Science.gov

Sample records for accredited social health

  1. Reinventing Social Work Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoesz, David; Karger, Howard J.

    2009-01-01

    Accreditation under the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) has contributed to the professional decline of social work. The lack of scholarship of the Board of Directors of CSWE compromises its decision making. The quality of the professional literature suffers from the weak scholarship of editors and referees. The caliber of deans and…

  2. Assessment of 'accredited social health activists'-a national community health volunteer scheme in Karnataka State, India.

    PubMed

    Fathima, Farah N; Raju, Mohan; Varadharajan, Kiruba S; Krishnamurthy, Aditi; Ananthkumar, S R; Mony, Prem K

    2015-03-01

    About 700,000 Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) have been deployed as community health volunteers throughout India over the last few years. The objective of our study was to assess adherence to selection criteria in the recruitment of ASHA workers and to assess their performance against their job descriptions in Karnataka state, India. A cross-sectional survey, using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, was undertaken in 2012. Three districts, 12 taluks (subdistricts), and 300 villages were selected through a sequential sampling scheme. For the quantitative survey, 300 ASHAs and 1,800 mothers were interviewed using sets of structured questionnaire. For the qualitative study, programme officers were interviewed via in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Mean ± SD age of ASHAs was 30.3 ± 5.0 years, and about 90% (261/294) were currently married, with eight years of schooling. ASHAs were predominantly (>80%) involved in certain tasks: home-visits, antenatal counselling, delivery escort services, breastfeeding advice, and immunization advice. Performance was moderate (40-60%) for: drug provision for tuberculosis, caring of children with diarrhoea or pneumonia, and organizing village meetings for health action. Performance was low (<25%) for advice on: contraceptive-use, obstetric danger sign assessment, and neonatal care. This was self-reported by ASHAs and corroborated by mothers. In conclusion, ASHA workers were largely recruited as per preset selection criteria with regard to age, education, family status, income, and residence. The ASHA workers were found to be functional in some areas with scope for improvement in others. The role of an ASHA worker was perceived to be more of a link-worker/facilitator rather than a community health worker or a social activist. PMID:25995730

  3. Assessment of ‘Accredited Social Health Activists’—A National Community Health Volunteer Scheme in Karnataka State, India

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Mohan; Varadharajan, Kiruba S.; Krishnamurthy, Aditi; Ananthkumar, S.R.; Mony, Prem K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT About 700,000 Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) have been deployed as community health volunteers throughout India over the last few years. The objective of our study was to assess adherence to selection criteria in the recruitment of ASHA workers and to assess their performance against their job descriptions in Karnataka state, India. A cross-sectional survey, using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, was undertaken in 2012. Three districts, 12 taluks (subdistricts), and 300 villages were selected through a sequential sampling scheme. For the quantitative survey, 300 ASHAs and 1,800 mothers were interviewed using sets of structured questionnaire. For the qualitative study, programme officers were interviewed via in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Mean±SD age of ASHAs was 30.3±5.0 years, and about 90% (261/294) were currently married, with eight years of schooling. ASHAs were predominantly (>80%) involved in certain tasks: home-visits, antenatal counselling, delivery escort services, breastfeeding advice, and immunization advice. Performance was moderate (40-60%) for: drug provision for tuberculosis, caring of children with diarrhoea or pneumonia, and organizing village meetings for health action. Performance was low (<25%) for advice on: contraceptive-use, obstetric danger sign assessment, and neonatal care. This was self-reported by ASHAs and corroborated by mothers. In conclusion, ASHA workers were largely recruited as per preset selection criteria with regard to age, education, family status, income, and residence. The ASHA workers were found to be functional in some areas with scope for improvement in others. The role of an ASHA worker was perceived to be more of a link-worker/facilitator rather than a community health worker or a social activist. PMID:25995730

  4. Assessing community health workers’ performance motivation: a mixed-methods approach on India's Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) programme

    PubMed Central

    Gopalan, Saji Saraswathy; Mohanty, Satyanarayan; Das, Ashis

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined the performance motivation of community health workers (CHWs) and its determinants on India's Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) programme. Design Cross-sectional study employing mixed-methods approach involved survey and focus group discussions. Setting The state of Orissa. Participants 386 CHWs representing 10% of the total CHWs in the chosen districts and from settings selected through a multi-stage stratified sampling. Primary and secondary outcome measures The level of performance motivation among the CHWs, its determinants and their current status as per the perceptions of the CHWs. Results The level of performance motivation was the highest for the individual and the community level factors (mean score 5.94–4.06), while the health system factors scored the least (2.70–3.279). Those ASHAs who felt having more community and system-level recognition also had higher levels of earning as CHWs (p=0.040, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.12), a sense of social responsibility (p=0.0005, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.25) and a feeling of self-efficacy (p=0.000, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.54) on their responsibilities. There was no association established between their level of dissatisfaction on the incentives (p=0.385) and the extent of motivation. The inadequate healthcare delivery status and certain working modalities reduced their motivation. Gender mainstreaming in the community health approach, especially on the demand-side and community participation were the positive externalities of the CHW programme. Conclusions The CHW programme could motivate and empower local lay women on community health largely. The desire to gain social recognition, a sense of social responsibility and self-efficacy motivated them to perform. The healthcare delivery system improvements might further motivate and enable them to gain the community trust. The CHW management needs amendments to ensure adequate supportive supervision, skill and knowledge enhancement and enabling working

  5. [Accreditation in health care].

    PubMed

    Fügedi, Gergely; Lám, Judit; Belicza, Éva

    2016-01-24

    Besides the rapid development of healing procedures and healthcare, efficiency of care, institutional performance and safe treatment are receiving more and more attention in the 21st century. Accreditation, a scientifically proven tool for improving patient safety, has been used effectively in healthcare for nearly a hundred years, but only started to spread worldwide since the 1990s. The support and active participation of medical staff are determining factors in operating and getting accross the nationally developed, upcoming Hungarian accreditation system. However, this active assistance cannot be expected without the participants' understanding of the basic goals and features of the system. The presence of the ISO certification in Hungary, well-known by healthcare professionals, further complicates the understanding and orientation among quality management and improvement systems. This paper aims to provide an overview of the history, goals, function and importance of healthcare accreditation, and its similarities and differences regarding ISO certification. PMID:26772826

  6. Evaluating Birth Preparedness and Pregnancy Complications Readiness Knowledge and Skills of Accredited Social Health Activists in India

