursive features (described as participatory forms) by performing a stylistic analysis of…

  9. 42 CFR 423.662 - Prehearing and summary judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prehearing and summary judgment. 423.662 Section... Determinations and Appeals § 423.662 Prehearing and summary judgment. (a) Prehearing. The hearing officer may... issues. (b) Summary judgment. Either party to the hearing, may ask the hearing officer to rule on...

  10. 42 CFR 422.684 - Prehearing and summary judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prehearing and summary judgment. 422.684 Section... Appeals § 422.684 Prehearing and summary judgment. (a) Prehearing. The hearing officer may schedule a...) Summary judgment. Either party to the hearing may ask the hearing officer to rule on a motion for...

  11. 42 CFR 423.662 - Prehearing and summary judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prehearing and summary judgment. 423.662 Section... Determinations and Appeals § 423.662 Prehearing and summary judgment. (a) Prehearing. The hearing officer may... issues. (b) Summary judgment. Either party to the hearing, may ask the hearing officer to rule on...

  12. 5 CFR 2423.27 - Summary judgment motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Summary judgment motions. 2423.27 Section..., Prehearing Procedures § 2423.27 Summary judgment motions. (a) Motions. Any party may move for a summary... to be determined at the hearing. (c) Decision. If all issues are decided by summary judgment,...

  13. 41 CFR 60-30.23 - Summary judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Summary judgment. 60-30... ORDER 11246 Hearings and Related Matters § 60-30.23 Summary judgment. (a) For the Government. At any... for summary judgment by the respondent, the Government may move with or without supporting...

  14. 42 CFR 422.684 - Prehearing and summary judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prehearing and summary judgment. 422.684 Section... Appeals § 422.684 Prehearing and summary judgment. (a) Prehearing. The hearing officer may schedule a...) Summary judgment. Either party to the hearing may ask the hearing officer to rule on a motion for...

  15. 41 CFR 60-30.23 - Summary judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Summary judgment. 60-30... ORDER 11246 Hearings and Related Matters § 60-30.23 Summary judgment. (a) For the Government. At any... for summary judgment by the respondent, the Government may move with or without supporting...

  16. 5 CFR 2423.27 - Summary judgment motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Summary judgment motions. 2423.27 Section..., Prehearing Procedures § 2423.27 Summary judgment motions. (a) Motions. Any party may move for a summary... to be determined at the hearing. (c) Decision. If all issues are decided by summary judgment,...

  17. 25 CFR 87.11 - Investment of judgment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Investment of judgment funds. 87.11 Section 87.11 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.11 Investment of judgment funds. As soon as possible after the appropriation of... distribution of the funds, the Commissioner shall invest such funds pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 162a. Investments...

  18. 25 CFR 87.11 - Investment of judgment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Investment of judgment funds. 87.11 Section 87.11 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.11 Investment of judgment funds. As soon as possible after the appropriation of... distribution of the funds, the Commissioner shall invest such funds pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 162a. Investments...

  19. 25 CFR 87.11 - Investment of judgment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Investment of judgment funds. 87.11 Section 87.11 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.11 Investment of judgment funds. As soon as possible after the appropriation of... distribution of the funds, the Commissioner shall invest such funds pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 162a. Investments...

  20. 25 CFR 87.11 - Investment of judgment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment of judgment funds. 87.11 Section 87.11 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.11 Investment of judgment funds. As soon as possible after the appropriation of... distribution of the funds, the Commissioner shall invest such funds pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 162a. Investments...

  1. 33 CFR 245.35 - Judgments to require removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judgments to require removal. 245..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REMOVAL OF WRECKS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS § 245.35 Judgments to require removal. When... removal, the District Engineer may seek a judgment by the district court requiring removal....

  2. 33 CFR 245.35 - Judgments to require removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Judgments to require removal. 245..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REMOVAL OF WRECKS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS § 245.35 Judgments to require removal. When... removal, the District Engineer may seek a judgment by the district court requiring removal....

  3. 14 CFR 1261.508 - Offset against a judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offset against a judgment. 1261.508 Section... CLAIMS (GENERAL) Administrative Offset of Claims § 1261.508 Offset against a judgment. Collection by offset against a judgment obtained by a debtor against the United States shall be accomplished...

  4. 41 CFR 105-68.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil judgment. 105-68... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...

  5. 41 CFR 105-68.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil judgment. 105-68... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...

  6. 41 CFR 105-68.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil judgment. 105-68... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...

  7. 41 CFR 105-68.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil judgment. 105-68... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...

  8. Preschoolers Can Make Highly Accurate Judgments of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipowski, Stacy L.; Merriman, William E.; Dunlosky, John

    2013-01-01

    Preschoolers' ability to make judgments of learning (JOLs) was examined in 3 experiments in which they were taught proper names for animals. In Experiment 1, when judgments were made immediately after studying, nearly every child predicted subsequent recall of every name. When judgments were made after a delay, fewer showed this response…

  9. 25 CFR 11.501 - Judgments in civil actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Judgments in civil actions. 11.501 Section 11.501 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Civil Actions § 11.501 Judgments in civil actions. (a) In all civil cases, judgment...

  10. 41 CFR 105-68.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 105-68... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...

  11. The Effect of Client and Counselor Values on Clinical Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, John; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Surveyed clinical psychologists (n=363) to examine influence of patient and clinician ideology on clinical judgment. Found patients who held extreme ideology were rated more negatively on four clinical judgment dimensions. Suggests patient ideology, therapist ideology, and their interaction influence clinical judgment and that clinicians need to…

  12. The Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric as a Framework to Enhance Clinical Judgment in Novice and Experienced Nurses.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, Robbin; Asselin, Marilyn E

    2015-01-01

    Clinical judgment has been identified as a critical component of professional nursing practice and enables nurses to deliver safe patient care with optimal outcomes. Nurses, particularly those transitioning into clinical practice, may require assistance to enhance their clinical judgment skills. This article presents the Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric, which has primarily been used in the academic setting, as a framework for nursing professional development specialists to enhance the clinical judgment skills of novice and experienced nurses. PMID:26381339

  13. Speech and language correlates of adults' judgments of children.

    PubMed

    Burroughs, E I; Tomblin, J B

    1990-08-01

    This two-part study explored the influence that a preschool-aged child's communication behavior has on the impression he or she makes on adults. First, the semantic differential technique was used to reveal the dimensions that describe the adults' judgments of these children. Four adult judges listened to 140 2-min samples of children conversing with an adult and rated the children on 24 bipolar adjective scales. Factor analysis of the ratings produced a three-dimensional structure (Dynamism, Maturity, and Appeal) that accounted for 80% of the total variance in the judgement data. Next, the association between six selected speech and language behaviors and the judgements on each of these dimensions were examined. Rate of speech, fluency of speech, participation in the conversation, complexity of sentences, and grammaticality of utterances were not highly correlated with adults' impressions. However, level of phonological accuracy did correlate with adults' perceptions of degree of maturity. PMID:2381190

  14. The dud-alternative effect in likelihood judgment.

    PubMed

    Windschitl, Paul D; Chambers, John R

    2004-01-01

    The judged likelihood of a focal outcome should generally decrease as the list of alternative possibilities increases. For example, the likelihood that a runner will win a race goes down when 2 new entries are added to the field. However, 6 experiments demonstrate that the presence of implausible alternatives (duds) often increases the judged likelihood of a focal outcome. This dud-alternative effect was detected for judgments involving uncertainty about trivia facts and stochastic events. Nonnumeric likelihood measures and betting measures reliably detected the effect, but numeric likelihood measures did not. Time pressure increased the magnitude of the effect. The results were consistent with a contrast-effect account: The inclusion of duds increases the perceived strength of the evidence for the focal outcome, thereby affecting its judged likelihood. PMID:14736307

