Science.gov

Sample records for accounts payable judgments

  1. 17 CFR 256.232 - Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounts payable. 256.232... SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 7. Current and Accrued Liabilities § 256.232 Accounts payable. This account...

  2. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... payable. This account must include all amounts payable by the service company within one year that are not... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 232, Accounts payable. 367.2320 Section 367.2320 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  3. 47 CFR 32.4000 - Current accounts and notes payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Current accounts and notes payable. 32.4000... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4000 Current accounts and notes payable. (a) This account shall include: (1) All amounts currently...

  4. 47 CFR 32.4000 - Current accounts and notes payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Current accounts and notes payable. 32.4000... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4000 Current accounts and notes payable. (a) This account shall include: (1) All amounts currently...

  5. 47 CFR 32.4000 - Current accounts and notes payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Current accounts and notes payable. 32.4000... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4000 Current accounts and notes payable. (a) This account shall include:(1) All amounts currently...

  6. 47 CFR 32.4000 - Current accounts and notes payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Current accounts and notes payable. 32.4000... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4000 Current accounts and notes payable. (a) This account shall include:(1) All amounts currently...

  7. 47 CFR 32.4000 - Current accounts and notes payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Current accounts and notes payable. 32.4000 Section 32.4000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES....4000 Current accounts and notes payable. (a) This account shall include:(1) All amounts currently...

  8. 18 CFR 367.2340 - Account 234, Accounts payable to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Account 234, Accounts payable to associate companies. This account must include all amounts payable to... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 234, Accounts payable to associate companies. 367.2340 Section 367.2340 Conservation of Power and Water...

  9. 18 CFR 367.2410 - Account 241, Tax collections payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... collections payable. (a) This account must include the amount of taxes collected by the service company... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 241, Tax collections payable. 367.2410 Section 367.2410 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  10. 18 CFR 367.2310 - Account 231, Notes payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... payable. This account must include the face value of all notes, drafts, acceptances, or other similar... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 231, Notes payable. 367.2310 Section 367.2310 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  11. 75 FR 76036 - Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise Disbursement Divisions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise... of Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc., including the Accounts Payable, Rent, and Merchandise... the same division, are engaged in activities related to the supply of accounts payable,...

  12. 18 CFR 367.2310 - Account 231, Notes payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 231, Notes payable. 367.2310 Section 367.2310 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... evidences of indebtedness, payable on demand or within a time not exceeding one year from date of issue,...

  13. 17 CFR 256.234 - Accounts payable to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... companies. 256.234 Section 256.234 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 7. Current and Accrued Liabilities § 256.234 Accounts payable...

  14. 17 CFR 256.234 - Accounts payable to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... companies. 256.234 Section 256.234 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 7. Current and Accrued Liabilities § 256.234 Accounts payable...

  15. Processing Accounts Payable Invoices. Student Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElveen, Peggy C.

    Supporting performance objective 38 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on processing accounts payable invoices are included in this packet, which is one of a series. The student materials include ten invoices and receiving documents and…

  16. Using EDI (electronic data interchange) to improve the accounts payable department.

    PubMed

    Bort, R; Schinderle, D R

    1994-01-01

    Additional paperwork, escalating costs, and an outdated accounts payable system at St. Joseph Health System forced management staff to alter the way the accounts payable department operates. This article describes the process the health system used to automate one of its accounts payable departments by using electronic data interchange/electronic funds transfer (EDI/EFT) technology.

  17. 18 CFR 367.2330 - Account 233, Notes payable to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Account 233, Notes payable to associate companies. (a) This account must include amounts owing to... accounts payable on demand or not more than one year from date of issue or creation. (b) Exclude from this... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 233,...

  18. 18 CFR 367.2330 - Account 233, Notes payable to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 233, Notes payable to associate companies. 367.2330 Section 367.2330 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... accounts payable on demand or not more than one year from date of issue or creation. (b) Exclude from...

  19. 77 FR 75447 - Worley Parsons, Accounts Payable, a Subsidiary of Worley Parsons Corporation, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... Employment and Training Administration Worley Parsons, Accounts Payable, a Subsidiary of Worley Parsons...; Worley Parsons, Accounts Payable, a Subsidiary of Worley Parsons Corporation, Including On-Site Leased..., Accounts Payable, a subsidiary of Worley Parsons Corporation, including on-site leased workers from...

  20. Teaching the Pragmatics of Accounts-Payable Letters in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, James

    The development of a course in English letter-writing for workers in the accounts-payable departments of Papua New Guinea businesses is described. The needs assessment involved extensive discussion with company staff and their supervisors, collection and analysis of letters recently produced by that staff, and development of a diagnostic test. It…

  1. On-Line Purchasing/Accounts Payable at the University of Michigan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Robert E.; Block, Roxana L.

    An integrated data base system providing online services to purchasing and accounts payable, which was implemented at the University of Michigan, is described. The system was designed to use online IMS transactions for data entry and inquiry and IMS batch reporting programs. With the implementation of the system, departmental and vendor inquiries…

  2. A Project to Determine a More Efficient Method for Management of Commercial Accounts Payable at Walter Reed Army Medical Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-26

    x In Partial Fulfillment of the m Requirements for the Degree of Master of Health Administration by Lieutenant Colonel Tommy W. Mayes, MS 26 May 1989...Method for Management of Commercial Accounts Payable at Walter Reed Army Medical Center 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Mayes, Tommy W. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT...TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) 122c. OFFICE SYMBOL Mayes, Tommy W. (202)576-3955 AV291 ,HSHL-CS DD Form 1473, JUN 86 Previous editions are obsolete. SECURITY

  3. Knowledge Judgments and Object Memory Processes in Early Childhood: Support for the Dual Criterion Account of Object Nameability Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipowski, Stacy L.; Merriman, William E.

    2011-01-01

    According to the dual criterion account of early linguistic judgment (Merriman & Lipko, 2008), preschool-aged children who possess more efficient object memory processes should also be more accurate judges of whether various objects have known names. In support of this claim, both the accuracy of object recognition and the speed of object…

  4. 31 CFR 561.504 - Transactions related to closing a correspondent account or payable-through account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for a foreign financial institution whose name is added to the Part 561 List, which is maintained on the Office of Foreign Assets Control's Web site (www.treasury.gov/ofac) on the Iran Sanctions page, U...-through account maintained by a U.S. financial institution for a foreign financial institution whose...

  5. 31 CFR 561.504 - Transactions related to closing a correspondent account or payable-through account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for a foreign financial institution whose name is added to the Part 561 List, which is maintained on the Office of Foreign Assets Control's Web site (www.treasury.gov/ofac) on the Iran Sanctions page, U...-through account maintained by a U.S. financial institution for a foreign financial institution whose...

  6. Assessment, Accountability and the Classroom: A Community of Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Mark

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, the author attempts to help the reader see beyond the current state of affairs in terms of the relationship between classroom assessment and accountability and to consider some wider perspectives and possibilities. Hopefully, this will also help the reader step into the spirit of the discussion that is inherent in the chapters…

  7. 31 CFR 561.201 - Prohibitions or strict conditions with respect to correspondent accounts or payable-through...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-195), either the Secretary... Government of Iran (including efforts of Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps or any of its agents or... any other resolution adopted by the Security Council that imposes sanctions with respect to Iran;...

  8. 29 CFR 4022.6 - Annuity payable for total disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annuity payable for total disability. 4022.6 Section 4022.6... § 4022.6 Annuity payable for total disability. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... terms of a plan on account of the total and permanent disability of a participant which is expected...

  9. 29 CFR 4022.6 - Annuity payable for total disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annuity payable for total disability. 4022.6 Section 4022.6... § 4022.6 Annuity payable for total disability. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, an... on account of the total and permanent disability of a participant which is expected to last for...

  10. 29 CFR 4022.6 - Annuity payable for total disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annuity payable for total disability. 4022.6 Section 4022.6... § 4022.6 Annuity payable for total disability. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, an... on account of the total and permanent disability of a participant which is expected to last for...

  11. 29 CFR 4022.6 - Annuity payable for total disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annuity payable for total disability. 4022.6 Section 4022.6... § 4022.6 Annuity payable for total disability. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... terms of a plan on account of the total and permanent disability of a participant which is expected...

  12. 29 CFR 4022.6 - Annuity payable for total disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annuity payable for total disability. 4022.6 Section 4022.6... § 4022.6 Annuity payable for total disability. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, an... on account of the total and permanent disability of a participant which is expected to last for...

  13. Traceable accounts of subjective probability judgments in the IPCC and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, P. G.

    2012-12-01

    One of the major sources of controversy surrounding the reports of the IPCC has been the characterization of uncertainty. Although arguably the IPCC has paid more attention to the process of uncertainty analysis and communication than any comparable assessment body, its efforts to achieve consistency have produced mixed results. In particular, the extensive use of subjective probability assessment has attracted widespread criticism. Statements such as "Average Northern Hemisphere temperatures during the second half of the 20th century were very likely higher than during any other 50-year period in the last 500 years" are ubiquitous (one online database lists nearly 3000 such claims), and indeed are the primary way in which its key "findings" are reported. Much attention is drawn to the precise quantitative definition of such statements (e.g., "very likely" means >90% probability, vs. "extremely likely" which means >95% certainty). But there is no process by which the decision regarding the choice of such uncertainty level for a given finding is formally made or reported, and thus they are easily by disputed by anyone, expert or otherwise, who disagrees with the assessment. In the "Uncertainty Guidance Paper" for the Third Assessment Report, Richard Moss and Steve Schneider defined the concept of a "traceable account," which gave exhaustive detail regarding how one ought to provide documentation of such an uncertainty assessment. But the guidance, while appearing straightforward and reasonable, in fact was an unworkable recipe, which would have taken near-infinite time if used for more than a few key results, and would have required a different structuring of the text than the conventional scientific assessment. And even then it would have left a gap when it came to the actual provenance of any such specific judgments, because there simply is no formal step at which individuals turn their knowledge of the evidence on some finding into a probability judgment. The

  14. A Model for Stochastic Drift in Memory Strength to Account for Judgments of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikstrom, Sverker; Jonsson, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has shown that judgments of learning (JOLs) made immediately after encoding have a low correlation with actual cued-recall performance, whereas the correlation is high for delayed judgments. In this article, the authors propose a formal theory describing the stochastic drift of memory strength over the retention interval to…

  15. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  16. 32 CFR 536.76 - Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.76 Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) Those resulting wholly from the claimant's or...

  17. 32 CFR 536.76 - Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.76 Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) Those resulting wholly from the claimant's or...

  18. 22 CFR 23.1 - Remittances made payable to the Department of State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... State. 23.1 Section 23.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE FEES AND FUNDS FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING § 23.1 Remittances made payable to the Department of State. Except as otherwise specified in this title, remittances of moneys shall be drawn payable to the Department of State and sent to the Department for...

  19. 22 CFR 23.1 - Remittances made payable to the Department of State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... State. 23.1 Section 23.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE FEES AND FUNDS FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING § 23.1 Remittances made payable to the Department of State. Except as otherwise specified in this title, remittances of moneys shall be drawn payable to the Department of State and sent to the Department for...

  20. 22 CFR 23.1 - Remittances made payable to the Department of State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... State. 23.1 Section 23.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE FEES AND FUNDS FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING § 23.1 Remittances made payable to the Department of State. Except as otherwise specified in this title, remittances of moneys shall be drawn payable to the Department of State and sent to the Department for...

  1. 22 CFR 23.1 - Remittances made payable to the Department of State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... State. 23.1 Section 23.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE FEES AND FUNDS FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING § 23.1 Remittances made payable to the Department of State. Except as otherwise specified in this title, remittances of moneys shall be drawn payable to the Department of State and sent to the Department for...

  2. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  3. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  4. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims payable under the Military Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  5. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims payable under the Military Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  6. 22 CFR 23.1 - Remittances made payable to the Department of State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remittances made payable to the Department of State. 23.1 Section 23.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE FEES AND FUNDS FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING § 23.1 Remittances made payable to the Department of State. Except as otherwise specified in this...

  7. 17 CFR 256.233 - Notes payable to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... companies. 256.233 Section 256.233 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 7. Current and Accrued Liabilities § 256.233 Notes payable...

  8. 17 CFR 256.233 - Notes payable to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... companies. 256.233 Section 256.233 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 7. Current and Accrued Liabilities § 256.233 Notes payable...

  9. Streamlining the accounts payable function with EDI.

    PubMed

    Huntley, G; Shride, T; McLure, M L; Moynihan, J J

    1997-01-01

    Kaiser Permanente of Southern California is expanding its use of EDI as a way to enhance the efficiency of its procurement effort and reduce administrative costs. Based on the results of surveys of key suppliers, Kaiser executives identified four EDI-based process improvements: 1) using the X12 832 standard to reconcile contracting data, which can eliminate up to 33 percent of mismatches among purchase orders, invoices, and receiving documents; 2) using procurement cards for many purchases, which can eliminate 20 percent of all invoices and related check payments; 3) using the X12 810 standard to obtain electronic invoices from Kaiser's largest suppliers; and 4) implementing the X12 820 standard, which lowers both supplier and claims payment costs.

  10. The Development of a General Associative Learning Account of Skill Acquisition in a Relative Arrival-Time Judgment Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Shayne; Neal, Andrew; Humphreys, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    Current theory assumes that individuals only use information from the immediate environment to perform relative arrival-time judgment tasks. This article presents a theoretical analysis of the memory requirements of this task. The authors present an analysis of the inputs to the memory system and the processes that map those inputs onto outputs.…

  11. 18 CFR 367.2230 - Account 223, Advances from associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... associate companies. (a) This account must include the face value of notes payable to associate companies... includible in account 233, Notes payable to associate companies (§ 367.2330), or account 234, Accounts payable to associate companies (§ 367.2340). (b) The records supporting the entries to this account...

  12. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles designed especially for military use. Activities incident to combat, whether or not in time of war, and use of DON personnel during civil disturbances are excluded. (b) Specific claims payable....

  13. Account-giving for a corporate transgression influences moral judgment: when those who "spin" condone harm-doing.

    PubMed

    Folkes, Valerie S; Whang, Yun-Oh

    2003-02-01

    Generating some types of accounts-justifications, excuses, or apologies--for an organization's harm-doing increases condoning of a transgression compared with generating denials or not having to explain a transgression. In Experiment 1. students (N = 324) were required either to explain a corporation's use of child labor to manufacture its products or merely to read about it. Explaining decreased condemnation of the offense compared with when no explanation was required. In Experiment 2, students (N = 101) either justified the corporation's harm-doing or denied that the corporation had harmed employees, with justifications increasing condoning more than denials. In Experiment 3, students (N = 113) either wrote an apology or wrote a denial, with apologizers condoning harm-doing more than deniers. Differences appear to be due to some accounts eliciting cognitive elaboration on the misdeed.

  14. 46 CFR 282.20 - Amount of subsidy payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.20 Amount of subsidy payable. (a) Daily... rates in determining the daily ODS amount payable. (e) Operator Comments. The operator shall have...

  15. 26 CFR 1.453-3 - Purchaser evidences of indebtedness payable on demand or readily tradable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accounting reporting on a calendar year basis, transferred all of his stock in corporation X (traded on an... per year), and Y's unsecured promissory note, with a principal amount of $750,000. At the time of such exchange A's basis in the corporation X stock is $900,000. The promissory note is payable at the rate...

  16. 10 CFR 603.1105 - Advance payments or payable milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advance payments or payable milestones. 603.1105 Section... AGREEMENTS Post-Award Administration § 603.1105 Advance payments or payable milestones. The contracting officer must: (a) For any expenditure-based TIA with advance payments or payable milestones, forward...

  17. 32 CFR 842.142 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims payable. 842.142 Section 842.142 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Civil Air Patrol Claims (5 U.S.C. 8101(1)(B), 8102(a), 8116(c), 8141; 10 U.S.C. 9441, 9442; 36...

  18. Exemplar-Based Model of Social Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eliot R.; Zarate, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    An exemplar-based model of social judgment is presented in which specific past experiences and more abstract schematic knowledge influence judgments and perceptions of people and groups. Computer simulations illustrate the way the model accounts for social influences on exemplar access and use and on the content of social judgments. (SLD)

  19. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  20. 7 CFR 4290.1130 - Leverage fees payable by RBIC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 4290.1130 Leverage fees payable by RBIC. (a) Leverage fee. You must pay the Secretary a non-refundable leverage fee... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leverage fees payable by RBIC. 4290.1130 Section...

  1. 7 CFR 4290.1130 - Leverage fees payable by RBIC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 4290.1130 Leverage fees payable by RBIC. (a) Leverage fee. You must pay the Secretary a non-refundable leverage fee... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leverage fees payable by RBIC. 4290.1130 Section...

  2. 7 CFR 4290.1130 - Leverage fees payable by RBIC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 4290.1130 Leverage fees payable by RBIC. (a) Leverage fee. You must pay the Secretary a non-refundable leverage fee... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leverage fees payable by RBIC. 4290.1130 Section...

  3. 7 CFR 4290.1130 - Leverage fees payable by RBIC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 4290.1130 Leverage fees payable by RBIC. (a) Leverage fee. You must pay the Secretary a non-refundable leverage fee... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leverage fees payable by RBIC. 4290.1130 Section...

  4. 7 CFR 4290.1130 - Leverage fees payable by RBIC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 4290.1130 Leverage fees payable by RBIC. (a) Leverage fee. You must pay the Secretary a non-refundable leverage fee... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leverage fees payable by RBIC. 4290.1130 Section...

  5. 46 CFR 252.30 - Amount of subsidy payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... calculated for calendar years. (d) Negative rates. When an ODS rate in any category is less than zero... negative rate shall be deducted from positive rates in determining the daily ODS amount payable. (e... Subsidy Rates § 252.30 Amount of subsidy payable. (a) Daily rates. Daily ODS rates shall be used...

  6. "Righteous minds" in health care: measurement and explanatory value of social intuitionism in accounting for the moral judgments in a sample of U.S. physicians.

    PubMed

    Tilburt, Jon C; James, Katherine M; Jenkins, Sarah M; Antiel, Ryan M; Curlin, Farr A; Rasinski, Kenneth A

    2013-01-01

    The broad diversity in physicians' judgments on controversial health care topics may reflect differences in religious characteristics, political ideologies, and moral intuitions. We tested an existing measure of moral intuitions in a new population (U.S. physicians) to assess its validity and to determine whether physicians' moral intuitions correlate with their views on controversial health care topics as well as other known predictors of these intuitions such as political affiliation and religiosity. In 2009, we mailed an 8-page questionnaire to a random sample of 2000 practicing U.S. physicians from all specialties. The survey included the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ30), along with questions on physicians' judgments about controversial health care topics including abortion and euthanasia (no moral objection, some moral objection, strong moral objection). A total of 1032 of 1895 (54%) physicians responded. Physicians' overall mean moral foundations scores were 3.5 for harm, 3.3 for fairness, 2.8 for loyalty, 3.2 for authority, and 2.7 for sanctity on a 0-5 scale. Increasing levels of religious service attendance, having a more conservative political ideology, and higher sanctity scores remained the greatest positive predictors of respondents objecting to abortion (β = 0.12, 0.23, 0.14, respectively, each p<0.001) as well as euthanasia (β = 0.08, 0.17, and 0.17, respectively, each p<0.001), even after adjusting for demographics. Higher authority scores were also significantly negatively associated with objection to abortion (β = -0.12, p<0.01), but not euthanasia. These data suggest that the relative importance physicians place on the different categories of moral intuitions may predict differences in physicians' judgments about morally controversial topics and may interrelate with ideology and religiosity. Further examination of the diversity in physicians' moral intuitions may prove illustrative in describing and addressing moral differences that

  7. Arkansas' Curriculum Guide. Competency Based Computerized Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. Div. of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This guide contains the essential parts of a total curriculum for a one-year secondary-level course in computerized accounting. Addressed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the complete accounting cycle, computer operations for accounting, computerized accounting and general ledgers, computerized accounts payable,…

  8. What Happened to Intelligent Judgment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2011-01-01

    In so many cases, hours spent focused on documenting accountability to standards actually decreases the possibility for quality improvements through genuine reflection, self-examination, and the exercise of intelligent judgment. Focusing only on ratings and requirements narrows one's thinking and exemplifies the tendency toward stagnation. The…

  9. 43 CFR 11.92 - Post-assessment phase-restoration account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in an interest bearing account payable in trust to the State agency acting as trustee. (3) All sums...; or (ii) Be placed by the responsible party or parties in an interest bearing account payable in trust... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Post-assessment phase-restoration...

  10. 12 CFR 745.4 - Revocable trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... children “B” and “C” as beneficiaries. A also establishes, at the same NCUA-insured credit union, a payable-on-death account, with a balance of $300,000, also naming his children B and C as beneficiaries. The... payable-on-death account naming a pet as beneficiary with a balance of $100,000. A also has an...

  11. 29 CFR 4022.7 - Benefits payable in a single installment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benefits payable in a single installment. 4022.7 Section 4022.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions; Guaranteed Benefits § 4022.7 Benefits payable in a...

  12. 29 CFR 4022.7 - Benefits payable in a single installment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benefits payable in a single installment. 4022.7 Section 4022.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions; Guaranteed Benefits § 4022.7 Benefits payable in a...

  13. 29 CFR 4022.7 - Benefits payable in a single installment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benefits payable in a single installment. 4022.7 Section 4022.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions; Guaranteed Benefits § 4022.7 Benefits payable in a...

  14. 29 CFR 4022.7 - Benefits payable in a single installment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benefits payable in a single installment. 4022.7 Section 4022.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions; Guaranteed Benefits § 4022.7 Benefits payable in a...

  15. 29 CFR 4022.7 - Benefits payable in a single installment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benefits payable in a single installment. 4022.7 Section 4022.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions; Guaranteed Benefits § 4022.7 Benefits payable in a...

  16. 22 CFR 19.11-7 - Annuity payable to surviving child or children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Annuity payable to surviving child or children... payable to surviving child or children. (a) If a participant who has at least 18 months of civilian..., annuities are payable to a surviving child or children, as defined in § 19.2(e) as follows: (1)...

  17. 22 CFR 19.11-7 - Annuity payable to surviving child or children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Annuity payable to surviving child or children... payable to surviving child or children. (a) If a participant who has at least 18 months of civilian..., annuities are payable to a surviving child or children, as defined in § 19.2(e) as follows: (1)...

  18. 22 CFR 19.11-7 - Annuity payable to surviving child or children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Annuity payable to surviving child or children... payable to surviving child or children. (a) If a participant who has at least 18 months of civilian..., annuities are payable to a surviving child or children, as defined in § 19.2(e) as follows: (1)...

  19. 22 CFR 19.11-7 - Annuity payable to surviving child or children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Annuity payable to surviving child or children... payable to surviving child or children. (a) If a participant who has at least 18 months of civilian..., annuities are payable to a surviving child or children, as defined in § 19.2(e) as follows: (1)...

  20. 22 CFR 19.11-7 - Annuity payable to surviving child or children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annuity payable to surviving child or children... payable to surviving child or children. (a) If a participant who has at least 18 months of civilian..., annuities are payable to a surviving child or children, as defined in § 19.2(e) as follows: (1)...

  1. 31 CFR 203.20 - Investment account requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... a TIP main account balance or SDI account balance is payable on demand without prior notice. The TSC... TIP main account balance and the SDI account balance bear interest at the TT&L rate of interest. Such... balance limit. (3) SDIs. SDIs are credited to the SDI account balance and are not considered in...

  2. 31 CFR 203.20 - Investment account requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... a TIP main account balance or SDI account balance is payable on demand without prior notice. The TSC... TIP main account balance and the SDI account balance bear interest at the TT&L rate of interest. Such... balance limit. (3) SDIs. SDIs are credited to the SDI account balance and are not considered in...

  3. 31 CFR 203.20 - Investment account requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... a TIP main account balance or SDI account balance is payable on demand without prior notice. The TSC... TIP main account balance and the SDI account balance bear interest at the TT&L rate of interest. Such... balance limit. (3) SDIs. SDIs are credited to the SDI account balance and are not considered in...

  4. 42 CFR 413.30 - Limitations on payable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limitations on payable costs. 413.30 Section 413.30 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE...

  5. 42 CFR 413.30 - Limitations on payable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limitations on payable costs. 413.30 Section 413.30 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE...

  6. 42 CFR 413.30 - Limitations on payable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Limitations on payable costs. 413.30 Section 413.30 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE...

  7. 42 CFR 413.30 - Limitations on payable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... current costs. CMS adjusts current and past period data to arrive at estimated costs for the prospective... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on payable costs. 413.30 Section 413.30... PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE...

  8. 32 CFR 842.50 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carry out the provisions of the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950 during the existence of a civil... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims not payable. 842.50 Section 842.50 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND...

  9. 32 CFR 842.50 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... carry out the provisions of the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950 during the existence of a civil... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims not payable. 842.50 Section 842.50 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND...

  10. 5 CFR 531.221 - Maximum payable rate rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... before the reassignment. (ii) If the rate resulting from the geographic conversion under paragraph (c)(2... previous rate (i.e., the former special rate after the geographic conversion) with the rates on the current... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum payable rate rule....

  11. 32 CFR 842.32 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... other source. When a loss is recovered or is recoverable: (1) The amount payable by insurance should be... including bank books, promissory notes, stock certificates, bonds, baggage checks, insurance policies... regulation. This includes an automobile for which a member fails to comply with base registration...

  12. 32 CFR 842.32 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... other source. When a loss is recovered or is recoverable: (1) The amount payable by insurance should be... including bank books, promissory notes, stock certificates, bonds, baggage checks, insurance policies... regulation. This includes an automobile for which a member fails to comply with base registration...

  13. 42 CFR 413.30 - Limitations on payable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limitations on payable costs. 413.30 Section 413.30 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE... of needed health care services. CMS may establish estimated cost limits for direct or...

  14. 32 CFR 750.44 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Military Claims Act § 750.44 Claims not payable. (a) Any claim for damage, loss, destruction, injury, or... complained of occurred would permit recovery from a private individual under like circumstances, and then... cognizable under: (1) Military Personnel and Civilian Employees' Claims Act, as amended. 31 U.S.C. 3721....

  15. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (a) For ethanol, producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for only their ethanol production from eligible inputs that exceeds, for the program year to date, their total comparable production at all locations as compared to the comparable portion of the previous year. Producers of...

  16. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (a) For ethanol, producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for only their ethanol production from eligible inputs that exceeds, for the program year to date, their total comparable production at all locations as compared to the comparable portion of the previous year. Producers of...

  17. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (a) For ethanol, producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for only their ethanol production from eligible inputs that exceeds, for the program year to date, their total comparable production at all locations as compared to the comparable portion of the previous year. Producers of...

  18. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (a) For ethanol, producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for only their ethanol production from eligible inputs that exceeds, for the program year to date, their total comparable production at all locations as compared to the comparable portion of the previous year. Producers of...

  19. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (a) For ethanol, producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for only their ethanol production from eligible inputs that exceeds, for the program year to date, their total comparable production at all locations as compared to the comparable portion of the previous year. Producers of...

  20. 32 CFR 842.143 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims not payable. 842.143 Section 842.143 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Civil Air Patrol Claims (5 U.S.C. 8101(1)(B), 8102(a), 8116(c), 8141; 10 U.S.C. 9441,...

  1. 46 CFR 282.20 - Amount of subsidy payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subsidizable items of expense, the daily rate shall be calculated for calendar years. (d) Negative Rates. When... advantage rather than a disadvantage in such category, the negative rate shall be deducted from positive... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.20 Amount of subsidy payable. (a)...

  2. Financial Management: Controls Over the Computerized Accounts Payable System at Defense Finance and Accounting Service Columbus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    payments after January 1, 1999, be made using EFT unless a payment meets specific waiver requirements. The Department of Treasury, in 31 C.F.R. Subpart...208.3, “Payment by Electronic Funds Transfer,” and Subpart 208.4, “ Waivers ,” allows specific waivers to the EFT requirements. The Federal Acquisition...required. DFAS needs to develop controls to ensure that all payments are made using EFT unless the recipient meets the waiver requirements in 31

  3. Time and Moral Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Renata S.; Hertwig, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Do moral judgments hinge on the time available to render them? According to a recent dual-process model of moral judgment, moral dilemmas that engage emotional processes are likely to result in fast deontological gut reactions. In contrast, consequentialist responses that tot up lives saved and lost in response to such dilemmas would require…

  4. Conflict and Moral Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A conflict procedure in which reliance on adult values was opposed to reliance on damage as a measure of blame was found to facilitate second-grade children's use of intention in making moral judgments of story pairs. (ST)

  5. The Scope of Our Affective Influences: When and How Naturally Occurring Positive, Negative, and Neutral Affects Alter Judgment.

    PubMed

    Gasper, Karen; Danube, Cinnamon L

    2016-03-01

    To determine how naturally arising affect alters judgment, we examined whether (a) affective states exert a specific, rather than a general, influence on valenced-specific judgments; (b) neutral affect is associated with increased neutral judgments, independent of positive, negative, and ambivalent affects, and whether neutral judgments are associated with behavioral disengagement; and (c) the informational value of naturally arising states may be difficult to alter via salience and relevance manipulations. The results support several conclusions: (a) Affective states exerted a judgment-specific effect-positive affect was most strongly associated with positive judgments, negative affect with negative judgments, and neutral affect with neutral judgments. (b) Neutral affect influenced judgments, taking into account positive, negative, and ambivalent affects; and neutral judgments predicted behavioral disengagement. (c) With the exception of negative affect, naturally arising affective states typically influenced judgments regardless of their salience and relevance.

  6. 78 FR 42009 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... be connected to 202-326-4024.) SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: PBGC's regulation on Benefits Payable in... rule amends the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in Terminated... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Catherine B. Klion ( Klion.Catherine@pbgc.gov ), Assistant General...

  7. 13 CFR 108.1130 - Leverage fees payable by NMVC Company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 108.1130 Leverage fees payable by NMVC Company. There is no fee for the... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leverage fees payable by...

  8. 13 CFR 108.1130 - Leverage fees payable by NMVC Company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 108.1130 Leverage fees payable by NMVC Company. There is no fee for the... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leverage fees payable by...

  9. 31 CFR 351.8 - When is interest payable on Series EE savings bonds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When is interest payable on Series EE savings bonds? 351.8 Section 351.8 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... and becomes part of the redemption value. Interest earnings are payable upon redemption....

  10. 31 CFR 351.8 - When is interest payable on Series EE savings bonds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When is interest payable on Series EE savings bonds? 351.8 Section 351.8 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... and becomes part of the redemption value. Interest earnings are payable upon redemption....

  11. 31 CFR 359.17 - When is interest payable on Series I savings bonds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When is interest payable on Series I savings bonds? 359.17 Section 359.17 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance...? Interest earnings are payable upon redemption....

  12. 31 CFR 359.17 - When is interest payable on Series I savings bonds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When is interest payable on Series I savings bonds? 359.17 Section 359.17 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance...? Interest earnings are payable upon redemption....

  13. 31 CFR 351.8 - When is interest payable on Series EE savings bonds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When is interest payable on Series EE savings bonds? 351.8 Section 351.8 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... and becomes part of the redemption value. Interest earnings are payable upon redemption....

  14. 31 CFR 359.17 - When is interest payable on Series I savings bonds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When is interest payable on Series I savings bonds? 359.17 Section 359.17 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance...? Interest earnings are payable upon redemption....

  15. 31 CFR 359.17 - When is interest payable on Series I savings bonds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When is interest payable on Series I savings bonds? 359.17 Section 359.17 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance...? Interest earnings are payable upon redemption....

