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Sample records for accredited athletic training

  1. Accreditation and Continuous Quality Improvement In Athletic Training Education

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Kimberly S.; Rakich, Jonathon S.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To apply the continuous quality improvement model commonly associated with the business sector to entrylevel athletic training education program accreditation. Data Sources: We applied athletic training educational program accreditation as a tool for ensuring quality in the entrylevel athletic training education programs accredited by the Commission on the Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs. Literature from the business, education, and athletic training fields is integrated to support this paradigm shift in athletic training education. Data Synthesis: The advent of mandated entry-level athletic training educational program accreditation has forced institutions to evaluate their educational programs. Accreditation will promote continuous quality improvement in athletic training education through mechanisms such as control measures and process improvement. Conclusions/Recommendations: Although accreditation of entry-level athletic training education programs has created some dissonance among athletic training professionals, it will strengthen the profession as a whole. Athletic training educators must capture the synergy generated from this change to ensure quality educational experiences for all our students as we move forward to secure a strong position in the allied health care market. PMID:16558629

  2. Career Decisions of Senior Athletic Training Students and Recent Graduates of Accredited Athletic Training Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neibert, Peter; Huot, Christopher; Sexton, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Context: Athletic training students and graduates are faced with many factors that direct them into or away from the athletic training profession as a final career choice. Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine the career decisions made by athletic training students following graduation from an accredited professional athletic…

  3. Delegation and Empowerment in CAATE Accredited Athletic Training Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, Johanna; White, Kristi; Starkey, Chad; Krause, B. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Context: The use of delegation can potentially alleviate some of the stress with administering an athletic training education program (ATEP) and allow program directors (PDs) to focus on other aspects of their academic role. Objectives: To determine the reasons PDs delegate and do not delegate tasks to other faculty of ATEPs accredited by the…

  4. National Athletic Trainers' Association-Accredited Postprofessional Athletic Training Education: Attractors and Career Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Context Anecdotally, we know that students select graduate programs based on location, finances, and future career goals. Empirically, however, we lack information on what attracts a student to these programs. Objective To gain an appreciation for the selection process of graduate study. Design Qualitative study. Setting Postprofessional programs in athletic training (PPATs) accredited by the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Patients or Other Participants A total of 19 first-year PPAT students participated, representing 13 of the 16 accredited PPAT programs. Data Collection and Analysis All interviews were conducted via phone and transcribed verbatim. Analysis of the interview data followed the procedures as outlined by a grounded theory approach. Trustworthiness was secured by (1) participant checks, (2) participant verification, and (3) multiple analyst triangulations. Results Athletic training students select PPAT programs for 4 major reasons: reputation of the program or faculty (or both), career intentions, professional socialization, and mentorship from undergraduate faculty or clinical instructors (or both). Participants discussed long-term professional goals as the driving force behind wanting an advanced degree in athletic training. Faculty and clinical instructor recommendations and the program's prestige helped guide the decisions. Participants also expressed the need to gain more experience, which promoted autonomy, and support while gaining that work experience. Final selection of the PPAT program was based on academic offerings, the assistantship offered (including financial support), advanced knowledge of athletic training concepts and principles, and apprenticeship opportunities. Conclusions Students who attend PPAT programs are attracted to advancing their entry-level knowledge, are committed to their professional development as athletic trainers, and view the profession of athletic training as a life-long career. The combination of

  5. Sampling Methods and the Accredited Population in Athletic Training Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, W. David; Volberding, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Context: We describe methods of sampling the widely-studied, yet poorly defined, population of accredited athletic training education programs (ATEPs). Objective: There are two purposes to this study; first to describe the incidence and types of sampling methods used in athletic training education research, and second to clearly define the…

  6. Spirituality in the Curricula of Accredited Athletic Training Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udermann, Brian E.; Schutte, Greta E.; Reineke, David M.; Pitney, William A.; Gibson, Mark H.; Murray, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to examine if topics related to spirituality were being addressed in the curricula of athletic training education programs (ATEPs) and to investigate whether program directors (PDs) believed this to be a topic worthy of inclusion in ATEP experiences. Design and Setting: A descriptive mixed method study…

  7. Institutional Profiles of CAATE Accredited Entry-Level Athletic Training Education Programs in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Valerie J.; Kedrowski, Jonathan J.; Richter, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Context: Educational reform has recently become common thread in athletic training education. The National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) Education Task force suggests that Athletic Training Education Programs (ATEPs) align within colleges of health-related professions and offer academic majors. Objective: To provide a current profile of…

  8. Employment Characteristics, Educational Histories, and Pedagogical Training of Educators in CAATE-Accredited Athletic Training Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    Context: With the rapid expansion of ATEPs in the last decade, the demand for doctoral-trained athletic training educators has increased exponentially. As more athletic training educators enter higher education, it is important to fully understand how well prepared these educators are for life in academe. Objective: To describe employment…

  9. Description of Professional Master's Athletic Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Pitney, William A.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Professional master's (PM) athletic training programs (ATPs) are becoming more popular as the profession debates what the entry-level degree should be for athletic training. More information is needed related to the potential benefits of PM ATPs. Objective: Describe the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE)…

  10. Self Reported Perceptions of Physical Demands on Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawaguchi, Jeffrey K.; Babcock, Garth; Little, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Context: According to the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE) Standards for the Accreditation of Entry-Level Athletic Training Education Programs, athletic training students (ATSs) must complete clinical experiences that provide opportunities to integrate cognitive function, psychomotor skills, and affective…

  11. Athletic Trainers' Perceptions of the Importance, Preparation and Time Spent in the Athletic Training Content Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Context: Graduates of professional programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education are expected to be competent and proficient in the athletic training content areas. Objective: The unique skills and knowledge that an athletic trainer (AT) must possess may have more importance in one clinical setting than in…

  12. Accrediting industrial safety training programs

    SciTech Connect

    Beitel, L.

    1992-01-01

    There are job-specific training requirements established by regulations that Impose stringent training requirements on a contractor, for example, the Occupational Safety Health Act (OSHA). Failure to comply with OSHA training requirements can result in severe penalties being levied against a company. Although an accredited training program is expensive, it is a possible solution for minimizing risks associated with job-specific training requirements for employees. Operating DOE contractors direct approximately 10 percent of the operating funds toward training activities. Training needs for contractors span a broad range, from requirements awareness training for managers, to general training required on a one-time basis for all employees, to highly specialized training programs for employees involved In clean-up operations at hazardous waste sites. With this kind of an investment in training, it is logical to maximize the most return on an investment of training funds and to limit exposure to liability suits whenever possible. This presentation will provide an overview of accredited industrial safety programs. The criteria for accredited industrial safety programs will be defined. The question of whether accredited training programs are necessary will be examined. Finally, advantages and disadvantages will be identified for accrediting industrial safety training programs.

  13. Accrediting industrial safety training programs

    SciTech Connect

    Beitel, L.

    1992-12-31

    There are job-specific training requirements established by regulations that Impose stringent training requirements on a contractor, for example, the Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA). Failure to comply with OSHA training requirements can result in severe penalties being levied against a company. Although an accredited training program is expensive, it is a possible solution for minimizing risks associated with job-specific training requirements for employees. Operating DOE contractors direct approximately 10 percent of the operating funds toward training activities. Training needs for contractors span a broad range, from requirements awareness training for managers, to general training required on a one-time basis for all employees, to highly specialized training programs for employees involved In clean-up operations at hazardous waste sites. With this kind of an investment in training, it is logical to maximize the most return on an investment of training funds and to limit exposure to liability suits whenever possible. This presentation will provide an overview of accredited industrial safety programs. The criteria for accredited industrial safety programs will be defined. The question of whether accredited training programs are necessary will be examined. Finally, advantages and disadvantages will be identified for accrediting industrial safety training programs.

  14. Undergraduate Athletic Training Education Program Directors' Perceptions of the Nature of Coupling with Intercollegiate Athletic Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roiger, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    Some research exists relative to the personnel relationship between athletic training education programs (ATEPs) and intercollegiate athletic departments, yet little research has examined program directors' general perceptions of coupling or coupling related to the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE) standards of…

  15. Athletic Training: From Physical Education to Allied Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, David H.

    2007-01-01

    Athletic training was spawned from physical education in the 1960s, and since that time has evolved into a recognized health care profession. The majority of accredited athletic training education programs (ATEPs) are housed within academic units of kinesiology. However, the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) has recommended that ATEPs…

  16. The Socialization of First-Time Athletic Training Education Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viesselman, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Starting in 2004 athletic training students had to graduate from accredited athletic training education programs to become certified. Institutions had to accredit their athletic training education programs to continue offering students the opportunity to become certified. These institutions needed to transition current employees or hire new…

  17. Instilling Foundation Behaviors of Professional Practice in Undergraduate Athletic Training Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to investigate the implementation of the "Foundational Behaviors of Professional Practice" in undergraduate athletic training education program curriculums accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education [CAATE]. Specifically, this study examined the educational and…

  18. Program Directors' Perceptions of Professional Bachelor's Athletic Training Student Decisions to Persist and Depart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Hertel, Jay; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.; Wathington, Heather D.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Recent literature has focused on reasons for athletic training student persistence and departure. However, accredited professional bachelor's athletic training program (ATP) directors' opinions regarding student retention have yet to be studied, to our knowledge. Objective: To determine reasons for athletic training student persistence…

  19. Promoting Athletic Training through a General Education Course in Psychosocial Aspects of Sports Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner-Shires, Alison Marie; Heinerichs, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Context: A general education course taught by athletic training education faculty has the potential to expose the entire student body to the athletic training profession in a unique way while also meeting requirements of the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Objective: To introduce a detailed case study of a general…

  20. Master's Level Professional Athletic Training Programs: Program Characteristics, Graduation Requirements, and Outcome Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrowski, Jennifer Lynn; Marshall, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Context: While currently there are 2 curriculum route options leading to athletic training certification, the future of athletic training education is being heavily debated. While master's-level professional (MLP) athletic training programs account for less than 8% of all accredited programs, these programs have seen tremendous growth in the past…

  1. Presence of Burnout in Undergraduate Athletic Training Students at One Western Us University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riter, Tamra S.; Kaiser, David A.; Hopkins, J. Ty; Pennington, Todd R.; Chamberlain, Ron; Eggett, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Determine if undergraduate athletic training students enrolled in an accredited athletic training education program (ATEP) and participating in clinical assignments experience burnout. Design and Setting: Undergraduate athletic training students enrolled in a clinical education course were surveyed during the fourth and twelfth weeks of…

  2. Training in the aging athlete.

    PubMed

    Foster, Carl; Wright, Glenn; Battista, Rebecca A; Porcari, John P

    2007-06-01

    The number of healthy older individuals who are active in sports has increased significantly during the past generation. These individuals continue to perform at a high level, although there appears to be a loss in functional capacity that cannot be overcome by training. No accepted theory of aging exists, but older athletes may be limited primarily by the inability to maintain the same volume and intensity of training. Also, older athletes appear to respond more slowly to the same training load than do younger athletes. The principles of training in older athletes are similar to those in young athletes; however, additional days of recovery and cross training may be necessary to prevent orthopedic injuries. Strategies for maintaining exercise intensity, including resistance training, are advisable to prevent sarcopenia and selective loss of type II muscle fibers. PMID:19202668

  3. Satisfaction and Importance Factors in Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, W. David; Swann, Elizabeth; Frey, Bruce B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine various institution and student demographics and the ratings of Satisfaction (SAT) and Importance (IMP) for several programmatic variables within Athletic Training Education Programs (ATEPs). Design and Setting: A survey of SAT and IMP ratings of programmatic variables conducted with accredited, entry-level ATEPs. Subjects:…

  4. Predictors of Success on Professional Credentialing Examinations of Athletic Training Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esparza, Shandra Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Compared to other allied health programs, graduates of athletic training (AT) programs have lower pass rates on their national credentialing examination (48%). In 2013, the new Standards for Entry Level AT Programs from the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE) will require AT education programs to be accountable for…

  5. What Traits Make for an Effective Athletic Training Educator and Mentor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burningham, Danielle S.; Deru, Landon; Berry, David C.

    2010-01-01

    The educational preparation of athletic training students is a daunting experience for athletic training educators (ATEs) as they are often faced with many external (eg, accreditation, lack of resources) and internal (eg, lack of comfort with a subject area, role strain) challenges. Regardless of these challenges, the success of an athletic…

  6. Is Direct Supervision in Clinical Education for Athletic Training Students Always Necessary to Enhance Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriber, Kent; Trowbridge, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To present an alternative model of supervision within clinical education experiences. Background: Several years ago direct supervision was defined more clearly in the accreditation standards for athletic training education programs (ATEPs). Currently, athletic training students may not gain any clinical experience without their clinical…

  7. An Assessment of Athletic Training Students' Clinical-Placement Hours

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michael G.; Berry, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To establish a time profile to determine how athletic training students use their time in clinical placements and to determine the effects of academic standing, sex, sport type, and risk of injury associated with a sport during athletic training students' clinical placements on instructional, clinical, unengaged, managerial, and active learning time. Design and Setting: Subjects were enrolled in clinical placements within National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletics, intramural sports, and a local high school. Students were individually videotaped for approximately 4 hours. Subjects: A total of 20 undergraduate athletic training students (17 women, 3 men) from a Committee on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)-accredited athletic training education program. Measurements: We created a conceptual behavioral time framework to examine athletic training students' use of clinical-placement time with the performance domains associated with the 1999 National Athletic Trainers' Association Board of Certification Role Delineation Study. Students' use of time was analyzed with the Behavior Evaluation Strategies and Taxonomies software. Results: Students spent 7% of their overall clinical-placement time in instructional activities, 23% in clinical activities, 10% in managerial activities, and 59% in unengaged activities. Using multiple 3 × 3 factorial analyses of variance, we found that advanced students were engaged in significantly more active learning and clinical time compared with novice and intermediate students. Students assigned to sports in which injuries predominately occur in the upper extremities (upper extremity sports) spent significantly more clinical-placement time unengaged compared with students assigned to sports in which injuries predominantly occur in the lower extremities (lower extremity sports) or in both upper and lower extremities (mixed extremity sports). Conclusions: In this exploratory study, we

  8. Photobiomodulation in athletic training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Shuang-Xi; Cui, Li-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Yang; Lu, Jian; Deng, Xiao-Yuan; Liu, Song-Hao

    2006-09-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) has been mainly used in athlete trauma care. In this paper, the possible applications of PBM in athlete medical care to maintain pro-oxidant-antioxidant homeostasis and in athlete trauma care to treat osteoarthritis and delayed onset of muscular soreness (DOMS) have been discussed. In order to maintain pro-oxidant-antioxidant homeostasis, PBM might be used in an intravascular way, in an endonasal way or in a directly irradiated way. DOMS was supposed to have three phases, z-line disruption, proteolysis of damaged proteins and protein synthesis for myofibril remodeling, each of which might have its own optimum dose of PBM.

  9. Promoting Coherence in Athletic Training Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Thomas M.; Walker, Stacy E.; Laursen, R. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To present athletic training educators with guidelines for developing coherent athletic training education programs. Background: Coherent athletic training education programs are marked by a clear relationship between program goals and learning activities. These learning activities follow a logical progression that facilitates knowledge…

  10. Accreditation Standards for the Accrediting Commission of the Distance Education and Training Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accrediting Commission of the Distance Education and Training Council, Washington, DC.

    This document identifies accreditation standards for the Accrediting Commission of the Distance Education and Training Council. The first part discusses educational objectives, materials, and services; student services; student success and satisfaction; qualifications of principals, faculty, and staff; admission practices and enrollment…

  11. Inclusion of Substance Abuse Training in CACREP-Accredited Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salyers, Kathleen M.; Ritchie, Martin H.; Luellen, Wendy S.; Roseman, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    Professional counselors and counselors-in-training continue to serve clients who have substance abuse issues, yet systematic training in substance abuse counseling is not available to many counselors. The authors investigated the extent to which students in programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational…

  12. Inclusion of Substance Abuse Training in CACREP-Accredited Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salyers, Kathleen M.; Ritchie, Martin H.; Cochrane, Wendy S.; Roseman, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    Professional counselors and counselors-in-training continue to serve clients who have substance abuse issues, yet systematic training in substance abuse counseling is not available to many counselors. The authors investigated the extent to which students in programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational…

  13. A Proposed Athletic Training Curriculum Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, Sue

    An athletic training curriculum for the training of high school coaches and physical education teachers in Virginia includes courses on: (1) athletic injuries--a basic study of human physiology and anatomy relevant to different athletic injuries; (2) the art and science of sports medicine--prevention, evaluation, treatment, and rehabilitation of…

  14. Fundamentals of Athletic Training. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behling, Fred L.; And Others

    This book provides an authoritative reference on the fundamentals of athletic training for people with varied backgrounds but a common interest in the health and education of the high school athlete. The book is designed especially for the novice athletic trainer. Section 1 of the book concerns the organization and administration of athletic…

  15. Factors Influencing Athletic Training Students' Perceptions of the Athletic Training Profession and Career Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benes, Sarah S.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Successful athletic training programs should help students develop a desire to work within the athletic training profession while providing adequate preparation for them to enter the workforce. Understanding athletic training students' perceptions of the profession as they leave programs and the factors that influence these…

  16. A Study on the Self-Efficacy and Competence of Approved Clinical Instructors on Athletic Training Educational Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to survey allied healthcare and medical practitioners who were approved clinical instructors (ACIs) of an accredited Athletic Training Education Program to gain insight into their self-efficacy and competence on the acute care of pulmonary injuries and illnesses category in the 5th edition of the Athletic Training…

  17. Reflections on Athletic Training Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidner, Thomas G.

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Thomas Weidner is the Director of the Athletic Training Education Program and the Research and Education Laboratory at Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana. In this article he shares his views on what he has come to learn from being an educator in the current era of athletic training education reform. This manuscript is from the…

  18. Applying Mastery Learning to Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellhase, Kristen C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Historical and current athletic training education literature rarely references any educational theory or instructional model. This article reviews research related to mastery learning and athletic training educational history. It focuses on the possibility that mastery learning was the implicit foundational instructional model of…

  19. Predictors of Commitment to Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Windee M.; Neibert, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Context: In order for athletic training students to be successful in any athletic training education program (ATEP), a certain level of commitment to the program and profession is required. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the applicability of the sport commitment model (SCM) to an ATEP by applying the SCM in an academic setting…

  20. Accreditation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Richard M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Three articles on accreditation by Richard M. Millard, Robert A. Scott, and David E. Sumler cover ensuring the quality of programs and institutions, the accreditation process and what accreditation is needed by higher education institutions, and the cooperation between the Maryland state agency and a regional accreditation body. (MLW)

  1. Undergraduate Athletic Training Students' Influences on Career Decisions After Graduation

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Gavin, Kerri E.; Pitney, William A.; Casa, Douglas J.; Burton, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Context Career opportunities for athletic training students (ATSs) have increased substantially over the past few years. However, ATSs commonly appear to be opting for a more diversified professional experience after graduation. With the diversity in available options, an understanding of career decision is imperative. Objective To use the theoretical framework of socialization to investigate the influential factors behind the postgraduation decisions of senior ATSs. Design Qualitative study. Setting Web-based management system and telephone interviews. Patients or Other Participants Twenty-two ATSs (16 females, 6 males; age = 22 ± 2 years) who graduated in May 2010 from 13 different programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Data Collection and Analysis All interviews were transcribed verbatim, and the data were analyzed inductively. Data analysis required independent coding by 2 athletic trainers for specific themes. Credibility of the results was confirmed via peer review, methodologic triangulation, and multiple analyst triangulation. Results Two higher-order themes emerged from the data analysis: persistence in athletic training (AT) and decision to leave AT. Faculty and clinical instructor support, marketability, and professional growth were supporting themes describing persistence in AT. Shift of interest away from AT, lack of respect for the AT profession, compensation, time commitment, and AT as a stepping stone were themes sustaining the reasons that ATSs leave AT. The aforementioned reasons to leave often were discussed collectively, generating a collective undesirable outlook on the AT profession. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of faculty support, professional growth, and early socialization into AT. Socialization of pre–AT students could alter retention rates by providing in-depth information about the profession before students commit in their undergraduate education and by helping

  2. Sign Language Interpreter Training, Testing, and Accreditation: An International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Jemina

    2004-01-01

    The article explores sign language interpreter training, testing, and accreditation in three major English-speaking countries, Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States, by providing an overview of the training and assessment of sign language interpreters in each country. The article highlights the reasons these countries can be…

  3. The ergogenics of hypoxia training in athletes.

    PubMed

    Loffredo, Brett M; Glazer, James L

    2006-06-01

    Hypoxia elicits hematopoiesis, which ultimately improves oxygen transport to peripheral tissues. In part because of this, altitude training has been used in the conditioning of elite endurance athletes for decades, despite equivocal evidence that such training benefits subsequent sea level performance. Recently, traditional live high-train high athletic conditioning has been implicated in a number of deleterious effects on training intensity, cardiac output, muscle composition, and fluid and metabolite balance--effects that largely offset hematopoietic benefits during sea level performance. Modified live high-train low conditioning regimens appear to capture the beneficial hematopoietic effects of hypoxic training while avoiding many of the deleterious effects of training at altitude. Because of the logistical and financial barriers to living high and training low, various methods to simulate hypoxia have been developed and studied. The data from these studies suggest a threshold requirement for hypoxic exposure to meaningfully augment hematopoiesis, and presumably improve athletic performance.

  4. Perceptions of Sexual Harassment in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shingles, René Revis; Smith, Yevonne

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To describe and analyze the experiences of ethnically diverse female certified athletic trainers (ATCs) in order to discern the perceived nature of sexual harassment in the athletic training profession. Design and Setting: Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used for a larger study; however, only the qualitative data are…

  5. Athletic Training Education at the Crossroads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sayers

    An overview is presented of the current state of athletic training education. In examining the quality of the curriculum offered for the preparation of athletic trainers, it is noted that a background in such basic sciences as anatomy and physiology is essential and that considerable improvement is needed in the area of clinical experience. It is…

  6. Athletic Training: Instructors Perceived Preparedness for Teaching in an Athletic Training Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Kevin F.

    2013-01-01

    Athletic trainers work in clinical settings such as secondary schools, colleges and universities, sports medicine clinics, professional sports, hospitals, and other healthcare environments. However, with the rapid expansion of athletic training education programs (ATEP) over the years, another role for the athletic trainer has developed, the…

  7. Retention Initiatives Used by Professional Bachelor's Athletic Training Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Retaining athletic training students has been identified as problematic by approximately half of athletic training program (ATP) directors. It is unknown what ATP directors do to improve athletic training student retention. Objective: To identify initiatives that ATP directors use to improve the retention rates of athletic training…

  8. Religion and Spirituality in Variously Accredited Counselor Training Programs: A Comment on Pate and High (1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Eugene W., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Extends Pate and High's study of Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and other Related Education Program (CACREP) accredited programs. Focusing on the attention given to religion and spirituality in programs accredited by several different counselor and therapist-training accrediting bodies, found that many programs do not address client…

  9. Workplace and Institute Accredited Training. Costs and Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symmonds, Helen; Burke, Gerald; Harvey-Beavis, Adrian; Malley, Jeff

    A case study approach was used to examine various models of technical and further education (TAFE) accredited training, with particular focus on comparative costs and student satisfaction. Literature on costing and satisfaction was reviewed. Case studies were drawn from the retail, hospitality, and automotive industries. Two comparable courses…

  10. Athletic Training Student Socialization Part II: Socializing the Professional Master's Athletic Training Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Professional socialization is a key process in the professional development of athletic training students. Literature has focused on many perspectives regarding socialization and has primarily focused on the undergraduate level. Objective: Gain insights from the program director at professional master's (PM) athletic training programs on…

  11. Athletic Training Student Socialization Part I: Socializing Students in Undergraduate Athletic Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Professional socialization is a key process in the professional development of athletic training students. The published athletic training education research has focused on many perspectives regarding socialization; however, it has yet to investigate the program director's (PD's) opinion. Objective: To gain insights from the PD on methods…

  12. Program Director Perspectives on Athletic Training Student Motivation to Complete Their Professional Athletic Training Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Student motivation has been linked to persistence until graduation for athletic training students. There is little research, however on ways athletic training programs (ATPs) foster student motivation. Objective: To expand upon the existing literature regarding retention of students in ATPs, specifically examining the concept of student…

  13. Selection and Evaluation Guidelines for Clinical Education Settings in Athletic Training.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Thomas G.; Laurent, Tim

    2001-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop and test standards and associated criteria for the selection and evaluation of a clinical education setting in athletic training. DESIGN AND SETTING: A previously validated set of 20 standards for physical therapy clinical education settings, the associated criteria, and 2 related evaluation forms were systematically judged, revised, and adapted through a survey process. SUBJECTS: Program directors, clinical instructors, and students involved with athletic training clinical education from 28 athletic training education programs approved by the National Athletic Trainers' Association or accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs. MEASUREMENTS: We tabulated respondents' critiques and ratings by type of respondent. Items were judged as to whether they were relevant, practical, and suggestive of high-quality clinical education settings. RESULTS: We accepted a final set of 12 standards and 31 associated criteria to measure these standards. The student form lists 23 criteria relevant to these accepted standards. The accepted standards include the following: learning environment, program planning, ethical standards, administrative support, and Setting Coordinator of Clinical Education. CONCLUSIONS: The 12 standards, criteria, and related forms developed in this research project should be used as guidelines rather than as minimal requirements. They could be helpful in forming an impression not only about a particular clinical setting but also about the requirements of clinical education in general. Further research should include evaluating and comparing perceptions between sexes and among ethnic groups concerning their clinical education experiences. Also, standards and criteria for clinical instruction in athletic training should be systematically developed. PMID:12937517

  14. Selection and Evaluation Guidelines for Clinical Education Settings in Athletic Training.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Thomas G.; Laurent, Tim

    2001-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop and test standards and associated criteria for the selection and evaluation of a clinical education setting in athletic training. DESIGN AND SETTING: A previously validated set of 20 standards for physical therapy clinical education settings, the associated criteria, and 2 related evaluation forms were systematically judged, revised, and adapted through a survey process. SUBJECTS: Program directors, clinical instructors, and students involved with athletic training clinical education from 28 athletic training education programs approved by the National Athletic Trainers' Association or accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs. MEASUREMENTS: We tabulated respondents' critiques and ratings by type of respondent. Items were judged as to whether they were relevant, practical, and suggestive of high-quality clinical education settings. RESULTS: We accepted a final set of 12 standards and 31 associated criteria to measure these standards. The student form lists 23 criteria relevant to these accepted standards. The accepted standards include the following: learning environment, program planning, ethical standards, administrative support, and Setting Coordinator of Clinical Education. CONCLUSIONS: The 12 standards, criteria, and related forms developed in this research project should be used as guidelines rather than as minimal requirements. They could be helpful in forming an impression not only about a particular clinical setting but also about the requirements of clinical education in general. Further research should include evaluating and comparing perceptions between sexes and among ethnic groups concerning their clinical education experiences. Also, standards and criteria for clinical instruction in athletic training should be systematically developed.

  15. Somatotype, training and performance in Ironman athletes.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Michel; Baeyens, Jean Pierre; Clarys, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the physiques of Ironman athletes and the relationship between Ironman's performance, training and somatotype. A total of 165 male and 22 female competitors of the Ironman Switzerland volunteered in this study. Ten anthropometric dimensions were measured, and 12 training and history variables were recorded with a questionnaire. The variables were compared with the race performance. The somatotype was a strong predictor of Ironman performance (R=0.535; R(2)=0.286; sign. p<0.001) in male athletes. The endomorphy component was the most substantial predictor. Reductions in endomorphy by one standard deviation as well as an increased ectomorphy value by one standard deviation lead to significant and substantial improvement in Ironman performance (28.1 and 29.8 minutes, respectively). An ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could be established. Age and quantitative training effort were not significant predictors on Ironman performance. In female athletes, no relationship between somatotype, training and performance was found. The somatotype of a male athlete defines for 28.6% variance in Ironman performance. Athletes not having an ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could improve their performance by altering their somatotype. Lower rates in endomorphy, as well as higher rates in ectomorphy, resulted in a significant better race performance. The impact of somatotype was the most distinguished on the run discipline and had a much greater impact on the total race time than the quantitative training effort. These findings could not be found in female athletes. PMID:23834510

  16. Somatotype, training and performance in Ironman athletes.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Michel; Baeyens, Jean Pierre; Clarys, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the physiques of Ironman athletes and the relationship between Ironman's performance, training and somatotype. A total of 165 male and 22 female competitors of the Ironman Switzerland volunteered in this study. Ten anthropometric dimensions were measured, and 12 training and history variables were recorded with a questionnaire. The variables were compared with the race performance. The somatotype was a strong predictor of Ironman performance (R=0.535; R(2)=0.286; sign. p<0.001) in male athletes. The endomorphy component was the most substantial predictor. Reductions in endomorphy by one standard deviation as well as an increased ectomorphy value by one standard deviation lead to significant and substantial improvement in Ironman performance (28.1 and 29.8 minutes, respectively). An ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could be established. Age and quantitative training effort were not significant predictors on Ironman performance. In female athletes, no relationship between somatotype, training and performance was found. The somatotype of a male athlete defines for 28.6% variance in Ironman performance. Athletes not having an ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could improve their performance by altering their somatotype. Lower rates in endomorphy, as well as higher rates in ectomorphy, resulted in a significant better race performance. The impact of somatotype was the most distinguished on the run discipline and had a much greater impact on the total race time than the quantitative training effort. These findings could not be found in female athletes.

  17. Characteristics of Athletic Training Students That Preceptors Find Desirable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, W. David; Thomas, Spencer; Paulsen, Jenica; Chiu, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Context: Athletic training students acquire clinical hours under the direct supervision of athletic training preceptors. Objective: The purpose of this project was to explore what characteristics preceptors desire in their athletic training students. Design and Setting: Online survey instrument. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 286…

  18. Interprofessional Education and Practice in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitbach, Anthony P.; Richardson, Russ

    2015-01-01

    Professional preparation in athletic training has grown from modest roots based in physical education in the 1960s to its emergence as a recognized health profession today. The profession has long embraced interprofessional practice (IPP), but many times has not been included in discussions held at the institutional, governmental, and…

  19. Incorporating Mobile Learning into Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davie, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To introduce and present techniques for incorporating mobile learning into athletic training education. Background: The matriculation of digital natives into college has stimulated the identification and development of new teaching and learning strategies. Electronic learning (e-learning), including the use of learning management…

  20. Situational Supervision for Athletic Training Clinical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Linda S.; Gardner, Greg; Barnum, Mary G.; Willeford, K. Sean; Sexton, Patrick; Guyer, M. Susan; Fincher, A. Louise

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The medical education model provides the basis for athletic training students to learn theoretical and practical skills. Clinical rotations are completed where they apply what they have learned under the direct supervision of a clinical instructor (CI) or approved clinical instructor (ACI). Approved clinical instructors are taught…

  1. 1994 entry-level athletic training salaries.

    PubMed

    Moss, C L

    1996-01-01

    In this study, I examined salaries for entry-level positions in athletic training during the year 1994. An entry-level position was defined as a position to be filled with an athletic trainer certified by the NATA, with no full-time paid employment experience. According to the "Placement Vacancy Notice" (NATA, Dallas, TX) and "BYLINE" (Athletic Trainer Services, Inc, Mt Pleasant, MI), there were 432 entry-level vacancies in hospital/clinics, college/universities, and high school settings. A total of 271 surveys (63%) were returned. Overall, beginning salaries for entry-level athletic training positions were $23,228 (+/-$3,177) for a bachelor's degree and $25,362 (+/-$3,883) for a master's degree. A stipend ($4,216 +/- $2,039) was included in 86% of the high school positions. The term of contract for high school was usually a 10-month position (10.0 +/- .9 months), hospital/clinic, 12-months (11.7 +/- .7 months), while the college/university varied from 9 to 12 months (10.5 +/- 1.2 months). Also included in the study was fringe benefit information: pension (other than Social Security), life, medical, dental, and vision insurance. Continued studies are recommended to establish salary norms and trends for entry-level positions so that athletic trainers will understand what monetary compensation to expect for their services. PMID:16558367

  2. BALANCE TRAINING FOR THE OLDER ATHLETE

    PubMed Central

    Page, Phil; Takeshima, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    As the older adult population increases in size, the number of older adults participating in sport activities will also likely increase proportionally with a concomitant increase in musculoskeletal injuries. Age-associated functional declines in muscle strength and the sensory systems, in addition to several other issues, contribute to reductions in balance that may increase fall risk There are a variety of ways to evaluate balance and fall-risk, and each older adult should be regularly screened in order to evaluate any changes in the ability to maintain postural stability. Balance training is a useful intervention in rehabilitation of postural stability impairments as well as in training programs for performance enhancement. One scientifically-based approach is Sensorimotor Training (SMT) which can be characterized as a progressive balance training program using labile surfaces to provide adequate and safe challenges to the older athlete's balance. SMT addresses both static and dynamic components of balance as well as the multitude of systems that control balance in order to train effective strategies and elicit automatic postural responses in order to enhance postural stability. The authors believe that SMT should become part of the regular training regimen for the aging athlete. For the sport and orthopedic healthcare professional, an understanding of the physiologic changes that occur with age, the means by which balance can be assessed, and how SMT programs can be developed and implemented is crucial in addressing the growing number of older athletes that they will see. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24175135

  3. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. Data Sources: CINAHL (1982–2002), MEDLINE (1990–2001), SPORT Discus (1949–2002), ERIC (1966–2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. Data Synthesis: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. Conclusions/Recommendations: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession. PMID:12937555

  4. Accredited Internship and Postdoctoral Programs for Training in Psychology: 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This is the official listing of accredited internship and postdoctoral residency programs in psychology. It reflects all Commission on Accreditation decisions through July 22, 2012. (Contains 15 footnotes.)

  5. Self-Directed Learning and the Millennial Athletic Training Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Brian J.; Berry, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Athletic training educators (ATEs) have a responsibility to remain aware of the current student population, particularly how they learn and give meaning to what they have learned. Just as clinical athletic trainers (ATs) must adapt to ever changing work schedules and demands, so too must athletic training educators. In addition to adapting to…

  6. Strength Training for Young Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraemer, William J.; Fleck, Steven J.

    This guide is designed to serve as a resource for developing strength training programs for children. Chapter 1 uses research findings to explain why strength training is appropriate for children. Chapter 2 explains some of the important physiological concepts involved in children's growth and development as they apply to developing strength…

  7. Individual Moral Philosophies and Ethical Decision Making of Undergraduate Athletic Training Students and Educators

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, Shane V; Gould, Trenton E

    2008-01-01

    Context: Ethics research in athletic training is lacking. Teaching students technical skills is important, but teaching them how to reason and to behave in a manner that befits responsible health care professionals is equally important. Objective: To expand ethics research in athletic training by (1) describing undergraduate athletic training students' and educators' individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making abilities and (2) investigating the effects of sex and level of education on mean composite individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making scores. Design: Stratified, multistage, cluster-sample correlational study. Setting: Mailed survey instruments were distributed in classroom settings at 30 institutions having Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)–accredited athletic training programs. Patients or Other Participants: Undergraduate students and educators (n = 598: 373 women, 225 men; mean age = 23.5 ± 6.3 years) from 25 CAAHEP-accredited athletic training programs. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used the Ethics Position Questionnaire and the Dilemmas in Athletic Training Questionnaire to compute participants' mean composite individual moral philosophies (idealism and relativism) and ethical decision-making scores, respectively. Three separate 2 (sex: male, female) × 3 (education level: underclass, upper class, educator) between-subjects factorial analyses of variance using idealism, relativism, and ethical decision-making scores as dependent measures were performed. Results: Respondents reported higher idealism scores (37.57 ± 4.91) than relativism scores (31.70 ± 4.80) (response rate = 83%). The mean ethical decision-making score for all respondents was 80.76 ± 7.88. No significant interactions were revealed. The main effect for sex illustrated that men reported significantly higher relativism scores ( P = .0014, η 2 = .015) than did women. The main effect for education level revealed

  8. Use of Computer-Based Instruction in Athletic Training Education

    PubMed Central

    Fincher, A. Louise; Wright, Kenneth E.

    1996-01-01

    Computer-based instruction is being widely used in the education programs of many allied health professions. However, there has been little, if any, documentation of computer-based instruction use in athletic training education. The primary purpose of this study was to determine what percentage of undergraduate and graduate NATA-approved athletic training education programs are using some form of computer-based instruction (ie, computer-assisted instruction or interactive video). We also addressed the following research questions: 1) What athletic training educational software is currently being used by athletic training students and educators? 2) What factors currently impede the use of computer-based instruction in athletic training education? 3) What instructional methods are commonly used to incorporate computer-based instruction into the athletic training curricula? and 4) What are the attitudes of athletic training program directors toward the use of computer-based instruction in athletic training education? Surveys were mailed to the program directors (n = 97) of all graduate and undergraduate NATA-approved athletic training education programs. Eighty-six (87.7%) usable surveys were returned. Forty-eight (55.8%) of the respondents reported using some form of computer-based instruction in their athletic training education program; 47 (54.7%) used computer-assisted instruction and 9 (10.6%) used interactive video. Respondents also identified the educational software they use and their method for implementing this software. Software was used most often to supplement traditional instructional methods. A lack of funds was reported to be the primary impeding factor for those programs not using computer-based instruction. Respondents reported an overall positive attitude toward computer-based instruction use in athletic training education and indicated the need for increased development of athletic training/sports medicine software. PMID:16558370

  9. Self-Funding a Postprofessional Athletic Training Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetherington, Jefferson J.; Pecha, Forrest Q.; Homaechevarria, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Context: Postprofessional athletic training residencies (PP-ATRs) are formal educational programs that provide advanced professional preparation for an athletic trainer. These programs are intended to provide clinical and didactic education in a focused area of clinical practice. Identifying and procuring funding to support athletic training…

  10. Sociocultural Learning Theory in Practice: Implications for Athletic Training Educators.

    PubMed

    Peer, Kimberly S; McClendon, Ronald C

    2002-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To discuss cognitive and sociocultural learning theory literature related to athletic training instructional and evaluation strategies while providing support for the application of these practices in the didactic and clinical components of athletic training education programs. DATA SOURCES: We searched Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) and Education Abstracts from 1975-2001 using the key words social cognitive, sociocultural learning theory, constructivism, and athletic training education. Current literature in the fields of educational psychology and athletic training education provides the foundation for applying theory to practice with specific emphasis on the theoretic framework and application of sociocultural learning theory strategies in athletic training education. DATA SYNTHESIS: Athletic training educators must have a strong fundamental knowledge of learning theory and a commitment to incorporate theory into educational practice. We integrate literature from both fields to generate practical strategies for using sociocultural learning theory in athletic training education. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: Social cognitive and sociocultural learning theory advocates a constructive, self-regulated, and goal-oriented environment with the student at the center of the educational process. Although a shift exists in athletic training education toward more active instructional strategies with the implementation of competency-based education, many educational environments are still dominated by traditional didactic instructional methods promoting student passivity. As athletic training education programs strive to increase accountability, educators in the field must critically analyze teaching and evaluation methods and integrate new material to ensure that learning is maximized. PMID:12937534

  11. Sociocultural Learning Theory in Practice: Implications for Athletic Training Educators

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Kimberly S.; McClendon, Ronald C.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To discuss cognitive and sociocultural learning theory literature related to athletic training instructional and evaluation strategies while providing support for the application of these practices in the didactic and clinical components of athletic training education programs. Data Sources: We searched Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) and Education Abstracts from 1975–2001 using the key words social cognitive, sociocultural learning theory, constructivism, and athletic training education. Current literature in the fields of educational psychology and athletic training education provides the foundation for applying theory to practice with specific emphasis on the theoretic framework and application of sociocultural learning theory strategies in athletic training education. Data Synthesis: Athletic training educators must have a strong fundamental knowledge of learning theory and a commitment to incorporate theory into educational practice. We integrate literature from both fields to generate practical strategies for using sociocultural learning theory in athletic training education. Conclusions/Recommendations: Social cognitive and sociocultural learning theory advocates a constructive, self-regulated, and goal-oriented environment with the student at the center of the educational process. Although a shift exists in athletic training education toward more active instructional strategies with the implementation of competency-based education, many educational environments are still dominated by traditional didactic instructional methods promoting student passivity. As athletic training education programs strive to increase accountability, educators in the field must critically analyze teaching and evaluation methods and integrate new material to ensure that learning is maximized. PMID:12937534

  12. Ethics and Accreditation in Addictions Counselor Training: Possible Field Placement Issues for CACREP-Accredited Addictions Counseling Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    Professional counselors have long been practicing in alcohol and drug treatment settings. However, only recently has the counseling field offered formal recognition of addictions counseling as a specialization through the implementation of accreditation standards for addiction counseling training programs. With the passage of the 2009 standards,…

  13. Administering the School's Athletic Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Paul S.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the role of each member of a secondary school's athletic health care team, including the principal, athletic director, team physician, school nurse, coach or physical educator, and professional and student athletic trainers. (WD)

  14. Functional balance training in collegiate women athletes.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Di Brezzo, Ro

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the effects of functional balance training implemented in addition to regular season practice, competition, and strength and conditioning training for collegiate women athletes. Twenty-six members of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I collegiate women's volleyball and soccer teams volunteered. A pre-test, post-test group design was used for the study. Pre- and post-test measures were the following: Skindex, body mass index (BMI), single-leg squat, prone quadra-ped core test, Biodex balance test, and a 1-minute sit-up test. The intervention consisted of 10 minutes of Indo Board (a dynamic balance board) training 4 days a week throughout the entire season. The volleyball team served as the intervention group, whereas the soccer team had no intervention. A dependent t-test demonstrated a statistically significant (p training on an unstable surface, the individual is conditioning the core while simultaneously performing balance activities. It was also noted that, although improvements were seen, each participant (both volleyball and soccer) was also active in regular season practice, competition, and strength and conditioning training over the course of the season. Functional balance activities are cost effective and should be added to any form of strength and conditioning program in an attempt to enhance program effectiveness and to develop functional postural activation. Functional postural activation will not only assist with functional performance, but also in the prevention of injury.

  15. Retention Initiatives Used by Professional Master's Athletic Training Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Many professional master's athletic training program directors believe retention is a problem facing athletic training education. However, it remains unknown what steps, if any, are taken to improve retention. Objective: To inquire with program directors about their respective methods and interventions aimed at increasing retention rates.…

  16. Clinical Reasoning in Athletic Training Education: Modeling Expert Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisler, Paul R.; Lazenby, Todd W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To address the need for a more definitive approach to critical thinking during athletic training educational experiences by introducing the clinical reasoning model for critical thinking. Background: Educators are aware of the need to teach students how to think critically. The multiple domains of athletic training are comprehensive and…

  17. Student Perceptions of an Athletic Training Residential Living Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradney, Debbie A.; Bowman, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Colleges and universities are implementing new academic and social programs to retain students. One possible program is a residential living community (RLC) devoted to a content area. Objective: To understand the perceptions of athletic training students involved in an RLC. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Athletic training program.…

  18. A Subjective and Objective Process for Athletic Training Student Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Jeremy R.; McLoda, Todd A.; Stanek, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Admission decisions are made annually concerning whom to accept into athletic training programs. Objective: To present an approach used to make admissions decisions at an undergraduate athletic training program and to corroborate this information by comparing each aspect to nursing program admission processes. Background: Annually,…

  19. Effectiveness of Mobile Learning on Athletic Training Psychomotor Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davie, Emily; Martin, Malissa; Cuppett, Micki; Lebsack, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Context: Instruction of psychomotor skills is an important component of athletic training education. Accommodating the varied learning abilities and preferences of athletic training students can be challenging for an instructor initiating skill acquisition in a traditional face-to-face (F2F) environment. Video instruction available on mobile…

  20. The Use of Cloud Technology in Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkey, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    As technology advances and becomes more portable, athletic training educators (ATEs) have many options available to them. Whether attempting to streamline efforts in courses, or operate a more efficient athletic training education program, portable technology is becoming an important tool that will assist the ATE. One tool that allows more…

  1. Educating the Educator: Teaching Airway Adjunct Techniques in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David C.; Seitz, S. Robert

    2011-01-01

    The 5th edition of the "Athletic Training Education Competencies" ("Competencies") now requires athletic training educators (ATEs) to introduce into the curriculum various types of airway adjuncts including: (1) oropharyngeal airways (OPA), (2) nasopharyngeal airways (NPA), (3) supraglottic airways (SGA), and (4) suction. The addition of these…

  2. A Survey of Athletic Training Employers' Hiring Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Lanna

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To identify athletic training employers' hiring criteria and to determine if the importance of individual hiring criteria vary by setting. Design and Setting: The Athletic Training Employer Needs Assessment Survey was mailed to athletic training employers advertising in the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) placement vacancy notice between October 1996 and October 1998. Subjects: A total of 111 athletic training employers in NATA Districts 7, 8, and 10 were surveyed. Measurements: Employers rated the importance of hiring criteria on a 7-point Likert scale. Means and standard deviations were calculated for each criterion and compared these values to ascertain the importance of individual criteria. A principal component analysis was done to determine the underlying factors. Results: Hiring characteristics can be divided into 4 factors that include highly related criteria: (1) personal characteristics, (2) educational experience, (3) professional experience, and (4) work-related attributes. In addition, the hiring characteristics desired by employers varied among athletic training settings. Conclusions: When interviewing and presenting themselves for entry-level positions, athletic trainers should pay particular attention to the attributes within the 4 hiring criteria factors. Also, the desired hiring criteria of athletic training employers differed by setting. Applicants need to pay particular attention to these hiring criteria differences when constructing résumés, cover letters, and professional correspondence and when interviewing with prospective employers. PMID:12937484

  3. A Grounded Theory Study of the Mentoring Process Involved With Undergraduate Athletic Training Students

    PubMed Central

    Pitney, William A; Ehlers, Greg G

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To gain insight regarding the mentoring processes involving students enrolled in athletic training education programs and to create a mentoring model. Design and Setting: We conducted a grounded theory study with students and mentors currently affiliated with 1 of 2 of the athletic training education programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs. Participants: Sixteen interviews were conducted, 13 with athletic training students and 3 with individuals identified as mentors. The students ranged in age from 20 to 24 years, with an average of 21.6 years. The mentors ranged from 24 to 38 years of age, with an average of 33.3 years. Participants were purposefully selected based on theoretic sampling and availability. Data Analysis: The transcribed interviews were analyzed using open-, axial-, and selective-coding procedures. Member checks, peer debriefings, and triangulation were used to ensure trustworthiness. Results: Students who acknowledged having a mentor overwhelmingly identified their clinical instructor in this role. The open-coding procedures produced 3 categories: (1) mentoring prerequisites, (2) interpersonal foundations, and (3) educational dimensions. Mentoring prerequisites included accessibility, approachability, and protégé initiative. Interpersonal foundations involved the mentor and protégé having congruent values, trust, and a personal relationship. The educational dimensions category involved the mentor facilitating knowledge and skill development, encouraging professional perspectives, and individualizing learning. Although a student-certified athletic trainer relationship can be grounded in either interpersonal or educational aspects, the data support the occurrence of an authentic mentoring relationship when the dimensions coalesced. Conclusions: Potential mentors must not only be accessible but also approachable by a prospective protégé. Mentoring takes initiative on behalf of a

  4. Qualitative Inquiry in Athletic Training: Principles, Possibilities, and Promises

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Jenny

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the principles of qualitative research and provide insights into how such methods can benefit the profession of athletic training. Background: The growth of a profession is influenced by the type of research performed by its members. Although qualitative research methods can serve to answer many clinical and professional questions that help athletic trainers navigate their socioprofessional contexts, an informal review of the Journal of Athletic Training reveals a paucity of such methods. Description: We provide an overview of the characteristics of qualitative research and common data collection and analysis techniques. Practical examples related to athletic training are also offered. Applications: Athletic trainers interact with other professionals, patients, athletes, and administrators and function in a larger society. Consequently, they are likely to face critical influences and phenomena that affect the meaning they give to their experiences. Qualitative research facilitates a depth of understanding related to our contexts that traditional research may not provide. Furthermore, qualitative research complements traditional ways of thinking about research itself and promotes a greater understanding related to specific phenomena. As the profession of athletic training continues to grow, qualitative research methods will assume a more prominent role. Thus, it will be necessary for consumers of athletic training research to understand the functional aspects of the qualitative paradigm. PMID:12937461

  5. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Lilian; Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries. PMID:26258134

  6. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes.

    PubMed

    Roos, Lilian; Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries.

  7. Physiological considerations in training young athletes.

    PubMed

    Zauner, C W; Maksud, M G; Melichna, J

    1989-07-01

    to be greater than in untrained youngsters and many workers have reported increased VO2max as an outcome of endurance training. Limited data indicate that the nature of training may alter muscle fibre distribution in youthful athletes, and that muscle fibre hypertrophy can be induced in the young by means of strength and power training.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  8. Generalized training effects induced by athletic preparation. A review.

    PubMed

    Issurin, V B

    2009-12-01

    The present review deals with training effects produced by training pieces of different duration. Athletes' responses to training workloads can be considered hierarchically, where the most intimate level encompasses changes produced at the cellular and molecular levels, while the generalized level summarizes the most integrative training outcomes, which characterize athletes' adaptability, preparedness and readiness for forthcoming workloads. These training outcomes, called generalized training effects (GTE) are considered to be closely linked with duration and mode of training workloads. Summarizing earlier and more recent publications, GTEs are categorized as acute, immediate, cumulative, delayed and residual training effects, which encompass changes induced by 1) a single exercise; 2) a single workout or training day; 3) a series of workouts; or 4) obtained over a given time interval after a program completion ; or (5) changes retained after cessation of training beyond a give time period. Each one these GTEs has a three-fold characterization:1) variables of executed workloads; 2) athletes' responses to workloads and training-induced changes in their state; 3) changes in athletic performance as described by sport specific indicators. Although the concept of GTE is far from complete in terms of an understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying the short-, medium-, and long-term changes caused by athletic training, a number of fundamental theories and statements contribute to its scientific background. They are Cannon's theory of homeostasis; Salye's theory of stress adaptation; Weigert's law of supercompensation; and Lamarck's classic theory of evolution regarding the "use" and "disuse" of any organ or function.

  9. Mental Training for the Distance Athlete: "The Running Values Auction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osteen, Deborah E.; Phillips, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Coaches and sports psychologists often say that it is the mind that controls the body, and that once a race begins, it is 90 percent mental and 10 percent physical training. Teaching young athletes to use mental strategies is a skill they will continue to use throughout their athletic career, and best of all, throughout their everyday lives, even…

  10. Educating the Educator: Use of Pulse Oximetry in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David C.; Seitz, S. Robert

    2012-01-01

    The 5th edition of the "Athletic Training Education Competencies" expanded the scope of knowledge and skill set of entry-level athletic trainers related to the domain of "Acute Care of Injuries and Illnesses." One of these major changes includes the introduction of adjunct airway techniques, such as oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal airways and…

  11. Plyometric Training Effects on Athletic Performance in Youth Soccer Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, Abigail A; Miltenberger, Matthew R; Lopez, Rebecca M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to critically analyze the literature to determine the effectiveness of plyometric training on athletic performance in youth soccer athletes. A total of 7 studies were included in this review after meeting the following criteria: (a) used plyometric training programs to assess athletic performance, (b) subjects were soccer athletes aged preadolescent up to 17 years, and (c) were published from 2000 to January 2014. Study methods were assessed using the PEDro scale with scores ranging from 4 to 6. Results showed similarities and differences in methodologies and procedures among the included studies. Athletic performance consisting of kicking distance, speed, jumping ability, and agility significantly improved because of plyometric training interventions. The current evidence suggests that plyometric training should be completed 2 days per week for 8-10 weeks during soccer practice with a 72-hour rest period between plyometric training days. The initial number of foot contacts should be 50-60 per session and increase to no more than 80-120 foot contacts per session for this age group to prevent overuse injuries. A total of 3-4 plyometric training exercises should be performed 2-4 sets for 6-15 repetitions per training session. The evidence and the literature suggest that plyometric training for this age group should only be implemented using recommended safety guidelines such as those published by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology and the National Strength and Conditioning Association and under appropriate supervision by trained personnel.

  12. Career Commitment of Postprofessional Athletic Training Program Graduates

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Goodman, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Context: Choosing to pursue an advanced degree in athletic training appears to indicate professional commitment and passion for the profession. Currently, there is a paucity of information regarding why some athletic trainers pursue enrollment in a postprofessional athletic training program (PPATP), indicating commitment to the profession, but later depart for another primary role outside of athletic training. Objective: To understand why athletic trainers invested in advanced training via a PPATP but then decided to leave the profession. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Online data collection. Patients or Other Participants: Twelve graduates (8 women [67%], 4 men [33%], age = 31.58 ± 3.06 years) from PPATPs who no longer had primary employment as an athletic trainer. Data Collection and Analysis: Recruits responded to an e-mail invitation to participate by completing a confidential online questionnaire. We analyzed data using a general inductive approach and secured trustworthiness using multiple-analyst triangulation, peer review, and member checks. Results: Two higher-order themes emerged regarding the career commitment of former athletic trainers who were PPATP graduates: (1) departure from an athletic training career and (2) partial continuance in athletic training. Two second-order themes emerged from the reasons for departure: (1) decreased recognition of value and (2) work-life imbalance. Finally, we identified 2 third-order themes from the participants' reasons for departure because of a perceived lack of value: (1) low salary and (2) long, inconsistent hours worked. Conclusions: Most of our participants intended to stay in the profession when they chose to attend a PPATP. However, during role inductance in either the clinical experience of the PPATP they attended or early in their careers, they began to have thoughts of leaving mainly because of inadequate financial compensation, challenging work schedules, or both. PMID:25343531

  13. Navigational strategies during fast walking: a comparison between trained athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Gérin-Lajoie, Martin; Ronsky, Janet L; Loitz-Ramage, Barbara; Robu, Ion; Richards, Carol L; McFadyen, Bradford J

    2007-10-01

    Many common activities such as walking in a shopping mall, moving in a busy subway station, or even avoiding opponents during sports, all require different levels of navigational skills. Obstacle circumvention is beginning to be understood across age groups, but studying trained athletes with greater levels of motor ability will further our understanding of skillful adaptive locomotor behavior. The objective of this work was to compare navigational skills during fast walking between elite athletes (e.g. soccer, field hockey, basketball) and aged-matched non-athletes under different levels of environmental complexity in relation to obstacle configuration and visibility. The movements of eight women athletes and eight women non-athletes were measured as they walked as fast as possible through different obstacle courses in both normal and low lighting conditions. Results showed that athletes, despite similar unobstructed maximal speeds to non-athletes, had faster walking times during the navigation of all obstructed environments. It appears that athletes can process visuo-spatial information faster since both groups can make appropriate navigational decisions, but athletes can navigate through complex, novel, environments at greater speeds. Athletes' walking times were also more affected by the low lighting conditions suggesting that they normally scan the obstructed course farther ahead. This study also uses new objective measures to assess functional locomotor capacity in order to discriminate individuals according to their level of navigational ability. The evaluation paradigm and outcome measures developed may be applicable to the evaluation of skill level in athletic training and selection, as well as in gait rehabilitation following impairment.

  14. Strength comparisons in untrained men and trained women athletes.

    PubMed

    Morrow, J R; Hosler, W W

    1981-01-01

    The purpose was to compare untrained college men with trained collegiate women basketball and volleyball players in terms of absolute and relative upper and lower body strength. Absolute and relative strength comparisons were also made between the two groups of women athletes. Eighty subjects were included in each group. Relative strength was expressed per unit of weight, height, biacromium, and biiliac widths. It was hypothesized that while men are significantly stronger than trained women athletes, such differences may be removed once body size characteristics are controlled. MANOVA and MANCOVA were utilized to test hypotheses. Results indicate that untrained men have greater upper and lower body strength than trained women athletes in terms of both absolute and relative strength. Women basketball players have greater upper and lower body strength than women volley players. The two groups of women athletes are alike in terms of upper body absolute and relative strength.