  15. Now you see it, now you don't: on emotion, context, and the algorithmic prediction of human imageability judgments

    PubMed Central

    Westbury, Chris F.; Shaoul, Cyrus; Hollis, Geoff; Smithson, Lisa; Briesemeister, Benny B.; Hofmann, Markus J.; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that behavioral measures are affected by manipulating the imageability of words. Though imageability is usually measured by human judgment, little is known about what factors underlie those judgments. We demonstrate that imageability judgments can be largely or entirely accounted for by two computable measures that have previously been associated with imageability, the size and density of a word's context and the emotional associations of the word. We outline an algorithmic method for predicting imageability judgments using co-occurrence distances in a large corpus. Our computed judgments account for 58% of the variance in a set of nearly two thousand imageability judgments, for words that span the entire range of imageability. The two factors account for 43% of the variance in lexical decision reaction times (LDRTs) that is attributable to imageability in a large database of 3697 LDRTs spanning the range of imageability. We document variances in the distribution of our measures across the range of imageability that suggest that they will account for more variance at the extremes, from which most imageability-manipulating stimulus sets are drawn. The two predictors account for 100% of the variance that is attributable to imageability in newly-collected LDRTs using a previously-published stimulus set of 100 items. We argue that our model of imageability is neurobiologically plausible by showing it is consistent with brain imaging data. The evidence we present suggests that behavioral effects in the lexical decision task that are usually attributed to the abstract/concrete distinction between words can be wholly explained by objective characteristics of the word that are not directly related to the semantic distinction. We provide computed imageability estimates for over 29,000 words. PMID:24421777

  16. Correcting Experience-Based Judgments: The Perseverance of Subjective Experience in the Face of the Correction of Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussinson, Ravit; Koriat, Asher

    2008-01-01

    Many of our cognitive and metacognitive judgments are based on sheer subjective experience. Subjective experience, however, may be contaminated by irrelevant factors, resulting in biased judgments. Under certain conditions people exert a metacognitive correction process to remedy such biased judgments. In this study we examine the proposition that…

  17. A Review of Expertise and Judgment Processes for Risk Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    A major challenge of risk and reliability analysis for human errors or hardware failures is the need to enlist expert opinion in areas for which adequate operational data are not available. Experts enlisted in this capacity provide probabilistic estimates of reliability, typically comprised of a measure of central tendency and uncertainty bounds. While formal guidelines for expert elicitation are readily available, they largely fail to provide a theoretical basis for expertise and judgment. This paper reviews expertise and judgment in the context of risk analysis; overviews judgment biases, the role of training, and multivariate judgments; and provides guidance on the appropriate use of atomistic and holistic judgment processes.

  18. A Psychological Model for Aggregating Judgments of Magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkle, Edgar C.; Steyvers, Mark

    In this paper, we develop and illustrate a psychologically-motivated model for aggregating judgments of magnitude across experts. The model assumes that experts' judgments are perturbed from the truth by both systematic biases and random error, and it provides aggregated estimates that are implicitly based on the application of nonlinear weights to individual judgments. The model is also easily extended to situations where experts report multiple quantile judgments. We apply the model to expert judgments concerning flange leaks in a chemical plant, illustrating its use and comparing it to baseline measures.

  19. Implications of Cognitive Load for Hypothesis Generation and Probability Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, Amber M.; Dougherty, Michael R.; Atkins, Sharona M.; Franco-Watkins, Ana M.; Thomas, Rick P.; Lange, Nicholas; Abbs, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    We tested the predictions of HyGene (Thomas et al., 2008) that both divided attention at encoding and judgment should affect the degree to which participants’ probability judgments violate the principle of additivity. In two experiments, we showed that divided attention during judgment leads to an increase in subadditivity, suggesting that the comparison process for probability judgments is capacity limited. Contrary to the predictions of HyGene, a third experiment revealed that divided attention during encoding leads to an increase in later probability judgment made under full attention. The effect of divided attention during encoding on judgment was completely mediated by the number of hypotheses participants generated, indicating that limitations in both encoding and recall can cascade into biases in judgments. PMID:21734897

  20. Origins and Outcomes of Judgments about Work

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate the importance of judgments about work for the attainment process in the “new economy.” Findings show continuing links between social origins and work orientations at age 21/22, as well as significant impacts of work orientations on occupational outcomes at age 31/32. Higher socioeconomic status background, and stronger self-perceived ability, are tied to weaker extrinsic orientations. Young women are more intrinsically oriented than young men. Stronger intrinsic orientations predict holding jobs that offer more intrinsic rewards, self-direction, and security. Stronger extrinsic orientations predict higher biweekly earnings (largely via work hours), but not more prestigious, better paying, or more secure jobs. Judgments about work, and especially intrinsic orientations, thus remain important precursors of occupational attainments, despite economic turbulence and change in the transition to adulthood. PMID:21765555

  1. A framework for rationing by clinical judgment.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Samia A; Danis, Marion

    2007-09-01

    Although rationing by clinical judgment is controversial, its acceptability partly depends on how it is practiced. In this paper, rationing by clinical judgment is defined in three different circumstances that represent increasingly wider circles of resource pools in which the rationing decision takes place: triage during acute shortage, comparison to other potential patients in a context of limited but not immediately strained resources, and determination of whether expected benefit of an intervention is deemed sufficient to warrant its cost by reference to published population based thresholds. Notions of procedural justice are applied along with an analytical framework of six minimal requisites in order to facilitate fair bedside rationing: (1) a closed system that offers reciprocity, (2) attention to general concerns of justice, (3) respect for individual variations, (4) application of a consistent process, (5) explicitness, and (6) review of decisions. The process could be monitored for its applicability and appropriateness. PMID:18210983

  2. Weighting Mean and Variability during Confidence Judgments

    PubMed Central

    de Gardelle, Vincent; Mamassian, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Humans can not only perform some visual tasks with great precision, they can also judge how good they are in these tasks. However, it remains unclear how observers produce such metacognitive evaluations, and how these evaluations might be dissociated from the performance in the visual task. Here, we hypothesized that some stimulus variables could affect confidence judgments above and beyond their impact on performance. In a motion categorization task on moving dots, we manipulated the mean and the variance of the motion directions, to obtain a low-mean low-variance condition and a high-mean high-variance condition with matched performances. Critically, in terms of confidence, observers were not indifferent between these two conditions. Observers exhibited marked preferences, which were heterogeneous across individuals, but stable within each observer when assessed one week later. Thus, confidence and performance are dissociable and observers’ confidence judgments put different weights on the stimulus variables that limit performance. PMID:25793275

  3. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812). (Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235); 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education...

  4. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812). Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235); 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education...