    PubMed Central

    Kochukuttan, Smitha; Ravindran, TK Sundari; Krishnan, Suneeta

    2013-01-01

    Background: The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in India relies on Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) to act as a link between pregnant women and health facilities. All ASHAs are required to have a birth preparedness plan and be aware of danger signs of complications to initiate appropriate and timely referral to obstetric care. Objectives: To examine the extent to which Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) are equipped with necessary knowledge and skills and the adequacy of support they get from supervisors to carry out their assigned tasks in a rural district in Karnataka, (South) India. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among 225 ASHAs between June – July 2011. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected using pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square test was used to determine associations between categorical variables. Results: The response rate was 207(92%). In terms of knowledge of all key danger signs (Complication Readiness), 2(1%), 10(4.8%), and 15(7.2%) ASHAs were aware of key danger signs for labor and child birth, postpartum period and pregnancy period, respectively. Knowledge of key danger signs was associated with repeated, recent and practical training (p <0.05). A majority (71%) scored 4-7 of the maximum score out of 8 for knowledge regarding Birth Preparedness. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: ASHAs in rural Karnataka, India, are poorly equipped to identify obstetric complications and to help expectant mothers prepare a birth preparedness plan. There is critical need for the implementation of appropriate training and follow-up supervision of ASHAs within a supportive, functioning and responsive health care system.

  7. Comments on "Reinventing Social Work Accreditation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midgley, James

    2009-01-01

    It is unlikely that Stoesz and Karger will be widely commended for the critique of social work accreditation. Social work academics do not usually handle criticism with equanimity. In some respects, their case is overstated. The problems associated with social work accreditation are not caused by the low publication productivity of social work…

  8. Social Partnership in Accrediting Lithuanian VET Qualifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutlys, Vidmantas; Kaminskiene, Lina

    2008-01-01

    This article examines social partnership in accrediting qualifications in Lithuania. It defines the factors influencing social partnership and surveys future development perspectives, referring to the creation and implementation of the national qualifications system in Lithuania. Social partnership in qualifications accreditation is regarded as a…

  9. Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Press Release Archives learn more » For Patients Your health care choices matter. Whether you're anticipating a surgical ... certificate of accreditation is a sign that a health care organization meets or exceeds nationally-recognized Standards. Learn ...

  10. IMIA Accreditation of Health Informatics Programs

    PubMed Central

    Mantas, John

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Health informatics programs usually are evaluated by national accreditation committees. Not always are the members of these committees well informed about the international level of (education in) health informatics. Therefore, when a program is accredited by a national accreditation committee, this does not always mean that the program is of an international level. The International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) has expertise in the field of education. The IMIA Recommendations on Education in Biomedical and Health Informatics guide curricula development. The goal of this article is to show that IMIA can also play the role of accreditation agency and to present the IMIA accreditation protocol and experiences obtained with it. Methods The accreditation procedure used in the Netherlands and Belgium was taken as a template for the design of the IMIA accreditation protocol. In a trial period of one and a half year the protocol is tested out on six health informatics programs. Results An accreditation protocol was designed. For judging the curriculum of a program the IMIA Recommendations are used. The institution has to write a self-assessment report and a site visit committee visits the program and judges its quality, supported by the self-assessment report and discussions with all stakeholders of the program. Conclusions After having visited three programs it appears that the IMIA accreditation procedure works well. Only a few changes had to be introduced. Writing the self-assessment report already appears to be beneficial for the management of the program to obtain a better insight in the quality of their program. PMID:24175114

  11. Perceptions of Women Living with AIDS in Rural India Related to the Engagement of HIV-Trained Accredited Social Health Activists for Care and Support

    PubMed Central

    NYAMATHI, ADELINE M.; WILLIAM, RAVI RAJ; GANGULY, KALYAN K.; SINHA, SANJEEV; HERAVIAN, ANISA; ALBARRÁN, CYNTHIA R.; THOMAS, ALEXANDRA; GREENGOLD, BARBARA; EKSTRAND, MARIA; RAMAKRISHNA, PADMA; RAO, PANTANGI RAMA

    2011-01-01

    A community-based participatory research study was conducted using focus groups with 39 women living with AIDS (WLA) in the rural setting of Andhra Pradesh, India. In addition, three nurses, two physicians, and five reproductive health accredited social health activists (ASHAs) took part in focus groups. The WLA offered insight into the benefits of HIV-trained ASHAs including emotional support, assistance with travel to health care providers and antiretroviral therapy medication adherence. Health care providers also identified benefits of using HIV-trained ASHAs and suggested modalities for how to train these individuals. These findings will contribute to the design of a future program of care involving HIV-trained ASHAs. PMID:21331322

  12. Accreditation of occupational health services in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnstad, O.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2010, an accreditation system for occupational health services (OHS) in Norway was implemented. Aims To examine OHS experiences of the accreditation system in Norway 4 years after its implementation. Methods A web-based questionnaire was sent to all accredited OHS asking about their experiences with the accreditation system. Responses were compared with a similar survey conducted in 2011. Results The response rate was 76% (173/228). OHS reported that the most common changes they had had to make to achieve accreditation were: improvement of their quality assurance system (53%), a plan for competence development (44%) and increased staffing in occupational hygiene (36%) and occupational medicine (28%). The OHS attributed improved quality in their own OHS (56%) and in OHS in Norway (47%), to the accreditation process. Conclusions The accreditation system was well accepted by OHS, who reported that it had improved the quality of their OHS and of OHS in Norway. The results are similar to the findings of a 2011 survey. PMID:26276757

  13. [Quality of health care, accreditation, and health technology assessment in Croatia: role of agency for quality and accreditation in health].