  16. 31 CFR 351.8 - When is interest payable on Series EE savings bonds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When is interest payable on Series EE savings bonds? 351.8 Section 351.8 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... and becomes part of the redemption value. Interest earnings are payable upon redemption....

  17. 31 CFR 359.17 - When is interest payable on Series I savings bonds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When is interest payable on Series I savings bonds? 359.17 Section 359.17 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance...? Interest earnings are payable upon redemption....

  18. 31 CFR 351.8 - When is interest payable on Series EE savings bonds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When is interest payable on Series EE... SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE Maturities, Redemption Values, and Investment Yields of Series EE Savings Bonds General Provisions § 351.8 When is interest payable on Series EE savings bonds? Interest on a bond...

  19. 38 CFR 1.919 - Administrative offset against amounts payable from Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... against amounts payable from Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund, Federal Employees Retirement... Claims § 1.919 Administrative offset against amounts payable from Civil Service Retirement and Disability... that money which is due and payable to a debtor from either the Civil Service Retirement and...

  20. Judgments of Associative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maki, William S.

    2007-01-01

    Judgments of associative memory (JAM) were indexed by ratings given to pairs of cue and response words. The normed probabilities, p(response|cue), were obtained from free association norms. The ratings were linearly related to the probabilities. The JAM functions were characterized by high intercepts (approximately 50 on a 100 point scale) and…

  1. Preservation and Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Peggy

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the need for the preservation of both print and non-print library materials. Issues raised include problems of photocopying; deciding what to discard and weed out of collections; special considerations for children's books; jobs for preservation librarians; and the need for good judgment in making preservation decisions. (LRW)

  2. Arms and judgment

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.M. )

    1989-01-01

    This book addresses normative judgment and war in this century. The author argues that the successive introduction of trench warfare, strategic bombing and total war, modern guerrilla warfare, and nuclear weapons have each had an impact on what has been thought to be permitted in war. This book presents an integration of historical, legal and moral perspectives on warfare.

  3. Variability of Creativity Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caroff, Xavier; Besancon, Maud

    2008-01-01

    The Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT), developed by Amabile [Amabile, T.M. (1982). "Social psychology of creativity: A consensual assessment technique." "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology," 43, 997-1013], is frequently used to evaluate the creativity of productions. Judgments obtained with CAT are usually reliable and valid.…

  4. College Bibliocentre Acquisition and Accounting System Description Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Bibliocentre, Don Mills (Ontario).

    The Acquisition and Accounting System is a complex designed to perform all functions in the following areas: (1) ordering; (2) receipt, shipment and cancellation; (3) accounts payable, (4) invoicing, (5) order status, (6) inventory, (7) college budgeting and (8) management information reports. Some of the benefits that accrue from the system are:…

  5. Adaptation and fallibility in experts' judgments of novice performers.

    PubMed

    Larson, Jeffrey S; Billeter, Darron M

    2017-02-01

    Competition judges are often selected for their expertise, under the belief that a high level of performance expertise should enable accurate judgments of the competitors. Contrary to this assumption, we find evidence that expertise can reduce judgment accuracy. Adaptation level theory proposes that discriminatory capacity decreases with greater distance from one's adaptation level. Because experts' learning has produced an adaptation level close to ideal performance standards, they may be less able to discriminate among lower-level competitors. As a result, expertise increases judgment accuracy of high-level competitions but decreases judgment accuracy of low-level competitions. Additionally, we demonstrate that, consistent with an adaptation level theory account of expert judgment, experts systematically give more critical ratings than intermediates or novices. In summary, this work demonstrates a systematic change in human perception that occurs as task learning increases. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. 48 CFR 4.705-1 - Financial and cost accounting records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... wages: Retain 4 years. (e) Accounts payable records to support disbursements of funds for materials... records. (a) Accounts receivable invoices, adjustments to the accounts, invoice registers, carrier freight...: Retain 4 years. (c) Cash advance recapitulations, prepared as posting entries to accounts...

  7. Judgments about Judgments: The Dissociation of Consideration Price and Transaction Commitment Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janiszewski, Chris; Lichtenstein, Donald R.; Belyavsky, Julia

    2008-01-01

    There are many contexts in which people make judgments about prior judgments. For example, Internet shopping bots (e.g., NexTag.com) allow consumers to search for products and, if the price is too high, list a price at which they would consider making the purchase (i.e., base judgment). If the price drops to this level, the vendor generates an…

  8. Clinical versus actuarial judgment.

    PubMed

    Dawes, R M; Faust, D; Meehl, P E

    1989-03-31

    Professionals are frequently consulted to diagnose and predict human behavior; optimal treatment and planning often hinge on the consultant's judgmental accuracy. The consultant may rely on one of two contrasting approaches to decision-making--the clinical and actuarial methods. Research comparing these two approaches shows the actuarial method to be superior. Factors underlying the greater accuracy of actuarial methods, sources of resistance to the scientific findings, and the benefits of increased reliance on actuarial approaches are discussed.

  9. Judgments of subtle facial expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, David; Hwang, Hyisung C

    2014-04-01

    Most studies on judgments of facial expressions of emotion have primarily utilized prototypical, high-intensity expressions. This paper examines judgments of subtle facial expressions of emotion, including not only low-intensity versions of full-face prototypes but also variants of those prototypes. A dynamic paradigm was used in which observers were shown a neutral expression followed by the target expression to judge, and then the neutral expression again, allowing for a simulation of the emergence of the expression from and then return to a baseline. We also examined how signal and intensity clarities of the expressions (explained more fully in the Introduction) were associated with judgment agreement levels. Low-intensity, full-face prototypical expressions of emotion were judged as the intended emotion at rates significantly greater than chance. A number of the proposed variants were also judged as the intended emotions. Both signal and intensity clarities were individually associated with agreement rates; when their interrelationships were taken into account, signal clarity independently predicted agreement rates but intensity clarity did not. The presence or absence of specific muscles appeared to be more important to agreement rates than their intensity levels, with the exception of the intensity of zygomatic major, which was positively correlated with agreement rates for judgments of joy.

  10. Disgust as Embodied Moral Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Schnall, Simone; Haidt, Jonathan; Clore, Gerald L.; Jordan, Alexander H.

    2008-01-01

    How, and for whom, does disgust influence moral judgment? In 4 experiments participants made moral judgments while experiencing extraneous feelings of disgust. Disgust was induced in Experiment 1 by exposure to a bad smell, in Experiment 2 by working in a disgusting room, in Experiment 3 by recalling a physically disgusting experience, and in Experiment 4 through a video induction. In each case, the results showed that disgust can increase the severity of moral judgments relative to controls. Experiment 4 found that disgust had a different effect on moral judgment than did sadness. In addition, Experiments 2-4 showed that the role of disgust in severity of moral judgments depends on participants’ sensitivity to their own bodily sensations. Taken together, these data indicate the importance - and specificity - of gut feelings in moral judgments. PMID:18505801

  11. Judgments relative to patterns: how temporal sequence patterns affect judgments and memory.

    PubMed

    Kusev, Petko; Ayton, Peter; van Schaik, Paul; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Stewart, Neil; Chater, Nick

    2011-12-01

    Six experiments studied relative frequency judgment and recall of sequentially presented items drawn from 2 distinct categories (i.e., city and animal). The experiments show that judged frequencies of categories of sequentially encountered stimuli are affected by certain properties of the sequence configuration. We found (a) a first-run effect whereby people overestimated the frequency of a given category when that category was the first repeated category to occur in the sequence and (b) a dissociation between judgments and recall; respondents may judge 1 event more likely than the other and yet recall more instances of the latter. Specifically, the distribution of recalled items does not correspond to the frequency estimates for the event categories, indicating that participants do not make frequency judgments by sampling their memory for individual items as implied by other accounts such as the availability heuristic (Tversky & Kahneman, 1973) and the availability process model (Hastie & Park, 1986). We interpret these findings as reflecting the operation of a judgment heuristic sensitive to sequential patterns and offer an account for the relationship between memory and judged frequencies of sequentially encountered stimuli.

  12. 7 CFR 1770.16 - Supplementary accounts required of nonprofit organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... organizations. Class of company Account No. A B Account title Current Assets 1350.1 1350.1 Subscriptions to... Certificates. 1350.4 1350.4 Other Current Assets. Current Liabilities 4130.1 4130.1 Patronage Capital Payable... and nonredeemable certificates. 1350.4 1350.4 Other Current Assets This account shall include...

  13. 7 CFR 1770.16 - Supplementary accounts required of nonprofit organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... organizations. Class of company Account No. A B Account title Current Assets 1350.1 1350.1 Subscriptions to... Certificates. 1350.4 1350.4 Other Current Assets. Current Liabilities 4130.1 4130.1 Patronage Capital Payable... and nonredeemable certificates. 1350.4 1350.4 Other Current Assets This account shall include...

  14. Pitfalls in Teaching Judgment Heuristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepperd, James A.; Koch, Erika J.

    2005-01-01

    Demonstrations of judgment heuristics typically focus on how heuristics can lead to poor judgments. However, exclusive focus on the negative consequences of heuristics can prove problematic. We illustrate the problem with the representativeness heuristic and present a study (N = 45) that examined how examples influence understanding of the…

  15. The check is in the mail: determinants of claims payable timing among health maintenance organizations.

    PubMed

    Connor, Robert; Wholey, Douglas R; Feldman, Roger; Riley, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper used financial data from health maintenance organizations (HMOs) in the United States from the period 1985 to 2001 to examine the determinants of claims payable--the dollar amount of services rendered to enrollees but for which the HMO has not yet paid providers, such as physicians and hospitals. Claims payable management is important because delaying payments to providers can jeopardize provider operations and reduce HMO operational flexibility. The results show that HMOs manage claims payable with a multi-period perspective designed to evoke favorable responses and to avoid unfavorable ones from external parties, and to maintain flexibility for unexpected conditions. Higher HMO profitability, quicker receipt of premiums by the HMO, increased provider involvement, and greater local control of the HMO lead to faster payment to providers. Implications for HMO managers, providers, employers, and regulators are discussed.

  16. 77 FR 76169 - Increase in Maximum Tuition and Fee Amounts Payable under the Post-9/11 GI Bill

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... AFFAIRS Increase in Maximum Tuition and Fee Amounts Payable under the Post-9/11 GI Bill AGENCY: Department... of the increase in the Post-9/11 GI Bill maximum tuition and fee amounts payable and the increase in.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: For the 2011-2012 academic year, the Post-9/ 11 GI Bill allowed VA to pay the...

  17. Cognitive parallels between moral judgment and modal judgment.

    PubMed

    Shtulman, Andrew; Tong, Lester

    2013-12-01

    A central question in the study of moral psychology is how immediate intuition interacts with more thoughtful deliberation in the generation of moral judgments. The present study sheds additional light on this question by comparing adults' judgments of moral permissibility with their judgments of physical possibility--a form of judgment that also involves the coordination of intuition and deliberation (Shtulman, Cognitive Development 24:293-309, 2009). Participants (N = 146) were asked to judge the permissibility of 16 extraordinary actions (e.g., Is it ever morally permissible for an 80-year-old woman to have sex with a 20-year-old man?) and the possibility of 16 extraordinary events (e.g., Will it ever be physically possible for humans to bring an extinct species back to life?). Their tendency to judge the extraordinary events as possible was predictive of their tendency to judge the extraordinary actions as permissible, even when controlling for disgust sensitivity. Moreover, participants' justification and response latency patterns were correlated across domains. Taken together, these findings suggest that modal judgment and moral judgment may be linked by a common inference strategy, with some individuals focusing on why actions/events that do not occur cannot occur, and others focusing on how those same actions/events could occur.

  18. The Influence of Mass Media and Interpersonal Communication on Societal and Personal Risk Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Cynthia-Lou.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the influence of mass media, interpersonal channels, and self-efficacy on risk judgment. Confirms that mass media channels influence social-level risk judgments. Finds that personal-level risk was influenced to some degree by mass media channels and that interpersonal channels and self-efficacy account for some variance on social-level…

  19. Hidden Paths from Morality to Cooperation: Moral Judgments Promote Trust and Trustworthiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Brent; Harrell, Ashley; Willer, Robb

    2013-01-01

    Classic sociological solutions to cooperation problems were rooted in the moral judgments group members make about one another's behaviors, but more recent research on prosocial behaviors has largely ignored this foundational work. Here, we extend theoretical accounts of the social effect of moral judgments. Where scholars have emphasized the…

  20. Mindful judgment and decision making.

    PubMed

    Weber, Elke U; Johnson, Eric J

    2009-01-01

    A full range of psychological processes has been put into play to explain judgment and choice phenomena. Complementing work on attention, information integration, and learning, decision research over the past 10 years has also examined the effects of goals, mental representation, and memory processes. In addition to deliberative processes, automatic processes have gotten closer attention, and the emotions revolution has put affective processes on a footing equal to cognitive ones. Psychological process models provide natural predictions about individual differences and lifespan changes and integrate across judgment and decision making (JDM) phenomena. "Mindful" JDM research leverages our knowledge about psychological processes into causal explanations for important judgment and choice regularities, emphasizing the adaptive use of an abundance of processing alternatives. Such explanations supplement and support existing mathematical descriptions of phenomena such as loss aversion or hyperbolic discounting. Unlike such descriptions, they also provide entry points for interventions designed to help people overcome judgments or choices considered undesirable.

  1. Associative Processes in Intuitive Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Morewedge, Carey K.; Kahneman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Dual-system models of reasoning attribute errors of judgment to two failures. The automatic operations of a “System 1” generate a faulty intuition, which the controlled operations of a “System 2” fail to detect and correct. We identify System 1 with the automatic operations of associative memory and draw on research in the priming paradigm to describe how it operates. We explain how three features of associative memory—associative coherence, attribute substitution, and processing fluency—give rise to major biases of intuitive judgment. Our article highlights both the ability of System 1 to create complex and skilled judgments and the role of the system as a source of judgment errors. PMID:20696611

  2. Continuities and Discontinuities in Accounting Systems: 1998 Survey of ASBO International Membership in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henstock, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    Based on a survey of Association of School Business Officials members, this article focuses on 10 accounting system modules and how respondents felt about their system's operation and integration. Results showed solid continuity among general ledger, accounts payable, and payroll modules and discontinuities among fixed-asset and student accounting…

  3. 76 FR 30509 - Court Orders and Legal Processes Affecting Thrift Savings Plan Accounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... Part 1653 Court Orders and Legal Processes Affecting Thrift Savings Plan Accounts AGENCY: Federal... amendment which subjects TSP accounts to orders issued pursuant to the Mandatory Victims Restitution Act... in which child support orders and MVRA orders are payable. The amendments clarify that these...

  4. 76 FR 14110 - Order Regarding Review of FASB Accounting Support Fee for 2011 Under Section 109 of the Sarbanes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ..., Release No. 63956/February 24, 2011] Order Regarding Review of FASB Accounting Support Fee for 2011 Under... purposes of the securities laws, any accounting principles established by a standard setting body that... standard setting body shall be payable from an annual accounting support fee assessed and collected...

  5. Surprisingly rational: probability theory plus noise explains biases in judgment.

    PubMed

    Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul

    2014-07-01

    The systematic biases seen in people's probability judgments are typically taken as evidence that people do not use the rules of probability theory when reasoning about probability but instead use heuristics, which sometimes yield reasonable judgments and sometimes yield systematic biases. This view has had a major impact in economics, law, medicine, and other fields; indeed, the idea that people cannot reason with probabilities has become a truism. We present a simple alternative to this view, where people reason about probability according to probability theory but are subject to random variation or noise in the reasoning process. In this account the effect of noise is canceled for some probabilistic expressions. Analyzing data from 2 experiments, we find that, for these expressions, people's probability judgments are strikingly close to those required by probability theory. For other expressions, this account produces systematic deviations in probability estimates. These deviations explain 4 reliable biases in human probabilistic reasoning (conservatism, subadditivity, conjunction, and disjunction fallacies). These results suggest that people's probability judgments embody the rules of probability theory and that biases in those judgments are due to the effects of random noise.

  6. Can model-free reinforcement learning explain deontological moral judgments?

    PubMed

    Ayars, Alisabeth

    2016-05-01

    Dual-systems frameworks propose that moral judgments are derived from both an immediate emotional response, and controlled/rational cognition. Recently Cushman (2013) proposed a new dual-system theory based on model-free and model-based reinforcement learning. Model-free learning attaches values to actions based on their history of reward and punishment, and explains some deontological, non-utilitarian judgments. Model-based learning involves the construction of a causal model of the world and allows for far-sighted planning; this form of learning fits well with utilitarian considerations that seek to maximize certain kinds of outcomes. I present three concerns regarding the use of model-free reinforcement learning to explain deontological moral judgment. First, many actions that humans find aversive from model-free learning are not judged to be morally wrong. Moral judgment must require something in addition to model-free learning. Second, there is a dearth of evidence for central predictions of the reinforcement account-e.g., that people with different reinforcement histories will, all else equal, make different moral judgments. Finally, to account for the effect of intention within the framework requires certain assumptions which lack support. These challenges are reasonable foci for future empirical/theoretical work on the model-free/model-based framework.

  7. The role of emotions for moral judgments depends on the type of emotion and moral scenario.

    PubMed

    Ugazio, Giuseppe; Lamm, Claus; Singer, Tania

    2012-06-01

    Emotions seem to play a critical role in moral judgment. However, the way in which emotions exert their influence on moral judgments is still poorly understood. This study proposes a novel theoretical approach suggesting that emotions influence moral judgments based on their motivational dimension. We tested the effects of two types of induced emotions with equal valence but with different motivational implications (anger and disgust), and four types of moral scenarios (disgust-related, impersonal, personal, and beliefs) on moral judgments. We hypothesized and found that approach motivation associated with anger would make moral judgments more permissible, while disgust, associated with withdrawal motivation, would make them less permissible. Moreover, these effects varied as a function of the type of scenario: the induced emotions only affected moral judgments concerning impersonal and personal scenarios, while we observed no effects for the other scenarios. These findings suggest that emotions can play an important role in moral judgment, but that their specific effects depend upon the type of emotion induced. Furthermore, induced emotion effects were more prevalent for moral decisions in personal and impersonal scenarios, possibly because these require the performance of an action rather than making an abstract judgment. We conclude that the effects of induced emotions on moral judgments can be predicted by taking their motivational dimension into account. This finding has important implications for moral psychology, as it points toward a previously overlooked mechanism linking emotions to moral judgments.

  8. 26 CFR 1.453-3 - Purchaser evidences of indebtedness payable on demand or readily tradable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... calendar year basis, transferred all of his stock in corporation X (traded on an established securities... unsecured promissory note, with a principal amount of $750,000. At the time of such exchange A's basis in the corporation X stock is $900,000. The promissory note is payable at the rate of $75,000...

  9. 78 FR 68739 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... and ask to be connected to 202-326-4024.) SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: PBGC's regulation on Benefits... rule amends the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in Terminated.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Catherine B. Klion ( Klion.Catherine@pbgc.gov ), Assistant...

  10. 77 FR 74353 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ...-8339 and ask to be connected to 202-326-4024.) SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: PBGC's regulation on Benefits... rule amends the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in Terminated..., 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Catherine B. Klion ( Klion.Catherine@pbgc.gov ),...

  11. 22 CFR 92.69 - Charges payable to foreign officials, witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Charges payable to foreign officials, witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters. 92.69 Section 92.69 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND... foreign officials, witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters. (a) Execution of letters rogatory...

  12. 22 CFR 92.69 - Charges payable to foreign officials, witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Charges payable to foreign officials, witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters. 92.69 Section 92.69 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND... foreign officials, witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters. (a) Execution of letters rogatory...

  13. 22 CFR 92.69 - Charges payable to foreign officials, witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Charges payable to foreign officials, witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters. 92.69 Section 92.69 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND... foreign officials, witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters. (a) Execution of letters rogatory...

  14. 22 CFR 92.69 - Charges payable to foreign officials, witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Charges payable to foreign officials, witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters. 92.69 Section 92.69 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND... foreign officials, witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters. (a) Execution of letters rogatory...

  15. 22 CFR 92.69 - Charges payable to foreign officials, witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Charges payable to foreign officials, witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters. 92.69 Section 92.69 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND... foreign officials, witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters. (a) Execution of letters rogatory...

  16. 34 CFR 682.512 - Determination of amount payable on a claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determination of amount payable on a claim. 682.512 Section 682.512 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL)...

  17. 34 CFR 682.512 - Determination of amount payable on a claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determination of amount payable on a claim. 682.512 Section 682.512 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL)...

  18. 34 CFR 682.512 - Determination of amount payable on a claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determination of amount payable on a claim. 682.512 Section 682.512 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL)...

  19. 34 CFR 682.512 - Determination of amount payable on a claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of amount payable on a claim. 682.512 Section 682.512 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Federal...

  20. 41 CFR 301-75.102 - What pre-employment interview travel expenses are not payable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What pre-employment interview travel expenses are not payable? 301-75.102 Section 301-75.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 75-PRE-EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW TRAVEL...

  1. 41 CFR 301-75.102 - What pre-employment interview travel expenses are not payable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What pre-employment interview travel expenses are not payable? 301-75.102 Section 301-75.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 75-PRE-EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW TRAVEL...

  2. 41 CFR 301-75.102 - What pre-employment interview travel expenses are not payable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What pre-employment interview travel expenses are not payable? 301-75.102 Section 301-75.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 75-PRE-EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW TRAVEL...

  3. 41 CFR 301-75.102 - What pre-employment interview travel expenses are not payable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What pre-employment interview travel expenses are not payable? 301-75.102 Section 301-75.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 75-PRE-EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW TRAVEL...

  4. 5 CFR 531.247 - Maximum payable rate rule for GM employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... rate is a special rate, the highest previous rate (after any geographic conversion) must be compared... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum payable rate rule for GM... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Determining Rate of Basic Pay Special Rules for Gm Employees §...

  5. 20 CFR 404.403 - Reduction where total monthly benefits exceed maximum family benefits payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the dually-entitled person when determining how much to reduce total monthly benefits payable on the... her benefit to $625.00. This is how the calculation works. Amount available under maximum for wife and... wife and children must be reduced to $186.00 each. Their original rates are $625.00 each. This is...

  6. 20 CFR 404.403 - Reduction where total monthly benefits exceed maximum family benefits payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the dually-entitled person when determining how much to reduce total monthly benefits payable on the... her benefit to $625.00. This is how the calculation works. Amount available under maximum for wife and... wife and children must be reduced to $186.00 each. Their original rates are $625.00 each. This is...

  7. 20 CFR 404.403 - Reduction where total monthly benefits exceed maximum family benefits payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the dually-entitled person when determining how much to reduce total monthly benefits payable on the... her benefit to $625.00. This is how the calculation works. Amount available under maximum for wife and... wife and children must be reduced to $186.00 each. Their original rates are $625.00 each. This is...

  8. 20 CFR 404.403 - Reduction where total monthly benefits exceed maximum family benefits payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the dually-entitled person when determining how much to reduce total monthly benefits payable on the... her benefit to $625.00. This is how the calculation works. Amount available under maximum for wife and... wife and children must be reduced to $186.00 each. Their original rates are $625.00 each. This is...

  9. 20 CFR 404.403 - Reduction where total monthly benefits exceed maximum family benefits payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the dually-entitled person when determining how much to reduce total monthly benefits payable on the... her benefit to $625.00. This is how the calculation works. Amount available under maximum for wife and... wife and children must be reduced to $186.00 each. Their original rates are $625.00 each. This is...

  10. 13 CFR 108.1130 - Leverage fees payable by NMVC Company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leverage fees payable by NMVC Company. 108.1130 Section 108.1130 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage)...

  11. 13 CFR 107.1130 - Leverage fees and additional charges payable by Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 107.1130 Leverage fees and additional charges payable by Licensee. (a... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leverage fees and...

  12. 13 CFR 107.1130 - Leverage fees and additional charges payable by Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 107.1130 Leverage fees and additional charges payable by Licensee. (a... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leverage fees and...

  13. 13 CFR 107.1130 - Leverage fees and additional charges payable by Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 107.1130 Leverage fees and additional charges payable by Licensee. (a... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leverage fees and...

  14. 13 CFR 107.1130 - Leverage fees and additional charges payable by Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 107.1130 Leverage fees and additional charges payable by Licensee. (a... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leverage fees and...

  15. 13 CFR 107.1130 - Leverage fees and additional charges payable by Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 107.1130 Leverage fees and additional charges payable by Licensee. (a... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leverage fees and...

  16. 13 CFR 108.1130 - Leverage fees payable by NMVC Company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Company. 108.1130 Section 108.1130 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 108.1130 Leverage fees payable by NMVC Company. There is no fee for...

  17. 13 CFR 108.1130 - Leverage fees payable by NMVC Company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Company. 108.1130 Section 108.1130 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 108.1130 Leverage fees payable by NMVC Company. There is no fee for...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1361 - Federal benefit payable other than by Veterans Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... on the veteran's World War II or post-World War II active service before we determine and certify... on the veteran's World War II or post-World War II active service after we determine and certify... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal benefit payable other than...

  19. A person-centered approach to moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Pizarro, David A; Diermeier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Both normative theories of ethics in philosophy and contemporary models of moral judgment in psychology have focused almost exclusively on the permissibility of acts, in particular whether acts should be judged on the basis of their material outcomes (consequentialist ethics) or on the basis of rules, duties, and obligations (deontological ethics). However, a longstanding third perspective on morality, virtue ethics, may offer a richer descriptive account of a wide range of lay moral judgments. Building on this ethical tradition, we offer a person-centered account of moral judgment, which focuses on individuals as the unit of analysis for moral evaluations rather than on acts. Because social perceivers are fundamentally motivated to acquire information about the moral character of others, features of an act that seem most informative of character often hold more weight than either the consequences of the act or whether a moral rule has been broken. This approach, we argue, can account for numerous empirical findings that are either not predicted by current theories of moral psychology or are simply categorized as biases or irrational quirks in the way individuals make moral judgments.

  20. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set.

  1. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Julia F.; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K.; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set. PMID:25071621

  2. Judgments of and by Representativeness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-15

    Keprt 0 Judgments Of and By Representativeness,,I Jan. , *80agoAprO &1 i, 7. A. COPATaNRA ___ N00014-79-C-0077 Am;os /ftversky - ail hea S . PERFORMING...value and a variable; ..4 an instance and a category; I& a sample and a population; 4(1 an effect and a cause. The principles of representativenes...reduces it probability. Several studies of judgment are reported in which naive and sophi- DD I FjA017 1473 ITorION OF I Nov S IIS isoSOLETE Unclassified S

  3. Topics in Probabilistic Judgment Aggregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Guanchun

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a compilation of several studies that are united by their relevance to probabilistic judgment aggregation. In the face of complex and uncertain events, panels of judges are frequently consulted to provide probabilistic forecasts, and aggregation of such estimates in groups often yield better results than could have been made…

  4. Expert judgment and expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mumpower, J.; Phillips, L.D.; Renn, O.; Uppuluri, V.R.R.

    1987-01-01

    This volume collects researchers from the fields of psychology, decision analysis, and artificial intelligence. The purposes were to assess similarities, differences, and complementarities among the three approaches to the study of expert judgment; to evaluate their relative strengths and weaknesses; and to propose profitable linkages between them. Each of the papers in the present volume is directed toward one or more of these goals.

  5. People's conditional probability judgments follow probability theory (plus noise).

    PubMed

    Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul

    2016-09-01

    A common view in current psychology is that people estimate probabilities using various 'heuristics' or rules of thumb that do not follow the normative rules of probability theory. We present a model where people estimate conditional probabilities such as P(A|B) (the probability of A given that B has occurred) by a process that follows standard frequentist probability theory but is subject to random noise. This model accounts for various results from previous studies of conditional probability judgment. This model predicts that people's conditional probability judgments will agree with a series of fundamental identities in probability theory whose form cancels the effect of noise, while deviating from probability theory in other expressions whose form does not allow such cancellation. Two experiments strongly confirm these predictions, with people's estimates on average agreeing with probability theory for the noise-cancelling identities, but deviating from probability theory (in just the way predicted by the model) for other identities. This new model subsumes an earlier model of unconditional or 'direct' probability judgment which explains a number of systematic biases seen in direct probability judgment (Costello & Watts, 2014). This model may thus provide a fully general account of the mechanisms by which people estimate probabilities.

  6. An Instructional Model for Preparing Accounting/Computing Clerks in Michigan Secondary School Office Education Programs, Part I and Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskovis, L. Michael; McKitrick, Max O.

    Outlined in this two-part document is a model for the implementation of a business-industry oriented program designed to provide high school seniors with updated training in the skills and concepts necessary for developing competencies in entry-level and second-level accounting jobs that involve accounts receivable, accounts payable, and payroll…

  7. Toward a Procedural Theory of Judgment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    18 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTESj 19 KEY WORDS (Contnu.e on .*old. It n.c.-e rv arId Id.,I’, by blWork nb.,) Judgment Multiplying models Algebraic models...process that might be drawn from algebraic models of judgment. Next, three common forms of judgment are described (averaging rules, relative ratio...in a manner that is systematic and replicable. Furthermore, their judgments often reveal algebraic patterns that suggest the operation of some

  8. Judgment Evading Foreign States Accountability Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Mack, Connie [R-FL-14

    2011-05-06

    11/29/2012 Forwarded by Subcommittee to Full Committee in the Nature of a Substitute (Amended) by Voice Vote . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  10. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision, settlement... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor...

  11. Engaging Students in Social Judgment Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallard, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Social Judgment Theory is a way to explain when persuasive messages are most likely to succeed and how people make judgments about them. This theory is often covered in communication theory and persuasion courses, but is also applicable when discussing persuasion in basic speech and introductory communication courses. Social Judgment Theory…

  12. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  13. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by...

  14. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor Regulations... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  15. 29 CFR 98.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil judgment. 98.920 Section 98.920 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...

  16. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  17. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  18. 31 CFR 19.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil judgment. 19.920 Section 19.920... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  19. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education Office...) Definitions § 85.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  20. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  1. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  2. 29 CFR 98.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Civil judgment. 98.920 Section 98.920 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...

  3. 7 CFR 3017.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 3017.920 Section 3017.920 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 3017.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction,...

  4. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  5. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  6. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor Regulations... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  7. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  8. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  9. 31 CFR 19.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 19.920 Section 19.920... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  10. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education Office...) Definitions § 85.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  11. Golden Section Relations in Interpersonal Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjafield, John; Green, T. R. G.

    1978-01-01

    A model of the organization of interpersonal judgments, based on the hypothesis that people tend to organize their judgments in Golden Section ratios, was presented. A theory of the process of interpersonal judgment, based on the notion that people judge acquaintances using a Fibonacci-like decision rule, was then developed. A computer simulation…

  12. Experiential limitation in judgment and decision.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Ulrike

    2014-04-01

    The statistics of small samples are often quite different from those of large samples, and this needs to be taken into account in assessing the rationality of human behavior. Specifically, in evaluating human responses to environmental statistics, it is the effective environment that matters; that is, the environment actually experienced by the agent needs to be considered, not simply long-run frequencies. Significant deviations from long-run statistics may arise through experiential limitations of the agent that stem from resource constraints and/or information-processing bounds. The article draws together recent work from a number of areas in judgment and decision making ranging from randomness perception (Hahn & Warren, ), information sampling (Hertwig & Pleskac, ; Kareev et al., ), and consequences of choice for exploration or exploitation (e.g., Denrell, ) to demonstrate how proper consideration of these deviations leads to reevaluation of behaviors that are otherwise deemed irrational.

  13. 76 FR 54801 - Healthlink, a Wellpoint, Inc. Company, Accounts Receivable and Collections Division, St. Louis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... are engaged in activities related to the supply of health insurance services: Accounts payable and collections services. The petition was filed on behalf of ``finance'' workers at HealthLink, St. Louis, Missouri (HealthLink). The petition states that the service supplied by HealthLink is a ``network...