  5. Small-scale societies exhibit fundamental variation in the role of intentions in moral judgment

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, H. Clark; Bolyanatz, Alexander; Crittenden, Alyssa N.; Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Fitzpatrick, Simon; Gurven, Michael; Henrich, Joseph; Kanovsky, Martin; Kushnick, Geoff; Pisor, Anne; Scelza, Brooke A.; Stich, Stephen; von Rueden, Chris; Zhao, Wanying; Laurence, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Intent and mitigating circumstances play a central role in moral and legal assessments in large-scale industrialized societies. Although these features of moral assessment are widely assumed to be universal, to date, they have only been studied in a narrow range of societies. We show that there is substantial cross-cultural variation among eight traditional small-scale societies (ranging from hunter-gatherer to pastoralist to horticulturalist) and two Western societies (one urban, one rural) in the extent to which intent and mitigating circumstances influence moral judgments. Although participants in all societies took such factors into account to some degree, they did so to very different extents, varying in both the types of considerations taken into account and the types of violations to which such considerations were applied. The particular patterns of assessment characteristic of large-scale industrialized societies may thus reflect relatively recently culturally evolved norms rather than inherent features of human moral judgment. PMID:27035959

  6. Small-scale societies exhibit fundamental variation in the role of intentions in moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Barrett, H Clark; Bolyanatz, Alexander; Crittenden, Alyssa N; Fessler, Daniel M T; Fitzpatrick, Simon; Gurven, Michael; Henrich, Joseph; Kanovsky, Martin; Kushnick, Geoff; Pisor, Anne; Scelza, Brooke A; Stich, Stephen; von Rueden, Chris; Zhao, Wanying; Laurence, Stephen

    2016-04-26

    Intent and mitigating circumstances play a central role in moral and legal assessments in large-scale industrialized societies. Although these features of moral assessment are widely assumed to be universal, to date, they have only been studied in a narrow range of societies. We show that there is substantial cross-cultural variation among eight traditional small-scale societies (ranging from hunter-gatherer to pastoralist to horticulturalist) and two Western societies (one urban, one rural) in the extent to which intent and mitigating circumstances influence moral judgments. Although participants in all societies took such factors into account to some degree, they did so to very different extents, varying in both the types of considerations taken into account and the types of violations to which such considerations were applied. The particular patterns of assessment characteristic of large-scale industrialized societies may thus reflect relatively recently culturally evolved norms rather than inherent features of human moral judgment. PMID:27035959

  7. Mood, memory, and social judgments in children.

    PubMed

    Forgas, J P; Burnham, D K; Trimboli, C

    1988-04-01

    The influence of positive and negative moods on children's recall and recognition memory and impression-formation judgments was investigated in a two-list experimental design. A total of 161 schoolchildren, 8 to 10 years old, were presented with audiovisual information containing positive and negative details about 2 target children. Each presentation was preceded by happy or sad mood manipulations. One day later, the children were again placed in a happy or sad mood, and their recall and recognition memory and impression-formation judgments were assessed. Results showed that memory was better when (a) the children felt happy during encoding, retrieval, or both; (b) the material was incongruent with learning mood; (c) the 2 target characters were encountered in contrasting rather than in matching mood states; and (d) recall mood matched encoding mood. A happy mood increased the extremity of both positive and negative impression-formation judgments. Results are contrasted with experimental data obtained with normal or depressed adults, and implications are considered for contemporary theories of mood effects on cognition and for social-developmental research. PMID:3367286

  8. Improving Adolescent Judgment and Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Dansereau, Donald F; Knight, Danica K; Flynn, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Human judgment and decision making (JDM) has substantial room for improvement, especially among adolescents. Increased technological and social complexity "ups the ante" for developing impactful JDM interventions and aids. Current explanatory advances in this field emphasize dual processing models that incorporate both experiential and analytic processing systems. According to these models, judgment and decisions based on the experiential system are rapid and stem from automatic reference to previously stored episodes. Those based on the analytic system are viewed as slower and consciously developed. These models also hypothesize that metacognitive (self-monitoring) activities embedded in the analytic system influence how and when the two systems are used. What is not included in these models is the development of an intersection between the two systems. Because such an intersection is strongly suggested by memory and educational research as the basis of wisdom/expertise, the present paper describes an Integrated Judgment and Decision-Making Model (IJDM) that incorporates this component. Wisdom/expertise is hypothesized to contain a collection of schematic structures that can emerge from the accumulation of similar episodes or repeated analytic practice. As will be argued, in comparisons to dual system models, the addition of this component provides a broader basis for selecting and designing interventions to improve adolescent JDM. Its development also has implications for generally enhancing cognitive interventions by adopting principles from athletic training to create automated, expert behaviors. PMID:24391350

  9. Differentiating among pragmatic uses of words through timed sensicality judgments.

    PubMed

    Bambini, Valentina; Ghio, Marta; Moro, Andrea; Schumacher, Petra B

    2013-01-01

    Pragmatic and cognitive accounts of figurative language posit a difference between metaphor and metonymy in terms of underlying conceptual operations. Recently, other pragmatic uses of words have been accounted for in the Relevance Theory framework, such as approximation, described in terms of conceptual adjustment that varies in degree and direction with respect to the case of metaphor. Despite the theoretical distinctions, there is very poor experimental evidence addressing the metaphor/metonymy distinction, and none concerning approximation. Here we used meticulously built materials to investigate the interpretation mechanisms of these three phenomena through timed sensicality judgments. Results revealed that interpreting metaphors and approximations differs from literal interpretation both in accuracy and reaction times, with higher difficulty and costs for metaphors than for approximations. This suggests similar albeit gradual interpretative costs, in line with the latest account of Relevance Theory. Metonymy, on the contrary, almost equates literal comprehension and calls for a theoretical distinction from metaphor. Overall, this work represents a first attempt to provide an empirical basis for a theory-sound and psychologically-grounded taxonomy of figurative and loose uses of language. PMID:24391608

  10. Differentiating among pragmatic uses of words through timed sensicality judgments

    PubMed Central

    Bambini, Valentina; Ghio, Marta; Moro, Andrea; Schumacher, Petra B.

    2013-01-01

    Pragmatic and cognitive accounts of figurative language posit a difference between metaphor and metonymy in terms of underlying conceptual operations. Recently, other pragmatic uses of words have been accounted for in the Relevance Theory framework, such as approximation, described in terms of conceptual adjustment that varies in degree and direction with respect to the case of metaphor. Despite the theoretical distinctions, there is very poor experimental evidence addressing the metaphor/metonymy distinction, and none concerning approximation. Here we used meticulously built materials to investigate the interpretation mechanisms of these three phenomena through timed sensicality judgments. Results revealed that interpreting metaphors and approximations differs from literal interpretation both in accuracy and reaction times, with higher difficulty and costs for metaphors than for approximations. This suggests similar albeit gradual interpretative costs, in line with the latest account of Relevance Theory. Metonymy, on the contrary, almost equates literal comprehension and calls for a theoretical distinction from metaphor. Overall, this work represents a first attempt to provide an empirical basis for a theory-sound and psychologically-grounded taxonomy of figurative and loose uses of language. PMID:24391608

  11. Effects of Judgment on Memory: Experiments in Recognition Bias and Process Dissociation in a Professional Judgment Task

    PubMed

    Ricchiute

    1997-04-01

    Three experiments investigated post-judgment memory bias in a professional task for which the judge is liable. The experimental setting replicates a task in which a subordinate documents evidence after making a judgment, and a reviewer affirms or overrules the judgment from evidence the subordinate documents. This setting is common, for example, in auditing firms, law firms, and investment banking houses. The results lead to three findings. First, subordinates' judgments interact with evidence in memory to bias their post-judgment recognition of the evidence they will document in evidence files. Second, subordinate memory performance is consistent with the predictions of process dissociation: Conscious recollection is lower when attention is divided, but unconscious familiarity is invariant to attention manipulations. Third, the incomplete evidence sets that subordinates recognize and document systematically bias reviewers' judgments in the direction of subordinates' judgments. PMID:9236163

  12. You can't drink a word: lexical and individual emotionality affect subjective familiarity judgments.

    PubMed

    Westbury, Chris

    2014-10-01

    For almost 30 years, subjective familiarity has been used in psycholinguistics as an explanatory variable, allegedly able to explain many phenomena that have no other obvious explanation (Gernsbacher in J Exp Psychol General 113:256-281, 1984). In this paper, the hypothesis tested is that the subjective familiarity of words is reflecting personal familiarity with or importance of the referents of words. Using an empirically-grounded model of affective force derived from Wundt (Grundriss der Psychologie [Outlines of Psychology]. Engelmann, Leibzig, 1896) and based in a co-occurrence model of semantics (which involves no human judgment), it is shown that affective force can account for the same variance in a large set of human subjective familiarity judgments as other human subjective familiarity judgments, can predict whether people will rate new words of the same objective frequency as more or less familiar, can predict lexical access as well as human subjective familiarity judgments do, and has a predicted relationship to age of acquisition norms. Individuals who have highly affective reactivity [as measured by Carver and White's (J Pers Soc Psychol 67(2):319-333, 1994) Behavioral Inhibition Scale and Behavioral Activation Scales] rate words as significantly more familiar than individuals who have low affective reactivity. PMID:24061785

  13. Testing Bayesian and heuristic predictions of mass judgments of colliding objects

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Adam N.