  15. Skeletal muscle pathology in endurance athletes with acquired training intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Grobler, L; Collins, M; Lambert, M; Sinclair-Smith, C; Derman, W; St, C; Noakes, T

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is well established that prolonged, exhaustive endurance exercise is capable of inducing skeletal muscle damage and temporary impairment of muscle function. Although skeletal muscle has a remarkable capacity for repair and adaptation, this may be limited, ultimately resulting in an accumulation of chronic skeletal muscle pathology. Case studies have alluded to an association between long term, high volume endurance training and racing, acquired training intolerance, and chronic skeletal muscle pathology. Objective: To systematically compare the skeletal muscle structural and ultrastructural status of endurance athletes with acquired training intolerance (ATI group) with asymptomatic endurance athletes matched for age and years of endurance training (CON group). Methods: Histological and electron microscopic analyses were carried out on a biopsy sample of the vastus lateralis from 18 ATI and 17 CON endurance athletes. The presence of structural and ultrastructural disruptions was compared between the two groups of athletes. Results: Significantly more athletes in the ATI group than in the CON group presented with fibre size variation (15 v 6; p = 0.006), internal nuclei (9 v 2; p = 0.03), and z disc streaming (6 v 0; p = 0.02). Conclusions: There is an association between increased skeletal muscle disruptions and acquired training intolerance in endurance athletes. Further studies are required to determine the nature of this association and the possible mechanisms involved. PMID:15562162

  16. Educational Audiology: A Proposal for Training and Accreditation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenich, Jennifer Komnick; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the practice of educational audiology, its legislative basis, and services offered to hearing-impaired children, such as a high-risk register/referral system, comprehensive screening program, and classroom acoustics management. A plan for in-service education and a proposal for an accreditation program in Educational Audiology…

  17. Current concepts for shoulder training in the overhead athlete.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David J; Visco, Christopher J; Press, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Nontraumatic shoulder pain in the adult overhead athlete is a common problem. The exact biomechanical adaptations that predispose the overhead athlete to injury can be multifactorial in nature, including range of motion deficits, muscular imbalances, and scapular dyskinesis. It is imperative that the rehabilitation professional not only correctly identify and treat the direct cause of the pain, but also initiate a rehabilitation program aimed at improvement of the underlying biomechanical deficits that predispose the overhead athlete to shoulder injury. This only can be accomplished through a better understanding of the most common biomechanical deficits that the overhead athlete develops and how to treat them. This article focuses primarily upon shoulder training in the adult baseball pitcher as a classic example of an overhead athlete.

  18. Anabolic steroids in the training and treatment of athletes.

    PubMed

    Limbird, T J

    1985-01-01

    The use of anabolic steroids has become widespread in the athletic population in the hope of developing a competitive edge. The theoretical advantages of increases in lean body mass, body weight, and muscle strength have been difficult to document in the athletic population because of an inability to define a satisfactory placebo or safely test the extremely high doses of steroid purportedly used by the athletic population. Those studies that are available suggest that while some mild weight gain and lean body mass increase may be noted, athletic performance itself is not significantly altered by steroid use. The significant negative side effects that can occur, particularly those that alter liver function and endocrine balance, suggest that there is little to support the use and abuse of these drugs in the treatment and training of athletes.

  19. Communicative Acts in Coach-Athlete Interactions: When Losing Competitions and when Making Mistakes in Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagar, Sam S.; Jowett, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    Athletes' perceptions of coaches' communicative acts of interaction in two key interpersonal situations were examined, and their impact on the athletes: (a) when athletes lose competitions; and, (b) when athletes make mistakes in training. Athletes (N = 324, M age = 20.11) completed an open-ended survey. Data were deductively and inductively…

  20. Sports Specialization and Intensive Training in Young Athletes.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Joel S

    2016-09-01

    Sports specialization is becoming the norm in youth sports for a variety of reasons. When sports specialization occurs too early, detrimental effects may occur, both physically and psychologically. If the timing is correct and sports specialization is performed under the correct conditions, the athlete may be successful in reaching specific goals. Young athletes who train intensively, whether specialized or not, can also be at risk of adverse effects on the mind and body. The purpose of this clinical report is to assist pediatricians in counseling their young athlete patients and their parents regarding sports specialization and intensive training. This report supports the American Academy of Pediatrics clinical report "Overuse Injuries, Overtraining, and Burnout in Child and Adolescent Athletes." PMID:27573090

  1. Absence of Training-Specific Cardiac Adaptation in Paraplegic Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Phillip E.; Campbell, Ian G.; George, Keith P.

    2002-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that wall thickness, but not chamber dimension, would be larger in endurance- and power-trained athletes with spinal cord injuries than in sedentary people with spinal cord injuries. Data on 11 power-trained and 5 sedentary participants showed no statistically significant differences between groups, though there was a trend…

  2. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    PubMed

    Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.

  3. Monitoring training load to understand fatigue in athletes.

    PubMed

    Halson, Shona L

    2014-11-01

    Many athletes, coaches, and support staff are taking an increasingly scientific approach to both designing and monitoring training programs. Appropriate load monitoring can aid in determining whether an athlete is adapting to a training program and in minimizing the risk of developing non-functional overreaching, illness, and/or injury. In order to gain an understanding of the training load and its effect on the athlete, a number of potential markers are available for use. However, very few of these markers have strong scientific evidence supporting their use, and there is yet to be a single, definitive marker described in the literature. Research has investigated a number of external load quantifying and monitoring tools, such as power output measuring devices, time-motion analysis, as well as internal load unit measures, including perception of effort, heart rate, blood lactate, and training impulse. Dissociation between external and internal load units may reveal the state of fatigue of an athlete. Other monitoring tools used by high-performance programs include heart rate recovery, neuromuscular function, biochemical/hormonal/immunological assessments, questionnaires and diaries, psychomotor speed, and sleep quality and quantity. The monitoring approach taken with athletes may depend on whether the athlete is engaging in individual or team sport activity; however, the importance of individualization of load monitoring cannot be over emphasized. Detecting meaningful changes with scientific and statistical approaches can provide confidence and certainty when implementing change. Appropriate monitoring of training load can provide important information to athletes and coaches; however, monitoring systems should be intuitive, provide efficient data analysis and interpretation, and enable efficient reporting of simple, yet scientifically valid, feedback.

  4. Muscle fiber type characteristics of M. deltoideus in wheelchair athletes. Comparison with other trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Tesch, P A; Karlsson, J

    1983-10-01

    Muscle biopsies were obtained from the midportion of m. deltoideus of seven male wheelchair basketball athletes. High caliber kayak paddlers (n = 8) and wrestlers (n = 8) as well as mountain ranger soldiers (n = 8) served as controls. Histochemical methods were applied to identify fast twitch (FT) and slow twitch (ST) fibers and furthermore assess muscle fiber type distribution and muscle fiber cross-sectional area. The relative percentage of FT fibers averaged (+/-SD) 47 +/- 12% and 52 +/- 9% in wheelchair athletes and soldiers. The value obtained in kayakers was significantly lower (30 +/- 11). Both FT area (p less than 0.01) and mean fiber area (p less than 0.05) were significantly larger in wheelchair athletes as compared with soldiers and kayakers. It is suggested that the involvement in specific physical training was the main cause for hypertrophy of individual muscle fibers observed in m. deltoideus of wheelchair athletes.

  5. Guidelines for the Administration and Accreditation of the Standardized Craft Training Process. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Construction Education and Research, Gainesville, FL.

    This document contains guidelines for the administration and accreditation of the standardized craft training process that was developed by the National Center for Construction Education and Research (NCCER) in partnership with various sectors of the construction and maintenance industries. The following are among the topics discussed in Chapters…

  6. Case-Based Learning in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) Executive Committee for Education has emphasized the need for proper recognition and management of orthopaedic and general medical conditions through their support of numerous learning objectives and the clinical integrated proficiencies. These learning objectives and integrated clinical…

  7. High-intensity and resistance training and elite young athletes.

    PubMed

    Ratel, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Although in the past resistance and high-intensity exercise training among young children was the subject of numerous controversies, it is now well-documented that this training mode is a safe and effective means of developing maximal strength, maximal power output and athletic performance in youth, provided that exercises are performed with appropriate supervision and precautions. Muscular strength and power output values measured from vertical jump and Wingate anaerobic tests are higher in elite than in non-elite young athletes and normal children, and the specific training effects on maximal power output normalised for body size are clearly more distinct before puberty. At present, there is no scientific evidence to support the view that high-intensity and/or resistance training might hinder growth and maturation in young children. Pre-pubertal growth is not adversely affected by sport at a competitive level and anthropometric factors are of importance for choice of sport in children. However, coaches, teachers and parents should be aware that unsupervised high-intensity and resistance training programmes involving maximal loads or too frequently repeated resistance exercises increase the risk of injury. Resistance training alone is an effective additional means of developing athletic performance throughout planned youth sports training programmes. Strategies for enhancing the effectiveness and safety of youth resistance and high-intensity exercise training are discussed in this chapter. PMID:21178368

  8. An Examination of Feedback Interactions between Athletic Training Students and Clinical Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nottingham, Sara Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Feedback has been established as an important educational tool in athletic training clinical education. However, there is currently minimal understanding of the feedback provided during athletic training clinical education experiences. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of feedback in athletic training clinical education,…

  9. Athletic Training Educators' Knowledge, Comfort, and Perceived Importance of Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Cailee E.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.; Walker, Stacy E.; Manspeaker, Sarah A.; Hankemeier, Dorice A.; Brown, Sara D.; Laursen, R. Mark; Onate, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Before new strategies and effective techniques for implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) into athletic training curricula can occur, it is crucial to recognize the current knowledge and understanding of EBP concepts among athletic training educators. Objective: To assess athletic training educators' current knowledge, comfort,…

  10. Applying Brain-Based Learning Principles to Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Debbie I.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To present different concepts and techniques related to the application of brain-based learning principles to Athletic Training clinical education. Background: The body of knowledge concerning how our brains physically learn continues to grow. Brain-based learning principles, developed by numerous authors, offer advice on how to…

  11. Designing Simulations for Athletic Training Students through Interprofessional Teaching Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivener, Kristin Ann; Gloe, Donna Sue

    2015-01-01

    Context: While multidisciplinary team approaches to education and practice have been promoted for decades, literature on collaborative efforts in athletic training and nursing remains sparse. Objective: The goal of this article is to provide an example of an interprofessional teaching collaboration in which a simulation scenario was developed…

  12. A Conceptual Framework for Clinical Education in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radtke, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To develop a model for clinical education in athletic training education based on integration of various allied health professional clinical education models. Background: Clinical education is a critical component of allied health education programs. It allows for the transfer of knowledge and skills from classroom to practical…

  13. The Use of Standardized Patients in Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Stacy E.; Weidner, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Standardized patients are widely used in health care programs to both teach and evaluate the communication and clinical skills of students. Although athletic training education programs (ATEPs) commonly use simulations, little information exists related to the use and implementation of standardized patients (SPs). Objective: To provide…

  14. Athletic Training Students' Perceptions of Mentorship in Clinical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.; Nottingham, Sara; Barrett, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Mentorship is a developmental process whereby a novice individual, as he/she becomes inducted into his/her area of expertise, is guided by a more experienced person. Speculation exists that years of experience can impact this relationship. Objective: To determine the impact mentoring can have on athletic training student development and…

  15. Immediate Feedback and Learning in Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Laurent, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Context: Immediate feedback has been shown to improve student learning more efficiently than delayed feedback in lower-level general education courses. No research exists examining the effects of immediate feedback on learning in higher-level athletic training coursework. Objective: To determine if using the Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique…

  16. Enhance Learning in Athletic Training Education with Audience Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Chris T.

    2010-01-01

    Audience Response Systems (ARS) are now being used to enhance learning in various higher education disciplines. With several ARS brands available, it is most important to consider various facets of this interactive technology prior to implementing it into athletic training courses. This article will outline strategies to incorporate this learning…

  17. Perceived Cultural Competence Levels in Undergraduate Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volberding, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Context: As the patient population continues to diversify, it is essential that athletic training students (ATSs) are educated to provide culturally competent care. This high-quality health care within the context of a patient's race, ethnicity, language, religious beliefs, or behaviors is a foundation of professional practice. Objective:…

  18. Strength training improves cycling efficiency in master endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Louis, Julien; Hausswirth, Christophe; Easthope, Christopher; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of a 3-week strength training program of knee extensor muscles on cycling delta efficiency in master endurance athletes. Nine master (age 51.5 ± 5.5 years) and 8 young (age 25.6 ± 5.9 years) endurance athletes with similar training levels participated in this study. During three consecutive weeks, all the subjects were engaged in a strength training program of the knee extensor muscles. Every week, they performed three training sessions consist of 10 × 10 knee extensions at 70% of maximal repetition with 3 min rest between in a leg extension apparatus. Maximal voluntary contraction torque (MVC torque) and force endurance (End) were assessed before, after every completed week of training, and after the program. Delta efficiency (DE) in cycling was evaluated before and after the training period. Before the training period, MVC torque, End, and DE in cycling were significantly lower in masters than in young. The strength training induced a significant improvement in MVC torque in all the subjects, more pronounced in masters (+17.8% in masters vs. +5.9% in young, P < 0.05). DE in cycling also significantly increased after training in masters, whereas it was only a trend in young. A significant correlation (r = 0.79, P < 0.01) was observed between MVC torque and DE in cycling in masters. The addition of a strength training program for the knee extensor muscles to endurance-only training induced a significant improvement in strength and cycling efficiency in master athletes. This enhancement in muscle performance alleviated all the age-related differences in strength and efficiency.

  19. Popularity of hypoxic training methods for endurance-based professional and amateur athletes.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Herms, J; Julià-Sánchez, S; Hamlin, M J; Corbi, F; Pagès, T; Viscor, G

    2015-05-01

    Scientific debate continues into whether hypoxic training has any performance benefit for athletes, and although this type of training seems popular, to our knowledge little empirical evidence on its popularity with endurance-based athletes exists. To quantify the usage of hypoxic training in endurance-based athletes we asked 203 athletes (amateur = 108, professional = 95) to complete a 17-question survey during 2013-2014 season. Compared to amateurs, professional athletes were 4.5 times (3.0-6.8, odds ratio, 95% confidence limits) more likely to undertake hypoxic training. Live-high train-low was the most popular hypoxic training protocol for athletes (52% professional and 80% amateur) with live-high train-high also used (38% professional, 20% amateur). Compared to amateurs, professional athletes tended to use evidence-based hypoxic training methods, seek advice on hypoxic training from reliable sources and were generally more realistic about the potential performance gains as a result of hypoxic training. Almost one third (25-30%) of all athletes suffered illness during their hypoxic training. Compared to amateurs, professional athletes are more likely to undertake hypoxic training and tend to follow current scientific guidelines. Attenuation of the ill effects that occur during hypoxic training may be accomplished if athletes give more attention to monitoring stress and training levels.

  20. Preceptors' Influence on Athletic Training Students' Development of Excitement and Commitment to the Field of Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Athletic training students (ATS) who are excited about their chosen profession are likely to persist to graduation. Preceptors exert significant influence on ATS; however, little is known about the methods that preceptors use to help ATS develop their own professional commitments. Objective: To investigate the methods used by preceptors…

  1. Comparison of athletic training professional preparation to the prevalence of injury occurrence in the collegiate setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerman, Beverly Jean

    1999-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the frequency of injuries that occur to certain body areas in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes and the percentage of time teaching about the same subject areas in Athletic Training Education Programs (ATEP). Directors of Commission of Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP) accredited and National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) approved programs were surveyed. Randomly selected ATEP directors were interviewed by telephone to collect information on estimated teaching time, the strengths and weaknesses of their programs, and preferred teaching methods. Data were collected from the NCAA Injury Surveillance System to calculate the frequency of injury. Chi-square 'goodness-of-fit' tests were used to determine if a 'good fit' existed between injury frequency and teaching time in two categories: general body areas (head and face, upper extremity, lower extremity, spine, and abdomen and thorax) and specific body areas (head, face, upper arm and shoulder, elbow and forearm, wrist and hand, hip and pelvis, thigh, knee, lower leg, ankle and foot, cervical spine, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, abdomen, and thorax). Standardized residuals were used to assist in determining the location of statistical significance within the same two categories. The chi-square values calculated for both the general and specific body areas were greater than the critical value set at a significance level of .05 with 4 and 14 degrees of freedom respectively. Therefore, it was found that a 'good fit' does not exist between injury frequency and teaching time. The standardized residuals were calculated for each variable within the categories. One out of five general body areas and 10 out of 15 specific body areas were less than 2.00 in absolute value and were found not to contribute to the high chi-square value. Although the chi-square values showed a lack of fit between injury frequency and teaching time

  2. Antioxidant status of interval-trained athletes in various sports.

    PubMed

    Dékány, M; Nemeskéri, V; Györe, I; Harbula, I; Malomsoki, J; Pucsok, J

    2006-02-01

    Muscular exercise results in an increased production of free radicals and other forms of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Further, developing evidence implicates cytotoxins as an underlying etiology of exercise-induced stimuli in muscle redox status, which could result in muscle fatigue and/or injury. Two major classes of endogenous protective mechanisms (enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants) work together to reduce the harmful effects of oxidants in the cell. This study examined the effects of acute physical exercise on the enzymatic antioxidant systems of different athletes and comparison was made to the mechanism of action of three main antioxidant enzymes in the blood. Handball players (n = 6), water-polo players (n = 20), hockey players (n = 22), basketball players (n = 24), and a sedentary control group (n = 10 female and n = 9 male) served as the subjects of this study. The athletes were divided into two groups according to the observed changes of activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme. The antioxidant enzyme systems were characterized by catalase (CAT), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX), and superoxide-dismutase (SOD) and measured by spectrophotometry. An important finding in the present investigation is that when the activities of SOD increased, the activities of GPX and CAT increased also and this finding related to the physical status of interval-trained athletes. Positive correlation between SOD and GPX activities was observed (r = 0.38 females, r = 0.56 males; p < 0.05). We have observed that the changes in the primary antioxidant enzyme systems of athletes are sport specific, and different from control subjects. Presumably, with interval-trained athletes, hydrogen-peroxide is significantly eliminated by glutathione-peroxidase. From these results it can be concluded that the blood redox status should be taken into consideration when establishing a fitness level for individual athletes.

  3. The History and Evolution of Athletic Training Education in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Delforge, Gary D.; Behnke, Robert S.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To present a chronologic review of the history and evolution of athletic training education in the United States as related to the professional growth of athletic training and the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Background: Commonly accepted characteristics of a profession are an identifiable body of knowledge, the emergence of practitioners as professional authorities, and community recognition. These characteristics establish the criteria by which the professional growth, or professionalization, of athletic training can be judged. With guidance from the National Athletic Trainers' Association, the development of athletic training education programs and credentialing of athletic trainers during the past 50 years have contributed to the professionalization of athletic training. Description: We present a chronology of the contributions of the National Athletic Trainers' Association to the development of athletic training education in the United States. The activities of various committees, task forces, and Association members are reviewed and traced through the past 5 decades. Early curriculum models and the development of education programs in colleges and universities are discussed. Advantages: The historical review of athletic training education in this article will enhance the reader's understanding of the relationships among education, credentialing of practitioners, and professionalism in athletic training. PMID:16558550

  4. Factors Influencing Senior Athletic Training Students' Preparedness to Enter the Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Benes, Sarah S.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Athletic training education programs must provide the student with opportunities to learn the roles and responsibilities of the athletic trainer. Objective: Investigate factors that help prepare the athletic training student (ATS) to successfully enter the workplace upon graduation from her undergraduate program. Design: Exploratory…

  5. Role of Clinical Education Experiences on Athletic Training Students' Development of Professional Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Context: Limited evidence exists on the role clinical education can play in the development of athletic training student commitment for the profession. Objective: Investigating the role clinical education experiences play on the development of passion for athletic training. Design: Exploratory qualitative study. Setting: Athletic training…

  6. Programmatic Factors Associated with Undergraduate Athletic Training Student Retention and Attrition Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Hertel, Jay; Wathington, Heather D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Athletic training programs (ATPs) are charged with meeting an increased demand for athletic trainers with adequate graduates. Currently, the retention rate of athletic training students in ATPs nationwide and the programmatic factors associated with these retention rates remain unknown. Objective: Determine the retention rate for athletic…

  7. Mentoring and Personal Relationships Are Perceived Benefits of Serving as an Athletic Training Preceptor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Preceptors play a vital role in athletic training education as they mentor and socialize athletic training students into their professional role. Exploring the benefits to serving as a preceptor is important to secure appropriate professional role models for students. Objective: To determine the benefits of serving as an athletic training…

  8. Research Training in Doctoral Programs Accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, L. DiAnne; Wester, Kelly L.; Fickling, Melissa J.; Adamson, Nicole A.

    2014-01-01

    Faculty in 38 doctoral counselor education programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs identified the quantitative and qualitative designs and other research topics that were covered in required and elective course work, discipline of course instructors, and opportunities for doctoral…

  9. Coaching Peripheral Vision Training for Soccer Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Nelson Kautzner, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Brazilian Soccer began developing its current emphasis on peripheral vision in the late 1950s, by initiative of coach of the Canto do Rio Football Club, in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, a pioneer in the development of peripheral vision training in soccer players. Peripheral vision training gained world relevance when a young talent from Canto do Rio,…

  10. Perceived importance of weight training to selected NCAA Division III men and women student-athletes.

    PubMed

    Poiss, Candice C; Sullivan, Patricia A; Paup, Donald C; Westerman, Beverly J

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in perception of the importance of weight training as a part of general and sport-specific training for selected collegiate men and women student-athletes. Subjects included 139 men and 165 women varsity National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III student-athletes who participated in the following sports: baseball, basketball, field hockey, football, lacrosse, soccer, softball, swimming, tennis, track & field, or volleyball. Men student-athletes were significantly more likely to consider weight training essential to their general and sport-specific training than women student-athletes, as measured by the Training Information Survey. Additionally, men student-athletes were found to be significantly more competitive and win-oriented than women student-athletes (p < 0.001) as measured by the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which is consistent with previous research. Results also showed that only highly goal-oriented student-athletes perceived weight training as: (a) important to both men and women and (b) having both feminine and masculine traits. It was concluded that significant gender differences exist in the perceived importance of weight training and that the constructs of competitiveness, win and goal orientation, may influence a student-athlete's perception of the importance of weight training. Coaches of both men and women student-athletes must teach that weight training is important for female and male student-athletes.

  11. Responding to Changing Skill Demands: Training Packages and Accredited Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misko, Josie

    2010-01-01

    This report, commissioned by the federal Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR), investigates whether vocational education and training (VET) has adapted to meet the changing needs of work. It provides examples of how work has changed for different occupations and functions, and how systemic mechanisms such as training…

  12. Serum ferritin and anemia in trained female athletes.

    PubMed

    Ashenden, M J; Martin, D T; Dobson, G P; Mackintosh, C; Hahn, A G

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether extremely low serum ferritin values in female athletes were associated with indications of iron deficiency anemia and whether serum ferritin values were influenced by the type of training or participants' body size. Hematological data collected during 6 years at the Australian Institute of Sport were reviewed to quantify changes in serum ferritin concentration associated with training and to establish whether decrements in serum ferritin were associated with any change in hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, or mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. Mean serum ferritin concentrations of 7.5 microg x L(-1) were not associated with any indication of iron-deficiency anemia. Serum ferritin declined by approximately 25% with the onset of rigorous daily training (p < .01) whether training was predominantly weight-bearing or non-weight-bearing. Rowers had significantly higher ferritin concentrations than basketball players of similar stature (p=.02). We conclude that considerable background information such as the stage of training, specific sport, and previous blood results should be sought when interpreting serum ferritin concentrations in female athletes.

  13. Effects of Resistance Training in Youth Athletes on Muscular Fitness and Athletic Performance: A Conceptual Model for Long-Term Athlete Development.

    PubMed

    Granacher, Urs; Lesinski, Melanie; Büsch, Dirk; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Prieske, Olaf; Puta, Christian; Gollhofer, Albert; Behm, David G

    2016-01-01

    During the stages of long-term athlete development (LTAD), resistance training (RT) is an important means for (i) stimulating athletic development, (ii) tolerating the demands of long-term training and competition, and (iii) inducing long-term health promoting effects that are robust over time and track into adulthood. However, there is a gap in the literature with regards to optimal RT methods during LTAD and how RT is linked to biological age. Thus, the aims of this scoping review were (i) to describe and discuss the effects of RT on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes, (ii) to introduce a conceptual model on how to appropriately implement different types of RT within LTAD stages, and (iii) to identify research gaps from the existing literature by deducing implications for future research. In general, RT produced small-to-moderate effects on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes with muscular strength showing the largest improvement. Free weight, complex, and plyometric training appear to be well-suited to improve muscular fitness and athletic performance. In addition, balance training appears to be an important preparatory (facilitating) training program during all stages of LTAD but particularly during the early stages. As youth athletes become more mature, specificity, and intensity of RT methods increase. This scoping review identified research gaps that are summarized in the following and that should be addressed in future studies: (i) to elucidate the influence of gender and biological age on the adaptive potential following RT in youth athletes (especially in females), (ii) to describe RT protocols in more detail (i.e., always report stress and strain-based parameters), and (iii) to examine neuromuscular and tendomuscular adaptations following RT in youth athletes.

  14. Effects of Resistance Training in Youth Athletes on Muscular Fitness and Athletic Performance: A Conceptual Model for Long-Term Athlete Development

    PubMed Central

    Granacher, Urs; Lesinski, Melanie; Büsch, Dirk; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Prieske, Olaf; Puta, Christian; Gollhofer, Albert; Behm, David G.

    2016-01-01

    During the stages of long-term athlete development (LTAD), resistance training (RT) is an important means for (i) stimulating athletic development, (ii) tolerating the demands of long-term training and competition, and (iii) inducing long-term health promoting effects that are robust over time and track into adulthood. However, there is a gap in the literature with regards to optimal RT methods during LTAD and how RT is linked to biological age. Thus, the aims of this scoping review were (i) to describe and discuss the effects of RT on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes, (ii) to introduce a conceptual model on how to appropriately implement different types of RT within LTAD stages, and (iii) to identify research gaps from the existing literature by deducing implications for future research. In general, RT produced small-to-moderate effects on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes with muscular strength showing the largest improvement. Free weight, complex, and plyometric training appear to be well-suited to improve muscular fitness and athletic performance. In addition, balance training appears to be an important preparatory (facilitating) training program during all stages of LTAD but particularly during the early stages. As youth athletes become more mature, specificity, and intensity of RT methods increase. This scoping review identified research gaps that are summarized in the following and that should be addressed in future studies: (i) to elucidate the influence of gender and biological age on the adaptive potential following RT in youth athletes (especially in females), (ii) to describe RT protocols in more detail (i.e., always report stress and strain-based parameters), and (iii) to examine neuromuscular and tendomuscular adaptations following RT in youth athletes. PMID:27242538

  15. The effect of neuromuscular training on the incidence of knee injury in female athletes. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hewett, T E; Lindenfeld, T N; Riccobene, J V; Noyes, F R

    1999-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the effect of neuromuscular training on the incidence of knee injury in female athletes, we monitored two groups of female athletes, one trained before sports participation and the other not trained, and a group of untrained male athletes throughout the high school soccer, volleyball, and basketball seasons. Weekly reports included the number of practice and competition exposures and mechanism of injury. There were 14 serious knee injuries in the 1263 athletes tracked through the study. Ten of 463 untrained female athletes sustained serious knee injuries (8 noncontact), 2 of 366 trained female athletes sustained serious knee injuries (0 noncontact), and 2 of 434 male athletes sustained serious knee injuries (1 noncontact). The knee injury incidence per 1000 athlete-exposures was 0.43 in untrained female athletes, 0.12 in trained female athletes, and 0.09 in male athletes (P = 0.02, chi-square analysis). Untrained female athletes had a 3.6 times higher incidence of knee injury than trained female athletes (P = 0.05) and 4.8 times higher than male athletes (P = 0.03). The incidence of knee injury in trained female athletes was not significantly different from that in untrained male athletes (P = 0.86). The difference in the incidence of noncontact injuries between the female groups was also significant (P = 0.01). This prospective study demonstrated a decreased incidence of knee injury in female athletes after a specific plyometric training program.

  16. Science and Practice of Coaching a Strength Training Program for Novice and Intermediate-Level Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Addresses various aspects of the athletic coaching process in strength training, including: teaching and coaching exercises to novice and intermediate level athletes (typical high school and younger college aged athletes); technical analysis and modification of student technique; student motivation; goal setting; reinforcement; and the overall…

  17. Development of Measurability and Importance Scales for the NATA Athletic Training Educational Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Edward W.; Nogle, Sally

    2002-01-01

    Developed and validated an instrument designed to measure the perceived measurability and importance of the National Athletic Trainers' Association Athletic Training Educational Competencies. Data from 931 athletic trainers and sport medicine physicians support 6 constructs, each of which demonstrates high reliability. (SLD)

  18. Urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine levels in women athletes during training and competition.

    PubMed

    Pierce, D; Kupprat, I; Harry, D

    1976-12-01

    Training and competitive epinephrine and norepinephrine levels and proportions were compared in two groups of women athletes to determine whether changes in catecholamine excretion reflect the added mental stress of athletic competition on physical effort. An intercollegiate basketball team and a group of track and field athletes volunteered as subjects. Competitive epinephrine urinary levels were significantly (P less than 0.01) higher than training levels. A concomitant rise in the norepinephrine with an increase in physical effort was observed in both groups of athletes following training sessions as well as after athletic competition. Track and field athletes trying to qualify for an international team exhibited significantly ( less than 0.01) higher epinephrine levels than the team members; thus suggesting that anticipation of competition imposes a mental stress on an athlete. Constant changes in the catecholamine pattern as against a normal work load have yet to be established.

  19. Epidemiology of training injuries in amateur taekwondo athletes: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Graham, PL; Poulos, RG

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and describe the pattern and severity of training injuries in taekwondo, and to compare pattern and severity of training injuries with competition injuries. One hundred and fifty-two active Australian amateur taekwondo athletes, aged 12 years or over, completed an online survey comprising questions on training exposure and injury history over the preceding 12 months. The main outcome measures were: overall injury incidence rate per athlete-year; training injury incidence rate per athlete-year, per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and per 1000 athlete-hours of training; injury severity; and injury proportions by anatomical region and by type of injury. Injury incidence rates were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using standard methods, while injury proportions were compared using Fisher's exact test. The vast majority (81.5%) of taekwondo injuries in an average athlete-year occurred during training. The training injury incidence rate was estimated to be 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) per athlete-year, 11.8 (95% CI: 10.4, 13.4) per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and 7.0 (95% CI: 6.1, 7.9) per 1000 athlete-hours of training. Among athletes with five or fewer injuries, the severity and injury pattern of training injuries were, by and large, the same as for competition injuries. Approximately sixty percent (60.3%) of training injuries required treatment by a health professional. Considering the burden of training injuries exceeds that of competition injuries, taekwondo governing bodies and stakeholders are encouraged to devote more efforts towards the identification of risk factors for, and prevention of, training injuries in the sport of taekwondo. PMID:26424924

  20. Epidemiology of training injuries in amateur taekwondo athletes: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lystad, R P; Graham, P L; Poulos, R G

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and describe the pattern and severity of training injuries in taekwondo, and to compare pattern and severity of training injuries with competition injuries. One hundred and fifty-two active Australian amateur taekwondo athletes, aged 12 years or over, completed an online survey comprising questions on training exposure and injury history over the preceding 12 months. The main outcome measures were: overall injury incidence rate per athlete-year; training injury incidence rate per athlete-year, per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and per 1000 athlete-hours of training; injury severity; and injury proportions by anatomical region and by type of injury. Injury incidence rates were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using standard methods, while injury proportions were compared using Fisher's exact test. The vast majority (81.5%) of taekwondo injuries in an average athlete-year occurred during training. The training injury incidence rate was estimated to be 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) per athlete-year, 11.8 (95% CI: 10.4, 13.4) per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and 7.0 (95% CI: 6.1, 7.9) per 1000 athlete-hours of training. Among athletes with five or fewer injuries, the severity and injury pattern of training injuries were, by and large, the same as for competition injuries. Approximately sixty percent (60.3%) of training injuries required treatment by a health professional. Considering the burden of training injuries exceeds that of competition injuries, taekwondo governing bodies and stakeholders are encouraged to devote more efforts towards the identification of risk factors for, and prevention of, training injuries in the sport of taekwondo.

  1. Training and equipment to prevent athletic head and neck injuries.

    PubMed

    Cross, Kevin M; Serenelli, Catherine

    2003-07-01

    Due to the potential for catastrophic neurotraumas and cervical spine injuries in sport, the sports health care professional must take proper measures to prevent such injuries. Strength training of the cervical spine, teaching of proper sporting techniques, and use of protective sports equipment are three primary means of attempting to prevent neurotraumas and cervical spine injuries in sports. There are other avenues to assist in preventing these injuries, such as flexibility programs. The sports health care professional, therefore, must be knowledgeable of the needs of each individual athlete when developing prevention plans.

  2. Physiological characteristics of well-trained junior sprint kayak athletes.

    PubMed

    Borges, Thiago Oliveira; Dascombe, Ben; Bullock, Nicola; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to profile the physiological characteristics of junior sprint kayak athletes (n=21, VO2max 4.1±0.7 L/min, training experience 2.7±1.2 y) and to establish the relationship between physiological variables (VO2max, VO2 kinetics, muscle-oxygen kinetics, paddling efficiency) and sprint kayak performance. VO2max, power at VO2max, power:weight ratio, paddling efficiency, VO2 at lactate threshold, and whole-body and muscle oxygen kinetics were determined on a kayak ergometer in the laboratory. Separately, on-water time trials (TT) were completed over 200 m and 1000 m. Large to nearly perfect (-.5 to -.9) inverse relationships were found between the physiological variables and on-water TT performance across both distances. Paddling efficiency and lactate threshold shared moderate to very large correlations (-.4 to -.7) with 200- and 1000-m performance. In addition, trivial to large correlations (-.11 to -.5) were observed between muscle-oxygenation parameters, muscle and whole-body oxygen kinetics, and performance. Multiple regression showed that 88% of the unadjusted variance for the 200-m TT performance was explained by VO2max, peripheral muscle deoxygenation, and maximal aerobic power (P<.001), whereas 85% of the unadjusted variance in 1000-m TT performance was explained by VO2max and deoxyhemoglobin (P<.001). The current findings show that well-trained junior sprint kayak athletes possess a high level of relative aerobic fitness and highlight the importance of the peripheral muscle metabolism for sprint kayak performance, particularly in 200-m races, where finalists and nonfinalists are separated by very small margins. Such data highlight the relative aerobic-fitness variables that can be used as benchmarks for talent-identification programs or monitoring longitudinal athlete development. However, such approaches need further investigation.

  3. Incorporating Foundational Evidence-Based Practice Concepts and Skills across an Athletic Training Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutte, Lisa S.; Walker, Stacy E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to provide an example of how to develop and implement an evidence-based practice (EBP) concepts and skills plan in an athletic training education program (ATEP). Background: Evidence-based practice is an integral part of medical practice today. As stated in the "Athletic Training Educational Competencies…

  4. Evaluating Perceptions of Culminating Clinical Education Experiences of Senior Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Patricia A.; Bowman, Thomas G.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The perceptions of athletic training students (ATSs) regarding their clinical education experiences are not fully understood. It is important to investigate ATS perceptions of clinical education to allow athletic training educators to provide educational experiences that will maximize learning. Objective: To determine what ATSs value…

  5. Perceptions of Athletic Training Education Program Directors on Their Students' Persistence and Departure Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    The athletic training profession is in the midst of a large increase in demand for health care professionals for the physically active. In order to meet demand, directors of athletic training education programs (ATEPs) are challenged with providing sufficient graduates. There has been a large increase in ATEPs nationwide since educational reform…

  6. Engagement Theory in Action: An Investigation of Athletic Training Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peer, Kimberly S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the use of good practice indicators by athletic training program directors and to provide a theoretical framework using engagement theory, a learner-centered process focusing on program improvement through continuous planning and evaluation, as a foundation for implementing good practices in athletic training education…

  7. Should Athletic Training Educators Utilize Grades When Evaluating Student Clinical Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriber, Kent; Gray, Courtney; Millspaugh, Rose

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore and address some of the challenges for assessing, interpreting, and grading athletic training students' clinical performance and to suggest athletic training educators consider using a more universal assessment method for professional consistency. Background: In years past students learned from teachers or mentors on an…

  8. A Mandala: A Diagram of the Clinical Education Experience in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernohous, Steve; West, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper is to present the practical use of a Mandala that: 1) provides opportunities for athletic training students to explore, reflect on and appreciate their clinical experiences; 2) provides educators with a model to understand and value athletic training student experiences; 3) organizes and captures factors and…

  9. Four-Corner Model for Curricular Development in Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutz, Matthew; Scialli, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To present a model for an educational continuum that identifies entry-level to advance practice competencies and content for athletic training education. Background: Specific degree-level purposes within the context of higher education, in conjunction with professional needs should be addressed in athletic training education.…

  10. Defining the Engaging Learning Experience from the Athletic Training Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.; Benes, Sarah S.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Clinical experiences are an integral part of athletic training education and are where students gain the hands-on, practical knowledge and skills necessary to provide quality patient care in the field. However, some clinical education experiences may not allow athletic training students to become clinically integrated. Objective: To…

  11. Who Should Mentor Me? Giving a Voice to Black Women Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siple, Bonnie J.; Hopson, Rodney K.; Sobehart, Helen C.; Turocy, Paula S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Black women are dramatically underrepresented in the health care profession of athletic training. It may be theorized that one of the reasons more black female students are not entering into the profession of athletic training is that they do not have adequate mentors to successfully guide them. Objective: The purpose of our qualitative…

  12. Preferred Learning Styles of Professional Undergraduate and Graduate Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thon, Sarah; Hansen, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Context: Recognizing the preferred learning style of professional undergraduate and graduate athletic training students will equip educators to more effectively improve their teaching methods and optimize student learning. Objective: To determine the preferred learning style of professional undergraduate and graduate athletic training students…

  13. Using a Web-Based Database to Record and Monitor Athletic Training Students' Clinical Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kirk W.; Williams, Lisa; Janicki, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to introduce a documentation recording system employing the Microsoft Structured Query Language (MS-SQL) database used by the Athletic Training Education Program (ATEP) for recording and monitoring of athletic training student (ATS) clinical experiences and hours. Background: Monitoring ATSs clinical…

  14. VO2 Max in Variable Type Exercise Among Well-Trained Upper Body Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, Douglas R.; Mullin, John P.

    1982-01-01

    The maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) of well-trained upper body athletes was compared to that of untrained individuals in four types of exercise: arm cranking, legs only cycling, graded treadmill running, and combined arm cranking and leg cycling. Results of the study showed that well-trained upper body athletes attained a significantly higher…

  15. Program Directors' Perceptions of Reasons Professional Master's Athletic Training Students Persist and Depart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Pitney, William A.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Student retention is a key issue in higher education. With the increasing number of professional master's (PM) athletic training programs (ATPs), understanding student retention is necessary to maintain viable programs. Objective: Explore program directors' perceptions of the reasons athletic training students persist and depart from PM…

  16. Program Directors' Perceptions of Programmatic Attributes Contributing to Athletic Training Student Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Graduates of athletic training programs (ATPs) have identified factors contributing to their persistence through professional education. However, program directors have yet to elaborate on programmatic attributes that might contribute to athletic training student retention in their respective ATPs. Objective: To determine program…

  17. Self-reported concussion symptoms and training routines in mixed martial arts athletes.

    PubMed

    Heath, Christopher J; Callahan, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact, fighting sport that has risen in popularity over recent years, resulting in an increase in both training facilities and sport participants. To date, little research has examined the complications and vulnerability to head trauma, or concussive symptomatology, in MMA athletes. In this study, we assessed relationships between training routines and concussive symptoms, as well as medical care, in MMA athletes. A sample (N = 119) of MMA athletes reported concussive symptoms, training routines, and medical histories through an online survey. Nearly 15% of the MMA athletes reported history of a knockout, and nearly one-third reported a technical knockout. Subjective ratings of concussive symptoms were high for these athletes, with many of them waiting only a brief time after such incidents to return to competition. These findings have important implications for informing the medical treatment and safety decision for returning to participation for these athletes. PMID:23777375

  18. Self-reported concussion symptoms and training routines in mixed martial arts athletes.

    PubMed

    Heath, Christopher J; Callahan, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact, fighting sport that has risen in popularity over recent years, resulting in an increase in both training facilities and sport participants. To date, little research has examined the complications and vulnerability to head trauma, or concussive symptomatology, in MMA athletes. In this study, we assessed relationships between training routines and concussive symptoms, as well as medical care, in MMA athletes. A sample (N = 119) of MMA athletes reported concussive symptoms, training routines, and medical histories through an online survey. Nearly 15% of the MMA athletes reported history of a knockout, and nearly one-third reported a technical knockout. Subjective ratings of concussive symptoms were high for these athletes, with many of them waiting only a brief time after such incidents to return to competition. These findings have important implications for informing the medical treatment and safety decision for returning to participation for these athletes.

  19. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division and Primary Job Title of Athletic Trainers and Their Job Satisfaction or Intention to Leave Athletic Training

    PubMed Central

    Terranova, Aaron B.; Henning, Jolene M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Membership in the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) has declined in recent years, generating much debate about professional commitment. Objective: To compare the contributing factors of job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training of certified athletic trainers (ATs) employed in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A link to a Web-based questionnaire containing the Spector Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and an original Intention to Leave Survey (ITLS) was distributed by e-mail to 1003 certified members of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 191 certified members of the NATA employed in a college or university setting in a primarily clinical capacity; representing all NCAA divisions; and having the job title of head athletic trainer, associate/assistant athletic trainer, or graduate assistant/intern athletic trainer. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used separate 3 × 3 factorial analyses of variance to compare the mean scores of each JSS subscale and of the ITLS with NCAA division and job title. A stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the strength of the relationships between the JSS subscales and the ITLS. Results: We found differences for job title in the subscales of Fringe Benefits (F2,182 = 7.82, P = .001) and Operating Conditions (F2,182 = 12.01, P < .001). The JSS subscale Nature of Work was the greatest indicator of intention to leave (β = −0.45). Conclusions: We found a strong negative correlation between various facets of job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training. The NCAA division seemed to have no effect on an individual's job satisfaction or intention to leave the profession. In addition, only Fringe Benefits and Operating Conditions seemed to be affected by job title. The ATs had similar levels of job satisfaction regardless of NCAA division, and their job titles were not a

  20. Standards, Accreditation and Progression in Computer and Information Technology Education and Training and Their Implications for the Youth Training Scheme. Publication No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alan; Mills, Julian

    A study examined the role of computer and information technology (CIT) instruction in the Youth Training Scheme (YTS). A number of successful local YTS training schemes and initiatives were identified and analyzed. One phase of this analysis focused on standards, accreditation, and progression in the CIT component of the YTS. Special attention was…

  1. Menstrual irregularities in athletic women may be predictable based on pre-training menses.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, D J; Kanonchoff, A D; Bartels, R L

    1989-06-01

    With the use of a personally conducted survey the age at menarche, incidence of menstrual irregularity, whether training occurred before or after menarche, certain personality traits (anxiety, curiosity, anger), and the type of athletic activity performed, were assessed in 161 highly competitive women athletes of various types (e.g. professional dancers, basketball players, fencers, gymnasts, field hockey players, swimmers) and 65 age-matched nonathletic women. No significant difference was found between the mean age at menarche of competitive athletes 13.2 +/- 1.4 (SD) yrs and nonathletes 12.6 +/- 1.1 yrs or between athletes who trained before menarche 13.7 +/- 1.5 (SD) yrs compared to athletes who trained after menarche 12.7 +/- 1.3 yrs. However, there were significant differences in reference to the mean age at menarche for athletes and nonathletes when compared to current menstrual frequency (p less than 0.05) and for groups of athletes currently regular 12.9 +/- 1.2 (SD) yrs when compared to those currently irregular 13.4 +/- 1.6 yrs (PR greater than F = 0.0419), regardless of athletic status. Trait personality characteristics (anxiety, curiosity, anger) based on the Spielberger State-Trait Personality Inventory (STPI), showed no significance among the various athletes, or athletes compared to non-athletes, however, athletes having the highest mean anxiety scores 19.5 +/- 4.2 (SD) and lowest mean anger scores 17.0 +/- 3.6 (SD) had irregular menses. Predictability for the development of irregular menses was done by regression and stepwise discrimination with maximum improvement technique statistics using pre-training frequency of menses and post-training frequency of menses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Does athletic training in volleyball modulate the components of visual evoked potentials? A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Zwierko, Teresa; Lubiński, Wojciech; Lesiakowski, Piotr; Steciuk, Hanna; Piasecki, Leszek; Krzepota, Justyna

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in 11 young female volleyball players who participated in extensive training for 2 years. The control group consisted of 7 age-matched female students who were not involved in any regular sports activity. Recordings of VEPs were performed twice: baseline recording (i.e., before training began) and after 2 years of systematic, volleyball-specific athletic training. The effect of athletic training on visual signal conductivity was assessed by recording the latency of N75, P100 and N135 components of the VEPs waveform. Extensive experience with volleyball training reduced signal conductivity time through visual pathway. Specifically, the latency of P100 was reduced on average by 2.2 ms during binocular viewing. Moreover, athletes had reduced N75 latency (difference of 3.3 ms) for visual stimuli that generated greater response from peripheral retina. These results indicate that sport training can affect very early sensory processing in athletes.

  3. Sensorimotor Learning in a Computerized Athletic Training Battery.

    PubMed

    Krasich, Kristina; Ramger, Ben; Holton, Laura; Wang, Lingling; Mitroff, Stephen R; Gregory Appelbaum, L

    2016-01-01

    Sensorimotor abilities are crucial for performance in athletic, military, and other occupational activities, and there is great interest in understanding learning in these skills. Here, behavioral performance was measured over three days as twenty-seven participants practiced multiple sessions on the Nike SPARQ Sensory Station (Nike, Inc., Beaverton, Oregon), a computerized visual and motor assessment battery. Wrist-worn actigraphy was recorded to monitor sleep-wake cycles. Significant learning was observed in tasks with high visuomotor control demands but not in tasks of visual sensitivity. Learning was primarily linear, with up to 60% improvement, but did not relate to sleep quality in this normal-sleeping population. These results demonstrate differences in the rate and capacity for learning across perceptual and motor domains, indicating potential targets for sensorimotor training interventions. PMID:27254262

  4. Altitude training for elite endurance athletes: A review for the travel medicine practitioner.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Gerard; O'Connor, Rory; Johnston, Niall

    2016-01-01

    High altitude training is regarded as an integral component of modern athletic preparation, especially for endurance sports such as middle and long distance running. It has rapidly achieved popularity among elite endurance athletes and their coaches. Increased hypoxic stress at altitude facilitates key physiological adaptations within the athlete, which in turn may lead to improvements in sea-level athletic performance. Despite much research in this area to date, the exact mechanisms which underlie such improvements remain to be fully elucidated. This review describes the current understanding of physiological adaptation to high altitude training and its implications for athletic performance. It also discusses the rationale and main effects of different training models currently employed to maximise performance. Athletes who travel to altitude for training purposes are at risk of suffering the detrimental effects of altitude. Altitude illness, weight loss, immune suppression and sleep disturbance may serve to limit athletic performance. This review provides an overview of potential problems which an athlete may experience at altitude, and offers specific training recommendations so that these detrimental effects are minimised.

  5. Amino acid mixture improves training efficiency in athletes.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Masaru; Sugita, Masaaki; Maruyama, Kimiaki

    2006-02-01

    This review discusses some of the beneficial effects of a dietary amino acid supplement on muscle function, fatigue, and recovery in exercising athletes. The supplement, a mixture of amino acids that included the branched-chain amino acids, arginine and glutamine, was studied chronically at several daily dose levels for extended periods of time (10, 30, and 90 d). Outcome variables included physical measures of muscle strength, fatigue and damage, and blood indices of muscle damage and oxygen-carrying capacity. One beneficial effect of the amino acid supplement was a quicker recovery from the muscle fatigue that followed eccentric exercise training. A dose-response study of the amino acid mixture at 2.2, 4.4, and 6.6 g/d for 1 mo showed that at the highest dose, indices of blood oxygen-carrying capacity were increased and those of muscle damage were decreased at the end of the trial. When the amino acid mixture was given for 90 d to elite rugby players during training at a dose of 7.2 g/d, a blood-component analysis indicated improvements in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Together, the studies suggest that the amino acid supplement contributed to an improvement in training efficiency through positive effects on muscle integrity and hematopoiesis. PMID:16424143

  6. A Learner-Centered Technique and Clinical Reasoning, Reflection, and Case Presentation Attributes in Athletic Training Students

    PubMed Central

    Heinerichs, Scott; Vela, Luzita I.; Drouin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Providing opportunities to develop clinical decision-making skills, including clinical reasoning, is an important aspect of clinical education. The learner-centered technique of summarizing the history and findings, narrowing the differential, analyzing the differential, probing the instructor about uncertainties, plan management, and selecting an issue for self-directed study (SNAPPS) is used in medicine to express clinical reasoning. Objective: To investigate the effects of SNAPPS on the clinical reasoning, reflection, and 4 case presentation attributes (length, conciseness, case summary, and expression of clinical reasoning) in athletic training students. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Three undergraduate programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Patients or Other Participants: We randomly assigned 38 athletic training students (17 men, 21 women; age = 21.53 ± 1.18 years, grade point average = 3.25 ± 0.31) who had completed at least 1 year of clinical education and all orthopaedic evaluation coursework to the SNAPPS group or the usual and customary group using a stratification scheme. Intervention(s): The SNAPPS group completed four 45-minute clinical reasoning and case presentation learning modules led by an investigator to learn the SNAPPS technique, whereas the usual and customary group received no formal instruction. Both groups audio recorded all injury evaluations performed over a 2-week period. Main Outcome Measures: Participants completed the Diagnostic Thinking Inventory and Reflection in Learning Scale twice. Case presentations were analyzed for 4 attributes: length, conciseness, case summary, and expression of clinical reasoning. Results: Case presentations were longer (t18.806 = −5.862, P < .001) but were more concise (t32 = 11.297, P < .001) for the SNAPPS group than for the usual and customary group. The SNAPPS group performed better on both the case summary subscale

  7. Aortic root size and prevalence of aortic regurgitation in elite strength trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Babaee Bigi, Mohammad Ali; Aslani, Amir

    2007-08-01

    Athletes involved in mainly static or isometric exercise (e.g., weight lifting, power lifting, and bodybuilding) develop pressure overloads due to the high systemic arterial pressure found in this type of exercise. It is hypothesized that chronically elevated aortic wall tension in strength-trained athletes is associated with aortic dilatation and regurgitation. The aim of this study was to evaluate aortic root size and the prevalence of aortic regurgitation in elite strength-trained athletes. The cohort included 100 male athletes (mean age 22.1 +/- 3.6 years; all were finalists or medalists in the country) and 128 healthy age- and height-matched subjects (the control group). Aortic root diameters at end-diastole were measured at 4 locations: (1) the aortic annulus, (2) the sinuses of Valsalva, (3) the sinotubular junction, and (4) the maximal diameter of the proximal ascending aorta. Aortic root diameters at all levels were significantly greater in the strength-trained athletes (p <0.05 for all comparisons). When the strength-trained athletes were divided into quartiles of duration of high-intensity strength training (first quartile: <18 months; second quartile: >18 and <36 months; third quartile: >36 and <54 months; fourth quartile: >54 months), progressive enlargement was found at all aortic diameters. In conclusion, aortic root diameters in all segments of the aortic root were significantly greater in elite strength-trained athletes compared with an age- and height-matched population.

  8. Accreditation council for graduate medical education (ACGME) competencies in neuropathology training.

    PubMed

    Crain, Barbara J; Alston, Sebastian R; Bruch, Leslie A; Hamilton, Ronald L; McLendon, Roger E; Rhodes, C Harker; Tihan, Tarik; Weidenheim, Karen M

    2005-04-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has defined 6 core competencies for all physicians: patient care; medical knowledge; practice-based learning and improvement; interpersonal and communication skills; professionalism; and systems-based practice. However, the specific wording of the descriptions often assumes that the physician is a clinician rather than a pathologist. Therefore, the American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. asked its Professional Affairs Committee to examine the core competencies and determine how they relate to training in neuropathology. The Committee's report is presented here in 6 sections, corresponding to the 6 competencies. In each section, the ACGME definition of that particular competency is either quoted directly or, more often, modified slightly to clarify how the competency applies to neuropathology. Each of the defined competencies is then followed by possible assessment tools, selected from those recommended in the ACGME's "toolbox." Specific suggestions are given for designing tools that apply to neuropathology. Many of the suggested activities and documentation methods can be combined into efficient, carefully formulated training/evaluation exercises. Different tools may be more applicable in some training programs. PMID:15835263

  9. Seeking Greater Relevance for Athletic Training Education within American Higher Education and the Health Care Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, David H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses several of the challenges facing today's system of higher education, and discusses the implications of these challenges for the athletic training profession. Among the major challenges are cost, accountability, access, and value of a higher education. The paper next focuses on several issues about which athletic training…

  10. Training and Psychosocial Patterns during the Early Development of Portuguese National Team Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreiros, Andre; Cote, Jean; Fonseca, Antonio Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the early development of expert athletes compared to a group of athletes that did not achieve an expert level of performance despite being involved in youth events with their national squads. In particular, the activities, training patterns, and psychosocial influences that characterized their paths in competitive sports were…

  11. Financial Resources for Conducting Athletic Training Programs in the Collegiate and High School Settings

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, James M.