    PubMed

    Mittermayer, Renato; Huić, Mirjana; Mestrović, Josipa

    2010-12-01

    Avedis Donabedian defined the quality of care as the kind of care, which is expected to maximize an inclusive measure of patient welfare, after taking into account the balance of expected gains and losses associated with the process of care in all its segments. According to the World Medical Assembly, physicians and health care institutions have an ethical and professional obligation to strive for continuous quality improvement of services and patient safety with the ultimate goal to improve both individual patient outcomes as well as population health. Health technology assessment (HTA) is a multidisciplinary process that summarizes information about the medical, social, economic and ethical issues related to the use of a health technology in a systematic, transparent, unbiased, robust manner, with the aim to formulate safe and effective health policies that are patient focused and seek to achieve the highest value. The Agency for Quality and Accreditation in Health was established in 2007 as a legal, public, independent, nonprofit institution under the Act on Quality of Health Care. The Agency has three departments: Department of Quality and Education, Department of Accreditation, and Department of Development, Research, and Health Technology Assessment. According to the Act, the Agency should provide the procedure of granting, renewal and cancellation of accreditation of healthcare providers; proposing to the Minister, in cooperation with professional associations, the plan and program for healthcare quality assurance, improvement, promotion and monitoring; proposing the healthcare quality standards as well as the accreditation standards to the Minister; keeping a register of accreditations and providing a database related to accreditation, healthcare quality improvement, and education; providing education in the field of healthcare quality assurance, improvement and promotion; providing the HTA procedure and HTA database, supervising the healthcare insurance

  14. Evaluating the Impact of National Public Health Department Accreditation - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Kronstadt, Jessica; Meit, Michael; Siegfried, Alexa; Nicolaus, Teddi; Bender, Kaye; Corso, Liza

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, the nonprofit Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB) launched the national, voluntary public health accreditation program for state, tribal, local, and territorial public health departments. As of May 2016, 134 health departments have achieved 5-year accreditation through PHAB and 176 more have begun the formal process of pursuing accreditation. In addition, Florida, a centralized state in which the employees of all 67 local health departments are employees of the state, achieved accreditation for the entire integrated local public health department system in the state. PHAB-accredited health departments range in size from a small Indiana health department that serves approximately 17,000 persons to the much larger California Department of Public Health, which serves approximately 38 million persons. Collectively, approximately half the U.S. population, or nearly 167 million persons, is covered by an accredited health department. Forty-two states and the District of Columbia now have at least one nationally accredited health department. In a survey conducted through a contract with a social science research organization during 2013-2016, >90% of health departments that had been accredited for 1 year reported that accreditation has stimulated quality improvement and performance improvement opportunities, increased accountability and transparency, and improved management processes. PMID:27513206

  15. Self-reported Practices and Attitudes of Community Health Workers (Accredited Social Health Activist) in Tobacco Control – Findings from two states in India

    PubMed Central

    Persai, Divya; Panda, Rajmohan; Mathur, Manu Raj

    2015-01-01

    Background: The 1978 declaration (Alma-Ata declaration) made at the International Conference on Primary Health Care, meeting in Alma-Ata highlighted the critical role played by Community Health Workers (CHWs) to link communities to the health system. The flagship program of Government of India proposed introduction of CHWs namely Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA). As a link between community and health system ASHA is in a unique position to generate awareness on tobacco-related issues. However, there is limited evidence on practices of ASHAs in tobacco control in India. The present study explores whether CHWs such as ASHAs can be utilized as a resource for informing and educating community on tobacco and its harmful effects. The study captured perceptions and practices of ASHAs regarding tobacco control. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted among 512 ASHAs in six intervention districts each in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. The study settings (i.e., health facilities and villages) were selected through systematic random sampling. The study participants were selected through simple random sampling. Responses were captured through self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression model was applied to measure associations between variables such as knowledge level of ASHAs and information provided on different tobacco-related diseases by them in both the states, with statistical significance based on the Chi-square test. Results: Our findings indicate that ASHAs linked tobacco usage to diseases such as respiratory problems, lung cancer, tuberculosis, and oral disease. Only one-third of ASHAs reported informing all patients about the harmful health effects of tobacco, whereas more than half of them reported providing information only to patients suffering from specific illness. ASHAs who reported having received training in tobacco control were about Two times more likely to give information on effects of tobacco on respiratory diseases (odds

  16. Social accountability of medical education: aspects on global accreditation.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Stefan; Karle, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Medical doctors constitute a profession which embraces trust from and accountability to society. This responsibility extends to all medical educational institutions. Social accountability of medical education means a willingness and ability to adjust to the needs of patients and health care systems both nationally and globally. But it also implies a responsibility to contribute to the development of medicine and society through fostering competence for research and improvement. Accreditation is a process by which a statutory body evaluates and recognises an educational institution and/or its programme with respect to meeting approved criteria. It is a means for quality assurance, but also a strong power to reinforce the need for improvement and reforms. It must be performed through internationally recognised and transparent standards and should foremost promote quality development. The social accountability of medical education must be included in all accreditation processes at all levels. The global standards programme by World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) provides tools for national or regional accreditation but also guidance for reforms and quality improvement. The standards are used worldwide and have been adopted to local needs in most parts of the world. They are framed to specify attainment at two levels: basic standards or minimum requirements and standards for quality development. The concept of social accountability is embedded in all parts of the WFME standards documents. In 2011, a revision of the standards for undergraduate education has been instituted. Strengthening of aspects on social accountability of medical education will be a particular concern. PMID:21774655

  17. Patterns and predictors of local health department accreditation in Missouri

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Jeffrey; Elliott, Michael; Brownson, Ross C.; Abdulloeva, Safina; Wojciehowski, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Context Accreditation of local health departments has been identified as a crucial strategy for strengthening the public health infrastructure. Rural local health departments face many challenges including lower levels of staffing and funding than LHDs serving metropolitan or urban areas; simultaneously their populations experience health disparities related to risky health behaviors, health outcomes, and access to medical care. Through accreditation, rural local health departments can become better equipped to meet the needs of their communities. Objective To better understand the needs of communities by assessing barriers and incentives to state-level accreditation in Missouri from the rural local health department (RHLD) perspective. Design Qualitative analysis of semi-structured key informant interviews with Missouri LHDs serving rural communities. Participants Eleven administrators of RLHDs, seven from accredited and four from unaccredited departments were interviewed. Population size served ranged from 6,400 to 52,000 for accredited RLHDs and 7,200 to 73,000 for unaccredited RLHDs. Results Unaccredited RLHDs identified more barriers to accreditation than accredited RLHDs. Time was a major barrier to seeking accreditation. Unaccredited RLHDs overall did not see accreditation as a priority for their agency and failed to the see value of accreditation. Accredited RLHDs listed significantly more incentives then their unaccredited counterparts. Unaccredited RLHDs identified accountability, becoming more effective and efficient, staff development, and eventual funding as incentives to accreditation. Conclusions There is a need for better documentation of measurable benefits in order for a RLHD to pursue voluntary accreditation. Those who pursue are likely to see benefits after the fact, but those who do not, do not see the immediate and direct benefits of voluntary accreditation. The findings from this study of state-level accreditation in Missouri provides insight

  18. What Should Gerontology Learn from Health Education Accreditation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Dana Burr; Fitzgerald, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and accreditation are closely tied together. This article documents the work toward a unified and comprehensive national accreditation program in health education. By exploring the accreditation journey of another discipline, the field of gerontology should learn valuable lessons. These include an attention to inclusivity, a…

  19. Highlighting Health: A Discussion of Health Practices and Accreditation. Accreditation and Beyond Series, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Claire

    Research indicates children in group care have increased risk of infectious illnesses compared to those cared for at home. The health practices of child care center staff, children, and parents will influence the incidence of illness. The issues discussed in the book relate to some of the indicators of selected health accreditation principles in…

  20. Response to Stoesz and Karger's Article, "Reinventing Social Work Accreditation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Julia M.