    2014-01-01

    Mass judgments of colliding objects have been used to explore people's understanding of the physical world because they are ecologically relevant, yet people display biases that are most easily explained by a small set of heuristics. Recent work has challenged the heuristic explanation, by producing the same biases from a model that copes with perceptual uncertainty by using Bayesian inference with a prior based on the correct combination rules from Newtonian mechanics (noisy Newton). Here I test the predictions of the leading heuristic model (Gilden and Proffitt, 1989) against the noisy Newton model using a novel manipulation of the standard mass judgment task: making one of the objects invisible post-collision. The noisy Newton model uses the remaining information to predict above-chance performance, while the leading heuristic model predicts chance performance when one or the other final velocity is occluded. An experiment using two different types of occlusion showed better-than-chance performance and response patterns that followed the predictions of the noisy Newton model. The results demonstrate that people can make sensible physical judgments even when information critical for the judgment is missing, and that a Bayesian model can serve as a guide in these situations. Possible algorithmic-level accounts of this task that more closely correspond to the noisy Newton model are explored. PMID:25206345

  14. Disentangling the Effect of Valence and Arousal on Judgments Concerning Moral Transgressions.

    PubMed

    de la Viña, Luis; Garcia-Burgos, David; Okan, Yasmina; Cándido, Antonio; González, Felisa

    2015-01-01

    An increasing body of research has investigated the effect of emotions on judgments concerning moral transgressions. Yet, few studies have controlled for arousal levels associated with the emotions. High arousal may affect moral processing by triggering attention to salient features of transgressions, independently of valence. Therefore previously documented differences in effects of negative and positive emotions may have been confounded by differences in arousal. We conducted two studies to shed light on this issue. In Study 1 we developed a questionnaire including vignettes selected on the basis of psychometrical properties (i.e., mean ratings of the actions and variability). This questionnaire was administered to participants in Study 2, after presenting them with selected pictures inducing different valence but equivalent levels of arousal. Negative pictures led to more severe moral judgments than neutral (p = .054, d = 0.60) and positive pictures (p = .002, d = 1.02), for vignettes that were not associated with extreme judgments. In contrast, positive pictures did not reliably affect judgments concerning such vignettes. These findings suggest that the observed effects of emotions cannot be accounted for by an increase in attention linked to the arousal which accompanies these emotions. PMID:26256035

  15. The neural basis of intuitive and counterintuitive moral judgment

    PubMed Central

    Wiech, Katja; Shackel, Nicholas; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian; Tracey, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies on moral decision-making have thus far largely focused on differences between moral judgments with opposing utilitarian (well-being maximizing) and deontological (duty-based) content. However, these studies have investigated moral dilemmas involving extreme situations, and did not control for two distinct dimensions of moral judgment: whether or not it is intuitive (immediately compelling to most people) and whether it is utilitarian or deontological in content. By contrasting dilemmas where utilitarian judgments are counterintuitive with dilemmas in which they are intuitive, we were able to use functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of intuitive and counterintuitive judgments across a range of moral situations. Irrespective of content (utilitarian/deontological), counterintuitive moral judgments were associated with greater difficulty and with activation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting that such judgments may involve emotional conflict; intuitive judgments were linked to activation in the visual and premotor cortex. In addition, we obtained evidence that neural differences in moral judgment in such dilemmas are largely due to whether they are intuitive and not, as previously assumed, to differences between utilitarian and deontological judgments. Our findings therefore do not support theories that have generally associated utilitarian and deontological judgments with distinct neural systems. PMID:21421730

  16. Neural correlates of explicit social judgments on vocal stimuli.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Lukas; Bzdok, Danilo; Müller, Veronika I; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2015-05-01

    Functional neuroimaging research on the neural basis of social evaluation has traditionally focused on face perception paradigms. Thus, little is known about the neurobiology of social evaluation processes based on auditory cues, such as voices. To investigate the top-down effects of social trait judgments on voices, hemodynamic responses of 44 healthy participants were measured during social trait (trustworthiness [TR] and attractiveness [AT]), emotional (happiness, HA), and cognitive (age, AG) voice judgments. Relative to HA and AG judgments, TR and AT judgments both engaged the bilateral inferior parietal cortex (IPC; area PGa) and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) extending into the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex. This dmPFC activation overlapped with previously reported areas specifically involved in social judgments on 'faces.' Moreover, social trait judgments were expected to share neural correlates with emotional HA and cognitive AG judgments. Comparison of effects pertaining to social, social-emotional, and social-cognitive appraisal processes revealed a dissociation of the left IPC into 3 functional subregions assigned to distinct cytoarchitectonic subdivisions. In total, the dmPFC is proposed to assume a central role in social attribution processes across sensory qualities. In social judgments on voices, IPC activity shifts from rostral processing of more emotional judgment facets to caudal processing of more cognitive judgment facets. PMID:24243619

  17. The neural basis of intuitive and counterintuitive moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy; Wiech, Katja; Shackel, Nicholas; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian; Tracey, Irene

    2012-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies on moral decision-making have thus far largely focused on differences between moral judgments with opposing utilitarian (well-being maximizing) and deontological (duty-based) content. However, these studies have investigated moral dilemmas involving extreme situations, and did not control for two distinct dimensions of moral judgment: whether or not it is intuitive (immediately compelling to most people) and whether it is utilitarian or deontological in content. By contrasting dilemmas where utilitarian judgments are counterintuitive with dilemmas in which they are intuitive, we were able to use functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of intuitive and counterintuitive judgments across a range of moral situations. Irrespective of content (utilitarian/deontological), counterintuitive moral judgments were associated with greater difficulty and with activation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting that such judgments may involve emotional conflict; intuitive judgments were linked to activation in the visual and premotor cortex. In addition, we obtained evidence that neural differences in moral judgment in such dilemmas are largely due to whether they are intuitive and not, as previously assumed, to differences between utilitarian and deontological judgments. Our findings therefore do not support theories that have generally associated utilitarian and deontological judgments with distinct neural systems. PMID:21421730

  18. Guidance to detect deception with the Aberdeen Report Judgment Scales: are verbal content cues useful to detect false accusations?