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of resources to athletic training programs varies greatly, depending on the size and scope of the athletic program. No research has been found that assesses the differences in dollars allocated within various athletic training settings or assesses whether the different program levels allocate similar proportions of their resources to like categories of expenditures. In this study, I assessed the financial resources available to athletic training programs at major football NCAA Division IA schools, small football NCAA Division IA schools, NCAA Division IAA schools, NCAA Division II schools, NCAA Division III schools, and high schools. All schools had men's and women's sports and football programs. Categories assessed included: size and scope of the athletic program, supplies and equipment, operating expenses, medical expenses, salaries and benefits, malpractice insurance, and use of competitive bids in purchasing. Data supported the conclusion of wide disparities within many categories and in total expenses. Large-scale football NCAA Division IA programs spent $925.86 per athlete, while NCAA Division III programs spent $181.22, and high school programs spent $95.62. However, athletic trainers at all levels are conducting athletic training programs governed by the same professional competencies and standards of care. PMID:16558190

  12. Athletic Training Educators' Instructional Methods and Confidence in Graduating Students' Abilities regarding Psychosocial Intervention and Referral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamson-Utley, Jennifer Jordan; Stiller-Ostrowski, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Graduating athletic training students must consider both physical and mental aspects of injury to fully rehabilitate the injured athlete; however, programs may not be preparing students to apply psychosocial strategies that can improve the recovery process. Objective: To examine Psychosocial Intervention and Referral (PIR) content area…

  13. Effects of Stress Inoculation Training on Athletes' Postsurgical Pain and Rehabilitation after Orthopedic Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Michael J.; Berger, R. Scott

    1996-01-01

    Tested the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention (stress inoculation training; SIT) for postsurgical anxiety, pain and physical rehabilitation in injured athletes. Sixty male athletes who underwent arthroscopic surgery for miniscus injury in one knee were randomly assigned to either treatment (SIT and physical therapy) or control…

  14. Take a Page from Your Coach's Play Book: Teaching Technical and Tactical Skills in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Jeremy R.; Sharp, Elizabeth B.; Williams, Skip M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The ability to demonstrate sound clinical reasoning is needed for a practicing athletic trainer. However, instruction on how to make a correct clinical decision may be deficient in many athletic training programs. Objective: To provide an overview of how to teach technical and tactical skills, using both a tradition and a nontraditional…

  15. Small-Group Standardized Patient Encounter Improves Athletic Training Students' Psychosocial Intervention and Referral Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Stacy E.; Weidner, Thomas G.; Thrasher, Ashley B.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Athletic trainers provide psychological support, counseling, intervention, and referral to patients during clinical practice. However, students are rarely exposed to real-life opportunities to develop these skills. Objective: To determine if a small-group standardized patient (SP) encounter improved athletic training students'…

  16. An Assessment of Post-Professional Athletic Training Students' Critical Thinking Skills and Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Jessica Marie

    2013-01-01

    The need for outcome measures in critical thinking skills and dispositions for post-professional athletic training programs (PPATPs) is significant. It has been suggested that athletic trainers who are competent and disposed towards thinking critically will be successful in the profession. The purpose of this study is to assess critical thinking…

  17. The training intensity distribution among well-trained and elite endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    Stöggl, Thomas L.; Sperlich, Billy

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have retrospectively analyzed the training intensity distribution (TID) of nationally and internationally competitive athletes in different endurance disciplines to determine the optimal volume and intensity for maximal adaptation. The majority of studies present a “pyramidal” TID with a high proportion of high volume, low intensity training (HVLIT). Some world-class athletes appear to adopt a so-called “polarized” TID (i.e., significant % of HVLIT and high-intensity training) during certain phases of the season. However, emerging prospective randomized controlled studies have demonstrated superior responses of variables related to endurance when applying a polarized TID in well-trained and recreational individuals when compared with a TID that emphasizes HVLIT or threshold training. The aims of the present review are to: (1) summarize the main responses of retrospective and prospective studies exploring TID; (2) provide a systematic overview on TIDs during preparation, pre-competition, and competition phases in different endurance disciplines and performance levels; (3) address whether one TID has demonstrated greater efficacy than another; and (4) highlight research gaps in an effort to direct future scientific studies. PMID:26578968

  18. Effects of hypoxia on diaphragmatic fatigue in highly trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Georgiadou, Olga; Koskolou, Maria; Athanasopoulos, Dimitrios; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Golemati, Spyretta; Wagner, Harrieth; Roussos, Charis; Wagner, Peter D; Zakynthinos, Spyros

    2007-05-15

    Previous work suggests that exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH), causing only moderate arterial oxygen desaturation (SaO2 : 92 +/- 1%), does not exaggerate diaphragmatic fatigue exhibited by highly trained endurance athletes. Since changes in arterial O2 tension have a significant effect on the rate of development of locomotor muscle fatigue during strenuous exercise, the present study investigated whether hypoxia superimposed on EIAH exacerbates the exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue in these athletes. Eight trained cyclists (VO2max : 67.0 +/- 2.6 ml kg(-1) min(-1); mean +/- S.E.M.) completed in balanced order four 5 min exercise tests leading to different levels of end-exercise SaO2 (64 +/- 2, 83 +/- 1, 91 +/- 1 and 96 +/- 1%) via variations in inspired O2 fraction (FiO2 : 0.13, 0.17, 0.21 and 0.26, respectively). Measurements were made at corresponding intensities (65 +/- 3, 80 +/- 3, 85 +/- 3 and 90 +/- 3% of normoxic maximal work rate, respectively) in order to produce the same tidal volume, breathing frequency and respiratory muscle load at each FiO2. The mean pressure time product of the diaphragm did not differ across the four exercise tests and ranged between 312 +/- 28 and 382 +/- 22 cmH2O s min(-1). Ten minutes into recovery, twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure (P(di,tw)) determined by bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation, was significantly (P = 0.0001) reduced after all tests. After both hypoxic tests (FiO2 : 0.13, 0.17) the degree of fall in P(di,tw) (by 26.9 +/- 2.7 and 27.4 +/- 2.6%, respectively) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than after the normoxic test (by 20.1 +/- 3.4%). The greater amount of diaphragmatic fatigue in hypoxia at lower leg work rates (presumably requiring smaller leg blood flow compared with normoxia at higher leg work rates), suggests that when ventilatory muscle load is similar between normoxia and hypoxia, hypoxia exaggerates diaphragmatic fatigue in spite of potentially greater respiratory muscle blood flow

  19. Noninvasive evaluation of world class athletes engaged in different modes of training.

    PubMed

    Fisher, A G; Adams, T D; Yanowitz, F G; Ridges, J D; Orsmond, G; Nelson, A G

    1989-02-01

    This study evaluated by noninvasive methods the cardiac structure and functional characteristics of world class athletes participating in different types of training programs. Fourteen subjects, including 4 strength-trained (discus and shot put), 4 endurance-trained (long distance runners), 4 decathlon-trained (strength and endurance), 2 wheelchair athletes and 31 college-age control subjects were evaluated using electrocardiography, M-mode echocardiography and maximal oxygen consumption. M-mode echocardiography measurements of left ventricular structure and function were compared before and after normalization for lean body weight. As expected, endurance athletes had greater maximal O2 consumption than the other groups (p less than 0.05). Before normalization for lean body weight, there were no significant differences in end-diastolic dimensions. After normalization, the endurance, wheelchair and control subjects had end-diastolic dimensions larger than those of strength athletes. Strength athletes appeared to have a much larger posterior wall and septal thickness than all groups except the decathlon athletes. However, when normalized, there was no difference among any of the groups. Previous investigators have attempted to determine "normalcy" of cardiac hypertrophy by looking at the ratio of left ventricular wall thickness to left ventricular radius. In the present study, the thickness to radius ratio in strength athletes was 33% greater than that in endurance athletes. It appears that the left ventricular wall thickness in the strength athletes occurred without a concomitant increase in left ventricular radius and that the left ventricular hypertrophy of world class athletes is related to the total increase in lean body weight. However, ventricular dimensions may be related more to the type of overload experienced. PMID:2913737

  20. Athletic Training Educators' Pedagogical Strategies for Preparing Students to Address Sudden Death in Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pagnotta, Kelly D.; Salvatore, Anthony C.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Educational training programs both impart knowledge and allow students to practice skills to gain clinical competence. Objective: Understand the educational training provided to athletic training students regarding sudden death in sport beyond exertional heat stroke. Design: An exploratory, qualitative study using telephone interviews and…

  1. Citius, Altius, Fortius: beneficial effects of resistance training for young athletes: Narrative review.

    PubMed

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; Lloyd, Rhodri S; MacDonald, James; Myer, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    The motto of the Olympic Games is Citius, Altius, Fortius which is Latin for 'Faster, Higher, Stronger'. It is a clarion call to all competitors, including the youngest, to engage in training strategies that prepare athletes to be the best in the world. Existing research indicates that various forms of resistance training can elicit performance improvements in young athletes. Stronger young athletes will be better prepared to learn complex movements, master sport tactics, and sustain the demands of training and competition. An integrative training programme grounded in resistance training and motor skill development can optimise a young athlete's potential to maximise their athletic and sporting performance, while reducing the risk of a sports-related injury. Resistance training may be especially important for modern-day young athletes who are more likely to specialise in one sport at an early age at the expense of enhancing general physical fitness and learning diversified sport skills. Structured interventions that include qualified instruction; targeted movement practice; and strength and conditioning activities that are developmentally appropriate, progressive and technique driven are needed to attain a level of athleticism that is consistent with the Olympic motto.

  2. Citius, Altius, Fortius: beneficial effects of resistance training for young athletes: Narrative review.

    PubMed

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; Lloyd, Rhodri S; MacDonald, James; Myer, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    The motto of the Olympic Games is Citius, Altius, Fortius which is Latin for 'Faster, Higher, Stronger'. It is a clarion call to all competitors, including the youngest, to engage in training strategies that prepare athletes to be the best in the world. Existing research indicates that various forms of resistance training can elicit performance improvements in young athletes. Stronger young athletes will be better prepared to learn complex movements, master sport tactics, and sustain the demands of training and competition. An integrative training programme grounded in resistance training and motor skill development can optimise a young athlete's potential to maximise their athletic and sporting performance, while reducing the risk of a sports-related injury. Resistance training may be especially important for modern-day young athletes who are more likely to specialise in one sport at an early age at the expense of enhancing general physical fitness and learning diversified sport skills. Structured interventions that include qualified instruction; targeted movement practice; and strength and conditioning activities that are developmentally appropriate, progressive and technique driven are needed to attain a level of athleticism that is consistent with the Olympic motto. PMID:26089321

  3. Effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training on maximal strength and power in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Ataee, Jalil; Koozehchian, Majid S; Kreider, Richard B; Zuo, Li

    2014-01-01

    Accommodation resistance is a training technique that may improve strength and power gains beyond those achieved by traditional free weights. In this method, chains are either added on a free-weight bar and combined with traditional plates or added to the bar as the entire load. Purpose. The aim of the current study was to compare the effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training methods during a four-week period on maximal strength and power in trained athletes. Methods. This study was comprised of 24 trained athletes, including 16 trained males [8 Wushu athletes (Kung-Fu) and 8 wrestlers, age: 20.5 ± 2.00 yrs. old]. Participants were initially tested on weight, body circumference, fat percent, upper and lower body maximal strength, determined by the 1-repetition maximum (1RM) test, which determines the greatest amount of weight a person can successfully lift, and upper and lower body power. Participants were equally randomized to either accommodation or constant resistance training groups. Both groups underwent resistance training for a four-week period that consisted of three sessions per week. Multivariate repeated-measures analyses of variance of the data were used to verify significant differences in strength and power between groups. The modified Bonferroni post hoc test was used to compare the obtained results in pre-, mid-, and post test. Results. In the accommodation resistance group, there was a significant difference in lower body maximal strength compared to the constant group (163.12 ± 18.82 kg in the accommodation group vs. 142.25 ± 20.04 kg in the constant group, P = 0.04). No significant differences were found in upper body power, lower body power, and upper body maximal strength between the two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Although there was only a significant difference in lower body maximal strength between groups, accommodation resistance training may induce a physiological training response by improving the strength and

  4. Effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training on maximal strength and power in trained athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kreider, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Accommodation resistance is a training technique that may improve strength and power gains beyond those achieved by traditional free weights. In this method, chains are either added on a free-weight bar and combined with traditional plates or added to the bar as the entire load. Purpose. The aim of the current study was to compare the effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training methods during a four-week period on maximal strength and power in trained athletes. Methods. This study was comprised of 24 trained athletes, including 16 trained males [8 Wushu athletes (Kung-Fu) and 8 wrestlers, age: 20.5 ± 2.00 yrs. old]. Participants were initially tested on weight, body circumference, fat percent, upper and lower body maximal strength, determined by the 1-repetition maximum (1RM) test, which determines the greatest amount of weight a person can successfully lift, and upper and lower body power. Participants were equally randomized to either accommodation or constant resistance training groups. Both groups underwent resistance training for a four-week period that consisted of three sessions per week. Multivariate repeated-measures analyses of variance of the data were used to verify significant differences in strength and power between groups. The modified Bonferroni post hoc test was used to compare the obtained results in pre-, mid-, and post test. Results. In the accommodation resistance group, there was a significant difference in lower body maximal strength compared to the constant group (163.12 ± 18.82 kg in the accommodation group vs. 142.25 ± 20.04 kg in the constant group, P = 0.04). No significant differences were found in upper body power, lower body power, and upper body maximal strength between the two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Although there was only a significant difference in lower body maximal strength between groups, accommodation resistance training may induce a physiological training response by improving the strength and

  5. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status response of handball athletes: implications for sport training monitoring.

    PubMed

    Marin, Douglas Popp; Bolin, Anaysa Paola; Campoio, Thais Regina; Guerra, Beatriz Alves; Otton, Rosemari

    2013-10-01

    The chronic exposure to regular exercise training seems to improve antioxidant defense systems. However, the intense physical training imposed on elite athletes may lead to overtraining associated with oxidative stress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of different training loads and competition on oxidative stress, biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzymatic defense in handball athletes during 6-months of monitoring. Ten male elite handball athletes were recruited to the study. Blood samples were collected four times every six weeks throughout the season. During most intense periods of training and competitions there were significant changes in plasma indices of oxidative stress (increased TBARS and decreased thiols). Conversely, chronic adaptations to exercise training demonstrated a significant protective effect against oxidative stress in erythrocyte (decrease in TBARs and carbonyl group levels). Erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly increased, suggesting a training-induced antioxidant adaptation. Biomarkers of skeletal muscle damage were significantly increased during high-intensity training period (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase). No significant changes were observed in plasma IL-6, TNF-α and uric acid, whereas a significant reduction was found in the IL-1β concentration and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. Oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers can change throughout the season in competitive athletes, reflecting the physical stress and muscle damage that occurs as the result of competitive handball training. In addition, these biochemical measurements can be applied in the physiological follow-up of athletes.

  6. Fluid Balance During Training in Elite Young Athletes of Different Sports.

    PubMed

    Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A; Angelopoulou, Athanasia; Skoulariki, Chara; Bismpikou, Stefani; Mourtakos, Stamatis; Sidossis, Labros S

    2015-12-01

    Although there are many studies demonstrating a high percentage of adult athletes who start exercise in suboptimal hydration state, limited data concerning hydration levels in athletic youth exist. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydration status of elite young athletes of different sports, during a typical day of training. Fifty-nine young elite male athletes from different sports (basketball, gymnastics, swimming, running, and canoeing) participated in the study (age: 15.2 ± 1.3 years; years of training: 7.7 ± 2.0). Hydration status was assessed in the morning, before and immediately after practice. Data collection took place at the same time of the day, with mean environmental temperature and humidity at the time of the measurements at 27.6 ± 0.9° C and 58 ± 8%, respectively. All athletes trained for approximately 90 minutes, and they were consuming fluids ad libitum throughout their practice. Over 89% of the athletes were hypohydrated (urine specific gravity [USG] ≥1.020 mg·dl) based on their first morning urine sample. Pretraining urine samples revealed that 76.3% of the athletes were hypohydrated, whereas a significant high percent remained hypohydrated even after training according to USG values ≥1.020 mg·dl (74.5%) and urine color scale: 5-6 (76.3%). Mean body weight loss during training was -1.1 ± 0.07%. We concluded that the prevalence of hypohydration among elite young athletes is very high, as indicated by the USG and urine color values. The majority of the athletes was hypohydrated throughout the day and dehydrated even more during practice despite fluid availability.

  7. Supplement to listing of accredited doctoral, internship, and postdoctoral training programs in professional psychology.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The Commission on Accreditation has provided a list announcing the following status changes for Accredited doctoral (clinical, counseling, school, or a combination thereof and developed practice area), doctoral internship, and postdoctoral residency programs in professional psychology as of April 1, 2016. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Supplement to Listing of Accredited Doctoral, Internship, and Postdoctoral Training Programs in Professional Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Committee on Accreditation announces changes in the listing of accredited doctoral (clinical, counseling, school, and combined professional-scientific), internship, and postdoctoral residency programs in professional psychology. These changes update the listing in the December 2006 issue of the American Psychologist [see EJ751413].

  9. Supplement to listing of accredited doctoral, internship, and postdoctoral training programs in professional psychology.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The Commission on Accreditation has provided a list announcing the following status changes for Accredited doctoral (clinical, counseling, school, or a combination thereof and developed practice area), doctoral internship, and postdoctoral residency programs in professional psychology as of April 1, 2016. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504578

  10. [THE FUNCTIONAL CONSTITUENT OF A BIOLOGICAL COMPONENT IN PROGRAMS FOR TRAINING SPECIALISTS IN THE AREA OF PARASITOLOGY FOR ACCREDITATION].

    PubMed

    Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Yu; Andreeva, N D

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the functional aspects of a biological component in programs for training specialists in the area of Parasitology for accreditation within the current enactments, including those on modernization of public health and additional professional education. The working program of the module "Fundamental Disciplines" has been used as an example to outline approaches to molding a medical parasitologist's capacity and readiness to solve professional tasks on the basis of knowledge of fundamental disciplines: biology, immunology, and medical geography. Education fundamentalization is shown to suggest more unsupervised work of a learner in the teaching process. The fundamental constituent of a biological component of the 'programs for training learners in the specialty of Parasitology for accreditation is shown in the interaction of all sections of this area with special and allied subjects.

  11. Leadership in athletic training: implications for practice and education in allied health care.

    PubMed

    Kutz, Matthew R

    2010-01-01

    Leadership behaviors are an important aspect of athletic training and are needed within all allied health care disciples. A two-phase, exploratory, non-experimental research study using a Delphi technique and a randomly selected sample of athletic trainers (n = 161) was conducted to determine leadership competencies perceived to be important for athletic training practice and education. The Delphi technique (phase one) resulted in the Leadership Development in Athletic Training instrument (LDAT). In the national survey (phase two), respondents used the LDAT to rate the importance of leadership competencies for athletic training practice and for athletic training education. Coefficient alphas ranged from α = 0.83 to 0.97 and provided satisfactory estimates of internal consistency. Concurrent, construct, and convergent validity were established. Forty-nine leadership competencies were rated important for practice and 48 for education (M = 1.5, p ≤ 0.001). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that leadership competencies were organized by four constructs (with six emphases): 1) personality characteristics, 2) diagnosing context and people skills, 3) communication and initiative, and 4) strategic thinking. Repeated measures ANOVA with Sidak post-hoc adjustments indicated each leadership construct significantly increased in importance as the level of the ATEP progressed. PMID:21184023

  12. Leadership in athletic training: implications for practice and education in allied health care.

    PubMed

    Kutz, Matthew R

    2010-01-01

    Leadership behaviors are an important aspect of athletic training and are needed within all allied health care disciples. A two-phase, exploratory, non-experimental research study using a Delphi technique and a randomly selected sample of athletic trainers (n = 161) was conducted to determine leadership competencies perceived to be important for athletic training practice and education. The Delphi technique (phase one) resulted in the Leadership Development in Athletic Training instrument (LDAT). In the national survey (phase two), respondents used the LDAT to rate the importance of leadership competencies for athletic training practice and for athletic training education. Coefficient alphas ranged from α = 0.83 to 0.97 and provided satisfactory estimates of internal consistency. Concurrent, construct, and convergent validity were established. Forty-nine leadership competencies were rated important for practice and 48 for education (M = 1.5, p ≤ 0.001). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that leadership competencies were organized by four constructs (with six emphases): 1) personality characteristics, 2) diagnosing context and people skills, 3) communication and initiative, and 4) strategic thinking. Repeated measures ANOVA with Sidak post-hoc adjustments indicated each leadership construct significantly increased in importance as the level of the ATEP progressed.

  13. Sport training and the growth and pubertal maturation of young athletes.

    PubMed

    Matina, Robert M; Rogol, Alan D

    2011-09-01

    Growth and pubertal maturation of youth athletes are overwhelmingly within the broad range of normal variability. These include many successful male athletes who mature earlier than average, and many successful female athletes, especially in the "aesthetic" sports (artistic gymnastics, ice-skating, ballet) and distance running, who mature later than average. Artistic gymnasts generally receive the most attention, but their growth and maturation characteristics fall largely within the physiologic range and are indistinguishable from short, late maturing girls. It is difficult to ascribe causality to intensive training for sport as a factor in the later pubertal maturation of heavily training athletes. The alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary function for the GH/IGF-I and gonadal axes are likely appropriate for the stage of adolescent maturation. The selection and sorting processes for elite sport, including ballet, need critical evaluation. If intensive training is a factor affecting growth and pubertal maturation, its effects must be partitioned from (a) other factors known to influence these biological processes, and (b) other components of the overall sport training environment before causality can be established. Other factors which play an indeterminate role include: genetics/epigenetics, stress, psychosocial interactions, family environment and caloric intake, among others. These factors together with the energy expenditure of intensive training may influence the growth and pubertal maturation of some adolescent athletes. The effect is not necessarily attributable to training per se; rather, it is likely embedded in the elite sport training environment which is essentially an adult dominated enterprise.

  14. A comparison of traditional and block periodized strength training programs in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Bartolomei, Sandro; Hoffman, Jay R; Merni, Franco; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 2 different periodization models in strength and power athletes. Twenty-four experienced resistance trained men were randomly assigned to either a block periodization training program (BP; age = 24.2 ± 3.1 years, body mass = 78.5 ± 11.0 kg, height = 177.6 ± 4.9 cm) or to a traditional periodization program (TP; age = 26.2 ± 6.0 years, body mass = 80.5 ± 13.3 kg, height = 179.2 ± 4.6). Participants in both training programs performed 4 training sessions per week. Each training program consisted of the same exercises and same volume of training (total resistance lifted per session). The difference between the groups was in the manipulation of training intensity within each training phase. Strength and power testing occurred before training (PRE) and after 15 weeks (POST) of training. Magnitude-based inferences were used to compare strength and power performance between the groups. Participants in BP were more likely (79.8%) to increase the area under the force-power curve than TP. Participants in BP also demonstrated a likely positive (92.76%) decrease in the load corresponding to maximal power at the bench press compared with TP group, and a possible improvement (∼60%) in maximal strength and power in the bench press. No significant changes were noted between groups in lower-body strength or jump power performance after the 15-week training period. Results of this study indicate that BP may enhance upper-body power expression to a greater extent than TP with equal volume; however, no differences were detected for lower-body performance and body composition measures. PMID:24476775

  15. Association between type of training and risk of asthma in elite athletes

    PubMed Central

    Helenius, I. J.; Tikkanen, H. O.; Haahtela, T.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intensive endurance training has been associated with a high prevalence of symptoms compatible with asthma in elite athletes. It is not known, however, whether there is an association between the type of training for competitive events and the risk of asthma in highly trained athletes. METHODS: Two hundred and thirteen track and field athletes, mostly from Finnish national teams, and 124 controls of the same age completed a respiratory symptom questionnaire. Positive answers to physician diagnosed asthma were confirmed by personal interviews. The athletes were divided into two groups depending on whether they were speed and power athletes (n = 106) or long distance runners (n = 107). RESULTS: According to a logistic regression model the prevalence of physician diagnosed asthma was not associated with age, sex, or a family history of asthma. Long distance runners (OR 6.7; 95% CI 2.1 to 22.1) and speed and power athletes (OR 3.2; 95% CI 0.90 to 11.4) had a higher prevalence of physician diagnosed asthma than control subjects. Physician diagnosed asthma was found in 18 of 107 long distance runners (17%), in nine of 106 speed and power athletes (8%; p = 0.07 (chi 2 test)), and in four of 124 controls (3%; p < 0.0004 (chi 2 test for trend)). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of physician diagnosed asthma is high in elite athletes and an association with the competitive event is suggested with long distance runners having a greater risk of developing asthma than speed and power athletes. This may be due to prolonged hyperventilation and increased exposure to inhalant allergens and irritants during endurance training and competition. 


 PMID:9059477

  16. The Effects of Isolated and Integrated ‘Core Stability’ Training on Athletic Performance Measures

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Casey A.; Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Core stability training, operationally defined as training focused to improve trunk and hip control, is an integral part of athletic development, yet little is known about its direct relation to athletic performance. Objective This systematic review focuses on identification of the association between core stability and sports-related performance measures. A secondary objective was to identify difficulties encountered when trying to train core stability with the goal of improving athletic performance. Data sources A systematic search was employed to capture all articles related to athletic performance and core stability training that were identified using the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus™ (1982-June2011). Study selection A systematic approach was used to evaluate 179 articles identified for initial review. Studies that performed an intervention targeted toward the core and measured an outcome related to athletic or sport performances were included, while studies with a participant population aged 65 years or older were excluded. Twenty-four in total met the inclusionary criteria for review. Study appraisal and synthesis methods Studies were evaluated using the Physical Therapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The 24 articles were separated into three groups, general performance (n = 8), lower extremity (n = 10) and upper extremity (n = 6), for ease of discussion. Results In the majority of studies, core stability training was utilized in conjunction with more comprehensive exercise programmes. As such, many studies saw improvements in skills of general strengths such as maximum squat load and vertical leap. Surprisingly, not all studies reported measurable increases in specific core strength and stability measures following training. Additionally, investigations that targeted the core as the primary goal for improved outcome of training had mixed results. Limitations Core stability is rarely the sole component of an athletic

  17. Monitoring Hydration Status Pre- and Post-Training among University Athletes Using Urine Color and Weight Loss Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Marquitta C.; Salandy, Sinead T.; Beckford, Safiya E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hydration status pre- and post-training among university athletes using urine color and weight loss as indicators. Participants: Participants were 52 university athletes training for campus games in a developing country. Methods: Pre- and post-training urine specimens were compared with a standard urine color scale.…

  18. The Effect of High-Fidelity Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Simulation on Athletic Training Student Knowledge, Confidence, Emotions, and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivener, Kristin Ann; Gloe, Donna Sue

    2015-01-01

    Context: High-fidelity simulation is widely used in healthcare for the training and professional education of students though literature of its application to athletic training education remains sparse. Objective: This research attempts to address a wide-range of data. This includes athletic training student knowledge acquisition from…

  19. Athletic Training Students' Perceptions of and Academic Preparation in the Use of Psychological Skills in Sport Injury Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamphoff, Cindra S.; Hamson-Utley, J. Jordan; Antoine, Beth; Knutson, Rebecca; Thomae, Jeffrey; Hoenig, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Context: Injured athletes rely on athletic trainers to assist them when recovering from injury. Over the last 20 years, the use of psychological skills to speed recovery has become increasingly popular. Objective: Explore athletic training students' perceptions of the importance and effectiveness of psychological skills in the rehabilitation of…

  20. Multiculturalism and Athletic Training Education: Implications for Educational and Professional Progress

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To introduce athletic training educators and practicing professionals to the pedagogic concept and professional benefits that multicultural education, awareness, and training might provide if implemented in athletic training education. Data Sources: I reviewed textbook chapters and articles used in the course of my doctoral studies and searched the archives of Diversity Digest and Academic Medicine for the years 1998 to 2002 with the key words multiculturalism, diversity, cultural competence, education, and learning. I obtained additional information by cross-referencing pertinent articles. Data Synthesis: I present a rational argument for the inclusion of a critical pedagogy into the field of athletic training education. I outline the infrastructure in the professional field of athletic training, review some of the literature on critical multicultural theory and pedagogy, and examine some of the potential cognitive and intellectual implications of diversity and multicultural education. Conclusions/Recommendations: Future work in this area should focus on various and creative strategies for implementing a multicultural agenda in athletic training curricula and on the analysis of the associated benefits and outcomes of such educational strategies. PMID:16558679

  1. Association between reduced stillbirth rates in England and regional uptake of accreditation training in customised fetal growth assessment

    PubMed Central

    Gardosi, Jason; Giddings, Sally; Clifford, Sally; Wood, Lynne; Francis, André

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect that accreditation training in fetal growth surveillance and evidence-based protocols had on stillbirth rates in England and Wales. Design Analysis of mortality data from Office of National Statistics. Setting England and Wales, including three National Health Service (NHS) regions (West Midlands, North East and Yorkshire and the Humber) which between 2008 and 2011 implemented training programmes in customised fetal growth assessment. Population Live births and stillbirths in England and Wales between 2007 and 2012. Main outcome measure Stillbirth. Results There was a significant downward trend (p=0.03) in stillbirth rates between 2007 and 2012 in England to 4.81/1000, the lowest rate recorded since adoption of the current stillbirth definition in 1992. This drop was due to downward trends in each of the three English regions with high uptake of accreditation training, and led in turn to the lowest stillbirth rates on record in each of these regions. In contrast, there was no significant change in stillbirth rates in the remaining English regions and Wales, where uptake of training had been low. The three regions responsible for the record drop in national stillbirth rates made up less than a quarter (24.7%) of all births in England. The fall in stillbirth rate was most pronounced in the West Midlands, which had the most intensive training programme, from the preceding average baseline of 5.73/1000 in 2000–2007 to 4.47/1000 in 2012, a 22% drop which is equivalent to 92 fewer deaths a year. Extrapolated to the whole of the UK, this would amount to over 1000 fewer stillbirths each year. Conclusions A training and accreditation programme in customised fetal growth assessment with evidence-based protocols was associated with a reduction in stillbirths in high-uptake areas and resulted in a national drop in stillbirth rates to their lowest level in 20 years. PMID:24345900

  2. Prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in highly trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Weiler, J M; Metzger, W J; Donnelly, A L; Crowley, E T; Sharath, M D

    1986-07-01

    Previous studies indicated that the prevalence of symptomatic asthma is about 4 to 7 percent. No similar studies exist to suggest the prevalence of asthma in highly trained competitive athletes, since asthma is thought to be an uncommon disease in this population. We became concerned, therefore, when a large number of football players developed symptoms consistent with asthma during preparation in California for the Rose Bowl in December 1981. We studied the team and found 12 percent of the football players admitted to a history of asthma, whereas none of the members of the university basketball team and 7 percent of a group of sophomore medical students and physician assistant students gave a history of asthma. Furthermore, 19 percent of the football players indicated that at some time they had chest tightness, cough, wheezing, or prolonged shortness of breath after exercise; 12 percent of the basketball players and 37 percent of the students indicated such a history. We examined each of these three groups for non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine using a modified methacholine bronchoprovocation (MBP) challenge and found that 76 of 151 (50 percent) football players tested had positive tests; 76 percent of those with symptoms had positive results of inhalation tests and 47 percent of those with minimal or no symptoms had positive test results. In addition, four of 16 (25 percent) basketball players and 69 of 167 (41 percent) students had positive MBP tests. These studies indicate that bronchial hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine is much more common in these young adults than has previously been suspected.

  3. Voluntary dehydration and cognitive performance in trained college athletes.

    PubMed

    D'anci, Kristen E; Vibhakar, Arjun; Kanter, Jordan H; Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A

    2009-08-01

    Cognitive and mood decrements resulting from mild dehydration and glucose consumption were studied. Men and women (total N = 54; M age = 19.8 yr., SD = 1.2) were recruited from college athletic teams. Euhydration or dehydration was achieved by athletes completing team practices with or without water replacement. Dehydration was associated with higher thirst and negative mood ratings as well as better Digit Span performance. Participants showed better Vigilance Attention with euhydration. Hydration status and athlete's sex interacted with performance on Choice Reaction Time and Vigilance Attention. In a second study, half of the athletes received glucose prior to cognitive testing. Results for negative mood and thirst ratings were similar, but for cognitive performance the results were mixed. Effects of glucose on cognition were independent of dehydration.

  4. Pain and Injury Associated with Powerlifting Training in Visually Impaired Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haykowsky, Mark J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.

    1999-01-01

    This study assessed occurrence and level of pain and injury history associated with powerlifting training in 11 adults with visual impairments. Powerlifting training was associated with an elevated occurrence of pain in shoulders, elbows, lower back, and knee regions. Injury rate, however, was lower than for athletes without visual impairments.…

  5. Rationale and Resources for Teaching the Mathematical Modeling of Athletic Training and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, David C.; Skiba, Philip F.

    2013-01-01

    A number of professions rely on exercise prescription to improve health or athletic performance, including coaching, fitness/personal training, rehabilitation, and exercise physiology. It is therefore advisable that the professionals involved learn the various tools available for designing effective training programs. Mathematical modeling of…

  6. Changes in Body Composition and Strength of Female Athletes on Two Different Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyster, Nancy

    Thirty-one championship caliber women athletes participating on varsity teams at Ohio State University were trained using two different conditioning programs, in an attempt to determine the physiological outcomes of weight training versus cardiovascular-oriented conditioning. Fourteen tennis players followed a program of high-resistance weight…

  7. Oxidative stress biomarker monitoring in elite women volleyball athletes during a 6-week training period.

    PubMed

    Martinović, Jelena; Dopsaj, Violeta; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena; Dopsaj, Milivoj; Vujović, Ana; Stefanović, Aleksandra; Nešić, Goran

    2011-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (a) if reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) are a reliable parameter for monitoring oxidative stress in athletes alone or in association with other parameters of oxidative stress and depending on whether antioxidant supplements are taken or not; (b) the level of oxidative stress in athletes before the competition season; and (c) if oxidative status could be improved in volleyball athletes. Sixteen women athletes (supplemented group) received an antioxidant cocktail containing vitamin E, vitamin C, zinc gluconate, and selenium as a dietary supplement during a 6-week training period, whereas 12 of them (control group) received no dietary supplement. Blood samples were taken before and after the training period. The following parameters were measured: ROMs, superoxide anion (O2⁻₂), malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), biological antioxidative potential (BAP), paraoxonase activity toward paraoxon (POase) and diazoxon (DZOase), superoxide dismutase(SOD), total sulfydryl group concentration (SH groups), and lipid status. Reactive oxygen metabolites were taken as the dependent variable and MDA, O2⁻₂, AOPP, and LOOH as independent variables. In the group of athletes who have received supplementation, linear regression analysis revealed that the implemented model had a lower influence on dROMs (70.4 vs. 27.9%) after the training period. The general linear model showed significant differences between parameters before and after training/supplementation (Wilks' lambda = 0.074, F = 11.76, p < 0.01). At the partial level, significant increases in ROM levels (p <0.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 286-337), SOD activity (CI: 113-144), and BAP (CI: 2,388-2,580) (p < 0.01) were observed. The association between ROMs and other parameters of oxidative stress was reduced in athletes who received supplements. During the precompetition training period, treatment with dietary

  8. Yin and yang, or peas in a pod? Individual-sport versus team-sport athletes and altitude training.

    PubMed

    Aughey, Robert J; Buchheit, Martin; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C; Bourdon, Pitre C; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    The question of whether altitude training can enhance subsequent sea-level performance has been well investigated over many decades. However, research on this topic has focused on athletes from individual or endurance sports, with scant number of studies on team-sport athletes. Questions that need to be answered include whether this type of training may enhance team-sport athlete performance, when success in team-sport is often more based on technical and tactical ability rather than physical capacity per se. This review will contrast and compare athletes from two sports representative of endurance (cycling) and team-sports (soccer). Specifically, we draw on the respective competition schedules, physiological capacities, activity profiles and energetics of each sport to compare the similarities between athletes from these sports and discuss the relative merits of altitude training for these athletes. The application of conventional live-high, train-high; live-high, train-low; and intermittent hypoxic training for team-sport athletes in the context of the above will be presented. When the above points are considered, we will conclude that dependent on resources and training objectives, altitude training can be seen as an attractive proposition to enhance the physical performance of team-sport athletes without the need for an obvious increase in training load.

  9. Sport and training influence bone and body composition in women collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Carbuhn, Aaron F; Fernandez, Tara E; Bragg, Amy F; Green, John S; Crouse, Stephen F

    2010-07-01

    This is a novel descriptive study to characterize off-season, preseason, and postseason bone and body composition measures in women collegiate athletes. From 2006 through 2008, 67 women collegiate athletes from 5 sports, softball (n = 17), basketball (n = 10), volleyball (n = 7), swimming (n = 16), and track jumpers and sprinters (n = 17) were scanned using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at 3 seasonal periods: (a) off-season = before preseason training, (b) preseason = after preseason training, and (c) postseason = after competitive season. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans were analyzed for total body mass, lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM), percent body fat (%BF), bone mineral content, bone mineral density (BMD), arm BMD, leg BMD, pelvis BMD, and spine BMD. Data were analyzed between sports using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey post hoc follow-ups, and within each sport using repeated-measures ANOVA and LSD; alpha < 0.05. Significant off-season to preseason or postseason changes in %BF, LM, and BMD within each sport were as follows, respectively: softball, -7, +4, +1%; basketball, -11, +4, +1%; volleyball, unchanged, unchanged, +2%; swimming, unchanged, +2.5%, unchanged; track jumpers and sprinters, -7, +3.5, +1%. Comparisons among athletes in each sport showed bone measurements of swimmers averaged 4-19% lower than that of athletes in any other sport, whereas for track jumpers and sprinters, %BF and FM averaged 36 and 43% lower compared with other sports at all seasonal periods. Values for athletes playing basketball and volleyball were most similar, whereas softball athletes' values fell between all other athletes. These data serve as sport-specific reference values for comparisons at in-season and off-season training periods among women collegiate athletes in various sports.

  10. Multistakeholder Perspectives on the Transition to a Graduate-Level Athletic Training Educational Model

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.; Pitney, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Context  The decision has been made to move away from the traditional bachelor's degree professional program to a master's degree professional program. Little is known about the perceptions about this transition from those involved with education. Objective  To examine multiple stakeholders' perspectives within athletic training education on the effect that a change to graduate-level education could have on the profession and the educational and professional development of the athletic trainer. Design  Qualitative study. Setting  Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants  A total of 18 athletic training students (6 men, 12 women; age = 24 ± 5 years), 17 athletic training faculty (6 men, 9 women, 2 unspecified; 7 program directors, 5 faculty members, 3 clinical coordinators, 2 unidentified; age = 45 ± 8 years), and 15 preceptors (7 men, 7 women, 1 unspecified; age = 34 ± 7 years) completed the study. Data Collection and Analysis  Participants completed a structured Web-based questionnaire. Each cohort responded to questions matching their roles within an athletic training program. Data were analyzed following a general inductive process. Member checks, multiple-analyst triangulation, and peer review established credibility. Results  Thirty-one (62%) participants supported the transition, 14 (28%) were opposed, and 5 (10%) were neutral or undecided. Advantages of and support for transitioning and disadvantages of and against transitioning emerged. The first higher-order theme, advantages, revealed 4 benefits: (1) alignment of athletic training with other health care professions, (2) advanced coursework and curriculum delivery, (3) improved student and professional retention, and (4) student maturity. The second higher-order theme, disadvantages, was defined by 3 factors: (1) limited time for autonomous practice, (2) financial concerns, and (3) lack of evidence for the transition. Conclusions  Athletic training students, faculty, and

  11. Changes in blood coagulation induced by exercise training in young athletic horses.

    PubMed

    Assenza, A; Tosto, F; Casella, S; Fazio, F; Giannetto, C; Piccione, G

    2013-12-01

    Prothrombin Time (PT), Activated Partial Prothrombin Time (APTT), Fibrinogen concentration (Fbg) and Platelet number (Plt) were evaluated in 20 young athletic horses during a training program. A standardized exercise test (SET) was performed every month for three months. The V4 variations (the speed, in m/min, reached at the blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol/l) obtained for each test were calculated to assess the effect of training program on athletic performance. Blood samples were collected at 20-day intervals over a period of 80 days from the beginning of the training program. The V4 (P < 0.001), PT (P < 0.001), APTT (P < 0.01), Fbg (P < 0.01) and Plt (P < 0.001) varied throughout the training period showing that the modifications of clotting mechanism in response to training period may be considered as a normal physiological response of the hemostatic system to training exercise.

  12. The Nature of Coupling with Intercollegiate Athletic Departments: Undergraduate Athletic Training Education Program Directors' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roiger, Trevor C.; Card, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Coupling theory, based on a tight-loose continuum, describes the nature of a connection, relationship, or interaction between entities. Understanding the nature of an ATEP's relationship with intercollegiate athletic departments is important to their growth and responsiveness to environmental change. Objective: To determine program…

  13. Impact of intense training and rapid weight changes on salivary parameters in elite female Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, M-L; Ko, M-H; Chang, C-K; Chou, K-M; Fang, S-H

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the cumulative effects of prolonged intensive training with or without rapid weight changes (RWC) on salivary parameters of elite female Taekwondo (TKD) athletes. Ten elite female Taiwanese TKD athletes (ages: 21.3 ± 1.2 years of age, Ht 164.4 ± 5.6 cm) volunteered to participate in this study. Resting saliva samples were collected at 28-, 14-, 7-, and 1 day before and 1-, 7-, 21 days after a national competition. The levels of salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA), cortisol, and lactoferrin were measured. In analyzing the anthropometric data, we found that a significant proportion (50%) of elite female TKD athletes had RWC shortly before and after a national competition. The participants were allocated either to the RWC or to the non-RWC group according to their weight change profiles. Our results showed that levels of sIgA and cortisol of athletes with RWC were significantly modulated during the study period. However, athletes without RWC only showed reduced lactoferrin after competition. The results presented here demonstrate that intensive training in combination with RWC affects the mucosal immunity and disrupts the cortisol stress response of elite female TKD athletes.

  14. Linking Rhetorical Sensitivity with the Ability of an Athletic Training Student to Successfully Perform a Patient Medical Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertoncino, Thomas K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the self-reported rhetorical sensitivity of a sample of athletic training students is positively related to successfully performing a patient medical interview. Particularly, the study focused on if athletic training students' reported communication behaviors is related to their…

  15. Investigating Post-Graduate Athletic Training Education Student Perceptions Following a Purposefully-Implemented Peer-Assisted Learning Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Dana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate graduates' perceptions of a purposefully-implemented Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL) pedagogy in their undergraduate athletic training education and the impact of that experience in their first job post-graduation. This was the first research in athletic training education that…

  16. Defining, Valuing, and Teaching Clinical Outcomes Assessment in Professional and Post-Professional Athletic Training Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Alison R.; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich; Sauers, Eric L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To provide a basic introduction for athletic training educators about the importance of clinical outcomes measures and to recommend strategies for implementing clinical outcomes assessment education in professional and post-professional athletic training education programs. Background: Outcomes is a frequently used term amongst…

  17. Speed endurance training is a powerful stimulus for physiological adaptations and performance improvements of athletes.

    PubMed

    Iaia, F M; Bangsbo, J

    2010-10-01

    The present article reviews the physiological and performance effects of speed endurance training consisting of exercise bouts at near maximal intensities in already trained subjects. Despite a reduction in training volume, speed endurance training of endurance-trained athletes can maintain the oxidative capacity and improve intense short-duration/repeated high-intensity exercise performance lasting 30 s to 4 min, as it occurs in a number of sports. When combined with a basic volume of training including some aerobic high-intensity sessions, speed endurance training is also useful in enhancing performance during longer events, e.g. 40 K cycling and 10 K running. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects can also benefit from performing speed endurance training. These improvements don't appear to depend on changes in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), muscle substrate levels, glycolytic and oxidative enzymes activity, and membrane transport proteins involved in pH regulation. Instead they appear to be related to a reduced energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and a higher expression of muscle Na(+) ,K(+) pump α-subunits, which via a higher Na(+) ,K(+) pump activity during exercise may delay fatigue development during intense exercise. In conclusion, athletes from disciplines involving periods of intense exercise can benefit from the inclusion of speed endurance sessions in their training programs.

  18. Effects of whole body vibration training on muscle strength and sprint performance in sprint-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Delecluse, C; Roelants, M; Diels, R; Koninckx, E; Verschueren, S

    2005-10-01

    Despite the expanding use of Whole Body Vibration training among athletes, it is not known whether adding Whole Body Vibration training to the conventional training of sprint-trained athletes will improve speed-strength performance. Twenty experienced sprint-trained athletes (13 male symbol, 7 female symbol, 17-30 years old) were randomly assigned to a Whole Body Vibration group (n=10: 6 male symbol and 4 female symbol) or a Control group (n=10: 7 male symbol, 3 female symbol). During a 5-week experimental period all subjects continued their conventional training program, but the subjects of the Whole Body Vibration group additionally performed three times weekly a Whole Body Vibration training prior to their conventional training program. The Whole Body Vibration program consisted of unloaded static and dynamic leg exercises on a vibration platform (35-40 Hz, 1.7-2.5 mm, Power Plate). Pre and post isometric and dynamic (100 degrees/s) knee-extensor and -flexor strength and knee-extension velocity at fixed resistances were measured by means of a motor-driven dynamometer (Rev 9000, Technogym). Vertical jump performance was measured by means of a contact mat. Force-time characteristics of the start action were assessed using a load cell mounted on each starting block. Sprint running velocity was recorded by means of a laser system. Isometric and dynamic knee-extensor and knee-flexor strength were unaffected (p>0.05) in the Whole Body Vibration group and the Control group. As well, knee-extension velocity remained unchanged (p>0.05). The duration of the start action, the resulting start velocity, start acceleration, and sprint running velocity did not change (>0.05) in either group. In conclusion, this specific Whole Body Vibration protocol of 5 weeks had no surplus value upon the conventional training program to improve speed-strength performance in sprint-trained athletes. PMID:16158372

  19. Athletic Training Students' Perception of Significant Clinical Instructor Demographic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulholland, Carlen; Martin, Malissa

    2010-01-01

    Context: Characteristics of a model clinical instructor (CI) continue to be defined. However, certain characteristics are still unknown. Objective: To more fully define and describe quality clinical instruction by examining the impact of employment status, years of experience as a certified athletic trainer (AT), and employment setting on athletic…

  20. Effects of high-intensity training and resumed training on macroelement and microelement of elite basketball athletes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jiahong; He, Wangxiao; Huang, Hongen

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of high-intensity training and resumed training in hot and humid environment on plasma macro- and microelements levels of elite Han Chinese basketball players. Ten well-trained elite basketball athletes' plasma macroelements (chlorin, sodium, potassium, and calcium), creatine kinase (CK), and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) were measured before and after a 2-h high-intensity training, and microelements (zinc, copper, iron, and selenium) were determined before and after a 1-week high-intensity training and after a 1-week resumed training. The blood CK and CK-MB levels of the elite basketball athletes were significantly increased (P < 0.05) after high-intensity basketball training. The macroelements (chlorin, sodium, and calcium) levels of blood increased significantly except potassium after high-intensity basketball training. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in zinc and copper levels; nevertheless, the levels of plasma selenium and plasma iron were significantly lower (P < 0.05) after a 1-week high-intensity training. After a 1-week resumed training, except zinc, all of microelements measured had a trend toward original levels. These results implicated that high-intensity training would provoke the change of macroelements which would lead to electrolyte disturbance. In addition, the present study suggested that a 1-week high-intensity training would have an impact on microelement levels, especially for selenium and iron.

  1. Incidence of exercise-induced asthma in adolescent athletes under different training and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulou, Maria P; Kokaridas, Dimitrios G; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi F; Karadonas, Michalis I; Fotiadou, Eleni G

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish if there were differences in the incidence of exercise-induced bronchospasm between athletes in different sports, which take place under different environmental conditions such as open places, closed courses, and swimming pools with similar exercise intensity (football, basketball, water polo) using the free running test. The study included 90 adolescents (3 groups of 30) aged 14-18 years recruited from academies in northern Greece. All the participants were initially subjected to (a) a clinical examination and cardiorespiratory assessment by a physician and (b) free running test of a 6-minute duration and measurement with a microspirometer of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁). Only the participants who had measured a decrease in FEV₁ ≥ 10% were reevaluated with the microspirometer during a training session. The examination of all the participants during the free running test showed that 22 athletes, that is, 9, 8, and 5 of football, basketball, and water polo athletes, respectively, demonstrated an FEV₁ ≥ 10 drop. Reevaluation of the 22 participants during training showed that 5 out 9 (55%) football athletes, 4 out of 8 basketball athletes (50%), and none of the 5 athletes of the water polo team displayed a drop of FEV₁ ≥ 10%. Despite the absence of any significant statistical differences between the 3 groups, the analysis of variances did show a trend of a lower incidence of EIA in the water polo athletes. It was found that a football or basketball game can induce EIA in young athletes but to a lesser degree than the free running test can induce. The water polo can be a safer sport even for participants with a medical history of asthma or allergies.

  2. Bench press training program with attached chains for female volleyball and basketball athletes.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Timothy R; Ruud, Jason D; McGowan, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Attaching chains to barbells to increase strength and power has become popular for athletes; however, little scientific evidence supports this practice. The present purpose was to compare chain training to traditional training for the bench press. Women collegiate athletes in volleyball and basketball (N = 19) participated in a 16-session bench press program. They were matched into either a Traditional or a Chain training group by 1-repetition maximum (1RM). The Traditional group performed the bench press with conventional equipment, while the Chain group trained with attached chains (5% of weight). Analysis showed a significant increase in 1RM for both groups over 16 sessions, Traditional +11.8% and Chain +17.4%. The difference between the groups was not statistically significant, but suggests the women who trained with attached chains improved their bench press more than the Traditional group.

  3. Diastolic ventricular interactions in endurance-trained athletes during orthostatic stress.

    PubMed

    Esch, Ben T A; Scott, Jessica M; Haykowsky, Mark J; McKenzie, Don C; Warburton, Darren E R

    2007-07-01

    Enhanced left-ventricular (LV) compliance is a common adaptation to endurance training. This adaptation may have differential effects under conditions of altered venous return. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effect of cardiac (un)loading on right ventricular (RV) cavity dimensions and LV volumes in endurance-trained athletes and normally active males. Eight endurance-trained (Vo(2max), 65.4 +/- 5.7 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) and eight normally active (Vo(2max), 45.1 +/- 6.0 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) males underwent assessments of the following: 1) Vo(2max), 2) orthostatic tolerance, and 3) cardiac responses to lower-body positive (0-60 mmHg) and negative (0 to -80 mmHg) pressures with echocardiography. In response to negative pressures, echocardiographic analysis revealed a similar decrease in RV end-diastolic cavity area in both groups (e.g., at -80 mmHg: normals, 21.4%; athletes, 20.8%) but a greater decrease in LV end-diastolic volume in endurance-trained athletes (e.g., at -80 mmHg: normals, 32.3%; athletes, 44.4%; P < 0.05). Endurance-trained athletes also had significantly greater decreases in LV stroke volume during lower-body negative pressure. During positive pressures, endurance-trained athletes showed larger increases in LV end-diastolic volume (e.g., at +60 mmHg; normals, 14.1%; athletes, 26.8%) and LV stroke volume, despite similar responses in RV end-diastolic cavity area (e.g., at +60 mmHg: normals, 18.2%; athletes, 24.2%; P < 0.05). This investigation revealed that in response to cardiac (un)loading similar changes in RV cavity area occur in endurance-trained and normally active individuals despite a differential response in the left ventricle. These differences may be the result of alterations in RV influence on the left ventricle and/or intrinsic ventricular compliance.

  4. Marathon Running, Accreditation of Study Programmes and Professional Development in Consultancies: Are They All about the Same? A Cognitive Perspective on Transfer of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Three challenges are presented which address problems of transfer of training: running marathon, accreditation of study programmes, professional development in consultancies. It is discussed in-how-far and why different approaches to transfer of training stress commonalities or differences between these challenges. The results are used to analyse…

  5. Salivary Hormones Response to Preparation and Pre-competitive Training of World-class Level Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Guilhem, Gaël; Hanon, Christine; Gendreau, Nicolas; Bonneau, Dominique; Guével, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the response of salivary hormones of track and field athletes induced by preparation and pre-competitive training periods in an attempt to comment on the physiological effects consistent with the responses of each of the proteins measured. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A (IgA), chromogranin A, blood creatine kinase activity, and profile of mood state were assessed at rest in 24 world-class level athletes during preparation (3 times in 3 months) and pre-competitive (5 times in 5 weeks) training periods. Total mood disturbance and fatigue perception were reduced, while IgA (+61%) and creatine kinase activity (+43%) increased, and chromogranin A decreased (−27%) during pre-competitive compared to preparation period. A significant increase in salivary testosterone (+9 to +15%) and a decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio were associated with a progressive reduction in training load during pre-competitive period (P < 0.05). None of the psycho-physiological parameters were significantly correlated to training load during the pre-competitive period. Results showed a lower adrenocortical response and autonomic activity, and an improvement of immunity status, in response to the reduction in training load and fatigue, without significant correlations of salivary hormones with training load. Our findings suggest that saliva composition is sensitive to training contents (season period) but could not be related to workload resulting from track and field athletics training. PMID:26635619

  6. What should the characteristics and attributes of an accredited nephrology training programme be? Looking for high standards

    PubMed Central

    Gleeson, Patrick J.; Slotki, Itzchak; Cannata-Andia, Jorge B.; Lappin, David W. P.

    2016-01-01

    The Renal Section of the European Union of Medical Specialists is working towards harmonization and optimization of nephrology training across Europe and its Mediterranean borders. In addition to the need for harmonization of the heterogeneous time dedicated to training, it is necessary to ensure that the learning environment is of a sufficiently high standard to develop skilled specialists. Thus, there is a need to review the core educational infrastructure and resources that should be provided to trainees in order to be considered centres of excellence for nephrology training. This review addresses most of the characteristics and attributes that constitute a high-calibre training centre of excellence, considering that a training centre might not represent a single institution, but a network of institutions that provide a coordinated and complete curriculum to the trainee. The training institution should provide, apart from the classical current nephrological facilities (clinical nephrology, haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and transplantation), a number of other complementary facilities, including immunology, nephropathology—with a dedicated and expert renal pathologist—all the specialities of general medicine and general surgery and, in particular, vascular surgery, radiology and interventional radiology specialist services (renal biopsy, renal ultrasound and permanent vascular access) and intensive care unit. In addition to clinical training, a training centre of excellence should offer research facilities to allow trainees the opportunity to be involved in epidemiological, clinical, translational or basic scientific research. The training centres should ideally hold a certification of training accreditation. If the European and its Mediterranean border countries wish to guarantee a high standard of training in nephrology, their national health services need to recognize their responsibility towards the importance of doctor training, providing enough time

  7. The Model Does Matter II: Admissions and Training in APA-Accredited Counseling Psychology Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norcross, John C.; Evans, Krystle L.; Ellis, Jeannette L.

    2010-01-01

    This study collected information on the acceptance rates, admission standards, financial assistance, student characteristics, theoretical orientations, and select outcomes of American Psychological Association-accredited counseling psychology programs (99% response rate). Results are presented collectively for all 66 counseling programs as well as…

  8. The training—injury prevention paradox: should athletes be training smarter and harder?

    PubMed Central

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2016-01-01

    Background There is dogma that higher training load causes higher injury rates. However, there is also evidence that training has a protective effect against injury. For example, team sport athletes who performed more than 18 weeks of training before sustaining their initial injuries were at reduced risk of sustaining a subsequent injury, while high chronic workloads have been shown to decrease the risk of injury. Second, across a wide range of sports, well-developed physical qualities are associated with a reduced risk of injury. Clearly, for athletes to develop the physical capacities required to provide a protective effect against injury, they must be prepared to train hard. Finally, there is also evidence that under-training may increase injury risk. Collectively, these results emphasise that reductions in workloads may not always be the best approach to protect against injury. Main thesis This paper describes the ‘Training-Injury Prevention Paradox’ model; a phenomenon whereby athletes accustomed to high training loads have fewer injuries than athletes training at lower workloads. The Model is based on evidence that non-contact injuries are not caused by training per se, but more likely by an inappropriate training programme. Excessive and rapid increases in training loads are likely responsible for a large proportion of non-contact, soft-tissue injuries. If training load is an important determinant of injury, it must be accurately measured up to twice daily and over periods of weeks and months (a season). This paper outlines ways of monitoring training load (‘internal’ and ‘external’ loads) and suggests capturing both recent (‘acute’) training loads and more medium-term (‘chronic’) training loads to best capture the player's training burden. I describe the critical variable—acute:chronic workload ratio—as a best practice predictor of training-related injuries. This provides the foundation for interventions to reduce players risk, and

  9. Monitoring internal training load and mucosal immune responses in futsal athletes.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Alexandre; de Moura, Nivaldo Ribeiro; Coutts, Aaron; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Kempton, Thomas; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA), cortisol, and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and their relationships with training loads (TLs) during a 4-week period of intensive training during the competitive season in elite Brazilian futsal players. Twelve athletes (age: 19 ± 1 years; height: 180 ± 4 cm; and body mass: 73 ± 7 kg) participated in the study. The training program included tactical, technical, specific conditioning and strength training, and competition matches. Training load was quantified using the session rating of perceived exertion. Salivary immunoglobulin A, salivary cortisol and symptoms of URTIs were assessed weekly. A significant decrease in weekly TL was observed for week 4 (tapering) compared with that of other weeks (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed for cortisol and SIgA during the study (p > 0.05). There was a significant decrease in URTI symptom severity during week 4 as compared with that of weeks 1 and 2 (p < 0.05), with a significant correlation between weekly TL and URTI severity and weekly TL during week 4 (rs = 0.75; p < 0.05). The present findings suggest that futsal athletes are more susceptible to high URTI symptom severity in the periods of higher training. Therefore, the reduction in TLs before competitions is an appropriate strategy to minimize URTI symptoms ensuring the athlete's ability to train and compete.

  10. Online video-based resistance training improves the physical capacity of junior basketball athletes.

    PubMed

    Klusemann, Markus J; Pyne, David B; Fay, Tristan S; Drinkwater, Eric J

    2012-10-01

    Junior basketball athletes require a well-designed resistance training program to improve their physical development. Lack of expert supervision and resistance training in junior development pathways may be overcome by implementing an online video-based program. The aim of this study was to compare the magnitude of improvement (change) in physical performance and strength and functional movement patterns of junior basketball athletes using either a fully supervised or an online video-based resistance training program. Thirty-eight junior basketball athletes (males, n = 17; age, 14 ± 1 year; height, 1.79 ± 0.10 m; mass, 67 ± 12 kg; females, n = 21; age, 15 ± 1 year; height, 1.70 ± 0.07 m; mass, 62 ± 8 kg) were randomly assigned into a supervised resistance training group (SG, n = 13), video training group (VG, n = 13) or control group (CG, n = 12) and participated in a 6-week controlled experimental trial. Pre- and posttesting included measures of physical performance (20-m sprint, step-in vertical jump, agility, sit and reach, line drill, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1), strength (15 s push-up and pull-up), and functional movement screening (FMS). Both SG and VG achieved 3-5% ± 2-4% (mean ± 90% confidence limits) greater improvements in several physical performance measures (vertical jump height, 20-m sprint time, and Yo-Yo endurance performance) and a 28 ± 21% greater improvement in push-up strength compared with the CG. The SG attained substantially larger gains in FMS scores over both the VG (12 ± 10%) and CG (13 ± 8%). Video-based training appears to be a viable option to improve physical performance and strength in junior basketball athletes. Qualified supervision is recommended to improve functional movement patterns in junior athletes.