  14. Annual Percentage Rate and Annual Effective Rate: Resolving Confusion in Intermediate Accounting Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicknair, David; Wright, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of confusion in intermediate accounting textbooks regarding the annual percentage rate (APR) and annual effective rate (AER) is presented. The APR and AER are briefly discussed in the context of a note payable and correct formulas for computing each is provided. Representative examples of the types of confusion that we found is presented…

  15. 11 CFR 111.41 - To whom should the civil money penalty payment be made payable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false To whom should the civil money penalty payment... COMPLIANCE PROCEDURE (2 U.S.C. 437g, 437d(a)) Administrative Fines § 111.41 To whom should the civil money penalty payment be made payable? Payment of civil money penalties shall be made in the form of a check...

  16. On judgment and judgmentalism: how counselling can make people better

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, S

    2005-01-01

    Counsellors, like other members of the caring professions, are required to practise within an ethical framework, at least in so far as they seek professional accreditation. As such, the counsellor is called upon to exercise her moral agency. In most professional contexts this requirement is, in itself, unproblematic. It has been suggested, however, that counselling practice does present a problem in this respect, in so far as the counsellor is expected to take a non-judgemental stance and an attitude of "unconditional positive regard" toward the client. If, as might appear to be the case, this stance and attitude are at odds with the making of moral judgments, the possibility of an adequate ethics of counselling is called into question. This paper explores the nature and extent of the problem suggesting that, understood in a Kantian context, non-judgmentalism can be seen to be at odds with neither the moral agency of the counsellor nor that of the client. Instead, it is argued, the relationship between the non-judgmental counsellor and her client is a fundamentally moral relationship, based on respect for the client's unconditional worth as a moral agent. PMID:16199597

  17. Clinical judgment: the last frontier for evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lasater, Kathie

    2011-03-01

    Nursing educators and preceptors often find it difficult to evaluate prelicensure students' clinical judgment development. Clinical judgment is critical to excellent patient care decisions and outcomes. The Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric, a validated, evidence-based clinical judgment rubric, is described as a tool that offers a common language for students, nurse educators, and preceptors and a trajectory for students' clinical judgment development. The rubric has been used to provide feedback for reflective journals and a means for self-evaluation in addition to a guide for formulating higher level thought questions to shape students' thinking like a nurse.

  18. Explaining the forgetting bias effect on value judgments: The influence of memory for a past test.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Matthew G; Witherby, Amber E; Castel, Alan D; Murayama, Kou

    2017-04-01

    People often feel that information that was forgotten is less important than remembered information. Prior work has shown that participants assign higher importance to remembered information while undervaluing forgotten information. The current study examined two possible accounts of this finding. In three experiments, participants studied lists of words in which each word was randomly assigned a point value denoting the value of remembering the word. Following the presentation of each list participants engaged in a free recall test. After the presentation of all lists participants were shown each of the words they had studied and asked to recall the point value that was initially paired with each word. Experiment 1 tested a fluency-based account by presenting items for value judgments in a low-fluency or high-fluency format. Experiment 2 examined whether value judgments reflect attributions based on the familiarity of an item when value judgments are made. Finally, in Experiment 3, we evaluated whether participants believe that forgotten words are less important by having them judge whether an item was initially recalled or forgotten prior to making a value judgment. Manipulating the fluency of an item presented for judgment had no influence on value ratings (Experiment 1) and familiarity exerted a limited influence on value judgments (Experiment 2). More importantly, participants' value judgments appeared to reflect a theory that remembered information is more valuable than forgotten information (Experiment 3). Overall, the present work suggests that individuals may apply a theory about remembering and forgetting to retrospectively assess the value of information.

  19. Intuitive (in)coherence judgments are guided by processing fluency, mood and affect.

    PubMed

    Sweklej, Joanna; Balas, Robert; Pochwatko, Grzegorz; Godlewska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Recently proposed accounts of intuitive judgments of semantic coherence assume that processing fluency results in a positive affective response leading to successful assessment of semantic coherence. The present paper investigates whether processing fluency may indicate semantic incoherence as well. In two studies, we employ a new paradigm in which participants have to detect an incoherent item among semantically coherent words. In Study 1, we show participants accurately indicating an incoherent item despite not being able to provide an accurate solution to coherent words. Further, this effect is modified by affective valence of solution words that are not retrieved from memory. Study 2 replicates those results and extend them by showing that mood moderates incoherence judgments independently of affective valence of solutions. The results support processing fluency account of intuitive semantic coherence judgments and show that it is not fluency per se but fluency variations that drive judgments.

  20. Culture and Probability Judgment Accuracy: The Influence of Holistic Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Lechuga, Julia; Wiebe, John S.

    2012-01-01

    A well-established phenomenon in the judgment and decision-making tradition is the overconfidence one places in the amount of knowledge that one possesses. Overconfidence or probability judgment accuracy varies not only individually but also across cultures. However, research efforts to explain cross-cultural variations in the overconfidence phenomenon have seldom been made. In Study 1, the authors compared the probability judgment accuracy of U.S. Americans (N = 108) and Mexican participants (N = 100). In Study 2, they experimentally primed culture by randomly assigning English/Spanish bilingual Mexican Americans (N = 195) to response language. Results of both studies replicated the cross-cultural variation of probability judgment accuracy previously observed in other cultural groups. U.S. Americans displayed less overconfidence when compared to Mexicans. These results were then replicated in bilingual participants, when culture was experimentally manipulated with language priming. Holistic reasoning did not account for the cross-cultural variation of overconfidence. Suggestions for future studies are discussed. PMID:22879682

  1. 31 CFR 588.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership... estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  2. 31 CFR 547.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title..., real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  3. 31 CFR 576.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title..., real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  4. 31 CFR 576.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title..., real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  5. 31 CFR 593.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other... on ships, real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts... acceptances, royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or...

  6. 31 CFR 598.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership... estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  7. 31 CFR 588.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership... estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  8. 31 CFR 593.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other... on ships, real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts... acceptances, royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or...

  9. 31 CFR 598.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership... estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  10. 31 CFR 590.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title..., real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  11. 31 CFR 560.325 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership... estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  12. 31 CFR 560.325 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership... estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground rents..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  13. 31 CFR 544.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other... on ships, real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts... acceptances, royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or...

  14. 31 CFR 540.311 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other..., ships, goods on ships, real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts... acceptances, royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks, copyrights,...

  15. 31 CFR 590.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title..., real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  16. 31 CFR 547.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other evidences of title..., real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts, leaseholds, ground..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance...

  17. 31 CFR 540.311 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other..., ships, goods on ships, real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts... acceptances, royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks, copyrights,...

  18. 31 CFR 544.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other... on ships, real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements, land contracts... acceptances, royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or...

  19. 17 CFR 240.15c3-3a - Exhibit A-Formula for determination of customer and PAB account reserve requirements of brokers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... balances and other credit balances in customers' security accounts. (See Note A) XXX 2. Monies borrowed collateralized by securities carried for the accounts of customers (See Note B) XXX 3. Monies payable against customers' securities loaned (See Note C) XXX 4. Customers' securities failed to receive (See Note D) XXX...

  20. Does momentary accessibility influence metacomprehension judgments? The influence of study-judgment lags on accessibility effects.

    PubMed

    Baker, Julie M C; Dunlosky, John

    2006-02-01

    In two experiments, we investigated momentary accessibility as a basis for metacomprehension judgments. Momentary accessibility has been cited as a major contributor to these judgments, yet the only previous investigation on the topic used judgments that were delayed a day after study, which have not been used in any other studies in the field and may be necessary for demonstrating accessibility-based effects. As expected, Experiment 1 demonstrated that the time between study and judgments moderates accessibility effects, with the relationship between judgments and access measures being substantially greater for delayed than for immediate judgments. Experiment 2 ruled out a plausible artifactual interpretation for accessibility effects on delayed judgments. In the discussion, we explore why study-judgment lags moderate accessibility effects.

  1. Passage of Time Judgments Are Not Duration Judgments: Evidence from a Study Using Experience Sampling Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Wearden, John

    2016-01-01

    This study examined relations between passage of time judgments and duration judgments (DJs) in everyday life, in young and elderly people, with an Experience Sampling Method. The DJs were assessed by verbal estimation and interval production measures. The results showed no difference between young and elderly people in judgments of rate of passage of time, a result contrary to the conventional idea that time passes more quickly as we get older. There were also no significant relation between the judgment of passage of time and the judgments of durations. In addition, the significant predictors of individual differences in the judgment of passage of time (emotion states and focus of attention on the current activity) were not predictors of judgment of durations. In sum, passages of time judgments are not related to DJs. PMID:26925006

  2. Sentence durations and accentedness judgments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Z. S.; Stockmal, Verna; Markus, Dace

    2003-04-01

    Talkers in a second language can frequently be identified as speaking with a foreign accent. It is not clear to what degree a foreign accent represents specific deviations from a target language versus more general characteristics. We examined the identifications of native and non-native talkers by listeners with various amount of knowledge of the target language. Native and non-native speakers of Latvian provided materials. All the non-native talkers spoke Russian as their first language and were long-term residents of Latvia. A listening test, containing sentences excerpted from a short recorded passage, was presented to three groups of listeners: native speakers of Latvian, Russians for whom Latvian was a second language, and Americans with no knowledge of either of the two languages. The listeners were asked to judge whether each utterance was produced by a native or non-native talker. The Latvians identified the non-native talkers very accurately, 88%. The Russians were somewhat less accurate, 83%. The American listeners were least accurate, but still identified the non-native talkers at above chance levels, 62%. Sentence durations correlated with the judgments provided by the American listeners but not with the judgments provided by native or L2 listeners.

  3. 41 CFR 303-70.4 - May we pay death-related expenses under this chapter if the same expenses are payable under other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... expenses under this chapter if the same expenses are payable under other laws of the United States? 303-70... expenses under this chapter if the same expenses are payable under other laws of the United States? No... Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210....

  4. 41 CFR 303-70.4 - May we pay death-related expenses under this chapter if the same expenses are payable under other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... expenses under this chapter if the same expenses are payable under other laws of the United States? 303-70... expenses under this chapter if the same expenses are payable under other laws of the United States? No... Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210....

  5. 20 CFR 10.410 - Who is entitled to compensation in case of death, and what are the rates of compensation payable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... death, and what are the rates of compensation payable in death cases? 10.410 Section 10.410 Employees... Related Benefits Compensation for Death § 10.410 Who is entitled to compensation in case of death, and what are the rates of compensation payable in death cases? (a) If there is no child entitled...

  6. 20 CFR 10.410 - Who is entitled to compensation in case of death, and what are the rates of compensation payable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... death, and what are the rates of compensation payable in death cases? 10.410 Section 10.410 Employees... Related Benefits Compensation for Death § 10.410 Who is entitled to compensation in case of death, and what are the rates of compensation payable in death cases? (a) Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 8133, benefits...

  7. Judgment Confidence and Judgment Accuracy of Teachers in Judging Self-Concepts of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praetorius, Anna-Katharina; Berner, Valerie-Danielle; Zeinz, Horst; Scheunpflug, Annette; Dresel, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Accurate teacher judgments of student characteristics are considered to be important prerequisites for adaptive instruction. A theoretically important condition for putting these judgments into operation is judgment confidence. Using a German sample of 96 teachers and 1,388 students, the authors examined how confident teachers are in their…

  8. Influence of Graphical METARS on Pilots' Weather Judgment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, Joseph T.; Latorella, Kara A.; Baldwin, Carryl L.

    2005-01-01

    VFR flight into IMC conditions accounts for over 10% of general aviation fatalities each year. Recent research suggests that pilots may not properly assess weather conditions. New graphical weather information systems (GWISs) may positively or negatively influence pilot weather-related judgments. Since GWIS information is not always current it may not be veritical. In the current investigation twenty-four GA pilots made visibility and ceiling estimates of simulated weather conditions either with or without a GWIS display. Pilots generally overestimated weather conditions and their judgments were influenced by the GWIS. The results revealed an interaction between ceiling and visibility that suggests a new model for understanding VFR flight into IMC. The current results suggest an important area for future research into understanding pilots decisions to continue into deteriorating weather conditions. Results are discussed in terms of advancing aviation decision making models for understanding VFR into IMC flight, and the design of GWIS symbology to foster accurate assessments.

  9. Good things don't come easy (to mind): explaining framing effects in judgments of truth.

    PubMed

    Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the general phenomenon of a positive-negative-asymmetry was extended to judgments of truth. That is, negatively framed statements were shown to receive substantially higher truth ratings than formally equivalent statements framed positively. However, the cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown, so far. In the current work, two potential accounts are introduced and tested against each other in three experiments: On the one hand, negative framing may induce increased elaboration and thereby persuasion. Alternatively, negative framing could yield faster retrieval or generation of evidence and thus influence subjective veracity via experiential fluency. Two experiments drawing on response latencies and one manipulating the delay between information acquisition and judgment provide support for the fluency-based account. Overall, results replicate and extend the negatively-biased framing effect in truth judgments and show that processing fluency may account for it.

  10. Keeping Accountability Systems Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Martha

    2007-01-01

    The standards and accountability movement in education has undeniably transformed schooling throughout the United States. Even before President Bush signed the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act into law in January 2002, mandating annual public school testing in English and math for grades 3-8 and once in high school, most states had already…

  11. 5 CFR 919.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 919.920 Section 919.920 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.920 Civil judgment. Civil...

  12. 37 CFR 42.73 - Judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adverse judgment. A party may request judgment against itself at any time during a proceeding. Actions...) Concession of unpatentability or derivation of the contested subject matter; and (4) Abandonment of the... estopped with respect to any contested subject matter for which that party was awarded a favorable...

  13. Adult Metacomprehension: Judgment Processes and Accuracy Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qin; Linderholm, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review and synthesize two interrelated topics in the adult metacomprehension literature: the bases of metacomprehension judgment and the constraints on metacomprehension accuracy. Our review shows that adult readers base their metacomprehension judgments on different types of information, including experiences…

  14. The Psychology of Judgment for Outdoor Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Kent

    Judgment is the process of making decisions with incomplete information concerning either the outcomes or the decision factors. Sound judgment that leads to good decisions is an essential skill needed by adventure education and outdoor leadership professionals. Cognitive psychology provides several theories and insights concerning the accuracy of…

  15. 5 CFR 919.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil judgment. 919.920 Section 919.920 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.920 Civil judgment. Civil...

  16. Visual judgments of kinship: an alternative perspective.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Ludovica; Brelstaff, Gavin; Brodo, Linda; Lagorio, Andrea; Grosso, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Following other researchers, we investigated the premise that visual judgment of kinship might be modelled as a signal-detection task, strictly related to similar facial features. We measured subjects' response times to face-pair stimuli while they performed visual judgments of kinship, similarity, or dissimilarity, and examined some priming effects involved. Our results show that kinship judgment takes longer on average than either similarity or dissimilarity judgment-which is compatible with existing models, yet might also suggest that kinship judgments are of a more complex character. In our priming study we observed selective suppression/enhancement of the efficacy of dissimilarity judgments whenever they followed similarity and kinship judgments. This finding confounds the notion, inherent in previous models, of resemblance cues signalling for kinship, since similarity and dissimilarity cannot be considered just as opposite concepts, and observed priming effects need to be explicitly modelled, including dissimilarity cues. To model kinship judgments across faces that are perceived as dissimilar, a new framework may be required, perhaps accepting the perspective of a task-driven use of the visual cues, modulated by experience and cultural conditioning.

  17. Law, Judgment, and Catholic Social Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skotnicki, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    There is a recurrent conflict concerning law and judgment in the Catholic tradition. The tension between the manner in which just punitive judgments are to be rendered and the possibility of judging justly, if at all, is found frequently in Scripture and in Church history. This paper will give an overview of the dynamics of this tension in…

  18. The Truth and Bias Model of Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Tessa V.; Kenny, David A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model for the general study of how the truth and biases affect human judgment. In the truth and bias model, judgments about the world are pulled by 2 primary forces, the truth force and the bias force, and these 2 forces are interrelated. The truth and bias model differentiates force and value, where the force is the strength of…

  19. 32 CFR 1602.13 - Judgmental Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judgmental Classification. 1602.13 Section 1602.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.13 Judgmental Classification. A classification action relating to a registrant's claim...

  20. Judgments of Learning as Memory Modifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderstrom, Nicholas C.; Clark, Colin T.; Halamish, Vered; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon

    2015-01-01

    A frequent procedure used to study how individuals monitor their own learning is to collect judgments of learning (JOLs) during acquisition, considered to be important, in part, because such judgments are assumed to guide how individuals allocate their future learning resources. In such research, however, a tacit assumption is frequently made:…

  1. True and false memories, parietal cortex, and confidence judgments.

    PubMed

    Urgolites, Zhisen J; Smith, Christine N; Squire, Larry R

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory). Accordingly, it has often been difficult to know whether a finding is related to memory confidence or memory accuracy. In the current study, participants made recognition memory judgments with confidence ratings in response to previously studied scenes and novel scenes. The left hippocampus and 16 other brain regions distinguished true and false memories when confidence ratings were different for the two conditions. Only three regions (all in the parietal cortex) distinguished true and false memories when confidence ratings were equated. These findings illustrate the utility of taking confidence ratings into account when identifying brain regions associated with true and false memories. Neural correlates of true and false memories are most easily interpreted when confidence ratings are similar for the two kinds of memories.

  2. Biases in social comparative judgments: the role of nonmotivated factors in above-average and comparative-optimism effects.

    PubMed

    Chambers, John R; Windschitl, Paul D

    2004-09-01

    Biases in social comparative judgments, such as those illustrated by above-average and comparative-optimism effects, are often regarded as products of motivated reasoning (e.g., self-enhancement). These effects, however, can also be produced by information-processing limitations or aspects of judgment processes that are not necessarily biased by motivational factors. In this article, the authors briefly review motivational accounts of biased comparative judgments, introduce a 3-stage model for understanding how people make comparative judgments, and then describe how various nonmotivational factors can influence the 3 stages of the comparative judgment process. Finally, the authors discuss several unresolved issues highlighted by their analysis, such as the interrelation between motivated and nonmotivated sources of bias and the influence of nonmotivated sources of bias on behavior.

  3. 76 FR 80407 - Notice of a Change in Status of the Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Status of the Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program for Texas...'' to Tier Four of Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) for weeks of unemployment beginning... claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The Department of Labor produces a trigger notice...

  4. 76 FR 73685 - Notice of a Change in Status of the Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program for Indiana, the Virgin Islands, West Virginia, and Wyoming... Notice of a Change in Status of the payable periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008... the EUC08 program for qualified unemployed workers claiming benefits in high unemployment states....

  5. 77 FR 2091 - Notice of a Change in Status of the Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program for Iowa and Oklahoma AGENCY: Employment and Training... payable period in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) program for Iowa and Oklahoma... high unemployment states. The Department of Labor produces a trigger notice indicating which...

  6. 38 CFR 3.812 - Special allowance payable under section 156 of Pub. L. 97-377.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special allowance payable under section 156 of Pub. L. 97-377. 3.812 Section 3.812 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... connected. (3) Claimants whose claims are based on an individual's service in: (i) The Commonwealth Army...

  7. 38 CFR 3.812 - Special allowance payable under section 156 of Pub. L. 97-377.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special allowance payable under section 156 of Pub. L. 97-377. 3.812 Section 3.812 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... connected. (3) Claimants whose claims are based on an individual's service in: (i) The Commonwealth Army...

  8. 38 CFR 3.812 - Special allowance payable under section 156 of Pub. L. 97-377.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special allowance payable under section 156 of Pub. L. 97-377. 3.812 Section 3.812 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... connected. (3) Claimants whose claims are based on an individual's service in: (i) The Commonwealth Army...

  9. 38 CFR 3.812 - Special allowance payable under section 156 of Pub. L. 97-377.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special allowance payable under section 156 of Pub. L. 97-377. 3.812 Section 3.812 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... connected. (3) Claimants whose claims are based on an individual's service in: (i) The Commonwealth Army...

  10. 38 CFR 3.812 - Special allowance payable under section 156 of Pub. L. 97-377.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special allowance payable under section 156 of Pub. L. 97-377. 3.812 Section 3.812 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... connected. (3) Claimants whose claims are based on an individual's service in: (i) The Commonwealth Army...

  11. 32 CFR 536.109 - Claims not payable under international agreements (for those arising in the United States).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (for those arising in the United States). 536.109 Section 536.109 National Defense Department of... those arising in the United States). The following claims are not payable: (a) Claims arising from a... objectives of a treaty authorizing their presence in the United States. (b) Claims arising from the acts...

  12. Inability and Obligation in Moral Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Buckwalter, Wesley; Turri, John

    2015-01-01

    It is often thought that judgments about what we ought to do are limited by judgments about what we can do, or that “ought implies can.” We conducted eight experiments to test the link between a range of moral requirements and abilities in ordinary moral evaluations. Moral obligations were repeatedly attributed in tandem with inability, regardless of the type (Experiments 1–3), temporal duration (Experiment 5), or scope (Experiment 6) of inability. This pattern was consistently observed using a variety of moral vocabulary to probe moral judgments and was insensitive to different levels of seriousness for the consequences of inaction (Experiment 4). Judgments about moral obligation were no different for individuals who can or cannot perform physical actions, and these judgments differed from evaluations of a non-moral obligation (Experiment 7). Together these results demonstrate that commonsense morality rejects the “ought implies can” principle for moral requirements, and that judgments about moral obligation are made independently of considerations about ability. By contrast, judgments of blame were highly sensitive to considerations about ability (Experiment 8), which suggests that commonsense morality might accept a “blame implies can” principle. PMID:26296206

  13. Inability and Obligation in Moral Judgment.

    PubMed

    Buckwalter, Wesley; Turri, John

    2015-01-01

    It is often thought that judgments about what we ought to do are limited by judgments about what we can do, or that "ought implies can." We conducted eight experiments to test the link between a range of moral requirements and abilities in ordinary moral evaluations. Moral obligations were repeatedly attributed in tandem with inability, regardless of the type (Experiments 1-3), temporal duration (Experiment 5), or scope (Experiment 6) of inability. This pattern was consistently observed using a variety of moral vocabulary to probe moral judgments and was insensitive to different levels of seriousness for the consequences of inaction (Experiment 4). Judgments about moral obligation were no different for individuals who can or cannot perform physical actions, and these judgments differed from evaluations of a non-moral obligation (Experiment 7). Together these results demonstrate that commonsense morality rejects the "ought implies can" principle for moral requirements, and that judgments about moral obligation are made independently of considerations about ability. By contrast, judgments of blame were highly sensitive to considerations about ability (Experiment 8), which suggests that commonsense morality might accept a "blame implies can" principle.

  14. Better, Stronger, Faster Self-Serving Judgment, Affect Regulation, and the Optimal Vigilance Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Roese, Neal J.; Olson, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-serving judgments, in which the self is viewed more favorably than other people, are ubiquitous. Their dynamic variation within individuals may be explained in terms of the regulation of affect. Self-serving judgments produce positive emotions, and threat increases self-serving judgments (a compensatory pattern that restores affect to a set point or baseline). Perceived mutability is a key moderator of these judgments; low mutability (i.e., the circumstance is closed to modification) triggers a cognitive response aimed at affect regulation, whereas high mutability (i.e., the circumstance is open to further modification) activates direct behavioral remediation. Threats often require immediate response, whereas positive events do not. Because of this brief temporal window, an active mechanism is needed to restore negative (but not positive) affective shifts back to a set point. Without this active reset, an earlier threat would make the individual less vigilant toward a new threat. Thus, when people are sad, they aim to return their mood to baseline, often via self-serving judgments. We argue that asymmetric homeostasis enables optimal vigilance, which establishes a coherent theoretical account of the role of self-serving judgments in affect regulation. PMID:18552989

  15. Crime and punishment: distinguishing the roles of causal and intentional analyses in moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Cushman, Fiery

    2008-08-01

    Recent research in moral psychology has attempted to characterize patterns of moral judgments of actions in terms of the causal and intentional properties of those actions. The present study directly compares the roles of consequence, causation, belief and desire in determining moral judgments. Judgments of the wrongness or permissibility of action were found to rely principally on the mental states of an agent, while judgments of blame and punishment are found to rely jointly on mental states and the causal connection of an agent to a harmful consequence. Also, selectively for judgments of punishment and blame, people who attempt but fail to cause harm more are judged more leniently if the harm occurs by independent means than if the harm does not occur at all. An account of these phenomena is proposed that distinguishes two processes of moral judgment: one which begins with harmful consequences and seeks a causally responsible agent, and the other which begins with an action and analyzes the mental states responsible for that action.

  16. Complementarity of Clinician Judgment and Evidence Based Models in Medical Decision Making: Antecedents, Prospects, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Asante Antwi, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Early accounts of the development of modern medicine suggest that the clinical skills, scientific competence, and doctors' judgment were the main impetus for treatment decision, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy assessment, and medical progress. Yet, clinician judgment has its own critics and is sometimes harshly described as notoriously fallacious and an irrational and unfathomable black box with little transparency. With the rise of contemporary medical research, the reputation of clinician judgment has undergone significant reformation in the last century as its fallacious aspects are increasingly emphasized relative to the evidence based options. Within the last decade, however, medical forecasting literature has seen tremendous change and new understanding is emerging on best ways of sharing medical information to complement the evidence based medicine practices. This review revisits and highlights the core debate on clinical judgments and its interrelations with evidence based medicine. It outlines the key empirical results of clinician judgments relative to evidence based models and identifies its key strengths and prospects, the key limitations and conditions for the effective use of clinician judgment, and the extent to which it can be optimized and professionalized for medical use. PMID:27642588

  17. Complementarity of Clinician Judgment and Evidence Based Models in Medical Decision Making: Antecedents, Prospects, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Lulin, Zhou; Yiranbon, Ethel; Asante Antwi, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Early accounts of the development of modern medicine suggest that the clinical skills, scientific competence, and doctors' judgment were the main impetus for treatment decision, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy assessment, and medical progress. Yet, clinician judgment has its own critics and is sometimes harshly described as notoriously fallacious and an irrational and unfathomable black box with little transparency. With the rise of contemporary medical research, the reputation of clinician judgment has undergone significant reformation in the last century as its fallacious aspects are increasingly emphasized relative to the evidence based options. Within the last decade, however, medical forecasting literature has seen tremendous change and new understanding is emerging on best ways of sharing medical information to complement the evidence based medicine practices. This review revisits and highlights the core debate on clinical judgments and its interrelations with evidence based medicine. It outlines the key empirical results of clinician judgments relative to evidence based models and identifies its key strengths and prospects, the key limitations and conditions for the effective use of clinician judgment, and the extent to which it can be optimized and professionalized for medical use.

  18. Assessing Veterinary and Animal Science Students' Moral Judgment Development on Animal Ethics Issues.

    PubMed

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    Little has been done to assess veterinarians' moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues. Following development of the VetDIT, a new moral judgment measure for animal ethics issues, this study aimed to refine and further validate the VetDIT, and to identify effects of teaching interventions on moral judgment and changes in moral judgment over time. VetDIT-V1 was refined into VetDIT-V2, and V3 was developed as a post-intervention test to prevent repetition. To test these versions for comparability, veterinary and animal science students (n=271) were randomly assigned to complete different versions. The VetDIT discriminates between stages of moral judgment, condensed into three schemas: Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), and Universal Principles (UP). There were no differences in the scores for MN and UP between the versions, and we equated PI scores to account for differences between versions. Veterinary science students (n=130) who completed a three-hour small-group workshop on moral development theory and ethical decision making increased their use of UP in moral reasoning, whereas students (n=271) who received similar information in a 50-minute lecture did not. A longitudinal comparison of matched first- and third-year students (n=39) revealed no moral judgment development toward greater use of UP. The VetDIT is therefore useful for assessing moral judgment of animal and human ethics issues in veterinary and other animal-related professions. Intensive small-group workshops using moral development knowledge and skills, rather than lectures, are conducive to developing veterinary students' moral judgment.

  19. Examining corporate reputation judgments with generalizability theory.

    PubMed

    Highhouse, Scott; Broadfoot, Alison; Yugo, Jennifer E; Devendorf, Shelba A

    2009-05-01

    The researchers used generalizability theory to examine whether reputation judgments about corporations function in a manner consistent with contemporary theory in the corporate-reputation literature. University professors (n = 86) of finance, marketing, and human resources management made repeated judgments about the general reputations of highly visible American companies. Minimal variability in the judgments is explained by items, time, persons, and field of specialization. Moreover, experts from the different specializations reveal considerable agreement in how they weigh different aspects of corporate performance in arriving at their global reputation judgments. The results generally support the theory of the reputation construct and suggest that stable estimates of global reputation can be achieved with a small number of items and experts.

  20. Biofunctional Understanding and Judgment of Size

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zheng; Lee, Yang; Yuan, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that the meaningfulness of the material increases judged size, whereas symmetry decreases size judgments. These findings have been interpreted in terms of information processing, with a greater quantity of information leading to a judgment of larger size. An alternative view based on biofunctional understanding theory emphasizes the quality of affordance-triggered biological activity as reported and observed in attitudes toward playing sports, effortless understanding, knowledge-in-action, meditative wisdom, and body–mind cycle of adaptation. This alternative implies that affordance biofunctional activity is naturally size-diminishinging as it moves toward coherence and size-expanding as it moves away from coherence influencing judgments of size accordingly. Here we tested this hypothesis in the realm of sensorimotor integration. Our first experiment showed that phonologically unpronounced or symmetric symbols elicit smaller size judgments than phonologically pronounced and asymmetric symbols. Next, we manipulated the quantity of meaning with the affordance (possibilities for biofunctional activity) orthogonally in a second experiment; results indicated that meaning affects size judgments only in the absence of phonological information. We conclude that the biofunctional activity affordance may be responsible for observed differences in size judgment. PMID:27047438

  1. Accounting Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prickett, Charlotte

    This curriculum guide describes the accounting curriculum in the following three areas: accounting clerk, bookkeeper, and nondegreed accountant. The competencies and tasks complement the Arizona validated listing in these areas. The guide lists 24 competencies for nondegreed accountants, 10 competencies for accounting clerks, and 11 competencies…

  2. 5 CFR 838.1111 - Amounts subject to child abuse judgment enforcement orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amounts subject to child abuse judgment... Under the Child Abuse Accountability Act Availability of Funds § 838.1111 Amounts subject to child abuse... child abuse enforcement orders only if all of the conditions necessary for payment of the...

  3. Decision-Tree Models of Categorization Response Times, Choice Proportions, and Typicality Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafond, Daniel; Lacouture, Yves; Cohen, Andrew L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present 3 decision-tree models of categorization adapted from T. Trabasso, H. Rollins, and E. Shaughnessy (1971) and use them to provide a quantitative account of categorization response times, choice proportions, and typicality judgments at the individual-participant level. In Experiment 1, the decision-tree models were fit to…

  4. Embodied markedness of parity? Examining handedness effects on parity judgments.

    PubMed

    Huber, Stefan; Klein, Elise; Graf, Martina; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Moeller, Korbinian; Willmes, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    Parity is important semantic information encoded by numbers. Interestingly, there are hand-based effects in parity judgment tasks: right-hand responses are faster for even and left-hand responses for odd numbers. As this effect was initially explained by the markedness of the words even vs. odd and right vs. left, it was denoted as the linguistic markedness of response codes (MARC) effect. In the present study, we investigated whether the MARC effect differs for right and left handers. We conducted a parity judgment task, in which right- and left-handed participants had to decide whether a presented single or two-digit number was odd or even by pressing a corresponding response key. We found that handedness modulated the MARC effect for unit digits. While we replicated a regular MARC effect for right handers, there was no evidence for a MARC effect for left handers. However, closer inspection revealed that the MARC effect in left handers depended on the degree of left-handedness with a reversed MARC effect for most left-handed participants. Furthermore, although parity of tens digits interfered with the processing of unit digits, the MARC effect for tens digits was not modulated by handedness. Our findings are discussed in the light of three different accounts for the MARC effect: the linguistic markedness account, the polarity correspondence principle, and the body-specificity hypothesis.