    PubMed

    Sporer, Siegfried L; Masip, Jaume; Cramer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In 2 studies we evaluated the efficiency of training raters with a short version of the Aberdeen Report Judgment Scales (ARJS-STV-S) in assessing the truthfulness of transcribed accounts. Participants told both truthful and deceptive accounts of either illegal or immoral actions. In the truthful accounts, the participants described their own misdeeds honestly (true confessions). In the deceptive accounts, the participants also described their own misdeeds but attributed them to someone else (false accusations). In Study 1, guided (n = 32) and unguided (n = 32) raters evaluated 64 transcribed accounts (16 per rater). Only a few ARJS-STV-S criteria differed significantly between false and true accounts. In Study 2 (N = 29), guided raters evaluated the same transcripts using only the most promising criteria of Study 1. Judgments in Study 2 were less biased (in terms of signal detection theory), and the classification of deceptive accounts was significantly better compared with a no-guidance control group and the guided group of Study 1. A Brunswikian lens model analysis showed that with the smaller set of cues there is a better correspondence between the ecological validities and the subjective utilities, which may explain the higher accuracy rates. When the criteria have little or no diagnostic value, or when true and false stories are very similar, providing raters with a larger set of truth criteria does not increase accuracy but instead may bias raters toward making truth judgments. Practical implications for content-based training programs are outlined. PMID:24720096

  19. Emotion and Deliberative Reasoning in Moral Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Denise Dellarosa; Cummins, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    According to an influential dual-process model, a moral judgment is the outcome of a rapid, affect-laden process and a slower, deliberative process. If these outputs conflict, decision time is increased in order to resolve the conflict. Violations of deontological principles proscribing the use of personal force to inflict intentional harm are presumed to elicit negative affect which biases judgments early in the decision-making process. This model was tested in three experiments. Moral dilemmas were classified using (a) decision time and consensus as measures of system conflict and (b) the aforementioned deontological criteria. In Experiment 1, decision time was either unlimited or reduced. The dilemmas asked whether it was appropriate to take a morally questionable action to produce a “greater good” outcome. Limiting decision time reduced the proportion of utilitarian (“yes”) decisions, but contrary to the model’s predictions, (a) vignettes that involved more deontological violations logged faster decision times, and (b) violation of deontological principles was not predictive of decisional conflict profiles. Experiment 2 ruled out the possibility that time pressure simply makes people more like to say “no.” Participants made a first decision under time constraints and a second decision under no time constraints. One group was asked whether it was appropriate to take the morally questionable action while a second group was asked whether it was appropriate to refuse to take the action. The results replicated that of Experiment 1 regardless of whether “yes” or “no” constituted a utilitarian decision. In Experiment 3, participants rated the pleasantness of positive visual stimuli prior to making a decision. Contrary to the model’s predictions, the number of deontological decisions increased in the positive affect rating group compared to a group that engaged in a cognitive task or a control group that engaged in neither task. These results

  20. Health status: patient and physician judgments.

    PubMed Central

    Martini, C J; McDowell, I

    1976-01-01

    Patients at a rehabilitation center in Derbyshire, England, were asked to assess their own functional abilities at admission and again at discharge, using an 82-item questionnaire concerning 12 areas of daily living. Questionnaire responses were correlated with results of physical examinations, assessments by center personnel, and assessments of capacity for specific body movements. The highest correlations were observed in areas that related most directly to physical movements and to dressing and toileting. The results suggest that self-assessment of health status using this questionnaire may provide a viable alternative to judgments made by trained assessors. PMID:1025054

  1. Using checklists and algorithms to improve qualitative exposure judgment accuracy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Susan F; Stenzel, Mark; Drolet, Daniel; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2016-01-01

    Most exposure assessments are conducted without the aid of robust personal exposure data and are based instead on qualitative inputs such as education and experience, training, documentation on the process chemicals, tasks and equipment, and other information. Qualitative assessments determine whether there is any follow-up, and influence the type that occurs, such as quantitative sampling, worker training, and implementing exposure and risk management measures. Accurate qualitative exposure judgments ensure appropriate follow-up that in turn ensures appropriate exposure management. Studies suggest that qualitative judgment accuracy is low. A qualitative exposure assessment Checklist tool was developed to guide the application of a set of heuristics to aid decision making. Practicing hygienists (n = 39) and novice industrial hygienists (n = 8) were recruited for a study evaluating the influence of the Checklist on exposure judgment accuracy. Participants generated 85 pre-training judgments and 195 Checklist-guided judgments. Pre-training judgment accuracy was low (33%) and not statistically significantly different from random chance. A tendency for IHs to underestimate the true exposure was observed. Exposure judgment accuracy improved significantly (p <0.001) to 63% when aided by the Checklist. Qualitative judgments guided by the Checklist tool were categorically accurate or over-estimated the true exposure by one category 70% of the time. The overall magnitude of exposure judgment precision also improved following training. Fleiss' κ, evaluating inter-rater agreement between novice assessors was fair to moderate (κ = 0.39). Cohen's weighted and unweighted κ were good to excellent for novice (0.77 and 0.80) and practicing IHs (0.73 and 0.89), respectively. Checklist judgment accuracy was similar to quantitative exposure judgment accuracy observed in studies of similar design using personal exposure measurements, suggesting that the tool could be useful in

  2. Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall

    PubMed Central

    Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a source memory/free-recall procedure. For each word that was recalled, participants were asked to (a) make a confidence rating on a 5-point scale, (b) make a Remember/Know judgment, and (c) recollect a source detail. The large majority of both Remember judgments and Know judgments were made with high confidence and high accuracy, but source memory was nevertheless higher for Remember judgments than for Know judgments. These source memory results correspond to what is found using recognition, and they raise the possibility that Know judgments in free recall identify the cue-dependent retrieval of item-only information from an episodic memory search set. In agreement with this idea, we also found that the temporal dynamics of free recall were similar for high-confidence Remember and high-confidence Know judgments (as if both judgments reflected retrieval from the same search set). If Know judgments in free recall do in fact reflect the episodic retrieval of item-only information, it seems reasonable to suppose that the same might be true of high-confidence Know judgments in recognition. If so, then a longstanding debate about the role of the hippocampus in recollection and familiarity may have a natural resolution. PMID:23637470

  3. When psychopathy impairs moral judgments: neural responses during judgments about causing fear

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Abigail A.; Cardinale, Elise M.

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathy is a disorder characterized by reduced empathy, shallow affect and behaviors that cause victims distress, like threats, bullying and violence. Neuroimaging research in both institutionalized and community samples implicates amygdala dysfunction in the etiology of psychopathic traits. Reduced amygdala responsiveness may disrupt processing of fear-relevant stimuli like fearful facial expressions. The present study links amygdala dysfunction in response to fear-relevant stimuli to the willingness of individuals with psychopathic traits to cause fear in other people. Thirty-three healthy adult participants varying in psychopathic traits underwent whole-brain fMRI scanning while they viewed statements that selectively evoke anger, disgust, fear, happiness or sadness. During scanning, participants judged whether it is morally acceptable to make each statement to another person. Psychopathy was associated with reduced activity in right amygdala during judgments of fear-evoking statements and with more lenient moral judgments about causing fear. No group differences in amygdala function or moral judgments emerged for other emotion categories. Psychopathy was also associated with increased activity in middle frontal gyrus (BA 10) during the task. These results implicate amygdala dysfunction in impaired judgments about causing distress in psychopathy and suggest that atypical amygdala responses to fear in psychopathy extend across multiple classes of stimuli. PMID:22956667

  4. Electrophysiological difference between the representations of causal judgment and associative judgment in semantic memory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingfei; Liang, Xiuling; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2015-05-01

    Causally related concepts like "virus" and "epidemic" and general associatively related concepts like "ring" and "emerald" are represented and accessed separately. The Evoked Response Potential (ERP) procedure was used to examine the representations of causal judgment and associative judgment in semantic memory. Participants were required to remember a task cue (causal or associative) presented at the beginning of each trial, and assess whether the relationship between subsequently presented words matched the initial task cue. The ERP data showed that an N400 effect (250-450 ms) was more negative for unrelated words than for all related words. Furthermore, the N400 effect elicited by causal relations was more positive than for associative relations in causal cue condition, whereas no significant difference was found in the associative cue condition. The centrally distributed late ERP component (650-750 ms) elicited by the causal cue condition was more positive than for the associative cue condition. These results suggested that the processing of causal judgment and associative judgment in semantic memory recruited different degrees of attentional and executive resources. PMID:25813899

  5. Application of a Judgment Model toward Measurement of Clinical Judgment in Senior Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pongmarutai, Tiwaporn

    2010-01-01

    Clinical judgment, defined as "the application of the nurse's knowledge and experience in making decisions about client care" (The National Council of State Boards of Nursing, 2005, p. 2), has been recognized as a vital and essential skill for healthcare providers when caring for clients. Undisputedly, nurses represent the largest component of the…