  11. The Assessment of Athletic Training Students' Knowledge and Behavior to Provide Culturally Competent Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nynas, Suzette Marie

    2015-01-01

    Context: Culturally competent knowledge and skills are critical for all healthcare professionals to possess in order to provide the most appropriate health care for their patients and clients. Objective: To investigate athletic training students' knowledge of culture and cultural differences, to assess the practice of culturally competent care,…

  12. Standardized Patient Encounters Improved Athletic Training Students' Confidence in Clinical Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Kirk J.; Jarriel, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Researchers have reported that interacting with standardized patients (SPs) is a worthwhile and realistic experience for athletic training (AT) students. These encounters enhance students' interviewing skills, confidence as a clinician, clinical skill development, and interpersonal communication. Objective: To determine how SP encounters…

  13. Learning Style Preferences of Undergraduate Dietetics, Athletic Training, and Exercise Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Meredith G.; Hansen, Pamela; Rhee, Yeong; Brundt, Ardith; Terbizan, Donna; Christensen, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The study assessed the preferred learning style (LS) of college students and compared LS preferences among students majoring in Dietetics, Exercise Science, and Athletic Training. LS questionnaires were distributed to students (N = 693, mean age 20.5 ± 1.7) enrolled in health science courses at three Midwestern universities. Most students…

  14. The Impact of Clinical Experiences from Athletic Training Student and Preceptor Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benes, Sarah S.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Clinical education is an integral part of athletic training programs. This is where students should develop their professional identities and become socialized into the profession. Understanding the student and preceptor perspectives of the impact that clinical experiences have on students can provide valuable insight into this aspect of…

  15. Strategies for Highly Effective Athletic Training Education Program Directors: A Practical Approach to Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, James E.; Gray, Kimberly A.

    2007-01-01

    Following "Seven Habits of Highly Effective People" by Stephen Covey, this article seeks to communicate effective strategies for athletic training education Program Directors (PDs) to follow. Commentary of Covey's work and practical strategies to integrate them into PD practice and responsibilities are provided. Background: Due to a lack…

  16. Athletes in Motion: Training for the Olympic Games with Mind and Body: Two Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven

    Two case studies illustrate the Fine-Tuning Effect and its benefit to participants in athletic competition. The Fine-Tuning Effect is the sharpening of psychological processes that enable physical skills to be expressed in a maximum fashion. Such techniques as muscle relaxation, visual imagery, guided fantasy, autogenic training, and meditation…

  17. Changes over Time in the Predictors of Athletic Training Program Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Windee M.; Neibert, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Understanding changes in athletic training program (ATP) commitment over time is crucial in retaining high-quality students in an ATP. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine if changes over time in ATP commitment determinants are related to actual changes in ATP commitment. Design: Longitudinal and cross-sectional survey.…

  18. Achievement Goal Orientation for Athletic Training Education: Preparing for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peer, Kimberly S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This review of literature presents the theoretical framework of goal orientation and student achievement from a pedagogical perspective while providing practical applications and implications for integrating goal orientation into athletic training education programs. Data Sources: Selected literature derived from EBSCO, Education…

  19. Exploring Senior Level Athletic Training Students' Perceptions on Burnout and Work-Life Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Jessica L.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.

    2016-01-01

    Context: The professional socialization process enables athletic training students (ATSs) to gain insights into behaviors, values, and attitudes that characterize their chosen profession. However, the process often focuses on skill development over professional issues. ATSs may be exposed to burnout and work-life conflict, which may impact their…

  20. The Relationship between Athletic Training Student Critical Thinking Skills and Clinical Instructor Supervision: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabay, Michele R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to 1) assess the critical thinking skill level of the athletic training student at onset and end of the clinical education experience 2) to examine the influence of the students' critical thinking skills and the CIs' supervision responses to the changes in the students' critical thinking skills and 3) to compare the…

  1. Clinical Preceptors' Perspectives on Clinical Education in Post-Professional Athletic Training Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Kelvin; McCarty, Cailee W.; Mutchler, Jessica M.; Van Lunen, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    Context: Clinical education is the interaction between a clinical preceptor and student within the clinical setting to help the student progress as a clinician. Post-professional athletic training clinical education is especially important to improve these students' clinical knowledge and skills. However, little research has been conducted to…

  2. Standardized Patients Provide Realistic and Worthwhile Experiences for Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Stacy E.; Weidner, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Standardized patients are more prominently used to both teach and evaluate students' clinical skills and abilities. Objective: To investigate whether athletic training students perceived an encounter with a standardized patient (SP) as realistic and worthwhile and to determine their perceived comfort in future lower extremity evaluations…

  3. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. A 10-week crossover, ...

  4. Using Performance Assessments to Determine Competence in Clinical Athletic Training Education: How Valid Are Our Assessments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gayle A.; Moss, Robert; Applegate, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    Context: Validity arguments can be used to provide evidence that instructors are drawing accurate conclusions from the results of students' clinical performance assessments (PAs). Little research has been conducted in athletic training education to determine if the evidence supports the use of current PAs. Measurement theories designed to…

  5. Characteristics and Program Decisions of Master's-Level Professional Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrowski, Jennifer Lynn; Iadevaia, Cheree M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The number of master's-level professional athletic training programs (MLPATPs) has grown by over 400% in the past 10 years; however, little is known about the characteristics of the students who enroll in these programs or why they select this route to certification. Objective: To describe, by exploring the characteristics of MLPATP…

  6. Altering the Athletic Training Curriculum: A Unique Perspective on Learning over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potteiger, Kelly; Brown, Christopher David; Kahanov, Leamor

    2012-01-01

    Context: The cohort athletic training curriculum features a competency-based approach that allows the student to matriculate through the program in a systematic fashion. This method is desired as it allows for efficient delivery and mastery of the educational content and associated clinical skills. The result may be an inflexible curriculum that…

  7. Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory in Athletic Training Education: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellhase, Kristen C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory offers insight into the development of learning styles, classification of learning styles, and how students learn through experience. Discussion is presented on the value of Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory for Athletic Training Education. Data Sources: This article reviews research related to…

  8. The Effects of an Electronic Audience Response System on Athletic Training Student Knowledge and Interactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivener, Kristin Ann; Hetzler, Tona

    2015-01-01

    Context: Electronic audience response systems (ARSs) are a technological teaching tool currently being used with widespread success within various disciplines of higher education. Researcher support for its application in athletic training education remains sparse, however. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine whether use of an ARS in a…

  9. Perceptions of Participants Involved in Peer Assisted Learning in a Professional Athletic Training Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Theresa; Kamphoff, Cindra; Armstrong, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the perceptions, values, and experiences of individuals involved in peer assisted learning (PAL) in the clinical setting of an athletic training education program. Design and Setting: A qualitative research approach borrowing from grounded theory was used. Subjects: 15 participants, consisting…

  10. Help-Seeking Behaviors among Athletic Training Students in the Clinical Education Setting: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakajima, Mikiko Aoyagi; Freesemann, Keith W.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Help-seeking is an important self-regulating and proactive strategy that prepares students to be successful learners. It is particularly important in the clinical education setting, in which students must actively engage in learning. Objective: To determine both the type of help-seeking behaviors used by athletic training students in the…

  11. The Delphi Method: An Approach for Facilitating Evidence Based Practice in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandrey, Michelle A.; Bulger, Sean M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The growing importance of evidence based practice in athletic training is necessitating academics and clinicians to be able to make judgments about the quality or lack of the body of research evidence and peer-reviewed standards pertaining to clinical questions. To assist in the judgment process, consensus methods, namely brainstorming,…

  12. Variability in Clinical Integration Achieved by Athletic Training Students across Different Clinical Sport Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Clinical integration impacts athletic training students' (ATSs) motivation and persistence. Research has yet to elucidate the manner in which different clinical placements can influence clinical integration. Objective: To examine differences in the levels of clinical integration achieved by ATSs across various clinical sport assignments.…

  13. Differences in regional sweating responses during exercise between athletes trained on land and in water.

    PubMed

    Kondo, N; Nishiyasu, T; Nishiyasu, M; Ikegami, H

    1996-01-01

    We investigated whether there are any differences in regional sweating responses during exercise between athletes trained on land and in water. We measured the local sweating rates on the left forearm (mswf) and the left scapula (msws), body temperatures (mean skin temperature, and rectal temperature Tre) in eight athletes trained on land (five soccer players, one distance runner and two baseball players, L group) and seven athletes trained in water (seven swimmers, W group) during cycle ergometer exercise at 50% maximal oxygen uptake for 40 min. The heart rate and oxygen uptake in the two groups during exercise showed nearly the same pattern of change. The Tre at the end of the exercise were 38.13 (SEM 0.19) degrees C in the L group and 38.26 (SEM 0.34) degrees C in the W group. Although the mswf in the two groups were similar, msws were significantly higher in L than in W at 30, 35 and 40 min of exercise. The msws at any given mean body temperature tended to be greater in L than in W. These results showed that a difference in regional sweating rate during exercise between the athletes trained on land and in water was present on the scapula.

  14. Employer and Employee Opinions of Thematic Deficiencies in New Athletic Training Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, W. David; Volberding, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Context: Anecdotal information has been shared for several years that employers do not feel that new athletic training graduates are ready for the workforce. To date there have been no studies of employers and employees to determine deficiencies in order to confirm or refute this position. Objective: To explore the opinions of employers and…

  15. Pedagogical Tools to Address Clinical Anatomy and Athletic Training Student Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie; Yeargin, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Context: A thorough knowledge of anatomy is needed in four of the six domains of athletic training: prevention, injury/condition recognition, immediate care, and treatment/rehabilitation. Students with a solid foundation can achieve competency in these specific domains. Objective: To provide educators with pedagogical tools to promote a deeper…

  16. Perceptions of the Benefits to Using a Secondary Admissions Process in Professional Bachelor's Athletic Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Some athletic training program (ATP) directors use direct admit, where students are admitted into the ATP directly out of high school. Other ATP directors admit students into the program after a set time period on campus through a secondary admissions process. It remains unknown why ATP directors use various admissions practices.…

  17. Athletic Training Program Commitment: Four-Year Longitudinal Analysis of Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Windee M.; Neibert, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Changes in commitment and the predictors of commitment to an athletic training program (ATP) across the academic 4-year program is important for facilitating students' continued success in ATPs and on the Board of Certification (BOC) exam. Objective: The purpose of this study was 2-fold: (1) examine changes in 1 cohort's perceptions of…

  18. Metabolomic investigation into variation of endogenous metabolites in professional athletes subject to strength-endurance training.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bei; A, Jiye; Wang, Guangji; Lu, Huali; Huang, Xiaoping; Liu, Yi; Zha, Weibin; Hao, Haiping; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Linsheng; Gu, Shenghua; Huang, Qing; Zheng, Yuanting; Sun, Jianguo

    2009-02-01

    Strength-endurance type of sport can lead to modification of human beings' physiological status. The present study aimed to investigate the alteration of metabolic phenotype or biochemical compositions in professional athletes induced by long-term training by means of a novel systematic tool, metabolomics. Resting venous blood samples of junior and senior male rowers were obtained before and after 1-wk and 2-wk training. Venous blood from healthy male volunteers as control was also sampled at rest. Endogenous metabolites in serum were profiled by GC/TOF-MS and multivariate statistical technique, i.e., principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least squares projection to latent structures and discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to process the data. Significant metabolomic difference was observed between the professional athletes and control subjects. Long-term strength and endurance training induced distinct separation between athletes of different exercise seniority, and training stage-related trajectory of the two groups of athletes was clearly shown along with training time. However, most of these variations were not observed by common biochemical parameters, such as hemoglobin, testosterone, and creatine kinase. The identified metabolites contributing to the classification included alanine, lactate, beta-d-methylglucopyranoside, pyroglutamic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, citric acid, free fatty acids, valine, glutamine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and so on, which were involved in glucose metabolism, oxidative stress, energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism. These findings suggest that metabolomics is a promising and potential tool to profile serum of professional athletes, make a deep insight into physiological states, and clarify the disorders induced by strength-endurance physical exercise. PMID:19036890

  19. Altitude training causes haematological fluctuations with relevance for the Athlete Biological Passport.

    PubMed

    Bonne, Thomas Christian; Lundby, Carsten; Lundby, Anne Kristine; Sander, Mikael; Bejder, Jacob; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2015-08-01

    The impact of altitude training on haematological parameters and the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) was evaluated in international-level elite athletes. One group of swimmers lived high and trained high (LHTH, n = 10) for three to four weeks at 2130 m or higher whereas a control group (n = 10) completed a three-week training camp at sea-level. Haematological parameters were determined weekly three times before and four times after the training camps. ABP thresholds for haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), reticulocyte percentage (RET%), OFF score and the abnormal blood profile score (ABPS) were calculated using the Bayesian model. After altitude training, six swimmers exceeded the 99% ABP thresholds: two swimmers exceeded the OFF score thresholds at day +7; one swimmer exceeded the OFF score threshold at day +28; one swimmer exceeded the threshold for RET% at day +14; and one swimmer surpassed the ABPS threshold at day +14. In the control group, no values exceeded the individual ABP reference range. In conclusion, LHTH induces haematological changes in Olympic-level elite athletes which can exceed the individually generated references in the ABP. Training at altitude should be considered a confounding factor for ABP interpretation for up to four weeks after altitude exposure but does not consistently cause abnormal values in the ABP.

  20. Altitude training causes haematological fluctuations with relevance for the Athlete Biological Passport.

    PubMed

    Bonne, Thomas Christian; Lundby, Carsten; Lundby, Anne Kristine; Sander, Mikael; Bejder, Jacob; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2015-08-01

    The impact of altitude training on haematological parameters and the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) was evaluated in international-level elite athletes. One group of swimmers lived high and trained high (LHTH, n = 10) for three to four weeks at 2130 m or higher whereas a control group (n = 10) completed a three-week training camp at sea-level. Haematological parameters were determined weekly three times before and four times after the training camps. ABP thresholds for haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), reticulocyte percentage (RET%), OFF score and the abnormal blood profile score (ABPS) were calculated using the Bayesian model. After altitude training, six swimmers exceeded the 99% ABP thresholds: two swimmers exceeded the OFF score thresholds at day +7; one swimmer exceeded the OFF score threshold at day +28; one swimmer exceeded the threshold for RET% at day +14; and one swimmer surpassed the ABPS threshold at day +14. In the control group, no values exceeded the individual ABP reference range. In conclusion, LHTH induces haematological changes in Olympic-level elite athletes which can exceed the individually generated references in the ABP. Training at altitude should be considered a confounding factor for ABP interpretation for up to four weeks after altitude exposure but does not consistently cause abnormal values in the ABP. PMID:25545030

  1. Effects of electrostimulation and plyometric training program combination on jump height in teenage athletes.

    PubMed

    Martínez-López, Emilio J; Benito-Martínez, Elisa; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Lara-Sánchez, Amador; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of eight-week (2 days/week) training periods of plyometric exercises (PT) and neuromuscular electrostimulation (EMS) on jump height in young athletes. Squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) were performed to assess the effects of the training protocols 98 athletes (100 & 200m and 100m & 110m hurdles) voluntarily took part in this study, 51 males (52%) and 47 females (48%), 17.91 ± 1.42 years old, and 5.16 ± 2.56 years of training experience. The participants were randomly assigned to four different groups according to the frequency and the timing of the stimulation. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the effects of every training program on jump height. Our findings suggest that compared to control (Plyometrics (PT) only), the combination of 150Hz EMS + PT simultaneously combined in an 8 week (2days/week) training program, we could observe significant jump height improvements in the different types of strength: explosive, explosive-elastic, and explosive-elastic-reactive. The combination of PT after ≤ 85 Hz EMS did not show any jump height significant increase in sprinters. In conclusion, an eight week training program (with just two days per week) of EMS combined with plyometric exercises has proven useful for the improvement of every kind of vertical jump ability required for sprint and hurdles disciplines in teenage athletes. PMID:24150085

  2. Six Weeks of Core Stability Training Improves Landing Kinetics Among Female Capoeira Athletes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Simone; Cohen, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Core stability training (CST) has increased in popularity among athletes and the general fitness population despite limited evidence CST programmes alone lead to improved athletic performance. In female athletes, neuromuscular training combining balance training and trunk and hip/pelvis dominant CST is suggested to reduce injury risk, and specifically peak vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) in a drop jump landing task. However, the isolated effect of trunk dominant core stability training on vGRF during landing in female athletes had not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate landing kinetics during a drop jump test following a CST intervention in female capoeira athletes. After giving their informed written consent, sixteen female capoeira athletes (mean ± SD age, stature, and body mass of 27.3 ± 3.7 years, 165.0 ± 4.0 cm, and 59.7 ± 6.3 kg, respectively) volunteered to participate in the training program which consisted of static and dynamic CST sessions, three times per week for six weeks. The repeated measures T-test revealed participants significantly reduced relative vGRF from pre- to post-intervention for the first (3.40 ± 0.78 vs. 2.85 ± 0.52 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.05, effect size = 0.60]), and second landing phase (5.09 ± 1.17 vs. 3.02 ± 0.41 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.001, effect size = 0.87]). The average loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the second landing phase (30.96 ± 18.84 vs. 12.06 ± 9.83 N·NBW·s-1, respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.68]). The peak loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the first (220.26 ± 111.51 vs. 120.27 ± 64.57 N·NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.64]), and second (99.52 ± 54.98 vs. 44.71 ± 30.34 N·NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.70]) landing phase. Body weight, average loading rate during the first landing phase, and jump height were not significantly different between week 0 and week 6

  3. Six weeks of core stability training improves landing kinetics among female capoeira athletes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Simone; Cohen, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence

    2015-03-29

    Core stability training (CST) has increased in popularity among athletes and the general fitness population despite limited evidence CST programmes alone lead to improved athletic performance. In female athletes, neuromuscular training combining balance training and trunk and hip/pelvis dominant CST is suggested to reduce injury risk, and specifically peak vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) in a drop jump landing task. However, the isolated effect of trunk dominant core stability training on vGRF during landing in female athletes had not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate landing kinetics during a drop jump test following a CST intervention in female capoeira athletes. After giving their informed written consent, sixteen female capoeira athletes (mean ± SD age, stature, and body mass of 27.3 ± 3.7 years, 165.0 ± 4.0 cm, and 59.7 ± 6.3 kg, respectively) volunteered to participate in the training program which consisted of static and dynamic CST sessions, three times per week for six weeks. The repeated measures T-test revealed participants significantly reduced relative vGRF from pre- to post-intervention for the first (3.40 ± 0.78 vs. 2.85 ± 0.52 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.05, effect size = 0.60]), and second landing phase (5.09 ± 1.17 vs. 3.02 ± 0.41 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.001, effect size = 0.87]). The average loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the second landing phase (30.96 ± 18.84 vs. 12.06 ± 9.83 N·NBW·s-1, respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.68]). The peak loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the first (220.26 ± 111.51 vs. 120.27 ± 64.57 N·NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.64]), and second (99.52 ± 54.98 vs. 44.71 ± 30.34 N·NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.70]) landing phase. Body weight, average loading rate during the first landing phase, and jump height were not significantly different between week 0 and week 6

  4. Amphetamine margin in sports. [Effects on performance of highly trained athletes

    SciTech Connect

    Laties, V.G.; Weiss, B.

    1980-01-01

    The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seems clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both man and rat. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogues of such performance have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by these drugs can be quite important.

  5. The effect of whole-body vibration training and conventional strength training on performance measures in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Margaret T; Parker, Barry M; Cortes, Nelson

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of regular whole-body vibration (WBV) training on lower body strength and power. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III softball athletes (n = 9) completed the 9-week protocol as part of their off-season strength and conditioning program. The athletes were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Week 1, pretesting included 3 repetition maximum (3RM) back squat, standing long jump (SLJ), and vertical countermovement jump (VCMJ). Phase I training (weeks 2-4) consisted of either WBV training (group 1) or conventional strength training (CST, group 2). The primary programmatic difference between WBV and CST was the inclusion of WBV sets after squat sets. Posttesting (3RM squat, SLJ, VCMJ) occurred at week 5. Phase II training (weeks 6-8) consisted of either WBV training (group 2) or CST (group 1). Posttesting was repeated at week 9 after the completion of phase II. Three 2 × 2 mixed factorial analyses of variance were computed. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between groups or between groups and testing period for the SLJ, VCMJ, and estimated 1RM back squat. Increases (p < 0.05) were observed in SLJ, VCMJ, and back squat from pretest to posttest 1. Back squat increased (p < 0.05) from posttest 1 to posttest 2. All the athletes experienced significantly greater (p < 0.05) percent changes from pretest to posttest 1 for SLJ and VCMJ. These results indicate that the inclusion of WBV as part of an off-season strength and conditioning program has no apparent benefit over CST methods for collegiate softball players.

  6. High Training Volumes are Associated with a Low Number of Self-Reported Sick Days in Elite Endurance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, Sandra; Nordebo, Kristina; Malm, Christer

    2014-12-01

    It has been proposed that high exercise loads increase the risk of infection, most frequently reported as upper respiratory tract infections, by suppressing the immune system. Most athletes will not train when experiencing sickness due to the fear of health complications. However, high training volumes are incompatible with high rates of non-training days, regardless of the cause. The purpose of this observational study was to examine the relationship between self-reported, exercise-constraining days of sickness (days when the athlete decided not to train due to symptoms of disease, either self-reported or by a physician) and the volumes of exercise training in elite endurance athletes by analyzing data from training logs kept for several years. The subjects included 11 elite endurance athletes (8 male, 3 female) competing at national and international levels in cross-country skiing, biathlon and long-distance running. Training logs available from these 11 subjects added to a total of 61 training years. The number of training hours per year (462, 79-856; median, range) was significantly and negatively correlated to the reported number of days not training due to sickness (15, 0-164) by a 3(rd) degree polynomial regression (R(2) = 0.48, F ratio = 18, p < 0.0001). We conclude that elite endurance athletes can achieve high training volumes only if they also experience few sick-days. Key pointsTop level performance demands high training volumes and intensities, which may compromise immune function.Elite athletes must have an immune system capable of intact function also when under sever physiological and psychological stress.Elite performance, especially in endurance sports, is therefore incompatible with a high rate of infections.A negative correlation between infections and exercise training load among elite athletes is consequently observed - the less sick you are the more you can train.

  7. Comparison of Non-Invasive Individual Monitoring of the Training and Health of Athletes with Commercially Available Wearable Technologies.

    PubMed

    Düking, Peter; Hotho, Andreas; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Fuss, Franz Konstantin; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-01-01

    Athletes adapt their training daily to optimize performance, as well as avoid fatigue, overtraining and other undesirable effects on their health. To optimize training load, each athlete must take his/her own personal objective and subjective characteristics into consideration and an increasing number of wearable technologies (wearables) provide convenient monitoring of various parameters. Accordingly, it is important to help athletes decide which parameters are of primary interest and which wearables can monitor these parameters most effectively. Here, we discuss the wearable technologies available for non-invasive monitoring of various parameters concerning an athlete's training and health. On the basis of these considerations, we suggest directions for future development. Furthermore, we propose that a combination of several wearables is most effective for accessing all relevant parameters, disturbing the athlete as little as possible, and optimizing performance and promoting health.

  8. Comparison of Non-Invasive Individual Monitoring of the Training and Health of Athletes with Commercially Available Wearable Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Düking, Peter; Hotho, Andreas; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Fuss, Franz Konstantin; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-01-01

    Athletes adapt their training daily to optimize performance, as well as avoid fatigue, overtraining and other undesirable effects on their health. To optimize training load, each athlete must take his/her own personal objective and subjective characteristics into consideration and an increasing number of wearable technologies (wearables) provide convenient monitoring of various parameters. Accordingly, it is important to help athletes decide which parameters are of primary interest and which wearables can monitor these parameters most effectively. Here, we discuss the wearable technologies available for non-invasive monitoring of various parameters concerning an athlete's training and health. On the basis of these considerations, we suggest directions for future development. Furthermore, we propose that a combination of several wearables is most effective for accessing all relevant parameters, disturbing the athlete as little as possible, and optimizing performance and promoting health. PMID:27014077

  9. Anti-inflammatory Dietary Interventions and Supplements to Improve Performance during Athletic Training.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Daniela; Negro, Massimo; Arcelli, Enrico; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Despite the numerous positive effects of physical exercise, some negative physiological changes occur in long-lasting heavy training with transient dysfunction of the immune system, increased inflammation, and oxidative stress. This is the case of elite athletes, who train intensively to compete at the highest levels. However, these athletes can counteract the negative effects of heavy training, reducing acute and chronic inflammations and supporting the immune system, with nutritional and supplementation countermeasures. For this purpose, macronutrient manipulation with an appropriate use of certain supplements can be considered as an intervention to reduce exercise-induced immune changes and inflammatory risk. For example, branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation may promote such immune responses in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, micronutrients play an important role in immune function; in particular, the antioxidant capacity of several dietary micronutrients (e.g., tocopherols, docosahexaenoate, and flavonoids) is very interesting to support the endogenous antioxidant defense systems of the athletes, counterbalancing the negative effects of oxidative damage due to free radicals. Some of these nutrients have potential anti-inflammatory properties as assessed by the attenuated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Key Teaching Points: Long-lasting heavy training plan and competition can lead to chronic immune suppression in athletes, increasing infection risk. Chronic exercise increases mobilization of neutrophils, decreases mobilization of lymphocytes, and decreases the absolute and relative numbers of neutrophils at rest. Nutritional deficiencies alter the immuno-system and increase infection risk. Nutrition can influence exercise-induced immune suppression. Elite athletes competing at the highest levels can benefit from nutritional and supplementation support to improve immunity and reduce acute and chronic inflammations. PMID

  10. Effects of Electrostimulation and Plyometric Training Program Combination on Jump Height in Teenage Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-López, Emilio J.; Benito-Martínez, Elisa; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Lara-Sánchez, Amador; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of eight-week (2 days/week) training periods of plyometric exercises (PT) and neuromuscular electrostimulation (EMS) on jump height in young athletes. Squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) were performed to assess the effects of the training protocols 98 athletes (100 & 200m and 100m & 110m hurdles) voluntarily took part in this study, 51 males (52%) and 47 females (48%), 17.91 ± 1.42 years old, and 5.16 ± 2.56 years of training experience. The participants were randomly assigned to four different groups according to the frequency and the timing of the stimulation. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the effects of every training program on jump height. Our findings suggest that compared to control (Plyometrics (PT) only), the combination of 150Hz EMS + PT simultaneously combined in an 8 week (2days/week) training program, we could observe significant jump height improvements in the different types of strength: explosive, explosive-elastic, and explosive-elastic-reactive. The combination of PT after ≤ 85 Hz EMS did not show any jump height significant increase in sprinters. In conclusion, an eight week training program (with just two days per week) of EMS combined with plyometric exercises has proven useful for the improvement of every kind of vertical jump ability required for sprint and hurdles disciplines in teenage athletes. Key points The combined use of high frequency electromyostimulation and plyometric training 2 days/week in an 8 week training program produce significant improvements in jump height in teenage athletes. A high-frequency (≥ 150 Hz) EMS and its simultaneous application with PT can significantly contribute to the improvement of the three different types of strength manifestations (explosive, explosive-elastic and explosive-elastic-reactive strength). An alternate training with different stimulation frequencies [85Hz EMS/ PT combination and 150Hz EMS

  11. Muscle mechanical properties of strength and endurance athletes and changes after one week of intensive training.

    PubMed

    de Paula Simola, Rauno Álvaro; Raeder, Christian; Wiewelhove, Thimo; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    The study investigates whether tensiomyography (TMG) is sensitive to differentiate between strength and endurance athletes, and to monitor fatigue after either one week of intensive strength (ST) or endurance (END) training. Fourteen strength (24.1±2.0years) and eleven endurance athletes (25.5±4.8years) performed an intensive training period of 6days of ST or END, respectively. ST and END groups completed specific performance tests as well as TMG measurements of maximal radial deformation of the muscle belly (Dm), deformation time between 10% and 90% Dm (Tc), rate of deformation development until 10% Dm (V10) and 90% Dm (V90) before (baseline), after training period (post1), and after 72h of recovery (post2). Specific performance of both groups decreased from baseline to post1 (P<0.05) and returned to baseline values at post2 (P<0.05). The ST group showed higher countermovement jump (P<0.05) and shorter Tc (P<0.05) at baseline. After training, Dm, V10, and V90 were reduced in the ST (P<0.05) while TMG changes were less pronounced in the END. TMG could be a useful tool to differentiate between strength and endurance athletes, and to monitor fatigue and recovery especially in strength training.

  12. Muscle mechanical properties of strength and endurance athletes and changes after one week of intensive training.

    PubMed

    de Paula Simola, Rauno Álvaro; Raeder, Christian; Wiewelhove, Thimo; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    The study investigates whether tensiomyography (TMG) is sensitive to differentiate between strength and endurance athletes, and to monitor fatigue after either one week of intensive strength (ST) or endurance (END) training. Fourteen strength (24.1±2.0years) and eleven endurance athletes (25.5±4.8years) performed an intensive training period of 6days of ST or END, respectively. ST and END groups completed specific performance tests as well as TMG measurements of maximal radial deformation of the muscle belly (Dm), deformation time between 10% and 90% Dm (Tc), rate of deformation development until 10% Dm (V10) and 90% Dm (V90) before (baseline), after training period (post1), and after 72h of recovery (post2). Specific performance of both groups decreased from baseline to post1 (P<0.05) and returned to baseline values at post2 (P<0.05). The ST group showed higher countermovement jump (P<0.05) and shorter Tc (P<0.05) at baseline. After training, Dm, V10, and V90 were reduced in the ST (P<0.05) while TMG changes were less pronounced in the END. TMG could be a useful tool to differentiate between strength and endurance athletes, and to monitor fatigue and recovery especially in strength training. PMID:27317976

  13. Educational Preparation and Experiences in the Industrial-Occupational Setting: A Qualitative Study of Athletic Training Graduates' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Jim F.

    2011-01-01

    Context: The industrial-occupational setting provides a workplace of substantial potential for the athletic training graduate. Acquiring input from entry-level athletic trainers (ATs) pertaining to experiences, knowledge, and skills necessary to be successful in the industrial-occupational setting is critical information for future Athletic…

  14. Sports Medicine and Athletic Training in the 21st Century: Bridging the Gap between Research and Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskiewicz, Kevin M.

    2008-01-01

    Sport and recreational activity is a vital part of today's society, and athletic training researchers are playing an important role in gaining a better understanding of how to promote safe and healthy participation for athletes of all ages. This article aims to illustrate the importance of research to prevent and effectively treat sport and…

  15. Survey Instrument Validity Part I: Principles of Survey Instrument Development and Validation in Athletic Training Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Laura J.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Instrument validation is an important facet of survey research methods and athletic trainers must be aware of the important underlying principles. Objective: To discuss the process of survey development and validation, specifically the process of construct validation. Background: Athletic training researchers frequently employ the use of…

  16. Total haemoglobin mass and red blood cell profile in endurance-trained and non-endurance-trained adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Gert; Bärtsch, Peter; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate differences in total haemoglobin mass (tHb mass) and in red blood cell profile between elite endurance-trained (END) and non-endurance-trained (nEND) male and female adolescent athletes, tHb mass (CO rebreathing) and specific variables of red blood cell profile (haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, erythrocyte indices) were determined in 59 elite junior athletes (29 END, 30 nEND). We hypothesized that at the age of 15-17 years, regular endurance training might induce a significant increase in tHb mass and changes in red blood cell profile. Therefore, all parameters were again determined after 6, 12 and 18 months in a subset of 27 subjects (17 END, 10 nEND). In END, tHb mass related to body weight was ~15% greater than in nEND (11.2 ± 1.6  vs. 9.7 ± 1.3 g kg(-1), P < 0.001), whereas no significant differences were observed for the red blood cell profile. In both groups, tHb mass related to body weight and the variables of red blood cell profile had not changed significantly after 6, 12 and 18 months of regular training. In conclusion, in elite junior athletes, differences in tHb mass between END and nEND were similar, however, smaller compared with previously in adult athletes reported values. At the age of 15-17 years, 18 months of regular training did not induce significant changes in tHb mass beyond alterations explained by physical growth and also variables of red blood cell profile did not change significantly.

  17. Changes in Endurance Performance in Young Athletes During Two Training Seasons.

    PubMed

    Tota, Łukasz; Maciejczyk, Marcin; Pokora, Ilona; Cempla, Jerzy; Pilch, Wanda; Pałka, Tomasz

    2015-12-22

    The aim of the study was to assess changes in endurance performance in young runners (females and males) during two training seasons. It involved 19 male and 16 female athletes aged 15-17 specializing in track-and-field middle and long distances runs. The following parameters were measured three times during the training season: maximal oxygen uptake, running economy, and the level of the second ventilatory threshold. Training volume and intensity during each season were analyzed within an 8-week period prior to the exercise tests. The volume and intensity of training at various stages of preparation in both seasons were similar. During the first year of observation, significant improvements in relative volume of maximal oxygen uptake were reported both in female and male athletes. During the second training season, it was found that running economy improved both in women and men, with no changes in maximal oxygen uptake. The same (in terms of volume and intensity) endurance training carried out with young runners during two consecutive training seasons can result in different training effects.

  18. Acceptance of isotonic and hypotonic rehydrating beverages by athletes during training.

    PubMed

    Décombaz, J; Gmünder, B; Daget, N; Munoz-Box, R; Howald, H

    1992-01-01

    This study compared the acceptance of two beverages (5% carbohydrate) of distinct osmolarities (hypotonic, 180 mOsm/kg and isotonic, 295 mOsm/kg) during the usual training practice of 97 athletes. A quantitative sensory profile by independent tasters ensured that organoleptic recognition would be unlikely during the tests. Each drink was consumed ad libitum during 3 different training sessions, at home. At each session, a subjective appreciation of hedonic and post-ingestive physiological effects (6 criteria) was obtained by means of a questionnaire. At the end of the experiment, the athletes were asked to express a preference for one of the "six" drinks. More athletes (blindly) chose the isotonic compared to the hypotonic drink (p = 0.03). This difference was not due intrinsically to the drinks, which the subjects were unable to distinguish on any of the criteria, but was related to certain aspects of the consumer's characteristics. Both groups had different drinking practices: the subjects choosing the isotonic beverage drank less before (p = 0.001) and more during (p = 0.013) the exercise. Age, sex, dimensions or type of physical activity (i.e. endurance vs speed/strength disciplines) were unrelated to the preference, except perhaps the duration of habitual exercise (p less than 0.05). We concluded that athletes, although unable to distinguish a hypotonic from an isotonic drink, may have specific habits and/or personal characteristics prompting them to favour one of them.

  19. The Next Accreditation System.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Lynne M

    2016-02-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has implemented a new accreditation system for graduate medical education in the United States. This system, called the Next Accreditation System, focuses on more continuous monitoring of the outcomes of residency training, and for high-quality programs, less on the detailed processes of that training. This allows programs to innovate to best meet the needs of their trainees and communities. This new system also reviews the clinical learning environment at each institution sponsoring graduate medical education, focusing on professionalism, trainee supervision, duty hour and fatigue management, care transitions, and integration of residents into patient safety and health care quality. This Next Accreditation System is too new to fully assess its outcomes in better preparing residents for medical practice. Assessments of its early implementation, however, suggest we can expect such outcomes in the near future. PMID:26859375

  20. Aerobic Fitness for Young Athletes: Combining Game-based and High-intensity Interval Training.

    PubMed

    Harrison, C B; Kinugasa, T; Gill, N; Kilding, A E

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the effect of game-based training (GT) vs. a mix of game-based training and high-intensity interval training (MT) on physical performance characteristics. 26 young athletes (13.9±0.3 years) were assigned to either GT (n=13) or MT (n=13) for 6 weeks. Game-based training consisted of 2×8-11 min 3 vs. 3 'bucketball' SSGs separated by 3 min of passive rest twice per week, while MT consisted of one SSGs session and one high-intensity session of 15 s runs at 90-95% of the speed reached at the end of the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (VIFT) interspersed with 15 s passive recovery. Peak oxygen uptake (V˙ O2peak), VIFT, jump height, and speed were assessed pre- and post-training. Following training, V˙ O2peak (5.5±3.3%; ES=large) improved after MT, whereas VIFT improved after MT (6.6±3.2%; ES, large) and GT (4.2±5.5%, ES=small). 5-m sprint improved after GT (ES=small), while 20 m sprint and jump height were unchanged. In conclusion, while MT and GT were both effective at increasing performance parameters, greater effects were seen following MT. Therefore, MT should be considered as the preferred training method for improving aerobic power in young athletes.

  1. Graduate students' self assessment of competency in grief education and training in core accredited rehabilitation counseling programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchetti, Richard Jude

    The study examined whether 93 master's level rehabilitation counselor trainees from select Midwestern CORE-accredited schools report having been adequately trained to identify and work with clients who are having grief-related issues from a loss or disability. Using the Grief Counseling Competency Scale (GCCS), participants showed a wide range of scores regarding personal competency related to grief; however, scores tended to be low when examining skills and knowledge relating to grief, with most respondents scoring between "this barely describes me" and "this somewhat describes me." Although presence or history of a disability was found to be related to personal competency, a number of variables were not related, including: gender, age, race/ethnicity, course work in grief theories and grief interventions, practica/internship setting, and attitudes toward people with disabilities. Implications for further research are discussed.

  2. Assessor Accreditation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gair, Nicholas

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the development of a national accreditation scheme for volunteer assessors in the expeditions section of the Duke of Edinburgh's Award program for young people. Stages of accreditation include wild country experience, introductory learning and preparation, accreditation weekend, and induction assessments. Performance criteria are…

  3. Short-term effects of proprioceptive training with unstable platform on athletes' stabilometry.

    PubMed

    Romero-Franco, Natalia; Martínez-López, Emilio J; Lomas-Vega, Rafael; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Osuna-Pérez, M Catalina; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term stabilometric effects of proprioceptive training in athletes by using a BOSU ball and a Swiss ball as unstable platforms. Thirty-seven athletes from a variety of disciplines were divided into a control group (n = 17) and an experimental group (n = 20). Both performed a warm-up, and in addition, the experimental group carried out a proprioceptive exercise session after the warm-up. Proprioceptive exercise session consisted of six 25-minute exercise sessions with the BOSU ball and the Swiss ball as unstable platforms. Bipedal stabilometry was assessed before the training session (M0), immediately after training (M1), 30 minutes later (M2), 1 hour after training (M3), 6 hours after training (M4), and 24 hours after training (M5). Analysis of variance (α = 0.05) revealed significant differences immediately after training (M1) in speed (p = 0.022) and length covered by the center of pressure (p = 0.021) in the experimental group. These differences were even more acute 6 hours later (M4; p = 0.021). In fact, the same group exhibited significant differences in mediolateral position after 30 minutes (M2; p = 0.001) compared with the baseline measure and the control group. Apart from these, no other significant differences were found. A proprioceptive exercise session using a BOSU ball and a Swiss ball as unstable platforms induced short-term negative effects on the stabilometry of athletes. Likewise, an immediate trend to improvement was apparent in the stabilometry of the control group after the warm-up.

  4. The benefits of four weeks of melatonin treatment on circadian patterns in resistance-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Leonardo-Mendonça, Roberto C; Martinez-Nicolas, Antonio; de Teresa Galván, Carlos; Ocaña-Wilhelmi, Javier; Rusanova, Iryna; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo; Escames, Germaine; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2015-01-01

    Exercise can induce circadian phase shifts depending on the duration, intensity and frequency. These modifications are of special meaning in athletes during training and competition. Melatonin, which is produced by the pineal gland in a circadian manner, behaves as an endogenous rhythms synchronizer, and it is used as a supplement to promote resynchronization of altered circadian rhythms. In this study, we tested the effect of melatonin administration on the circadian system in athletes. Two groups of athletes were treated with 100 mg day(-1) of melatonin or placebo 30 min before bed for four weeks. Daily rhythm of salivary melatonin was measured before and after melatonin administration. Moreover, circadian variables, including wrist temperature (WT), motor activity and body position rhythmicity, were recorded during seven days before and seven days after melatonin or placebo treatment with the aid of specific sensors placed in the wrist and arm of each athlete. Before treatment, the athletes showed a phase-shift delay of the melatonin circadian rhythm, with an acrophase at 05:00 h. Exercise induced a phase advance of the melatonin rhythm, restoring its acrophase accordingly to the chronotype of the athletes. Melatonin, but not placebo treatment, changed daily waveforms of WT, activity and position. These changes included a one-hour phase advance in the WT rhythm before bedtime, with a longer nocturnal steady state and a smaller reduction when arising at morning than the placebo group. Melatonin, but not placebo, also reduced the nocturnal activity and the activity and position during lunch/nap time. Together, these data reflect the beneficial effect of melatonin to modulate the circadian components of the sleep-wake cycle, improving sleep efficiency. PMID:26361788

  5. Establishing a clinical pharmacology fellowship program for physicians, pharmacists, and pharmacologists: a newly accredited interdisciplinary training program at the Ohio State University.

    PubMed

    Kitzmiller, Joseph P; Phelps, Mitch A; Neidecker, Marjorie V; Apseloff, Glen

    2014-01-01

    Studying the effect of drugs on humans, clinical pharmacologists play an essential role in many academic medical and research teams, within the pharmaceutical industry and as members of government regulatory entities. Clinical pharmacology fellowship training programs should be multidisciplinary and adaptable, and should combine didactics, applied learning, independent study, and one-on-one instruction. This article describes a recently developed 2 year clinical pharmacology fellowship program - one of only nine accredited by the American Board of Clinical Pharmacology - that is an integrative, multi faceted, adaptable method for training physicians, pharmacists, and scientists for leadership roles in the pharmaceutical industry, in academia, or with regulatory or accreditation agencies. The purpose of this article is to provide information for academic clinicians and researchers interested in designing a similar program, for professionals in the field of clinical pharmacology who are already affiliated with a fellowship program and may benefit from supplemental information, and for clinical researchers interested in clinical pharmacology who may not be aware that such training opportunities exist. This article provides the details of a recently accredited program, including design, implementation, accreditation, trainee success, and future directions.

  6. Peripheral signals of energy homeostasis as possible markers of training stress in athletes: a review.

    PubMed

    Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Jürimäe, Toivo; Mangus, Brent; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2011-03-01

    The importance of physical exercise in regulating energy balance and ultimately body mass is widely recognized. There have been several investigative efforts in describing the regulation of the energy homeostasis. Important in this regulatory system is the existence of several peripheral signals that communicate the status of body energy stores to the hypothalamus including leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α--different cytokines and other peptides that affect energy homeostasis. In certain circumstances, all these peripheral signals may be used to reveal the condition of the athlete as the result of several months of prolonged exercise training. These hormone and cytokine concentrations characterize a physical stress condition in which different hormone and cytokine responses are apparently linked to changes in physical performance. The possibility to use these peripheral signals as markers of training stress (and possible overreaching/overtraining) in elite athletes should be considered. These measured hormone and cytokine levels could also be used to characterize the physical stress of single exercise session, as the hormone and cytokine response to exercise may actually be a response to the concurrent energy deficit. In summary, different peripheral signals of energy homeostasis may be sensitive to changes in specific training stress and may be useful for predicting the onset of possible overreaching/overtraining in athletes.

  7. Neuromuscular Characteristics of Endurance--And Power-Trained Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koceja, David M.; Davison, Edwin; Robertson, Christopher T.

    2004-01-01

    In response to chronic physical training, the human neuromuscular system undergoes significant and specific adaptations. More importantly, these influences are the result of the type and quantity of physical activity. One of the simplest neuromuscular mechanisms is the spinal stretch reflex. The reflex system was previously viewed as inflexible,…

  8. Correlations between injury, training intensity, and physical and mental exhaustion among college athletes.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Rheba E; Symonds, Matthew L

    2010-03-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to obtain information concerning injury incidence and perceptions of training intensities and fatigue levels among college athletes via a survey study. A second purpose was to illuminate correlations between the collected data. This study employed an investigator-designed survey instrument administered to 411 NCAA Division II male and female athletes, with 149 completed responses. The survey included 3 themes: injury incidence, training intensity, and physical and mental exhaustion. Men and women spent 4.5 days per week training using moderate- and high-intensity levels. Fifty percent of the total number of athletes reported chronic injury. During the competition season, physical exhaustion occurred "frequently" 30.86 and 23.53% of the time with men and women, respectively. In the noncompetition season, physical exhaustion was "frequently" experienced 19.75 and 17.65% of the time among men and women, respectively. Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found with acute injury for men and chronic injury for women. Also, training intensity levels and physical and mental exhaustion for men and women were statistically significant. The current investigators found the training involved 2-3 hours of moderate to high intensity 4.5 days per week both during competition and noncompetition; women and men spent 2-3 hours of light intensity 1.31 and 1.45 days per week, respectively. Women and men in addition to training, engaged in 3.78 and 4.43 hours of leisure physical activity per week. The investigators recommend tapering, periodization, and rest to help avoid overuse syndrome, overreaching, and overtraining that leads to excessive physical and mental exhaustion and injury.

  9. From Olympia to Atlanta: a cultural-historical perspective on diet and athletic training.

    PubMed

    Grivetti, L E; Applegate, E A

    1997-05-01

    Greek and Roman writers described diet and training of Olympic athletes. Lucian (A.D. 120-ca. 180) described distance and speed work in runners; Galen (A.D. 131-201) recommended ball-related exercises to train vision and the body; Philostratos (A.D. 170-249) suggested cross training by endurance running, weight training, and wrestling with animals. The ancient Greek training system, the tetrad (eta tau epsilon tau rho alpha sigma), was a four-day cycle with each day devoted to a different activity. Diogenes Laertius (died A.D. 222) wrote that Greek athletes trained on dried figs, moist cheese and wheat; then the pattern changed and focused on meat. Epictetus (2nd century A.D.) wrote that Olympic victors avoided desserts and cold water and took wine sparingly. Philostratos deprecated athletic diet in his era, a pattern based on white bread sprinkled with poppy seeds, fish and pork. Americans at the XIth Olympiad in Berlin (1936) consumed beefsteak with average daily intake of 125 grams of butter or cotton oil, three eggs, custard for dessert and 1.5 L of milk. The American pattern at Berlin was characterized by ad libitum intake of white bread, dinner rolls, fresh vegetables and salads. At Atlanta, more than 5 million meals will be served during the Olympic festival. The highly varied menu will include fresh vegetables and dips; fruits, cheeses and breads; salads; pasta, rice and fruit salads; soups; meat and seafood entrees; hot vegetables; desserts; and beverages. American Southern specialties will be served.

  10. Clinical management of immuno-suppression in athletes associated with exercise training: sports medicine considerations.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Anthony Carl

    2013-01-01

    The Overtraining Syndrome (OTS) is a physically debilitating medical condition that results in athletes being totally compromised in their capacity to perform and compete. Many physiological systems are affected by the process of overtraining and the development of the OTS which results from it; but one system in particular, the immune, is highly susceptible to degradation resulting in a reduction in overall health and physical performance. The aim of this paper is to review; 1) the evidence-based proactive steps and actions to take to greatly reduce the risk of development of an infection or a compromised immune system in athletes; and 2) the course of action for clinicians to take when they are dealing with an athlete displaying overt signs of an infection and, or inflammation. Evidenced reported here within support that it is essential for clinicians to take practical preventative and management steps - actions with athletes (involved in intensive exercise training) in order to help preserve and maintain a healthy and robust immune system if they are going to perform optimally.

  11. [High-intensity interval training for young athletes].

    PubMed

    Engel, Florian Azad; Sperlich, Billy

    2014-06-01

    A computer-based literature research during July 2013 using the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science was performed to assess the effect of the high intensity interval training (HIIT) on sport performance in healthy children and adolescents. Studies examining the effect of HIIT on aerobic and anaerobic performance pre and post to HIIT-Interventions in children and adolescents (9-18 years) were included. The results indicate increased aerobic and anaerobic performance following two or three HIIT sessions per week for a period of five to ten weeks, additional to normal training. Results regarding long term effects following HIIT have not been documented so far. In addition, due to the physiological characteris-tics during HIIT protocols improved fatigue resistance has been demonstrated in children as compared to adults, which may be interpreted as a prerequisite for the applicability of HIIT in children.

  12. Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2016-04-01

    Exercise mediates an excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress (OS). The body has natural antioxidant systems that help decrease OS, and these systems may be enhanced with exercise training. However, only a few studies have investigated the differences in resting OS and antioxidant capacity (AOC) between aerobically trained athletes (ET), anaerobically trained athletes (RT), and untrained individuals (UT). Therefore, this study sought to investigate the resting and postexercise OS and AOC in ET, RT, and UT. Sixty healthy young males (26.6±0.8 yr) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups, ET, RT, and UT by distinct training background. Resting plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) were not significantly different in ET, RT, and UT. However, MDA and PC were significantly increased following a graded exercise test (GXT) in UT but not in ET and RT. Resting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and TAC were not different in ET, RT, and UT. Interestingly, TAC levels significantly decreased after the GXT in all groups. Additionally, UT showed lower post-exercise TAC levels compared to ET and RT. These results showed that ET, RT, and UT have similar OS and AOC at rest. However, both ET and RT have greater AOC against exercise mediated OS compared to UT. These findings may explain, at least in part, why both aerobic and anaerobic types of exercise training improve redox balance. However, it appears there is no specific exercise type effect in terms of redox balance.

  13. Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2016-04-01

    Exercise mediates an excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress (OS). The body has natural antioxidant systems that help decrease OS, and these systems may be enhanced with exercise training. However, only a few studies have investigated the differences in resting OS and antioxidant capacity (AOC) between aerobically trained athletes (ET), anaerobically trained athletes (RT), and untrained individuals (UT). Therefore, this study sought to investigate the resting and postexercise OS and AOC in ET, RT, and UT. Sixty healthy young males (26.6±0.8 yr) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups, ET, RT, and UT by distinct training background. Resting plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) were not significantly different in ET, RT, and UT. However, MDA and PC were significantly increased following a graded exercise test (GXT) in UT but not in ET and RT. Resting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and TAC were not different in ET, RT, and UT. Interestingly, TAC levels significantly decreased after the GXT in all groups. Additionally, UT showed lower post-exercise TAC levels compared to ET and RT. These results showed that ET, RT, and UT have similar OS and AOC at rest. However, both ET and RT have greater AOC against exercise mediated OS compared to UT. These findings may explain, at least in part, why both aerobic and anaerobic types of exercise training improve redox balance. However, it appears there is no specific exercise type effect in terms of redox balance. PMID:27162773

  14. Cardiac size of high-volume resistance trained female athletes: shaping the body but not the heart.

    PubMed

    Venckunas, T; Simonavicius, J; Marcinkeviciene, J E

    2016-03-01

    Introduction Exercise training, besides many health benefits, may result in cardiac remodelling which is dependent on the type and amount of exercise performed. It is not clear, however, whether significant adaptation in cardiac structure is possible in females undergoing resistance type of exercise training. Rigorous high volume training of most muscle groups emphasising resistance exercises are being undertaken by athletes of some aesthetic sports such as female fitness (light bodybuilding). The impact of this type of training on cardiac adaptation has not been investigated until now. The aim of the current study was to disclose the effect of high volume resistance training on cardiac structure and function. Methods 11 top-level female fitness athletes and 20 sedentary age-matched controls were recruited to undergo two-dimensional echocardiography. Results Cardiac structure did not differ between elite female fitness athletes and controls (p > 0.05), and fitness athletes had a tendency for a smaller (p = 0.07) left ventricular (LV) mass indexed to lean body mass. Doppler diastolic function index (E/A ratio) and LV ejection fraction were similar between the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Elite female fitness athletes have normal cardiac size and function that do not differ from matched sedentary controls. Consequently, as high volume resistance training has no easily observable effect on adaptation of cardiac structure, when cardiac hypertrophy is present in young resistance-trained lean female, other reasons such as inherited cardiac disease are to be considered carefully.

  15. Cardiac size of high-volume resistance trained female athletes: shaping the body but not the heart.

    PubMed

    Venckunas, T; Simonavicius, J; Marcinkeviciene, J E

    2016-03-01

    Introduction Exercise training, besides many health benefits, may result in cardiac remodelling which is dependent on the type and amount of exercise performed. It is not clear, however, whether significant adaptation in cardiac structure is possible in females undergoing resistance type of exercise training. Rigorous high volume training of most muscle groups emphasising resistance exercises are being undertaken by athletes of some aesthetic sports such as female fitness (light bodybuilding). The impact of this type of training on cardiac adaptation has not been investigated until now. The aim of the current study was to disclose the effect of high volume resistance training on cardiac structure and function. Methods 11 top-level female fitness athletes and 20 sedentary age-matched controls were recruited to undergo two-dimensional echocardiography. Results Cardiac structure did not differ between elite female fitness athletes and controls (p > 0.05), and fitness athletes had a tendency for a smaller (p = 0.07) left ventricular (LV) mass indexed to lean body mass. Doppler diastolic function index (E/A ratio) and LV ejection fraction were similar between the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Elite female fitness athletes have normal cardiac size and function that do not differ from matched sedentary controls. Consequently, as high volume resistance training has no easily observable effect on adaptation of cardiac structure, when cardiac hypertrophy is present in young resistance-trained lean female, other reasons such as inherited cardiac disease are to be considered carefully. PMID:27030632

  16. Athletic altitude training protocols and their application in preparation for mountainous operations.

    PubMed

    Heil, K M; Keenan, A C M

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, small scale counter-insurgency and expeditionary operations have frequently taken place in mountainous, high-altitude areas. Preparation of soldiers for these environments has typically focussed on extended stays at altitude to ensure physiological acclimatisation. However, with the likelihood that future UK deployments may be unpredictable and thus with little time for preparation, is there a means by which the same acclimatisation may be achieved? The field of athletics has been researching such adaptations since the rise of the elite North African long-distance runners in the 1960s. These athletes all lived high above sea level and had become accustomed to performing in the relatively hypoxic environment found at high altitudes. The research has focussed on eliciting physiological acclimatisation in as short a time as possible, while maintaining the ability to train at the correct intensity. In the following review of altitude training we highlight areas for future investigation and assess whether protocols developed for athletes can be applied to military personnel.

  17. Managing Heteronormativity and Homonegativity in Athletic Training: In and Beyond the Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Maurer-Starks, Suanne S; Clemons, Heather L; Whalen, Shannon L

    2008-01-01

    Context: As an allied health professional working in various settings, an athletic trainer (AT) is responsible for the health care of a highly diverse population. More often than not, this diversity is defined by the visible, such as race or sex. However, diversity encompasses many more variables than these observable factors and includes sexual orientation. Efforts have been made to educate ATs about issues related to sex and race; however, sexual orientation typically has not been addressed, although ATs have treated and will continue to treat lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) patients. Objective: To introduce ATs (educators and practicing clinicians) to the concept of heteronormativity, its effect on society, and its influences on the manner in which they teach athletic training students and deliver health care to their patients. Data Collection and Analysis: We searched various databases, including MEDLINE, ERIC, SportDiscus, and CINAHL Information Systems using the terms bisexual, diversity, gay, heteronormativity, homophobia in sport, and lesbian. Pertinent articles were cross-referenced to gain additional information. The literature revealed the historic implications of homonegativity for sport and its effects on those involved in sport culture, including ATs. Conclusions: Future dialogues should focus on innovative strategies for including LGB issues into athletic training curricula and for meeting the needs of students and professionals in addition to patients who identify as LGB. PMID:18523570

  18. Creatine supplementation as an ergogenic aid for sports performance in highly trained athletes: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Mujika, I; Padilla, S

    1997-10-01

    Creatine supplementation has become a common practice among competition athletes participating in different sports over the last few years. The mechanism by which supplementary creatine could have potential ergogenic effects would be an increased muscle creatine and phosphocreatine concentration, leading to a higher rate of ATP resynthesis, a delay in the onset of muscular fatigue and a facilitated recovery during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise. A critical review of the literature reveals that these ergogenic effects, when found, have been generally shown in untrained subjects performing several exercise bouts under laboratory conditions. The limited body of scientific data available concerning highly trained athletes performing single competition-like exercise tasks indicates that this type of population does not benefit from creatine supplementation. Therefore, the widespread use of creatine ingestion to improve competition performance does not seem to be justified. The potential interest of creatine supplementation for elite athletes could be related to an increased ability to perform repeated high-intensity exercise bouts, either during training or during competition in sports in which repeated efforts are required (e.g. soccer, basketball), but this possibility needs scientific confirmation.