  5. Computerized accounting for the dental office. Using horizontal applications general ledger software.

    PubMed

    Garsson, B

    1988-01-01

    Remember that computer software is designed for accrual accounting, whereas your business operates and reports income on a cash basis. The rules of tax law stipulate that professional practices may use the cash method of accounting, but if accrual accounting is ever used to report taxable income the government may not permit a switch back to cash accounting. Therefore, always consider the computer as a bookkeeper, not a substitute for a qualified accountant. (Your accountant will have readily accessible payroll and general ledger data available for analysis and tax reports, thanks to the magic of computer processing.) Accounts Payable reports are interfaced with the general ledger and are of interest for transaction detail, open invoice and cash flow analysis, and for a record of payments by vendor. Payroll reports, including check register and withholding detail are provided and interfaced with the general ledger. The use of accounting software expands the use of in-office computers to areas beyond professional billing and insurance form generation. It simplifies payroll recordkeeping; maintains payables details; integrates payables, receivables, and payroll with general ledger files; provides instantaneous information on all aspects of the business office; and creates a continuous "audit-trail" following the entering of data. The availability of packaged accounting software allows the professional business office an array of choices. The person(s) responsible for bookkeeping and accounting should choose carefully, ensuring that any system is easy to use, has been thoroughly tested, and provides at least as much control over office records as has been outlined in this article.

  6. Judgment sampling: a health care improvement perspective.

    PubMed

    Perla, Rocco J; Provost, Lloyd P

    2012-01-01

    Sampling plays a major role in quality improvement work. Random sampling (assumed by most traditional statistical methods) is the exception in improvement situations. In most cases, some type of "judgment sample" is used to collect data from a system. Unfortunately, judgment sampling is not well understood. Judgment sampling relies upon those with process and subject matter knowledge to select useful samples for learning about process performance and the impact of changes over time. It many cases, where the goal is to learn about or improve a specific process or system, judgment samples are not merely the most convenient and economical approach, they are technically and conceptually the most appropriate approach. This is because improvement work is done in the real world in complex situations involving specific areas of concern and focus; in these situations, the assumptions of classical measurement theory neither can be met nor should an attempt be made to meet them. The purpose of this article is to describe judgment sampling and its importance in quality improvement work and studies with a focus on health care settings.

  7. Metacognition in psychophysical judgment: an unfolding view of comparative judgments of mental workload.

    PubMed

    Petrusic, W M; Cloutier, P

    1992-05-01

    An experiment is reported in which it was found that when subjects were required to indicate which of two visual extents was more difficult to categorize as "long" or "short," they executed these categorizations and then measured the distance of the representation of each stimulus from the long-short category boundary; the stimulus nearer the boundary was judged to be the more difficult. When they were requested to indicate which was easier to categorize, they selected the alternative that was farther. Coombs's theory of data (1952, 1964) and his unfolding theory of preferential choice (1950, 1964) provided the conceptualization of metacognition in this psychophysical task context. Strong support for the probabilistic version of unfolding theory was obtained from the observed selective effects of laterality on the levels of stochastic transitivity attained for various classes of triples and the reliably longer times for comparisons with bilateral pairs than with unilateral pairs. The semantic congruity effects obtained, together with the changes in the form of the relationship between probability and response time as a function of practice, can be best accounted for by an evidence accrual theory in which the distances from the active reference point are measured and compared with a criterion on each evidence accrual. No support is provided for the view that propositionally based semantic "ease"-"difficulty" codes serve as the basis for these metacognitive comparative judgments of ease and difficulty.

  8. High levels of psychopathic traits alters moral choice but not moral judgment

    PubMed Central

    Tassy, Sébastien; Deruelle, Christine; Mancini, Julien; Leistedt, Samuel; Wicker, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder frequently associated with immoral behaviors. Previous behavioral studies on the influence of psychopathy on moral decision have yielded contradictory results, possibly because they focused either on judgment (abstract evaluation) or on choice of hypothetical action, two processes that may rely on different mechanisms. In this study, we explored the influence of the level of psychopathic traits on judgment and choice of hypothetical action during moral dilemma evaluation. A population of 102 students completed a questionnaire with ten moral dilemmas and nine non-moral dilemmas. The task included questions targeting both judgment (“Is it acceptable to … in order to …?”) and choice of hypothetical action (“Would you … in order to …?”). The level of psychopathic traits of each participant was evaluated with the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy (LSRP) scale. Logistic regression fitted with the generalized estimating equations method analyses were conducted using responses to the judgment and choice tasks as the dependent variables and psychopathy scores as predictor. Results show that a high level of psychopathic traits, and more specifically those related to affective deficit, predicted a greater proportion of utilitarian responses for the choice but not for the judgment question. There was no first-order interaction between the level of psychopathic traits and other potential predictors. The relation between a high level of psychopathic traits and increased utilitarianism in choice of action but not in moral judgment may explain the contradictory results of previous studies where these two processes were not contrasted. It also gives further support to the hypothesis that choice of action endorsement and abstract judgment during moral dilemma evaluation are partially distinct neural and psychological processes. We propose that this distinction should be better taken into account in the evaluation of psychopathic

  9. Initial judgment task and delay of the final validity-rating task moderate the truth effect.

    PubMed

    Nadarevic, Lena; Erdfelder, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Repeatedly seen or heard statements are typically judged to be more valid than statements one has never encountered before. This phenomenon has been referred to as the truth effect. We conducted two experiments to assess the plasticity of the truth effect under different contextual conditions. Surprisingly, we did not find a truth effect in the typical judgment design when using a ten minutes interval between statement repetitions. However, we replicated the truth effect when changing the judgment task at initial statement exposure or when using an interval of one week rather than ten minutes. Because none of the current truth effect theories can fully account for these context effects, we conclude that the cognitive processes underlying truth judgments are more complex than has hitherto been assumed. To close the theoretical gap, we propose a revised fluency attribution hypothesis as a possible explanation of our findings.

  10. Neural correlates of judgments of learning - An ERP study on metacognition.

    PubMed

    Müller, Barbara C N; Tsalas, Nike R H; van Schie, Hein T; Meinhardt, Jörg; Proust, Joëlle; Sodian, Beate; Paulus, Markus

    2016-12-01

    Metacognitive assessment of performance has been revealed to be one of the most powerful predictors of human learning success and academic achievement. Yet, little is known about the functional nature of cognitive processes supporting judgments of learning (JOLs). The present study investigated the neural underpinnings of JOLs, using event-related brain potentials. Participants were presented with picture pairs and instructed to learn these pairs. After each pair, participants received a task cue, which instructed them to make a JOL (the likelihood of remembering the target when only presented with the cue) or to make a control judgment. Results revealed that JOLs were accompanied by a positive slow wave over medial frontal areas and a bilateral negative slow wave over occipital areas between 350ms and 700ms following the task cue. The results are discussed with respect to recent accounts on the neural correlates of judgments of learning.

  11. Causal networks or causal islands? The representation of mechanisms and the transitivity of causal judgment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Samuel G. B.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of mechanisms is critical for causal reasoning. We contrasted two possible organizations of causal knowledge—an interconnected causal network, where events are causally connected without any boundaries delineating discrete mechanisms; or a set of disparate mechanisms—causal islands—such that events in different mechanisms are not thought to be related even when they belong to the same causal chain. To distinguish these possibilities, we used causal transitivity—the inference given A causes B and B causes C that A causes C. Specifically, causal chains schematized as one chunk or mechanism in semantic memory (e.g., exercising, becoming thirsty, drinking water) led to transitive causal judgments. On the other hand, chains schematized as multiple chunks (e.g., having sex, becoming pregnant, becoming nauseous) led to intransitive judgments despite strong intermediate links (Experiments 1–3). Normative accounts of causal intransitivity could not explain these intransitive judgments (Experiments 4–5). PMID:25556901

  12. The tacit dimension of clinical judgment.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, G. M.

    1990-01-01

    Two distinct views of the nature of clinical judgment are identified and contrasted. The dominant view that clinical judgment is a fully explicit process is compared to the relatively neglected view that tacit knowledge plays a substantial role in the clinician's mental operations. The tacit dimension of medical thinking is explored at length. The discussion suggests severe limits when applying decision analysis, expert systems, and computer-aided cost-benefit review to medicine. The goals and practices of postgraduate medical education are also examined from this perspective, as are various other implications for the clinician. The paper concludes that it is valuable to explore the nature of medical thinking in order to improve clinical practice and education. Such explorations should, however, take cognizance of the often overlooked tacit dimension of clinical judgment. Possible constraints on the medical applicability of both formal expert systems and heavily didactic instructional programs are considered. PMID:2356625

  13. Personality judgments based on physical appearance.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Laura P; Vazire, Simine; Rentfrow, Peter J; Gosling, Samuel D

    2009-12-01

    Despite the crucial role of physical appearance in forming first impressions, little research has examined the accuracy of personality impressions based on appearance alone. This study examined the accuracy of observers' impressions on 10 personality traits based on full-body photographs using criterion measures based on self and peer reports. When targets' posture and expression were constrained (standardized condition), observers' judgments were accurate for extraversion, self-esteem, and religiosity. When targets were photographed with a spontaneous pose and facial expression (spontaneous condition), observers' judgments were accurate for almost all of the traits examined. Lens model analyses demonstrated that both static cues (e.g., clothing style) and dynamic cues (e.g., facial expression, posture) offered valuable personality-relevant information. These results suggest that personality is manifested through both static and expressive channels of appearance, and observers use this information to form accurate judgments for a variety of traits.

  14. Principled moral sentiment and the flexibility of moral judgment and decision making.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Daniel M

    2008-08-01

    Three studies test eight hypotheses about (1) how judgment differs between people who ascribe greater vs. less moral relevance to choices, (2) how moral judgment is subject to task constraints that shift evaluative focus (to moral rules vs. to consequences), and (3) how differences in the propensity to rely on intuitive reactions affect judgment. In Study 1, judgments were affected by rated agreement with moral rules proscribing harm, whether the dilemma under consideration made moral rules versus consequences of choice salient, and by thinking styles (intuitive vs. deliberative). In Studies 2 and 3, participants evaluated policy decisions to knowingly do harm to a resource to mitigate greater harm or to merely allow the greater harm to happen. When evaluated in isolation, approval for decisions to harm was affected by endorsement of moral rules and by thinking style. When both choices were evaluated simultaneously, total harm -- but not the do/allow distinction -- influenced rated approval. These studies suggest that moral rules play an important, but context-sensitive role in moral cognition, and offer an account of when emotional reactions to perceived moral violations receive less weight than consideration of costs and benefits in moral judgment and decision making.

  15. Randomly Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.; Geppert, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    The accountability debate tends to devolve into a battle between the pro-testing and anti-testing crowds. When it comes to the design of a school accountability system, the devil is truly in the details. A well-designed accountability plan may go a long way toward giving school personnel the kinds of signals they need to improve performance.…

  16. Reflection and Reasoning in Moral Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Joseph M.; Ungar, Leo; Greene, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    While there is much evidence for the influence of automatic emotional responses on moral judgment, the roles of reflection and reasoning remain uncertain. In Experiment 1, we induced subjects to be more reflective by completing the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) prior to responding to moral dilemmas. This manipulation increased utilitarian…

  17. The Moral Judgments of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruen, Gerald E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Preschoolers' responses to Piagetian moral judgment stories indicate that they respond differentially to good and bad intent (punishing the bad intentions but not responding to good or neutral intentions), but that only older children respond reliably and differentially to consequences. (RL)

  18. Fatigue, Sleep Loss, and Confidence in Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranski, Joseph V.

    2007-01-01

    Sixty-four adults participated in a study examining the accuracy of metacognitive judgments during 28 hr of sleep deprivation (SD) and continuous cognitive work. Three tasks were studied (perceptual comparison, general knowledge, and mental addition), collectively spanning a range of cognitive abilities and levels of susceptibility to SD.…

  19. Probability judgments under ambiguity and conflict.

    PubMed

    Smithson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Whether conflict and ambiguity are distinct kinds of uncertainty remains an open question, as does their joint impact on judgments of overall uncertainty. This paper reviews recent advances in our understanding of human judgment and decision making when both ambiguity and conflict are present, and presents two types of testable models of judgments under conflict and ambiguity. The first type concerns estimate-pooling to arrive at "best" probability estimates. The second type is models of subjective assessments of conflict and ambiguity. These models are developed for dealing with both described and experienced information. A framework for testing these models in the described-information setting is presented, including a reanalysis of a multi-nation data-set to test best-estimate models, and a study of participants' assessments of conflict, ambiguity, and overall uncertainty reported by Smithson (2013). A framework for research in the experienced-information setting is then developed, that differs substantially from extant paradigms in the literature. This framework yields new models of "best" estimates and perceived conflict. The paper concludes with specific suggestions for future research on judgment and decision making under conflict and ambiguity.

  20. Assessment Measures: The Reflective Judgment Interview (RJI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews King and Kitchener's "Reflective Judgment Interview" ("RJI"). On the "RJI" website Patricia King notes that a widely espoused outcome of college is the ability to draw reasonable conclusions about complex issues based on incomplete and/or conflicting information. Drawing on the…

  1. Probability judgments under ambiguity and conflict

    PubMed Central

    Smithson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Whether conflict and ambiguity are distinct kinds of uncertainty remains an open question, as does their joint impact on judgments of overall uncertainty. This paper reviews recent advances in our understanding of human judgment and decision making when both ambiguity and conflict are present, and presents two types of testable models of judgments under conflict and ambiguity. The first type concerns estimate-pooling to arrive at “best” probability estimates. The second type is models of subjective assessments of conflict and ambiguity. These models are developed for dealing with both described and experienced information. A framework for testing these models in the described-information setting is presented, including a reanalysis of a multi-nation data-set to test best-estimate models, and a study of participants' assessments of conflict, ambiguity, and overall uncertainty reported by Smithson (2013). A framework for research in the experienced-information setting is then developed, that differs substantially from extant paradigms in the literature. This framework yields new models of “best” estimates and perceived conflict. The paper concludes with specific suggestions for future research on judgment and decision making under conflict and ambiguity. PMID:26042081

  2. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Sherrill, Andrew M.; Eerland, Anita; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Magliano, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder), the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder) and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect), which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality). In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments. PMID:26496364

  3. Moral Appraisals Affect Doing/Allowing Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Fiery; Knobe, Joshua; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2008-01-01

    An extensive body of research suggests that the distinction between doing and allowing plays a critical role in shaping moral appraisals. Here, we report evidence from a pair of experiments suggesting that the converse is also true: moral appraisals affect doing/allowing judgments. Specifically, morally bad behavior is more likely to be construed…

  4. Biases in Children's and Adults' Moral Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Nina L.; Derbyshire, Stuart W. G.; Guttentag, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined biases in children's (5/6- and 7/8-year-olds) and adults' moral judgments. Participants at all ages judged that it was worse to produce harm when harm occurred (a) through action rather than inaction (omission bias), (b) when physical contact with the victim was involved (physical contact principle), and (c) when the harm…

  5. Apprentices' Learning of Occupationally Informed Practical Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Selena

    2015-01-01

    Learning to become trade workers requires developing the ability to make practical workplace-based judgments, often centred around difficult to articulate trade "know-how" or tacit knowledge. Apprentices learn discipline specific ways of doing, thinking, feeling and being from experts, peers and through interactions with occupational…

  6. The Attribution Cube and Judgments of Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Thomas E.

    Kelley's cube model of attributions (1967) can be applied to moral judgments to predict how individuals arrive at attributions concerning dispositional or environmental causes. The relative contributions of the three dimensions of Kelley's cube to attributions of morality and trustworthiness were tested by presenting 37 male and 77 female subjects…

  7. Conflict and Bias in Heuristic Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Sudeep

    2017-01-01

    Conflict has been hypothesized to play a key role in recruiting deliberative processing in reasoning and judgment tasks. This claim suggests that changing the task so as to add incorrect heuristic responses that conflict with existing heuristic responses can make individuals less likely to respond heuristically and can increase response accuracy.…

  8. Grading: Why You Should Trust Your Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2016-01-01

    Many educators consider grades calculated from statistical algorithms more accurate, objective, and reliable than grades they calculate themselves. But in this research, the authors first asked teachers to use their professional judgment to choose a summary grade for hypothetical students. When the researchers compared the teachers' grade with the…

  9. Judgment and Decision Making in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Dustin; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we review the most important findings to have emerged during the past 10 years in the study of judgment and decision making (JDM) in adolescence and look ahead to possible new directions in this burgeoning area of research. Three inter-related shifts in research emphasis are of particular importance and serve to organize this…

  10. Does professional autonomy protect medical futility judgments?

    PubMed

    Gampel, Eric

    2006-04-01

    Despite substantial controversy, the use of futility judgments in medicine is quite common, and has been backed by the implementation of hospital policies and professional guidelines on medical futility. The controversy arises when health care professionals (HCPs) consider a treatment futile which patients or families believe to be worthwhile: should HCPs be free to refuse treatments in such a case, or be required to provide them? Most physicians seem convinced that professional autonomy protects them from being forced to provide treatments they judge mentally futile, given the lack of patient benefit as well as the waste of medical resources involved. The argument from professional autonomy has been presented in a number of articles, but it has not been subjected to much critical scrutiny. In this paper I distinguish three versions of the argument: 1) that each physician should be free to exercise his or her own medical judgment; 2) that the medical profession as a whole may provide futility standards to govern the practice of its members; and 3) that the moral integrity of each physician serves as a limit to treatment demands. I maintain that none of these versions succeeds in overcoming the standard objection that futility determinations involve value judgments best left to the patients, their designated surrogates, or their families. Nor do resource considerations change this fact, since they should not influence the properly patient-centered judgment about futility.

  11. Origins and Outcomes of Judgments about Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the importance of judgments about work for the attainment process in the "new economy." Findings show continuing links between social origins and work orientations at age 21/22, as well as significant effects of work orientations on occupational outcomes at age 31/32. Higher socio-economic status background, and stronger…

  12. Norm Acquisition, Rational Judgment and Moral Particularism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Moral particularism, defined as the view that moral judgment does not require moral principles, has become prominent both in moral philosophy and in philosophy of education. This article re-examines Nussbaum's case for particularism, based on Sophocles' "Antigone", because her stress on sensitive appreciation of circumstantial specifics is…

  13. On the Merits of Clinical Judgment: Comment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garb, Howard N.; Grove, William M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on the article by D. Westen and J. Weinberger , which criticized academic clinical psychologists for being cynical about clinical judgment and clinical practice. In the authors' view, it seems unlikely that more than a few academic clinical psychologists believe that they have little to learn from clinical practice or…

  14. Personality judgments from everyday images of faces

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Clare A. M.; Rowley, Lauren E.; Amoaku, Unity T.; Daguzan, Ella; Kidd-Rossiter, Kate A.; Maceviciute, Ugne; Young, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers' faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1000 highly varying “ambient image” face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance, and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big Five judgments were found to separate to some extent: judgments of openness, extraversion, emotional stability, and agreeableness were mainly linked to facial first impressions of approachability, whereas conscientiousness judgments involved a combination of approachability and dominance. In a second study we used average face images to investigate which main cues are used by perceivers to make impressions of the Big Five, by extracting consistent cues to impressions from the large variation in the original images. When forming impressions of strangers from highly varying, naturalistic face photographs, perceivers mainly seem to rely on broad facial cues to approachability, such as smiling. PMID:26579008

  15. Personality judgments from everyday images of faces.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Clare A M; Rowley, Lauren E; Amoaku, Unity T; Daguzan, Ella; Kidd-Rossiter, Kate A; Maceviciute, Ugne; Young, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers' faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1000 highly varying "ambient image" face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance, and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big Five judgments were found to separate to some extent: judgments of openness, extraversion, emotional stability, and agreeableness were mainly linked to facial first impressions of approachability, whereas conscientiousness judgments involved a combination of approachability and dominance. In a second study we used average face images to investigate which main cues are used by perceivers to make impressions of the Big Five, by extracting consistent cues to impressions from the large variation in the original images. When forming impressions of strangers from highly varying, naturalistic face photographs, perceivers mainly seem to rely on broad facial cues to approachability, such as smiling.

  16. Constraints on Children's Judgments of Magical Causality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolley, Jacqueline D.; Browne, Cheryl A.; Boerger, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    In 3 studies we addressed the operation of constraints on children's causal judgments. Our primary focus was whether children's beliefs about magical causality, specifically wishing, are constrained by features that govern the attribution of ordinary causality. In Experiment 1, children witnessed situations in which a confederate's wish appeared…

  17. A Multi-factor Rasch Scale for Artistic Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezruczko, Nikolaus

    2002-01-01

    Developed a multifactor Rasch scale for a visual designs test of artistic judgment and tested the instrument with 462 adult examinees at an aptitude assessment service. The sound measurement properties identified suggest promise for a comprehensive artistic judgment construct. (SLD)

  18. Ethical Judgments of College Students: An Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotts, Tami L.; Lopez, Tara Burnthorne; Mesak, Hani I.

    2000-01-01

    Measures of ethical judgment and religiosity were completed by 242 business students aged 18-54. Gender, academic major, and religious commitment significantly influenced ethical judgments. Age and religious affiliation produced insignificant results. (SK)

  19. Children's Facial Trustworthiness Judgments: Agreement and Relationship with Facial Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming

    2016-01-01

    This study examined developmental changes in children's abilities to make trustworthiness judgments based on faces and the relationship between a child's perception of trustworthiness and facial attractiveness. One hundred and one 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds, along with 37 undergraduates, were asked to judge the trustworthiness of 200 faces. Next, they issued facial attractiveness judgments. The results indicated that children made consistent trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments based on facial appearance, but with-adult and within-age agreement levels of facial judgments increased with age. Additionally, the agreement levels of judgments made by girls were higher than those by boys. Furthermore, the relationship between trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments increased with age, and the relationship between two judgments made by girls was closer than those by boys. These findings suggest that face-based trait judgment ability develops throughout childhood and that, like adults, children may use facial attractiveness as a heuristic cue that signals a stranger's trustworthiness. PMID:27148111

  20. Moral Judgment Maturity of Process and Reactive Schizophrenics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herron, William G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Premorbid adjustment, paranoid symptomatology, and orientation were examined as major predictors of moral judgment maturity in 40 schizophrenics. Results suggest the importance of cognitive and social skills in the development of schizophrenics' moral judgment maturity. (Author/RH)

  1. Children's Facial Trustworthiness Judgments: Agreement and Relationship with Facial Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming

    2016-01-01

    This study examined developmental changes in children's abilities to make trustworthiness judgments based on faces and the relationship between a child's perception of trustworthiness and facial attractiveness. One hundred and one 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds, along with 37 undergraduates, were asked to judge the trustworthiness of 200 faces. Next, they issued facial attractiveness judgments. The results indicated that children made consistent trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments based on facial appearance, but with-adult and within-age agreement levels of facial judgments increased with age. Additionally, the agreement levels of judgments made by girls were higher than those by boys. Furthermore, the relationship between trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments increased with age, and the relationship between two judgments made by girls was closer than those by boys. These findings suggest that face-based trait judgment ability develops throughout childhood and that, like adults, children may use facial attractiveness as a heuristic cue that signals a stranger's trustworthiness.

  2. Does Incidental Disgust Amplify Moral Judgment? A Meta-Analytic Review of Experimental Evidence.

    PubMed

    Landy, Justin F; Goodwin, Geoffrey P

    2015-07-01

    The role of emotion in moral judgment is currently a topic of much debate in moral psychology. One specific claim made by many researchers is that irrelevant feelings of disgust can amplify the severity of moral condemnation. Numerous researchers have found this effect, but there have also been several published failures to replicate it. Clarifying this issue would inform important theoretical debates among rival accounts of moral judgment. We meta-analyzed all available studies--published and unpublished--in which incidental disgust was manipulated prior to or concurrent with a moral judgment task (k = 50). We found evidence for a small amplification effect of disgust (d = 0.11), which is strongest for gustatory/olfactory modes of disgust induction. However, there is also some suggestion of publication bias in this literature, and when this is accounted for, the effect disappears entirely (d = -0.01). Moreover, prevalent confounds mean that the effect size that we estimate is best interpreted as an upper bound on the size of the amplification effect. On the basis of the results of this meta-analysis, we argue against strong claims about the causal role of affect in moral judgment and suggest a need for new, more rigorous research on this topic.

  3. Adaptive Anchoring Model: How Static and Dynamic Presentations of Time Series Influence Judgments and Predictions.

    PubMed

    Kusev, Petko; van Schaik, Paul; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Juliusson, Asgeir; Chater, Nick

    2017-04-06

    When attempting to predict future events, people commonly rely on historical data. One psychological characteristic of judgmental forecasting of time series, established by research, is that when people make forecasts from series, they tend to underestimate future values for upward trends and overestimate them for downward ones, so-called trend-damping (modeled by anchoring on, and insufficient adjustment from, the average of recent time series values). Events in a time series can be experienced sequentially (dynamic mode), or they can also be retrospectively viewed simultaneously (static mode), not experienced individually in real time. In one experiment, we studied the influence of presentation mode (dynamic and static) on two sorts of judgment: (a) predictions of the next event (forecast) and (b) estimation of the average value of all the events in the presented series (average estimation). Participants' responses in dynamic mode were anchored on more recent events than in static mode for all types of judgment but with different consequences; hence, dynamic presentation improved prediction accuracy, but not estimation. These results are not anticipated by existing theoretical accounts; we develop and present an agent-based model-the adaptive anchoring model (ADAM)-to account for the difference between processing sequences of dynamically and statically presented stimuli (visually presented data). ADAM captures how variation in presentation mode produces variation in responses (and the accuracy of these responses) in both forecasting and judgment tasks. ADAM's model predictions for the forecasting and judgment tasks fit better with the response data than a linear-regression time series model. Moreover, ADAM outperformed autoregressive-integrated-moving-average (ARIMA) and exponential-smoothing models, while neither of these models accounts for people's responses on the average estimation task.

  4. Using critical evaluation to reappraise plausibility judgments: A critical cognitive component of conceptual change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, D.

    2011-12-01

    Plausibility judgments-although well represented in conceptual change theories (see, for example, Chi, 2005; diSessa, 1993; Dole & Sinatra, 1998; Posner et al., 1982)-have received little empirical attention until our recent work investigating teachers' and students' understanding of and perceptions about human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010, 2011). In our first study with undergraduate students, we found that greater plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate accounted for significantly greater understanding of weather and climate distinctions after instruction, even after accounting for students' prior knowledge (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010). In a follow-up study with inservice science and preservice elementary teachers, we showed that anger about the topic of climate change and teaching about climate change was significantly related to implausible perceptions about human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2011). Results from our recent studies helped to inform our development of a model of the role of plausibility judgments in conceptual change situations. The model applies to situations involving cognitive dissonance, where background knowledge conflicts with an incoming message. In such situations, we define plausibility as a judgment on the relative potential truthfulness of incoming information compared to one's existing mental representations (Rescher, 1976). Students may not consciously think when making plausibility judgments, expending only minimal mental effort in what is referred to as an automatic cognitive process (Stanovich, 2009). However, well-designed instruction could facilitate students' reappraisal of plausibility judgments in more effortful and conscious cognitive processing. Critical evaluation specifically may be one effective method to promote plausibility reappraisal in a classroom setting (Lombardi & Sinatra, in progress). In science education, critical evaluation involves the analysis of how evidentiary

  5. 25 CFR 87.11 - Investment of judgment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Investment of judgment funds. 87.11 Section 87.11 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.11 Investment of judgment funds. As soon as possible after the appropriation of... distribution of the funds, the Commissioner shall invest such funds pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 162a. Investments...

  6. 25 CFR 87.11 - Investment of judgment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment of judgment funds. 87.11 Section 87.11 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.11 Investment of judgment funds. As soon as possible after the appropriation of... distribution of the funds, the Commissioner shall invest such funds pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 162a. Investments...

  7. 14 CFR 1261.508 - Offset against a judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offset against a judgment. 1261.508 Section... CLAIMS (GENERAL) Administrative Offset of Claims § 1261.508 Offset against a judgment. Collection by offset against a judgment obtained by a debtor against the United States shall be accomplished...

  8. 41 CFR 105-68.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil judgment. 105-68... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...

  9. The Effect of Client and Counselor Values on Clinical Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, John; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Surveyed clinical psychologists (n=363) to examine influence of patient and clinician ideology on clinical judgment. Found patients who held extreme ideology were rated more negatively on four clinical judgment dimensions. Suggests patient ideology, therapist ideology, and their interaction influence clinical judgment and that clinicians need to…

  10. 25 CFR 11.501 - Judgments in civil actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Judgments in civil actions. 11.501 Section 11.501 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Civil Actions § 11.501 Judgments in civil actions. (a) In all civil cases, judgment...

  11. 25 CFR 11.501 - Judgments in civil actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Judgments in civil actions. 11.501 Section 11.501 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Civil Actions § 11.501 Judgments in civil actions. (a) In all civil cases, judgment...

  12. 25 CFR 11.501 - Judgments in civil actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Judgments in civil actions. 11.501 Section 11.501 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Civil Actions § 11.501 Judgments in civil actions. (a) In all civil cases, judgment...

  13. 25 CFR 11.501 - Judgments in civil actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Judgments in civil actions. 11.501 Section 11.501 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Civil Actions § 11.501 Judgments in civil actions. (a) In all civil cases, judgment...

  14. Preschoolers Can Make Highly Accurate Judgments of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipowski, Stacy L.; Merriman, William E.; Dunlosky, John

    2013-01-01

    Preschoolers' ability to make judgments of learning (JOLs) was examined in 3 experiments in which they were taught proper names for animals. In Experiment 1, when judgments were made immediately after studying, nearly every child predicted subsequent recall of every name. When judgments were made after a delay, fewer showed this response tendency.…

  15. 25 CFR 11.501 - Judgments in civil actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Judgments in civil actions. 11.501 Section 11.501 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Civil Actions § 11.501 Judgments in civil actions. (a) In all civil cases, judgment...

  16. 41 CFR 105-68.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 105-68... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...