  6. Judgments Relative to Patterns: How Temporal Sequence Patterns Affect Judgments and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusev, Petko; Ayton, Peter; van Schaik, Paul; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Stewart, Neil; Chater, Nick

    2011-01-01

    RESix experiments studied relative frequency judgment and recall of sequentially presented items drawn from 2 distinct categories (i.e., city and animal). The experiments show that judged frequencies of categories of sequentially encountered stimuli are affected by certain properties of the sequence configuration. We found (a) a "first-run effect"…

  7. Randomly Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.; Geppert, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    The accountability debate tends to devolve into a battle between the pro-testing and anti-testing crowds. When it comes to the design of a school accountability system, the devil is truly in the details. A well-designed accountability plan may go a long way toward giving school personnel the kinds of signals they need to improve performance.…

  8. School Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Williamson M., Ed.; Walberg, Herbert J., Ed.

    This book presents the perspectives of experts from the fields of history, economics, political science, and psychology on what is known about accountability, what still needs to be learned, what should be done right now, and what should be avoided in devising accountability systems. The common myths about accountability are dispelled and how it…

  9. Colorful Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrick, C. Shane

    2006-01-01

    As instructors of accounting, we should take an abstract topic (at least to most students) and connect it to content known by students to help increase the effectiveness of our instruction. In a recent semester, ordinary items such as colors, a basketball, and baseball were used to relate the subject of accounting. The accounting topics of account…

  10. The Influence of Judgment Calls on Meta-Analytic Findings.

    PubMed

    Tarrahi, Farid; Eisend, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that judgment calls (i.e., methodological choices made in the process of conducting a meta-analysis) have a strong influence on meta-analytic findings and question their robustness. However, prior research applies case study comparison or reanalysis of a few meta-analyses with a focus on a few selected judgment calls. These studies neglect the fact that different judgment calls are related to each other and simultaneously influence the outcomes of a meta-analysis, and that meta-analytic findings can vary due to non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses (e.g., variations of effects over time). The current study analyzes the influence of 13 judgment calls in 176 meta-analyses in marketing research by applying a multivariate, multilevel meta-meta-analysis. The analysis considers simultaneous influences from different judgment calls on meta-analytic effect sizes and controls for alternative explanations based on non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses. The findings suggest that judgment calls have only a minor influence on meta-analytic findings, whereas non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses are more likely to explain differences in meta-analytic findings. The findings support the robustness of meta-analytic results and conclusions. PMID:27055205

  11. Medical Student Judgments of Adolescents With Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christina S.; Abrantes, Ana M.; Colby, Suzanne M.; López, Steven R.; Jordan, Theresa J.

    2011-01-01

    The clinical encounter presents opportunities for detection and intervention of adolescent alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Aims Investigate (a) identification rate of AUDs, (b) whether AUD identification predicts clinical judgment, and (c) patient characteristics influences on clinical judgment. Medical students (n = 123) read a case study and completed questions on diagnosis and clinical judgment. Twenty-five percent of participants identified AUD adolescents, who were more negatively rated than non-AUD adolescents. Prior clinical experience and addiction training predicted AUD identification. Patient race and gender influenced clinical judgment ratings. Addictions training is needed to improve identification rates. Study limitations are noted. PMID:18393085

  12. Nurses’ Clinical Judgment Development: A Qualitative Research in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Seidi, Jamal; Alhani, Fatemeh; Salsali, Mahvash

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clinical judgment development is necessary because it leads to appropriate nursing diagnoses, clinical decision-making and health promotion. Objectives: In this study we explored the process of Iranian nurses’ development in clinical judgment. Patients and Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in 2013 at hospitals of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, located in the Sanandaj city of Iran. The data were collected based on semi-structured interviews and the study included 24 participants. Data analysis was carried out concurrently with data collection using the grounded theory method. Results: The study participants’ main concern was ‘being non-professional in clinical judgment’. In response to this concern, they were struggling for gaining professional autonomy, striving for integrating clinical judgment skills, scrambling to make effective educational interventions and striving for professional and inter professional collaboration in clinical judgment. The core category was ‘struggling for becoming professional in clinical judgment development’. When nurses were supported professionally, they were able to develop their professional clinical judgment. Conclusions: The findings of this study provided critical information about nurses’ professionalization in clinical judgment. Accordingly, the participants adopted different strategies to develop their clinical judgment ability. Integrating these strategies into nursing theory and clinical education can improve nurses’ clinical judgment ability. PMID:26473075

  13. Externalizing the Critical Thinking in Knowledge Development and Clinical Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facione, Noreen C.; Facione, Peter A.

    1996-01-01

    Translates the American Philosophical Association's profile of a critical thinker into teaching and assessment strategies that can be used in nursing education to develop competent clinical judgment. (SK)

  14. Predicting political elections from rapid and unreflective face judgments

    PubMed Central

    Ballew, Charles C.; Todorov, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Here we show that rapid judgments of competence based solely on the facial appearance of candidates predicted the outcomes of gubernatorial elections, the most important elections in the United States next to the presidential elections. In all experiments, participants were presented with the faces of the winner and the runner-up and asked to decide who is more competent. To ensure that competence judgments were based solely on facial appearance and not on prior person knowledge, judgments for races in which the participant recognized any of the faces were excluded from all analyses. Predictions were as accurate after a 100-ms exposure to the faces of the winner and the runner-up as exposure after 250 ms and unlimited time exposure (Experiment 1). Asking participants to deliberate and make a good judgment dramatically increased the response times and reduced the predictive accuracy of judgments relative to both judgments made after 250 ms of exposure to the faces and judgments made within a response deadline of 2 s (Experiment 2). Finally, competence judgments collected before the elections in 2006 predicted 68.6% of the gubernatorial races and 72.4% of the Senate races (Experiment 3). These effects were independent of the incumbency status of the candidates. The findings suggest that rapid, unreflective judgments of competence from faces can affect voting decisions. PMID:17959769

  15. Boosting medical diagnostics by pooling independent judgments

    PubMed Central

    Kurvers, Ralf H. J. M.; Herzog, Stefan M.; Hertwig, Ralph; Krause, Jens; Carney, Patricia A.; Bogart, Andy; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zalaudek, Iris; Wolf, Max

    2016-01-01

    Collective intelligence refers to the ability of groups to outperform individual decision makers when solving complex cognitive problems. Despite its potential to revolutionize decision making in a wide range of domains, including medical, economic, and political decision making, at present, little is known about the conditions underlying collective intelligence in real-world contexts. We here focus on two key areas of medical diagnostics, breast and skin cancer detection. Using a simulation study that draws on large real-world datasets, involving more than 140 doctors making more than 20,000 diagnoses, we investigate when combining the independent judgments of multiple doctors outperforms the best doctor in a group. We find that similarity in diagnostic accuracy is a key condition for collective intelligence: Aggregating the independent judgments of doctors outperforms the best doctor in a group whenever the diagnostic accuracy of doctors is relatively similar, but not when doctors’ diagnostic accuracy differs too much. This intriguingly simple result is highly robust and holds across different group sizes, performance levels of the best doctor, and collective intelligence rules. The enabling role of similarity, in turn, is explained by its systematic effects on the number of correct and incorrect decisions of the best doctor that are overruled by the collective. By identifying a key factor underlying collective intelligence in two important real-world contexts, our findings pave the way for innovative and more effective approaches to complex real-world decision making, and to the scientific analyses of those approaches. PMID:27432950

  16. Boosting medical diagnostics by pooling independent judgments.

    PubMed

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Herzog, Stefan M; Hertwig, Ralph; Krause, Jens; Carney, Patricia A; Bogart, Andy; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zalaudek, Iris; Wolf, Max