    2009-01-01

    The article by David Stoesz and Howard J. Karger, "Reinventing Social Work Accreditation," is misleading and erroneous in its assumptions, makes unsubstantiated assertions, and demonstrates an ideological shallowness on the part of the authors in their understanding of social work education, the Council on Social Work Education, and the role of…

  1. The National Accreditation Board for Hospital and Health Care Providers accreditation programme in India.

    PubMed

    Gyani, Girdhar J; Krishnamurthy, B

    2014-01-01

    Quality in health care is important as it is directly linked with patient safety. Quality as we know is driven either by regulation or by market demand. Regulation in most developing countries has not been effective, as there is shortage of health care providers and governments have to be flexible. In such circumstances, quality has taken a back seat. Accreditation symbolizes the framework for quality governance of a hospital and is based on optimum standards. Not only is India establishing numerous state of the art hospitals, but they are also experiencing an increase in demand for quality as well as medical tourism. India launched its own accreditation system in 2006, conforming to standards accredited by ISQua. This article shows the journey to accreditation in India and describes the problems encountered by hospitals as well as the benefits it has generated for the industry and patients. PMID:24938026

  2. 77 FR 31362 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Application From the Community Health Accreditation Program for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... the Community Health Accreditation Program for Continued Approval of Its Hospice Accreditation Program... conditions. A national accrediting organization applying for approval of its accreditation program under part... for continued approval of its accreditation program every 6 years or as we determine. Community...

  3. 78 FR 56711 - Health Insurance Exchanges; Application by the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Affordable Care Act has been delegated from the Secretary to the Administrator of CMS., 76 FR 53903 through... Related to Essential Health Benefits, Actuarial Value, and Accreditation (78 FR 1283),'' \\3\\ which amended... Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care To Be a Recognized Accrediting Entity for the...

  4. Measuring communication competence and effectiveness of ASHAs (accredited social health activist) in their leadership role at rural settings of Uttar Pradesh (India).

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Archana; Srivastava, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to find out accredited social health activists' (ASHA) communication competence and effectiveness while working as leaders with groups in the rural setting. ASHA, as the "first point of contact" for pregnant women in rural areas, plays a significant role in building awareness and disseminating key information at critical times (e.g. antenatal and post-natal period), promotes healthy maternal and newborn care practices and facilitates identification and referral of maternal and newborn complications. ASHA plays critical role of a leader in bridging the gap between health system and community. In the entire process, effective communication competency is the key to her effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach - The study adopts seven items from the farmers communication (FACOM) scale of communication measures developed by Udai Pareek and Y.P Singh. Preliminary editing of the items was done keeping certain points in mind such as the items should not be judgemental, should be acts of behaviour, should be observable and should be simple. This scale was adopted for the study, as it was designed to measure farmers' communication competence and suited the context. The evaluation criteria included the seven essential elements of communication identified in the FACOM scale. Findings - Results from the study identified a need to sensitise ASHAs on the critical role of effective communication and need for investing more in building her capacity for health communication. The trainings being imparted to ASHAs have to be strengthened in terms of communication skills. They should focus upon developing all three variables of communication skills equally and integrating them to get desired results. Research limitations/implications - The study was conducted in one state while the programme is running across the country. The sample size was small. Practical implications - The learning of the study will help in developing a better understanding of the

  5. 78 FR 77470 - Health Insurance Exchanges; Approval of an Application by the Accreditation Association for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Essential Health Benefits, Actuarial Value, and Accreditation; Final Rule, 78 FR 12834, 12854-12855... a Recognized Accrediting Entity for the Accreditation of Qualified Health Plans; 78 FR 56711-56714... Entities for the Accreditation of Qualified Health Plans'' (77 FR 42658) to be recognized as an...

  6. 78 FR 66364 - Medicare & Medicaid Programs: Application From the Accreditation Commission for Health Care for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... notice in the Federal Register (78 FR 26036) announcing Accreditation Commission for Health Care's... the Accreditation Commission for Health Care for Continued CMS-Approval of Its Hospice Accreditation... final notice announces our decision to approve the Accreditation Commission for Health Care (ACHC)...

  7. Community health program evaluation using accreditation as a framework.

    PubMed

    Severance, Janet Hahn

    2009-03-01

    Increasingly, health system leaders seek to determine whether community health interventions make a difference to individuals in the community. However, community health improvement is difficult to measure, and health system staff may not be familiar with evaluation research methods. Health care organizations can improve their evaluation efforts relatively easily by building on what they already know: the Joint Commission accreditation process. By using accreditation as a framework, community health evaluation may be seen as more approachable when viewed through that lens. This article provides a framework for practical approaches to program planning, evaluation, and sustainability. Joint Commission accreditation functions (chapters) are similar to health program goals. Standards are similar to program objectives. Elements of performance are similar to activities or methods. Scoring comparisons are similar to measures. PMID:19116229

  8. Public Health Accreditation: Rubber Stamp or Roadmap for Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Timsina, Lava

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We identified the characteristics of local health departments (LHDs) that intended to seek accreditation, and also examined the association between that intent and a complete community health assessment (CHA), community health improvement plan, agency strategic plan, or other specific accreditation requirements. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2010 profile survey of LHDs conducted by the National Association of County and City Health Officials (n = 267). Results. Those LHDs that conducted a CHA (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38, 1.00; P = .05) and developed a strategic plan (AOR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.12, 0.74; P = .01) were less likely to have an intent to pursue accreditation in the first 2 years of the program. By contrast, those LHDs that were engaged in quality improvement (QI) activities were approximately 2.6 times more likely to pursue accreditation compared with those LHDs that did not have any QI activities (P < .001). Conclusions. Based on our findings, national public health accreditation might be the vehicle LHDs could use to improve their operating environments, better manage their resources, and reap the rewards associated with meeting national industry standards. PMID:25689214

  9. 77 FR 17072 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Approval of the Community Health Accreditation Program for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ...This notice announces our decision to approve the Community Health Accreditation Program (CHAP) for recognition as a national accreditation program for home health agencies (HHAs) seeking to participate in the Medicare or Medicaid...