  17. Now you see it, now you don't: on emotion, context, and the algorithmic prediction of human imageability judgments

    PubMed Central

    Westbury, Chris F.; Shaoul, Cyrus; Hollis, Geoff; Smithson, Lisa; Briesemeister, Benny B.; Hofmann, Markus J.; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that behavioral measures are affected by manipulating the imageability of words. Though imageability is usually measured by human judgment, little is known about what factors underlie those judgments. We demonstrate that imageability judgments can be largely or entirely accounted for by two computable measures that have previously been associated with imageability, the size and density of a word's context and the emotional associations of the word. We outline an algorithmic method for predicting imageability judgments using co-occurrence distances in a large corpus. Our computed judgments account for 58% of the variance in a set of nearly two thousand imageability judgments, for words that span the entire range of imageability. The two factors account for 43% of the variance in lexical decision reaction times (LDRTs) that is attributable to imageability in a large database of 3697 LDRTs spanning the range of imageability. We document variances in the distribution of our measures across the range of imageability that suggest that they will account for more variance at the extremes, from which most imageability-manipulating stimulus sets are drawn. The two predictors account for 100% of the variance that is attributable to imageability in newly-collected LDRTs using a previously-published stimulus set of 100 items. We argue that our model of imageability is neurobiologically plausible by showing it is consistent with brain imaging data. The evidence we present suggests that behavioral effects in the lexical decision task that are usually attributed to the abstract/concrete distinction between words can be wholly explained by objective characteristics of the word that are not directly related to the semantic distinction. We provide computed imageability estimates for over 29,000 words. PMID:24421777

  18. Now you see it, now you don't: on emotion, context, and the algorithmic prediction of human imageability judgments.

    PubMed

    Westbury, Chris F; Shaoul, Cyrus; Hollis, Geoff; Smithson, Lisa; Briesemeister, Benny B; Hofmann, Markus J; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that behavioral measures are affected by manipulating the imageability of words. Though imageability is usually measured by human judgment, little is known about what factors underlie those judgments. We demonstrate that imageability judgments can be largely or entirely accounted for by two computable measures that have previously been associated with imageability, the size and density of a word's context and the emotional associations of the word. We outline an algorithmic method for predicting imageability judgments using co-occurrence distances in a large corpus. Our computed judgments account for 58% of the variance in a set of nearly two thousand imageability judgments, for words that span the entire range of imageability. The two factors account for 43% of the variance in lexical decision reaction times (LDRTs) that is attributable to imageability in a large database of 3697 LDRTs spanning the range of imageability. We document variances in the distribution of our measures across the range of imageability that suggest that they will account for more variance at the extremes, from which most imageability-manipulating stimulus sets are drawn. The two predictors account for 100% of the variance that is attributable to imageability in newly-collected LDRTs using a previously-published stimulus set of 100 items. We argue that our model of imageability is neurobiologically plausible by showing it is consistent with brain imaging data. The evidence we present suggests that behavioral effects in the lexical decision task that are usually attributed to the abstract/concrete distinction between words can be wholly explained by objective characteristics of the word that are not directly related to the semantic distinction. We provide computed imageability estimates for over 29,000 words.

  19. A Review of Expertise and Judgment Processes for Risk Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    A major challenge of risk and reliability analysis for human errors or hardware failures is the need to enlist expert opinion in areas for which adequate operational data are not available. Experts enlisted in this capacity provide probabilistic estimates of reliability, typically comprised of a measure of central tendency and uncertainty bounds. While formal guidelines for expert elicitation are readily available, they largely fail to provide a theoretical basis for expertise and judgment. This paper reviews expertise and judgment in the context of risk analysis; overviews judgment biases, the role of training, and multivariate judgments; and provides guidance on the appropriate use of atomistic and holistic judgment processes.

  20. Judgments of culpability in a filicide scenario.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Miller-Stratton, Heather; Heinrich, Emily; Fritz, Stacey; Smith, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that potential jurors are likely to use personal biases, such as those based on gender and ethnicity, in their judgments of culpability of criminal defendants in addition to, or instead of, the facts of the crime. The present paper seeks to extend this literature to the crime of filicide; to examine whether male defendants are judged more harshly than female defendants, as is the case for domestic violence and sexual abuse. 214 participants were provided with a scenario of filicide in which the gender of the perpetrator, the gender of the child, and the family's social class were randomly assigned. Participants were asked to rate the culpability of the defendant in the case. Results indicated that, unlike for other violent crimes, participants did not use gender or social class biases in their judgments of criminal culpability.

  1. Origins and Outcomes of Judgments about Work

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate the importance of judgments about work for the attainment process in the “new economy.” Findings show continuing links between social origins and work orientations at age 21/22, as well as significant impacts of work orientations on occupational outcomes at age 31/32. Higher socioeconomic status background, and stronger self-perceived ability, are tied to weaker extrinsic orientations. Young women are more intrinsically oriented than young men. Stronger intrinsic orientations predict holding jobs that offer more intrinsic rewards, self-direction, and security. Stronger extrinsic orientations predict higher biweekly earnings (largely via work hours), but not more prestigious, better paying, or more secure jobs. Judgments about work, and especially intrinsic orientations, thus remain important precursors of occupational attainments, despite economic turbulence and change in the transition to adulthood. PMID:21765555

  2. Judgment and decision making: Behavioral approaches

    PubMed Central

    Fantino, Edmund

    1998-01-01

    The area of judgment and decision making has given rise to the study of many interesting phenomena, including reasoning fallacies, which are also of interest to behavior analysts. Indeed, techniques and principles of behavior analysis may be applied to study these fallacies. This article reviews research from a behavioral perspective that suggests that humans are not the information-seekers we sometimes suppose ourselves to be. Nor do we utilize information effectively when it is presented. This is shown from the results of research utilizing matching to sample and other behavioral tools (monetary reward, feedback, instructional control) to study phenomena such as the conjunction fallacy, base-rate neglect, and probability matching. Research from a behavioral perspective can complement research from other perspectives in furthering our understanding of judgment and decision making. PMID:22478308

  3. Small-scale societies exhibit fundamental variation in the role of intentions in moral judgment

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, H. Clark; Bolyanatz, Alexander; Crittenden, Alyssa N.; Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Fitzpatrick, Simon; Gurven, Michael; Henrich, Joseph; Kanovsky, Martin; Kushnick, Geoff; Pisor, Anne; Scelza, Brooke A.; Stich, Stephen; von Rueden, Chris; Zhao, Wanying; Laurence, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Intent and mitigating circumstances play a central role in moral and legal assessments in large-scale industrialized societies. Although these features of moral assessment are widely assumed to be universal, to date, they have only been studied in a narrow range of societies. We show that there is substantial cross-cultural variation among eight traditional small-scale societies (ranging from hunter-gatherer to pastoralist to horticulturalist) and two Western societies (one urban, one rural) in the extent to which intent and mitigating circumstances influence moral judgments. Although participants in all societies took such factors into account to some degree, they did so to very different extents, varying in both the types of considerations taken into account and the types of violations to which such considerations were applied. The particular patterns of assessment characteristic of large-scale industrialized societies may thus reflect relatively recently culturally evolved norms rather than inherent features of human moral judgment. PMID:27035959

  4. Small-scale societies exhibit fundamental variation in the role of intentions in moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Barrett, H Clark; Bolyanatz, Alexander; Crittenden, Alyssa N; Fessler, Daniel M T; Fitzpatrick, Simon; Gurven, Michael; Henrich, Joseph; Kanovsky, Martin; Kushnick, Geoff; Pisor, Anne; Scelza, Brooke A; Stich, Stephen; von Rueden, Chris; Zhao, Wanying; Laurence, Stephen

    2016-04-26

    Intent and mitigating circumstances play a central role in moral and legal assessments in large-scale industrialized societies. Although these features of moral assessment are widely assumed to be universal, to date, they have only been studied in a narrow range of societies. We show that there is substantial cross-cultural variation among eight traditional small-scale societies (ranging from hunter-gatherer to pastoralist to horticulturalist) and two Western societies (one urban, one rural) in the extent to which intent and mitigating circumstances influence moral judgments. Although participants in all societies took such factors into account to some degree, they did so to very different extents, varying in both the types of considerations taken into account and the types of violations to which such considerations were applied. The particular patterns of assessment characteristic of large-scale industrialized societies may thus reflect relatively recently culturally evolved norms rather than inherent features of human moral judgment.

  5. Differentiating among pragmatic uses of words through timed sensicality judgments

    PubMed Central

    Bambini, Valentina; Ghio, Marta; Moro, Andrea; Schumacher, Petra B.

    2013-01-01

    Pragmatic and cognitive accounts of figurative language posit a difference between metaphor and metonymy in terms of underlying conceptual operations. Recently, other pragmatic uses of words have been accounted for in the Relevance Theory framework, such as approximation, described in terms of conceptual adjustment that varies in degree and direction with respect to the case of metaphor. Despite the theoretical distinctions, there is very poor experimental evidence addressing the metaphor/metonymy distinction, and none concerning approximation. Here we used meticulously built materials to investigate the interpretation mechanisms of these three phenomena through timed sensicality judgments. Results revealed that interpreting metaphors and approximations differs from literal interpretation both in accuracy and reaction times, with higher difficulty and costs for metaphors than for approximations. This suggests similar albeit gradual interpretative costs, in line with the latest account of Relevance Theory. Metonymy, on the contrary, almost equates literal comprehension and calls for a theoretical distinction from metaphor. Overall, this work represents a first attempt to provide an empirical basis for a theory-sound and psychologically-grounded taxonomy of figurative and loose uses of language. PMID:24391608

  6. Differentiating among pragmatic uses of words through timed sensicality judgments.

    PubMed

    Bambini, Valentina; Ghio, Marta; Moro, Andrea; Schumacher, Petra B

    2013-01-01

    Pragmatic and cognitive accounts of figurative language posit a difference between metaphor and metonymy in terms of underlying conceptual operations. Recently, other pragmatic uses of words have been accounted for in the Relevance Theory framework, such as approximation, described in terms of conceptual adjustment that varies in degree and direction with respect to the case of metaphor. Despite the theoretical distinctions, there is very poor experimental evidence addressing the metaphor/metonymy distinction, and none concerning approximation. Here we used meticulously built materials to investigate the interpretation mechanisms of these three phenomena through timed sensicality judgments. Results revealed that interpreting metaphors and approximations differs from literal interpretation both in accuracy and reaction times, with higher difficulty and costs for metaphors than for approximations. This suggests similar albeit gradual interpretative costs, in line with the latest account of Relevance Theory. Metonymy, on the contrary, almost equates literal comprehension and calls for a theoretical distinction from metaphor. Overall, this work represents a first attempt to provide an empirical basis for a theory-sound and psychologically-grounded taxonomy of figurative and loose uses of language.

  7. Pilot Judgment Training and Evaluation. Volume 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    and PJ chain concepts of the Judgment Training program to give positive reinforcement when the student has done well and to correct the student when...the desired behavior. Part IV: Reinforcement. Be prepared to give the student positive reinforcement . Remember, you are the student’s coach for...must use the principles of behavior modification to provide the highest quality feedback. Remember, punishment does not work - positive reinforcement does

  8. Modeling judgment of sequentially presented categories using weighting and sampling without replacement.

    PubMed

    Kusev, Petko; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; van Schaik, Paul; Chater, Nick

    2012-12-01

    In a series of experiments, Kusev et al. (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 37:1874-1886, 2011) studied relative-frequency judgments of items drawn from two distinct categories. The experiments showed that the judged frequencies of categories of sequentially encountered stimuli are affected by the properties of the experienced sequences. Specifically, a first-run effect was observed, whereby people overestimated the frequency of a given category when that category was the first repeated category to occur in the sequence. Here, we (1) interpret these findings as reflecting the operation of a judgment heuristic sensitive to sequential patterns, (2) present mathematical definitions of the sequences used in Kusev et al. (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 37:1874-1886, 2011), and (3) present a mathematical formalization of the first-run effect-the judgments-relative-to-patterns model-to account for the judged frequencies of sequentially encountered stimuli. The model parameter w accounts for the effect of the length of the first run on frequency estimates, given the total sequence length. We fitted data from Kusev et al. (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 37:1874-1886, 2011) to the model parameters, so that with increasing values of w, subsequent items in the first run have less influence on judgments. We see the role of the model as essential for advancing knowledge in the psychology of judgments, as well as in other disciplines, such as computer science, cognitive neuroscience, artificial intelligence, and human-computer interaction.

  9. Fandom Biases Retrospective Judgments Not Perception

    PubMed Central

    Huff, Markus; Papenmeier, Frank; Maurer, Annika E.; Meitz, Tino G. K.; Garsoffky, Bärbel; Schwan, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Attitudes and motivations have been shown to affect the processing of visual input, indicating that observers may see a given situation each literally in a different way. Yet, in real-life, processing information in an unbiased manner is considered to be of high adaptive value. Attitudinal and motivational effects were found for attention, characterization, categorization, and memory. On the other hand, for dynamic real-life events, visual processing has been found to be highly synchronous among viewers. Thus, while in a seminal study fandom as a particularly strong case of attitudes did bias judgments of a sports event, it left the question open whether attitudes do bias prior processing stages. Here, we investigated influences of fandom during the live TV broadcasting of the 2013 UEFA-Champions-League Final regarding attention, event segmentation, immediate and delayed cued recall, as well as affect, memory confidence, and retrospective judgments. Even though we replicated biased retrospective judgments, we found that eye-movements, event segmentation, and cued recall were largely similar across both groups of fans. Our findings demonstrate that, while highly involving sports events are interpreted in a fan dependent way, at initial stages they are processed in an unbiased manner. PMID:28233877

  10. Fandom Biases Retrospective Judgments Not Perception.

    PubMed

    Huff, Markus; Papenmeier, Frank; Maurer, Annika E; Meitz, Tino G K; Garsoffky, Bärbel; Schwan, Stephan

    2017-02-24

    Attitudes and motivations have been shown to affect the processing of visual input, indicating that observers may see a given situation each literally in a different way. Yet, in real-life, processing information in an unbiased manner is considered to be of high adaptive value. Attitudinal and motivational effects were found for attention, characterization, categorization, and memory. On the other hand, for dynamic real-life events, visual processing has been found to be highly synchronous among viewers. Thus, while in a seminal study fandom as a particularly strong case of attitudes did bias judgments of a sports event, it left the question open whether attitudes do bias prior processing stages. Here, we investigated influences of fandom during the live TV broadcasting of the 2013 UEFA-Champions-League Final regarding attention, event segmentation, immediate and delayed cued recall, as well as affect, memory confidence, and retrospective judgments. Even though we replicated biased retrospective judgments, we found that eye-movements, event segmentation, and cued recall were largely similar across both groups of fans. Our findings demonstrate that, while highly involving sports events are interpreted in a fan dependent way, at initial stages they are processed in an unbiased manner.

  11. Improving Adolescent Judgment and Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Dansereau, Donald F.; Knight, Danica K.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Human judgment and decision making (JDM) has substantial room for improvement, especially among adolescents. Increased technological and social complexity “ups the ante” for developing impactful JDM interventions and aids. Current explanatory advances in this field emphasize dual processing models that incorporate both experiential and analytic processing systems. According to these models, judgment and decisions based on the experiential system are rapid and stem from automatic reference to previously stored episodes. Those based on the analytic system are viewed as slower and consciously developed. These models also hypothesize that metacognitive (self-monitoring) activities embedded in the analytic system influence how and when the two systems are used. What is not included in these models is the development of an intersection between the two systems. Because such an intersection is strongly suggested by memory and educational research as the basis of wisdom/expertise, the present paper describes an Integrated Judgment and Decision-Making Model (IJDM) that incorporates this component. Wisdom/expertise is hypothesized to contain a collection of schematic structures that can emerge from the accumulation of similar episodes or repeated analytic practice. As will be argued, in comparisons to dual system models, the addition of this component provides a broader basis for selecting and designing interventions to improve adolescent JDM. Its development also has implications for generally enhancing cognitive interventions by adopting principles from athletic training to create automated, expert behaviors. PMID:24391350

  12. Improving Adolescent Judgment and Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Dansereau, Donald F; Knight, Danica K; Flynn, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Human judgment and decision making (JDM) has substantial room for improvement, especially among adolescents. Increased technological and social complexity "ups the ante" for developing impactful JDM interventions and aids. Current explanatory advances in this field emphasize dual processing models that incorporate both experiential and analytic processing systems. According to these models, judgment and decisions based on the experiential system are rapid and stem from automatic reference to previously stored episodes. Those based on the analytic system are viewed as slower and consciously developed. These models also hypothesize that metacognitive (self-monitoring) activities embedded in the analytic system influence how and when the two systems are used. What is not included in these models is the development of an intersection between the two systems. Because such an intersection is strongly suggested by memory and educational research as the basis of wisdom/expertise, the present paper describes an Integrated Judgment and Decision-Making Model (IJDM) that incorporates this component. Wisdom/expertise is hypothesized to contain a collection of schematic structures that can emerge from the accumulation of similar episodes or repeated analytic practice. As will be argued, in comparisons to dual system models, the addition of this component provides a broader basis for selecting and designing interventions to improve adolescent JDM. Its development also has implications for generally enhancing cognitive interventions by adopting principles from athletic training to create automated, expert behaviors.

  13. You can't drink a word: lexical and individual emotionality affect subjective familiarity judgments.

    PubMed

    Westbury, Chris

    2014-10-01

    For almost 30 years, subjective familiarity has been used in psycholinguistics as an explanatory variable, allegedly able to explain many phenomena that have no other obvious explanation (Gernsbacher in J Exp Psychol General 113:256-281, 1984). In this paper, the hypothesis tested is that the subjective familiarity of words is reflecting personal familiarity with or importance of the referents of words. Using an empirically-grounded model of affective force derived from Wundt (Grundriss der Psychologie [Outlines of Psychology]. Engelmann, Leibzig, 1896) and based in a co-occurrence model of semantics (which involves no human judgment), it is shown that affective force can account for the same variance in a large set of human subjective familiarity judgments as other human subjective familiarity judgments, can predict whether people will rate new words of the same objective frequency as more or less familiar, can predict lexical access as well as human subjective familiarity judgments do, and has a predicted relationship to age of acquisition norms. Individuals who have highly affective reactivity [as measured by Carver and White's (J Pers Soc Psychol 67(2):319-333, 1994) Behavioral Inhibition Scale and Behavioral Activation Scales] rate words as significantly more familiar than individuals who have low affective reactivity.

  14. The development of intent-based moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Cushman, Fiery; Sheketoff, Rachel; Wharton, Sophie; Carey, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Between the ages of 4 and 8 children increasingly make moral judgments on the basis of an actor's intent, as opposed to the outcome that the actor brings about. Does this reflect a reorganization of concepts in the moral domain, or simply the development of capacities outside the moral domain such as theory of mind and executive function? Motivated by the past evidence that adults rely partially on outcome-based judgment for judgments of deserved punishment, but not for judgments of moral wrongness, we explore the same categories of judgment in young children. We find that intent-based judgments emerge first in children's assessments of naughtiness and that this subsequently constrains their judgments of deserved punishment. We also find that this developmental trajectory differs for judgments of accidental harm (a bad outcome with benign intent) and judgments of attempted harm (a benign outcome with bad intent). Our findings support a two process model derived from studies of adults: a mental-state based process of judging wrongness constrains an outcome-based process of assigning punishment. The emergence of this two-process architecture in childhood suggests that the developmental shift from outcome- to intent-based judgment involves a conceptual reorganization within the moral domain.

  15. Guidance to detect deception with the Aberdeen Report Judgment Scales: are verbal content cues useful to detect false accusations?

    PubMed

    Sporer, Siegfried L; Masip, Jaume; Cramer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In 2 studies we evaluated the efficiency of training raters with a short version of the Aberdeen Report Judgment Scales (ARJS-STV-S) in assessing the truthfulness of transcribed accounts. Participants told both truthful and deceptive accounts of either illegal or immoral actions. In the truthful accounts, the participants described their own misdeeds honestly (true confessions). In the deceptive accounts, the participants also described their own misdeeds but attributed them to someone else (false accusations). In Study 1, guided (n = 32) and unguided (n = 32) raters evaluated 64 transcribed accounts (16 per rater). Only a few ARJS-STV-S criteria differed significantly between false and true accounts. In Study 2 (N = 29), guided raters evaluated the same transcripts using only the most promising criteria of Study 1. Judgments in Study 2 were less biased (in terms of signal detection theory), and the classification of deceptive accounts was significantly better compared with a no-guidance control group and the guided group of Study 1. A Brunswikian lens model analysis showed that with the smaller set of cues there is a better correspondence between the ecological validities and the subjective utilities, which may explain the higher accuracy rates. When the criteria have little or no diagnostic value, or when true and false stories are very similar, providing raters with a larger set of truth criteria does not increase accuracy but instead may bias raters toward making truth judgments. Practical implications for content-based training programs are outlined.

  16. A human judgment approach to epidemiological forecasting

    PubMed Central

    Farrow, David C.; Brooks, Logan C.; Rosenfeld, Roni

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diseases impose considerable burden on society, despite significant advances in technology and medicine over the past century. Advanced warning can be helpful in mitigating and preparing for an impending or ongoing epidemic. Historically, such a capability has lagged for many reasons, including in particular the uncertainty in the current state of the system and in the understanding of the processes that drive epidemic trajectories. Presently we have access to data, models, and computational resources that enable the development of epidemiological forecasting systems. Indeed, several recent challenges hosted by the U.S. government have fostered an open and collaborative environment for the development of these technologies. The primary focus of these challenges has been to develop statistical and computational methods for epidemiological forecasting, but here we consider a serious alternative based on collective human judgment. We created the web-based “Epicast” forecasting system which collects and aggregates epidemic predictions made in real-time by human participants, and with these forecasts we ask two questions: how accurate is human judgment, and how do these forecasts compare to their more computational, data-driven alternatives? To address the former, we assess by a variety of metrics how accurately humans are able to predict influenza and chikungunya trajectories. As for the latter, we show that real-time, combined human predictions of the 2014–2015 and 2015–2016 U.S. flu seasons are often more accurate than the same predictions made by several statistical systems, especially for short-term targets. We conclude that there is valuable predictive power in collective human judgment, and we discuss the benefits and drawbacks of this approach. PMID:28282375

  17. Accounting Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication identifies 20 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of accounting specialist, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 20 units are as follows:…

  18. Painless Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. W.; And Others

    The computerized Painless Accountability System is a performance objective system from which instructional programs are developed. Three main simplified behavioral response levels characterize this system: (1) cognitive, (2) psychomotor, and (3) affective domains. Each of these objectives are classified by one of 16 descriptors. The second major…

  19. Accountability Overboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chieppo, Charles D.; Gass, James T.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that special interest groups opposed to charter schools and high-stakes testing have hijacked Massachusetts's once-independent board of education and stand poised to water down the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) tests and the accountability system they support. President Barack Obama and Massachusetts…

  20. Effects of caffeine on perceptual judgment.

    PubMed

    Gupta, U; Dubey, G P; Gupta, B S

    1994-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of caffeine on the estimation of felt width of blocks employing haptic presentation. Following a between-subject design, 160 male postgraduate students classified as high or low impulsives received either placebo or one of four doses of caffeine citrate (1, 2, 3 and 4 mg/kg body weight). A double-blind procedure was adopted for drug administration. Caffeine produced differential effects on the performance of high and low impulsives, facilitated performance (decreased error in perceptual judgment) in high impulsives but had no influence on the performance of low impulsives. The dose-response trends also followed different patterns in the two groups of subjects.

  1. Emotion and Deliberative Reasoning in Moral Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Denise Dellarosa; Cummins, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    According to an influential dual-process model, a moral judgment is the outcome of a rapid, affect-laden process and a slower, deliberative process. If these outputs conflict, decision time is increased in order to resolve the conflict. Violations of deontological principles proscribing the use of personal force to inflict intentional harm are presumed to elicit negative affect which biases judgments early in the decision-making process. This model was tested in three experiments. Moral dilemmas were classified using (a) decision time and consensus as measures of system conflict and (b) the aforementioned deontological criteria. In Experiment 1, decision time was either unlimited or reduced. The dilemmas asked whether it was appropriate to take a morally questionable action to produce a “greater good” outcome. Limiting decision time reduced the proportion of utilitarian (“yes”) decisions, but contrary to the model’s predictions, (a) vignettes that involved more deontological violations logged faster decision times, and (b) violation of deontological principles was not predictive of decisional conflict profiles. Experiment 2 ruled out the possibility that time pressure simply makes people more like to say “no.” Participants made a first decision under time constraints and a second decision under no time constraints. One group was asked whether it was appropriate to take the morally questionable action while a second group was asked whether it was appropriate to refuse to take the action. The results replicated that of Experiment 1 regardless of whether “yes” or “no” constituted a utilitarian decision. In Experiment 3, participants rated the pleasantness of positive visual stimuli prior to making a decision. Contrary to the model’s predictions, the number of deontological decisions increased in the positive affect rating group compared to a group that engaged in a cognitive task or a control group that engaged in neither task. These results

  2. Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall

    PubMed Central

    Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a source memory/free-recall procedure. For each word that was recalled, participants were asked to (a) make a confidence rating on a 5-point scale, (b) make a Remember/Know judgment, and (c) recollect a source detail. The large majority of both Remember judgments and Know judgments were made with high confidence and high accuracy, but source memory was nevertheless higher for Remember judgments than for Know judgments. These source memory results correspond to what is found using recognition, and they raise the possibility that Know judgments in free recall identify the cue-dependent retrieval of item-only information from an episodic memory search set. In agreement with this idea, we also found that the temporal dynamics of free recall were similar for high-confidence Remember and high-confidence Know judgments (as if both judgments reflected retrieval from the same search set). If Know judgments in free recall do in fact reflect the episodic retrieval of item-only information, it seems reasonable to suppose that the same might be true of high-confidence Know judgments in recognition. If so, then a longstanding debate about the role of the hippocampus in recollection and familiarity may have a natural resolution. PMID:23637470

  3. Using checklists and algorithms to improve qualitative exposure judgment accuracy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Susan F; Stenzel, Mark; Drolet, Daniel; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2016-01-01

    Most exposure assessments are conducted without the aid of robust personal exposure data and are based instead on qualitative inputs such as education and experience, training, documentation on the process chemicals, tasks and equipment, and other information. Qualitative assessments determine whether there is any follow-up, and influence the type that occurs, such as quantitative sampling, worker training, and implementing exposure and risk management measures. Accurate qualitative exposure judgments ensure appropriate follow-up that in turn ensures appropriate exposure management. Studies suggest that qualitative judgment accuracy is low. A qualitative exposure assessment Checklist tool was developed to guide the application of a set of heuristics to aid decision making. Practicing hygienists (n = 39) and novice industrial hygienists (n = 8) were recruited for a study evaluating the influence of the Checklist on exposure judgment accuracy. Participants generated 85 pre-training judgments and 195 Checklist-guided judgments. Pre-training judgment accuracy was low (33%) and not statistically significantly different from random chance. A tendency for IHs to underestimate the true exposure was observed. Exposure judgment accuracy improved significantly (p <0.001) to 63% when aided by the Checklist. Qualitative judgments guided by the Checklist tool were categorically accurate or over-estimated the true exposure by one category 70% of the time. The overall magnitude of exposure judgment precision also improved following training. Fleiss' κ, evaluating inter-rater agreement between novice assessors was fair to moderate (κ = 0.39). Cohen's weighted and unweighted κ were good to excellent for novice (0.77 and 0.80) and practicing IHs (0.73 and 0.89), respectively. Checklist judgment accuracy was similar to quantitative exposure judgment accuracy observed in studies of similar design using personal exposure measurements, suggesting that the tool could be useful in

  4. Time Perception and Depressive Realism: Judgment Type, Psychophysical Functions and Bias

    PubMed Central

    Kornbrot, Diana E.; Msetfi, Rachel M.; Grimwood, Melvyn J.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of mild depression on time estimation and production was investigated. Participants made both magnitude estimation and magnitude production judgments for five time intervals (specified in seconds) from 3 sec to 65 sec. The parameters of the best fitting psychophysical function (power law exponent, intercept, and threshold) were determined individually for each participant in every condition. There were no significant effects of mood (high BDI, low BDI) or judgment (estimation, production) on the mean exponent, n = .98, 95% confidence interval (.96–1.04) or on the threshold. However, the intercept showed a ‘depressive realism’ effect, where high BDI participants had a smaller deviation from accuracy and a smaller difference between estimation and judgment than low BDI participants. Accuracy bias was assessed using three measures of accuracy: difference, defined as psychological time minus physical time, ratio, defined as psychological time divided by physical time, and a new logarithmic accuracy measure defined as ln (ratio). The ln (ratio) measure was shown to have approximately normal residuals when subjected to a mixed ANOVA with mood as a between groups explanatory factor and judgment and time category as repeated measures explanatory factors. The residuals of the other two accuracy measures flagrantly violated normality. The mixed ANOVAs of accuracy also showed a strong depressive realism effect, just like the intercepts of the psychophysical functions. There was also a strong negative correlation between estimation and production judgments. Taken together these findings support a clock model of time estimation, combined with additional cognitive mechanisms to account for the depressive realism effect. The findings also suggest strong methodological recommendations. PMID:23990960

  5. Time perception and depressive realism: judgment type, psychophysical functions and bias.

    PubMed

    Kornbrot, Diana E; Msetfi, Rachel M; Grimwood, Melvyn J

    2013-01-01

    The effect of mild depression on time estimation and production was investigated. Participants made both magnitude estimation and magnitude production judgments for five time intervals (specified in seconds) from 3 sec to 65 sec. The parameters of the best fitting psychophysical function (power law exponent, intercept, and threshold) were determined individually for each participant in every condition. There were no significant effects of mood (high BDI, low BDI) or judgment (estimation, production) on the mean exponent, n = .98, 95% confidence interval (.96-1.04) or on the threshold. However, the intercept showed a 'depressive realism' effect, where high BDI participants had a smaller deviation from accuracy and a smaller difference between estimation and judgment than low BDI participants. Accuracy bias was assessed using three measures of accuracy: difference, defined as psychological time minus physical time, ratio, defined as psychological time divided by physical time, and a new logarithmic accuracy measure defined as ln (ratio). The ln (ratio) measure was shown to have approximately normal residuals when subjected to a mixed ANOVA with mood as a between groups explanatory factor and judgment and time category as repeated measures explanatory factors. The residuals of the other two accuracy measures flagrantly violated normality. The mixed ANOVAs of accuracy also showed a strong depressive realism effect, just like the intercepts of the psychophysical functions. There was also a strong negative correlation between estimation and production judgments. Taken together these findings support a clock model of time estimation, combined with additional cognitive mechanisms to account for the depressive realism effect. The findings also suggest strong methodological recommendations.

  6. CHILDREN'S AND ADULTS' JUDGMENTS OF FACIAL TRUSTWORTHINESS: THE RELATIONSHIP TO FACIAL ATTRACTIVENESS.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming

    2015-08-01

    Existing research suggests that adults make effective trustworthiness judgments based on facial attractiveness during initial interactions. However, little is known about how children judge trustworthiness from faces. The present study examined the facial features that contributed to judgments of trustworthiness and attractiveness by three groups of Chinese children aged 8 years old (n=34; 17 boys), 10 years old (n=34; 17 boys), and 12 years old (n = 34; 17 boys) and a comparison group of 37 undergraduates (M age=20.2 yr.; 16 men). Using FaceGen Modeler 3.1, a total of 400 East Asian adult faces (200 male, 200 female) portraying neutral emotions with direct gazes were generated. The faces were represented by 61 shape features and were presented for a maximum of 3,000 msec. in the center of the computer screen in randomized order. The participants were asked to judge whether each person was trustworthy and to rate the level of trustworthiness; 1 month later, the attractiveness of the same faces was judged using a similar procedure. The children and the adults used similar facial features to judge trustworthiness (e.g., the brow ridge, nose, and chin). Some of the facial features used by the different age groups as the basis for the trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments were similar. Facial attractiveness accounted for roughly 30 to 60% of the variance in the groups' trustworthiness judgments. Thus, facial attractiveness may serve as a heuristic property that signals trustworthiness and guides adaptive social decisions. More importantly, even children as young as 8 years old use a strategy similar to that of adults to make trustworthiness judgments, although some differences in the use of specific facial features were observed among the age groups.