    2016-08-01

    Collective intelligence refers to the ability of groups to outperform individual decision makers when solving complex cognitive problems. Despite its potential to revolutionize decision making in a wide range of domains, including medical, economic, and political decision making, at present, little is known about the conditions underlying collective intelligence in real-world contexts. We here focus on two key areas of medical diagnostics, breast and skin cancer detection. Using a simulation study that draws on large real-world datasets, involving more than 140 doctors making more than 20,000 diagnoses, we investigate when combining the independent judgments of multiple doctors outperforms the best doctor in a group. We find that similarity in diagnostic accuracy is a key condition for collective intelligence: Aggregating the independent judgments of doctors outperforms the best doctor in a group whenever the diagnostic accuracy of doctors is relatively similar, but not when doctors' diagnostic accuracy differs too much. This intriguingly simple result is highly robust and holds across different group sizes, performance levels of the best doctor, and collective intelligence rules. The enabling role of similarity, in turn, is explained by its systematic effects on the number of correct and incorrect decisions of the best doctor that are overruled by the collective. By identifying a key factor underlying collective intelligence in two important real-world contexts, our findings pave the way for innovative and more effective approaches to complex real-world decision making, and to the scientific analyses of those approaches. PMID:27432950

  17. Temporal judgments in multi-sensory space.

    PubMed

    Retsa, Chrysa; Naish, Peter; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Bak, Thomas H

    2016-07-29

    To successfully interact with the environment requires a combination of stimulus recognition as well as localization in both space and time, with information moreover coming from multiple senses. Several studies have shown that auditory stimuli last subjectively longer than visual ones of equal duration. Recently, it has also been suggested that stimulus position affects duration perception. The present study investigated how lateral spatial presentation influences sub-second visual and auditory duration judgments. Five experiments were conducted using the duration discrimination paradigm, wherein two stimuli are presented sequentially and participants are asked to judge whether the second stimulus (comparison) is shorter or longer in duration than the first (standard). The number of stimulus positions and the way in which different modality trials were presented (mixed or blocked) varied. Additionally, comparisons were made either within or across modalities. No stable effect of location itself was found. However, in mixed modality experiments there was a clear over-estimation of duration in visual trials when the location of the comparison was different from the standard. This effect was reversed in the same location trials. Auditory judgments were unaffected by location manipulations. Based on these results, we propose the existence of an error-mechanism, according to which a specific duration is added in order to compensate for the loss of duration perception caused by spatial attention shifts between different locations. This mechanism is revealed in spatial and modality-mixed circumstances wherein its over-activation results in a systematic temporal bias. PMID:26898372

  18. Authority dependence and judgments of utilitarian harm.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Jared; Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin

    2013-09-01

    Three studies tested the conditions under which people judge utilitarian harm to be authority dependent (i.e., whether its right or wrongness depends on the ruling of an authority). In Study 1, participants judged the right or wrongness of physical abuse when used as an interrogation method anticipated to yield useful information for preventing future terrorist attacks. The ruling of the military authority towards the harm was manipulated (prohibited vs. prescribed) and found to significantly influence judgments of the right or wrongness of inflicting harm. Study 2 established a boundary condition with regards to the influence of authority, which was eliminated when the utility of the harm was definitely obtained rather than forecasted. Finally, Study 3 replicated the findings of Studies 1-2 in a completely different context-an expert committee's ruling about the harming of chimpanzees for biomedical research. These results are discussed as they inform ongoing debates regarding the role of authority in moderating judgments of complex and simple harm. PMID:23747648

  19. Divergent roles of autistic and alexithymic traits in utilitarian moral judgments in adults with autism.

    PubMed

    Patil, Indrajeet; Melsbach, Jens; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Silani, Giorgia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated hypothetical moral choices in adults with high-functioning autism and the role of empathy and alexithymia in such choices. We used a highly emotionally salient moral dilemma task to investigate autistics' hypothetical moral evaluations about personally carrying out harmful utilitarian behaviours aimed at maximizing welfare. Results showed that they exhibited a normal pattern of moral judgments despite the deficits in social cognition and emotional processing. Further analyses revealed that this was due to mutually conflicting biases associated with autistic and alexithymic traits after accounting for shared variance: (a) autistic traits were associated with reduced utilitarian bias due to elevated personal distress of demanding social situations, while (b) alexithymic traits were associated with increased utilitarian bias on account of reduced empathic concern for the victim. Additionally, autistics relied on their non-verbal reasoning skills to rigidly abide by harm-norms. Thus, utilitarian moral judgments in autism were spared due to opposite influences of autistic and alexithymic traits and compensatory intellectual strategies. These findings demonstrate the importance of empathy and alexithymia in autistic moral cognition and have methodological implications for studying moral judgments in several other clinical populations. PMID:27020307

  20. Divergent roles of autistic and alexithymic traits in utilitarian moral judgments in adults with autism

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Indrajeet; Melsbach, Jens; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Silani, Giorgia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated hypothetical moral choices in adults with high-functioning autism and the role of empathy and alexithymia in such choices. We used a highly emotionally salient moral dilemma task to investigate autistics’ hypothetical moral evaluations about personally carrying out harmful utilitarian behaviours aimed at maximizing welfare. Results showed that they exhibited a normal pattern of moral judgments despite the deficits in social cognition and emotional processing. Further analyses revealed that this was due to mutually conflicting biases associated with autistic and alexithymic traits after accounting for shared variance: (a) autistic traits were associated with reduced utilitarian bias due to elevated personal distress of demanding social situations, while (b) alexithymic traits were associated with increased utilitarian bias on account of reduced empathic concern for the victim. Additionally, autistics relied on their non-verbal reasoning skills to rigidly abide by harm-norms. Thus, utilitarian moral judgments in autism were spared due to opposite influences of autistic and alexithymic traits and compensatory intellectual strategies. These findings demonstrate the importance of empathy and alexithymia in autistic moral cognition and have methodological implications for studying moral judgments in several other clinical populations. PMID:27020307

  1. Olympic Medals as Fruits of Comparison? Assimilation and Contrast in Sequential Performance Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damisch, Lysann; Mussweiler, Thomas; Plessner, Henning

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the evaluative consequences of sequential performance judgments. Recent social comparison research has suggested that performance judgments may be influenced by judgments about a preceding performance. Specifically, performance judgments may be assimilated to judgments of the preceding performance if judges focus on…

  2. Action dynamics reveal two types of cognitive flexibility in a homonym relatedness judgment task

    PubMed Central

    Dshemuchadse, Maja; Grage, Tobias; Scherbaum, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive flexibility is a central component of executive functions that allow us to behave meaningful in an ever changing environment. Here, we support a distinction between two different types of cognitive flexibility, shifting flexibility and spreading flexibility, based on independent underlying mechanisms commonly subsumed under the ability to shift cognitive sets. We use a homonym relatedness judgment task and combine it with mouse tracking to show that these two types of cognitive flexibility follow independent temporal patterns in their influence on participants' mouse movements during relatedness judgments. Our results are in concordance with the predictions of a neural field based framework that assumes the independence of the two types of flexibility. We propose that future studies about cognitive flexibility in the area of executive functions should take independent types into account, especially when studying moderators of cognitive flexibility. PMID:26379580

  3. Social functionalist frameworks for judgment and choice: intuitive politicians, theologians, and prosecutors.

    PubMed

    Tetlock, Philip E

    2002-07-01

    Research on judgment and choice has been dominated by functionalist assumptions that depict people as either intuitive scientists animated by epistemic goals or intuitive economists animated by utilitarian ones. This article identifies 3 alternative social functionalist starting points for inquiry: people as pragmatic politicians trying to cope with accountability demands from key constituencies in their lives, principled theologians trying to protect sacred values from secular encroachments, and prudent prosecutors trying to enforce social norms. Each functionalist framework stimulates middle-range theories that specify (a) cognitive-affective-behavioral strategies of coping with adaptive challenges and (b) the implications of these coping strategies for identifying empirical and normative boundary conditions on judgmental tendencies classified as errors or biases within the dominant research programs. PMID:12088240