  19. The effects of specific athletic training on path selection while running.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Amy L; Zakoor, Allison; Cinelli, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Apertures that are smaller than 1.3 times the shoulder width (SW) require that individuals make an adjustment to their normal walking behavior [6]. When given a choice, individuals will choose to avoid apertures smaller than this ratio, rather than rotate their shoulders and walk through [7]. Research has yet to determine whether this choice in path selection can be influenced by the speed at which one approaches the aperture or by experience/training. Therefore, the current study investigated whether approach speed and/or specific athletic training influences the choice in path selection. Specifically-trained athletes (n=6) and non-trained (n=6) young adults ran toward a visible goal placed at the end of the path and avoided an aperture (created by two poles) placed along the midline of the path. The separation between the poles ranged between 0.6 and 1.8 times each participant's SW, in increments of 0.2. Participants were permitted to either run through or around the aperture to get to the end goal. Results demonstrated that regardless of training experience, participants ran around apertures smaller than 1.4× the SW and ran through apertures larger than this ratio. Increased approach speed (i.e., running) therefore appears to elicit similar aperture crossing behaviors as walking [2,3,6,7]. Additionally, when faced with the choice to run around or to run through apertures, individuals who are specifically-training to run through small spaces chose similar paths as individuals who are not trained to do so. Therefore, specific training does not appear to influence voluntary path selection.

  20. The effects of specific athletic training on path selection while running.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Amy L; Zakoor, Allison; Cinelli, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Apertures that are smaller than 1.3 times the shoulder width (SW) require that individuals make an adjustment to their normal walking behavior [6]. When given a choice, individuals will choose to avoid apertures smaller than this ratio, rather than rotate their shoulders and walk through [7]. Research has yet to determine whether this choice in path selection can be influenced by the speed at which one approaches the aperture or by experience/training. Therefore, the current study investigated whether approach speed and/or specific athletic training influences the choice in path selection. Specifically-trained athletes (n=6) and non-trained (n=6) young adults ran toward a visible goal placed at the end of the path and avoided an aperture (created by two poles) placed along the midline of the path. The separation between the poles ranged between 0.6 and 1.8 times each participant's SW, in increments of 0.2. Participants were permitted to either run through or around the aperture to get to the end goal. Results demonstrated that regardless of training experience, participants ran around apertures smaller than 1.4× the SW and ran through apertures larger than this ratio. Increased approach speed (i.e., running) therefore appears to elicit similar aperture crossing behaviors as walking [2,3,6,7]. Additionally, when faced with the choice to run around or to run through apertures, individuals who are specifically-training to run through small spaces chose similar paths as individuals who are not trained to do so. Therefore, specific training does not appear to influence voluntary path selection. PMID:25448638

  1. Neuromuscular training improves performance and lower-extremity biomechanics in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Palumbo, Joseph P; Hewett, Timothy E

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a comprehensive neuromuscular training program on measures of performance and lower-extremity movement biomechanics in female athletes. The hypothesis was that significant improvements in measures of performance would be demonstrated concomitant with improved biomechanical measures related to anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. Forty-one female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players (age, 15.3 +/- 0.9 years; weight, 64.8 +/- 9.96 kg; height, 171.2 +/- 7.21 cm) underwent 6 weeks of training that included 4 main components (plyometric and movement, core strengthening and balance, resistance training, and speed training). Twelve age-, height-, and weight-matched controls underwent the same testing protocol twice 6 weeks apart. Trained athletes demonstrated increased predicted 1 repetition maximum squat (92%) and bench press (20%). Right and left single-leg hop distance increased 10.39 cm and 8.53 cm, respectively, and vertical jump also increased from 39.9 +/- 0.9 cm to 43.2 +/- 1.1 cm with training. Speed in a 9.1-m sprint improved from 1.80 +/- 0.02 seconds to 1.73 +/- 0.01 seconds. Pre- and posttest 3-dimensional motion analysis demonstrated increased knee flexion-extension range of motion during the landing phase of a vertical jump (right, 71.9 +/- 1.4 degrees to 76.9 +/- 1.4 degrees ; left, 71.3 +/- 1.5 degrees to 77.3 +/- 1.4 degrees ). Training decreased knee valgus (28%) and varus (38%) torques. Control subjects did not demonstrate significant alterations during the 6-week interval. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the combination of multiple-injury prevention-training components into a comprehensive program improves measures of performance and movement biomechanics.

  2. 40 CFR 745.225 - Accreditation of training programs: target housing and child-occupied facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... purposes of this section, courses taught in different languages are considered different courses, and each... least 2 years of experience, education, or training in teaching workers or adults; or (ii) A bachelor's...: (i) Demonstrated experience, education, or training in teaching workers or adults; and...

  3. PG medical training and accreditation: responsibility of the government for the adequate health service delivery.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, M D

    2012-09-01

    On one hand there is obvious inadequate health coverage to the rural population and on the other hand the densely populated urban area is facing the triple burden of increasing non-communicable and communicable health problems and the rising health cost. The postgraduate medical training is closely interrelated with the adequate health service delivery and health economics. In relation to the prevailing situation, the modern medical education trend indicates the five vital issues. These are i). Opportunity needs to be given to all MBBS graduates for General Specialist and Sub-Specialist Training inside the country to complete their medical education, ii). Urgent need for review of PG residential training criteria including appropriate bed and teacher criteria as well as entry criteria and eligibility criteria, iii). Involvement of all available units of hospitals fulfilling the requirements of the residential PG training criteria, iv). PG residential trainings involve doing the required work in the hospitals entitling them full pay and continuation of the service without any training fee or tuition fee, and v). Planning of the proportions of General Specialty and Sub-Specialty Training fields, particularly General Practice (GP) including its career and female participation. With increased number of medical graduates, now it seems possible to plan for optimal health coverage to the populations with appropriate postgraduate medical training. The medical professionals and public health workers must make the Government aware of the vital responsibility and the holistic approach required.

  4. Monitoring the athlete training response: subjective self-reported measures trump commonly used objective measures: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    Background Monitoring athlete well-being is essential to guide training and to detect any progression towards negative health outcomes and associated poor performance. Objective (performance, physiological, biochemical) and subjective measures are all options for athlete monitoring. Objective We systematically reviewed objective and subjective measures of athlete well-being. Objective measures, including those taken at rest (eg, blood markers, heart rate) and during exercise (eg, oxygen consumption, heart rate response), were compared against subjective measures (eg, mood, perceived stress). All measures were also evaluated for their response to acute and chronic training load. Methods The databases Academic search complete, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus and PubMed were searched in May 2014. Fifty-six original studies reported concurrent subjective and objective measures of athlete well-being. The quality and strength of findings of each study were evaluated to determine overall levels of evidence. Results Subjective and objective measures of athlete well-being generally did not correlate. Subjective measures reflected acute and chronic training loads with superior sensitivity and consistency than objective measures. Subjective well-being was typically impaired with an acute increase in training load, and also with chronic training, while an acute decrease in training load improved subjective well-being. Summary This review provides further support for practitioners to use subjective measures to monitor changes in athlete well-being in response to training. Subjective measures may stand alone, or be incorporated into a mixed methods approach to athlete monitoring, as is current practice in many sport settings. PMID:26423706

  5. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on exercise responses in Paralympic athletes with cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    West, C R; Taylor, B J; Campbell, I G; Romer, L M

    2014-10-01

    We asked whether specific inspiratory muscle training (IMT) improves respiratory structure and function and peak exercise responses in highly trained athletes with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Ten Paralympic wheelchair rugby players with motor-complete SCI (C5-C7) were paired by functional classification then randomly assigned to an IMT or placebo group. Diaphragm thickness (B-mode ultrasonography), respiratory function [spirometry and maximum static inspiratory (PI ,max ) and expiratory (PE ,max ) pressures], chronic activity-related dyspnea (Baseline and Transition Dyspnea Indices), and physiological responses to incremental arm-crank exercise were assessed before and after 6 weeks of pressure threshold IMT or sham bronchodilator treatment. Compared to placebo, the IMT group showed significant increases in diaphragm thickness (P = 0.001) and PI ,max (P = 0.016). There was a significant increase in tidal volume at peak exercise in IMT vs placebo (P = 0.048) and a strong trend toward an increase in peak work rate (P = 0.081, partial eta-squared = 0.33) and peak oxygen uptake (P = 0.077, partial eta-squared = 0.34). No other indices changed post-intervention. In conclusion, IMT resulted in significant diaphragmatic hypertrophy and increased inspiratory muscle strength in highly trained athletes with cervical SCI. The strong trend, with large observed effect, toward an increase in peak aerobic performance suggests IMT may provide a useful adjunct to training in this population.

  6. Rationale and resources for teaching the mathematical modeling of athletic training and performance.

    PubMed

    Clarke, David C; Skiba, Philip F

    2013-06-01

    A number of professions rely on exercise prescription to improve health or athletic performance, including coaching, fitness/personal training, rehabilitation, and exercise physiology. It is therefore advisable that the professionals involved learn the various tools available for designing effective training programs. Mathematical modeling of athletic training and performance, which we henceforth call "performance modeling," is one such tool. Two models, the critical power (CP) model and the Banister impulse-response (IR) model, offer complementary information. The CP model describes the relationship between work rates and the durations for which an individual can sustain them during constant-work-rate or intermittent exercise. The IR model describes the dynamics by which an individual's performance capacity changes over time as a function of training. Both models elegantly abstract the underlying physiology, and both can accurately fit performance data, such that educating exercise practitioners in the science of performance modeling offers both pedagogical and practical benefits. In addition, performance modeling offers an avenue for introducing mathematical modeling skills to exercise physiology researchers. A principal limitation to the adoption of performance modeling is a lack of education. The goal of this report is therefore to encourage educators of exercise physiology practitioners and researchers to incorporate the science of performance modeling in their curricula and to serve as a resource to support this effort. The resources include a comprehensive review of the concepts associated with the development and use of the models, software to enable hands-on computer exercises, and strategies for teaching the models to different audiences.

  7. Preventing ACL injuries in team-sport athletes: a systematic review of training interventions.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, Marko D; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of training interventions aimed to prevent and to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACLI) rates in team sport players. We searched MEDLINE from January 1991 to July 2011 using the terms knee, ACL, anterior cruciate ligament, injury, prevention, training, exercise, and intervention. Nine out of 708 articles met the inclusion criteria and were independently rated by two reviewers using the McMaster Occupational Therapy Evidence-Based Practice Research Group scale. Consensus scores ranged from 3 to 8 out of 10. Seven out of nine studies demonstrated that training interventions have a preventive effect on ACLI. Collectively, the studies indicate there is moderate evidence to support the use of multifaceted training interventions, which consisted of stretching, proprioception, strength, plyometric and agility drills with additional verbal and/or visual feedback on proper landing technique to decrease the rate of ACLIs in team sport female athletes, while the paucity of data preclude any conclusions for male athletes.

  8. Use of alternative and complementary therapies in labor and delivery care: a cross-sectional study of midwives’ training in Catalan hospitals accredited as centers for normal birth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and complementary and alternative therapies (CAT) during pregnancy is increasing. Scientific evidence for CAM and CAT in the field of obstetrics mainly covers pain relief in labor. Midwives are responsible for labor and delivery care: hence, their knowledge of CAM and CAT is important. The aims of this study are to describe the professional profile of midwives who provide care for natural childbirth in Catalan hospitals accredited as centers for normal birth, to assess midwives’ level of training in CAT and their use of these therapies, and to identify specific resources for CAT in labor wards. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional, quantitative method was used to assess the level of training and use of CAT by midwives working at 28 hospitals in Catalonia, Spain, accredited as public normal birth centers. Results Just under a third of midwives (30.4%) trained in CAT after completion of basic training. They trained in an average of 5.97 therapies (SD 3.56). The number of CAT in which the midwives were trained correlated negatively with age (r = - 0.284; p < 0.001) and with their time working at the hospital in years (r = - 0.136; p = 0.036). Midwives trained in CAT considered that the following therapies were useful or very useful for pain relief during labor and delivery: relaxation techniques (64.3%), hydrotherapy (84.8%) and the application of compresses to the perineum (75.9%). The availability of resources for providing CAT during normal birth care varied widely from center to center. Conclusions Age may influence attitudes towards training. It is important to increase the number of midwives trained in CAM for pain relief during childbirth, in order to promote the use of CAT and ensure efficiency and safety. CAT resources at accredited hospitals providing normal childbirth care should also be standardized. PMID:24238197

  9. Increase in maximal oxygen uptake following 2-week walk training with blood flow occlusion in athletes.

    PubMed

    Park, Saejong; Kim, Jong Kyung; Choi, Hyun Min; Kim, Hyun Gook; Beekley, Matthew D; Nho, Hosung

    2010-07-01

    Walk training with blood flow occlusion (OCC-walk) leads to muscle hypertrophy; however, cardiorespiratory endurance in response to OCC-walk is unknown. Ischemia enhances the adaptation to endurance training such as increased maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂(max)) and muscle glycogen content. Thus, we investigated the effects of an OCC-walk on cardiorespiratory endurance, anaerobic power, and muscle strength in elite athletes. College basketball players participated in walk training with (n = 7) and without (n = 5) blood flow occlusion. Five sets of a 3-min walk (4-6 km/h at 5% grade) and a 1-min rest between the walks were performed twice a day, 6 days a week for 2 weeks. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures (groups x time) was utilized (P < 0.05). Interactions were found in VO₂(max) (P = 0.011) and maximal minute ventilation (VE(max); P = 0.019). VO₂(max) (11.6%) and VE(max) (10.6%) were increased following the OCC-walk. For the cardiovascular adaptations of the OCC-walk, hemodynamic parameters such as stroke volume (SV) and heart rate (HR) at rest and during OCC-walk were compared between the first and the last OCC-walk sessions. Although no change in hemodynamics was found at rest, during the last OCC-walk session SV was increased in all five sets (21.4%) and HR was decreased in the third (12.3%) and fifth (15.0%) sets. With anaerobic power an interaction was found in anaerobic capacity (P = 0.038) but not in peak power. Anaerobic capacity (2.5%) was increased following the OCC-walk. No interaction was found in muscle strength. In conclusion, the 2-week OCC-walk significantly increases VO₂(max) and VE(max) in athletes. The OCC-walk training might be used in the rehabilitation for athletes who intend to maintain or improve endurance.

  10. Neuromuscular Changes in Female Collegiate Athletes Resulting From a Plyometric Jump-Training Program.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Gary B.; Colston, Marisa A.; Short, Nancy I.; Neal, Kristina L.; Hoewischer, Paul E.; Pixley, Jennifer J.

    2004-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess performance changes induced by a 6- week plyometric jump-training program. DESIGN AND SETTING: We used a quasiexperimental design to compare groups formed on the basis of team membership. Testing was conducted in an athletic training research laboratory, both before and after a 6-week period of preseason basketball conditioning. SUBJECTS: Nineteen female collegiate basketball players from a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I program (8 subjects) and a National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics Division II program (11 subjects) who had no history of anterior cruciate ligament injury and who had no history of any lower extremity injury during the preceding 6 months. MEASUREMENTS: The variables of primary interest were hamstrings and quadriceps isokinetic peak torque. Of secondary interest were 5 variables derived from step-down and lunging maneuvers performed on a computerized forceplate system and 4 variables derived from tracking the position of the body core during performance of a T-pattern agility drill with a computerized infrared tracking system. RESULTS: A significant group x trial interaction was found for hamstrings peak torque at 60 degrees.s(-1) (F(1,17) = 9.16, P =.008.), and the proportion of total variance attributable to the treatment effect produced by the jump-training program was relatively large (eta(2) =.35, omega(2) =.30). None of the other variables demonstrated statistically significant changes. CONCLUSIONS: Our primary results support plyometric jump training as a strategy for improving neuromuscular attributes that are believed to reduce the risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury in female college basketball players. They also provide the basis for reasonable isokinetic strength goals.

  11. Olympic preparation in Brazilian judo athletes: description and perceived relevance of training practices.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Emerson; Takito, Monica Y

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the training routines used by judo athletes and their perception concerning the relevance, effort made, concentration needed, and pleasure obtained during the training sessions conducted 6 months before their Olympic participation and to compare with medal winners and other competitors in these aspects. Sixty-one Olympic Brazilian judo athletes (men = 39; women = 22), representing 66.3% of all Brazilian participants in this Olympic sport (from 1964 to 2008), including 10 medal winners (9 men and 1 woman) answered a questionnaire concerning their training routines. Mann-Whitney and Student's t-test for independent samples were used. Judo medalists and nonmedalists in the Olympic Games did not differ in: (a) the age when they started to practice and to compete in judo, (b) the age when they competed in the Olympic Games, (c) hours of training per week and per training session and the number of training sessions per day in their preparation for this event, (d) frequency and time spent for performing judo-specific and general exercises and their perceived relevance, effort, pleasure, and concentration for these activities performed during the preparation for the Olympic Games. The only differences found were the groundwork (ne-waza) randori practice, which was less frequently performed by medal winners, and perceived relevance attributed to this activity, which was considered less relevant by the medal winners compared with nonmedal winners. Thus, judo Olympic medal winners and nonmedalists did not differ in many training aspects in the final phase of their preparation to the Olympic Games.

  12. 40 CFR 745.225 - Accreditation of training programs: target housing and child-occupied facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... training materials and the course test to reflect innovations in the field. (ii) Procedures for the... part 2 of this title. Any such hearing at which oral testimony is presented shall be open to the...

  13. Effects of Intermittent Training on Anaerobic Performance and MCT Transporters in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Grégoire; Bentley, David J.; Roels, Belle; Mc Naughton, Lars R.; Mercier, Jacques; Cameron-Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) on skeletal muscle monocarboxylate lactate transporter (MCT) expression and anaerobic performance in trained athletes. Cyclists were assigned to two interventions, either normoxic (N; n = 8; 150 mmHg PIO2) or hypoxic (H; n = 10; ∼3000 m, 100 mmHg PIO2) over a three week training (5×1 h-1h30.week−1) period. Prior to and after training, an incremental exercise test to exhaustion (EXT) was performed in normoxia together with a 2 min time trial (TT). Biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis were analyzed for MCT1 and MCT4 using immuno-blotting techniques. The peak power output (PPO) increased (p<0.05) after training (7.2% and 6.6% for N and H, respectively), but VO2max showed no significant change. The average power output in the TT improved significantly (7.3% and 6.4% for N and H, respectively). No differences were found in MCT1 and MCT4 protein content, before and after the training in either the N or H group. These results indicate there are no additional benefits of IHT when compared to similar normoxic training. Hence, the addition of the hypoxic stimulus on anaerobic performance or MCT expression after a three-week training period is ineffective. PMID:24797797

  14. Accreditation and the Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timpe, Eugene

    1977-01-01

    A report to the Association on a study of the accreditation question. The topics covered are: a definition of accreditation; a listing of major accredited; a description of the process of accreditation; and procedures for becoming an accrediting agency. (AMH)

  15. The impact of triathlon training and racing on athletes' general health.

    PubMed

    Vleck, Veronica; Millet, Gregoire P; Alves, Francisco Bessone

    2014-12-01

    Although the sport of triathlon provides an opportunity to research the effect of multi-disciplinary exercise on health across the lifespan, much remains to be done. The literature has failed to consistently or adequately report subject age group, sex, ability level, and/or event-distance specialization. The demands of training and racing are relatively unquantified. Multiple definitions and reporting methods for injury and illness have been implemented. In general, risk factors for maladaptation have not been well-described. The data thus far collected indicate that the sport of triathlon is relatively safe for the well-prepared, well-supplied athlete. Most injuries 'causing cessation or reduction of training or seeking of medical aid' are not serious. However, as the extent to which they recur may be high and is undocumented, injury outcome is unclear. The sudden death rate for competition is 1.5 (0.9-2.5) [mostly swim-related] occurrences for every 100,000 participations. The sudden death rate is unknown for training, although stroke risk may be increased, in the long-term, in genetically susceptible athletes. During heavy training and up to 5 days post-competition, host protection against pathogens may also be compromised. The incidence of illness seems low, but its outcome is unclear. More prospective investigation of the immunological, oxidative stress-related and cardiovascular effects of triathlon training and competition is warranted. Training diaries may prove to be a promising method of monitoring negative adaptation and its potential risk factors. More longitudinal, medical-tent-based studies of the aetiology and treatment demands of race-related injury and illness are needed.

  16. Effects of Exhaustive Aerobic Exercise on Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolism in Trained Athletes.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Barbara; Geiger, Daniela; Schauer, Markus; Gatterer, Hannes; Burtscher, Martin; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise can cause a transient depression of immune function. Data indicate significant effects of immune activation cascades on the biochemistry of monoamines and amino acids such as tryptophan. Tryptophan can be metabolized through different pathways, a major route being the kynurenine pathway, which is often systemically up-regulated when the immune response is activated. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of exhaustive aerobic exercise on biomarkers of immune activation and tryptophan metabolism in trained athletes. After a standardized breakfast 2 h prior to exercise, 33 trained athletes (17 women, 16 men) performed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test at 60 rpm until exhaustion. After a 20 min rest phase, the participants performed a 20 min maximal time-trial on a cycle ergometer (RBM Cyclus 2, Germany). During the test, cyclists were strongly encouraged to choose a maximal pedalling rate that could be maintained for the respective test duration. Serum concentrations of amino acids tryptophan, kynurenine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine were determined by HPLC and immune system biomarker neopterin by ELISA at rest and immediately post exercise. Intense exercise was associated with a strong increase in neopterin concentrations (p<0.001), indicating increased immune activation following intense exercise. Exhaustive exercise significantly reduced tryptophan concentrations by 12% (p<0.001) and increased kynurenine levels by 6% (p = 0.022). Also phenylalanine to tyrosine ratios were lower after exercise as compared with baseline (p<0.001). The kynurenine to tryptophan ratio correlated with neopterin (r = 0.560, p<0.01). Thus, increased tryptophan catabolism by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase appears likely. Peak oxygen uptake correlated with baseline tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations (r = 0.562 and r = 0.511, respectively, both p<0.01). Findings demonstrate that exhaustive aerobic exercise is associated with increased immune

  17. Approved Clinical Instructors' Perspectives on Implementation Strategies in Evidence-Based Practice for Athletic Training Students

    PubMed Central

    Hankemeier, Dorice A.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Understanding implementation strategies of Approved Clinical Instructors (ACIs) who use evidence-based practice (EBP) in clinical instruction will help promote the use of EBP in clinical practice. Objective: To examine the perspectives and experiences of ACIs using EBP concepts in undergraduate athletic training education programs to determine the importance of using these concepts in clinical practice, clinical EBP implementation strategies for students, and challenges of implementing EBP into clinical practice while mentoring and teaching their students. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Telephone interviews. Patients or Other Participants: Sixteen ACIs (11 men, 5 women; experience as a certified athletic trainer = 10 ± 4.7 years, experience as an ACI = 6.8 ± 3.9 years) were interviewed. Data Collection and Analysis: We interviewed each participant by telephone. Interview transcripts were analyzed and coded for common themes and subthemes regarding implementation strategies. Established themes were triangulated through peer review and member checking to verify the data. Results: The ACIs identified EBP implementation as important for validation of the profession, changing paradigm shift, improving patient care, and improving student educational experiences. They promoted 3 methods of implementing EBP concepts with their students: self-discovery, promoting critical thinking, and sharing information. They assisted students with the steps of EBP and often faced challenges in implementation of the first 3 steps of EBP: defining a clinical question, literature searching, and literature appraisal. Finally, ACIs indicated that modeling the behavior of making clinical decisions based on evidence was the best way to encourage students to continue using EBP. Conclusions: Athletic training education program directors should encourage and recommend specific techniques for EBP implementation in the clinical setting. The ACIs believed that role modeling is a

  18. Effects of Exhaustive Aerobic Exercise on Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolism in Trained Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Barbara; Geiger, Daniela; Schauer, Markus; Gatterer, Hannes; Burtscher, Martin; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise can cause a transient depression of immune function. Data indicate significant effects of immune activation cascades on the biochemistry of monoamines and amino acids such as tryptophan. Tryptophan can be metabolized through different pathways, a major route being the kynurenine pathway, which is often systemically up-regulated when the immune response is activated. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of exhaustive aerobic exercise on biomarkers of immune activation and tryptophan metabolism in trained athletes. After a standardized breakfast 2 h prior to exercise, 33 trained athletes (17 women, 16 men) performed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test at 60 rpm until exhaustion. After a 20 min rest phase, the participants performed a 20 min maximal time-trial on a cycle ergometer (RBM Cyclus 2, Germany). During the test, cyclists were strongly encouraged to choose a maximal pedalling rate that could be maintained for the respective test duration. Serum concentrations of amino acids tryptophan, kynurenine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine were determined by HPLC and immune system biomarker neopterin by ELISA at rest and immediately post exercise. Intense exercise was associated with a strong increase in neopterin concentrations (p<0.001), indicating increased immune activation following intense exercise. Exhaustive exercise significantly reduced tryptophan concentrations by 12% (p<0.001) and increased kynurenine levels by 6% (p = 0.022). Also phenylalanine to tyrosine ratios were lower after exercise as compared with baseline (p<0.001). The kynurenine to tryptophan ratio correlated with neopterin (r = 0.560, p<0.01). Thus, increased tryptophan catabolism by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase appears likely. Peak oxygen uptake correlated with baseline tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations (r = 0.562 and r = 0.511, respectively, both p<0.01). Findings demonstrate that exhaustive aerobic exercise is associated with increased immune

  19. Influence of resistance training on cardiorespiratory endurance and muscle power and strength in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Ignjatovic, Aleksandar; Radovanovic, D; Stankovic, R; Marković, Z; Kocic, J

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of additional resistance training on cardiorespiratory endurance in young (15.8 ± 0.8 yrs) male basketball players. Experimental group subjects (n=23) trained twice per week for 12 weeks using a variety of general free-weight and machine exercises designed for strength acquisition, beside ongoing regular basketball training program. Control group subject (n=23) participated only in basketball training program. Oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and related gas exchange measures were determined continuously during maximal exercise test using an automated cardiopulmonary exercise system. Muscle power of the extensors and flexors was measured by a specific computerized tensiometer. Results from the experimental group (VO(2max) 51.6 ± 5.7 ml.min(-1).kg(-1) pre vs. 50.9 ± 5.4 ml.min(-1).kg(-1) post resistance training) showed no change (p>0.05) in cardiorespiratory endurance, while muscle strength and power of main muscle groups increased significantly. These data demonstrate no negative cardiorespiratory performance effects on adding resistance training to ongoing regular training program in young athletes.

  20. Use of Evidence-Based Practice Among Athletic Training Educators, Clinicians, and Students, Part 2: Attitudes, Beliefs, Accessibility, and Barriers

    PubMed Central

    W. McCarty, Cailee; Hankemeier, Dorice A.; Walter, Jessica M.; Newton, Eric J.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Successful implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) within athletic training is contingent upon understanding the attitudes and beliefs and perceived barriers toward EBP as well as the accessibility to EBP resources of athletic training educators, clinicians, and students. Objective: To assess the attitudes, beliefs, and perceived barriers toward EBP and accessibility to EBP resources among athletic training educators, clinicians, and students. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Online survey instrument. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 1209 athletic trainers participated: professional athletic training education program directors (n = 132), clinical preceptors (n = 266), clinicians (n = 716), postprofessional athletic training educators (n = 24) and postprofessional students (n = 71). Main Outcome Measure(s): Likert-scale items (1 = strongly disagree, 4 = strongly agree) assessed attitudes and beliefs and perceived barriers, whereas multipart questions assessed accessibility to resources. Kruskal-Wallis H tests (P ≤ .05) and Mann-Whitney U tests with a Bonferroni adjustment (P ≤ .01) were used to determine differences among groups. Results: Athletic trainers agreed (3.27 ± 0.39 out of 4.0) that EBP has various benefits to clinical practice and disagreed (2.23 ± 0.42 out of 4.0) that negative perceptions are associated with EBP. Benefits to practice scores (P = .002) and negative perception scores (P < .001) differed among groups. With respect to perceived barriers, athletic trainers disagreed that personal skills and attributes (2.29 ± 0.52 out of 4.0) as well as support and accessibility to resources (2.40 ± 0.40 out of 4.0) were barriers to EBP implementation. Differences were found among groups for personal skills and attributes scores (P < .001) and support and accessibility to resources scores (P < .001). Time (76.6%) and availability of EBP mentors (69.6%) were the 2 most prevalent barriers reported. Of the resources

  1. Lower Extremity Biomechanics in Athletes With Ankle Instability After a 6-Week Integrated Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pi-Yin; Chen, Wen-Ling; Lin, Cheng-Feng; Lee, Heng-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Context: Plyometric exercise has been recommended to prevent lower limb injury, but its feasibility in and effects on those with functional ankle instability (FAI) are unclear. Objective: To investigate the effect of integrated plyometric and balance training in participants with FAI during a single-legged drop landing and single-legged standing position. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: University motion-analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty athletes with FAI were divided into 3 groups: plyometric group (8 men, 2 women, age = 23.20 ± 2.82 years; 10 unstable ankles), plyometric-balance (integrated)–training group (8 men, 2 women, age = 23.80 ± 4.13 years; 10 unstable ankles), and control group (7 men, 3 women, age = 23.50 ± 3.00 years; 10 unstable ankles). Intervention(s): A 6-week plyometric-training program versus a 6-week integrated-training program. Main Outcome Measure(s): Postural sway during single-legged standing with eyes open and closed was measured before and after training. Kinematic data were recorded during medial and lateral single-legged drop landings after a 5-second single-legged stance. Results: Reduced postural sway in the medial-lateral direction and reduced sway area occurred in the plyometric- and integrated-training groups. Generally, the plyometric training and integrated training increased the maximum angles at the hip and knee in the sagittal plane, reduced the maximum angles at the hip and ankle in the frontal and transverse planes in the lateral drop landing, and reduced the time to stabilization for knee flexion in the medial drop landing. Conclusions: After 6 weeks of plyometric training or integrated training, individuals with FAI used a softer landing strategy during drop landings and decreased their postural sway during the single-legged stance. Plyometric training improved static and dynamic postural control and should be incorporated into rehabilitation programs for those with FAI

  2. Individual, Programmatic, and Institutional Influences on Undergraduate Athletic Training Students' Cultural Competence.

    PubMed

    Volberding, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine factors that influence an undergraduate athletic training student's (ATS) level of cultural competence (CC). Utilizing a CC score derived from a student survey, one-way ANOVAs to identify differences in CC scores by gender, race, and year in school and three separate correlation analyses (all students, Caucasian Students, Students of Color) to identify the relationship between CC and variables were performed. Only eight variables in the Students of Color model were significant. This suggests that race may impact factors that influence an ATS CC and could assist educators to recognize uncontrollable factors may influence students' CC.

  3. Individual, Programmatic, and Institutional Influences on Undergraduate Athletic Training Students' Cultural Competence.

    PubMed

    Volberding, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine factors that influence an undergraduate athletic training student's (ATS) level of cultural competence (CC). Utilizing a CC score derived from a student survey, one-way ANOVAs to identify differences in CC scores by gender, race, and year in school and three separate correlation analyses (all students, Caucasian Students, Students of Color) to identify the relationship between CC and variables were performed. Only eight variables in the Students of Color model were significant. This suggests that race may impact factors that influence an ATS CC and could assist educators to recognize uncontrollable factors may influence students' CC. PMID:26817171

  4. Head-up tilt table evaluation in a trained athlete with recurrent vaso-vagal syncope.

    PubMed

    Rechavia, E; Strasberg, B; Agmon, J

    1989-03-01

    A 27-year-old trained athlete with recurrent syncope of suspected vaso-vagal origin was evaluated. A 60 degrees head-up tilt table test reproducibly triggered the patient's spontaneous symptoms and allowed the investigation of different modalities of therapy (medical and pacing) in preventing syncopal episodes. The head-up tilt table test may be a useful tool in the evaluation of syncope of vaso-vagal origin, helping to determine the initial precipitating vagal event and the effect of therapy.

  5. 40 CFR 745.225 - Accreditation of training programs: target housing and child occupied facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION... for conducting the assessment of hands-on skills for each course. (D) A copy of the quality control... smaller than 1 square inch. (9) The training manager shall develop and implement a quality control...

  6. 40 CFR 745.225 - Accreditation of training programs: target housing and child occupied facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION... for conducting the assessment of hands-on skills for each course. (D) A copy of the quality control... smaller than 1 square inch. (9) The training manager shall develop and implement a quality control...

  7. Postural Adaptations in Preadolescent Karate Athletes Due to a One Week Karate Training Camp

    PubMed Central

    Vando, Stefano; Filingeri, Davide; Maurino, Lucio; Chaabène, Helmi; Bianco, Antonino; Salernitano, Gianluca; Foti, Calogero; Padulo, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an increasing number of training hours of specific high-intensity karate training on postural sway in preadolescent karate athletes. Seventy-four karatekas were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: Karate Group (KG=37): age 10.29±1.68 yrs; or Control Group (CG= 37): age 10.06±1.77 yrs. The KG performed two sessions per day for 1 week in total, while the CG performed only 3 sessions during the same period. The center-of-pressure length (COPL) and velocity (COPV) were recorded under four different experimental conditions: open eyes (EO), closed eyes (EC), open eyes monopodalic left (EOL), open eyes monopodalic right (EOR), pre as well as post training intervention. Post-camp results indicated significant differences between the groups in the COPL p<0.001; an interaction of training type×time in the COPV (p<0.001) and an interaction of training type×time (p=0.020). The KG revealed an improvement in the COPL from pre to post-camp under conditions of EO [−37.26% (p<0.001)], EC [−31.72% (p<0.001)], EOL [−27.27% (p<0.001)], EOR [−21.44% (p<0.001)], while CG revealed small adaptations in conditions of EO (3.16%), EC (0.93%), EOL (−3.03%), EOR (−0.97%). Furthermore, in the KG an improvement in the COPV from pre to post-camp was observed in conditions of EO [−37.92% (p<0.001)], EC [−32.52% (p<0.001)], EOL [−29.11% (p<0.001)], EOR [−21.49% (p<0.001)]. In summary, one-week of high intensity karate training induced a significant improvement in static body balance in preadolescent karate athletes. Karate performance requires high-levels of both static and dynamic balance. Further research dealing with the effect of karate practice on dynamic body balance in young athletes is required. PMID:24235983

  8. Postural adaptations in preadolescent karate athletes due to a one week karate training cAMP.

    PubMed

    Vando, Stefano; Filingeri, Davide; Maurino, Lucio; Chaabène, Helmi; Bianco, Antonino; Salernitano, Gianluca; Foti, Calogero; Padulo, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an increasing number of training hours of specific high-intensity karate training on postural sway in preadolescent karate athletes. Seventy-four karatekas were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: Karate Group (KG=37): age 10.29±1.68 yrs; or Control Group (CG= 37): age 10.06±1.77 yrs. The KG performed two sessions per day for 1 week in total, while the CG performed only 3 sessions during the same period. The center-of-pressure length (COPL) and velocity (COPV) were recorded under four different experimental conditions: open eyes (EO), closed eyes (EC), open eyes monopodalic left (EOL), open eyes monopodalic right (EOR), pre as well as post training intervention. Post-camp results indicated significant differences between the groups in the COPL p<0.001; an interaction of training type×time in the COPV (p<0.001) and an interaction of training type×time (p=0.020). The KG revealed an improvement in the COPL from pre to post-camp under conditions of EO [-37.26% (p<0.001)], EC [-31.72% (p<0.001)], EOL [-27.27% (p<0.001)], EOR [-21.44% (p<0.001)], while CG revealed small adaptations in conditions of EO (3.16%), EC (0.93%), EOL (-3.03%), EOR (-0.97%). Furthermore, in the KG an improvement in the COPV from pre to post-camp was observed in conditions of EO [-37.92% (p<0.001)], EC [-32.52% (p<0.001)], EOL [-29.11% (p<0.001)], EOR [-21.49% (p<0.001)]. In summary, one-week of high intensity karate training induced a significant improvement in static body balance in preadolescent karate athletes. Karate performance requires high-levels of both static and dynamic balance. Further research dealing with the effect of karate practice on dynamic body balance in young athletes is required. PMID:24235983

  9. [The influence of vibration training in combination with general magnetotherapy on dynamics of performance efficiency in athletes].

    PubMed

    Mikheev, A A; Volchkova, O A; Voronitskiĭ, N E

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of a combined treatment including vibrostimulation and magnetotherapy on the working capacity of athletes. Participants of the study were 8 male judo wrestlers. It was shown that implementation of a specialized training program comprising seances of vibration loading and general magnetotherapy 40 and 60 min in duration respectively during 3 consecutive days produced marked beneficial effect on the hormonal status of the athletes. Specifically, the three-day long treatment resulted in a significant increase of blood cortisol and testosterone levels considered to be an objective sign of improved performance parameters in athletes engaged in strength and speed sports. The optimal length of vibration training during 3 days of specialized training is estimated at 20 to 40 minutes supplemented by general magnetotherapy for 60 minutes. PMID:21328901

  10. Accreditation of Employee Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geale, John

    A British project was conducted to improve understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of certification for work-based training and to analyze factors that influence the demand for accreditation. Three studies investigated what was happening in three employment sectors: tourism (service/commercial), social services (public administration),…

  11. Feasibility of training athletes for high-pressure situations using virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Cheryl; Bowman, Doug A

    2014-04-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has been successfully applied to a broad range of training domains; however, to date there is little research investigating its benefits for sport psychology training. We hypothesized that using high-fidelity VR systems to display realistic 3D sport environments could trigger anxiety, allowing resilience-training systems to prepare athletes for real-world, highpressure situations. In this work we investigated the feasibility and usefulness of using VR for sport psychology training. We developed a virtual soccer goalkeeping application for the Virginia Tech Visionarium VisCube (a CAVE-like display system), in which users defend against simulated penalty kicks using their own bodies. Using the application, we ran a controlled, within-subjects experiment with three independent variables: known anxiety triggers, field of regard, and simulation fidelity. The results demonstrate that a VR sport-oriented system can induce increased anxiety (physiological and subjective measures) compared to a baseline condition. There were a number of main effects and interaction effects for all three independent variables in terms of the subjective measures of anxiety. Both known anxiety triggers and simulation fidelity had a direct relationship to anxiety, while field of regard had an inverse relationship. Overall, the results demonstrate great potential for VR sport psychology training systems; however, further research is needed to determine if training in a VR environment can lead to long-term reduction in sport-induced anxiety. PMID:24650988

  12. Feasibility of training athletes for high-pressure situations using virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Cheryl; Bowman, Doug A

    2014-04-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has been successfully applied to a broad range of training domains; however, to date there is little research investigating its benefits for sport psychology training. We hypothesized that using high-fidelity VR systems to display realistic 3D sport environments could trigger anxiety, allowing resilience-training systems to prepare athletes for real-world, highpressure situations. In this work we investigated the feasibility and usefulness of using VR for sport psychology training. We developed a virtual soccer goalkeeping application for the Virginia Tech Visionarium VisCube (a CAVE-like display system), in which users defend against simulated penalty kicks using their own bodies. Using the application, we ran a controlled, within-subjects experiment with three independent variables: known anxiety triggers, field of regard, and simulation fidelity. The results demonstrate that a VR sport-oriented system can induce increased anxiety (physiological and subjective measures) compared to a baseline condition. There were a number of main effects and interaction effects for all three independent variables in terms of the subjective measures of anxiety. Both known anxiety triggers and simulation fidelity had a direct relationship to anxiety, while field of regard had an inverse relationship. Overall, the results demonstrate great potential for VR sport psychology training systems; however, further research is needed to determine if training in a VR environment can lead to long-term reduction in sport-induced anxiety.

  13. Assessing fitness-to-practice of overseas-trained health practitioners by Australian registration & accreditation bodies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Assessment of fitness-to-practice of health professionals trained overseas and who wish to practice in Australia is undertaken by a range of organisations. These organisations conduct assessments using a range of methods. However there is very little published about how these organisations conduct their assessments. The purpose of the current paper is to investigate the methods of assessment used by these organisations and the issues associated with conducting these assessments. Methods A series of semi-structured interviews was undertaken with a variety of organisations who undertake assessments of overseas-trained health professionals who wish to practice in Australia. Content analysis of the interviews was used to identify themes and patterns. Results Four themes were generated from the content analysis of the interviews: (1) assessing; (2) process; (3) examiners; and (4) cost-efficiency. The themes were interconnected and each theme also had a number of sub-themes. Conclusions The organisations who participated in the present study used a range of assessment methods to assess overseas trained health professionals. These organisations also highlighted a number of issues, particularly related to examiners and process issues, pre- and post-assessment. Organisations demonstrated an appreciation for ongoing review of their assessment processes and incorporating evidence from the literature to inform their processes and assessment development. PMID:23020885

  14. Laboratory accreditation

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, R.B.

    1998-08-01

    Accreditation can offer many benefits to a testing or calibration laboratory, including increased marketability of services, reduced number of outside assessments, and improved quality of services. Compared to ISO 9000 registration, the accreditation process includes a review of the entire quality system, but in addition a review of testing or calibration procedures by a technical expert and participation in proficiency testing in the areas of accreditation. Within the DOE, several facilities have recently become accredited in the area of calibration, including Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, AlliedSignal FM and T; Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., and Pacific Northwest National Lab. At the national level, a new non-profit organization was recently formed called the National Cooperation for Laboratory Accreditation (NACLA). The goal of NACLA is to develop procedures, following national and international requirements, for the recognition of competent accreditation bodies in the US. NACLA is a voluntary partnership between the public and private sectors with the goal of a test or calibration performed once and accepted world wide. The NACLA accreditation body recognition process is based on the requirements of ISO Guide 25 and Guide 58. A membership drive will begin some time this fall to solicit organizational members and an election of a permanent NACLA Board of Directors will follow later this year or early 1999.

  15. Effects of respiratory muscle training on performance in athletes: a systematic review with meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    HajGhanbari, Bahareh; Yamabayashi, Cristiane; Buna, Teryn R; Coelho, Jonathan D; Freedman, Kyle D; Morton, Trevor A; Palmer, Sheree A; Toy, Melissa A; Walsh, Cody; Sheel, A William; Reid, W Darlene

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review to determine if respiratory muscle training (RMT) improves sport performance and respiratory muscle strength and endurance. Methodology followed the Cochrane Collaboration protocol. MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, EMBASE, EBM reviews, and COCHRANE electronic databases were searched until July 2011. Articles were included if: (a) participants were athletes; (b) RMT was compared with sham or control in a randomized controlled design and included outcomes of respiratory muscle and sport performance; and (d) published in English. Quality assessment using PEDro and data abstraction was performed by 2 authors. Outcomes evaluated were measures of sport performance, exercise capacity, spirometry, and respiratory muscle strength and endurance. Meta-analyses were performed on outcomes reported in 2 or more papers. Results of this systematic review revealed that of the 6,923 citations retrieved from the search strategy, 21 met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses demonstrated a significant positive effect of RMT on sport performance outcomes of time trials, exercise endurance time, and repetitions on Yo-Yo tests. Inspiratory muscle strength and endurance improved in most studies, which in part, was dependent on the type of RMT employed. Determination of the type of athlete that may benefit most from RMT was limited by small sample sizes, differing RMT protocols, and differences in outcome measures across studies. In conclusion, RMT can improve sport performance. Closer attention to matching the ventilatory demands of RMT to those required during athletic competition and more aggressive progression of training intensity may show greater improvements in future studies. PMID:22836606

  16. Educating the Educator: Use of Advanced Bleeding Control Mechanisms in Athletic Training: A Shift in the Thought Process of Prehospital Care. Part 2: Hemostatic Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Ellen K.; Berry, David C.; Seitz, S. Robert

    2014-01-01

    In Part 1 of this series [see: EJ1044392], the concepts of hemorrhaging, shock, and controlling bleeding as they relate to athletic training and prehospital emergency care along with the use of tourniquets were presented for athletic training educators (ATEs) to teach the skill in the classroom. This article, Part 2 of advanced bleeding control,…

  17. Student-faculty perceptions of multicultural training in accredited marriage and family therapy programs in relation to students' self-reported competence.

    PubMed

    Inman, Arpana G; Meza, Marisol M; Brown, Andraé L; Hargrove, ron K

    2004-07-01

    Although the marriage and family therapy field's recent attention to multicultural issues is laudable, there appears to be little clarity on what constitutes an effective multicultural training program and the impact of the effects of such training on trainee multicultural competence. The field continues to be challenged at different levels-training, practice, research, the setting of the standards and the work of the Commission on Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education, and the goals and strategic plan of the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy Board. This study focused on assessing the extent of multicultural integration at different levels of training and the relationship between such training and students' perception of their own multicultural competence. PMID:15293654

  18. Contemporary Issues in Protein Requirements and Consumption for Resistance Trained Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jacob; Wilson, Gabriel J

    2006-01-01

    In recent years an explosion of research papers concerning protein consumption has been published. The need to consolidate this information has become critical from both practical and future research standpoints. For this reason, the following paper presents an in depth analysis of contemporary issues in protein requirements and consumption for resistance trained athletes. Specifically, the paper covers: 1.) protein requirements for resistance trained athletes; 2.) the effect of the digestion rate of protein on muscular protein balance; 3.) the optimal timing of protein intake relative to exercise; 4.) the optimal pattern of protein ingestion, relative to how an individual should consume their protein throughout a 24 hour period, and what sources are utilized during this time frame; 5.) protein composition and its interaction with measures of protein balance and strength performance; 6.) the combination of protein and carbohydrates on plasma insulin levels and protein balance; 7.) the efficacy of protein supplements and whole food protein sources. Our goal is to provide the reader with practical information in optimizing protein intake as well as for provision of sound advice to their clients. Finally, special care was taken to provide future research implications. PMID:18500966

  19. Laboratory Accreditation in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Collino, Cesar; Chiabrando, Gustavo A.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory accreditation is an essential element in the healthcare system since it contributes substantially to decision-making, in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the health status of the patients, as well as in the organization and management of public healthcare. Therefore, the clinical biochemistry professional works continuously to provide reliable results and contributes to the optimization of operational logistics and integration of a laboratory into the health system. ISO 15189 accreditation, ensures compliance of the laboratory to minimize instances of error through the planning, prevention, implementation, evaluation and improvement of its procedures, which provides skill areas that involve both training undergraduate and graduate professionals in clinical biochemistry.

  20. Effects of oral sodium supplementation on indices of thermoregulation in trained, endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Earhart, Elizabeth L; Weiss, Edward P; Rahman, Rabia; Kelly, Patrick V

    2015-03-01

    Guidelines recommend the consumption of sodium during exercise to replace losses in sweat; however, the effects of sodium on thermoregulation are less clear. To determine the effects of high-dose sodium supplementation on indices of thermoregulation and related outcomes, 11 endurance athletes participated in a double-blind, randomized-sequence, crossover study in which they underwent 2-hrs of endurance exercise at 60% heart rate reserve with 1800 mg of sodium supplementation (SS) during one trial and placebo (PL) during the other trial. A progressive intensity time-to-exhaustion test was performed after the 2-hr steady state exercise as an assessment of exercise performance. Sweat rate was calculated from changes in body weight, accounting for fluid intake and urinary losses. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and heat stress were assessed using verbal numeric scales. Cardiovascular drift was determined from the rise in HR during the 2-hr steady state exercise test. Skin temperature was measured with an infrared thermometer. Dehydration occurred in both SS and PL trials, as evidenced by substantial weight loss (2.03 ± 0.43% and 2.27 ± 0.70%, respectively; p = 0.261 between trials). Sweat rate was 1015.53 ± 239.10 ml·hr(-1) during the SS trial and 1053.60±278.24 ml/hr during the PL trial, with no difference between trials (p = 0.459). Heat stress ratings indicated moderate heat stress ("warm/hot" ratings) but were not different between trials (p = 0.825). Time to exhaustion during the SS trial was 6.88 ± 3.88 minutes and during the PL trial averaged 6.96 ± 3.61 minutes, but did not differ between trials (p = 0.919). Cardiovascular drift, skin temperature, and RPE did not differ between trials (all p > 0.05). High-dose sodium supplementation does not appear to impact thermoregulation, cardiovascular drift, or physical performance in trained, endurance athletes. However, in light of the possibility that high sodium intakes might have other adverse effects

  1. [Accreditation of medical laboratories].

    PubMed

    Horváth, Andrea Rita; Ring, Rózsa; Fehér, Miklós; Mikó, Tivadar

    2003-07-27

    In Hungary, the National Accreditation Body was established by government in 1995 as an independent, non-profit organization, and has exclusive rights to accredit, amongst others, medical laboratories. The National Accreditation Body has two Specialist Advisory Committees in the health care sector. One is the Health Care Specialist Advisory Committee that accredits certifying bodies, which deal with certification of hospitals. The other Specialist Advisory Committee for Medical Laboratories is directly involved in accrediting medical laboratory services of health care institutions. The Specialist Advisory Committee for Medical Laboratories is a multidisciplinary peer review group of experts from all disciplines of in vitro diagnostics, i.e. laboratory medicine, microbiology, histopathology and blood banking. At present, the only published International Standard applicable to laboratories is ISO/IEC 17025:1999. Work has been in progress on the official approval of the new ISO 15189 standard, specific to medical laboratories. Until the official approval of the International Standard ISO 15189, as accreditation standard, the Hungarian National Accreditation Body has decided to progress with accreditation by formulating explanatory notes to the ISO/IEC 17025:1999 document, using ISO/FDIS 15189:2000, the European EC4 criteria and CPA (UK) Ltd accreditation standards as guidelines. This harmonized guideline provides 'explanations' that facilitate the application of ISO/IEC 17025:1999 to medical laboratories, and can be used as a checklist for the verification of compliance during the onsite assessment of the laboratory. The harmonized guideline adapted the process model of ISO 9001:2000 to rearrange the main clauses of ISO/IEC 17025:1999. This rearrangement does not only make the guideline compliant with ISO 9001:2000 but also improves understanding for those working in medical laboratories, and facilitates the training and education of laboratory staff. With the

  2. The Effects of Sports Vision Training on Binocular Vision Function in Female University Athletes.

    PubMed

    Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedbał, Lidia; Krzepota, Justyna; Markiewicz, Mikołaj; Woźniak, Jarosław; Lubiński, Wojciech

    2015-12-22

    Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual's oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball). After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes), and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ(2) =14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ(2) =14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye) and fusional convergence (χ(2) =8.522, p=0.014). The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training.

  3. The Effects of Sports Vision Training on Binocular Vision Function in Female University Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedbał, Lidia; Krzepota, Justyna; Markiewicz, Mikołaj; Woźniak, Jarosław; Lubiński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual's oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball). After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes), and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ2 =14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ2 =14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye) and fusional convergence (χ2 =8.522, p=0.014). The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training. PMID:26925183

  4. The Effects of Sports Vision Training on Binocular Vision Function in Female University Athletes.

    PubMed

    Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedbał, Lidia; Krzepota, Justyna; Markiewicz, Mikołaj; Woźniak, Jarosław; Lubiński, Wojciech

    2015-12-22

    Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual's oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball). After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes), and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ(2) =14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ(2) =14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye) and fusional convergence (χ(2) =8.522, p=0.014). The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training. PMID:26925183

  5. Effect of heavy strength training on muscle thickness, strength, jump performance, and endurance performance in well-trained Nordic Combined athletes.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Kojedal, Oystein; Losnegard, Thomas; Kvamme, Bent; Raastad, Truls

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of supplemental heavy strength training on muscle thickness and determinants of performance in well-trained Nordic Combined athletes. Seventeen well-trained Nordic Combined athletes were assigned to either usual training supplemented with heavy strength training (STR; n = 8) or to usual training without heavy strength training (CON; n = 9). The strength training performed by STR consisted of one lower-body exercise and two upper-body exercises [3-5 repetition maximum (RM) sets of 3-8 repetitions], which were performed twice a week for 12 weeks. Architectural changes in m. vastus lateralis, 1RM in squat and seated pull-down, squat jump (SJ) height, maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), work economy during submaximal treadmill skate rollerskiing, and performance in a 7.5-km rollerski time trial were measured before and after the intervention. STR increased 1RM in squat and seated pull-down, muscle thickness, and SJ performance more than CON (p < 0.05). There was no difference between groups in change in work economy. The two groups showed no changes in total body mass, VO(2max), or time-trial performance. In conclusion, 12 weeks of supplemental strength training improved determinants of performance in Nordic Combined by improving the athletes' strength and vertical jump ability without increasing total body mass or compromising the development of VO(2max).

  6. High volume of endurance training impairs adaptations to 12 weeks of strength training in well-trained endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Hansen, Ernst Albin; Raastad, Truls

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of 12 weeks of strength training combined with a large volume of endurance training with the effect of strength training alone on the strength training adaptations. Well-trained cyclists with no strength training experience performed heavy strength training twice a week in addition to a high volume of endurance training during a 12-week preparatory period (S + E; n = 11). A group of non-strength trained individuals performed the same strength training as S + E, but without added endurance training (S; n = 7). Thigh muscle cross-sectional area, 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in leg exercises, squat jump performance, and peak rate of force development (RFD) were measured. Following the intervention period, both S + E and S increased 1RM strength, thigh muscle cross-sectional area, and squat jump performance (p < 0.05), and the relative improvements in S were greater than in S + E (p < 0.05). S increased peak RFD while S + E did not, and this improvement was greater than in S + E (p < 0.05). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first controlled study to demonstrate that the strength training response on muscle hypertrophy, 1RM strength, squat jump performance, and peak RFD is attenuated in well-trained endurance athletes during a period of concurrent endurance training.