  10. Accessing completeness of pregnancy, delivery, and death registration by Accredited Social Health Activists [ASHA] in an innovative mHealth project in the tribal areas of Gujarat: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Modi, D; Patel, J; Desai, S; Shah, P

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Innovative Mobile-phone Technology for Community Health Operation (ImTeCHO) is a mobile-phone application that helps Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) in complete registration through the strategies employed during implementation that is linking ASHAs’ incentives to digital records, regular feedback, onsite data entry, and demand generation among beneficiaries. Objective: To determine the proportion of pregnancies, deliveries, and infant deaths (events) being registered through the ImTeCHO application against actual number of events in a random sample of villages. Materials and Methods: Five representative villages were randomly selected from the ImTeCHO project area in the tribal areas of Gujarat, India to obtain the required sample of 98 recently delivered women. A household survey was done in the entire villages to enumerate each family and create a line-listing of events since January 2014; the line-listing was compared with list of women registered through the ImTeCHO application. The proportion of events being registered through the ImTeCHO application was compared against the actual number of events to find sensitivity of the ImTeCHO application. Result: A total of 844 families were found during household enumeration. Out of actual line-listing of pregnancies (N = 39), deliveries (N = 102), and infant deaths (N = 5) found during household enumeration, 38 (97.43%), 101 (99.01%), and 5 (100%) were registered by ASHAs through the ImTeCHO application. Conclusion: The use of mobile-phone technology and strategies applied during the ImTeCHO implementation should be upscaled to supplement efforts to improve the completeness of registration. PMID:27241808

  11. Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs

    MedlinePlus

    LOGIN HOME | ACCREDITATION SERVICES HUB | YOUR ACCREDITATION MENTOR | TAKE THE SITE VISITOR QUIZ FIND AN ACCREDITED PROGRAM HOT NEWS! TAKE THE SITE VISITORS QUIZ YOUR ACCREDITATION MENTOR W hat is CAAHEP? ...

  12. 78 FR 26036 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs: Application From the Accreditation Commission for Health Care for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... the Accreditation Commission for Health Care for Continued CMS-Approval of Its Hospice Accreditation... years or as determined by CMS. The Accreditation Commission for Health Care's (ACHC's) current term of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  13. Toward a Unified System of Accreditation for Professional Preparation in Health Education: Final Report of the National Task Force on Accreditation in Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegrante, John P.; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.; Auld, M. Elaine; Birch, David A.; Roe, Kathleen M.; Smith, Becky J.

    2004-01-01

    During the past 40 years, health education has taken significant steps toward improving quality assurance in professional preparation through individual certification and program approval and accreditation. Although the profession has begun to embrace individual certification, program accreditation in health education has been neither uniformly…

  14. The Journey toward Voluntary Public Health Accreditation Readiness in Local Health Departments: Leadership and Followership Theories in Action

    PubMed Central

    Carman, Angela L.

    2015-01-01

    Local health department directors’ intent on getting their organizations ready for accreditation must embrace the blurring of leader/follower lines and create an accreditation readiness team fueled not by traditional leader or follower roles but by teamship. PMID:25785260

  15. The Journey toward Voluntary Public Health Accreditation Readiness in Local Health Departments: Leadership and Followership Theories in Action.

    PubMed

    Carman, Angela L

    2015-01-01

    Local health department directors' intent on getting their organizations ready for accreditation must embrace the blurring of leader/follower lines and create an accreditation readiness team fueled not by traditional leader or follower roles but by teamship. PMID:25785260

  16. Collective Impact through Public Health and Academic Partnerships: A Kentucky Public Health Accreditation Readiness Example

    PubMed Central

    Carman, Angela L.

    2015-01-01

    In the ever-changing, resource-limited public health environment, the use of partners found in the faculty and students of Colleges of Public Health can provide training, consultation, and technical assistance needed to increase local health department (LHD) workforce capacity to meet new public health demands including national public heath accreditation. This manuscript describes the provision of the backbone support activities of facilitation, data management, and project management by University of Kentucky’s College of Public Health to Kentucky’s LHDs seeking national public health accreditation. PMID:25806362

  17. Accreditation of Professional Preparation Programs for School Health Educators: The Changing Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Alyson; Goekler, Susan; Auld, M. Elaine; Birch, David A.; Muller, Susan; Wengert, Deitra; Allegrante, John P.

    2014-01-01

    The health education profession is committed to maintaining the highest standards of quality assurance, including accreditation of professional preparation programs in both school and community/public health education. Since 2001, the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) has increased attention to strengthening accreditation processes for…

  18. 77 FR 70783 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Approval of the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) Application for Continuing CMS Approval of Its... Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) for continued recognition as a national accrediting... by CMS. The Ambulatory Health Care's (AAAHC) current term of approval for their ASC...

  19. Accreditation of Professional Preparation Programs for School Health Educators: The Changing Landscape.

    PubMed

    Taub, Alyson; Goekler, Susan; Auld, M Elaine; Birch, David A; Muller, Susan; Wengert, Deitra; Allegrante, John P

    2014-08-01

    The health education profession is committed to maintaining the highest standards of quality assurance, including accreditation of professional preparation programs in both school and community/public health education. Since 2001, the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) has increased attention to strengthening accreditation processes for preservice programs. This article focuses on the preparation of school health educators and the evolving philosophies and approaches concerning quality assurance, with particular attention to recent changes in teacher education and national professional accreditation entities. The unification of the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and the Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) to form the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) as the single voice for teacher accreditation presents an opportunity to create a model unified accreditation system. Such a system can improve and enhance the stature of the teaching profession, raise expectations and the performance standards for teacher education candidates, and strengthen the standards for the evidence used to support claims of quality. During this transition period from NCATE and TEAC to CAEP, a School Health Education Accreditation Working Group convened by SOPHE recommended to the SOPHE Board of Trustees that SOPHE urge health education professionals to monitor and provide input into the emerging standards and processes for school health educator program accreditation. The Working Group also recommended that both health education professionals and the stakeholder professional organizations advocate for strong quality assurance standards for school health educator professional preparation programs. The Working Group anticipates future changes in quality assurance processes and curricula to keep pace with new accreditation requirements and the results from the latest role delineation research for health education

  20. Accreditation of public health education in India: Enhancing quality, competence and trust.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zahiruddin, Quazi Syed