  7. When psychopathy impairs moral judgments: neural responses during judgments about causing fear.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Abigail A; Cardinale, Elise M

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathy is a disorder characterized by reduced empathy, shallow affect and behaviors that cause victims distress, like threats, bullying and violence. Neuroimaging research in both institutionalized and community samples implicates amygdala dysfunction in the etiology of psychopathic traits. Reduced amygdala responsiveness may disrupt processing of fear-relevant stimuli like fearful facial expressions. The present study links amygdala dysfunction in response to fear-relevant stimuli to the willingness of individuals with psychopathic traits to cause fear in other people. Thirty-three healthy adult participants varying in psychopathic traits underwent whole-brain fMRI scanning while they viewed statements that selectively evoke anger, disgust, fear, happiness or sadness. During scanning, participants judged whether it is morally acceptable to make each statement to another person. Psychopathy was associated with reduced activity in right amygdala during judgments of fear-evoking statements and with more lenient moral judgments about causing fear. No group differences in amygdala function or moral judgments emerged for other emotion categories. Psychopathy was also associated with increased activity in middle frontal gyrus (BA 10) during the task. These results implicate amygdala dysfunction in impaired judgments about causing distress in psychopathy and suggest that atypical amygdala responses to fear in psychopathy extend across multiple classes of stimuli.

  8. Application of a Judgment Model toward Measurement of Clinical Judgment in Senior Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pongmarutai, Tiwaporn

    2010-01-01

    Clinical judgment, defined as "the application of the nurse's knowledge and experience in making decisions about client care" (The National Council of State Boards of Nursing, 2005, p. 2), has been recognized as a vital and essential skill for healthcare providers when caring for clients. Undisputedly, nurses represent the largest…

  9. Judgments Relative to Patterns: How Temporal Sequence Patterns Affect Judgments and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusev, Petko; Ayton, Peter; van Schaik, Paul; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Stewart, Neil; Chater, Nick

    2011-01-01

    RESix experiments studied relative frequency judgment and recall of sequentially presented items drawn from 2 distinct categories (i.e., city and animal). The experiments show that judged frequencies of categories of sequentially encountered stimuli are affected by certain properties of the sequence configuration. We found (a) a "first-run…

  10. When psychopathy impairs moral judgments: neural responses during judgments about causing fear

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Abigail A.; Cardinale, Elise M.

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathy is a disorder characterized by reduced empathy, shallow affect and behaviors that cause victims distress, like threats, bullying and violence. Neuroimaging research in both institutionalized and community samples implicates amygdala dysfunction in the etiology of psychopathic traits. Reduced amygdala responsiveness may disrupt processing of fear-relevant stimuli like fearful facial expressions. The present study links amygdala dysfunction in response to fear-relevant stimuli to the willingness of individuals with psychopathic traits to cause fear in other people. Thirty-three healthy adult participants varying in psychopathic traits underwent whole-brain fMRI scanning while they viewed statements that selectively evoke anger, disgust, fear, happiness or sadness. During scanning, participants judged whether it is morally acceptable to make each statement to another person. Psychopathy was associated with reduced activity in right amygdala during judgments of fear-evoking statements and with more lenient moral judgments about causing fear. No group differences in amygdala function or moral judgments emerged for other emotion categories. Psychopathy was also associated with increased activity in middle frontal gyrus (BA 10) during the task. These results implicate amygdala dysfunction in impaired judgments about causing distress in psychopathy and suggest that atypical amygdala responses to fear in psychopathy extend across multiple classes of stimuli. PMID:22956667

  11. 41 CFR 303-70.4 - Must we pay death-related expenses under this chapter if the same expenses are payable under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-related expenses under this chapter if the same expenses are payable under other laws of the United States... the United States? No. When an employee dies from injuries sustained while performing official duty...' Compensation, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20210....

  12. 32 CFR 37.1105 - What additional duties do I have as the administrator of a TIA with advance payments or payable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What additional duties do I have as the administrator of a TIA with advance payments or payable milestones? 37.1105 Section 37.1105 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS...

  13. 32 CFR 37.1105 - What additional duties do I have as the administrator of a TIA with advance payments or payable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What additional duties do I have as the administrator of a TIA with advance payments or payable milestones? 37.1105 Section 37.1105 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS...

  14. 32 CFR 37.1105 - What additional duties do I have as the administrator of a TIA with advance payments or payable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What additional duties do I have as the administrator of a TIA with advance payments or payable milestones? 37.1105 Section 37.1105 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS...

  15. Predicting political elections from rapid and unreflective face judgments

    PubMed Central

    Ballew, Charles C.; Todorov, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Here we show that rapid judgments of competence based solely on the facial appearance of candidates predicted the outcomes of gubernatorial elections, the most important elections in the United States next to the presidential elections. In all experiments, participants were presented with the faces of the winner and the runner-up and asked to decide who is more competent. To ensure that competence judgments were based solely on facial appearance and not on prior person knowledge, judgments for races in which the participant recognized any of the faces were excluded from all analyses. Predictions were as accurate after a 100-ms exposure to the faces of the winner and the runner-up as exposure after 250 ms and unlimited time exposure (Experiment 1). Asking participants to deliberate and make a good judgment dramatically increased the response times and reduced the predictive accuracy of judgments relative to both judgments made after 250 ms of exposure to the faces and judgments made within a response deadline of 2 s (Experiment 2). Finally, competence judgments collected before the elections in 2006 predicted 68.6% of the gubernatorial races and 72.4% of the Senate races (Experiment 3). These effects were independent of the incumbency status of the candidates. The findings suggest that rapid, unreflective judgments of competence from faces can affect voting decisions. PMID:17959769

  16. The Influence of Judgment Calls on Meta-Analytic Findings.

    PubMed

    Tarrahi, Farid; Eisend, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that judgment calls (i.e., methodological choices made in the process of conducting a meta-analysis) have a strong influence on meta-analytic findings and question their robustness. However, prior research applies case study comparison or reanalysis of a few meta-analyses with a focus on a few selected judgment calls. These studies neglect the fact that different judgment calls are related to each other and simultaneously influence the outcomes of a meta-analysis, and that meta-analytic findings can vary due to non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses (e.g., variations of effects over time). The current study analyzes the influence of 13 judgment calls in 176 meta-analyses in marketing research by applying a multivariate, multilevel meta-meta-analysis. The analysis considers simultaneous influences from different judgment calls on meta-analytic effect sizes and controls for alternative explanations based on non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses. The findings suggest that judgment calls have only a minor influence on meta-analytic findings, whereas non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses are more likely to explain differences in meta-analytic findings. The findings support the robustness of meta-analytic results and conclusions.

  17. Divergent roles of autistic and alexithymic traits in utilitarian moral judgments in adults with autism

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Indrajeet; Melsbach, Jens; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Silani, Giorgia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated hypothetical moral choices in adults with high-functioning autism and the role of empathy and alexithymia in such choices. We used a highly emotionally salient moral dilemma task to investigate autistics’ hypothetical moral evaluations about personally carrying out harmful utilitarian behaviours aimed at maximizing welfare. Results showed that they exhibited a normal pattern of moral judgments despite the deficits in social cognition and emotional processing. Further analyses revealed that this was due to mutually conflicting biases associated with autistic and alexithymic traits after accounting for shared variance: (a) autistic traits were associated with reduced utilitarian bias due to elevated personal distress of demanding social situations, while (b) alexithymic traits were associated with increased utilitarian bias on account of reduced empathic concern for the victim. Additionally, autistics relied on their non-verbal reasoning skills to rigidly abide by harm-norms. Thus, utilitarian moral judgments in autism were spared due to opposite influences of autistic and alexithymic traits and compensatory intellectual strategies. These findings demonstrate the importance of empathy and alexithymia in autistic moral cognition and have methodological implications for studying moral judgments in several other clinical populations. PMID:27020307

  18. Divergent roles of autistic and alexithymic traits in utilitarian moral judgments in adults with autism.

    PubMed

    Patil, Indrajeet; Melsbach, Jens; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Silani, Giorgia

    2016-03-29

    This study investigated hypothetical moral choices in adults with high-functioning autism and the role of empathy and alexithymia in such choices. We used a highly emotionally salient moral dilemma task to investigate autistics' hypothetical moral evaluations about personally carrying out harmful utilitarian behaviours aimed at maximizing welfare. Results showed that they exhibited a normal pattern of moral judgments despite the deficits in social cognition and emotional processing. Further analyses revealed that this was due to mutually conflicting biases associated with autistic and alexithymic traits after accounting for shared variance: (a) autistic traits were associated with reduced utilitarian bias due to elevated personal distress of demanding social situations, while (b) alexithymic traits were associated with increased utilitarian bias on account of reduced empathic concern for the victim. Additionally, autistics relied on their non-verbal reasoning skills to rigidly abide by harm-norms. Thus, utilitarian moral judgments in autism were spared due to opposite influences of autistic and alexithymic traits and compensatory intellectual strategies. These findings demonstrate the importance of empathy and alexithymia in autistic moral cognition and have methodological implications for studying moral judgments in several other clinical populations.

  19. Gender-related differences in moral judgments.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, M; Ferrucci, R; Mameli, F; Marceglia, S; Mrakic-Sposta, S; Zago, S; Lucchiari, C; Consonni, D; Nordio, F; Pravettoni, G; Cappa, S; Priori, A

    2010-08-01

    The moral sense is among the most complex aspects of the human mind. Despite substantial evidence confirming gender-related neurobiological and behavioral differences, and psychological research suggesting gender specificities in moral development, whether these differences arise from cultural effects or are innate remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of gender, education (general education and health education) and religious belief (Catholic and non-Catholic) on moral choices by testing 50 men and 50 women with a moral judgment task. Whereas we found no differences between the two genders in utilitarian responses to non-moral dilemmas and to impersonal moral dilemmas, men gave significantly more utilitarian answers to personal moral (PM) dilemmas (i.e., those courses of action whose endorsement involves highly emotional decisions). Cultural factors such as education and religion had no effect on performance in the moral judgment task. These findings suggest that the cognitive-emotional processes involved in evaluating PM dilemmas differ in men and in women, possibly reflecting differences in the underlying neural mechanisms. Gender-related determinants of moral behavior may partly explain gender differences in real-life involving power management, economic decision-making, leadership and possibly also aggressive and criminal behaviors.

  20. Boosting medical diagnostics by pooling independent judgments

    PubMed Central

    Kurvers, Ralf H. J. M.; Herzog, Stefan M.; Hertwig, Ralph; Krause, Jens; Carney, Patricia A.; Bogart, Andy; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zalaudek, Iris; Wolf, Max

    2016-01-01

    Collective intelligence refers to the ability of groups to outperform individual decision makers when solving complex cognitive problems. Despite its potential to revolutionize decision making in a wide range of domains, including medical, economic, and political decision making, at present, little is known about the conditions underlying collective intelligence in real-world contexts. We here focus on two key areas of medical diagnostics, breast and skin cancer detection. Using a simulation study that draws on large real-world datasets, involving more than 140 doctors making more than 20,000 diagnoses, we investigate when combining the independent judgments of multiple doctors outperforms the best doctor in a group. We find that similarity in diagnostic accuracy is a key condition for collective intelligence: Aggregating the independent judgments of doctors outperforms the best doctor in a group whenever the diagnostic accuracy of doctors is relatively similar, but not when doctors’ diagnostic accuracy differs too much. This intriguingly simple result is highly robust and holds across different group sizes, performance levels of the best doctor, and collective intelligence rules. The enabling role of similarity, in turn, is explained by its systematic effects on the number of correct and incorrect decisions of the best doctor that are overruled by the collective. By identifying a key factor underlying collective intelligence in two important real-world contexts, our findings pave the way for innovative and more effective approaches to complex real-world decision making, and to the scientific analyses of those approaches. PMID:27432950

  1. Chemosignals of Stress Influence Social Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Pamela; Mauté, Christopher; Jaén, Cristina; Wilson, Tamika

    2013-01-01

    Human body odors have important communicative functions regarding genetic identity, immune fitness and general health, but an expanding body of research suggests they can also communicate information about an individual’s emotional state. In the current study, we tested whether axillary odors obtained from women experiencing psychosocial stress could negatively influence personality judgments of warmth and competence made about other women depicted in video scenarios. 44 female donors provided three types of sweat samples: untreated exercise sweat, untreated stress sweat and treated stress sweat. After a ‘washout’ period, a commercial unscented anti-perspirant product was applied to the left axilla only to evaluate whether ‘blocking’ the stress signal would improve the social evaluations. A separate group of male and female evaluators (n = 120) rated the women in the videos while smelling one of the three types of sweat samples. Women in the video scenes were rated as being more stressed by both men and women when smelling the untreated vs. treated stress sweat. For men only, the women in the videos were rated as less confident, trustworthy and competent when smelling both the untreated stress and exercise sweat in contrast to the treated stress sweat. Women’s social judgments were unaffected by sniffing the pads. The results have implications for influencing multiple types of professional and personal social interactions and impression management and extend our understanding of the social communicative function of body odors. PMID:24130845

  2. Chemosignals of stress influence social judgments.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Pamela; Mauté, Christopher; Jaén, Cristina; Wilson, Tamika

    2013-01-01

    Human body odors have important communicative functions regarding genetic identity, immune fitness and general health, but an expanding body of research suggests they can also communicate information about an individual's emotional state. In the current study, we tested whether axillary odors obtained from women experiencing psychosocial stress could negatively influence personality judgments of warmth and competence made about other women depicted in video scenarios. 44 female donors provided three types of sweat samples: untreated exercise sweat, untreated stress sweat and treated stress sweat. After a 'washout' period, a commercial unscented anti-perspirant product was applied to the left axilla only to evaluate whether 'blocking' the stress signal would improve the social evaluations. A separate group of male and female evaluators (n = 120) rated the women in the videos while smelling one of the three types of sweat samples. Women in the video scenes were rated as being more stressed by both men and women when smelling the untreated vs. treated stress sweat. For men only, the women in the videos were rated as less confident, trustworthy and competent when smelling both the untreated stress and exercise sweat in contrast to the treated stress sweat. Women's social judgments were unaffected by sniffing the pads. The results have implications for influencing multiple types of professional and personal social interactions and impression management and extend our understanding of the social communicative function of body odors.

  3. Driven by power? Probe question and presentation format effects on causal judgment.

    PubMed

    Perales, José C; Shanks, David R

    2008-11-01

    It has been proposed that causal power (defined as the probability with which a candidate cause would produce an effect in the absence of any other background causes) can be intuitively computed from cause-effect covariation information. Estimation of power is assumed to require a special type of counterfactual probe question, worded to remove potential sources of ambiguity. The present study analyzes the adequacy of such questions to evoke normative causal power estimation. The authors report that judgments to counterfactual probes do not conform to causal power and that they strongly depend on both the probe question wording and the way that covariation information is presented. The data are parsimoniously accounted for by an alternative model of causal judgment, the Evidence Integration rule.

  4. Olympic Medals as Fruits of Comparison? Assimilation and Contrast in Sequential Performance Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damisch, Lysann; Mussweiler, Thomas; Plessner, Henning

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the evaluative consequences of sequential performance judgments. Recent social comparison research has suggested that performance judgments may be influenced by judgments about a preceding performance. Specifically, performance judgments may be assimilated to judgments of the preceding performance if judges focus on…

  5. Assessment of moral judgment and empathy in young sex offenders: a comparison of clinical judgment and test results.

    PubMed

    van Vugt, Eveline; Asscher, Jessica; Hendriks, Jan; Stams, Geert Jan; Bijleveld, Catrien; van der Laan, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Professional decision making in forensic clinical practice may have lifelong consequences for offenders. Although information on moral development is important for prediction of reoffending and referral to adequate treatment, conclusions regarding moral development are still largely based on unstructured clinical judgment instead of assessment instruments. For this study, the authors examined to what extent unstructured clinical judgment of both moral judgment and victim empathy concurred with test results in a group of young sex offenders. Moral judgment was measured with the Sociomoral Reflection Measure-Short Form (SRM-SF), whereas victim empathy was measured with an extended version of the Basic Empathy Scale (BES). No significant associations were found between clinical judgment of moral judgment and the mean scores on the SRM-SF. However, clinical judgment of victim empathy was significantly associated with victim empathy on the Victim Empathy Scale but not consistently in the expected direction. Juvenile sex offenders, who were judged by clinicians to show little victim empathy, displayed lower mean scores on the Victim Empathy Scale than juvenile sex offenders who were evaluated to lack victim empathy or to have intact victim empathy. This study showed unstructured clinical judgment of moral development not to concur with test results. To improve decision-making processes regarding moral development, clinicians are advised to rely on instruments that assess moral development to inform clinical judgment. Further research is needed to examine which predictions are more accurate and to establish the predictive validity of moral development evaluations.

  6. Deliberate choices or strong motives: Exploring the mechanisms underlying the bias of organic claims on leniency judgments.

    PubMed

    Prada, Marília; Rodrigues, David; Garrido, Margarida V

    2016-08-01

    Organic claims can influence how a product is perceived in dimensions that are unrelated with the food production method (e.g., organic food is perceived as more healthful and less caloric than conventional food). Such claims can also bias how the consumers of organic food are perceived and how other people judge their behavior. Schuldt and Schwarz (2010) have shown that individuals evaluating a target with a weight-loss goal are more lenient in judging the target forgoing exercise when the target had an organic (vs. conventional) dessert. This impact of organic claims on leniency judgments has been interpreted either as a halo or a licensing effect. In the current research we aim to replicate and extend Schuldt and Schwarz's (2010) results by examining the mechanisms that are more likely to explain the observed leniency judgments. In Experiment 1, we observed that leniency towards a target that has consumed an organic meal is only observed when the target intentionally chooses such organic meal (vs. choice determined by the situation). These findings suggest that the impact of organic claims on leniency judgments is not merely based on a halo effect. Instead, a licensing account emerges as the most probable mechanism. In Experiment 2, we further found that stronger (vs. weaker) motives for forgoing exercise influenced leniency judgments to the same extent as having had an organic meal. Understanding the mechanisms that shape consumers' decisions may have important implications to prevent bias in their judgments about food and exercise.

  7. Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a…

  8. 40 CFR 94.221 - Application of good engineering judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of good engineering... § 94.221 Application of good engineering judgment. (a) The manufacturer shall exercise good engineering... the Administrator) a written description of the engineering judgment in question. (c)...

  9. Plausibility Judgments in Conceptual Change and Epistemic Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Doug; Nussbaum, E. Michael; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2016-01-01

    Plausibility judgments rarely have been addressed empirically in conceptual change research. Recent research, however, suggests that these judgments may be pivotal to conceptual change about certain topics where a gap exists between what scientists and laypersons find plausible. Based on a philosophical and empirical foundation, this article…

  10. 40 CFR 94.221 - Application of good engineering judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of good engineering... § 94.221 Application of good engineering judgment. (a) The manufacturer shall exercise good engineering... the Administrator) a written description of the engineering judgment in question. (c)...

  11. 40 CFR 94.221 - Application of good engineering judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application of good engineering... § 94.221 Application of good engineering judgment. (a) The manufacturer shall exercise good engineering... the Administrator) a written description of the engineering judgment in question. (c)...

  12. 40 CFR 94.221 - Application of good engineering judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of good engineering... § 94.221 Application of good engineering judgment. (a) The manufacturer shall exercise good engineering... the Administrator) a written description of the engineering judgment in question. (c)...

  13. 40 CFR 94.221 - Application of good engineering judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Application of good engineering... § 94.221 Application of good engineering judgment. (a) The manufacturer shall exercise good engineering... the Administrator) a written description of the engineering judgment in question. (c)...

  14. Moral Judgment as a Function of Peer Group Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitland, Karen A.; Goldman, Jacquelin R.

    1974-01-01

    This article presents an investigation into the effects of peer group interaction on moral judgment among 36 male and female eleventh and twelfth graders. The results indicate greater social conflict and pressure in a group discussion induces greater change in the level of moral judgment. (DE)

  15. Intuitive and Deliberate Judgments Are Based on Common Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruglanski, Arie W.; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    A popular distinction in cognitive and social psychology has been between "intuitive" and "deliberate" judgments. This juxtaposition has aligned in dual-process theories of reasoning associative, unconscious, effortless, heuristic, and suboptimal processes (assumed to foster intuitive judgments) versus rule-based, conscious, effortful, analytic,…

  16. Text cohesion and metacomprehension: immediate and delayed judgments.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, N; Lories, G

    2004-12-01

    In three experiments, we examined comprehension judgments made after a piece of text had been read. We propose that such metacognitive judgments are based on the content of working memory at the exact moment of assessment. Generally speaking, this working metacognition hypothesis is in agreement with Koriat's cue utilization approach, which implies that different elements of information will be available (and used) depending on the moment at which a judgment is made. More specifically, our hypothesis focuses on the management of working memory during reading as a cause for cue (un)availability. In support of these views, the results of Experiment 1 showed that a cohesion manipulation affecting the comprehension of specific paragraphs influences judgments only on these paragraphs, and not on judgments on the whole text. In Experiment 2, we showed that an interfering task that takes place just before this paragraph judgment is made wipes out this cohesion effect. Experiment 3 showed, on the other hand, that the whole-text judgment may, nevertheless, be affected by text cohesion, provided that the readers keep an access to the text when the judgment is made. These results support the idea that working memory management makes different cues available for metacognitive ratings at different delays.

  17. True and False Memories, Parietal Cortex, and Confidence Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urgolites, Zhisen J.; Smith, Christine N.; Squire, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory).…

  18. Artistic Judgment II: Construct Validation. Technical Report 1990-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezruczko, Nikolaus; Schroeder, David H.

    The underlying constructs for an experimental battery (EB) consisting of artistic judgment tests--the Design Judgment Test (DJT), the Visual Designs Test (VDT), Proportion Appraisal (PA), and the Visual Aesthetic Sensitivity Test--were studied. Scores for 1,686 clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation's aptitude-testing service were…

  19. Heuristic and Linear Models of Judgment: Matching Rules and Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogarth, Robin M.; Karelaia, Natalia

    2007-01-01

    Much research has highlighted incoherent implications of judgmental heuristics, yet other findings have demonstrated high correspondence between predictions and outcomes. At the same time, judgment has been well modeled in the form of as if linear models. Accepting the probabilistic nature of the environment, the authors use statistical tools to…

  20. Adaptation and Fallibility in Experts' Judgments of Novice Performers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jeffrey S.; Billeter, Darron M.

    2017-01-01

    Competition judges are often selected for their expertise, under the belief that a high level of performance expertise should enable accurate judgments of the competitors. Contrary to this assumption, we find evidence that expertise can reduce judgment accuracy. Adaptation level theory proposes that discriminatory capacity decreases with greater…

  1. Typical Versus Atypical Unpacking and Superadditive Probability Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloman, Steven; Rottenstreich, Yuval; Wisniewski, Edward; Hadjichristidis, Constantinos; Fox, Craig R.

    2004-01-01

    Probability judgments for packed descriptions of events (e.g., the probability that a businessman does business with a European country) are compared with judgments for unpacked descriptions of the same events (e.g., the probability that a businessman does business with England, France, or some other European country). The prediction that…

  2. Moral Judgment Competence of Medical Students: A Transcultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feitosa, Helvécio Neves; Rego, Sergio; Bataglia, Patricia Unger Raphael; Sancho, Karlos Frederico Castelo Branco; Rego, Guilhermina; Nunes, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional short-term study using Lind's Moral Judgment Test (MJT) to compare moral judgment competence (C-score) among students from a medical school in the Northeast region of Brazil and a medical school in the Northern region of Portugal. This study compares the C-scores of groups in the first and eighth semesters…

  3. Similar Task Features Shape Judgment and Categorization Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, Janina A.; von Helversen, Bettina; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    The distinction between similarity-based and rule-based strategies has instigated a large body of research in categorization and judgment. Within both domains, the task characteristics guiding strategy shifts are increasingly well documented. Across domains, past research has observed shifts from rule-based strategies in judgment to…

  4. 14 CFR 1261.508 - Offset against a judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offset against a judgment. 1261.508 Section 1261.508 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Administrative Offset of Claims § 1261.508 Offset against a judgment. Collection...

  5. Moral judgment as information processing: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmo, Steve

    2015-01-01

    How do humans make moral judgments about others’ behavior? This article reviews dominant models of moral judgment, organizing them within an overarching framework of information processing. This framework poses two distinct questions: (1) What input information guides moral judgments? and (2) What psychological processes generate these judgments? Information Models address the first question, identifying critical information elements (including causality, intentionality, and mental states) that shape moral judgments. A subclass of Biased Information Models holds that perceptions of these information elements are themselves driven by prior moral judgments. Processing Models address the second question, and existing models have focused on the relative contribution of intuitive versus deliberative processes. This review organizes existing moral judgment models within this framework and critically evaluates them on empirical and theoretical grounds; it then outlines a general integrative model grounded in information processing, and concludes with conceptual and methodological suggestions for future research. The information-processing framework provides a useful theoretical lens through which to organize extant and future work in the rapidly growing field of moral judgment. PMID:26579022

  6. Time to Decide? Simplicity and Congruity in Comparative Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frosch, Caren A.; McCloy, Rachel; Beaman, C. Philip; Goddard, Kate

    2015-01-01

    What is the relationship between magnitude judgments relying on directly available characteristics versus probabilistic cues? Question frame was manipulated in a comparative judgment task previously assumed to involve inference across a probabilistic mental model (e.g., "Which city is largest"--the "larger" question--vs.…

  7. Leadership Styles and Moral Judgment Competence of Community College Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Cheryl; Miller, Brian; Sypawka, William; Clay, Maria; Hoover-Plonk, Shelly

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the convergence of leadership styles and moral judgment competence of community college personnel participating in a leadership institute using the Leadership Orientation Instrument (Bolman & Deal, 1984) and the Moral Judgment Test (Lind, 1978). Results indicated that the human resource and structural frames were the…

  8. Metacognitive Judgments and Control of Study

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that people's judgments of their own learning are causally related to their study behavior and not epiphenomenal. I argue here that people use these metacognitions in an effort to selectively study material in their own region of proximal learning. First they attempt to eliminate materials that are already well learned. Then they progress successively from studying easier to more difficult materials. Successful implementation of this metacognitively guided strategy enhances learning. The necessary components are, first, that the metacognitions be accurate, and second, that the appropriate choices are implemented for study. With these parts in place, the individual is in position to effectively take control of his or her own learning. PMID:19750138

  9. A simple remedy for overprecision in judgment

    PubMed Central

    Haran, Uriel; Moore, Don A.; Morewedge, Carey K.

    2014-01-01

    Overprecision is the most robust type of overconfidence. We present a new method that significantly reduces this bias and offers insight into its underlying cause. In three experiments, overprecision was significantly reduced by forcing participants to consider all possible outcomes of an event. Each participant was presented with the entire range of possible outcomes divided into intervals, and estimated each interval’s likelihood of including the true answer. The superiority of this Subjective Probability Interval Estimate (SPIES) method is robust to range widths and interval grain sizes. Its carryover effects are observed even in subsequent estimates made using the conventional, 90% confidence interval method: judges who first made SPIES judgments considered a broader range of values in subsequent conventional interval estimates as well.

  10. How emotions inform judgment and regulate thought

    PubMed Central

    Clore, Gerald L.; Huntsinger, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Being happy or sad influences the content and style of thought. One explanation is that affect serves as information about the value of whatever comes to mind. Thus, when a person makes evaluative judgments or engages in a task, positive affect can enhance evaluations and empower potential responses. Rather than affect itself, the information conveyed by affect is crucial. Tests of the hypothesis find that affective influences can be made to disappear by changing the source to which the affect is attributed. In tasks, positive affect validates and negative affect invalidates accessible cognitions, leading to relational processing and item-specific processing, respectively. Positive affect is found to promote, and negative affect to inhibit, many textbook phenomena from cognitive psychology. PMID:17698405

  11. Grammaticality judgments in autism: deviance or delay.

    PubMed

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Bennetto, Loisa

    2009-11-01

    Language in autism has been the subject of intense interest, because communication deficits are central to the disorder, and because autism serves as an arena for testing theories of language acquisition. High-functioning older children with autism are often considered to have intact grammatical abilities, despite pragmatic impairments. Given the heterogeneity in language skills at younger ages, this assumption merits further investigation. Participants with autism (n=21, aged nine to seventeen years), matched on chronological age, receptive vocabulary and IQ, to 22 typically developing individuals, completed a grammaticality judgment task. Participants with autism were significantly less sensitive than controls, specifically for third person singular and present progressive marking. Performance interacted with sentence length, with lower sensitivity to errors occurring at the end of the longest stimulus sentences. Performance sensitivity was associated with onset of single word and phrase speech, and with severity of autistic symptomatology. Implications of findings are discussed.

  12. How serotonin shapes moral judgment and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Jenifer Z; Crockett, Molly J

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscientists are now discovering how hormones and brain chemicals shape social behavior, opening potential avenues for pharmacological manipulation of ethical values. Here, we review recent studies showing how altering brain chemistry can alter moral judgment and behavior, focusing in particular on the neuromodulator serotonin and its role in shaping values related to harm and fairness. We synthesize previous findings and consider the potential mechanisms through which serotonin could increase the aversion to harming others. We present a process model whereby serotonin influences social behavior by shifting social preferences in the positive direction, enhancing the value people place on others’ outcomes. This model may explain previous findings relating serotonin function to prosocial behavior, and makes new predictions regarding how serotonin may influence the neural computation of value in social contexts. PMID:25627116

  13. Contrasting cue-density effects in causal and prediction judgments.

    PubMed

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Musca, Serban C; Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena

    2011-02-01

    Many theories of contingency learning assume (either explicitly or implicitly) that predicting whether an outcome will occur should be easier than making a causal judgment. Previous research suggests that outcome predictions would depart from normative standards less often than causal judgments, which is consistent with the idea that the latter are based on more numerous and complex processes. However, only indirect evidence exists for this view. The experiment presented here specifically addresses this issue by allowing for a fair comparison of causal judgments and outcome predictions, both collected at the same stage with identical rating scales. Cue density, a parameter known to affect judgments, is manipulated in a contingency learning paradigm. The results show that, if anything, the cue-density bias is stronger in outcome predictions than in causal judgments. These results contradict key assumptions of many influential theories of contingency learning.

  14. Systematic Underreproduction of Time Is Independent of Judgment Certainty

    PubMed Central

    Riemer, Martin; Rhodes, Darren; Wolbers, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We recently proposed that systematic underreproduction of time is caused by a general judgment bias towards earlier responses, instead of reflecting a genuine misperception of temporal intervals. Here we tested whether this bias can be explained by the uncertainty associated with temporal judgments. We applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to inhibit neuronal processes in the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and tested its effects on time discrimination and reproduction tasks. The results show increased certainty for discriminative time judgments after PPC inhibition. They suggest that the right PPC plays an inhibitory role for time perception, possibly by mediating the multisensory integration between temporal stimuli and other quantities. Importantly, this increased judgment certainty had no influence on the degree of temporal underreproduction. We conclude that the systematic underreproduction of time is not caused by uncertainty for temporal judgments. PMID:26881127

  15. Familiarity influences judgments of sex: the case of voice recognition.

    PubMed

    Burton, A Mike; Bonner, Lesley

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which subjects made judgments about the sex or the familiarity of a voice. In experiment 1, subjects were fans of the BBC-radio soap opera, The Archers, and familiar voice clips were taken from this programme. Subjects showed a large reduction in response times when making sex judgments to familiar voices, despite the fact that sex judgments are generally much faster than familiarity judgments. In experiment 2, the same familiar clips were played to subjects unfamiliar with the soap opera, and no difference was observed in times to make sex judgments to Archers or non-Archers voices. We conclude that, unlike the case of face recognition, sex and identity processing of voices are not independent. The findings constrain models of person recognition across multiple modalities.

  16. How Judgments Change Following Comparison of Current and Prior Information.

    PubMed

    Albarracin, Dolores; Wallace, Harry M; Hart, William; Brown, Rick D

    2012-01-01

    Although much observed judgment change is superficial and occurs without considering prior information, other forms of change also occur. Comparison between prior and new information about an issue may trigger change by influencing either or both the perceived strength and direction of the new information. In four experiments, participants formed and reported initial judgments of a policy based on favorable written information about it. Later, these participants read a second passage containing strong favorable or unfavorable information on the policy. Compared to control conditions, subtle and direct prompts to compare the initial and new information led to more judgment change in the direction of a second passage perceived to be strong. Mediation analyses indicated that comparison yielded greater perceived strength of the second passage, which in turn correlated positively with judgment change. Moreover, self-reports of comparison mediated the judgment change resulting from comparison prompts.