  7. Perceptions of Women Living with AIDS in Rural India Related to the Engagement of HIV-Trained Accredited Social Health Activists for Care and Support

    PubMed Central

    NYAMATHI, ADELINE M.; WILLIAM, RAVI RAJ; GANGULY, KALYAN K.; SINHA, SANJEEV; HERAVIAN, ANISA; ALBARRÁN, CYNTHIA R.; THOMAS, ALEXANDRA; GREENGOLD, BARBARA; EKSTRAND, MARIA; RAMAKRISHNA, PADMA; RAO, PANTANGI RAMA

    2011-01-01

    A community-based participatory research study was conducted using focus groups with 39 women living with AIDS (WLA) in the rural setting of Andhra Pradesh, India. In addition, three nurses, two physicians, and five reproductive health accredited social health activists (ASHAs) took part in focus groups. The WLA offered insight into the benefits of HIV-trained ASHAs including emotional support, assistance with travel to health care providers and antiretroviral therapy medication adherence. Health care providers also identified benefits of using HIV-trained ASHAs and suggested modalities for how to train these individuals. These findings will contribute to the design of a future program of care involving HIV-trained ASHAs. PMID:21331322

  8. A pilot study investigating changes in neural processing after mindfulness training in elite athletes

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Lori; May, April C.; Falahpour, Maryam; Isakovic, Sara; Simmons, Alan N.; Hickman, Steven D.; Liu, Thomas T.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to pay close attention to the present moment can be a crucial factor for performing well in a competitive situation. Training mindfulness is one approach to potentially improve elite athletes’ ability to focus their attention on the present moment. However, virtually nothing is known about whether these types of interventions alter neural systems that are important for optimal performance. This pilot study examined whether an intervention aimed at improving mindfulness [Mindful Performance Enhancement, Awareness and Knowledge (mPEAK)] changes neural activation patterns during an interoceptive challenge. Participants completed a task involving anticipation and experience of loaded breathing during functional magnetic resonance imaging recording. There were five main results following mPEAK training: (1) elite athletes self-reported higher levels of interoceptive awareness and mindfulness and lower levels of alexithymia; (2) greater insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activation during anticipation and post-breathing load conditions; (3) increased ACC activation during the anticipation condition was associated with increased scores on the describing subscale of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire; (4) increased insula activation during the post-load condition was associated with decreases in the Toronto Alexithymia Scale identifying feelings subscale; (5) decreased resting state functional connectivity between the PCC and the right medial frontal cortex and the ACC. Taken together, this pilot study suggests that mPEAK training may lead to increased attention to bodily signals and greater neural processing during the anticipation and recovery from interoceptive perturbations. This association between attention to and processing of interoceptive afferents may result in greater adaptation during stressful situations in elite athletes. PMID:26379521

  9. Using squat testing to predict training loads for lower-body exercises in elite karate athletes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Del P; Tan, Erik C H; Chaouachi, Anis; Carling, Christopher; Castagna, Carlo; Bloomfield, Jonathan; Behm, David G

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between squat loads and 2 bilateral and 2 unilateral stepping lower-body exercises in predominantly unilateral movement elite athletes (Karate). Equations to predict loads for lower-body exercises based on the squat load were also determined. Fourteen male elite Karate athletes (age = 22.6 ± 1.2 years) performed 6 repetition maximum (RM) of the following free-weight bilateral exercises: back half squat, deadlift, leg press and unilateral stepping exercises, lunge; and step-up. Results showed that 6RM squat load was significantly (p < 0.001) correlated with deadlift (r = 0.86), leg press (r = 0.76), lunge (r = 0.86), and step-up (r = 0.92). Linear regression showed that the 6RM squat load was a significant predictor for deadlift, leg press, lunge, and step-up (R2 range from 0.57 to 0.85, p < 0.001). The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a) Deadlift = squat load (1.12)-16.60 kg, (b) Leg press = squat load (1.66) + 16.10 kg, (c) Lunge = squat load (0.61) + 9.39 kg, and (d) step-up = squat load (0.85)-10.36 kg. Coaches and fitness professionals can use the 6RM squat load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for both bilateral and unilateral lower-body exercises with quadriceps as the prime mover. Load prescriptions for unilateral exercises should take into account the type of athletic population. PMID:20838250

  10. The effect of low extremity plyometric training on back muscle power of high school throwing event athletes.

    PubMed

    Park, Gi Duck; Lee, Joong Chul; Lee, Juri

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The physical strength elements required for athletic throwing events include muscle strength, swiftness, agility, speed, flexibility, and physical balance. Although plyometric training and weight training are implemented as representative training methods for improving swiftness and agility, most studies of it have been conducted with players of other sports. [Subjects] The study subjects were 10 throwing event athletes attending K physical education high school. The subjects were randomly assigned to a control group of five subjects and an experimental group of five subjects. To analyze the body composition, an Inbody 3.0 instrument (Biospace, Korea) was used as experimental equipment to measure heights, weight, body fat percentages, and muscle masses and a Biodex system 4.0 (BIODEX, USA) was used to measure isokinetic muscle-joint and lumbar muscle strengths. The plyometric training consisted of 15 techniques out of the training methods introduced in the 'Power up plyometric training'. The plyometric program was implemented without any training load three times per week during daybreak exercises for the experimental group. The number of times and the number of sets were changed over time as follows: three sets of 10 times in the 1st -4th weeks, three sets of 15 times in the 5th-8th weeks, and five sets of 15 times in the 9th-12th weeks. [Results] According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar extensor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar flexor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. [Conclusion] Plyometric training positively affected high school throwing event athletes. To summarize the study findings, the application of plyometric training with high intensity and loads improved the results of athletes who perform highly intensive exercises at normal times. PMID:24567698

  11. Athletics and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appenzeller, Herb

    This book answers questions concerning athletics and the law. The chapters include trends in litigation, disruptive behavior, the changing attitude of the court toward married athletes, training rules, and good conduct codes. They include the problem of athletic travel, the changing role of state athletic associations with their diverse rules,…

  12. The Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on Post-Training Recovery in Jiu-Jitsu Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Jonatas Ferreira da Silva; Esteves, João Victor Del Conti

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of using hyperbaric oxygen therapy during post-training recovery in jiu-jitsu athletes. Methods Eleven experienced Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes were investigated during and following two training sessions of 1h30min. Using a cross-over design, the athletes were randomly assigned to passive recovery for 2 hours or to hyperbaric oxygen therapy (OHB) for the same duration. After a 7-day period, the interventions were reversed. Before, immediately after, post 2 hours and post 24 hours, blood samples were collected to examine hormone concentrations (cortisol and total testosterone) and cellular damage markers [creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)]. Moreover, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and recovery (RPR) scales were applied. Results Final lactate [La] values (control: 11.9 ± 1.4 mmol/L, OHB: 10.2 ± 1.4 mmol/L) and RPE [control: 14 (13–17 a.u.), OHB: 18 (17–20 a.u.)] were not significantly different following the training sessions. Furthermore, there was no difference between any time points for blood lactate and RPE in the two experimental conditions (P>0.05). There was no effect of experimental conditions on cortisol (F1,20 = 0.1, P = 0.793, η2 = 0.00, small), total testosterone (F1,20 = 0.03, P = 0.877, η2 = 0.00, small), CK (F1,20 = 0.1, P = 0.759, η2 = 0.01, small), AST (F1,20 = 0.1, P = 0.761, η2 = 0.01, small), ALT (F1,20 = 0.0, P = 0.845, η2 = 0.00, small) or LDH (F1,20 = 0.7, P = 0.413, η2 = 0.03, small). However, there was a difference between the two experimental conditions in RPR with higher values at post 2 h and 24 h in OHB when compared to the control condition (P<0.05). Conclusions Thus, it can be concluded that OHB exerts no influence on the recovery of hormonal status or cellular damage markers. Nonetheless, greater perceived recovery, potentially due to the placebo effect, was evident

  13. A Descriptive Study of Athletic Training Education Programs Based on Findings on CAATE Standard H and Program Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golly, Heather Louise

    2011-01-01

    There is limited research that describes the evaluation procedures utilized by Athletic Training Education Programs (ATEP). The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the process the CAATE member institutions use to assess outcome-based standards in Standard H. This research used a cross-sectional study design. A survey link…

  14. Issues in Selecting Methods of Evaluating Clinical Competence in the Health Professions: Implications for Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlemas, David A.; Hensal, Carleton

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine methods used to evaluate the clinical competence and proficiency of students in medicine and allied health professions. To identify factors that would be valuable to educators in athletic training and other medical and allied health professions in the development and use of clinical assessment methods. Data Sources: We…

  15. Considerations for the Use of the Observation Experience to Aid in Early Socialization and Retention of Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Context: Retention of quality students in athletic training programs (ATPs) is important. Many factors contribute to retention of students, including their motivation level, peer support, positive interactions with instructors, clinical integration, and mentorship. Objective: Highlight the use of the observation period for preparatory athletic…

  16. Clinical Instructors' Perceptions of the Importance of Affective Behaviors in Undergraduate Athletic Training Clinical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokris, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    The affective domain represents a set of learning objectives that are difficult to assess and instruct. Affective behaviors consist of different attributes such as interpersonal relationships, professionalism, trust, empathy, and integrity to name a few. This study surveyed athletic training clinical instructors' perception of the importance…

  17. An examination of training on the VertiMax resisted jumping device for improvements in lower body power in highly trained college athletes .

    PubMed

    Rhea, Matthew R; Peterson, Mark D; Oliverson, Jeff R; Ayllón, Fernando Naclerio; Potenziano, Ben J

    2008-05-01

    Training to develop superior muscular power has become a key component to most progressive sport conditioning programs. Conventional resistance training, plyometrics, and speed/agility modalities have all been employed in an effort to realize superlative combinations of training stimuli. New training devices such as the VertiMax resisted jump trainer are marketed as a means of improving lower body reactive power. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the VertiMax, in combination with traditional training modalities, for improvements in lower body power among highly trained athletes. Forty men and women Division I collegiate athletes representing the sports of baseball, basketball, soccer, gymnastics, and track completed a 12-week mixed-methods training program. Two groups were constructed with both groups performing the same conventional resistance training and strength training exercises. The training control group performed traditional plyometric exercises while the experimental group performed similar loaded jump training on the VertiMax. Lower body power was measured before and after the training program by the TENDO FiTROdyne Powerlizer and statistically compared for differences between groups. Data analyses identified a significant (p < 0.05) and meaningful difference between power development among the 2 groups, with the VertiMax eliciting a greater treatment effect (effect size = 0.54) over conventional resistance and plyometric training alone (effect size = 0.09). These data convincingly demonstrate that the VertiMax represents an effective strategy for developing lower body power among trained college athletes, when combined with traditional strength and conditioning approaches.

  18. A 5° medial wedge reduces frontal but not saggital plane motion during jump landing in highly trained women athletes

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Michael F; Denegar, Craig R; Horn, Elaine; MacDougall, Bradley; Rahl, Michael; Sheehan, Jessica; Trojian, Thomas; Anderson, Jeffery M; Clark, James E; Kraemer, William J

    2010-01-01

    Lower extremity mechanics during landing have been linked to traumatic and nontraumatic knee injuries, particularly in women’s athletics. The effects of efforts to mitigate these risks have not been fully elucidated. We previously reported that a 5° medial wedge reduced ankle eversion and knee valgus. In the present report we further investigated the effect of a 5° medial wedge inserted in the shoes of female athletes on frontal plane hip motion, as well as ankle, knee, hip, and trunk saggital plane motion during a jump landing task. Kinematic data were obtained from 10 intercollegiate female athletes during jump landings from a 31 cm platform with and without a 5° medial wedge. Hip adduction was reduced 1.98° (95% CI 0.97–2.99°) by the medial wedge but saggital plane motions were unaffected. A 5° medial wedge reduces frontal plane motion and takes the knee away from a position associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Although frontal plane motion was not captured it is unlikely to have increased in a bilateral landing task. Thus, it is likely that greater muscle forces were generated in these highly trained athletes to dissipate ground reaction forces when a medial wedge was in place. Additional investigation in younger and lesser trained athletes is warranted to assess the impact of orthotic devices on knee joint mechanics. PMID:24198539

  19. Influence of length-restricted strength training on athlete's power-load curves of knee extensors and flexors.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Boris; Kleinöder, Heinz; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated whether different length-restricted strength training regimens affect voluntary explosive concentric power-load curves of the quadriceps femoris (QF) and hamstring (HAM) muscles. Thirty-two athletes were divided into 3 different training groups (G1-G3): G1 performed isometric training at knee joint angles corresponding to long muscle-tendon unit (MTU) length for QF and HAM; G2 conducted concentric-eccentric contraction cycles that were restricted to a knee joint range of motion corresponding to predominantly long MTU length for QF and HAM; and G3 combined the protocols of G1 and G2. Knee joint angle-dependent power-load curves during maximal voluntary explosive concentric knee extensions and flexions were measured for loads corresponding to 40, 60, and 80% of individual 1 repetition maximum at 5 different occasions: 2 times before, after 5 and 8 weeks of training, and 4 weeks post training. Power values of each subject were normalized to the largest value produced at any knee joint position (percent maximum). Obtained by curve fitting, the optimal knee joint angle for power production of QF and HAM remained unaltered throughout the course of the study for all testing loads and training groups. Therefore, different strength training regimens with a common restriction to long MTU lengths failed to induce length-dependent alterations in athlete's voluntary concentric power-load curves of knee extensors and flexors. The approach to develop strength training programs that induce systematic shifts in length-dependent power production of QF and HAM is of direct practical relevance for athletic activities such as cycling, ice skating, and skiing. However, restricting the muscle excursion range during loading seems to be an inappropriate trigger to cause length-dependent alterations in athlete's voluntary concentric power-load curves.

  20. Accredited Birth Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth Center Accredited 624 Smith Avenue St. Paul, MN 55107 651-689-3988 Accredited since April 2015 ... Birth Center Accredited 1901 44th Avenue North Minneapolis, MN 55343 612-338-2784 Accredited since November 2015 ...

  1. Improving quality management systems of laboratories in developing countries: an innovative training approach to accelerate laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Katy; McKinney, Barbara; Murphy, Anna; Rotz, Phil; Wafula, Winnie; Sendagire, Hakim; Okui, Scolastica; Nkengasong, John N

    2010-09-01

    The Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) program was developed to promote immediate, measurable improvement in laboratories of developing countries. The laboratory management framework, a tool that prescribes managerial job tasks, forms the basis of the hands-on, activity-based curriculum. SLMTA is implemented through multiple workshops with intervening site visits to support improvement projects. To evaluate the effectiveness of SLMTA, the laboratory accreditation checklist was developed and subsequently adopted by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO). The SLMTA program and the implementation model were validated through a pilot in Uganda. SLMTA yielded observable, measurable results in the laboratories and improved patient flow and turnaround time in a laboratory simulation. The laboratory staff members were empowered to improve their own laboratories by using existing resources, communicate with clinicians and hospital administrators, and advocate for system strengthening. The SLMTA program supports laboratories by improving management and building preparedness for accreditation.

  2. Blood-Borne Markers of Fatigue in Competitive Athletes – Results from Simulated Training Camps

    PubMed Central

    Hecksteden, Anne; Skorski, Sabrina; Schwindling, Sascha; Hammes, Daniel; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Assessing current fatigue of athletes to fine-tune training prescriptions is a critical task in competitive sports. Blood-borne surrogate markers are widely used despite the scarcity of validation trials with representative subjects and interventions. Moreover, differences between training modes and disciplines (e.g. due to differences in eccentric force production or calorie turnover) have rarely been studied within a consistent design. Therefore, we investigated blood-borne fatigue markers during and after discipline-specific simulated training camps. A comprehensive panel of blood-born indicators was measured in 73 competitive athletes (28 cyclists, 22 team sports, 23 strength) at 3 time-points: after a run-in resting phase (d 1), after a 6-day induction of fatigue (d 8) and following a subsequent 2-day recovery period (d 11). Venous blood samples were collected between 8 and 10 a.m. Courses of blood-borne indicators are considered as fatigue dependent if a significant deviation from baseline is present at day 8 (Δfatigue) which significantly regresses towards baseline until day 11 (Δrecovery). With cycling, a fatigue dependent course was observed for creatine kinase (CK; Δfatigue 54±84 U/l; Δrecovery -60±83 U/l), urea (Δfatigue 11±9 mg/dl; Δrecovery -10±10 mg/dl), free testosterone (Δfatigue -1.3±2.1 pg/ml; Δrecovery 0.8±1.5 pg/ml) and insulin linke growth factor 1 (IGF-1; Δfatigue -56±28 ng/ml; Δrecovery 53±29 ng/ml). For urea and IGF-1 95% confidence intervals for days 1 and 11 did not overlap with day 8. With strength and high-intensity interval training, respectively, fatigue-dependent courses and separated 95% confidence intervals were present for CK (strength: Δfatigue 582±649 U/l; Δrecovery -618±419 U/l; HIIT: Δfatigue 863±952 U/l; Δrecovery -741±842 U/l) only. These results indicate that, within a comprehensive panel of blood-borne markers, changes in fatigue are most accurately reflected by urea and IGF-1 for cycling and by CK

  3. Training leading to repetition failure enhances bench press strength gains in elite junior athletes.

    PubMed

    Drinkwater, Eric J; Lawton, Trent W; Lindsell, Rod P; Pyne, David B; Hunt, Patrick H; McKenna, Michael J

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of training leading to repetition failure in the performance of 2 different tests: 6 repetition maximum (6RM) bench press strength and 40-kg bench throw power in elite junior athletes. Subjects were 26 elite junior male basketball players (n = 12; age = 18.6 +/- 0.3 years; height = 202.0 +/- 11.6 cm; mass = 97.0 +/- 12.9 kg; mean +/- SD) and soccer players (n = 14; age = 17.4 +/- 0.5 years; height = 179.0 +/- 7.0 cm; mass = 75.0 +/- 7.1 kg) with a history of greater than 6 months' strength training. Subjects were initially tested twice for 6RM bench press mass and 40-kg Smith machine bench throw power output (in watts) to establish retest reliability. Subjects then undertook bench press training with 3 sessions per week for 6 weeks, using equal volume programs (24 repetitions x 80-105% 6RM in 13 minutes 20 seconds). Subjects were assigned to one of two experimental groups designed either to elicit repetition failure with 4 sets of 6 repetitions every 260 seconds (RF(4 x 6)) or allow all repetitions to be completed with 8 sets of 3 repetitions every 113 seconds (NF(8 x 3)). The RF(4 x 6) treatment elicited substantial increases in strength (7.3 +/- 2.4 kg, +9.5%, p < 0.001) and power (40.8 +/- 24.1 W, +10.6%, p < 0.001), while the NF(8 x 3) group elicited 3.6 +/- 3.0 kg (+5.0%, p < 0.005) and 25 +/- 19.0 W increases (+6.8%, p < 0.001). The improvements in the RF(4 x 6) group were greater than those in the repetition rest group for both strength (p < 0.005) and power (p < 0.05). Bench press training that leads to repetition failure induces greater strength gains than nonfailure training in the bench press exercise for elite junior team sport athletes.

  4. Blood-Borne Markers of Fatigue in Competitive Athletes - Results from Simulated Training Camps.

    PubMed

    Hecksteden, Anne; Skorski, Sabrina; Schwindling, Sascha; Hammes, Daniel; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Assessing current fatigue of athletes to fine-tune training prescriptions is a critical task in competitive sports. Blood-borne surrogate markers are widely used despite the scarcity of validation trials with representative subjects and interventions. Moreover, differences between training modes and disciplines (e.g. due to differences in eccentric force production or calorie turnover) have rarely been studied within a consistent design. Therefore, we investigated blood-borne fatigue markers during and after discipline-specific simulated training camps. A comprehensive panel of blood-born indicators was measured in 73 competitive athletes (28 cyclists, 22 team sports, 23 strength) at 3 time-points: after a run-in resting phase (d 1), after a 6-day induction of fatigue (d 8) and following a subsequent 2-day recovery period (d 11). Venous blood samples were collected between 8 and 10 a.m. Courses of blood-borne indicators are considered as fatigue dependent if a significant deviation from baseline is present at day 8 (Δfatigue) which significantly regresses towards baseline until day 11 (Δrecovery). With cycling, a fatigue dependent course was observed for creatine kinase (CK; Δfatigue 54±84 U/l; Δrecovery -60±83 U/l), urea (Δfatigue 11±9 mg/dl; Δrecovery -10±10 mg/dl), free testosterone (Δfatigue -1.3±2.1 pg/ml; Δrecovery 0.8±1.5 pg/ml) and insulin linke growth factor 1 (IGF-1; Δfatigue -56±28 ng/ml; Δrecovery 53±29 ng/ml). For urea and IGF-1 95% confidence intervals for days 1 and 11 did not overlap with day 8. With strength and high-intensity interval training, respectively, fatigue-dependent courses and separated 95% confidence intervals were present for CK (strength: Δfatigue 582±649 U/l; Δrecovery -618±419 U/l; HIIT: Δfatigue 863±952 U/l; Δrecovery -741±842 U/l) only. These results indicate that, within a comprehensive panel of blood-borne markers, changes in fatigue are most accurately reflected by urea and IGF-1 for cycling and by CK

  5. Performance changes during a weeklong high-altitude alpine ski-racing training camp in lowlander young athletes.

    PubMed

    Hydren, Jay R; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A; Szivak, Tunde K; Hooper, David R; Denegar, Craig R; Maresh, Carl M

    2013-04-01

    Thousands of youth athletes travel to high altitude to participate in lift-access alpine sports. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of acute high-altitude exposure on balance, choice reaction time, power, quickness, flexibility, strength endurance, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in youth lowlander athletes during a weeklong preseason training camp in Summit County, CO, USA. Eleven youth ski racers (4 boys and 7 girls; age, 13.7 ± 0.5 years; height, 157.2 ± 12.6 cm; weight, 52.4 ± 6.8 kg) with 7.7 ± 2.2 skiing years of experience participated in baseline testing at 160 m one week before the camp and a set of daily tests in the morning and afternoon at 2,828 m and skied between 3,328 and 3,802 m during a 6-day camp. Balance and choice reaction time tests were stagnant or improved slightly during the first 3 days and then improved on days 4 and 6. Vertical jump, flexibility, T-agility test, and push-ups in 1 minute improved on day 6. The number of sit-ups in 1 minute did not improve, and scores on the multistage fitness test decreased 20.34%. There was no effect of Lake Louise acute mountain sickness (AMS) questionnaire scores on performance variables measured. Athletes sojourning to high altitude for ski camps can train on immediate ascent but should slowly increase training volume over the first 3 days. Athletes should expect improvements in balance and reaction time 3-6 days into acclimatization. Coaches and athletes should expect about 20% of youth lowlander athletes to have signs and symptoms of AMS during the first 3 days of altitude exposure for alpine lift access sports at altitudes of up to 3,800 m.

  6. Charlie's Words: Supporting Gifted Male Athletes Using Athletes' Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A gifted student-athlete, Charlie Bloomfield is introduced to athlete's journals by his coaches at Burke Mountain Academy (Vermont), an elite American ski school. Used by Olympians and professionals alike, journals provide athletes with ways to organize and reflect on training and competitions. Athlete's journals help gifted male athletes address…

  7. Hormonal and Physiological Adaptations to High-Intensity Interval Training in Professional Male Canoe Polo Athletes.

    PubMed

    Sheykhlouvand, Mohsen; Khalili, Erfan; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid; Gharaat, Mohammadali

    2016-03-01

    This study compared the effects of 2 different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) programs in professional male canoe polo athletes. Responses of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), peak and mean anaerobic power output (PPO and MPO), blood volume, and hormonal adaptations to HIIT were examined. Male athletes (n = 21, age: 24 ± 3 years; height: 181 ± 4 cm; mass: 85 ± 6 kg; and body fat: 12.9 ± 2.7%) were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups (N = 7): (a) (G1) interval paddling with variable volume (6, 7, 8, 9, 9, 9, 8, 7, 6 repetitions per session from first to ninth session, respectively) × 60 second at lowest velocity that elicited VO2peak (vVO2peak), 1:3 work to recovery ratio; (b) (G2) interval paddling with variable intensity (6 × 60 second at 100, 110, 120, 130, 130, 130, 120, 110, 100% vVO2peak from first to ninth session, respectively, 1:3 work to recovery); and (c) (GCON) the control group performed three 60 minutes paddling sessions (75% vVO2peak) per week for 3 weeks. High-intensity interval training resulted in significant (except as shown) increases compared with pretest, in VO2peak (G1 = +8.8% and G2 = +8.5%), heart rate at VT (b·min) (G1 = +9.7% and G2 = +5.9%) and (%maximum) (G1 = +6.9%; p = 0.29 and G2 = +6.5%), PPO (G1 = +9.7% and G2 = +12.2%), MPO (G1 = +11.1%; p = 0.29 and G2 = +16.2%), total testosterone (G1 = +29.4% and G2 = +16.7%), total testosterone/cortisol ratio (G1 = +40.9% and G2 = +28.1%), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (G1 = +1.7% and G2 = +1.3%). No significant changes were found in GCON. High-intensity interval paddling may improve both aerobic and anaerobic performances in professional male canoe polo athletes under the conditions of this study.

  8. Anthropometric Characteristics and Performance Capabilities of Highly Trained Motocross Athletes Compared With Physically Active Men.

    PubMed

    Bach, Christopher W; Brown, Ann F; Kinsey, Amber W; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Motocross (MX) is a physically demanding sport with little research concerning the physiological characteristics of these athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the anthropometric characteristics and performance capabilities of highly trained MX athletes (n = 20; 19 ± 1.6 years) compared with age-matched physically active (PA) men (n = 22; 22 ± 2.9 years). Testing was performed on 2 occasions. The initial visit consisted of a personality assessment in addition to the following (in order): anthropometrics, body composition, anaerobic power/fatigue, isokinetic/isometric strength and fatigue, and flexibility. The second visit consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), handgrip strength, maximum push-ups in 1 minute, extended arm hang time to exhaustion (TTE), and 90° weighted wall-sit tests. All anthropometric and performance data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests to compare group means. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Data are reported as mean ± SD. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric or body composition measurements except android fat (MX: 11.7 ± 1.9% vs. PA: 16.4 ± 8.4%, p = 0.04) and biceps circumference (MX: 30.1 ± 2.0 vs. PA: 33.1 ± 3.2 cm, p = 0.001). MX had significantly higher absolute and relative mean anaerobic power (747.3 ± 63.7 vs. 679.7 ± 93.5 W, p = 0.009 and 10.0 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 1.3 W·kg, p = 0.002, respectively), relative anaerobic peak power (12.7 ± 0.8 vs. 11.9 ± 1.4 W·kg, p = 0.029), TTE (550.1 ± 70.6 vs. 470.1 ± 93.2 seconds, p = 0.004), and extended arm hang duration (113.3 ± 44.9 vs. 73.4 ± 25.3 seconds, p = 0.001). These results suggest highly trained MX athletes possess certain physiological adaptations that likely result from sport-specific demands compared with PA. PMID:25992659

  9. Anthropometric Characteristics and Performance Capabilities of Highly Trained Motocross Athletes Compared With Physically Active Men.

    PubMed

    Bach, Christopher W; Brown, Ann F; Kinsey, Amber W; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Motocross (MX) is a physically demanding sport with little research concerning the physiological characteristics of these athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the anthropometric characteristics and performance capabilities of highly trained MX athletes (n = 20; 19 ± 1.6 years) compared with age-matched physically active (PA) men (n = 22; 22 ± 2.9 years). Testing was performed on 2 occasions. The initial visit consisted of a personality assessment in addition to the following (in order): anthropometrics, body composition, anaerobic power/fatigue, isokinetic/isometric strength and fatigue, and flexibility. The second visit consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), handgrip strength, maximum push-ups in 1 minute, extended arm hang time to exhaustion (TTE), and 90° weighted wall-sit tests. All anthropometric and performance data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests to compare group means. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Data are reported as mean ± SD. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric or body composition measurements except android fat (MX: 11.7 ± 1.9% vs. PA: 16.4 ± 8.4%, p = 0.04) and biceps circumference (MX: 30.1 ± 2.0 vs. PA: 33.1 ± 3.2 cm, p = 0.001). MX had significantly higher absolute and relative mean anaerobic power (747.3 ± 63.7 vs. 679.7 ± 93.5 W, p = 0.009 and 10.0 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 1.3 W·kg, p = 0.002, respectively), relative anaerobic peak power (12.7 ± 0.8 vs. 11.9 ± 1.4 W·kg, p = 0.029), TTE (550.1 ± 70.6 vs. 470.1 ± 93.2 seconds, p = 0.004), and extended arm hang duration (113.3 ± 44.9 vs. 73.4 ± 25.3 seconds, p = 0.001). These results suggest highly trained MX athletes possess certain physiological adaptations that likely result from sport-specific demands compared with PA.

  10. Alterations in speed of squat movement and the use of accommodated resistance among college athletes training for power.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Matthew R; Kenn, Joseph G; Dermody, Bryan M

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of heavy/slow movements and variable resistance training on peak power and strength development. Forty-eight National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletes (age: 21.4 +/- 2.1 years, all men) were recruited for this 12-week training intervention study. Maximum strength and jumping power were assessed before and after the training program. Athletes were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 training groups: heavy resistance/slow movement (Slow), lighter resistance and fast movement (Fast), or fast movements with accommodated resistance (FACC). All training groups performed similar training programs comprising free weight resistance training with lower-body compound exercises. The only difference among the training interventions was the speed at which subjects performed the squat exercise and the use of bands (Slow group: 0.2-0.4 meters/second; Fast group: 0.6-0.8 meters/second; FACC group trained 0.6-0.8 meters/second with the addition of accommodated resistance in the form of large elastic bands). Post-test data revealed a significant difference between power improvements between the Slow and FACC groups (p = 0.02). Percent increases and effect sizes (ES) demonstrated a much greater treatment effect in the FACC group (17.8%, ES = 1.06) with the Fast group (11.0%, ES = 0.80) adapting more than the Slow group (4.8%, ES = 0.28). The FACC and Slow groups improved strength comparatively (FACC: 9.44%, ES = 1.10; Slow: 9.59%, ES = 1.08). The Fast group improved strength considerably less, 3.20% with an effect size of only 0.38. Variable resistance training with elastic bands appears to provide greater performance benefits with regard to peak force and peak power than heavy, slow resistance exercise. Sports conditioning professionals can utilize bands, and high-speed contractions, to increase power development.

  11. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. Methods A 10-week crossover, placebo controlled study was conducted. Eight trained male cyclists and two triathletes were randomly assigned to consume 75 g/d whole almonds (ALM) or isocaloric cookies (COK) with equal subject number. They consumed the assigned food for 4 wks and then the alternate food for another 4 wks. They underwent 3 performance tests including 125-min steady status exercise (SS) and 20-min time trial (TT) on an indoor stationary trainer at the start of the study (BL) and at the end of each intervention phase. Venous blood was collected in the morning prior to the performance test for biochemical measurements and finger blood during the test for glucose determination. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation, energy expenditure, and oxygen use were calculated using respiratory gas analysis. Results ALM increased cycling distance during TT by 1.7 km as compared BL (21.9 vs. 20.2 km, P = 0.053) and COK increased 0.6 km (20.8 vs. 20.2 km, P > 0.05). ALM, but not COK, led to higher CHO and lower fat oxidation and less oxygen consumption during TT than BL (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in heart rate among BL, ALM and COK. ALM maintained higher blood glucose level after TT than COK (P < 0.05). ALM had higher vitamin E and haemoglobin and lower serum free fatty acid (P < 0.05), slightly elevated serum arginine and nitric oxide and plasma insulin (P > 0.05) than BL, and a higher total antioxidant capacity than COK (P < 0.05). Conclusions Whole almonds improved cycling distance and the elements related to endurance performance more than isocaloric cookies in trained athletes as some nutrients in almonds may contribute to

  12. Effects of different resistance training volumes on strength and power in team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Naclerio, Fernando; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Perez-Bibao, Txomin; Kang, Jie; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Triplett, N T

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different volume of resistance training (RT) on maximum strength and average power in college team sport athletes with no previous RT experience. Thirty-two subjects (20 men and 12 women, age = 23.1 ± 1.57 years) were randomly divided into 4 groups: low volume (LV; n = 8), 1 set per exercise and 3 sets per muscle group; moderate volume (MV; n = 8), 2 sets per exercise and 6 sets per muscle group; high volume (HV; n = 8), 3 sets per exercise and 9 sets per muscle group; and a non-RT control group (n = 8). The 3 intervention groups were trained for 6 weeks thrice weekly after a nonperiodized RT program differentiated only by the volume. Before (T1) and after training (T2), 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal average power (AP) produced on the bench press (BP), upright row (UR), and squat (SQ) were assessed by progressive resistance tests. One repetition maximum-BP and 1RM-UR increased significantly in the 3 interventions groups (p < 0.05), whereas only the HV group significantly improved 1RM-SQ (p < 0.01). The MV and HV groups increased AP-BP (p < 0.05), whereas only the LV group improved AP-SQ (p < 0.01). Moderate effect sizes (ES; >0.20 < 0.60) were observed for the 1RM-BP and 1RM-UR in the 3 training groups. High-volume group showed the larger ES for 1RM-BP (0.45), 1RM-UR (0.60), and 1RM-SQ (0.47), whereas the LV produced the higher ES for SQ-AP (0.53). During the initial adaptation period, a HV RT program seems to be a better strategy for improving strength, whereas during the season, an LV RT could be a reasonable option for maintaining strength and enhancing lower-body AP in team sport athletes. PMID:23044934

  13. Lifelong Learning Policy and Practice: The Impact of Accreditation on Education and Training Provision for Adult Women in the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coats, Maggie

    In the United Kingdom, these two perspectives on lifelong learning sit uneasily together: emphasis on adults in employment and a focus on diversity and widening participation in adult education. A recent emphasis on accreditation with implications for funding has affected diversity and participation objectives because involving assessment,…

  14. PMN cell counts and phagocytic activity of highly trained athletes depend on training period.

    PubMed

    Hack, V; Strobel, G; Weiss, M; Weicker, H

    1994-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) cell counts and phagocytic activity determined by latex ingestion and superoxide anion production are influenced by different training periods. We investigated long-distance runners before and up to 24 h after a graded exercise test to exhaustion during moderate training (MT) and intense training (IT) and compared them with untrained (control) subjects. Cell counts and phagocytic activity at rest and after exercise did not differ significantly between MT and control. On the contrary, IT showed a significant (P < or = 0.05) decrease in PMN cell count at rest (2.55 +/- 0.3 cells/nl) compared with MT (3.63 +/- 0.2 cells/nl) and control (3.41 +/- 0.8 cells/nl). Furthermore, phagocytic activity was significantly reduced (P < or = 0.05) in IT at rest and after exercise compared with MT and control. A strong inverse correlation (r = -0.75; P < or = 0.01) between epinephrine and superoxide anion production was found. These results provide evidence that the phagocytic activity depends on the training period and indicate impaired PMN functions during IT, which might lead to increased susceptibility to infection.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus and Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in and Around Therapeutic Whirlpools in College Athletic Training Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Kahanov, Leamor; Kim, Young Kyun; Eberman, Lindsey; Dannelly, Kathleen; Kaur, Haninder; Ramalinga, A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infection in the nonhospitalized community. Care of the athletes in athletic training rooms is specifically designed with equipment tailored to the health care needs of the athletes, yet recent studies indicate that CA-MRSA is still prevalent in athletic facilities and that cleaning methods may not be optimal. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and CA-MRSA in and around whirlpools in the athletic training room. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Patients or Other Participants: Student-athletes (n = 109) consisting of 46 men (42%) and 63 women (58%) representing 6 sports. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presence of MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpool structures relative to sport and number of athletes using the whirlpools. Results: We identified Staphylococcus aureus in 22% (n = 52/240) of the samples and MRSA in 0.8% (n = 2/240). A statistically significant difference existed between the number of athletes using the whirlpool and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpools (F2,238 = 2.445, P = .007). However, Staphylococcus aureus was identified regardless of whether multiple athletes used a whirlpool or no athletes used a whirlpool. We did not identify a relationship between the number of athletes who used a whirlpool and Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA density (P = .134). Conclusions: Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were identified in and around the whirlpools. Transmission of the bacteria can be reduced by following the cleaning and disinfecting protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Athletic trainers should use disinfectants registered by the Environmental Protection Agency to sanitize all whirlpools between uses. PMID:25710853

  16. A group-enhanced sprint interval training program for amateur athletes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Luc J; Anderson, Scott H; Schmale, Matthew S; Hallworth, Jillian R; Hazell, Tom J

    2016-08-01

    Sprint interval training (SIT) can elicit improvements in aerobic and anaerobic capacity. While variations in SIT protocols have been investigated, the influence of social processes cannot be overlooked. As research supports the use of groups to influence individual cognitions and behaviours, the current project assessed the effectiveness of a group-based intervention with participants conducting SIT. Specifically, 53 amateur athletes (age, 21.9 ± 2.9 years; 53% females) took part in a 4-week training program (3 sessions per week, 30-s "all-out" efforts with 4 min active recovery, repeated 4-6 times per session), and were assigned to "true group", aggregate, or individual conditions. Results indicated no significant differences between groups for the physiological measures. With regards to training improvements from baseline for all participants- regardless of condition - significant main effects for time were identified for maximal oxygen uptake (2.5-2.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), p < 0.001, η(2) = 0.03), time-trial performance (14-32 s, p < 0.001, η(2) = 0.37), and anaerobic power (1.1-1.7 k·h(-1), p < 0.001, η(2) = 0.66). With regards to the psychological measures, significant main effects between groups were found for motivation (p = 0.033, η(2) = 0.13), task self-efficacy (p = 0.018, η(2) = 0.15), and scheduling self-efficacy (p = 0.003, η(2) = 0.22). The true group experienced greater improvements in motivation than the individual condition, but the aggregate and individual conditions demonstrated greater increases in task and scheduling self-efficacy. Though the SIT paradigm employed induced training improvements similar to previous work, the group intervention was not able to further these improvements. PMID:27377136

  17. Plasma levels of trace elements and exercise induced stress hormones in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Soria, Marisol; González-Haro, Carlos; Ansón, Miguel; López-Colón, José L; Escanero, Jesús F

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the variation and relationship of several trace elements, metabolic substrates and stress hormones activated by exercise during incremental exercise. Seventeen well-trained endurance athletes performed a cycle ergometer test: after a warm-up of 10 min at 2.0 W kg(-1), the workload was increased by 0.5 W kg(-1) every 10 min until exhaustion. Prior diet, activity patterns, and levels of exercise training were controlled, and tests timed to minimize variations due to the circadian rhythm. Oxygen uptake, blood lactate concentration, plasma ions (Zn, Se, Mn and Co), serum glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and several hormones were measured at rest, at the end of each stage and 3, 5 and 7 min post-exercise. Urine specific gravity was measured before and after the test, and participants drank water ad libitum. Significant differences were found in plasma Zn and Se levels as a function of exercise intensity. Zn was significantly correlated with epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.884, P < 0.01; r = 0.871, P < 0.01; and r = 0.808, P = 0.05); and Se showed significant positive correlations whit epinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.743, P < 0.05; and r = 0.776, P < 0.05). Neither Zn nor Se levels were associated with insulin or glucagon, and neither Mn nor Co levels were associated with any of the hormones or substrate metabolites studied. Further, while Zn levels were found to be associated only with lactate, plasma Se was significantly correlated with lactate and glucose (respectively for Zn: r = 0.891, P < 0.01; and for Se: r = 0.743, P < 0.05; r = 0.831, P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggest that there is a positive correlation between the increases in plasma Zn or Se and stress hormones variations induced by exercise along different submaximal intensities in well-hydrated well-trained endurance athletes. PMID:26004901

  18. Plasma levels of trace elements and exercise induced stress hormones in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Soria, Marisol; González-Haro, Carlos; Ansón, Miguel; López-Colón, José L; Escanero, Jesús F

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the variation and relationship of several trace elements, metabolic substrates and stress hormones activated by exercise during incremental exercise. Seventeen well-trained endurance athletes performed a cycle ergometer test: after a warm-up of 10 min at 2.0 W kg(-1), the workload was increased by 0.5 W kg(-1) every 10 min until exhaustion. Prior diet, activity patterns, and levels of exercise training were controlled, and tests timed to minimize variations due to the circadian rhythm. Oxygen uptake, blood lactate concentration, plasma ions (Zn, Se, Mn and Co), serum glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and several hormones were measured at rest, at the end of each stage and 3, 5 and 7 min post-exercise. Urine specific gravity was measured before and after the test, and participants drank water ad libitum. Significant differences were found in plasma Zn and Se levels as a function of exercise intensity. Zn was significantly correlated with epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.884, P < 0.01; r = 0.871, P < 0.01; and r = 0.808, P = 0.05); and Se showed significant positive correlations whit epinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.743, P < 0.05; and r = 0.776, P < 0.05). Neither Zn nor Se levels were associated with insulin or glucagon, and neither Mn nor Co levels were associated with any of the hormones or substrate metabolites studied. Further, while Zn levels were found to be associated only with lactate, plasma Se was significantly correlated with lactate and glucose (respectively for Zn: r = 0.891, P < 0.01; and for Se: r = 0.743, P < 0.05; r = 0.831, P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggest that there is a positive correlation between the increases in plasma Zn or Se and stress hormones variations induced by exercise along different submaximal intensities in well-hydrated well-trained endurance athletes.

  19. Sport-Specific Training Targeting the Proximal Segments and Throwing Velocity in Collegiate Throwing Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Thomas; Uhl, Timothy L.; Howell, Dana; Hewett, Timothy E.; Viele, Kert; Mattacola, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    Context The ability to generate, absorb, and transmit forces through the proximal segments of the pelvis, spine, and trunk has been proposed to influence sport performance, yet traditional training techniques targeting the proximal segments have had limited success improving sport-specific performance. Objective To investigate the effects of a traditional endurance-training program and a sport-specific power-training program targeting the muscles that support the proximal segments and throwing velocity. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting University research laboratory and gymnasium. Patients or Other Participants A total of 46 (age = 20 ± 1.3 years, height = 175.7 ± 8.7 cm) healthy National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III female softball (n = 17) and male baseball (n = 29) players. Intervention(s) Blocked stratification for sex and position was used to randomly assign participants to 1 of 2 training groups for 7 weeks: a traditional endurance-training group (ET group; n = 21) or a power-stability–training group (PS group; n = 25). Mean Outcome Measure(s) The change score in peak throwing velocity (km/h) normalized for body weight (BW; kilograms) and change score in tests that challenge the muscles of the proximal segments normalized for BW (kilograms). We used 2-tailed independent-samples t tests to compare differences between the change scores. Results The peak throwing velocity (ET group = 0.01 ± 0.1 km/h/kg of BW, PS group = 0.08 ± 0.03 km/h/kg of BW; P < .001) and muscle power outputs for the chop (ET group = 0.22 ± 0.91 W/kg of BW, PS group = 1.3 ± 0.91 W/kg of BW; P < .001) and lift (ET group = 0.59 ± 0.67 W/kg of BW, PS group = 1.4 ± 0.87 W/kg of BW; P < .001) tests were higher at postintervention in the PT than in the ET group. Conclusions An improvement in throwing velocity occurred simultaneously with measures of muscular endurance and power after a sport-specific training regimen targeting the proximal segments

  20. The Effects of Music on High-intensity Short-term Exercise in Well Trained Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Jarraya, Mohamed; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Hammouda, Omar; Chamari, Karim; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances during the 30-s Wingate test in highly trained athletes. Methods Twelve young male athletes (20.6±1.8 yrs, 177±4.4 cm and 72.3±5.3 kg) underwent two Wingate tests in separate sessions with a recovery period of 48 h in-between, either after a 10 min of warm-up with (MWU) or without (NMWU) music. High tempo music (>120 to 140bpm) was selected for the study. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded after the warm-up (for HR = average of warm-up) and immediately after the Wingate test. Results HR, RPE and the fatigue index during the Wingate test are not affected by the incorporation of music during warm-up. However, power output (Ppeak and Pmean) was significantly higher after MWU than NMWU (P<0.05). The relative increases were 4.1 ± 3.6 and 4.0 ± 3.7 W·kg−1 for Ppeak and Pmean respectively. These findings demonstrated the beneficial effect of music during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances. Conclusions As it's a legal method and an additional aid, music may be used during warm-up before performing activities requiring powerful lower limbs’ muscles contractions during short-term supramaximal exercises. PMID:23342221

  1. Short-term Effects of a Proprioceptive Training Session with Unstable Platforms on the Monopodal Stabilometry of Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Franco, Natalia; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Martínez-López, Emilio J

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the short-term effects of a proprioceptive session on the monopodal stabilometry of athletes. [Subjects] Thirty-seven athletes were divided into a control group (n=17) and an experimental group (n=20). [Methods] Both groups performed a conventional warm-up, after which a 25-minute proprioceptive session on ustable platforms was carried out only by the experimental group. Before the training session, all athletes carried out a single-leg stabilometry test which was repeated just after training, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 6 hours and 24 hours later. [Results] Analysis of covariance (α=0.05) revealed that the experimental group had lower values than the control group in length and velocity of center of pressure (CoP) of left-monopodal stance and in velocity of CoP of right-monopodal stance in post-training measurements. Also, the experimental group had values closer to zero for the CoP position in the mediolateral and anteroposterior directions of left-monopodal stance (Xmeanl and Ymeanl) and the anteroposterior direction in on right-monopodal stance (Ymeanr) in post-training measurements. Within-group analysis of Xmeanl and Ymeanl, length and velocity of CoP in right-monopodal stance showed continuous fluctuations of values between sequential measurements in the control group. [Conclusion] Proprioceptive training on unstable platfoms after a warm-up stabilizes the position of CoP in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions and decreases CoP movements in short-term monopodal stability of athletes. PMID:24567674

  2. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p < 0.05). This was accompanied by increased muscle fiber cross sectional area of both fiber type I (13 ± 7%) and fiber type II (31 ± 20%) in m. vastus lateralis (p < 0.05), with no change in capillary density in m. vastus lateralis or the stiffness of the patellar tendon. Neither E+S nor E changed running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  3. Ischemic preconditioning increases muscle perfusion, oxygen uptake, and force in strength-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Paradis-Deschênes, Pénélope; Joanisse, Denis R; Billaut, François

    2016-09-01

    Muscle ischemia and reperfusion induced by ischemic preconditioning (IPC) can improve performance in various activities. However, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of IPC on muscle hemodynamics and oxygen (O2) uptake during repeated maximal contractions. In a cross-over, randomized, single-blind study, 10 strength-trained men performed 5 sets of 5 maximal voluntary knee extensions of the right leg on an isokinetic dynamometer, preceded by either IPC of the right lower limb (3×5-min compression/5-min reperfusion cycles at 200 mm Hg) or sham (20 mm Hg). Changes in deoxyhemoglobin, expressed as a percentage of arterial occlusion, and total hemoglobin ([THb]) concentrations of the vastus lateralis muscle were monitored continuously by near-infrared spectroscopy. Differences between IPC and sham were analyzed using Cohen's effect size (ES) ± 90% confidence limits, and magnitude-based inferences. Compared with sham, IPC likely increased muscle blood volume at rest (↑[THb], 46.5%; ES, 0.56; 90% confidence limits for ES, -0.21, 1.32). During exercise, peak force was almost certainly higher (11.8%; ES, 0.37; 0.27, 0.47), average force was very likely higher (12.6%; ES, 0.47; 0.29, 0.66), and average muscle O2 uptake was possibly increased (15.8%; ES, 0.36; -0.07, 0.79) after IPC. In the recovery periods between contractions, IPC also increased blood volume after sets 1 (23.6%; ES, 0.30; -0.05, 0.65) and 5 (25.1%; ES, 0.32; 0.09, 0.55). Three cycles of IPC immediately increased muscle perfusion and O2 uptake, conducive to higher repeated force capacity in strength-trained athletes. This maneuver therefore appears relevant to enhancing exercise training stimulus. PMID:27574913

  4. Exercise training in athletes with bicuspid aortic valve does not result in increased dimensions and impaired performance of the left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Stefani, Laura; Galanti, Giorgio; Innocenti, Gabriele; Mercuri, Roberto; Maffulli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Background. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is one of the most common congenital heart disease (0.9%-2%) and is frequently found in the athletes and in the general population. BAV can lead to aortic valve dysfunction and to a progressive aortic dilatation. Trained BAV athletes exhibit a progressive enlargement of the left ventricle (LV) compared to athletes with normal aortic valve morphology. The present study investigates the possible relationship between different aortic valve morphology and LV dimensions. Methods. In the period from 2000 to 2011, we investigated a total of 292 BAV subjects, divided into three different groups (210 athletes, 59 sedentaries, and 23 ex-athletes). A 2D echocardiogram exam to classify BAV morphology and measure the standard LV systo-diastolic parameters was performed. The study was conducted as a 5-year follow-up echocardiographic longitudinal and as cross-sectional study. Results. Typical BAV was more frequent in all three groups (68% athletes, 67% sedentaries, and 63% ex-athletes) than atypical. In BAV athletes, the typical form was found in 51% (107/210) of soccer players, 10% (21/210) of basketball players, 10% track and field athletics (20/210), 8% (17/210) of cyclists, 6% (13/210) swimmers, and 15% (32/210) of rugby players and others sport. Despite a progressive enlargement of the LV (P < 0.001) observed during the follow-up study, no statistical differences of the LV morphology and function were evident among the diverse BAV patterns either in sedentary subjects or in athletes. Conclusion. In a large population of trained BAV athletes, with different prevalence of typical and atypical BAV type, there is a progressive nonstatistically significant enlargement of the LV. In any case, the dimensions of the LV remained within normal range. The metabolic requirements of the diverse sport examined in the present investigations do not seem to produce any negative impact in BAV athletes.

  5. The effects of different speed training protocols on sprint acceleration kinematics and muscle strength and power in field sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Schultz, Adrian B; Knight, Timothy J; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K

    2012-06-01

    A variety of resistance training interventions are used to improve field sport acceleration (e.g., free sprinting, weights, plyometrics, resisted sprinting). The effects these protocols have on acceleration performance and components of sprint technique have not been clearly defined in the literature. This study assessed 4 common protocols (free sprint training [FST], weight training [WT], plyometric training [PT], and resisted sprint training [RST]) for changes in acceleration kinematics, power, and strength in field sport athletes. Thirty-five men were divided into 4 groups (FST: n = 9; WT: n = 8; PT: n = 9; RST: n = 9) matched for 10-m velocity. Training involved two 60-minute sessions per week for 6 weeks. After the interventions, paired-sample t-tests identified significant (p ≤ 0.05) within-group changes. All the groups increased the 0- to 5-m and 0- to 10-m velocity by 9-10%. The WT and PT groups increased the 5- to 10-m velocity by approximately 10%. All the groups increased step length for all distance intervals. The FST group decreased 0- to 5-m flight time and step frequency in all intervals and increased 0- to 5-m and 0- to 10-m contact time. Power and strength adaptations were protocol specific. The FST group improved horizontal power as measured by a 5-bound test. The FST, PT, and RST groups all improved reactive strength index derived from a 40-cm drop jump, indicating enhanced muscle stretch-shortening capacity during rebound from impacts. The WT group increased absolute and relative strength measured by a 3-repetition maximum squat by approximately 15%. Step length was the major limiting sprint performance factor for the athletes in this study. Correctly administered, each training protocol can be effective in improving acceleration. To increase step length and improve acceleration, field sport athletes should develop specific horizontal and reactive power. PMID:21912294

  6. Effect of compensatory acceleration training in combination with accommodating resistance on upper body strength in collegiate athletes

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Margaret T

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the impact of inclusion of a band or chain compensatory acceleration training (CAT), in a 5-week training phase, on maximal upper body strength during a 14-week off-season strength and conditioning program for collegiate male athletes. Patients and methods Twenty-four National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) collegiate baseball players, who were familiar with the current strength and conditioning program and had a minimum of 1 year of formal collegiate strength and conditioning experience, participated in this off-season training study. None of the men had participated in CAT before. Subjects were matched following a maximal effort (1-repetition maximum [1-RM]) bench press test in week 1, then were randomly assigned into a band-based CAT group or a chain-based CAT group and participated in a 5-week training phase that included bench pressing twice per week. Upper body strength was measured by 1-RM bench press again at week 6. A 2 × 2 mixed factorial (method × time) analysis of variance was calculated to compare differences across groups. The alpha level was set at P<0.05. Results No difference (F1,22=0.04, P=0.84) existed between the band-based CAT and chain-based CAT groups. A significant difference was observed between pre- and posttests of 1-RM bench (F1,22=88.46, P=0.001). Conclusion A 5-week band CAT or chain CAT training program used in conjunction with an off-season strength and conditioning program can increase maximal upper body strength in collegiate baseball athletes. Using band CAT and/or chain CAT as a training modality in the off-season will vary the training stimulus from the traditional and likely help to maintain the athlete’s interest. PMID:25177154

  7. A Commentary on Real-Time Biofeedback to Augment Neuromuscular Training for ACL Injury Prevention in Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, Adam W.; Kushner, Adam M.; Groene, John; Williams, Christopher; Riley, Michael A.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injury and the associated long-term sequelae, such as immediate reductions in physical inactivity, increased adiposity and increased risk of osteoarthritis throughout adulthood, are a major health concern for adolescent athletes. Current interventions for injury prevention may have limited effectiveness, are susceptible to issues of compliance and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption. Neuromuscular training (NMT) is a well-established training intervention introduced to affect change in modifiable biomechanical risk factors to reduce the risk of injury in these athletes. Despite moderate success, neuromuscular training is still limited by its reliance on subjective feedback and after the fact (i.e., offline) objective feedback techniques. The purpose of this commentary is to discuss technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement NMT. Electromyography, force plates, motion sensors, and camera-based motion capture systems are innovative tools that may have realistic feasibility for integration as biofeedback into NMT programs to improve training outcomes. Improved functional deficit identification and corrective analysis may further improve and optimize athletic performance, and decrease the risk of sports-related injury during sport performance. Key points Specific, targeted interventions that isolate injury risk factors and can help correct modifiable neuromuscular deficits are essential. Current training interventions for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention have only demonstrated limited effectiveness and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption to reduce ACL injury rates. The paper provides an overview of innovative strategies and technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement neuromuscular training (NMT

  8. The effects of different speed training protocols on sprint acceleration kinematics and muscle strength and power in field sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Schultz, Adrian B; Knight, Timothy J; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K

    2012-06-01

    A variety of resistance training interventions are used to improve field sport acceleration (e.g., free sprinting, weights, plyometrics, resisted sprinting). The effects these protocols have on acceleration performance and components of sprint technique have not been clearly defined in the literature. This study assessed 4 common protocols (free sprint training [FST], weight training [WT], plyometric training [PT], and resisted sprint training [RST]) for changes in acceleration kinematics, power, and strength in field sport athletes. Thirty-five men were divided into 4 groups (FST: n = 9; WT: n = 8; PT: n = 9; RST: n = 9) matched for 10-m velocity. Training involved two 60-minute sessions per week for 6 weeks. After the interventions, paired-sample t-tests identified significant (p ≤ 0.05) within-group changes. All the groups increased the 0- to 5-m and 0- to 10-m velocity by 9-10%. The WT and PT groups increased the 5- to 10-m velocity by approximately 10%. All the groups increased step length for all distance intervals. The FST group decreased 0- to 5-m flight time and step frequency in all intervals and increased 0- to 5-m and 0- to 10-m contact time. Power and strength adaptations were protocol specific. The FST group improved horizontal power as measured by a 5-bound test. The FST, PT, and RST groups all improved reactive strength index derived from a 40-cm drop jump, indicating enhanced muscle stretch-shortening capacity during rebound from impacts. The WT group increased absolute and relative strength measured by a 3-repetition maximum squat by approximately 15%. Step length was the major limiting sprint performance factor for the athletes in this study. Correctly administered, each training protocol can be effective in improving acceleration. To increase step length and improve acceleration, field sport athletes should develop specific horizontal and reactive power.

  9. A Commentary on Real-Time Biofeedback to Augment Neuromuscular Training for ACL Injury Prevention in Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Adam W; Kushner, Adam M; Groene, John; Williams, Christopher; Riley, Michael A; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-03-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injury and the associated long-term sequelae, such as immediate reductions in physical inactivity, increased adiposity and increased risk of osteoarthritis throughout adulthood, are a major health concern for adolescent athletes. Current interventions for injury prevention may have limited effectiveness, are susceptible to issues of compliance and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption. Neuromuscular training (NMT) is a well-established training intervention introduced to affect change in modifiable biomechanical risk factors to reduce the risk of injury in these athletes. Despite moderate success, neuromuscular training is still limited by its reliance on subjective feedback and after the fact (i.e., offline) objective feedback techniques. The purpose of this commentary is to discuss technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement NMT. Electromyography, force plates, motion sensors, and camera-based motion capture systems are innovative tools that may have realistic feasibility for integration as biofeedback into NMT programs to improve training outcomes. Improved functional deficit identification and corrective analysis may further improve and optimize athletic performance, and decrease the risk of sports-related injury during sport performance. Key pointsSpecific, targeted interventions that isolate injury risk factors and can help correct modifiable neuromuscular deficits are essential.Current training interventions for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention have only demonstrated limited effectiveness and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption to reduce ACL injury rates.The paper provides an overview of innovative strategies and technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement neuromuscular training (NMT) including

  10. The effect of maximal exercise on the activity of neutrophil granulocytes in highly trained athletes in a moderate training period.