    2013-01-01

    With an increase in the number of institutes offering public health education, there is a need for discussion on future directions and challenges. The World Health Report 2006 identified the need to improve the quality of public health education. There are various mechanisms and bodies that look after accreditation issues in several countries. The Council on Education for Public Health in the USA assists in the accreditation of schools of public health, as well as public health programmes. The Australian Network of Academic Public Health Institutions is actively engaged in discussions to improve the quality of its programme and institutions. In Europe, the European Agency for Accreditation in Public Health Education is responsible for accreditation. The South-East Asia Public Health Education Institutes Network facilitates accreditation of public health education in the region. In India, public health education varies across institutes. India needs an accreditation system to ensure that public health education is of the desired quality. Certain initiatives, such as conferences, consultation and the Calcutta Declaration, have been taken in the past two decades. However, the ideas mooted have yet to be translated into reality. The broad framework for accreditation may entail an institutional self-assessment against set standards, preparation of a database, cataloguing, and site visits by a peer team. There is a need for an apical body with all stakeholders participating in the process. Accreditation has specific benefits, but there are critical challenges as well. For example, the autonomy of the institutions needs to be protected, the accreditation bodies should exhibit professionalism and substantial financial resources are required. Before tackling specific criteria for accreditation, it is necessary to define a collective vision for schools of public health in India. PMID:25073994

  1. Developing a Competency-Based Pan-European Accreditation Framework for Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battel-Kirk, Barbara; Van der Zanden, Gerard; Schipperen, Marielle; Contu, Paolo; Gallardo, Carmen; Martinez, Ana; Garcia de Sola, Silvia; Sotgiu, Alessandra; Zaagsma, Miriam; Barry, Margaret M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The CompHP Pan-European Accreditation Framework for Health Promotion was developed as part of the CompHP Project that aimed to develop competency-based standards and an accreditation system for health promotion practice, education, and training in Europe. Method: A phased, multiple-method approach was employed to facilitate consensus…

  2. Viewpoints on Accreditation from Health Education Professionals and Administrators of Academic Professional Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Jay M.; Videto, Donna M.; Widdall, Christine L.; Chen, W. William; Airhihenbuwa, Collins; Allegrante, John P.

    2003-01-01

    The health education profession has made significant strides in promoting quality assurance for credentialing of health educators through a combination of individual certification and program approval and accreditation mechanisms. Although the profession has widely embraced individual certification, program accreditation has not been uniformly…

  3. Application of situational leadership to the national voluntary public health accreditation process.

    PubMed

    Rabarison, Kristina; Ingram, Richard C; Holsinger, James W

    2013-01-01

    Successful navigation through the accreditation process developed by the Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB) requires strong and effective leadership. Situational leadership, a contingency theory of leadership, frequently taught in the public health classroom, has utility for leading a public health agency through this process. As a public health agency pursues accreditation, staff members progress from being uncertain and unfamiliar with the process to being knowledgeable and confident in their ability to fulfill the accreditation requirements. Situational leadership provides a framework that allows leaders to match their leadership styles to the needs of agency personnel. In this paper, the application of situational leadership to accreditation is demonstrated by tracking the process at a progressive Kentucky county public health agency that served as a PHAB beta test site. PMID:24350195

  4. Local public health certification and accreditation in Illinois: blending the old and the new.

    PubMed

    Landrum, Laura B; Bassler, Elissa J; Polyak, Georgeen; Edgar, Mark; Giangreco, Christopher; Dopkeen, Jonathan C

    2007-01-01

    Funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation through the Multi-State Learning Collaborative, the Illinois Accreditation Development Project is developing a proposal to reengineer the 15-year-old Illinois local health department certification process. The Project is addressing a variety of political, technical, and resource issues in its attempt to develop a new approach to a mature program that will incorporate more meaningful performance and capacity measures for all local public health practice standards. Both statewide strategic planning and the evolving national momentum toward local public health agency accreditation are motivating the enhancements to the Illinois program. A new proposal that blends the current mandatory certification program with a new voluntary local public health accreditation program is discussed. The proposed new structure enhances the state-operated certification program with specific performance measures and creates a three-tiered voluntary accreditation process governed by a third party accreditation board. PMID:17563632

  5. The CSWE and Social Work Accreditation: Not Guilty on All Charges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thyer, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the criticisms of Stoesz and Karger contained within their article titled "Reinventing Social Work Education" and focused against the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) are misdirected. The CSWE accreditation mandate does not extend to the publishing records (or lack thereof) of social work faculty or deans, to the GRE scores of…

  6. 77 FR 64344 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Approval of the Community Health Accreditation Program for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ...This notice announces our decision to approve the Community Health Accreditation Program (CHAP) for continued recognition as a national accrediting organization for hospices that wish to participate in the Medicare or Medicaid programs. A hospice that participates in Medicaid must also meet the Medicare conditions of participation (CoPs) as referenced in our...

  7. Basis of Accreditation for Educational Programs in Designated Health Science Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Medical Association, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Designed as a guide to accreditation for educational programs in designated health science professions in Canada, this report provides educators with guidelines, general requirements, and requirements for specific programs. Following information on the organization, structure, goals, mission, values, philosophy, and terminology of accreditation of…

  8. The Council on Social Work Education and Accreditation: 1973-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyola Univ., Chicago, IL.

    A review of problems surrounding accreditation for the Council of Social Work Education (CSWE) at Loyola University in Chicago from the early 1970s to the mid 1980s is presented. It is noted that these problems caused the CSWE to lose credibility with the graduate schools of social work, and reviewing what happened could help avoid similar…

  9. Women's Health Fellowships: Examining the Potential Benefits and Harms of Accreditation

    PubMed Central

    Vogelman, Bennett

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This commentary responds to the assertions by Foreman et al. that credentialing of women's health (WH) fellows by the American Board of Medical Subspecialties and accreditation of current and future WH fellowships by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education would improve the health and healthcare of women by increasing the number of primary care providers competent to meet a growing clinical need. They speculate that such accreditation would raise the status of WH fellowships, increase the number of applicants, and result in more academic leaders in WH. They assert that curricular deficiencies in WH exist in physician training and that WH fellowships are the preferred means of training physicians to care for midlife women. We review the evidence to support or refute these claims and conclude that accrediting WH fellowships would not have the forecasted outcomes and would jeopardize the success of current WH fellowships. PMID:25919589

  10. Women's Health Fellowships: Examining the Potential Benefits and Harms of Accreditation.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Molly; Vogelman, Bennett