  4. An ERP study of Chinese speakers’ rhyme judgments to Chinese and English words

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuchun; Lee, Jun Ren; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Hung, Daisy L.; Cheng, Shih-kuen

    2010-01-01

    ERP studies of rhyme judgments in alphabetic languages show that non-rhyming word pairs elicit a larger negative-going wave peaking 450 ms post stimulus onset than rhyming word pairs. We use Chinese characters to explore the extent to which this N450 rhyming effect reflects phonological processing. Using Chinese provides an advantage over alphabetic scripts because rhyming characters can have non-overlapping orthographic forms, something not possible in alphabetic scripts. We recorded ERPs while Chinese speakers made rhyme judgments to Chinese and English words. An N450 effect was observed in both languages. Moreover, the N450 effects exhibited in the two languages were correlated. The results support the phonological account of the N450 effect and indicate that similar phonological operations are involved in different languages. PMID:20461022

  5. Deliberate choices or strong motives: Exploring the mechanisms underlying the bias of organic claims on leniency judgments.

    PubMed

    Prada, Marília; Rodrigues, David; Garrido, Margarida V

    2016-08-01

    Organic claims can influence how a product is perceived in dimensions that are unrelated with the food production method (e.g., organic food is perceived as more healthful and less caloric than conventional food). Such claims can also bias how the consumers of organic food are perceived and how other people judge their behavior. Schuldt and Schwarz (2010) have shown that individuals evaluating a target with a weight-loss goal are more lenient in judging the target forgoing exercise when the target had an organic (vs. conventional) dessert. This impact of organic claims on leniency judgments has been interpreted either as a halo or a licensing effect. In the current research we aim to replicate and extend Schuldt and Schwarz's (2010) results by examining the mechanisms that are more likely to explain the observed leniency judgments. In Experiment 1, we observed that leniency towards a target that has consumed an organic meal is only observed when the target intentionally chooses such organic meal (vs. choice determined by the situation). These findings suggest that the impact of organic claims on leniency judgments is not merely based on a halo effect. Instead, a licensing account emerges as the most probable mechanism. In Experiment 2, we further found that stronger (vs. weaker) motives for forgoing exercise influenced leniency judgments to the same extent as having had an organic meal. Understanding the mechanisms that shape consumers' decisions may have important implications to prevent bias in their judgments about food and exercise. PMID:26972353

  6. Intuitive and Deliberate Judgments Are Based on Common Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruglanski, Arie W.; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    A popular distinction in cognitive and social psychology has been between "intuitive" and "deliberate" judgments. This juxtaposition has aligned in dual-process theories of reasoning associative, unconscious, effortless, heuristic, and suboptimal processes (assumed to foster intuitive judgments) versus rule-based, conscious, effortful, analytic,…

  7. True and False Memories, Parietal Cortex, and Confidence Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urgolites, Zhisen J.; Smith, Christine N.; Squire, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory).…

  8. Moral Judgment Competence of Medical Students: A Transcultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feitosa, Helvécio Neves; Rego, Sergio; Bataglia, Patricia Unger Raphael; Sancho, Karlos Frederico Castelo Branco; Rego, Guilhermina; Nunes, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional short-term study using Lind's Moral Judgment Test (MJT) to compare moral judgment competence (C-score) among students from a medical school in the Northeast region of Brazil and a medical school in the Northern region of Portugal. This study compares the C-scores of groups in the first and eighth…

  9. Models of Rape Judgment: Attributions Concerning Event, Perpetrator, and Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Travis; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reviews models developed to identify cognitive mediators of rape judgments. Recent models examine perceptions of perpetrator's violent behavior and of victim's desire for intercourse as mediators of effects of violence levels and victim's behavior upon rape judgments. Sex differences in models suggest that female evaluators may be more likely to…

  10. Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a…

  11. Effects of Religiosity of Therapist and Patient on Clinical Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillowe, Bruce V.

    Some theoreticians believe that diagnostic and prognostic impressions are based in part on clinicians' personal values. A study was conducted to assess whether clinical judgment is affected by patient religiosity, therapist religiosity, or an interaction between patient and therapist religiosity. Psychotherapists' (N=15) judgments concerning…

  12. Relationships of Selected Personal and Social Variables in Conforming Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Huey B.

    1970-01-01

    To help determine relationships between certain personality variables and conforming judgment, and difference in conforming judgments among differently structured groups, prison immates were studies for the personality variables of IQ (California Capacity Questionnaire), agreement response set (Couch and Kenniston Scale), and dogmatism (Form E,…

  13. The Relationship between Dogmatism, Orthodox Christian Beliefs, and Ethical Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Radha J.

    1990-01-01

    Examined relationship between dogmatism, ethical judgment, and orthodox Christian beliefs in master's level counselor education students (N=50). Found dogmatism and orthodox Christian beliefs correlated negatively with ethical judgment. Recommends counselor training programs may better prepare counselors by using a combined emphasis upon values…

  14. 32 CFR 935.95 - Proceedings; record; judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proceedings; record; judgment. 935.95 Section 935.95 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Actions § 935.95 Proceedings; record; judgment. (a) The presiding Judge is responsible for the making of...

  15. 32 CFR 935.95 - Proceedings; record; judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proceedings; record; judgment. 935.95 Section 935.95 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Actions § 935.95 Proceedings; record; judgment. (a) The presiding Judge is responsible for the making of...

  16. Effects of Behavioral and Social Class Information on Social Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Reuben M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the role of disconfirming behavioral information and the limits on social class schema effects. Using a Bayesian model of social perception, it was found that unambiguous, relevant stimulus information influenced judgments. Although social class information did not affect relevant stimulus information, it did sway judgments in…

  17. 40 CFR 94.221 - Application of good engineering judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of good engineering... § 94.221 Application of good engineering judgment. (a) The manufacturer shall exercise good engineering... the Administrator) a written description of the engineering judgment in question. (c)...

  18. Plausibility Judgments in Conceptual Change and Epistemic Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Doug; Nussbaum, E. Michael; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2016-01-01

    Plausibility judgments rarely have been addressed empirically in conceptual change research. Recent research, however, suggests that these judgments may be pivotal to conceptual change about certain topics where a gap exists between what scientists and laypersons find plausible. Based on a philosophical and empirical foundation, this article…

  19. Moral judgment as information processing: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmo, Steve

    2015-01-01

    How do humans make moral judgments about others’ behavior? This article reviews dominant models of moral judgment, organizing them within an overarching framework of information processing. This framework poses two distinct questions: (1) What input information guides moral judgments? and (2) What psychological processes generate these judgments? Information Models address the first question, identifying critical information elements (including causality, intentionality, and mental states) that shape moral judgments. A subclass of Biased Information Models holds that perceptions of these information elements are themselves driven by prior moral judgments. Processing Models address the second question, and existing models have focused on the relative contribution of intuitive versus deliberative processes. This review organizes existing moral judgment models within this framework and critically evaluates them on empirical and theoretical grounds; it then outlines a general integrative model grounded in information processing, and concludes with conceptual and methodological suggestions for future research. The information-processing framework provides a useful theoretical lens through which to organize extant and future work in the rapidly growing field of moral judgment. PMID:26579022

  20. How Does Moral Judgment Change with Age and Giftedness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnabhan, Mousa

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed at identifying the differences in moral Judgment levels among female students according to their giftedness and grade levels. In specific, the study attempted to answer the following questions: (1) Does moral judgment differ due to the differences in giftedness and grade levels? (2) Is it possible to efficiently predict the…