  17. How Judgments Change Following Comparison of Current and Prior Information

    PubMed Central

    Albarracin, Dolores; Wallace, Harry M.; Hart, William; Brown, Rick D.

    2013-01-01

    Although much observed judgment change is superficial and occurs without considering prior information, other forms of change also occur. Comparison between prior and new information about an issue may trigger change by influencing either or both the perceived strength and direction of the new information. In four experiments, participants formed and reported initial judgments of a policy based on favorable written information about it. Later, these participants read a second passage containing strong favorable or unfavorable information on the policy. Compared to control conditions, subtle and direct prompts to compare the initial and new information led to more judgment change in the direction of a second passage perceived to be strong. Mediation analyses indicated that comparison yielded greater perceived strength of the second passage, which in turn correlated positively with judgment change. Moreover, self-reports of comparison mediated the judgment change resulting from comparison prompts. PMID:23599557

  18. Substituted judgment: the limitations of autonomy in surrogate decision making.

    PubMed

    Torke, Alexia M; Alexander, G Caleb; Lantos, John

    2008-09-01

    Substituted judgment is often invoked as a guide for decision making when a patient lacks decision making capacity and has no advance directive. Using substituted judgment, doctors and family members try to make the decision that the patient would have made if he or she were able to make decisions. However, empirical evidence suggests that the moral basis for substituted judgment is unsound. In spite of this, many physicians and bioethicists continue to rely on the notion of substituted judgment. Given compelling evidence that the use of substituted judgment has insurmountable flaws, other approaches should be considered. One approach provides limits on decision making using a best interest standard based on community norms. A second approach uses narrative techniques and focuses on each patient's dignity and individuality rather than his or her autonomy.

  19. Does cleanliness influence moral judgments? Response effort moderates the effect of cleanliness priming on moral judgments.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jason L

    2014-01-01

    Whether cleanliness influences moral judgments has recently become a topic of debate in the psychological literature. After the initial report that activating the notion of physical purity can result in less severe moral judgments (Schnall et al., 2008a), a direct replication (Johnson et al., 2014a) with much larger sample sizes failed to yield similar findings. The current paper examines the possibility that only non-conscious activation of the cleanliness concept, as achieved in participants with low response effort on priming materials, can produce the expected effect. An online replication (Study 1, N = 214) provided evidence that, when participants exerted low (yet still acceptable) levels of response effort to the experimental material, cleanliness priming led to more lenient moral judgments than neutral priming. An online experiment (Study 2, N = 440; replicated in Study 2a, N = 436) manipulating participants' effort on the priming task (low vs. high) supported the hypothesized mechanism. Specifically, respondents in the low response effort group were instructed to complete the priming task as quickly as possible without too much attention, and the cleanliness priming resulted in less extreme moral judgments than the neutral condition as expected. In contrast, respondents in the high response effort group were instructed to perform to the best of their ability on the priming task, with a non-significant difference on moral ratings between cleanliness and neutral conditions. In addition to helping resolve the controversy regarding the cleanliness hypothesis, the current paper calls into attention the role of response effort in the execution and replication of priming studies.

  20. Influence of speaker gender on listener judgments of tracheoesophageal speech.

    PubMed

    Eadie, Tanya L; Doyle, Philip C; Hansen, Kerry; Beaudin, Paul G

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this prospective and exploratory study are to determine: (1) naïve listener preference for gender in tracheoesophageal (TE) speech when speech severity is controlled; (2) the accuracy of identifying TE speaker gender; (3) the effects of gender identification on judgments of speech acceptability (ACC) and naturalness (NAT); and (4) the acoustic basis of ACC and NAT judgments. Six male and six female adult TE speakers were matched for speech severity. Twenty naïve listeners made auditory-perceptual judgments of speech samples in three listening sessions. First, listeners performed preference judgments using a paired comparison paradigm. Second, listeners made judgments of speaker gender, speech ACC, and NAT using rating scales. Last, listeners made ACC and NAT judgments when speaker gender was provided coincidentally. Duration, frequency, and spectral measures were performed. No significant differences were found for preference of male or female speakers. All male speakers were accurately identified, but only two of six female speakers were accurately identified. Significant interactions were found between gender and listening condition (gender known) for NAT and ACC judgments. Males were judged more natural when gender was known; female speakers were judged less natural and less acceptable when gender was known. Regression analyses revealed that judgments of female speakers were best predicted with duration measures when gender was unknown, but with spectral measures when gender was known; judgments of males were best predicted with spectral measures. Naïve listeners have difficulty identifying the gender of female TE speakers. Listeners show no preference for speaker gender, but when gender is known, female speakers are least acceptable and natural. The nature of the perceptual task may affect the acoustic basis of listener judgments.

  1. Dirty Money: The Role of Moral History in Economic Judgments.

    PubMed

    Tasimi, Arber; Gelman, Susan A

    2016-12-21

    Although traditional economic models posit that money is fungible, psychological research abounds with examples that deviate from this assumption. Across eight experiments, we provide evidence that people construe physical currency as carrying traces of its moral history. In Experiments 1 and 2, people report being less likely to want money with negative moral history (i.e., stolen money). Experiments 3-5 provide evidence against an alternative account that people's judgments merely reflect beliefs about the consequences of accepting stolen money rather than moral sensitivity. Experiment 6 examines whether an aversion to stolen money may reflect contamination concerns, and Experiment 7 indicates that people report they would donate stolen money, thereby counteracting its negative history with a positive act. Finally, Experiment 8 demonstrates that, even in their recall of actual events, people report a reduced tendency to accept tainted money. Altogether, these findings suggest a robust tendency to evaluate money based on its moral history, even though it is designed to participate in exchanges that effectively erase its origins.

  2. Construction and Validation of the Clinical Judgment Skill Inventory: Clinical Judgment Skill Competencies That Measure Counselor Debiasing Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Bryan S.; Leahy, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To construct and validate a new self-report instrument, the Clinical Judgment Skill Inventory (CJSI), inclusive of clinical judgment skill competencies that address counselor biases and evidence-based strategies. Method: An Internet-based survey design was used and an exploratory factor analysis was performed on a sample of rehabilitation…

  3. 32 CFR 536.155 - Claims payable involving tortfeasors other than nonappropriated fund employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Nonappropriated Fund Claims § 536... manner and for the purposes authorized by DA regulations and the charter, constitution, and bylaws of...

  4. 32 CFR 536.155 - Claims payable involving tortfeasors other than nonappropriated fund employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Nonappropriated Fund Claims § 536... manner and for the purposes authorized by DA regulations and the charter, constitution, and bylaws of...

  5. An integrative lens model approach to bias and accuracy in human inferences: hindsight effects and knowledge updating in personality judgments.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Steffen; Egloff, Boris; Küfner, Albrecht C P; Back, Mitja D

    2012-10-01

    The present article integrates research on the accurate inference of personality traits with process models of hindsight bias (the tendency to exaggerate in hindsight what one had said in foresight). Specifically, the article suggests a new model that integrates assumptions of the lens model on accurate personality judgments and accounts that view hindsight effects as a by-product of knowledge updating. We suggest 3 processes that have the potential to explain the occurrence of hindsight effects in personality judgments: (a) changes in an individual's cue perceptions, (b) changes in the utilization of more valid cues, and (c) changes in the consistency with which cue knowledge is applied. In 2 studies (N1 = 91, N2 = 93), participants were presented with target pictures and were asked to judge each target's levels of the Big Five. Thereafter, they received feedback and had to recall their original judgments. Results show that there were clear hindsight effects for all 5 personality dimensions. Importantly, we found evidence that both the utilization of more valid cues and changes in cue perceptions--but not changes in the consistency with which cue knowledge is applied--account for the hindsight effects. Implications of these results for models explaining hindsight effects, the inference of personality judgments, and the accuracy of these inferences are discussed.

  6. Passage of time judgments in everyday life are not related to duration judgments except for long durations of several minutes.

    PubMed

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Trahanias, Panos; Maniadakis, Michail

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated relations between judgments of passage of time and judgments of long durations in everyday life with an experience sampling method. Several times per day, the participants received an alert via mobile phone. On each alert, at the same time as reporting their experience of the passage of time, the participants also estimated durations, between 3 and 33s in Experiment 1, and between 2 and 8min in Experiment 2. The participants' affective states and the difficulty and attentional demands of their current activity were also assessed. The results replicated others showing that affective states and the focus of attention on current activity are significant predictors of individual differences in passage-of-time judgments. In addition, the passage-of-time judgments were significantly related to the duration judgments but only for long durations of several minutes.

  7. The impetus theory in judgments about object motion: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    White, Peter A

    2012-12-01

    Several tendencies found in explicit judgments about object motion have been interpreted as evidence that people possess a naive theory of impetus. The theory states that objects that are caused to move by other objects acquire force that determines the kind of motion exhibited by the object, and that this force gradually dissipates over time. I argue that the findings can better be understood as manifestations of a general understanding of externally caused motion based on experiences of acting on objects. Experiences of acting on objects yield the idea that properties of the cause of motion are transmitted to the effect object. This idea functions as a heuristic for explicit predictions of object motion under conditions of uncertainty. This accounts not only for the findings taken as evidence for the impetus theory, but also for several findings that fall outside the scope of the impetus theory. It has also been claimed that judgments about the location at which a moving object disappeared are influenced by the impetus theory. I argue that these judgments are better explained in a different way, as best-guess extrapolations made by the visual system as a practical guide to interactions with the object, such as interception.

  8. Stochastic Resonance in Time-to-Contact Judgments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjit, Manish; Gazula, Harshvardhan; Hsiang, Simon M.; Delucia, Patricia R.

    2015-04-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a counterintuitive phenomenon in which additive noise enhances performance of a nonlinear system. Previous studies demonstrated SR effect on human tactile sensitivity by adding noise of same modality and cross modality. Similarly, enhancement of human hearing through additive noise has been studied. In this study, we investigate the effect of noise in visual perception, specifically time-to-contact (TTC) judgments. This study explores four research questions: (1) Does noise help in TTC judgments? (2) How does noise affect speed and accuracy of TTC judgments? (3) Does cross modal noise help in TTC judgments? (4) How does cross modal noise affect speed and accuracy of TTC judgments? Through simulation, we show that noise in optical cue can enhance weak signals. We also demonstrate that noise can improve speed of TTC judgments at the expense of accuracy. Similarly, we demonstrate SR by adding noise of cross modality. These findings provide plausible hypotheses regarding how much noise should be added to enhance TTC judgments.

  9. 32 CFR 536.85 - Claims payable under the Federal Tort Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Federal Tort Claims Act... the scope of their employment under circumstances in which the United States, if a private person... occurred. The FTCA is a limited waiver of sovereign immunity without which the United States may not...

  10. 32 CFR 536.85 - Claims payable under the Federal Tort Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Federal Tort Claims Act... the scope of their employment under circumstances in which the United States, if a private person... occurred. The FTCA is a limited waiver of sovereign immunity without which the United States may not...

  11. Cosmopolitanism and violence: difficulties of judgment.

    PubMed

    Fine, Robert

    2006-03-01

    This paper addresses the difficult relation of cosmopolitan ideas to the existence of war and violence. It explores the ambivalences within the cosmopolitan outlook as it seeks to reconcile its attentiveness to the actuality of violence in the modern age with its normative vision of perpetual peace. I address these ambivalences through a discussion of a) what it is to learn from the catastrophes of the twentieth century; b) the contribution Kant's theory of cosmopolitan law to the solution to contemporary problems of violence; c) the reconstruction of cosmopolitan thinking in the wake of the Holocaust as an attempt to take atrocities seriously; d) the application of cosmopolitan criteria to the justification and authorization of humanitarian military intervention; and e) the attempt on the part of Habermas and Derrida to address the ambivalence involved in reconciling cosmopolitanism and violence in Kosovo and Iraq. While cosmopolitanism is usually understood as a reference to a worldly legal and institutional order, the cosmopolitan outlook is also a mode of understanding the world, an ethic of responsibility and an ongoing exercise of political judgment in the face of violence.

  12. Airborne LIDAR point cloud tower inclination judgment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    liang, Chen; zhengjun, Liu; jianguo, Qian

    2016-11-01

    Inclined transmission line towers for the safe operation of the line caused a great threat, how to effectively, quickly and accurately perform inclined judgment tower of power supply company safety and security of supply has played a key role. In recent years, with the development of unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with a laser scanner, GPS, inertial navigation is one of the high-precision 3D Remote Sensing System in the electricity sector more and more. By airborne radar scan point cloud to visually show the whole picture of the three-dimensional spatial information of the power line corridors, such as the line facilities and equipment, terrain and trees. Currently, LIDAR point cloud research in the field has not yet formed an algorithm to determine tower inclination, the paper through the existing power line corridor on the tower base extraction, through their own tower shape characteristic analysis, a vertical stratification the method of combining convex hull algorithm for point cloud tower scarce two cases using two different methods for the tower was Inclined to judge, and the results with high reliability.

  13. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious. PMID:26941684

  14. Experiencing Physical Pain Leads to More Sympathetic Moral Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qianguo; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Wen-bo

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that observing another’s pain can evoke other-oriented emotions, which instigate empathic concern for another’s needs. It is not clear whether experiencing first-hand physical pain may also evoke other-oriented emotion and thus influence people’s moral judgment. Based on the embodied simulation literature and neuroimaging evidence, the present research tested the idea that participants who experienced physical pain would be more sympathetic in their moral judgments. Study 1 showed that ice-induced physical pain facilitated higher self-assessments of empathy, which motivated participants to be more sympathetic in their moral judgments. Study 2 confirmed findings in study 1 and also showed that State Perspective Taking subscale of the State Empathy Scale mediated the effects of physical pain on moral judgment. These results provide support for embodied view of morality and for the view that pain can serve a positive psychosocial function. PMID:26465603

  15. Memory for incidentally perceived social cues: Effects on person judgment.

    PubMed

    Pawling, Ralph; Kirkham, Alexander J; Tipper, Steven P; Over, Harriet

    2017-02-01

    Dynamic face cues can be very salient, as when observing sudden shifts of gaze to a new location, or a change of expression from happy to angry. These highly salient social cues influence judgments of another person during the course of an interaction. However, other dynamic cues, such as pupil dilation, are much more subtle, affecting judgments of another person even without awareness. We asked whether such subtle, incidentally perceived, dynamic cues could be encoded in to memory and retrieved at a later time. The current study demonstrates that in some circumstances changes in pupil size in another person are indeed encoded into memory and influence judgments of that individual at a later time. Furthermore, these judgments interact with the perceived trustworthiness of the individual and the nature of the social context. The effect is somewhat variable, however, possibly reflecting individual differences and the inherent ambiguity of pupil dilation/constriction.

  16. Damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex impairs judgment of harmful intent

    PubMed Central

    Young, Liane; Bechara, Antoine; Tranel, Daniel; Damasio, Hanna; Hauser, Marc; Damasio, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Summary Moral judgments, whether delivered in ordinary experience or in the courtroom, depend on our ability to infer intentions. We forgive unintentional or accidental harms and condemn failed attempts to harm. Prior work demonstrates that patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC) deliver abnormal judgments in response to moral dilemmas, and that these patients are especially impaired in triggering emotional responses to inferred or abstract events (e.g., intentions), as opposed to real or actual outcomes. We therefore predicted that VMPC patients would deliver abnormal moral judgments of harmful intentions in the absence of harmful outcomes, as in failed attempts to harm. This prediction was confirmed in the current study: VMPC patients judged attempted harms including attempted murder as more morally permissible relative to controls. These results highlight the critical role of the VMPC in processing harmful intent for moral judgment. PMID:20346759

  17. Storytelling in Criminal Trials: A Model of Social Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, W. Lance

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that storytelling is the communicational practice used by jurors to organize information, transmit intragroup understanding and guide judgments. Explores the storytelling process for answers to questions about justice. (MH)

  18. Low Levels of Empathic Concern Predict Utilitarian Moral Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Young, Liane

    2013-01-01

    Is it permissible to harm one to save many? Classic moral dilemmas are often defined by the conflict between a putatively rational response to maximize aggregate welfare (i.e., the utilitarian judgment) and an emotional aversion to harm (i.e., the non-utilitarian judgment). Here, we address two questions. First, what specific aspect of emotional responding is relevant for these judgments? Second, is this aspect of emotional responding selectively reduced in utilitarians or enhanced in non-utilitarians? The results reveal a key relationship between moral judgment and empathic concern in particular (i.e., feelings of warmth and compassion in response to someone in distress). Utilitarian participants showed significantly reduced empathic concern on an independent empathy measure. These findings therefore reveal diminished empathic concern in utilitarian moral judges. PMID:23593213

  19. Virtual Morality: Transitioning from Moral Judgment to Moral Action?

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Kathryn B.; Howard, Charles; Howard, Ian S.; Gummerum, Michaela; Ganis, Giorgio; Anderson, Grace; Terbeck, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    The nature of moral action versus moral judgment has been extensively debated in numerous disciplines. We introduce Virtual Reality (VR) moral paradigms examining the action individuals take in a high emotionally arousing, direct action-focused, moral scenario. In two studies involving qualitatively different populations, we found a greater endorsement of utilitarian responses–killing one in order to save many others–when action was required in moral virtual dilemmas compared to their judgment counterparts. Heart rate in virtual moral dilemmas was significantly increased when compared to both judgment counterparts and control virtual tasks. Our research suggests that moral action may be viewed as an independent construct to moral judgment, with VR methods delivering new prospects for investigating and assessing moral behaviour. PMID:27723826

  20. 33 CFR 153.411 - Procedures for payment of judgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION CONTROL OF POLLUTION BY OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES, DISCHARGE REMOVAL Administration of the Pollution Fund § 153.411 Procedures for payment of judgments. An owner or operator of...

  1. 33 CFR 153.411 - Procedures for payment of judgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION CONTROL OF POLLUTION BY OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES, DISCHARGE REMOVAL Administration of the Pollution Fund § 153.411 Procedures for payment of judgments. An owner or operator of...

  2. 33 CFR 153.411 - Procedures for payment of judgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION CONTROL OF POLLUTION BY OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES, DISCHARGE REMOVAL Administration of the Pollution Fund § 153.411 Procedures for payment of judgments. An owner or operator of...

  3. 33 CFR 153.411 - Procedures for payment of judgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION CONTROL OF POLLUTION BY OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES, DISCHARGE REMOVAL Administration of the Pollution Fund § 153.411 Procedures for payment of judgments. An owner or operator of...

  4. 33 CFR 153.411 - Procedures for payment of judgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION CONTROL OF POLLUTION BY OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES, DISCHARGE REMOVAL Administration of the Pollution Fund § 153.411 Procedures for payment of judgments. An owner or operator of...

  5. 17 CFR 12.202 - Disqualification of Judgment Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... decisional proceeding when he considers himself to be disqualified on the grounds of personal bias, conflict... party may request a Judgment Officer to disqualify himself on the grounds of personal bias, conflict...

  6. 17 CFR 12.202 - Disqualification of Judgment Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... decisional proceeding when he considers himself to be disqualified on the grounds of personal bias, conflict... party may request a Judgment Officer to disqualify himself on the grounds of personal bias, conflict...

  7. 17 CFR 12.102 - Disqualification of Judgment Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... decisional proceeding when he considers himself to be disqualified on the grounds of personal bias, conflict... party may request a Judgment Officer to disqualify himself on the grounds of personal bias, conflict...

  8. 17 CFR 12.102 - Disqualification of Judgment Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... decisional proceeding when he considers himself to be disqualified on the grounds of personal bias, conflict... party may request a Judgment Officer to disqualify himself on the grounds of personal bias, conflict...

  9. 17 CFR 12.202 - Disqualification of Judgment Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... decisional proceeding when he considers himself to be disqualified on the grounds of personal bias, conflict... party may request a Judgment Officer to disqualify himself on the grounds of personal bias, conflict...

  10. 17 CFR 12.102 - Disqualification of Judgment Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... decisional proceeding when he considers himself to be disqualified on the grounds of personal bias, conflict... party may request a Judgment Officer to disqualify himself on the grounds of personal bias, conflict...

  11. 17 CFR 12.202 - Disqualification of Judgment Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... decisional proceeding when he considers himself to be disqualified on the grounds of personal bias, conflict... party may request a Judgment Officer to disqualify himself on the grounds of personal bias, conflict...

  12. 17 CFR 12.102 - Disqualification of Judgment Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... decisional proceeding when he considers himself to be disqualified on the grounds of personal bias, conflict... party may request a Judgment Officer to disqualify himself on the grounds of personal bias, conflict...

  13. Effects of meaning and symmetry on judgments of size.

    PubMed

    Reber, Rolf; Christensen, Bo T; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that people judge words as having bigger font size than non-words. This finding has been interpreted in terms of processing fluency, with higher fluency leading to judgments of bigger size. If so, symmetric numbers (e.g., 44) which can be processed more fluently are predicted to be judged as larger than asymmetric numbers (e.g., 43). However, recent research found that symmetric numbers were judged to be smaller than asymmetric numbers. This finding suggests that the mechanisms underlying size judgments may differ in meaningful and meaningless materials. Supporting this notion, we showed in Experiment 1 that meaning increased judged size, whereas symmetry decreased judged size. In the next two experiments, we excluded several alternative explanations for the differences in size judgments between meaningful and meaningless materials in earlier studies. This finding contradicts the notion that the mechanism underlying judgments of size is processing fluency.

  14. Physiological Desensitization and Judgments about Female Victims of Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linz, Daniel; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines whether men exposed to filmed sexual violence are less physiologically aroused and less emotionally responsive to subsequent depictions of violence against women. Investigates, secondarily, the magnitude of the relationship between physiological reactions, emotional reactions, and subsequent judgments. (MS)

  15. Experienced and novice officers' generalized communication suspicion and veracity judgments.

    PubMed

    Masip, Jaume; Alonso, Hernán; Herrero, Carmen; Garrido, Eugenio

    2016-04-01

    Deception detection research has shown that police officers are less truth-biased and make their veracity judgments with greater confidence than do nonofficers. Here we examined nonofficers, novice officers, and experienced officers' response bias, confidence, and generalized communicative suspicion. In Experiment 1, novice officers aligned with nonofficers in terms of both generalized communicative suspicion scores and confidence, with both these groups scoring lower than experienced officers. Generalized communicative suspicion scores and veracity judgments were not significantly related for either sample. However, novice officers aligned with experienced officers in terms of judgments: both police groups were lie-biased, whereas nonofficers were truth-biased. These findings suggest that unlike experienced officers, who have embraced the police culture to a greater degree, novice officers are not dispositionally suspicious (generalized communicative suspicion); however, they are able to mirror the prototypical police behavior (deception judgments) in police-related contexts. Experiment 2 supported these notions.

  16. Making judgment calls. The ultimate act of leadership.

    PubMed

    Tichy, Noel M; Bennis, Warren G

    2007-10-01

    According to the traditional view, judgment is an event: You make a decision and then move on. Yet Tichy, of the University of Michigan's Ross School of Business, and Bennis, of the University of Southern California's Marshall School of Business, found that good leadership judgment occurs not in a single moment but throughout a process. From their research into the complex phenomenon of leadership judgment, the authors also found that most important judgment calls reside in one of three domains: people, strategy, and crisis. Understanding the essence of leadership judgment is crucial. A leader's calls determine an organization's success or failure and deliver the verdict on his or her career. The first phase of the judgment process is preparation--identifying and framing the issue that demands a decision and aligning and mobilizing key stakeholders. Second is the call itself, And third is acting on the call, learning and adjusting along the way. Good leaders use a "story line"--an articulation of a company's identity, direction, and values--to inform their actions throughout the judgment process. Boeing CEO Jim McNerney, for instance, focused on a story line of Boeing as a world-class competitor and ethical leader to make a judgment call that launched the company's recovery from a string of ethical crises. Good leaders also take advantage of "redo loops" throughout the process, reconsidering the parameters of the decision, relabeling the problem, and redefining the goal in a way that more and more people can accept. Procter & Gamble's A.G. Lafley and Best Buy's Brad Anderson have both used redo loops--in preparation and execution, respectively--to strengthen not only support for their calls but also the outcomes.

  17. Duration, Distance, and Speed Judgments of Two Moving Objects by 4- to 11-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Fumiko

    1996-01-01

    Four- to 11-year-olds made duration, distance, and speed judgments on Piagetian tasks where cars ran on parallel tracks. Among younger children, duration and distance judgments had approximately the same difficulty. Among older children, distance judgments were easier than duration judgments, and symmetry of effects of temporal and spatial…

  18. A quantum theoretical explanation for probability judgment errors.

    PubMed

    Busemeyer, Jerome R; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Franco, Riccardo; Trueblood, Jennifer S

    2011-04-01

    A quantum probability model is introduced and used to explain human probability judgment errors including the conjunction and disjunction fallacies, averaging effects, unpacking effects, and order effects on inference. On the one hand, quantum theory is similar to other categorization and memory models of cognition in that it relies on vector spaces defined by features and similarities between vectors to determine probability judgments. On the other hand, quantum probability theory is a generalization of Bayesian probability theory because it is based on a set of (von Neumann) axioms that relax some of the classic (Kolmogorov) axioms. The quantum model is compared and contrasted with other competing explanations for these judgment errors, including the anchoring and adjustment model for probability judgments. In the quantum model, a new fundamental concept in cognition is advanced--the compatibility versus incompatibility of questions and the effect this can have on the sequential order of judgments. We conclude that quantum information-processing principles provide a viable and promising new way to understand human judgment and reasoning.

  19. Comparing perceptual judgment and subjective measures of spatial awareness.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Matthew L; Bass, Ellen J

    2009-07-01

    Spatial awareness is important in domains where safety hinges on human operators keeping track of the relative locations of objects in the environment. While a variety of subjective and judgment-based measures have been used to evaluate spatial awareness, none have probed all three of its levels: (1) identification of environmental objects, (2) their current locations relative to the operator, and (3) their relative positions over time. This work compares new judgment-based measures of spatial awareness that probe all three levels of spatial awareness to conventional subjective measures. In the evaluation of 14 configurations of Synthetic Vision Systems head down displays (seven terrain textures and two Geometric Fields of View (GFOVs)), 18 pilots made four types of judgments (relative angle, distance, height, and abeam time) regarding the location of terrain points displayed in 112 5-s, non-interactive simulations. They also provided subjective demand, awareness, clutter, SA-SWORD, and preferred GFOV measures. Correlation analyses revealed that displays that received higher awareness and SA-SWORD subjective ratings were associated with smaller errors in abeam time judgments and, for SA-SWORD, smaller errors in relative distance judgments. Thus SA-SWORD provides insight into level 2 spatial awareness and both SA-SWORD and awareness provide insight into level 3 spatial awareness. ANOVA and chi(2) analyses revealed comparable results between display configurations that produced the minimum error in judgments and those recommended by the awareness, SA-SWORD, and preferred GFOV measures.

  20. The role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex in decision making: judgment under uncertainty or judgment per se?

    PubMed

    Fellows, Lesley K; Farah, Martha J

    2007-11-01

    Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMF) is thought to be important in human decision making, but studies to date have focused on decision making under conditions of uncertainty, including risky or ambiguous decisions. Other lines of evidence suggest that this area of the brain represents quite basic information about the relative "economic" value of options, predicting a role for this region in value-based decision making even in the absence of uncertainty. We tested this prediction in human subjects with VMF damage. Preference judgment is a simple form of value-based decision making under certainty. We asked whether VMF damage in humans would lead to inconsistent preference judgments in a simple pairwise choice task. Twenty-one participants with focal damage to the frontal lobes were compared with 19 age- and education-matched control subjects. Subjects with VMF damage were significantly more inconsistent in their preferences than controls, whereas those with frontal damage that spared the VMF performed normally. These results argue that VMF plays a necessary role in certain as well as uncertain decision making in humans.

  1. Evidence for different processes involved in the effects of nontemporal stimulus size and numerical digit value on duration judgments.

    PubMed

    Rammsayer, Thomas H; Verner, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Perceived duration has been shown to be positively related to task-irrelevant, nontemporal stimulus magnitude. To account for this finding, Walsh's (2003) A Theory of Magnitude (ATOM) model suggests that magnitude of time is not differentiated from magnitude of other nontemporal stimulus characteristics and collectively processed by a generalized magnitude system. In Experiment 1, we investigated the combined effects of stimulus size and numerical quantity, as two nontemporal stimulus dimensions covered by the ATOM model, on duration judgments. Participants were required to reproduce the duration of target intervals marked by Arabic digits varying in physical size and numerical value. While the effect of stimulus size was effectively moderated by target duration, the effect of numerical value appeared to require attentional resources directed to the numerical value in order to become effective. Experiment 2 was designed to further elucidate the mediating influence of attention on the effect of numerical value on duration judgments. An effect of numerical value was only observed when participants' attention was directed to digit value, but not when participants were required to pay special attention to digit parity. While the ATOM model implies a common metrics and generalized magnitude processing for time, size, and quantity, the present findings provided converging evidence for the notion of two qualitatively different mechanisms underlying the effects of nontemporal stimulus size and numerical value on duration judgments. Furthermore, our data challenge the implicit common assumption that the effect of numerical value on duration judgments represents a continuously increasing function of digit magnitude.

  2. Evidence for different processes involved in the effects of nontemporal stimulus size and numerical digit value on duration judgments

    PubMed Central

    Rammsayer, Thomas H.; Verner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Perceived duration has been shown to be positively related to task-irrelevant, nontemporal stimulus magnitude. To account for this finding, Walsh's (2003) A Theory of Magnitude (ATOM) model suggests that magnitude of time is not differentiated from magnitude of other nontemporal stimulus characteristics and collectively processed by a generalized magnitude system. In Experiment 1, we investigated the combined effects of stimulus size and numerical quantity, as two nontemporal stimulus dimensions covered by the ATOM model, on duration judgments. Participants were required to reproduce the duration of target intervals marked by Arabic digits varying in physical size and numerical value. While the effect of stimulus size was effectively moderated by target duration, the effect of numerical value appeared to require attentional resources directed to the numerical value in order to become effective. Experiment 2 was designed to further elucidate the mediating influence of attention on the effect of numerical value on duration judgments. An effect of numerical value was only observed when participants' attention was directed to digit value, but not when participants were required to pay special attention to digit parity. While the ATOM model implies a common metrics and generalized magnitude processing for time, size, and quantity, the present findings provided converging evidence for the notion of two qualitatively different mechanisms underlying the effects of nontemporal stimulus size and numerical value on duration judgments. Furthermore, our data challenge the implicit common assumption that the effect of numerical value on duration judgments represents a continuously increasing function of digit magnitude. PMID:27191941

  3. Binocular Depth Judgments on Smoothly Curved Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Hornsey, Rebecca L.; Scarfe, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Binocular disparity is an important cue to depth, allowing us to make very fine discriminations of the relative depth of objects. In complex scenes, this sensitivity depends on the particular shape and layout of the objects viewed. For example, judgments of the relative depths of points on a smoothly curved surface are less accurate than those for points in empty space. It has been argued that this occurs because depth relationships are represented accurately only within a local spatial area. A consequence of this is that, when judging the relative depths of points separated by depth maxima and minima, information must be integrated across separate local representations. This integration, by adding more stages of processing, might be expected to reduce the accuracy of depth judgements. We tested this idea directly by measuring how accurately human participants could report the relative depths of two dots, presented with different binocular disparities. In the first, Two Dot condition the two dots were presented in front of a square grid. In the second, Three Dot condition, an additional dot was presented midway between the target dots, at a range of depths, both nearer and further than the target dots. In the final, Surface condition, the target dots were placed on a smooth surface defined by binocular disparity cues. In some trials, this contained a depth maximum or minimum between the target dots. In the Three Dot condition, performance was impaired when the central dot was presented with a large disparity, in line with predictions. In the Surface condition, performance was worst when the midpoint of the surface was at a similar distance to the targets, and relatively unaffected when there was a large depth maximum or minimum present. These results are not consistent with the idea that depth order is represented only within a local spatial area. PMID:27824895

  4. Performance-based education: Regaining engineering judgment

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, G.D. ); Knief, R.A. )

    1993-01-01

    During the past two decades, a subtle, but major change has occurred in the way engineers are prepared for their profession by their college studies. Pocket calculators, advanced computers, and engineering software have each contributed to this change. The result is a generation of engineers that appears to have [open quotes]lost touch[close quotes] with the physical nature of their profession. Traditional university engineering education focuses on knowledge-based instruction, which assumes that as the student gains knowledge, that knowledge will automatically be translated into desired behaviors. In the past, development of an engineer's understanding of the design process was based on coincident development of the engineer's mental models of the physical world. The student-engineer's mental models of physical systems were developed through direct exposure in hands-on laboratories and work-study assignments. Through the combination of classroom instruction and physical experiences, the student-engineer began to build an understanding of engineering systems and physical processes that is required to develop [open quotes]sound engineering judgment[close quotes]. Performance-based instruction, with its emphasis on developing training and educational programs from observed performance deficiencies, provides a potential approach to resolving this problem. Performance-based training has a strong record of achievement in a variety of military and industrial settings, including the commercial nuclear industry. Several specific formulations exist for performance-based training and education, such as instructional system design, training system design or development, or the systematic approach to training. However, each generally includes the concepts embodied in the four (arbitrary) elements; analysis, design/development, implementation, and evaluation/feedback.