    2015-05-01

    This commentary responds to the assertions by Foreman et al. that credentialing of women's health (WH) fellows by the American Board of Medical Subspecialties and accreditation of current and future WH fellowships by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education would improve the health and healthcare of women by increasing the number of primary care providers competent to meet a growing clinical need. They speculate that such accreditation would raise the status of WH fellowships, increase the number of applicants, and result in more academic leaders in WH. They assert that curricular deficiencies in WH exist in physician training and that WH fellowships are the preferred means of training physicians to care for midlife women. We review the evidence to support or refute these claims and conclude that accrediting WH fellowships would not have the forecasted outcomes and would jeopardize the success of current WH fellowships. PMID:25919589

  11. Advantages and Disadvantages of Health Care Accreditation Mod­els

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizi, Jafar S.; Gharibi, Farid; Wilson, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This systematic review seeks to define the general advantages and disadvan­tages of accreditation programs to assist in choosing the most appropriate approach. Method: Systematic search of SID, Ovid Medline & PubMed databases was conducted by the keywords of accreditation, hospital, medical practice, clinic, accreditation models, health care and Persian meanings. From 2379 initial articles, 83 articles met the full inclusion criteria. From initial analysis, 23 attributes were identified which appeared to define advantages and disadvantages of different accreditation approaches and the available systems were compared on these. Results: Six systems were identified in the international literature including the JCAHO from USA, the Canadian program of CCHSA, and the accreditation programs of UK, Australia, New Zealand and France. The main distinguishing attributes among them were: quality improve­ment, patient and staff safety, improving health services integration, public’s confi­dence, effectiveness and efficiency of health services, innovation, influence global standards, information management, breadth of activity, history, effective relationship with stakeholders, agreement with AGIL attributes and independence from government. Conclusion: Based on 23 attributes of comprehensive accreditation systems we have defined from a systematic review, the JCAHO accreditation program of USA and then CCHSA of Can­ada offered the most comprehensive systems with the least disadvantages. Other programs such as the ACHS of Australia, ANAES of France, QHNZ of New Zealand and UK accredita­tion programs were fairly comparable according to these criteria. However the decision for any country or health system should be based on an assessment weighing up their specific objec­tives and needs. PMID:24688896

  12. Current Status and Future Plans for Undergraduate Public/Community Health Education Program Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, M. Elizabeth; Birch, David A.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Quality assurance in health education professional preparation has long been a goal of the profession. A comprehensive coordinated accreditation process for graduate and undergraduate health education has been recommended. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the current status of, and future plans for,…

  13. Operationalising and piloting the IUHPE European accreditation system for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Battel-Kirk, Barbara; Barry, Margaret M; van der Zanden, Gerard; Contu, Paolo; Gallardo, Carmen; Martinez, Ana; Speller, Viv; Debenedetti, Sara

    2015-09-01

    The International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) European Accreditation System for Health Promotion aims to promote quality assurance in health promotion practice, education and training. The System is designed to be flexible and sensitive to the different contexts for health promotion practice, education and training in Europe, while maintaining robust criteria. These competency-based criteria were developed in the CompHP Project (2009-2012) that developed core competencies, professional standards and an accreditation framework for health promotion practice, education and training in the context of workforce capacity development in Europe.This paper describes how consultations undertaken with the health promotion community informed the structure and processes of the IUHPE Accreditation System. An overview of its development, key functions and the piloting of its implementation, which was co-funded by the European Union in the context of the EU Health Programme, is presented.Feedback from consultations with key health promotion stakeholders in Europe indicated overall support for the development of an accreditation system for health promotion. However, a number of potential barriers to its implementation were noted including: absence of dedicated practitioners and professional bodies in some countries; lack of clarity about professional boundaries; lack of financial resources required to facilitate capacity building; and concerns about the costs, objectivity and transparency of the system. Feedback from the consultations shaped and informed the process of designing an operational accreditation system to ensure that it would be responsive to potential users' needs and concerns.Based on the agreed structures and processes, a web-based application system was developed and managed at IUHPE headquarters. A governance structure was established together with agreed policies and procedures for the System. During the pilot period, applications from 20

  14. An Examination of the Relationship between Outcomes Assessment and Accreditation in Community College-Based Health Information Technology Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriakos, Margaret Helen Gallo

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the Commission on Accreditation for Health Informatics and Information Management Education (CAHIIM) Board of Commissioner and Panel of Accreditation Reviewer understanding of what constitutes student learning outcomes and an effective program evaluation plan with that of campus-based health information technology (HIT) program…

  15. HIV/AIDS Course Content in CSWE-Accredited Social Work Programs: A Survey of Current Curricular Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Diana; Shears, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The authors surveyed program directors at all bachelor of social work and master of social work programs accredited by the Council on Social Work Education using an online tool that assessed whether and how their respective social work programs are covering content related to HIV/AIDS. Of the 650 program directors, 153 (24%) participated in the…

  16. [Evaluation auditing of the quality of health care in accreditation of health facilities].

    PubMed

    Paim, Chennyfer da Rosa Paino; Zucchi, Paola

    2011-01-01

    This article shows how many health insurance companies operating in the Greater São Paulo have been performing auditing of the quality of their health care services, professionals, and which criteria are being employed to do so. Because of the legislation decreeing that health insurance companies have legal co-responsibility for the health care services and National Health Agency control the health services National Health Agency, auditing evaluations have been implemented since then. The survey was based on electronic forms e-mailed to all health insurance companies operating in the Greater São Paulo. The sample consisted of 125 health insurance companies; 29 confirmed that had monitoring and evaluation processes; 26 performed auditing of their services regularly; from those, 20 used some type of form or protocol for technical visits; all evaluation physical and administrative structure and 22 included functional structure. Regarding the professionals audited 21 were nurses, 13 administrative assistants; 04 managers and 02 doctors. Regarding criteria for accreditation the following were highlighted: region analysis (96%), localization (88.88%) and cost (36%). We conclude that this type of auditing evaluation is rather innovative and is being gradually implemented by the health insurance companies, but is not a systematic process. PMID:21503464

  17. 77 FR 70163 - Recognition of Entities for the Accreditation of Qualified Health Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ...: Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the recognition of... the Federal Register (77 FR 42658) titled, ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Data... accrediting entity (77 FR 42662 through 42668). Therefore, this notice serves as public notification that...