    PubMed

    Hack, V; Strobel, G; Rau, J P; Weicker, H

    1992-01-01

    Leucocyte cell counts and the phagocytic and chemotactic activities of neutrophil granulocytes were investigated in highly endurance-trained long-distance runners (n = 10) and triathletes (n = 10) during a moderate training period and compared with untrained subjects (n = 10) before and up to 24 h after a graded exercise to exhaustion on a treadmill. After exercise a leucocytosis was noted with a significant increase in lymphocyte (P < or = 0.01) and neutrophil (P < or = 0.01) counts in all groups. In neutrophils the number of ingested inert latex beads was significantly increased (P < or = 0.01) from 0.21 (SD 0.09) to 0.45 (SD 0.22) in controls, from 0.20 (SD 0.12) to 0.56 (SD 0.16) in long-distance runners and from 0.25 (SD 0.08) to 1.03 (SD 0.42) particles per cell in triathletes 24 h after exercise, compared with resting values. The capability of neutrophils to produce microbicidal reactive oxygen species fell (P < or = 0.05) immediately after exercise in all subjects and then increased by 36 (SD 8)%, 31 (SD 6)% and 19 (SD 9)% in controls, runners and triathletes respectively up to 24 h after exercise (P < or = 0.05) compared with pre-start values. With respect to the absolute number of neutrophils, ingestion capacity, production of superoxide anions and chemotactic activity, no significant differences were found between athletes and control subjects at rest and after exercise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age

    PubMed Central

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor Manuel; Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT) on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity. PMID:26839621

  12. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor Manuel; Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel

    2015-12-22

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT) on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity. PMID:26839621

  13. Acute effect of a complex training protocol of back squats on 30-m sprint times of elite male military athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Álvaro Huerta; Ríos, Luis Chirosa; Barrilao, Rafael Guisado; Serrano, Pablo Cáceres

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the acute effect temporal of a complex training protocol on 30 meter sprint times. A secondary objective was to evaluate the fatigue indexes of military athletes. [Subjects and Methods] Seven military athletes were the subjects of this study. The variables measured were times in 30-meter sprint, and average power and peak power of squats. The intervention session with complex training consisted of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 30% 1RM + 4 repetitions at 60% 1RM + 3 repetitions of 30 meters with 120-second rests. For the statistical analysis repeated measures of ANOVA was used, and for the post hoc analysis, student’s t-test was used. [Results] Times in 30 meter sprints showed a significant reduction between the control set and the four experimental sets, but the average power and peak power of squats did not show significant changes. [Conclusion] The results of the study show the acute positive effect of complex training, over time, in 30-meter sprint by military athletes. This effect is due to the post activation potentiation of the lower limbs’ muscles in the 30 meters sprint. PMID:27134353

  14. Acute effect of a complex training protocol of back squats on 30-m sprint times of elite male military athletes.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Álvaro Huerta; Ríos, Luis Chirosa; Barrilao, Rafael Guisado; Serrano, Pablo Cáceres

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the acute effect temporal of a complex training protocol on 30 meter sprint times. A secondary objective was to evaluate the fatigue indexes of military athletes. [Subjects and Methods] Seven military athletes were the subjects of this study. The variables measured were times in 30-meter sprint, and average power and peak power of squats. The intervention session with complex training consisted of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 30% 1RM + 4 repetitions at 60% 1RM + 3 repetitions of 30 meters with 120-second rests. For the statistical analysis repeated measures of ANOVA was used, and for the post hoc analysis, student's t-test was used. [Results] Times in 30 meter sprints showed a significant reduction between the control set and the four experimental sets, but the average power and peak power of squats did not show significant changes. [Conclusion] The results of the study show the acute positive effect of complex training, over time, in 30-meter sprint by military athletes. This effect is due to the post activation potentiation of the lower limbs' muscles in the 30 meters sprint. PMID:27134353

  15. Educating Educators: Perceptions of Preceptors and Clinical Education Coordinators Regarding Training at a Division II Athletic Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomar, Renae Ellen; Mulvihill, Thalia

    2016-01-01

    Context: Clinical experiences give the student athletic trainer the opportunity to relate and apply didactic information to a real-world setting. During these experiences student athletic trainers are supervised by certified, licensed health care providers working in a variety of settings (e.g., hospital, physical therapy clinic, doctor's office).…

  16. Laboratory Accreditation in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Acuña, María Amelia; Collino, Cesar; Chiabrando, Gustavo A

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory accreditation is an essential element in the healthcare system since it contributes substantially to decision-making, in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the health status of the patients, as well as in the organization and management of public healthcare. Therefore, the clinical biochemistry professional works continuously to provide reliable results and contributes to the optimization of operational logistics and integration of a laboratory into the health system. ISO 15189 accreditation, ensures compliance of the laboratory to minimize instances of error through the planning, prevention, implementation, evaluation and improvement of its procedures, which provides skill areas that involve both training undergraduate and graduate professionals in clinical biochemistry. PMID:27683497

  17. Laboratory Accreditation in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Collino, Cesar; Chiabrando, Gustavo A.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory accreditation is an essential element in the healthcare system since it contributes substantially to decision-making, in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the health status of the patients, as well as in the organization and management of public healthcare. Therefore, the clinical biochemistry professional works continuously to provide reliable results and contributes to the optimization of operational logistics and integration of a laboratory into the health system. ISO 15189 accreditation, ensures compliance of the laboratory to minimize instances of error through the planning, prevention, implementation, evaluation and improvement of its procedures, which provides skill areas that involve both training undergraduate and graduate professionals in clinical biochemistry. PMID:27683497

  18. The effect of ephedra and caffeine on maximal strength and power in resistance-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew D; Cribb, Paul J; Cooke, Matthew B; Hayes, Alan

    2008-03-01

    Caffeine and ephedrine-related alkaloids recently have been removed from International Olympic Committee banned substances lists, whereas ephedrine itself is now permissible at urinary concentrations less than 10 mug.mL. The changes to the list may contribute to an increased use of caffeine and ephedra as ergogenic aids by athletes. Consequently, we sought to investigate the effects of ingesting caffeine (C) or a combination of ephedra and caffeine (C + E) on muscular strength and anaerobic power using a double-blind, crossover design. Forty-five minutes after ingesting a glucose placebo (P: 300 mg), C (300 mg) or C + E (300 mg + 60 mg), 9 resistance-trained male participants were tested for maximal strength by bench press [BP; 1 repetition maximum (1RM)] and latissimus dorsi pull down (LP; 1RM). Subjects also performed repeated repetitions at 80% of 1RM on both BP and LP until exhaustion. After this test, subjects underwent a 30-second Wingate test to determine peak anaerobic cycling power, mean power, and fatigue index. Although subjects reported increased alertness and enhanced mood after supplementation with caffeine and ephedra, there were no significant differences between any of the treatments in muscle strength, muscle endurance, or peak anaerobic power. Our results do not support the contention that supplementation with ephedra or caffeine will enhance either muscle strength or anaerobic exercise performance.

  19. Effect of sand versus grass training surfaces during an 8-week pre-season conditioning programme in team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Binnie, Martyn John; Dawson, Brian; Arnot, Mark Alexander; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the use of sand and grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme in well-trained female team sport athletes (n = 24). Performance testing was conducted pre- and post-training and included measures of leg strength and balance, vertical jump, agility, 20 m speed, repeat speed (8 × 20 m every 20 s), as well as running economy and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Heart rate (HR), training load (rating of perceived exertion (RPE) × duration), movement patterns and perceptual measures were monitored throughout each training session. Participants completed 2 × 1 h conditioning sessions per week on sand (SAND) or grass (GRASS) surfaces, incorporating interval training, sprint and agility drills, and small-sided games. Results showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) HR and training load in the SAND versus GRASS group throughout each week of training, plus some moderate effect sizes to suggest lower perceptual ratings of soreness and fatigue on SAND. Significantly greater (P < 0.05) improvements in VO2max were measured for SAND compared to GRASS. These results suggest that substituting sand for grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme can significantly increase the relative exercise intensity and training load, subsequently leading to superior improvements in aerobic fitness.

  20. Acute effect of whole body vibration on isometric strength, squat jump, and flexibility in well-trained combat athletes

    PubMed Central

    Pekünlü, E

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on maximal strength, squat jump, and flexibility of well-trained combat athletes. Twelve female and 8 male combat athletes (age: 22.8 ± 3.1 years, mass: 65.4 ± 10.7 kg, height: 168.8 ± 8.8 cm, training experience: 11.6 ± 4.7 years, training volume: 9.3 ± 2.8 hours/week) participated in this study. The study consisted of three sessions separated by 48 hours. The first session was conducted for familiarization. In the subsequent two sessions, participants performed WBV or sham intervention in a randomized, balanced order. During WBV intervention, four isometric exercises were performed (26 Hz, 4 mm). During the sham intervention, participants performed the same WBV intervention without vibration treatment (0 Hz, 0 mm). Hand grip, squat jump, trunk flexion, and isometric leg strength tests were performed after each intervention. The results of a two-factor (pre-post[2] × intervention[2]) repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant interaction (p = 0.018) of pre-post × intervention only for the hand grip test, indicating a significant performance increase of moderate effect (net increase of 2.48%, d = 0.61) after WBV intervention. Squat jump, trunk flexion, and isometric leg strength performances were not affected by WBV. In conclusion, the WBV protocol used in this study potentiated hand grip performance, but did not enhance squat jump, trunk flexion, or isometric leg strength in well-trained combat athletes. PMID:26060334

  1. The effect of assisted and resisted sprint training on acceleration and velocity in Division IA female soccer athletes.

    PubMed

    Upton, David E

    2011-10-01

    This investigation evaluated the effects of a 4-week, 12-session training program using resisted sprint training (RST), assisted sprint training (AST), and traditional sprint training (TST) on maximal velocity and acceleration in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division IA female soccer athletes (n = 27). The subjects, using their respective training modality, completed 10 maximal effort sprints of 20 yd (18.3 m) followed by a 20-yd (18.3 m) deceleration to jog. Repeated measures multivariate analyses of variance and analyses of variance demonstrated significant (p < 0.001) 3-way interactions (time × distance × group) and 2-way interactions (time × group), respectively, for both velocity and acceleration. Paired t-tests demonstrated that maximum 40-yd (36.6-m) velocity increased significantly in both the AST (p < 0.001) and RST (p < 0.05) groups, with no change in the TST group. Five-yard (4.6-m), 15-yd (13.7 m), 5- to 15-yd (4.6- to 13.7-m) acceleration increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the AST group and did not change in the RST and TST groups. Fifteen- to 25-yd (13.7- to 22.9-m) acceleration increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the RST group, decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in the AST group, and was unchanged in the TST group. Twenty-five to 40-yd (22.9- to 36.6-m) acceleration increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the RST group and remained unchanged in the AST and TST groups. It is purposed that the increased 5-yd (4.6-m) and 15-yd (13.7-m) accelerations were the result of enhanced neuromuscular facilitation in response to the 12-session supramaximal training protocol. Accordingly, it is suggested that athletes participating in short distance acceleration events (i.e., ≤15 yd; ≤13.7 m) use AST protocols, whereas athletes participating in events that require greater maximum velocity (i.e., >15 yd; > 13.7 m) should use resisted sprint training protocols.

  2. Life-Stress Sources and Symptoms of Collegiate Student Athletic Trainers Over the Course of an Academic Year

    PubMed Central

    Etzel, Edward F.; Lantz, Christopher D.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of life-stress sources that student athletic trainers encountered over the course of an academic year, to investigate the existence of sex differences in stress source symptoms, and to provide athletic training staffs with suggestions on ways to assist student athletic trainers. Design and Setting: In a classroom setting, the 25-item Quick Stress Questionnaire (QSQ) was administered to all subjects at the beginning of each month during an academic year. The QSQ, which can be completed in approximately 5 minutes, uses a 9-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (little stress) to 9 (extreme stress) to measure sources of stress and stress-related symptoms. Subjects: The sample consisted of 11 male and 9 female student athletic trainers enrolled in a Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)-accredited undergraduate program at a mid-Atlantic university. Measurements: We computed descriptive statistics for the stress items and symptoms (ie, cognitive, somatic, and behavioral) and graphed them according to sex. Separate sex × time analyses of variance were performed to investigate changes in cognitive, somatic, and behavioral stress over the course of the study and to determine if these changes were different for male and female student athletic trainers. Results: Academic and financial concerns represented the greatest sources of stress for student athletic trainers. Repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated that stress levels fluctuated significantly during the academic year, with peak stress levels experienced during midterm and at the end of the spring semester. Although female student athletic trainers consistently reported higher levels of stress than their male counterparts, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Student athletic trainers exhibited fluctuations in their stress levels throughout an academic calendar. Academic and financial concerns were the most common

  3. National Athletic Trainers' Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Illness Sickle Cell Spine Injury More Health Issues Research Education Advancement NATA Foundation Statements Revenue & Reimbursement NPI Revenue Resources Business of Athletic Training General Revenue Reimbursement Job Settings ...

  4. Development of a measurement and feedback training tool for the arm strokes of high-performance luge athletes.

    PubMed

    Lembert, Sandra; Schachner, Otto; Raschner, Christian

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that the start plays a critical role in sliding events and explains more than 55% of the variance of the final time in luge. Experts evaluate the contribution of the arm strokes to be 23% of the total starting performance. The aim of the present study was to develop a measurement and feedback training tool (Speedpaddler) for the arm strokes of high-performance luge athletes. The construction is an aluminium alloy framework with a customary belt conveyor system, which is driven by two synchronized servo motors. Training is possible with constant speeds up to 12 m · s(-1) or several speed curves, which simulate the acceleration of different luge tracks. The construction facilitates variations in the inclination and speed of the conveyor belts and thereby the resistance and movement speed. If the athlete accelerates the conveyor belts during arm-paddling, the torque of the motors decreases. Torque measurements and high-speed video offer valuable insights into the several technique criteria. Comparisons of arm-paddle cycle durations on ice and on the Speedpaddler with 18 luge athletes (national team and juniors) showed no statistical differences. The Speedpaddler might be a useful tool to improve starting performance all year round. PMID:22077383

  5. Neuromuscular Training Improves Performance on the Star Excursion Balance Test in Young Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    FILIPA, ALYSON; BYRNES, ROBYN; PATERNO, MARK V.; MYER, GREGORY D.; HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.

    2012-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Controlled cohort repeated-measures experimental design. OBJECTIVES To determine if a neuromuscular training program (NMTP) focused on core stability and lower extremity strength would affect performance on the star excursion balance test (SEBT). We hypothesized that NMTP would improve SEBT performance in the experimental group and there would be no side-to-side differences in either group. BACKGROUND The SEBT is a functional screening tool that is used to assess dynamic stability, monitor rehabilitation progress, assess deficits following an injury, and identify athletes at high risk for lower extremity injury. The SEBT requires lower extremity coordination, balance, flexibility, and strength. METHODS Twenty uninjured female soccer players (13 experimental, 7 control) participated. Players trained together as a team, so group allocation was not randomized. The SEBT was administered prior to and following 8 weeks of NMTP in the experimental group and 8 weeks of no NMTP in the control group. A 3-way mixed-model ANOVA was used to determine the effect of group (experimental versus control), training (pretraining versus posttraining), and limb (right versus left). RESULTS After participation in a NMTP, subjects demonstrated a significant improvement in the SEBT composite score (mean ± SD) on the right limb (pretraining, 96.4% ± 11.7%; posttraining, 104.6% ± 6.1%; P = .03) and the left limb (pretraining, 96.9% ± 10.1%; posttraining, 103.4% ± 8.0%; P = .04). The control group had no change on the SEBT composite score for the right (pretraining, 95.7% ± 5.2%; posttraining, 94.4% ± 5.2%; P = .15) or the left (97.4% ± 7.2%; 93.6% ± 5.0%; P = .09) limb. Further analysis identified significant improvement for the SEBT in the posterolateral direction on both the right (P = .008) and left (P = .040) limb and the posteromedial direction of the left limb (P = .028) in the experimental group. CONCLUSION Female soccer players demonstrated an improved

  6. [Comparative study of the effect of vitamax, synergin and alpha-tocopherol on physical endurance of highly trained athletes].

    PubMed

    Rozhkova, E A; Ordzhonikidze, Z G; Seĭfulla, R D

    2003-01-01

    The influence of vitamax, synergin, and alpha-tocopherol on the exercise performance (ultimate run on a tretbahn with increasing load) of high-rank athletes has been studied. Peculiarities of the drug action upon lipid peroxidation (LPO) in unsaturated fatty acids were studied by a chemiluminescence technique and by monitoring the malonic dialdehyde in the course of a 21-day treatment-training session and within a 5-day period after termination of the drug administration. Vitamax and synergin increase the working capacity of high-rank athletes on the 10th and 11st day of administration, respectively, while alpha-tocopherol produces such effect only on the 21st day. All the drugs studied possess antioxidant properties, which are also more pronounced for vitamax and synergin.

  7. Effect of short-term heat acclimation on endurance time and skin blood flow in trained athletes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tsung-I; Tsai, Pu-Hsi; Lin, Jui-Hsing; Lee, Ning-Yuean; Liang, Michael TC

    2013-01-01

    Background To examine whether short-term, ie, five daily sessions, vigorous dynamic cycling exercise and heat exposure could achieve heat acclimation in trained athletes and the effect of heat acclimation on cutaneous blood flow in the active and nonactive limb. Methods Fourteen male badminton and table tennis athletes (age = 19.6 ± 1.2 years) were randomized into a heat acclimation (EXP, n = 7) or nonheat acclimation (CON, n = 7) group. For 5 consecutive days, the EXP group was trained using an upright leg cycle ergometer in a hot environment (38.4°C ± 0.4°C), while the CON group trained in a thermoneutral environment (24.1°C ± 0.3°C). For both groups, the training intensity and duration increased from a work rate of 10% below ventilatory threshold (VT) and 25 minutes per session on day 1, to 10% above VT and 45 minutes per session on day 5. Subjects performed two incremental leg cycle exercise tests to exhaustion at baseline and post-training in both hot and thermoneutral conditions. Study outcome measurements include: maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max); exercise heart rate (HR); O2 pulse; exercise time to exhaustion (tmax); skin blood flow in the upper arm (SkBFa) and quadriceps (SkBFq); and mean skin (Tsk). Results The significant heat-acclimated outcome measurements obtained during high-intensity leg cycling exercise in the high ambient environment are: (1) 56%–100% reduction in cutaneous blood flow to the active limbs during leg cycling exercise; (2) 28% drop in cutaneous blood flow in nonactive limbs at peak work rate; (3) 5%–10% reduction in heart rate (HR); (4) 10% increase in maximal O2 pulse; and (5) 6.6% increase in tmax. Conclusion Heat acclimation can be achieved with five sessions of high-intensity cycling exercise in the heat in trained athletes, and redistribution of cutaneous blood flow in the skin and exercising muscle, and enhanced cardiovascular adaptations provide the heat-acclimated athletes with the capability to increase their

  8. A review of the effect of swim training and nutrition on bone mineral density in female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Namju; Kim, Jongkyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present paper reviews the physiological adaptation to swim training and dietary supplementation relating to bone mineral density (BMD) in female swimmers. Swim training still seems to have conflicting effects on bone health maintenance in athletes. [Methods] This review article focuses on swim training combined with dietary supplementation with respect to BMD in female athletes. [Results] Upon review of previous studies, it became obvious that the majority of studies did not collect physical activity data on the swimmers outside of their swimming activities. These activities may have some influence on the BMD of swimmers and therefore, future studies need to examine additional physical activity history data as well as swim training. This additional information may help to explain why swimmers' BMD tends to be lower than the BMD of control individuals in many studies. Moreover, dietary supplementation such as calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D also affect bone health in swimmers, and it is extremely important to evaluate BMD in the context of dietary supplementation. [Conclusion] A review of the literature suggests that exercise intervention studies, including longitudinal and randomized control trials, need to attempt to introduce various exercise programs to female swimmers in order to determine the optimal exercise prescription for bone health. PMID:27274459

  9. Effects of Compliance on Trunk and Hip Integrative Neuromuscular Training on Hip Abductor Strength in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    SUGIMOTO, DAI; MYER, GREGORY D.; BUSH, HEATHER M.; HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.

    2014-01-01

    Sugimoto, D, Myer, GD, Bush, HM, and Hewett, TE. Effects of compliance on trunk and hip integrative neuromuscular training on hip abductor strength in female athletes. Recent studies demonstrate the link between reduced hip abductor strength and increased risk for knee injury such as patellofemoral pain syndrome in women athletes. Meta-analytic reports indicate that the efficacy of integrative neuromuscular training (INT) is associated with compliance to the prescribed programming. Thus, the purpose was to investigate the compliance effects of a trunk and hip–focused INT exercises on hip abductor strength in young women athletes. In a controlled laboratory study design, 21 high school women volleyball players (mean age = 15.6 ± 1.4 years, weight = 64.0 ± 7.4 kg, height = 171.5 ± 7.0 cm) completed isokinetic hip abductor strength testing in pre- and postintervention, which consisted of 5 phases of supervised progressive trunk and hip–focused INT exercises twice a week for 10 weeks. The compliance effects were analyzed based on the changed hip abductor strength values between pre- and postintervention and 3 different compliance groups using 1-way analysis of variance and Pearson’s correlation coefficients. The participants in the high-compliance group demonstrated significant hip abductor peak torque increases compared with noncompliance group (p = 0.02), but not between moderate-compliance and noncompliance groups (p = 0.27). The moderate correlation coefficient value (r = 0.56) was recorded between the isokinetic hip abductor peak torque changes and the 3 compliance groups. Because of the observed significant effects and moderate linear association, the effectiveness of a trunk and hip–focused INT protocol to improve hip abduction strength seems dependent on compliance. Compliance of trunk and hip–focused INT is an important aspect of increasing hip abductor strength increase in young women athletes. PMID:24751656

  10. Exploring the Transition to Practice for the Newly Credentialed Athletic Trainer: A Programmatic View

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Walker, Stacy E.; Thrasher, Ashley Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Context  Some newly credentialed athletic trainers (ATs) pursue a postprofessional degree with a curriculum that specifically advances their athletic training practice. It is unknown how those postprofessional programs assist in their transition to practice. Objective  To gain an understanding of initiatives used by postprofessional athletic training programs to facilitate role transition from student to professional during their graduate degree programs. Design  Qualitative study. Setting  Semistructured telephone interviews. Patients or Other Participants  A total of 19 program directors (10 men, 9 women) from 13 Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education-accredited and 6 unaccredited postprofessional athletic training programs. Data Collection and Analysis  Telephone interviews were recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim. For data analysis, we used the principles of general inductive approach. Credibility was maintained using peer review, member checks, and researcher triangulation. Results  Three facilitators of transition to practice emerged: orientation sessions, mentoring, and assistantship. Participants used orientation sessions ranging from a few hours to more than 1 week to provide and discuss program polices and expectations and to outline roles and responsibilities. Faculty, preceptors, and mentors were integrated into the orientation for the academic and clinical portions of the program. All participants described a mentoring process in which students were assigned by the program or informally developed. Mentors included the assigned preceptor, a staff AT, or peer students in the program. The clinical assistantship provided exposure to the daily aspects of being an AT. Barriers to transition to practice included previous educational experiences and time management. Participants reported that students with more diverse didactic and clinical education experiences had easier transitions. The ability to manage time also

  11. Pulmonary gas exchange and breathing pattern during and after exercise in highly trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Caillaud, C; Anselme, F; Mercier, J; Préfaut, C

    1993-01-01

    Highly trained athletes (HT) have been found to show arterial hypoxaemia during strenuous exercise. A lack of compensatory hyperpnoea and/or a limitation of pulmonary diffusion by pulmonary interstitial oedema have been suggested as causes, but the exact role of each is not clear. It is known, however, that interstitial pulmonary oedema may result in rapid shallow breathing (RSB). The purpose of this study was therefore twofold: firstly, to determine the exact role of a lack of compensatory hyperpnoea versus a widened in ideal alveolar minus arterial oxygen partial pressure difference [PA(i)-aO2] in the decrease in partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2) and, secondly, to detect RSB during recovery in HT. Untrained subjects (UT) and HT performed exhausting incremental exercise. During rest, exercise testing, and recovery, breathing pattern, respiratory gas exchange, and arterial blood gases were measured. The PA(i)-aO2 and the difference in tidal volume (VT) between exercise and recovery for the same level of ventilation, normalized to vital capacity of the subject [delta VT(%VC)], were then calculated. A large positive delta VT(%VC) was considered to be the sign of RSB. HT showed a marked hypoxaemia (F = 11.6, P < 0.0001), higher partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (F = 3.51, P < 0.05), and lower ideal partial pressure of oxygen in alveolar gas (P < 0.001). The relationship between PA(i)-aO2 and oxygen consumption was the same for the two groups. The widening PA(i)-aO2 persisted throughout recovery for both HT and UT. The RSB was observed in HT during recovery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Motivational Congruency and Discrepancy Between Certified Athletic Trainers and Noncertified Student Athletic Trainers in the State of Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, Barton P.; Lankford, Samuel V.; Noda, Laurie S.

    1992-01-01

    In March 1992, a survey to assess motivational preference was sent to all certified athletic trainers who were practicing in the State of Hawaii and all noncertified student athletic trainers who were enrolled in the athletic training curriculum at the University of Hawaii. The return rate was 80% for certified athletic trainers and 100% for student athletic trainers. The findings of the study indicated that a motivational discrepancy exists for the following motivational stems: freedom on the job, job growth, benefits and wages, being appreciated, helping the organization obtain goals, receiving raises, being an integral part of the work team, job security, and feedback on job performance (p <.05). Further, the study indicated differences in rating the importance of motivators between the certified and the student athletic trainers concerning freedom on the job, opportunity for advancement, benefits and wages, and job security (p <.05). The differences in motivational factors between the two groups indicated that the students are more concerned with intrinsic types of motivators and less concerned with extrinsic rewards. Further investigation needs to include mainland populations and students in approved/accredited curriculums. PMID:16558187

  13. Lactate and rate of perceived exertion responses of athletes training for and competing in a mixed martial arts event.

    PubMed

    Amtmann, John A; Amtmann, Kelly A; Spath, William K

    2008-03-01

    Lactate and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was monitored in 6 male subjects training for and competing in a mixed martial arts event held in Butte, Montana, to determine 1) the metabolic demands of the sport and 2) the effectiveness of the prebout interval training programs chosen to help prepare the competitors for this event. The training lactate measurements ranged from 8.1 to 19.7 mmol.L, and the training RPE levels ranged from 15 to 19 on Borg's Category Scale of perceived exertion, the scores of which ranged from 6 to 20. The postbout lactate measurements ranged from 10.2 to 20.7 mmol.L, and the post-bout RPE measurements ranged from 13 to 19. Of the 4 subjects that had both training and postbout lactate measurements, 3 had obtained lactate levels during training that exceeded lactate levels immediately after the bout. This indicated that, when using lactate measurements as a benchmark, the conditioning training was effective for these 3 athletes. When we used RPE scores as a benchmark, the conditioning was effective for all 4 subjects because all subjects reached 18-19 during their training, which was at least as high as their reported post-bout RPE levels. PMID:18550986

  14. The Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer Training Program on Anthropometry, Physical Fitness and Skilled Performance in Special Olympics Soccer Athletes and Non-Disabled Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Ozer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; Aglamis, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were…

  15. Well-trained endurance athletes' knowledge, insight, and experience of caffeine use.

    PubMed

    Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2007-08-01

    This descriptive cross-sectional study assessed the perceptions, knowledge, and experiences of caffeine use by athletes competing at the 2005 Ironman Triathlon World Championships. Questionnaires were distributed to 140 athletes (105 men and 35 women, 40.3 +/- 10.7 y old) representing 16 countries during prerace registration. A large proportion (73%) of these endurance athletes believe that caffeine is ergogenic to their endurance performance, and 84% believe it improves their concentration. The most commonly reported positive caffeine experiences related to in-competition use of cola drinks (65%) and caffeinated gels (24%). The athletes' ability to accurately quantify the caffeine content of common food items was limited. The most popular sources of caffeine information were self-experimentation (16%), fellow athletes (15%), magazines (13%), and journal articles (12%). Over half the athletes (53%) could not identify an amount of caffeine required to improve their triathlon performance. Mean (+/- standard deviation) suggested doses were 3.8 (+/- 3) mg/kg body weight. Few side effects associated with taking caffeine during exercise were reported.

  16. Effect of three day bed-rest on circulatory and hormonal responses to active orthostatic test in endurance trained athletes and untrained subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubala, P.; Smorawinski, J.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Nazar, K.; Bicz, B.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Circulatory and hormonal parameters were measured in endurance-trained athletes and control subjects during orthostatic tolerance tests conducted prior to and after three days of bed rest. Heart rate and blood pressure changes due to bed rest appeared to be the same in both groups. Hormonal changes, however, were different between the two groups, with the athletes having decreased sympathoadrenal activity and increased plasma renin activity. Untrained subjects had changes in cortisol secretion only.

  17. Standards for Accreditation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Academic Senate.

    The standards for accreditation presented in this paper were developed by the Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges to measure basic characteristics of quality required of all accredited institutions. The accreditation standards are divided into eight areas. Standard one discusses institutional integrity: purposes; planning; and…

  18. Integrative training for children and adolescents: techniques and practices for reducing sports-related injuries and enhancing athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Chu, Donald A; Falkel, Jeff; Ford, Kevin R; Best, Thomas M; Hewett, Timothy E

    2011-02-01

    As more children and adolescents participate in sports and conditioning activities (sometimes without consideration for cumulative workload), it is important to establish age-appropriate training guidelines that may reduce the risk of sports-related injury and enhance athletic performance. The purpose of this article is to review the scientific evidence on youth strength and conditioning and to provide age-appropriate recommendations for integrating different strength and conditioning activities into a well-designed program that is safe, effective, and enjoyable. Integrative training is defined as a program or plan that incorporates general and specific strength and conditioning activities that enhance both health- and skill-related components of physical fitness. The cornerstone of integrative training is age-appropriate education and instruction by qualified professionals who understand the physical and psychosocial uniqueness of children and adolescents.

  19. Triphasic multinutrient supplementation during acute resistance exercise improves session volume load and reduces muscle damage in strength-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Bird, Stephen P; Mabon, Tom; Pryde, Mitchell; Feebrey, Sarah; Cannon, Jack

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that triphasic multinutrient supplementation during acute resistance exercise would enhance muscular performance, produce a more favorable anabolic profile, and reduce biochemical markers of muscle damage in strength-trained athletes. Fifteen male strength-trained athletes completed two acute lower-body resistance exercise sessions to fatigue 7 days apart. After a 4-hour fast, participants consumed either a multinutrient supplement (Musashi 1-2-3 Step System, Notting Hill, Australia) (SUPP) or placebo (PLA) beverage preexercise (PRE), during (DUR), and immediately postexercise (IP). Session volume loads were calculated as kilograms × repetitions. Lower-body peak power was measured using unloaded repeated countermovement jumps, and blood samples were collected to assess biochemistry, serum hormones, and muscle damage markers at PRE, DUR, IP, 30 minutes postexercise (P30), and 24 hours postexercise (P24h). The SUPP demonstrated increased glucose concentrations at DUR and IP compared with at PRE (P < .01), whereas PLA demonstrated higher glucose at P30 compared with at PRE (P < .001). Session volume load was higher for SUPP compared with PLA (P < .05). Cortisol increased at DUR, IP, and P30 compared with at PRE in both treatments (P < .05); however, SUPP also displayed lower cortisol at P24h compared with at PRE and PLA (P < .01). The total testosterone response to exercise was higher for PLA compared with SUPP (P < .01); however, total creatine kinase and C-reactive protein responses to exercise were lower for SUPP compared with PLA (P < .05). These data indicate that although triphasic multinutrient supplementation did not produce a more favorable anabolic profile, it improved acute resistance exercise performance while attenuating muscle damage in strength-trained athletes.

  20. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology position stand: The use of instability to train the core in athletic and nonathletic conditioning.

    PubMed

    Behm, David G; Drinkwater, Eric J; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Cowley, Patrick M

    2010-02-01

    The use of instability devices and exercises to train the core musculature is an essential feature of many training centres and programs. It was the intent of this position stand to provide recommendations regarding the role of instability in resistance training programs designed to train the core musculature. The core is defined as the axial skeleton and all soft tissues with a proximal attachment originating on the axial skeleton, regardless of whether the soft tissue terminates on the axial or appendicular skeleton. Core stability can be achieved with a combination of muscle activation and intra-abdominal pressure. Abdominal bracing has been shown to be more effective than abdominal hollowing in optimizing spinal stability. When similar exercises are performed, core and limb muscle activation are reported to be higher under unstable conditions than under stable conditions. However, core muscle activation that is similar to or higher than that achieved in unstable conditions can also be achieved with ground-based free-weight exercises, such as Olympic lifts, squats, and dead lifts. Since the addition of unstable bases to resistance exercises can decrease force, power, velocity, and range of motion, they are not recommended as the primary training mode for athletic conditioning. However, the high muscle activation with the use of lower loads associated with instability resistance training suggests they can play an important role within a periodized training schedule, in rehabilitation programs, and for nonathletic individuals who prefer not to use ground-based free weights to achieve musculoskeletal health benefits. PMID:20130673

  1. The effects of altitude/hypoxic training on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity in elite athletes – a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hun-young; Hwang, Hyejung; Park, Jonghoon; Lee, Seongno; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed as a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing effectiveness of altitude/hypoxic training (experimental) versus sea-level training (control) on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity of elite athletes in Korea. [Methods] Databases (Research Information Service System, Korean studies Information Service System, National Assembly Library) were for randomized controlled trials comparing altitude/hypoxic training versus sea-level training in elite athletes. Studies published in Korea up to December 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Oxygen delivery capacity of the blood was quantified by red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), erythropoietin (EPO); and aerobic exercise capacity was quantified by maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). RBC, Hb, Hct, VO2max represented heterogeneity and compared post-intervention between altitude/hypoxic training and sea-level training in elite athletes by a random effect model meta-analysis. EPO represented homogeneity and meta-analysis performed by a fixed effect model. Eight independent studies with 156 elite athletes (experimental: n = 82, control: n = 74) were included in the metaanalysis. [Results] RBC (4.499×105 cell/ul, 95 % CI: 2.469 to 6.529), Hb (5.447 g/dl, 95 % CI: 3.028 to 7.866), Hct (3.639 %, 95 % CI: 1.687 to 5.591), EPO (0.711 mU/mL, 95% CI: 0.282 to 1.140), VO2max (1.637 ml/kg/min, 95% CI: 0.599 to 1.400) showed significantly greater increase following altitude/hypoxic training, as compared with sea-level training. [Conclusion] For elite athletes in Korea, altitude/ hypoxic training appears more effective than sea-level training for improvement of oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity. PMID:27298808

  2. The effects of 8-week speed training program on the acceleration ability and maximum speed running at 11 years athletes.

    PubMed

    Gevat, Cecilia; Taskin, Halil; Arslan, Fatma; Larion, Alin; Stanculescu, George

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an 8-week speed training program on the acceleration ability and maximum speed at 11 years athletes. A total of 30 healthy female athletes volunteered to participate in this study. They were divided randomly into 1 of 2 groups: Experimental group (EG; N = 15) and control group (CG; N = 15). The mean (SD) age was 11.20 +/- 0.32 years, height was 1.44 +/- 0.08 m, and weight was 35.20 +/- 2.02 kg for the experimental group; the mean (SD) age was 11.40 +/- 0.39 years, height was 1.45 +/- 0.05 m, and weight was 36.06 +/- 1.15 kg for the control group. A speed training program was applied to the subjects 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Testing was conducted before and after 8 weeks of training. Acceleration and maximum speed was evaluated for 15-m and 30-m, respectively, involving sprinting 15 m and 30 m as fast as possible from a stationary start position that was ascertained during a 50-m. Electronic timekeeping was conducted by the facility--Brower Timing System--made in Utah, USA., consisting of 4 components. Paired t-tests detected significant differences in pre- and posttests for clearance time of 5 m during 50 m in the experimental and control groups (p < 0.05). Therefore, acceleration phase was significantly reduce at 15 m distance interval for the experimental group and control groups posttraining than pretraining (0-15 m, p < 0.05). Acceleration improvement was 12.6% for the experimental group posttraining, on the other hand, acceleration improvement was 5% for the control groups posttraining. we did not find significant difference between pretest and posttest in 10-15 m, 15-20 m, and 20-25 m for the experimental group (p > 0.05). On the other hand, we did find significant difference between pretest and posttest values of other clearance times of consecutively each 5m during 50 m for the experimental and control groups (p < 0.05). Also, this study observed that athletes reached maximum speed in 30 m. In conclusion

  3. Effects and dose–response relationships of resistance training on physical performance in youth athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lesinski, Melanie; Prieske, Olaf; Granacher, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To quantify age, sex, sport and training type-specific effects of resistance training on physical performance, and to characterise dose–response relationships of resistance training parameters that could maximise gains in physical performance in youth athletes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies. Data sources Studies were identified by systematic literature search in the databases PubMed and Web of Science (1985–2015). Weighted mean standardised mean differences (SMDwm) were calculated using random-effects models. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Only studies with an active control group were included if these investigated the effects of resistance training in youth athletes (6–18 years) and tested at least one physical performance measure. Results 43 studies met the inclusion criteria. Our analyses revealed moderate effects of resistance training on muscle strength and vertical jump performance (SMDwm 0.8–1.09), and small effects on linear sprint, agility and sport-specific performance (SMDwm 0.58–0.75). Effects were moderated by sex and resistance training type. Independently computed dose–response relationships for resistance training parameters revealed that a training period of >23 weeks, 5 sets/exercise, 6–8 repetitions/set, a training intensity of 80–89% of 1 repetition maximum (RM), and 3–4 min rest between sets were most effective to improve muscle strength (SMDwm 2.09–3.40). Summary/conclusions Resistance training is an effective method to enhance muscle strength and jump performance in youth athletes, moderated by sex and resistance training type. Dose–response relationships for key training parameters indicate that youth coaches should primarily implement resistance training programmes with fewer repetitions and higher intensities to improve physical performance measures of youth athletes. PMID:26851290

  4. Assessment, Accreditation and Certification. Two-Year Youth Training Schemes. An Evaluation of LEA Modular Programmes. No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This bulletin is the sixth in a series that provides information on a collaborative project known as MainFrame to develop youth training programs in Great Britain. It describes the assessment procedures used in the youth training programs and examines project progress toward its main objective--the development of a unit credit transfer system--and…

  5. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Athlete's Foot KidsHealth > For Kids > Athlete's Foot Print A A ... a public shower. Why Is It Called Athlete's Foot? Athlete's foot gets its name because athletes often ...

  6. A pathway to academic accreditation

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, M.R.

    1994-09-01

    The pathways to successfully accrediting programs through a partnership with a local college can be convoluted and offer many dead ends. Those pathways can be made straighter and have fewer false starts by following a plan that has worked. Accreditation of courses and programs can add credibility and prestige to a program. The process can be facilitated by following a basic plan such as the one outlined. The discussion will track the preliminary activities that form the ground work for the beginning of the accreditation process through final approval by a college`s State Board of trustees or regents. On the road to approval, the packaging of courses for presentation, the formulation and composition of an advisory committee, the subsequent use of the advisors, presentation to the faculty committees, the presentation to the college`s governing board of trustees or regents, and final approval by the State Board are covered. An important benefit of accreditation is the formation of a partnership with the local college. Teaming with a local college to provide an accredited certificate in a field of employee training is an excellent opportunity to establish an educational partnership within the local community that will be of benefit to the participating entities. It also represents a training/retraining opportunity in direct support of the US Department of Energy`s current missions of partnership and localization. The accredited modules can be taught where appropriate by college personnel or loaned instructors from the work site. By using the company employees who are working with the topics covered in the modules, the courses are kept up-to-date.

  7. Effect of Implicit Perceptual-Motor Training on Decision-Making Skills and Underpinning Gaze Behavior in Combat Athletes.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Nicolas; Farrow, Damian; Fournier, Jean F

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of a 12-session, implicit perceptual-motor training program on decision-making skills and visual search behavior of highly skilled junior female karate fighters (M age = 15.7 years, SD = 1.2). Eighteen participants were required to make (physical or verbal) reaction decisions to various attacks within different fighting scenarios. Fighters' performance and eye movements were assessed before and after the intervention, and during acquisition through the use of video-based and on-mat decision-making tests. The video-based test revealed that following training, only the implicit perceptual-motor group (n = 6) improved their decision-making accuracy significantly compared to a matched motor training (placebo, n = 6) group and a control group (n = 6). Further, the implicit training group significantly changed their visual search behavior by focusing on fewer locations for longer durations. In addition, the session-by-session analysis showed no significant improvement in decision accuracy between training session 1 and all the other sessions, except the last one. Coaches should devote more practice time to implicit learning approaches during perceptual-motor training program to achieve significant decision-making improvements and more efficient visual search strategy with elite athletes. PMID:27371637

  8. Effect of Implicit Perceptual-Motor Training on Decision-Making Skills and Underpinning Gaze Behavior in Combat Athletes.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Nicolas; Farrow, Damian; Fournier, Jean F

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of a 12-session, implicit perceptual-motor training program on decision-making skills and visual search behavior of highly skilled junior female karate fighters (M age = 15.7 years, SD = 1.2). Eighteen participants were required to make (physical or verbal) reaction decisions to various attacks within different fighting scenarios. Fighters' performance and eye movements were assessed before and after the intervention, and during acquisition through the use of video-based and on-mat decision-making tests. The video-based test revealed that following training, only the implicit perceptual-motor group (n = 6) improved their decision-making accuracy significantly compared to a matched motor training (placebo, n = 6) group and a control group (n = 6). Further, the implicit training group significantly changed their visual search behavior by focusing on fewer locations for longer durations. In addition, the session-by-session analysis showed no significant improvement in decision accuracy between training session 1 and all the other sessions, except the last one. Coaches should devote more practice time to implicit learning approaches during perceptual-motor training program to achieve significant decision-making improvements and more efficient visual search strategy with elite athletes.

  9. A comparison of traditional learning and problem-based learning in pharmacology education for athletic training students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, Michael Richard

    The purpose of this research project was to compare Traditional Learning (TL) activities with Problem-based Learning (PBL) activities in an undergraduate pharmacology course. Fifteen athletic training students served as the sample. The students completed a four-week program focusing on analgesic and anti-inflammatory medications. All students received instruction via TL methods and PBL methods. The two methods were compared on measures of student satisfaction, content acquisition, problem-solving skill, and critical thinking skills. The results revealed a statistically significant difference (p value < .001) for student performance on essay exams when scored for problem solving skills. There were no statistically significant differences for content acquisition using multiple-choice exams or on the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). The focus group revealed support for the reported benefits of PBL, support for TL, and encouragement for a combined course. The results suggest that the PBL method is as effective as the TL method in regards to content acquisition and performance on the CCTST. However, student problem solving abilities appear to improve after PBL methods as evidenced with the improved performance on the essay exams. Educational effectiveness and reported benefits from the focus group support the use of PBL in the education of athletic training students in the domain of pharmacology.

  10. Effect of two complex training protocols of back squats in blood indicators of muscular damage in military athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Álvaro Huerta; Ríos, Luis Chirosa; Barrilao, Rafael Guisado; Ríos, Ignacio Chirosa; Serrano, Pablo Cáceres

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the variations in the blood muscular damage indicators post application of two complex training programs for back squats. [Subjects and Methods] Seven military athletes were the subjects of this study. The study had a quasi-experimental cross-over intra-subject design. Two complex training protocols were applied, and the variables to be measured were cortisol, metabolic creatine kinase, and total creatine kinase. For the statistical analysis, Student’s t-test was used. [Results] Twenty-four hours post effort, a significant decrease in cortisol level was shown for both protocols; however, the metabolic creatine kinase and total creatine kinase levels showed a significant increase. [Conclusion] Both protocols lowered the indicator of main muscular damage in the blood supply (cortisol). This proved that the work weight did not generate significant muscular damage in the 24-hour post-exercise period. PMID:27313356

  11. Effect of two complex training protocols of back squats in blood indicators of muscular damage in military athletes.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Álvaro Huerta; Ríos, Luis Chirosa; Barrilao, Rafael Guisado; Ríos, Ignacio Chirosa; Serrano, Pablo Cáceres

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the variations in the blood muscular damage indicators post application of two complex training programs for back squats. [Subjects and Methods] Seven military athletes were the subjects of this study. The study had a quasi-experimental cross-over intra-subject design. Two complex training protocols were applied, and the variables to be measured were cortisol, metabolic creatine kinase, and total creatine kinase. For the statistical analysis, Student's t-test was used. [Results] Twenty-four hours post effort, a significant decrease in cortisol level was shown for both protocols; however, the metabolic creatine kinase and total creatine kinase levels showed a significant increase. [Conclusion] Both protocols lowered the indicator of main muscular damage in the blood supply (cortisol). This proved that the work weight did not generate significant muscular damage in the 24-hour post-exercise period. PMID:27313356

  12. Venous Thromboembolism and Marathon Athletes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Venous Thromboembolism and Marathon Athletes Claire M. Hull and Julia A. Harris ... general adult population are indisputable. However, for the marathon athlete who trains intensively and for long periods ...

  13. Perceptions from Graduates of Professional Athletic Training Programs Involved in Peer-Assisted Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Dana Karlene

    2014-01-01

    Context: Research has not explored how peer-assisted learning (PAL) impacts graduates once they are practicing as athletic trainers. Peer-assisted learning has been used in a variety of health education settings but there is a lack of data on its effects on the performance of graduates. Objective: To investigate professional graduates'…

  14. Evaluation Models for Continuing Education Program Efficacy: How Does Athletic Training Continuing Education Measure up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty-Restrepo, Jennifer L.; Hughes, Brian J.; Del Rossi, Gianluca; Pitney, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Although continuing education is required for athletic trainers (AT) to maintain their Board of Certification credential, little is known regarding its efficacy for advancing knowledge and improving patient care. Continuing professional education (CPE) is designed to provide professionals with important practical learning opportunities.…

  15. Pre-Service Teacher Training in Classroom Management: A Review of State Accreditation Policy and Teacher Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jennifer; Simonsen, Brandi; Briere, Donald E.; MacSuga-Gage, Ashley S.

    2014-01-01

    Effective classroom management skills are essential for teachers. Unfortunately, many teachers do not receive adequate classroom management training prior to beginning their teaching careers and feel unprepared for the demands of managing student behaviors in their classrooms. In this article, we describe (a) the number of states with state policy…

  16. Does wearing clothing made of a synthetic “cooling” fabric improve indoor cycle exercise endurance in trained athletes?

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Sara J; Krug, Robin; Jensen, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, crossover study examined the effects of a clothing ensemble made of a synthetic fabric promoted as having superior cooling properties (COOL) on exercise performance and its physiological and perceptual determinants during cycle exercise in ambient laboratory conditions that mimic environmental conditions of indoor training/sporting facilities. Twenty athletes (15 men:5 women) aged 25.8 ± 1.2 years (mean ± SEM) with a maximal rate of O2 consumption of 63.7 ± 1.5 mL·kg−1·min−1 completed cycle exercise testing at 85% of their maximal incremental power output to exhaustion while wearing an ensemble consisting of a fitted long-sleeved shirt and full trousers made of either COOL or a synthetic control fabric (CTRL). Exercise endurance time was not different under COOL versus CTRL conditions: 12.38 ± 0.98 versus 11.75 ± 1.10 min, respectively (P > 0.05). Similarly, COOL had no effect on detailed thermoregulatory (skin and esophageal temperatures), cardiometabolic, ventilatory, and perceptual responses to exercise (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, clothing made of a synthetic fabric with purported “cooling” properties did not improve high-intensity cycle exercise endurance in trained athletes under ambient laboratory conditions that mimic the environmental conditions of indoor training/sporting facilities. PMID:26290527

  17. High-Intensity Intermittent Training Positively Affects Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance in Judo Athletes Independently of Exercise Mode

    PubMed Central

    Franchini, Emerson; Julio, Ursula F.; Panissa, Valéria L. G.; Lira, Fábio S.; Gerosa-Neto, José; Branco, Braulio H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on lower- and upper-body graded exercise and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE, four Wingate bouts) performance, and on physiological and muscle damage markers responses in judo athletes. Methods: Thirty-five subjects were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 8) or to one of the following HIIT groups (n = 9 for each) and tested pre- and post-four weeks (2 training d·wk−1): (1) lower-body cycle-ergometer; (2) upper-body cycle-ergometer; (3) uchi-komi (judo technique entrance). All HIIT were constituted by two blocks of 10 sets of 20 s of all out effort interspersed by 10 s set intervals and 5-min between blocks. Results: For the upper-body group there was an increase in maximal aerobic power in graded upper-body exercise test (12.3%). The lower-body group increased power at onset blood lactate in graded upper-body exercise test (22.1%). The uchi-komi group increased peak power in upper- (16.7%) and lower-body (8.5%), while the lower-body group increased lower-body mean power (14.2%) during the HIIE. There was a decrease in the delta blood lactate for the uchi-komi training group and in the third and fourth bouts for the upper-body training group. Training induced testosterone-cortisol ratio increased in the lower-body HIIE for the lower-body (14.9%) and uchi-komi (61.4%) training groups. Conclusion: Thus, short-duration low-volume HIIT added to regular judo training was able to increase upper-body aerobic power, lower- and upper-body HIIE performance. PMID:27445856

  18. Effects of compliance on trunk and hip integrative neuromuscular training on hip abductor strength in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Dai; Myer, Gregory D; Bush, Heather M; Hewett, Timothy E

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies demonstrate the link between reduced hip abductor strength and increased risk for knee injury such as patellofemoral pain syndrome in women athletes. Meta-analytic reports indicate that the efficacy of integrative neuromuscular training (INT) is associated with compliance to the prescribed programming. Thus, the purpose was to investigate the compliance effects of a trunk and hip-focused INT exercises on hip abductor strength in young women athletes. In a controlled laboratory study design, 21 high school women volleyball players (mean age = 15.6 ± 1.4 years, weight = 64.0 ± 7.4 kg, height = 171.5 ± 7.0 cm) completed isokinetic hip abductor strength testing in pre- and postintervention, which consisted of 5 phases of supervised progressive trunk and hip-focused INT exercises twice a week for 10 weeks. The compliance effects were analyzed based on the changed hip abductor strength values between pre- and postintervention and 3 different compliance groups using 1-way analysis of variance and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The participants in the high-compliance group demonstrated significant hip abductor peak torque increases compared with noncompliance group (p = 0.02), but not between moderate-compliance and noncompliance groups (p = 0.27). The moderate correlation coefficient value (r = 0.56) was recorded between the isokinetic hip abductor peak torque changes and the 3 compliance groups. Because of the observed significant effects and moderate linear association, the effectiveness of a trunk and hip-focused INT protocol to improve hip abduction strength seems dependent on compliance. Compliance of trunk and hip-focused INT is an important aspect of increasing hip abductor strength increase in young women athletes. PMID:24751656

  19. The Future of Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Judith S.

    2012-01-01

    Accreditation, the primary means of assuring and improving academic quality in U.S. higher education, has endured for more than 100 years. While accommodating many changes in higher education and society, accreditation's fundamental values and practices have remained essentially intact, affirming their sturdiness. Accreditation is a form of…

  20. A Handbook of Accreditation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, Chicago, IL.

    The accreditation process of the Commission on Institutions of Higher Education of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools is discussed. After describing the meaning and purposes of accreditation and the evolution of the Commission's evaluative principles, information is provided on the Criteria for Accreditation and Candidacy,…

  1. Accreditation's Legal Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graca, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Like most issues in higher education, the accreditation paradigm in the United States is defined in large measure by the legal and political climate in which the academy finds itself. In the case of accreditation in particular, the legal substrate is of particular importance given the central role of accreditation in a college's ability to receive…

  2. Training and education in religion/spirituality within APA-accredited clinical psychology programs: 8 years later.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Rachel M; Handal, Paul J; Brawer, Peter A; Ubinger, Megan

    2011-06-01

    This study was a follow up investigation of Brawer et al.'s (Prof Psychol Res Pr 33(2):203-206, 2002) survey of education and training of clinical psychologists in religion/spirituality. Directors of clinical training were surveyed to determine whether changes had occurred in the coverage of religion and spirituality through course work, research, supervision, and in the systematic coverage of the content area. Results indicated an increased coverage in the areas of supervision, dedicated courses, inclusion as part of another course, and research. There was no increase in systematic coverage, but significantly more programs provided at least some coverage. The current study also assesses other areas of incorporation as well as directors' opinions regarding the importance of religion/spirituality in the field of psychology.

  3. Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports.

    PubMed

    Horn, P L; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Barnes, C J

    2010-11-01

    White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were quantified. Each sport was scaled (1-5) for its perceived metabolic stress (aerobic-anaerobic) and mechanical stress (concentric-eccentric) by 13 sports physiologists. Substantially lower total white cell and neutrophil counts were observed in aerobic sports of cycling and triathlon (~16% of test results below the normal reference range) compared with team or skill-based sports such as water polo, cricket and volleyball. Mechanical stress of sports had less effect on the distribution of cell counts. The lower white cell counts in athletes in aerobic sports probably represent an adaptive response, not underlying pathology.

  4. Use of Advanced Bleeding Control Mechanisms in Athletic Training: A Shift in the Thought Process of Prehospital Care. Part 1: Tourniquets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David C.; Seitz, S. Robert; Payne, Ellen K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this column is to provide athletic training educators (ATE) with evidence regarding the use of tourniquets in the prehospital setting as well as to be a resource on how to teach the management of external hemorrhage using tourniquets.

  5. Secondary Amenorrhea among Female Athletes. Current Understandings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasiene, Gwen Hagenbuch

    1983-01-01

    Research pertaining to female athletes' problems with secondary amenorrhea is reviewed. Studies point to stress, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, obesity, arduous athletic training, and age of onset of training as factors which may contribute to this disorder. (PP)

  6. Whole-body vibration combined with extra-load training for enhancing the strength and speed of track and field athletes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiang-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Han; Liu, Chiang; Yang, Wen-Wen; Huang, Mao-Ying; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether whole-body vibration (WBV) combined with extra-load training can enhance the strength and speed of trained athletes compared with isolated WBV training or loaded training (LT) only. Twenty-one elite male track and field athletes were randomly assigned to a loaded vibration (LV) training group (n = 7), an unloaded vibration (ULV) training group (n = 7), and a LT group (n = 7). During 4 weeks of training, the LV group received the vibration stimulus (30 Hz and 4 mm) accompanied by a load comprising 75% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), the ULV group received the same vibration stimulus without any load, and the LT group received only a load of 75% MVC without any vibration stimulus. The knee extensor isometric strength, and the concentric and eccentric strength were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer at 300°·s at a 30-m sprint speed before and after the training period. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance (time × group) was used to analyze the differences. Significant time × group interactions were observed for all the dependent variables (p ≤ 0.05). Regarding the post hoc analysis results, the LV group exhibited significant improvements for all the dependent variables after training (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the ULV group exhibited significantly reduced sprint speeds (p ≤ 0.05). The LV group demonstrated significantly superior eccentric strength compared with the ULV and LT groups after training (p ≤ 0.05), and the LV group also produced significantly superior sprint speeds compared with the ULV group after training (p ≤ 0.05). Vibration combined with extra-load training for 4 weeks significantly increased the muscle strength and speed of the elite male track and field athletes.

  7. Are skinfold-based models accurate and suitable for assessing changes in body composition in highly trained athletes?

    PubMed

    Silva, Analiza M; Fields, David A; Quitério, Ana L; Sardinha, Luís B

    2009-09-01

    This study was designed to assess the usefulness of skinfold (SKF) equations developed by Jackson and Pollock (JP) and by Evans (Ev) in tracking body composition changes (relative fat mass [%FM], absolute fat mass [FM], and fat-free mass [FFM]) of elite male judo athletes before a competition using a 4-compartment (4C) model as the reference method. A total of 18 male, top-level (age: 22.6 +/- 2.9 yr) athletes were evaluated at baseline (weight: 73.4 +/- 7.9 kg; %FM4C: 7.0 +/- 3.3%; FM4C: 5.1 +/- 2.6 kg; and FFM4C: 68.3 +/- 7.3 kg) and before a competition (weight: 72.7 +/- 7.5 kg; %FM4C: 6.5 +/- 3.4%; FM4C: 4.8 +/- 2.6 kg; and FFM4C: 67.9 +/- 7.1 kg). Measures of body density assessed by air displacement plethysmography, bone mineral content by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and total-body water by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy were used to estimate 4C model %FM, FM, and FFM. Seven SKF site models using both JP and Ev were used to estimate %FM, FM, and FFM along with the simplified Ev3SKF site. Changes in %FM, FM, and FFM were not significantly different from the 4C model. The regression model for the SKF in question and the reference method did not differ from the line of identity in estimating changes in %FM, FM, and FFM. The limits of agreement were similar, ranging from -3.4 to 3.6 for %FM, -2.7 to 2.5 kg for FM, and -2.5 to 2.7 kg for FFM. Considering the similar performance of both 7SKF- and 3SKF-based equations compared with the criterion method, these data indicate that either the 7- or 3-site SFK models are not valid to detect %FM, FM, and FFM changes of highly trained athletes. These results highlighted the inaccuracy of anthropometric models in tracking desired changes in body composition of elite male judo athletes before a competition.