  5. Quantification of Health by Scaling Similarity Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Arons, Alexander M. M.; Krabbe, Paul F. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A new methodology is introduced to scale health states on an interval scale based on similarity responses. It could be well suited for valuation of health states on specific regions of the health continuum that are problematic when applying conventional valuation techniques. These regions are the top-end, bottom-end, and states around ‘dead’. Methods Three samples of approximately 500 respondents were recruited via an online survey. Each sample received a different judgmental task in which similarity data were elicited for the top seven health states in the dementia quality of life instrument (DQI). These states were ‘111111’ (no problems on any domain) and six others with some problems (level 2) on one domain. The tasks presented two (dyads), three (triads), or four (quads) DQI health states. Similarity data were transformed into interval-level scales with metric and non-metric multidimensional scaling algorithms. The three response tasks were assessed for their feasibility and comprehension. Results In total 532, 469, and 509 respondents participated in the dyads, triads, and quads tasks respectively. After the scaling procedure, in all three response tasks, the best health state ‘111111’ was positioned at one end of the health-state continuum and state ‘111211’ was positioned at the other. The correlation between the metric scales ranged from 0.73 to 0.95, while the non-metric scales ranged from 0.76 to 1.00, indicating strong to near perfect associations. There were no apparent differences in the reported difficulty of the response tasks, but the triads had the highest number of drop-outs. Discussion Multidimensional scaling proved to be a feasible method to scale health-state similarity data. The dyads and especially the quads response tasks warrant further investigation, as these tasks provided the best indications of respondent comprehension. PMID:24586520

  6. [Beauty judgment: review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Faure, Jacques; Bolender, Yves

    2014-03-01

    Esthetic judgments are surely subjective, but as surely, that does not preclude them being studied objectively through rigorous scientific methods. The factual basis of a science of esthetics is not to settle whether some person or image is "objectively beautiful" but rather to determine whether some representative set or sets of individuals judge or experience him/her/it as beautiful or unattractive. The aim of this paper is to review the definitional, theoretical and methodological aspects pertaining to the perception of facial/dental attractiveness by a group of representative individuals. The first part lays down the basic principles of the perception of facial/dental attractiveness: the perception involves a jury, a field of investigation and a test providing quantitative data; the following general determinants of beauty perception are reviewed: the average morphology, the judge's cultural background, the numerology, the judge's ethnical origin. Indirect determinants are the dentition, the osseous architecture and the muscular envelope. Some disruptive factors might alter the judges' facial perception. They might be qualified as either peripheral to the face or psycho-social factors. Peripheral factors include hair style and color, skin hue, wrinkles, lips color... Psycho-social factors cover the personality of the subject being evaluated, his/her intelligence or behavior. The second part deals specifically with the methodology used to determine facial attractiveness and to correlate this latter with a specific morphology. Typically such a study aims to determine average esthetic preferences for some set of visual displays among a particular jury, given a specific task to judge esthetic quality or qualities. The sample being studied, the displays, the jury or jurys, the rating procedure must all be specified prior to collecting data. A specific emphasis will be given to the rating process and the associated morphometrics, the ultimate goal being to

  7. Effect of biomechanical constraints in the hand laterality judgment task: where does it come from?

    PubMed Central

    Vannuscorps, Gilles; Pillon, Agnesa; Andres, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have reported that, when subjects have to judge the laterality of rotated hand drawings, their judgment is automatically influenced by the biomechanical constraints of the upper limbs. The prominent account for this effect is that, in order to perform the task, subjects mentally rotate their upper limbs toward the position of the displayed stimulus in a way that is consistent with the biomechanical constraints underlying the actual movement. However, the effect of such biomechanical constraints was also found in the responses of motor-impaired individuals performing the hand laterality judgment (HLJ) task, which seems at odds with the “motor imagery” account for this effect. In this study, we further explored the source of the biomechanical constraint effect by assessing the ability of an individual (DC) with a congenital absence of upper limbs to judge the laterality of rotated hand or foot drawings. We found that DC was as accurate and fast as control participants in judging the laterality of both hand and foot drawings, without any disadvantage for hands when compared to feet. Furthermore, DC's response latencies (RLs) for hand drawings were influenced by the biomechanical constraints of hand movements in the same way as control participants' RLs. These results suggest that the effect of biomechanical constraints in the HLJ task is not strictly dependent on “motor imagery” and can arise from the visual processing of body parts being sensitive to such constraints. PMID:23125830

  8. The relation between cognitive-perceptual schizotypal traits and the Ebbinghaus size-illusion is mediated by judgment time

    PubMed Central

    Bressan, Paola; Kramer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In the Ebbinghaus illusion, a circle surrounded by smaller circles is perceived as larger than an identical one surrounded by larger circles. The illusion is reportedly weaker in individuals with (disorganized) schizophrenia or schizotypy than in controls, a finding that has been interpreted as evidence that both schizophrenia and schizotypy involve reduced contextual integration. In support of this view, we show that the Ebbinghaus illusion also decreases, in the general population, with cognitive-perceptual schizotypal traits (measured with both the cognitive-perceptual subscale of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief and the Magical Ideation scale). Our results were strong and separately replicable in different within-subjects and between-subjects conditions. However, a mediation analysis revealed that the reduction of the Ebbinghaus illusion was (statistically, hence without implying a causal relationship) entirely due to increased judgment time, i.e., the time subjects took to complete size comparisons. Judgment time increased with the strength of cognitive-perceptual schizotypal traits, but subjects with longer judgment times had smaller illusions regardless of these traits. We argue that there are at least two possible accounts of our results. Reduced contextual integration might be due to a reduced ability to integrate context, as previously suggested; alternatively, it could be due to a reduced tendency to integrate context—that is, to a detail-oriented processing style. We offer predictions for future research, testable with a deadline experiment that pits these two accounts against one another. Regardless of which account proves to be best, our results show that contextual integration decreases with cognitive-perceptual schizotypal traits, and that this relationship is mediated by judgment time. Future studies should thus consider either manipulating or measuring this time. PMID:23781212

  9. Diagnostic Hypothesis Generation and Human Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Rick P.; Dougherty, Michael R.; Sprenger, Amber M.; Harbison, J. Isaiah

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic hypothesis-generation processes are ubiquitous in human reasoning. For example, clinicians generate disease hypotheses to explain symptoms and help guide treatment, auditors generate hypotheses for identifying sources of accounting errors, and laypeople generate hypotheses to explain patterns of information (i.e., data) in the…

  10. Explaining the U-Shaped Development of Intent-Based Moral Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Margoni, Francesco; Surian, Luca

    2016-01-01

    When preschoolers evaluate actions and agents, they typically neglect agents’ intentions and focus on action outcomes instead. By contrast, intentions count much more than outcomes for older children and adults. This phenomenon has traditionally been seen as evidence of a developmental change in children’s concept of what is morally good and bad. However, a growing number of studies shows that infants are able to reason about agents’ intentions and take them into account in their spontaneous socio-moral evaluations. Here we argue that this puzzling U-shaped trajectory in children’s judgments is best accounted for by a model that posits developmental continuity in moral competence and emphasizes the effect of immature executive function skills on preschoolers’ performance. PMID:26925024

  11. Latent Fairness in Adults' Relationship-Based Moral Judgments.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jian; Liu, Yanchun; Li, Jiafeng

    2015-01-01

    Can adults make fair moral judgments when individuals with whom they have different relationships are involved? The present study explored the fairness of adults' relationship-based moral judgments in two respects by performing three experiments involving 999 participants. In Experiment 1, 65 adults were asked to decide whether to harm a specific person to save five strangers in the footbridge and trolley dilemmas in a within-subject design. The lone potential victim was a relative, a best friend, a person they disliked, a criminal or a stranger. Adults' genetic relatedness to, familiarity with and affective relatedness to the lone potential victims varied. The results indicated that adults made different moral judgments involving the lone potential victims with whom they had different relationships. In Experiment 2, 306 adults responded to the footbridge and trolley dilemmas involving five types of lone potential victims in a within-subject design, and the extent to which they were familiar with and affectively related to the lone potential victim was measured. The results generally replicated those of Experiment 1. In addition, for close individuals, adults' moral judgments were less deontological relative to their familiarity with or positive affect toward these individuals. For individuals they were not close to, adults made deontological choices to a larger extent relative to their unfamiliarity with or negative affect toward these individuals. Moreover, for familiar individuals, the extent to which adults made deontological moral judgments more closely approximated the extent to which they were familiar with the individual. The adults' deontological moral judgments involving unfamiliar individuals more closely approximated their affective relatedness to the individuals. In Experiment 3, 628 adults were asked to make moral judgments with the type of lone potential victim as the between-subject variable. The results generally replicated those of the previous

  12. Latent Fairness in Adults’ Relationship-Based Moral Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jian; Liu, Yanchun; Li, Jiafeng

    2015-01-01

    Can adults make fair moral judgments when individuals with whom they have different relationships are involved? The present study explored the fairness of adults’ relationship-based moral judgments in two respects by performing three experiments involving 999 participants. In Experiment 1, 65 adults were asked to decide whether to harm a specific person to save five strangers in the footbridge and trolley dilemmas in a within-subject design. The lone potential victim was a relative, a best friend, a person they disliked, a criminal or a stranger. Adults’ genetic relatedness to, familiarity with and affective relatedness to the lone potential victims varied. The results indicated that adults made different moral judgments involving the lone potential victims with whom they had different relationships. In Experiment 2, 306 adults responded to the footbridge and trolley dilemmas involving five types of lone potential victims in a within-subject design, and the extent to which they were familiar with and affectively related to the lone potential victim was measured. The results generally replicated those of Experiment 1. In addition, for close individuals, adults’ moral judgments were less deontological relative to their familiarity with or positive affect toward these individuals. For individuals they were not close to, adults made deontological choices to a larger extent relative to their unfamiliarity with or negative affect toward these individuals. Moreover, for familiar individuals, the extent to which adults made deontological moral judgments more closely approximated the extent to which they were familiar with the individual. The adults’ deontological moral judgments involving unfamiliar individuals more closely approximated their affective relatedness to the individuals. In Experiment 3, 628 adults were asked to make moral judgments with the type of lone potential victim as the between-subject variable. The results generally replicated those of the

  13. 31 CFR 597.302 - Assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters of credit and any documents..., stocks on hand, ships, goods on ships, real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements..., negotiable instruments, trade acceptances, royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments,...

  14. 31 CFR 597.302 - Assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of sale, any other evidences of title, ownership or indebtedness, letters of credit and any documents..., stocks on hand, ships, goods on ships, real estate mortgages, deeds of trust, vendors' sales agreements..., negotiable instruments, trade acceptances, royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments,...

  15. Effects of Experienced Disgust on Morally-Relevant Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; David Puncochar, Bieke; Cox, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Although disgust has been implicated in moral judgments, the extent to which the influence of disgust on moral judgment is distinct from other negative affective states remains unclear. To address this gap in knowledge, participants in Study 1 were randomized to a disgust (hand submersion in imitation vomit), discomfort (hand submersion in ice water), or neutral (hand submersion in room temperature water) affect condition while moral judgments of offenses were simultaneously assessed. The results showed that participants in the discomfort condition made the most severe moral judgments, particularly for moderate offenses. To examine if disgust may have more of an effect on some moral violations than others, participants in Study 2 were randomized to similar affect inductions while judgments of purity and non-purity offenses were simultaneously assessed. The results showed that those who had their hand submerged in imitation vomit recommended harsher punishment for purity violations relative to moral violations unrelated to purity. The opposite was true for those who submerged their hands in ice water, whereas punishment ratings for purity and non-purity violations did not significantly differ for those who submerged their hands in room temperature water. The implications of these findings for further delineating the specific role of experienced disgust in moral decision-making are discussed. PMID:27482909

  16. Overdistribution illusions: Categorical judgments produce them, confidence ratings reduce them.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, C J; Nakamura, K; Reyna, V F; Holliday, R E

    2017-01-01

    Overdistribution is a form of memory distortion in which an event is remembered as belonging to too many episodic states, states that are logically or empirically incompatible with each other. We investigated a response formatting method of suppressing 2 basic types of overdistribution, disjunction and conjunction illusions, which parallel some classic illusions in the judgment and decision making literature. In this method, subjects respond to memory probes by rating their confidence that test cues belong to specific episodic states (e.g., presented on List 1, presented on List 2), rather than by making the usual categorical judgments about those states. The central prediction, which was derived from the task calibration principle of fuzzy-trace theory, was that confidence ratings should reduce overdistribution by diminishing subjects' reliance on noncompensatory gist memories. The data of 3 experiments agreed with that prediction. In Experiment 1, there were reliable disjunction illusions with categorical judgments but not with confidence ratings. In Experiment 2, both response formats produced reliable disjunction illusions, but those for confidence ratings were much smaller than those for categorical judgments. In Experiment 3, there were reliable conjunction illusions with categorical judgments but not with confidence ratings. Apropos of recent controversies over confidence-accuracy correlations in memory, such correlations were positive for hits, negative for correct rejections, and the 2 types of correlations were of equal magnitude. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Patients with schizophrenia selectively impaired in temporal order judgments.

    PubMed

    Capa, Rémi L; Duval, Céline Z; Blaison, Dorine; Giersch, Anne

    2014-06-01

    The ability to order events in time plays a pervasive role in cognitive functions, but has only rarely been explored in patients with schizophrenia. Results we obtained recently suggested that patients have difficulties following events over time. However, this impairment concerned implicit responses at very short asynchronies, and it is not known whether it generalizes to subjective temporal order judgments. Here, we make a direct comparison between temporal order judgments and simultaneity/asynchrony discrimination in the same patients. Two squares were displayed on the screen either simultaneously or with an asynchrony of 24 to 96ms. In one session 20 patients and 20 controls made a temporal order judgment and in the other they discriminated between simultaneous and asynchronous stimuli. Controls recorded similar performances in the two tasks at asynchronies above 50ms, whereas patients displayed a sizeable impairment in temporal order judgment selectively. This impairment occurred in the easiest conditions, with the largest SOAs (Stimulus Onset Asynchronies) and only in the temporal order judgment. The results are the first evidence that patients with schizophrenia have a selective difficulty determining temporal order, even for asynchronies producing a clear perception of asynchrony. This impairment may mediate difficulties engaging oneself in everyday life events.

  18. Simultaneous perceptual and response biases on sequential face attractiveness judgments.

    PubMed

    Pegors, Teresa K; Mattar, Marcelo G; Bryan, Peter B; Epstein, Russell A

    2015-06-01

    Face attractiveness is a social characteristic that we often use to make first-pass judgments about the people around us. However, these judgments are highly influenced by our surrounding social world, and researchers still understand little about the mechanisms underlying these influences. In a series of 3 experiments, we use a novel sequential rating paradigm that enables us to measure biases in attractiveness judgments from the previous face and the previous rating. Our results reveal 2 simultaneous and opposing influences on face attractiveness judgments that arise from past experience of faces: a response bias in which attractiveness ratings shift toward a previously given rating and a stimulus bias in which attractiveness ratings shift away from the mean attractiveness of the previous face. Further, we provide evidence that the contrastive stimulus bias (but not the assimilative response bias) is strengthened by increasing the duration of the previous stimulus, suggesting an underlying perceptual mechanism. These results demonstrate that judgments of face attractiveness are influenced by information from our evaluative and perceptual history and that these influences have measurable behavioral effects over the course of just a few seconds.

  19. Instruction in information structuring improves Bayesian judgment in intelligence analysts

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, David R.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of brief instruction in information structuring (i.e., representing and integrating information) for improving the coherence of probability judgments and binary choices among intelligence analysts. Forty-three analysts were presented with comparable sets of Bayesian judgment problems before and immediately after instruction. After instruction, analysts' probability judgments were more coherent (i.e., more additive and compliant with Bayes theorem). Instruction also improved the coherence of binary choices regarding category membership: after instruction, subjects were more likely to invariably choose the category to which they assigned the higher probability of a target's membership. The research provides a rare example of evidence-based validation of effectiveness in instruction to improve the statistical assessment skills of intelligence analysts. Such instruction could also be used to improve the assessment quality of other types of experts who are required to integrate statistical information or make probabilistic assessments. PMID:25904882

  20. Instruction in information structuring improves Bayesian judgment in intelligence analysts.

    PubMed

    Mandel, David R

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of brief instruction in information structuring (i.e., representing and integrating information) for improving the coherence of probability judgments and binary choices among intelligence analysts. Forty-three analysts were presented with comparable sets of Bayesian judgment problems before and immediately after instruction. After instruction, analysts' probability judgments were more coherent (i.e., more additive and compliant with Bayes theorem). Instruction also improved the coherence of binary choices regarding category membership: after instruction, subjects were more likely to invariably choose the category to which they assigned the higher probability of a target's membership. The research provides a rare example of evidence-based validation of effectiveness in instruction to improve the statistical assessment skills of intelligence analysts. Such instruction could also be used to improve the assessment quality of other types of experts who are required to integrate statistical information or make probabilistic assessments.

  1. Culture and Judgment and Decision Making: The Constructivist Turn.

    PubMed

    Weber, Elke U; Morris, Michael W

    2010-07-01

    Cultural influences on individual judgment and decision making are increasingly understood in terms of dynamic constructive processing and the structures in social environments that shape distinct processing styles, directing initial attentional foci, activating particular judgment schemas and decision strategies, and ultimately reinforcing some judgment and decision making (JDM) patterns over others. These structures include the society's observable patterns of normative actions and responses, its prevalent forms of interpersonal interaction, the typical size and density of social networks, the ideational frames represented publically in texts and institutions, and so forth. We review this emerging perspective on culture and JDM in both economic and social domains, noting the distinctive insights it yields. We suggest new ways that cultural research is becoming relevant to mainstream JDM researchers, while also recognizing issues in need of further research.

  2. How Reasoning, Judgment, and Decision Making are Colored by Gist-based Intuition: A Fuzzy-Trace Theory Approach

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, Jonathan C.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Weldon, Rebecca B.; Brainerd, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory distinguishes verbatim (literal, exact) from gist (meaningful) representations, predicting that reliance on gist increases with experience and expertise. Thus, many judgment-and-decision-making biases increase with development, such that cognition is colored by context in ways that violate logical coherence and probability theories. Nevertheless, this increase in gist-based intuition is adaptive: Gist is stable, less sensitive to interference, and easier to manipulate. Moreover, gist captures the functionally significant essence of information, supporting healthier and more robust decision processes. We describe how fuzzy-trace theory accounts for judgment-and-decision making phenomena, predicting the paradoxical arc of these processes with the development of experience and expertise. We present data linking gist memory processes to gist processing in decision making and provide illustrations of gist reliance in medicine, public health, and intelligence analysis. PMID:26664820

  3. How Reasoning, Judgment, and Decision Making are Colored by Gist-based Intuition: A Fuzzy-Trace Theory Approach.

    PubMed

    Corbin, Jonathan C; Reyna, Valerie F; Weldon, Rebecca B; Brainerd, Charles J

    2015-12-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory distinguishes verbatim (literal, exact) from gist (meaningful) representations, predicting that reliance on gist increases with experience and expertise. Thus, many judgment-and-decision-making biases increase with development, such that cognition is colored by context in ways that violate logical coherence and probability theories. Nevertheless, this increase in gist-based intuition is adaptive: Gist is stable, less sensitive to interference, and easier to manipulate. Moreover, gist captures the functionally significant essence of information, supporting healthier and more robust decision processes. We describe how fuzzy-trace theory accounts for judgment-and-decision making phenomena, predicting the paradoxical arc of these processes with the development of experience and expertise. We present data linking gist memory processes to gist processing in decision making and provide illustrations of gist reliance in medicine, public health, and intelligence analysis.

  4. When standards are wide of the mark: nonselective superiority and inferiority biases in comparative judgments of objects and concepts.

    PubMed

    Giladi, Eilath E; Klar, Yechiel

    2002-12-01

    People are frequently required to judge how particular group members measure up against others in their group. According to the local-comparisons-general-standards (LOGE) approach, in these member-to-group comparisons, people fail to use the normatively appropriate local (group) standard and are infelicitously affected by a more general standard (involving instances from outside the judged group). Within positive groups, target group members are judged superior to the other members of the group, and within negative groups, inferior. To date, these nonselective superiority and inferiority biases have been demonstrated solely in judgments about human beings. In 6 experiments, nonselective biases were found in perceptual, affective, and cognitive judgments of nonhuman targets, objects, and concepts, thus supporting a cognitive rather than a social account.

  5. Stuttering and speech naturalness: audio and audiovisual judgments.

    PubMed

    Martin, R R; Haroldson, S K

    1992-06-01

    Unsophisticated raters, using 9-point interval scales, judged speech naturalness and stuttering severity of recorded stutterer and nonstutterer speech samples. Raters judged separately the audio-only and audiovisual presentations of each sample. For speech naturalness judgments of stutterer samples, raters invariably judged the audiovisual presentation more unnatural than the audio presentation of the same sample; but for the nonstutterer samples, there was no difference between audio and audiovisual naturalness ratings. Stuttering severity ratings did not differ significantly between audio and audiovisual presentations of the same samples. Rater reliability, interrater agreement, and intrarater agreement for speech naturalness judgments were assessed.

  6. Using SBAR to promote clinical judgment in undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Rachelle J; Westphal, Judith; Jambunathan, Jayalakshmi

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how students identify and interpret multiple embedded clinical cues in a case study, and then reflect these using SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation). Using Tanner's model of clinical judgment, a descriptive design was used to examine SBAR assignments completed by second-semester nursing students (n = 80). The majority of students (n = 62, 77.5%) in the study were unable to successfully follow all of the clinical judgment phases of the model: noticing, interpreting, responding, and reflecting. Although SBAR is an important tool for communicating clinical information, gaps exist between noticing and interpreting clinical cues, and forming an appropriate course of action.

  7. Accounting Fundamentals for Non-Accountants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this module is to provide an introduction and overview of accounting fundamentals for non-accountants. The module also covers important topics such as communication, internal controls, documentation and recordkeeping.

  8. Accounting: Accountants Need Verbal Skill Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Bruce L.

    1978-01-01

    Verbal skills training is one aspect of accounting education not usually included in secondary and postsecondary accounting courses. The author discusses the need for verbal competency and methods of incorporating it into accounting courses, particularly a variation of the Keller plan of individualized instruction. (MF)

  9. Trunk rotation affects temporal order judgments with direct saccades: Influence of handedness.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Kerstin; Kagan, Igor; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Bähr, Mathias; Wilke, Melanie

    2015-12-01

    Manipulation of the trunk midline has been shown to improve visuospatial performance in patients with unilateral visual neglect. The goal of the present study was to disentangle motor and perceptual components of egocentric midline manipulations and to investigate the contribution of individual hand preference. Two versions of visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) tasks were tested in healthy right- and left-handed subjects while trunk rotation was varied. In the congruent version, subjects were required to execute a saccade to the first of two horizontal stimuli presented with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA). In the incongruent version, subjects were required to perform a vertical saccade to a pre-learned color target, thereby dissociating motor response from the perceptual stimulus location. The main findings of this study are a trunk rotation and response direction specific impact on temporal judgments in form of a prior entry bias for right hemifield stimuli during rightward trunk rotation, but only in the congruent task. This trunk rotation-induced spatial bias was most pronounced in left-handed participants but had the same sign in the right-handed group. Results suggest that egocentric midline shifts in healthy subjects induce a spatially-specific motor, but not a perceptual, bias and underline the importance of taking individual differences in functional laterality such as handedness and mode of perceptual report into account when evaluating effects of trunk rotation in either healthy subjects or neurological patients.

  10. Individual Differences in Moral Disgust Do Not Predict Utilitarian Judgments, Sexual and Pathogen Disgust Do

    PubMed Central

    Laakasuo, Michael; Sundvall, Jukka; Drosinou, Marianna

    2017-01-01

    The role of emotional disgust and disgust sensitivity in moral judgment and decision-making has been debated intensively for over 20 years. Until very recently, there were two main evolutionary narratives for this rather puzzling association. One of the models suggest that it was developed through some form of group selection mechanism, where the internal norms of the groups were acting as pathogen safety mechanisms. Another model suggested that these mechanisms were developed through hygiene norms, which were piggybacking on pathogen disgust mechanisms. In this study we present another alternative, namely that this mechanism might have evolved through sexual disgust sensitivity. We note that though the role of disgust in moral judgment has been questioned recently, few studies have taken disgust sensitivity to account. We present data from a large sample (N = 1300) where we analyzed the associations between The Three Domain Disgust Scale and the most commonly used 12 moral dilemmas measuring utilitarian/deontological preferences with Structural Equation Modeling. Our results indicate that of the three domains of disgust, only sexual disgust is associated with more deontological moral preferences. We also found that pathogen disgust was associated with more utilitarian preferences. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:28361986

  11. Effects of Age Expectations on Oncology Social Workers' Clinical Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Annemarie; Choi, Namkee G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of oncology social workers' expectations regarding aging (ERA) and ERA with cancer (ERAC) on their clinical judgment. Methods: Oncology social workers (N = 322) were randomly assigned to one of four vignettes describing a patient with lung cancer. The vignettes were identical except for the patent's age…

  12. A neuroscientific approach to normative judgment in law and justice.

    PubMed Central

    Goodenough, Oliver R; Prehn, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Developments in cognitive neuroscience are providing new insights into the nature of normative judgment. Traditional views in such disciplines as philosophy, religion, law, psychology and economics have differed over the role and usefulness of intuition and emotion in judging blameworthiness. Cognitive psychology and neurobiology provide new tools and methods for studying questions of normative judgment. Recently, a consensus view has emerged, which recognizes important roles for emotion and intuition and which suggests that normative judgment is a distributed process in the brain. Testing this approach through lesion and scanning studies has linked a set of brain regions to such judgment, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Better models of emotion and intuition will help provide further clarification of the processes involved. The study of law and justice is less well developed. We advance a model of law in the brain which suggests that law can recruit a wider variety of sources of information and paths of processing than do the intuitive moral responses that have been studied so far. We propose specific hypotheses and lines of further research that could help test this approach. PMID:15590612

  13. Qualities of Judgmental Ratings by Four Rater Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Anne S.

    Quality of performance data yielded by subjective judgment is of major concern to researchers in performance appraisal. However, some confusion exists in the analysis of quality on ratings obtained from different rating scale formats and from different raters. To clarify this confusion, a study was conducted to assess the quality of judgmental…

  14. Do Judgments of Learning Predict Automatic Influences of Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Undorf, Monika; Böhm, Simon; Cüpper, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Current memory theories generally assume that memory performance reflects both recollection and automatic influences of memory. Research on people's predictions about the likelihood of remembering recently studied information on a memory test, that is, on judgments of learning (JOLs), suggests that both magnitude and resolution of JOLs are linked…

  15. Time Keeps on Ticking: The Experience of Clinical Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spengler, Paul M.; White, Michael J.; Aegisdottir, Stefania; Maugherman, Alan S.

    2009-01-01

    The reactions by Ridley and Shaw-Ridley (EJ832451) and Lichtenberg (EJ832452) to the authors' meta-analysis on the effects of experience on judgment accuracy add positively to what is hoped will become an ever more focused discourse on this most basic question: How can mental health clinical decision making be improved? In this rejoinder, the…

  16. Monitoring Communication with Patients: Analyzing Judgments of Satisfaction (JOS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner-Menghin, Michaela; de Bruin, Anique; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Medical students struggle to put into practice communication skills learned in medical school. In order to improve our instructional designs, better insight into the cause of this lack of transfer is foundational. We therefore explored students' cognitions by soliciting self-evaluations of their history-taking skills, coined "judgments of…

  17. Extensional versus Intuitive Reasoning: The Conjunction Fallacy in Probability Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tversky, Amos; Kahneman, Daniel

    1983-01-01

    Judgments under uncertainty are often mediated by intuitive heuristics that are not bound by the conjunction rule of probability. Representativeness and availability heuristics can make a conjunction appear more probable than one of its constituents. Alternative interpretations of this conjunction fallacy are discussed and attempts to combat it…

  18. Audiovisual Simultaneity Judgment and Rapid Recalibration throughout the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    De Niear, Matthew; Van der Burg, Erik; Wallace, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory interactions are well established to convey an array of perceptual and behavioral benefits. One of the key features of multisensory interactions is the temporal structure of the stimuli combined. In an effort to better characterize how temporal factors influence multisensory interactions across the lifespan, we examined audiovisual simultaneity judgment and the degree of rapid recalibration to paired audiovisual stimuli (Flash-Beep and Speech) in a sample of 220 participants ranging from 7 to 86 years of age. Results demonstrate a surprisingly protracted developmental time-course for both audiovisual simultaneity judgment and rapid recalibration, with neither reaching maturity until well into adolescence. Interestingly, correlational analyses revealed that audiovisual simultaneity judgments (i.e., the size of the audiovisual temporal window of simultaneity) and rapid recalibration significantly co-varied as a function of age. Together, our results represent the most complete description of age-related changes in audiovisual simultaneity judgments to date, as well as being the first to describe changes in the degree of rapid recalibration as a function of age. We propose that the developmental time-course of rapid recalibration scaffolds the maturation of more durable audiovisual temporal representations. PMID:27551918

  19. The Factorial Structure of Reasoning, Moral Judgment, and Moral Conduct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Beth; And Others

    Two factor analyses were conducted on data obtained from measurements of the reasoning, moral judgment, and moral conduct of 75 retarded and 75 normal subjects ranging in age from 6 to 18 years. One factor analysis sought to determine relationships between the reasoning variables and standard measures of intelligence and achievement. A second…

  20. Is AIDS a Biasing Factor in Teacher Judgment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David W.; Hulecki, Mary B.

    1989-01-01

    Regular-education, third-grade teachers (n=91) in Indiana reviewed one of two psychological reports, identical except that one reported a diagnosis of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and one reported a diagnosis of rheumatic fever. AIDS was not found to be a biasing factor in teachers' judgments regarding special education placement.…