  8. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Players' Perceptions of Women in the Athletic Training Room Using a Role Congruity Framework

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Caitlin; Grappendorf, Heidi; Burton, Laura; Harmon, Sandra M.; Henderson, Angela C.; Peel, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Previous researchers have demonstrated that male and female athletes feel more comfortable with treatment by a same-sex athletic trainer for sex-specific injuries and conditions. Objective: To address football players' comfort with care provided by same-sex and opposite-sex athletic trainers for sex-specific and non–sex-specific injuries and conditions through the lens of role congruity theory. Design: Cross-sectional study for the quantitative data and qualitative study for the qualitative data. Setting: Two National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Series university football programs. Patients or Other Participants: Male football players within the 2 university programs. Data Collection and Analysis: We replicated existing methods and an existing survey to address male football players' comfort levels. Additionally, an open-ended question was used to determine male football players' perceptions of female athletic trainers. Paired-samples t tests were conducted to identify differences between the responses for the care given by a male athletic trainer and for the care given by a female athletic trainer. Three categories were analyzed: general medical conditions, psychological conditions, and sex-specific injuries. The qualitative data were coded and analyzed using content analysis. Results: Male football players were more comfortable with treatment by a male athletic trainer (mean  =  3.61 ± 1.16) for sex-specific injuries and conditions than they were with treatment by a female athletic trainer (mean  =  2.82 ± 1.27; P < .001). No significant results were found for comfort with overall psychological conditions, although a female athletic trainer was preferred over a male athletic trainer for the treatment of depression (mean  =  3.71 ± 1.07 versus mean  =  3.39 ± 1.16, respectively; P < .001). Qualitative data provided support for role congruity theory. Conclusions: Both quantitative and qualitative

  9. Concurrent endurance and explosive type strength training increases activation and fast force production of leg extensor muscles in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Mikkola, Jussi S; Rusko, Heikki K; Nummela, Ari T; Paavolainen, Leena M; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of concurrent endurance and explosive strength training on electromyography (EMG) and force production of leg extensors, sport-specific rapid force production, aerobic capacity, and work economy in cross-country skiers. Nineteen male cross-country skiers were assigned to an experimental group (E, n = 8) or a control group (C, n = 11). The E group trained for 8 weeks with the same total training volume as C, but 27% of endurance training in E was replaced by explosive strength training. The skiers were measured at pre- and post training for concentric and isometric force-time parameters of leg extensors and EMG activity from the vastus lateralis (VL) and medialis (VM) muscles. Sport-specific rapid force production was measured by performing a 30-m double poling test with the maximal velocity (V(30DP)) and sport-specific endurance economy by constant velocity 2-km double poling test (CVDP) and performance (V(2K)) by 2-km maximal double poling test with roller skis on an indoor track. Maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2)max) was determined during the maximal treadmill walking test with the poles. The early absolute forces (0-100 ms) in the force-time curve in isometric action increased in E by 18 +/- 22% (p < 0.05), with concomitant increases in the average integrated EMG (IEMG) (0-100 ms) of VL by 21 +/- 21% (p < 0.05). These individual changes in the average IEMG of VL correlated with the changes in early force (r = 0.86, p < 0.01) in E. V(30DP) increased in E (1.4 +/- 1.6%) (p < 0.05) but not in C. The V(2K) increased in C by 2.9 +/- 2.8% (p < 0.01) but not significantly in E (5.5 +/- 5.8%, p < 0.1). However, the steady-state oxygen consumption in CVDP decreased in E by 7 +/- 6% (p < 0.05). No significant changes occurred in Vo(2)max either in E or in C. The present concurrent explosive strength and endurance training in endurance athletes produced improvements in explosive force associated with increased rapid

  10. IGF-1 response to arm exercise with eccentric and concentric muscle contractions in resistance-trained athletes with left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Żebrowska, A; Waśkiewicz, Z; Zając, A; Gąsior, Z; Galbo, H; Langfort, J

    2013-02-01

    The study aimed at evaluating changes in plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), testosterone, growth hormone (GH), cortisol, and insulin in resistance-trained male athletes with (n=9) and without (n=9) left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in response to eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CON) arm exercise. 10 age-matched healthy non-trained subjects served as controls. M-mode and 2D Doppler echocardiography were used to estimate LV mass.Resting IGF-1 concentration was higher in LVH athletes compared to controls (52 ± 5 nM vs. 46 ± 7 nM, p<0.05). ECC exercise resulted in higher (p<0.05) serum IGF-1 concentrations in athletes with LVH (70 ± 11 nM, n=9) compared to those without LVH (62 ± 10 nM, n=9), and to untrained controls (54 ± 6 nM). Both CON and ECC exercise resulted in higher serum IGFBP-3 levels in LVH athletes compared to controls (242 ± 57 and 274 ± 58, athletes, vs. 215 ± 63 and 244 ± 67, controls, nM, p<0.05). In ECC exercise, GH concentrations were lower in LVH than in non-LVH athletes (4.7 ± 2.1 vs. 6.1 ± 1.8 ng  mL(-1), p<0.05). No differences in other hormones were found between groups. In conclusion, LVH is accompanied by elevated resting serum IGF-1 and enhanced response to eccentric arm exercise. These findings suggest a role of IGF-1, possibly released from contracting muscle, in stimulating LV hypertrophy in resistance training.

  11. Assessing the force-velocity characteristics of the leg extensors in well-trained athletes: the incremental load power profile.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Jeremy M; Cormack, Stuart; Taylor, Kristie-Lee; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this research project was to evaluate the methodology of an iso-inertial force-velocity assessment utilizing a range of loads and a group of high-performance athletes. A total of 26 subjects (19.8 +/- 2.6 years, 196.3 +/- 9.6 cm, 88.6 +/- 8.9 kg) participated in this study. Interday reliability of various force-time measures obtained during the performance of countermovement jumps with a range of loads was examined, followed by a validity assessment of the various measures' ability to discriminate among performance levels, while the ability of the test protocol to detect training-induced changes was assessed by comparing results before and after an intensive 12-week training period. Force and velocity variables were observed to be reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.74-0.99). Large effect size statistic (ES > 0.50) differences among player groups were observed for peak power (1.36-2.25), relative peak power (1.57-2.42), and peak force (0.74-0.95). Significant (p < 0.05) and large (ES > 0.50) improvements were observed in the kinetic values after the intensive training period. The results of this study indicate that the incremental load power profile is an acceptably reliable, valid, and sensitive method of assessing force and power capabilities of the leg extensors in high-performance and elite volleyball players.

  12. Anabolic steroid use and perceived effects in ten weight-trained women athletes.

    PubMed

    Strauss, R H; Liggett, M T; Lanese, R R

    1985-05-17

    Ten women athletes who consistently used anabolic steroids were interviewed about their patterns of drug use and the perceived effects. Anabolic steroids were used in a cyclical manner, often with several drugs taken simultaneously. All participants believed that muscle size and strength were increased in association with anabolic steroid use. Most also noted a deepening of the voice, increased facial hair, increased aggressiveness, clitoral enlargement, and menstrual irregularities. The participants were willing to tolerate these side effects but thought that such changes might be unacceptable to many women.

  13. Endurance training adherence in elite junior netball athletes: a test of the theory of planned behaviour and a revised theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Claire L; Burwitz, Les; Dyer, Allison N; Spray, Christopher M

    2005-03-01

    This study examined the utility of Ajzen's (1985) theory of planned behaviour and Maddux's (1993) revised theory of planned behaviour to predict endurance training intentions and adherence of elite junior netball athletes. One hundred and fifteen athletes from the England Netball World Class Start Programme were assessed on constructs central to the predictions of the two theories. Adherence to a recommended endurance training programme was recorded in self-report diaries across a 9-week period. Validity for the diaries was supported by significant correlations (P < 0.001) with recalls across 7 days and 9 weeks. Adherence was moderate and variable between athletes (mean = 66.05, s = 25.75%). Two separate path analyses were conducted to examine the predictions of the theories. Goodness-of-fit indices suggested acceptable fit of the data to the models. Analyses showed that attitude towards the new behaviour, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control predicted training intentions. The relationship between intention and adherence was weak. The present results suggest that the constructs of the theory of planned behaviour offer some insight into the explanation of intentions to follow an endurance training programme. Constructs unique to the revised theory of planned behaviour did not significantly predict training intentions or behaviour. Implications for practitioners working with team sport performers are provided.

  14. Medical students’ perceptions of international accreditation

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Razig, Sawsan; Nair, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to explore the perceptions of medical students in a developing medical education system towards international accreditation. Methods Applicants to an Internal Medicine residency program in an academic medical center in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-International (ACGME-I) were surveyed between May and June 2014. The authors analysed responses using inductive qualitative thematic analysis to identify emergent themes. Results Seventy-eight of 96 applicants (81%) completed the survey. The vast majority of respondents 74 (95%) reported that ACGME-I accreditation was an important factor in selecting a residency program. Five major themes were identified, namely improving the quality of education, increasing opportunities, meeting high international standards, improving program structure, and improving patient care. Seven (10%) of respondents felt they would be in a position to pursue fellowship training or future employment in the United States upon graduation from an ACGME-I program. Conclusions UAE trainees have an overwhelmingly positive perception of international accreditation, with an emphasis on improving the quality of training provided. Misperceptions, however, exist about potential opportunities available to graduates of ACGME-I programs. As more countries adopt the standards of the ACGME-I or other international accrediting bodies, it is important to recognize and foster trainee “buy-in” of educational reform initiatives. PMID:26454402

  15. Pulmonary function of Indian athletes and sportsmen: comparison with American athletes.

    PubMed

    Lakhera, S C; Mathew, L; Rastogi, S K; Sen Gupta, J

    1984-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate pulmonary functions in Indian athletes and sportsmen associated with different athletic events and games. It was found that swimmers were having significantly higher vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume (FEV1) values than all other athletic groups studied. Results have been discussed keeping in view the physiological, functional and structural demands in various events. Pulmonary function values of Indian athletes have also been compared with American athletes of standardized height for a better appraisal of athletic potentiality in our athletes. The importance of athletic training from childhood have been ascribed to be the reason for superior lung volumes and capacities in US athletes.

  16. Exhaustive endurance training for 6-9 weeks did not induce changes in intrinsic heart rate and cardiac autonomic modulation in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, A L; Uusitalo, A J; Rusko, H K

    1998-11-01

    We investigated the effects of progressively increased training load and overtraining on resting and intrinsic heart rate (IHR) and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM), and their relationships to performance variables. Nine athletes (ETG) increased training volume at 70-90% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) by 130% (p<0.01) and training volume at <70% VO2max by 100% (p < 0.01) during 6-9 weeks. The corresponding increases in six female control athletes (CG) were 5 and 10%. Pharmacological blocking through atropine and propranolol and the Rosenblueth and Simeone model were used to calculate the sympathovagal balance index (Abal) and to measure IHR. The results were analysed using two-way analysis of variance. VO2max, IHR and Abal did not change. Resting heart rate had a tendency to decrease in the ETG and increase in the CG during the training period (interaction p < 0.01). Five ETG athletes demonstrated overtraining state (OA subgroup). Their VO2max (mean+/-SEM) decreased from 53.0+/-2.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) to 50.2+/-2.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) (p < 0.01), but no changes in resting HR, IHR and Abal were found. A significant correlation between the baseline values of VO2max and the parasympathetic activity index was found (r=-0.59, p < 0.05). In conclusion, progressively increased training load and overtraining did not induce significant changes in intrinsic heart rate or cardiac autonomic modulation in female endurance athletes. Resting heart rate rather decreased with heavy endurance training and overtraining. High maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with high cardiac parasympathetic modulation. PMID:9877144

  17. The effects of a 7-week practical blood flow restriction program on well-trained collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Luebbers, Paul E; Fry, Andrew C; Kriley, Luke M; Butler, Michael S

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 7-week practical blood flow restriction (BFR) protocol used in conjunction with a strength training program on measures of muscular strength and size in collegiate American football players. Sixty-two participants were divided into 4 groups. Three groups completed a traditional upper- and lower-body split strength program. Two of these groups also completed supplemental lifting sessions. Of these 2, 1 completed the additional lifts with BFR. The final group completed a modified training program, followed by the supplemental lifts, with BFR. The supplemental lifting protocol consisted of bench press and squat, using 20% 1 repetition maximum (1RM) for 4 sets with 30 repetitions performed in the first set and 20 repetitions performed in the following 3 sets. Each set was separated by 45 seconds of rest. The supplemental bench press was completed at the end of upper-body days and the squat at the end of lower-body days. Dependent measures were taken before the start of the program and again on conclusion the following dependent variables were measured: upper- and lower-body girths, 1RM bench, and squat. Results of a 4 × 2 mixed-model multivariate analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference for the interaction on the dependent variables. Follow-up univariate analysis of variances indicated a significant difference for 1RM squat. This suggests that a practical BFR program used in addition to a traditional strength training program can be effective at increasing 1RM squat performance. The use of elastic knee wraps makes BFR a feasible training option for coaches and athletes.

  18. The Future of Genomic Research in Athletic Performance and Adaptation to Training.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan; Tanaka, Masashi; Eynon, Nir; North, Kathryn N; Williams, Alun G; Collins, Malcolm; Moran, Colin N; Britton, Steven L; Fuku, Noriyuki; Ashley, Euan A; Klissouras, Vassilis; Lucia, Alejandro; Ahmetov, Ildus I; de Geus, Eco; Alsayrafi, Mohammed; Pitsiladis, Yannis P

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous attempts to discover genetic variants associated with elite athletic performance, an individual's trainability and injury predisposition, there has been limited progress to date. Past reliance on candidate gene studies focusing predominantly on genotyping a limited number of genetic variants in small, often heterogeneous cohorts has not generated results of practical significance. Hypothesis-free genome-wide approaches will in the future provide more comprehensive coverage and in-depth understanding of the biology underlying sports-related traits and related genetic mechanisms. Large, collaborative projects with sound experimental designs (e.g. clearly defined phenotypes, considerations and controls for sources of variability, and necessary replications) are required to produce meaningful results, especially when a hypothesis-free approach is used. It remains to be determined whether the novel approaches under current implementation will result in findings with real practical significance. This review will briefly summarize current and future directions in exercise genetics and genomics. PMID:27287077

  19. Effects of whole-body vibration training on explosive strength and postural control in young female athletes.

    PubMed

    Fort, Azahara; Romero, Daniel; Bagur, Caritat; Guerra, Myriam

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a whole-body vibration training program to improve neuromuscular performance in young elite female athletes. Twenty-three women basketball players (14-18 years old) were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, n = 11) or to a whole-body vibration group (WBVG, n = 12). During the study period, both groups continued their usual training program, but the WBVG also underwent a 15-week vibration training program. We analyzed the countermovement jump test (CMJ), the 1-leg hop test for the right leg and for the left leg, and the single-limb standing balance for both legs and with eyes open and closed at 3 time points: before training (T1), after an 8-week training period (T2), and after a further 7-week training period (T3). Compared with the CG, CMJ increased significantly in the WBVG from T1 to T2 (6.47%, p < 0.001), T1 to T3 (10.07%, p = 0.005), and T2 to T3 (3.38%, p < 0.001). One-leg hop test for the right and left legs also showed significantly higher values in WBVG from T1 to T2 (10.12%, p < 0.001 and 9.63%, p = 0.002, respectively) and T1 to T3 (14.17%, p = 0.001 and 15.17%, p = 0.004, respectively). Lateral deviation of the center of pressure in the closed eyes test decreased significantly in WBVG for both right and left leg, from T1 to T2 (-22.20%, p = 0.043 and -34.77%, p < 0.001, respectively) and from T1 to T3 (-33.14%, p = 0.027 and -33.58%, p = 0.043, respectively) compared with the CG. In conclusion, our results show that a 15-week whole-body vibration training program improves explosive strength and postural stability in adolescent female basketball players.

  20. Comparison of Accreditation Criteria: CBHDP, NLN, and COA Accreditation Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frels, Lois; Horton, Betty

    1991-01-01

    Presents a detailed comparison of similarities and differences in the accreditation criteria of two nursing accrediting agencies--the National League for Nursing and the Council on Accreditation--as they relate to nurse anesthesiology programs. (JOW)

  1. Injuries and Footwear (Part 1): Athletic Shoe History and Injuries in Relation to Foot Arch Height and Training in Boots.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J; Pope, Rodney; Orr, Robin; Grier, Tyson

    2015-01-01

    This article traces the history of the athletic shoe, examines whether selecting running shoes based on foot arch height influences injuries, and examines historical data on injury rates when physical training (PT) is performed in boots versus running shoes. In the 1980s and into the 2000s, running shoe companies were advertising specialized shoes with "motion control," "stability," and "cushioning," designed for individuals with low, normal, and high arches, respectively. Despite marketing claims that these shoes would reduce injury rates, coordinated studies in Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps basic training showed that assigning or selecting shoes on this basis had no effect on injury rates. Consistent with this finding, biomechanical studies have shown that the relationships between arch height, foot joint mobility, and rear-foot motion are complex, variable, and frequently not as strong as often assumed. In 1982, the US Army switched from PT in boots to PT in running shoes because of the belief that boots were causing injuries and that running shoes would reduce injury rates. However, a historical comparison of injury rates before and after the switch to running shoes showed virtually no difference in injury risk between the two periods. It is not clear at this point if the type of footwear effects injury incidence. PMID:26630104

  2. Injuries and Footwear (Part 1): Athletic Shoe History and Injuries in Relation to Foot Arch Height and Training in Boots.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J; Pope, Rodney; Orr, Robin; Grier, Tyson

    2015-01-01

    This article traces the history of the athletic shoe, examines whether selecting running shoes based on foot arch height influences injuries, and examines historical data on injury rates when physical training (PT) is performed in boots versus running shoes. In the 1980s and into the 2000s, running shoe companies were advertising specialized shoes with "motion control," "stability," and "cushioning," designed for individuals with low, normal, and high arches, respectively. Despite marketing claims that these shoes would reduce injury rates, coordinated studies in Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps basic training showed that assigning or selecting shoes on this basis had no effect on injury rates. Consistent with this finding, biomechanical studies have shown that the relationships between arch height, foot joint mobility, and rear-foot motion are complex, variable, and frequently not as strong as often assumed. In 1982, the US Army switched from PT in boots to PT in running shoes because of the belief that boots were causing injuries and that running shoes would reduce injury rates. However, a historical comparison of injury rates before and after the switch to running shoes showed virtually no difference in injury risk between the two periods. It is not clear at this point if the type of footwear effects injury incidence.

  3. Anaerobic and aerobic peak power output and the force-velocity relationship in endurance-trained athletes: effects of aging.

    PubMed

    Chamari, K; Ahmaidi, S; Fabre, C; Massé-Biron, J; Préfaut, C

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that the anaerobic peak power output (Pan, peak) declines more than the peak aerobic power (Paer, peak) with increasing age. In addition, the force-velocity (F-v) relationship was studied to determine which of these two factors is primarily responsible for the expected alterations in anaerobic power. The Pan, peak, the maximal F when v is equal to zero (F0) and the maximal v when F is equal to zero (v0) were assessed by F-v test i.e. a brief intense intermittent exercise test using incremental braking forces. The Paer, peak was measured by a maximal increment exercise test. A group of 12 young athletes (YA) and 12 master athletes (MA) mean age 24.8 (SEM 1.3) and 65.1 (SEM 1.2) years, respectively, participated in this study. The YA and MA had similar body masses, heights and endurance training schedules. The results showed that Pan, peak was 42.7% lower in the older subjects, corresponding to mean values of 1089 (SEM 40) compared to 624 (SEM 33) W (t = 8.9, P < 0.001) for YA compared to MA, respectively. The F0 and V0 indices showed values that were lower by 30.3% and 15.2%, respectively. The Paer, peak was 35% lower with mean values of 323 (SEM 12) W for YA compared to 210 (SEM 6) W for MA (t = 8.3, P < 0.001). The mean maximal oxygen uptake was 34.7% lower with 4240 (SEM 160) ml.min-1 for YA compared to 2770 (SEM 120) ml.min-1 for MA (t = 7.2, P < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. 34 CFR 602.16 - Accreditation and preaccreditation standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regarding the quality of the education or training provided by the institutions or programs it accredits... education or correspondence education, the agency's standards must effectively address the quality of an... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accreditation and preaccreditation standards....

  5. Undergraduate Medical Education Accreditation as a Driver of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Frank A.; Aschenbrener, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the accreditation of medical education programs that lead to the Doctor of Medicine degree in the United States and Canada. We identify select accreditation standards that relate directly to the preparation of medical school graduates, as required for the supervised practice of medicine in residency training and for developing the…

  6. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Safe Weight Loss and Maintenance Practices in Sport and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Turocy, Paula Sammarone; DePalma, Bernard F.; Horswill, Craig A.; Laquale, Kathleen M.; Martin, Thomas J.; Perry, Arlette C.; Somova, Marla J.; Utter, Alan C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To present athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance practices for athletes and active clients and to provide athletes, clients, coaches, and parents with safe guidelines that will allow athletes and clients to achieve and maintain weight and body composition goals. Background: Unsafe weight management practices can compromise athletic performance and negatively affect health. Athletes and clients often attempt to lose weight by not eating, limiting caloric or specific nutrients from the diet, engaging in pathogenic weight control behaviors, and restricting fluids. These people often respond to pressures of the sport or activity, coaches, peers, or parents by adopting negative body images and unsafe practices to maintain an ideal body composition for the activity. We provide athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance in sport and exercise. Although safe weight gain is also a concern for athletic trainers and their athletes and clients, that topic is outside the scope of this position statement. Recommendations: Athletic trainers are often the source of nutrition information for athletes and clients; therefore, they must have knowledge of proper nutrition, weight management practices, and methods to change body composition. Body composition assessments should be done in the most scientifically appropriate manner possible. Reasonable and individualized weight and body composition goals should be identified by appropriately trained health care personnel (eg, athletic trainers, registered dietitians, physicians). In keeping with the American Dietetics Association (ADA) preferred nomenclature, this document uses the terms registered dietitian or dietician when referring to a food and nutrition expert who has met the academic and professional requirements specified by the ADA's Commission on Accreditation for Dietetics Education. In some cases, a registered nutritionist may have

  7. Academic and Workplace-related Visual Stresses Induce Detectable Deterioration Of Performance, Measured By Basketball Trajectories and Astigmatism Impacting Athletes Or Students In Military Pilot Training.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2004-03-01

    Separate military establishments across the globe can confirm that a high percentage of their prospective pilots-in-training are no longer visually fit to continue the flight training portion of their programs once their academic coursework is completed. I maintain that the visual stress induced by those intensive protocols can damage the visual feedback mechanism of any healthy and dynamic system beyond its usual and ordinary ability to self-correct minor visual loss of acuity. This deficiency seems to be detectable among collegiate and university athletes by direct observation of the height of the trajectory arc of a basketball's flight. As a particular athlete becomes increasingly stressed by academic constraints requiring long periods of concentrated reading under highly static angular convergence of the eyes, along with unfavorable illumination and viewing conditions, eyesight does deteriorate. I maintain that induced astigmatism is a primary culprit because of the evidence of that basketball's trajectory! See the next papers!

  8. The validity of physiological variables to assess training intensity in kayak athletes.

    PubMed

    Bishop, D

    2004-01-01

    It appears that training benefits are compromised if excessive training is performed at intensities that are either too low or too high. This suggests a need for accurate methods to monitor training intensity. It has been suggested that heart rate (HR) or lactate concentration ([La -]) can be used to accurately monitor training intensity. The purpose of the present study therefore, was to examine whether the relationship between HR, [La -] and intensity determined during a kayak graded exercise test (GXT) remained stable during constant-intensity kayak exercise. Sixteen trained kayak paddlers, (22 +/- 4 y, peak V.O (2) = 3.7 +/- 0.9 l x min (-1)) performed a GXT on a wind-braked kayak ergometer. They then performed a 20-min constant-load test on the kayak ergometer at a power output corresponding to their lactate inflection (LI) intensity. Eight subjects also performed a 20-min constant-load test at a power output corresponding to their lactate threshold (LT) intensity. Differences between constant-load and GXT values were determined using one-way ANOVA (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between values for HR and V.O (2) derived from the GXT and those measured during both constant-load tests. However, while [La -] also provided a valid marker of the LI training intensity (1.8 +/- 0.3 v 2.1 +/- 0.8 mmol x l (-1)), [La -] did not provide a valid marker of the LT training intensity (3.8 +/- 0.7 v 5.1 +/- 1.4 mmol x l (-1)). These results suggest that HR, but not [La -1], is similar during both a GXT and constant-load exercise at the LT intensity.

  9. Repeated sprint training improves intermittent peak running speed in team-sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jayden R; O'Brien, Brendan J; Mooney, Mitchell G; Berry, Jason; Young, Warren B; Down, Neville

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 2 repeated sprint training interventions on an intermittent peak running speed (IPRS) test designed for Australian Rules football. The test required participants to perform 10 × 10-m maximal efforts on an 80-m course every 25 seconds, for each of which the mean peak speed (kilometers per hour) was recorded to determine IPRS. The training interventions were performed twice weekly for 4 weeks immediately before regular football training. In the constant volume intervention (CVol), sprint repetition number remained at 10 (n = 9), and in the linear increase in volume (LIVol) intervention, repetition number increased linearly each week by 2 repetitions (n = 12). Intermittent peak running speed, 300-m shuttle test performance, and peak running speed were assessed before and upon completion of training. All measures were compared to a control group (CON; n = 8) in which players completed regular football training exclusively. Intermittent peak running speed performance in CVol and LIVol improved significantly (p < 0.01) by 5.2 and 3.8%, respectively, with no change in IPRS for CON. There were no differences in IPRS changes between CVol and LIVol. Additionally, peak running speed improved significantly (p < 0.01) by 5.1% for CVol, whereas 300-m shuttle performance improved significantly (p < 0.01) by 2.6% for LIVol only. Intermittent peak running speed, 300-m shuttle performance and peak running speed were improved after 4 weeks of training; however, progressively increasing sprint repetition number had no greater advantage on IPRS adaptation. Additionally, exclusive regular football training over a 4-week period is unlikely to improve IPRS, peak running speed, or 300-m shuttle performance.

  10. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation downregulates the increase of monocytes expressing toll-like receptor 4 in response to 6-day intensive training in kendo athletes.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Kon, Michihiro; Tanimura, Yuko; Hanaoka, Yukichi; Kimura, Fuminori; Akama, Takao; Kono, Ichiro

    2015-06-01

    This study examined changes in toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4)-expressing monocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in response to continuous intensive exercise training in athletes, as well as the effect of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on these changes. Eighteen male elite kendo athletes in Japan were randomly assigned to a CoQ10-supplementation group (n = 9) or a placebo-supplementation group (n = 9) using a double-blind method. Subjects in the CoQ10 group took 300 mg CoQ10 per day for 20 days. Subjects in the placebo group took the same dosage of placebo. All subjects practiced kendo 5.5 h per day for 6 consecutive days during the study period. Blood samples were collected 2 weeks before training, on the first day (day 1), third day (day 3), and fifth day of training (day 5), and 1 week after the training period (post-training) to ascertain TLR-4(+)/CD14(+) monocyte and lymphocyte subpopulations (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), CD28(+)/CD4(+), CD28(+)/CD8(+), and CD56(+)/CD3(-) cells) using flow cytometry analysis. The group × time interaction for TLR-4(+)/CD14(+) cells did not reach significance (p = 0.08). Within the CoQ10 group, the absolute number of TLR-4(+)/CD14(+) cells was significantly higher only at day 5. The placebo group showed a significant increase in the absolute number of TLR-4(+)/CD14(+) cells at day 3, day 5, and post-training (p < 0.05). There was no significant group × time interaction for any lymphocyte subpopulation. CD3(+), CD8(+), and CD56(+)/CD3(-) cells were significantly reduced at day 3 in both groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, CoQ10 supplementation might downregulate the increase of TLR-4-expressing monocytes in response to continuous strenuous exercise training in kendo athletes. PMID:25941765

  11. 34 CFR 602.1 - Why does the Secretary recognize accrediting agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recognizes accrediting agencies to ensure that these agencies are, for the purposes of the Higher Education... quality of education or training offered by the institutions or programs they accredit. (b) The Secretary... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Why does the Secretary recognize accrediting...

  12. THE ROLE AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ECCENTRIC TRAINING IN ATHLETIC REHABILITATION: TENDINOPATHY, HAMSTRING STRAINS, AND ACL RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Reiman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The benefits and proposed physiological mechanisms of eccentric exercise have previously been elucidated and eccentric exercise has been used for well over seventy years. Traditionally, eccentric exercise has been used as a regular component of strength training. However, in recent years, eccentric exercise has been used in rehabilitation to manage a host of conditions. Of note, there is evidence in the literature supporting eccentric exercise for the rehabilitation of tendinopathies, muscle strains, and in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rehabilitation. The purpose of this Clinical Commentary is to discuss the physiologic mechanism of eccentric exercise as well as to review the literature regarding the utilization of eccentric training during rehabilitation. A secondary purpose of this commentary is to provide the reader with a framework for the implementation of eccentric training during rehabilitation of tendinopathies, muscle strains, and after ACL reconstruction. PMID:21655455

  13. Accreditation in Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Accrediting, Washington, DC.

    The Council on Dental Education cooperates with the American Dental Hygienists' Association in developing educational requirements for schools of dental hygiene. To be eligible for accreditation, schools must operate on a non-profit basis. A school applying for accreditation completes a previsitation questionnaire concerning its program. The…

  14. Accreditation of Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirel, Ergün

    2016-01-01

    The higher education institutes aspire to gain reputation of quality having accreditation from internationally recognized awarding bodies. The accreditation leads and provides quality assurance for education. Although distance learning becomes a significant part of the education system in the 21st century, there is still a common opinion that the…

  15. Faculty Participation in Accreditation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Academic Senate.

    The California Community Colleges are accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC), a non-governmental organization providing the public with a means of recognizing institutions that meet established standards of good practice. Accreditation is carried out by visiting teams, composed of staff and governing board members…

  16. A meta-analysis of the effect of neuromuscular training on the prevention of the anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Ho; Lim, Bee Oh; Ha, Mina; Lee, Soo Won; Oh, Soo Jin; Lee, Yong Seuk; Kim, Jin Goo

    2010-06-01

    Female athletes are more prone to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than their male counterparts, presumably because of anatomical, hormonal, and neuromuscular differences. Of these three, only the neuromuscular component can be modified by preventive exercise. We aimed to evaluate the effect of a neuromuscular protocol on the prevention of ACL injury by performing meta-analysis, and to identify essential factors by subgroup analysis. An extensive literature review was conducted to identify relevant studies, and eventually, only seven randomized controlled trials or prospective cohort studies were included in the analysis. The odds ratios (OR) and the confidence interval (CI) for the overall effects of training and of potentially contributory factors were estimated. The OR and the 95% CI for the overall effect of the preventive training were 0.40 and [0.27, 0.60], respectively. Subgroup analysis revealed that an age under 18, soccer rather than handball, pre- and in-season training rather than either pre- or in-season training, and the plyometrics and strengthening components rather than balancing were significant. Meta-analysis showed that pre- and in-season neuromuscular training with an emphasis on plyometrics and strengthening exercises was effective at preventing ACL injury in female athletes, especially in those under 18 years of age. Further study is required to develop a relevant training program protocol of appropriate intensity.

  17. Standardized Patients Provide a Reliable Assessment of Athletic Training Students' Clinical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Kirk J.; Jarriel, Amanda J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Providing students reliable objective feedback regarding their clinical performance is of great value for ongoing clinical skill assessment. Since a standardized patient (SP) is trained to consistently portray the case, students can be assessed and receive immediate feedback within the same clinical encounter; however, no research, to our…

  18. Sex alters impact of repeated bouts of sprint exercise on neuromuscular activity in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Billaut, François; Smith, Kurt

    2009-08-01

    This study characterized the effect of sex on neuromuscular activity during repeated bouts of sprint exercise. Thirty-three healthy male and female athletes performed twenty 5-s cycle sprints separated by 25 s of rest. Mechanical work and integrated electromyograhs (iEMG) of 4 muscles of the dominant lower limb were calculated in every sprint. The iEMG signals from individual muscles were summed to represent overall electrical activity of these muscles (sum-iEMG). Neuromuscular efficiency (NME) was calculated as the ratio of mechanical work and sum-iEMG for every sprint. Arterial oxygen saturation was estimated (SpO2) with pulse oximetry throughout the protocol. The sprint-induced work decrement (18.9% vs. 29.6%; p < 0.05) and sum-iEMG reduction (11.4% vs. 19.4%; p < 0.05) were less for the women than for the men. However, the sprints decreased NME (10.1%; p < 0.05) and SpO2 (3.4%; p < 0.05) without showing sex dimorphism. Changes in SpO2 and sum-iEMG were strongly correlated in both sexes (men, R2 = 0.87; women, R2 = 0.91; all p < 0.05), although the slope of this relationship differed (6.3 +/- 2.9 vs. 3.8 +/- 1.6, respectively; p < 0.05). It is suggested that the sex difference in fatigue during repeated bouts of sprint exercise is not likely to be explained by a difference in muscle contractility impairment in men and women, but may be due to a sex difference in muscle recruitment strategy. We speculate that women would be less sensitive to arterial O2 desaturation than men, which may trigger lower neuromuscular adjustments to exhaustive exercise.

  19. Perspective: Does Laboratory-Based Maximal Incremental Exercise Testing Elicit Maximum Physiological Responses in Highly-Trained Athletes with Cervical Spinal Cord Injury?

    PubMed

    West, Christopher R; Leicht, Christof A; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Romer, Lee M

    2015-01-01

    The physiological assessment of highly-trained athletes is a cornerstone of many scientific support programs. In the present article, we provide original data followed by our perspective on the topic of laboratory-based incremental exercise testing in elite athletes with cervical spinal cord injury. We retrospectively reviewed our data on Great Britain Wheelchair Rugby athletes collected during the last two Paralympic cycles. We extracted and compared peak cardiometabolic (heart rate and blood lactate) responses between a standard laboratory-based incremental exercise test on a treadmill and two different maximal field tests (4 min and 40 min maximal push). In the nine athletes studied, both field tests elicited higher peak responses than the laboratory-based test. The present data imply that laboratory-based incremental protocols preclude the attainment of true peak cardiometabolic responses. This may be due to the different locomotor patterns required to sustain wheelchair propulsion during treadmill exercise or that maximal incremental treadmill protocols only require individuals to exercise at or near maximal exhaustion for a relatively short period of time. We acknowledge that both field- and laboratory-based testing have respective merits and pitfalls and suggest that the choice of test be dictated by the question at hand: if true peak responses are required then field-based testing is warranted, whereas laboratory-based testing may be more appropriate for obtaining cardiometabolic responses across a range of standardized exercise intensities. PMID:26834642

  20. Perspective: Does Laboratory-Based Maximal Incremental Exercise Testing Elicit Maximum Physiological Responses in Highly-Trained Athletes with Cervical Spinal Cord Injury?

    PubMed Central

    West, Christopher R.; Leicht, Christof A.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.; Romer, Lee M.

    2016-01-01

    The physiological assessment of highly-trained athletes is a cornerstone of many scientific support programs. In the present article, we provide original data followed by our perspective on the topic of laboratory-based incremental exercise testing in elite athletes with cervical spinal cord injury. We retrospectively reviewed our data on Great Britain Wheelchair Rugby athletes collected during the last two Paralympic cycles. We extracted and compared peak cardiometabolic (heart rate and blood lactate) responses between a standard laboratory-based incremental exercise test on a treadmill and two different maximal field tests (4 min and 40 min maximal push). In the nine athletes studied, both field tests elicited higher peak responses than the laboratory-based test. The present data imply that laboratory-based incremental protocols preclude the attainment of true peak cardiometabolic responses. This may be due to the different locomotor patterns required to sustain wheelchair propulsion during treadmill exercise or that maximal incremental treadmill protocols only require individuals to exercise at or near maximal exhaustion for a relatively short period of time. We acknowledge that both field- and laboratory-based testing have respective merits and pitfalls and suggest that the choice of test be dictated by the question at hand: if true peak responses are required then field-based testing is warranted, whereas laboratory-based testing may be more appropriate for obtaining cardiometabolic responses across a range of standardized exercise intensities. PMID:26834642

  1. Sucrose ingestion after exhaustive exercise accelerates liver, but not muscle glycogen repletion compared with glucose ingestion in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Cas J; Gonzalez, Javier T; Beelen, Milou; Cermak, Naomi M; Smith, Fiona E; Thelwall, Pete E; Taylor, Roy; Trenell, Michael I; Stevenson, Emma J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of sucrose vs. glucose ingestion on postexercise liver and muscle glycogen repletion. Fifteen well-trained male cyclists completed two test days. Each test day started with glycogen-depleting exercise, followed by 5 h of recovery, during which subjects ingested 1.5 g·kg(-1)·h(-1) sucrose or glucose. Blood was sampled frequently and (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging were employed 0, 120, and 300 min postexercise to determine liver and muscle glycogen concentrations and liver volume. Results were as follows: Postexercise muscle glycogen concentrations increased significantly from 85 ± 27 (SD) vs. 86 ± 35 mmol/l to 140 ± 23 vs. 136 ± 26 mmol/l following sucrose and glucose ingestion, respectively (no differences between treatments: P = 0.673). Postexercise liver glycogen concentrations increased significantly from 183 ± 47 vs. 167 ± 65 mmol/l to 280 ± 72 vs. 234 ± 81 mmol/l following sucrose and glucose ingestion, respectively (time × treatment, P = 0.051). Liver volume increased significantly over the 300-min period after sucrose ingestion only (time × treatment, P = 0.001). As a result, total liver glycogen content increased during postexercise recovery to a greater extent in the sucrose treatment (from 53.6 ± 16.2 to 86.8 ± 29.0 g) compared with the glucose treatment (49.3 ± 25.5 to 65.7 ± 27.1 g; time × treatment, P < 0.001), equating to a 3.4 g/h (95% confidence interval: 1.6-5.1 g/h) greater repletion rate with sucrose vs. glucose ingestion. In conclusion, sucrose ingestion (1.5 g·kg(-1)·h(-1)) further accelerates postexercise liver, but not muscle glycogen repletion compared with glucose ingestion in trained athletes. PMID:27013608

  2. Determinants of the variability in respiratory exchange ratio at rest and during exercise in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Goedecke, J H; St Clair Gibson, A; Grobler, L; Collins, M; Noakes, T D; Lambert, E V

    2000-12-01

    We examined the variability and determinants of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) at rest and during exercise in 61 trained cyclists. Fasting (10-12 h) RER was measured at rest and during exercise at 25, 50, and 70% of peak power output (W(peak)), during which blood samples were drawn for [lactate] and [free fatty acid] ([FFA]). Before these measurements, training volume, dietary intake and muscle fiber composition, [substrate], and enzyme activities were determined. There was large interindividual variability in resting RER (0.718-0.927) that persisted during exercise of increasing intensity. The major determinants of resting RER included muscle glycogen content, training volume, proportion of type 1 fibers, [FFA] and [lactate], and %dietary fat intake (adjusted r(2) = 0.59, P < 0.001). Except for muscle fiber composition, these variables also predicted RER at 25, 50, and 70% W(peak) to different extents. The key determinant at 25% W(peak) was blood-borne [substrate], at 50% was muscle [substrate] and glycolytic enzyme activities, and at 70% was [lactate]. Resting RER was also a significant determinant of RER at 25 (r = 0.60) and 50% (r = 0.44) W(peak). PMID:11093921

  3. Genetics of athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Ostrander, Elaine A; Huson, Heather J; Ostrander, Gary K

    2009-01-01

    Performance enhancing polymorphisms (PEPs) are examples of natural genetic variation that affect the outcome of athletic challenges. Elite athletes, and what separates them from the average competitor, have been the subjects of discussion and debate for decades. While training, diet, and mental fitness are all clearly important contributors to achieving athletic success, the fact that individuals reaching the pinnacle of their chosen sports often share both physical and physiological attributes suggests a role for genetics. That multiple members of a family often participate in highly competitive events, such as the Olympics, further supports this argument. In this review, we discuss what is known regarding the genes and gene families, including the mitochondrial genome, that are believed to play a role in human athletic performance. Where possible, we describe the physiological impact of the critical gene variants and consider predictions about other potentially important genes. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings on the future for competitive athletics. PMID:19630564

  4. Genetics of athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Ostrander, Elaine A; Huson, Heather J; Ostrander, Gary K

    2009-01-01

    Performance enhancing polymorphisms (PEPs) are examples of natural genetic variation that affect the outcome of athletic challenges. Elite athletes, and what separates them from the average competitor, have been the subjects of discussion and debate for decades. While training, diet, and mental fitness are all clearly important contributors to achieving athletic success, the fact that individuals reaching the pinnacle of their chosen sports often share both physical and physiological attributes suggests a role for genetics. That multiple members of a family often participate in highly competitive events, such as the Olympics, further supports this argument. In this review, we discuss what is known regarding the genes and gene families, including the mitochondrial genome, that are believed to play a role in human athletic performance. Where possible, we describe the physiological impact of the critical gene variants and consider predictions about other potentially important genes. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings on the future for competitive athletics.

  5. Preparing School Psychologists for Working with Diverse Students: Does Program Accreditation Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styck, Kara M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which differences exist between accredited and non-accredited school psychology training programs on specific characteristics of training theorized to prepare graduates for working with racially, ethnically, and/or linguistically diverse students. Training directors from each of the 237…

  6. JCAHO accreditation. Is it necessary?

    PubMed

    Williams, R L

    1997-11-01

    Many hospital leaders question the need for accreditation from the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). Unhappy with the JCAHO and its accreditation process, hospital executives are looking at alternatives. State and federal governments, managed care organizations and hospitals monitoring themselves all have the potential to replace accreditation. This article looks at these alternatives from a nursing perspective.

  7. [Accreditation of forensic laboratories].

    PubMed

    Sołtyszewski, Ireneusz

    2010-01-01

    According to the framework decision of the European Union Council, genetic laboratories which perform tests for the benefit of the law enforcement agencies and the administration of justice are required to obtain a certificate of accreditation testifying to compliance with the PN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 standard. The certificate is the official confirmation of the competence to perform research, an acknowledgement of credibility, impartiality and professional independence. It is also the proof of establishment, implementation and maintenance of an appropriate management system. The article presents the legal basis for accreditation, the procedure of obtaining the certificate of accreditation and selected elements of the management system. PMID:21863740

  8. COAMFTE accreditation and California MFT licensing exam success.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Benjamin E; Kunker, Shelly A; Brown, Stephen W; Saiki, Dustin Y

    2011-10-01

    Professional accreditation of graduate programs in marital and family therapy (MFT) is intended to ensure the strength of the education students receive. However, there is great difficulty in assessing the real-world impact of accreditation on students. Only one measure is applied consistently to graduates of all MFT programs, regardless of accreditation status: licensure examinations. Within California, COAMFTE-accredited, regionally (WASC) accredited, and state-approved programs all may offer degrees qualifying for licensure. Exam data from 2004, 2005, and 2006 (n = 5,646 examinees on the Written Clinical Vignette exam and n = 3,408 first-time examinees on the Standard Written Exam) were reviewed to determine the differences in exam success among graduates of programs at varying levels of accreditation. Students from COAMFTE-accredited programs were more successful on both California exams than were students from other WASC-accredited or state-approved universities. There were no significant differences between (non-COAMFTE) WASC-accredited universities and state-approved programs. Differences could be related to selection effects, if COAMFTE programs initially accept students of higher quality. Implications for therapist education and training are discussed.

  9. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Learn About Feet » Foot Health Information Athlete's Foot What is Athlete's Foot? Athlete's foot is a skin disease caused by a fungus, ... fungus growth. Not all fungus conditions are athlete's foot. Other conditions, such as disturbances of the sweat ...

  10. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program.

  11. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program. PMID:25960983

  12. 9 CFR 161.3 - Renewal of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accreditation. (a) Accredited veterinarians who wish to continue participating in the National Veterinary... years of the previous renewal. (b) Accredited veterinarians who wish to renew their accreditation under... as an accredited veterinarian. Accredited veterinarians who wish to renew their accreditation...

  13. Aging has greater impact on anaerobic versus aerobic power in trained masters athletes.

    PubMed

    Gent, Debra Nicole; Norton, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This study measured the relative rates of change of the three human energy systems across a 30-year age range. A cross-section of highly trained masters cyclists (n = 156 males and 17 females; 35-64 years) were tested for maximal cycling performance. There were 50 (29%) track sprint cyclists and the remaining (71%) were predominantly road cycling specialists. A 10 s peak power test measured anaerobic power, a 30 s test measured anaerobic capacity, and a progressive test to volitional fatigue was used to determine peak aerobic power. Participants' exercise patterns were recorded using a physical activity recall questionnaire. Linear regression showed significant changes in anaerobic performance with aging. Peak anaerobic power (W · kg⁻¹) declined at a rate (mean ± SEE) of 8.1 ± 4.1% per decade (P < 0.0001) and anaerobic capacity (kJ · kg⁻¹) declined at 8.0 ± 3.3% per decade (P < 0.0001). Peak aerobic power [W · kg⁻¹] did not change significantly with age [-1.8 ± 1.5% per decade (P = 0.218)]. This cross-sectional study showed performance of the two anaerobic energy systems declined significantly across the age spectrum with no change in aerobic capacity.

  14. Institutionalized Hypocrisy: The Myth of Intercollegiate Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    America is unique in that participation in sports has historically been linked to colleges and universities under the premise that participation serves an educational function and supplements the mission of higher education. Yet, intercollegiate athletics is seldom discussed in institutional accreditation self-studies, mission statements, or…

  15. The relationship between test protocol and the development of exercise-induced hypoxemia (EIH) in highly trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Lama, I L; Wolski, L A; Coutts, K D; McKenzie, D C

    1996-01-01

    Healthy male endurance-trained cyclists [n = 11, age = 27.3 (3.9) years; mass = 73.0 (9.3) kg; height = 180.5 (6.9) cm; maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) = 71.1 (5.8) ml.kg-1.min-1, mean +/- (SD)] were recruited to assess the relationship between test protocol and the development of desaturation of arterial hemoglobin with oxygen, during incremental exercise tests to maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). All subjects demonstrated resting pulmonary function within normal limits [forced vital capacity (FVC) = 6.0 (0.9); forced expiratory volume (FEV1.0) = 4.9 (0.6); FEV1.0/FVC = 0.8 (0.1)] and completed three ramped VO2max tests (Mijnhardt KEM-3 electronically braked cycle ergometer) beginning at 0 W with increments of either 20,30 or 40 W.min-1. All periods of testing were separated by a minimum of 72 h. VO2max, peak minute ventilation (VEpeak) (Medical Graphics, CPX-D), peak heart rate (fcpeak), peak power output (Wpeak), and minimum percentage arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (% SaO2min) (Omeda Biox 3740 pulse oximeter) were determined. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in VEpeak [191.5 (26.2), 196.0 (24.4), 194.3 (23.9) l.min-1] fcpeak [191.4 (7.0), 190.3 (5.5), 187.8 (5.9) beats.min-1], VO2max [5.0 (0.5), 5.1 (0.4), 5.1 (0.5) l.min-1] or %SaO2min [89.5 (1.5), 89.6 (1.3), 90.0 (2.3)] between protocols. The 20-W protocol [417 (27) W] demonstrated significantly lower Wpeak (P < 0.05) than the 30-W [434 (36) W] and 40-W [453 (38) W] protocols, indicating that peripheral fatigue may play an important factor in response to these tests. The results of this study demonstrate that arterial desaturation occurs as a result of intense exercise in highly trained athletes independent of the rate of attainment of VO2max.

  16. The Effect of β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition in Trained Athletes.

    PubMed

    Durkalec-Michalski, Krzysztof; Jeszka, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Durkalec-Michalski, K and Jeszka, J. The effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on aerobic capacity and body composition in trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2617-2626, 2016-The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) affects body composition, aerobic capacity, or intramuscular enzymes activity, as well as in anabolic and/or catabolic hormones and lactate concentrations. A cohort of 58 highly trained males was subjected to 12-week supplementation with HMB (3 × 1 gHMB·d) and a placebo (PLA) in randomized, PLA controlled, double-blind crossover trials, with a 10-day washout period. Body composition and aerobic capacity were recorded, whereas the levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, testosterone, cortisol, and lactate, as well as the T/C ratio, in blood samples were measured. After HMB supplementation, fat-free mass increased (+0.2 kgHMB vs. -1.0 kgPLA, p = 0.021), with a simultaneous reduction of fat mass (-0.8 kgHMB vs. +0.8 kgPLA, p < 0.001). In turn, after HMB supplementation, in comparison to PLA, maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above][Combining Dot Above]O2max: +0.102 L·minHMB vs. -0.063 L·minPLA, p = 0.013), time to reach ventilatory threshold (VT) (TVT: +1.0 minHMB vs. -0.4 minPLA, p < 0.0001), threshold load at VT (WVT: +20 WHMB vs. -7 WPLA, p = 0.001), and the threshold heart rate at VT (HRVT: +8 b·minHMB vs. -1 b·minPLA, p < 0.0001) increased significantly. Analysis of the tested biochemical markers shows significant differences only in relation to the initial concentration. In HMB group, testosterone levels increased (p = 0.047) and in both groups (HMB: p = 0.008; PLA: p = 0.008) higher cortisol levels were observed. The results indicate that supplying HMB promotes advantageous changes in body composition and stimulates an increase in aerobic capacity, although seeming not to significantly affect the levels of the analyzed blood markers. PMID:26849784

  17. The effect of different rehydration drinks on post-exercise electrolyte excretion in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Brouns, F; Kovacs, E M; Senden, J M

    1998-01-01

    Eight well-trained cyclists were dehydrated (median [P25-P75 percentiles]) 3.21 [2.97-3.56]% of body mass by cycling in the heat (28 C). During the first 2 h of recovery, the subjects randomly ingested ad libitum either a caffeinated soft drink (CC), a low Na+ mineral water (MW), or an isotonic carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES). Fluid intake and urine loss amounted respectively to 2.77 [2.34-2.85] kg, 1.00 [0.82-1.20] kg for CC, 2.15 [1.86-2.79] kg, 0.96 [0.40-1.49] kg for MW, and 2.86 [2.15-3.58] kg, 1.10 [0.86- 1.50] kg for CES. Electrolyte retention was calculated from electrolyte intake with the drink and loss with the urine. Consumption of CC and MW which were low in electrolytes resulted in marked loss of Na+, K+, Cl-, Mg2+ and Ca2+. Consumption of CES resulted in Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ retention while K+ and Cl- loss were not influenced. The significantly lower Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ loss with CES compared to both CC and MW may be explained by its higher electrolyte content in CES, compared to CC and MW, which only had minor amounts of these electrolytes. Furthermore, it was shown that CC potentiated urinary Mg2+ and Ca2+ excretion. It is concluded that: 1) Post-exercise MW or CC ingestion results in a negative electrolyte balance, 2) Caffeine containing beverages potentiate Mg2+ and Ca2+ excretion; 3) Consumption of CES containing moderate amounts of Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ results in sufficient replacement to compensate for urinary losses.

  18. Triceps surae muscle-tendon properties in older endurance- and sprint-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Stenroth, Lauri; Cronin, Neil J; Peltonen, Jussi; Korhonen, Marko T; Sipilä, Sarianna; Finni, Taija

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that aging is associated with alterations in muscle architecture and tendon properties (Morse CI, Thom JM, Birch KM, Narici MV. Acta Physiol Scand 183: 291-298, 2005; Narici MV, Maganaris CN, Reeves ND, Capodaglio P. J Appl Physiol 95: 2229-2234, 2003; Stenroth L, Peltonen J, Cronin NJ, Sipila S, Finni T. J Appl Physiol 113: 1537-1544, 2012). However, the possible influence of different types of regular exercise loading on muscle architecture and tendon properties in older adults is poorly understood. To address this, triceps surae muscle-tendon properties were examined in older male endurance (OE, n = 10, age = 74.0 ± 2.8 yr) and sprint runners (OS, n = 10, age = 74.4 ± 2.8 yr), with an average of 42 yr of regular training experience, and compared with age-matched [older control (OC), n = 33, age = 74.8 ± 3.6 yr] and young untrained controls (YC, n = 18, age = 23.7 ± 2.0 yr). Compared with YC, Achilles tendon cross-sectional area (CSA) was 22% (P = 0.022), 45% (P = 0.001), and 71% (P < 0.001) larger in OC, OE, and OS, respectively. Among older groups, OS had significantly larger tendon CSA compared with OC (P = 0.033). No significant between-group differences were observed in Achilles tendon stiffness. In older groups, Young's modulus was 31-44%, and maximal tendon stress 44-55% lower, than in YC (P ≤ 0.001). OE showed shorter soleus fascicle length than both OC (P < 0.05) and YC (P < 0.05). These data suggest that long-term running does not counteract the previously reported age-related increase in tendon CSA, but, instead, may have an additive effect. The greatest Achilles tendon CSA was observed in OS followed by OE and OC, suggesting that adaptation to running exercise is loading intensity dependent. Achilles tendon stiffness was maintained in older groups, even though all older groups displayed larger tendon CSA and lower tendon Young's modulus. Shorter soleus muscle fascicles in OE runners may be an adaptation to life

  19. Submaximal exercise intensities do not provoke variations in plasma magnesium concentration in well-trained euhydrated endurance athletes with no magnesium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Soria, Marisol; González-Haro, Carlos; López-Colón, José L; Llorente, María T; Escanero, Jesús F

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of exercise intensity during an incremental exercise test on plasma Mg concentration in well-trained euhydrated athletes. Twenty-seven well-trained endurance athletes carried out a cycloergometer test: after a warm-up of 10 min at 2.0 W·kg(-1), the workload increased by 0.5 W·kg(-1) every 10 min until exhaustion. Oxygen uptake (VO(2)), blood lactate concentration ([La(-)](b)), catecholamines, and plasma Mg were measured at rest, at the end of each stage and at 3, 5 and 7 minutes post-exercise. Urine specific gravity (U(SG)) was analyzed before and after the test, and subjects drank water ad libitum. Fat oxidation rate (FAT(oxr)), carbohydrate oxidation rate (CHO(oxr)), energy expenditure from fat (EE(FAT)), energy expenditure from carbohydrate (EE(CHO)), and total EE (EE(TOTAL)) were estimated using stoichiometric equations. Plasma Mg concentration at each relative exercise intensity (W·kg(-1)) were compared by means of repeated-measures ANOVA. Pearson's correlations were performed to assess the relationship between variables. The significance level was set at p<0.05. No significant differences were found in U(SG) between before and after the test (1.014±0.004 vs 1.014±0.004 g·cm(-3)). Nor were significant differences found in plasma Mg as a function of the different exercise intensities. Further, no significant correlations were detected between Mg and metabolic variables. In conclusion, acute exercise at a range of submaximal intensities in euhydrated well-trained endurance athletes does not affect plasma Mg concentration, suggesting that the plasma volume plays an important role in Mg homeostasis during exercise.

  20. Eight-Week Training Cessation Suppresses Physiological Stress but Rapidly Impairs Health Metabolic Profiles and Aerobic Capacity in Elite Taekwondo Athletes.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Sung, Yu-Chi; Chou, Chun-Chung; Chen, Chung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Changes in an athlete's physiological and health metabolic profiles after detraining have not been studied in elite Taekwondo (TKD) athletes. To enable a better understanding of these physiological changes to training cessation, this study examined the effects of 8-weeks detraining on the aerobic capacity, body composition, inflammatory status and health metabolic profile in elite TKD athletes. Sixteen elite TKD athletes (age: 21.0 ± 0.8 yrs, BMI: 22.4 ± 3.9 kg/m2; Mean ± SD; 11 males and 5 females) participated in this study. Physical activity level assessment using computerized physical activity logs was performed during the competitive preparation season (i.e. one-week before national competition) and at two week intervals throughout the detraining period. Participant aerobic capacity, body fat, and blood biomarkers were measured before and after detraining, and the blood biomarker analyses included leukocyte subpopulations, blood glucose, insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), and cortisol. Eight-week detraining increased DHEA-S/cortisol ratio (+57.3%, p = 0.004), increased insulin/cortisol ratio (+59.9%, p = 0.004), reduced aerobic power (-2.43%, p = 0.043), increased body fat accumulation (body fat%: +21.3%, p < 0.001), decreased muscle mass (muscle mass%: -4.04%, p < 0.001), and elevated HOMA-IR (the biomarker of systemic insulin resistance; +34.2%, p = 0.006). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a systemic inflammatory index, increased by 48.2% (p = 0.005). The change in aerobic capacity was correlated with the increased fat mass (r = -0.429, p = 0.049) but not with muscle loss. An increase in the NLR was correlated to the changes in HOMA-IR (r = 0.44, p = 0.044) and aerobic capacity (r = -0.439, p = 0.045). We demonstrate that 8-week detraining suppresses physiological stress but rapidly results in declines in athletic performance and health metabolic profiles, including reduced aerobic capacity, increased body fat, muscle loss, insulin