  18. Community mobilisation with women's groups facilitated by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) to improve maternal and newborn health in underserved areas of Jharkhand and Orissa: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Around a quarter of the world's neonatal and maternal deaths occur in India. Morbidity and mortality are highest in rural areas and among the poorest wealth quintiles. Few interventions to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes with government-mandated community health workers have been rigorously evaluated at scale in this setting. The study aims to assess the impact of a community mobilisation intervention with women's groups facilitated by ASHAs to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes among rural tribal communities of Jharkhand and Orissa. Methods/design The study is a cluster-randomised controlled trial and will be implemented in five districts, three in Jharkhand and two in Orissa. The unit of randomisation is a rural cluster of approximately 5000 population. We identified villages within rural, tribal areas of five districts, approached them for participation in the study and enrolled them into 30 clusters, with approximately 10 ASHAs per cluster. Within each district, 6 clusters were randomly allocated to receive the community intervention or to the control group, resulting in 15 intervention and 15 control clusters. Randomisation was carried out in the presence of local stakeholders who selected the cluster numbers and allocated them to intervention or control using a pre-generated random number sequence. The intervention is a participatory learning and action cycle where ASHAs support community women's groups through a four-phase process in which they identify and prioritise local maternal and newborn health problems, implement strategies to address these and evaluate the result. The cycle is designed to fit with the ASHAs' mandate to mobilise communities for health and to complement their other tasks, including increasing institutional delivery rates and providing home visits to mothers and newborns. The trial's primary endpoint is neonatal mortality during 24 months of intervention. Additional endpoints include home care

  19. A Comparative Review of Canadian Health Professional Education Accreditation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Vernon R.; Fleet, Lisa; Deacon, Diana

    2006-01-01

    Canadian governments and various stakeholder groups are advocating greater interprofessional collaboration amongst health care providers as a fundamental strategy for enhancing coordination and quality of care in the health care system. Interprofessional education for collaborative patient-centred practice (IECPCP) is an educational process by…

  20. Outcomes Assessment in Accredited Health Information Management Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dorine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the use and perceived usefulness of outcomes assessment methods in health information management programs. Additional characteristics of the outcomes assessment practices were recognized. The findings were evaluated for significant differences in results based on age of the program, type of institution,…

  1. 76 FR 59136 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Application by Community Health Accreditation Program for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... application, we publish a notice that ] identifies the national accrediting body making the request, describes... requirements, any provider entity accredited by the national accrediting body's approved program would be... organization's complete application, a notice ] identifying the national accrediting body making the...

  2. Views of Evidence-Based Practice: Social Workers' Code of Ethics and Accreditation Standards as Guides for Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2007-01-01

    Different views of evidence-based practice (EBP) include defining it as the use of empirically-validated treatments and practice guidelines (i.e., the EBPs approach) in contrast to the broad philosophy and related evolving process described by the originators. Social workers can draw on their code of ethics and accreditation standards both to…

  3. Update: A Review of Women's Health Fellowships, Their Role in Interdisciplinary Health Care, and the Need for Accreditation

    PubMed Central

    Foreman, Heather; Weber, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Abstract While Women's Health (WH) Fellowships have been in existence since 1990, knowledge of their existence seems limited. Specialized training in WH is crucial to educate leaders who can appropriately integrate this multidisciplinary field into academic centers, especially as the demand for providers confident in the areas of contraception, perimenopause/menopause, hormone therapy, osteoporosis, hypoactive sexual desire disorder, medical management of abnormal uterine bleeding, office based care of stress/urge incontinence, and gender-based medicine are increasing popular and highly sought after. WH fellowship programs would benefit from accreditation from the American Board of Medical Subspecialties and from the American College of Graduate Medical Education, as this may allow for greater recruitment, selection, and training of future leaders in WH. This article provides a current review of what WH trained physicians can offer patients, and also highlights the added value that accreditation would offer the field. Ultimately, accrediting WH fellowships will improve women's health medical education by creating specialists that can serve as academic leaders to help infuse gender specific education in primary residencies, as well as serve as consultants and leaders, and promote visibility and prestige of the field. PMID:25884348

  4. Update: A Review of Women's Health Fellowships, Their Role in Interdisciplinary Health Care, and the Need for Accreditation.

    PubMed

    Foreman, Heather; Weber, Lauren; Thacker, Holly L

    2015-05-01

    While Women's Health (WH) Fellowships have been in existence since 1990, knowledge of their existence seems limited. Specialized training in WH is crucial to educate leaders who can appropriately integrate this multidisciplinary field into academic centers, especially as the demand for providers confident in the areas of contraception, perimenopause/menopause, hormone therapy, osteoporosis, hypoactive sexual desire disorder, medical management of abnormal uterine bleeding, office based care of stress/urge incontinence, and gender-based medicine are increasing popular and highly sought after. WH fellowship programs would benefit from accreditation from the American Board of Medical Subspecialties and from the American College of Graduate Medical Education, as this may allow for greater recruitment, selection, and training of future leaders in WH. This article provides a current review of what WH trained physicians can offer patients, and also highlights the added value that accreditation would offer the field. Ultimately, accrediting WH fellowships will improve women's health medical education by creating specialists that can serve as academic leaders to help infuse gender specific education in primary residencies, as well as serve as consultants and leaders, and promote visibility and prestige of the field. PMID:25884348

  5. 7 CFR 353.9 - Standards for accreditation of non-government facilities to perform laboratory seed health...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for accreditation of non-government facilities to perform laboratory seed health testing and seed crop phytosanitary inspection. 353.9 Section 353.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  6. 7 CFR 353.9 - Standards for accreditation of non-government facilities to perform laboratory seed health...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standards for accreditation of non-government facilities to perform laboratory seed health testing and seed crop phytosanitary inspection. 353.9 Section 353.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  7. 7 CFR 353.9 - Standards for accreditation of non-government facilities to perform laboratory seed health...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standards for accreditation of non-government facilities to perform laboratory seed health testing and seed crop phytosanitary inspection. 353.9 Section 353.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  8. 7 CFR 353.9 - Standards for accreditation of non-government facilities to perform laboratory seed health...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standards for accreditation of non-government facilities to perform laboratory seed health testing and seed crop phytosanitary inspection. 353.9 Section 353.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  9. Social evils, poverty & health.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajeev; Kumar, Praneet

    2007-10-01

    There is a close association between social circumstances and health. In India, there is a significant burden of both communicable and non communicable diseases. Risk factors responsible for these conditions are underweight, unsafe sex, unsafe water, poor sanitation and hygiene, indoor smoke pollution, zinc, iron and vitamin A deficiency, tobacco use, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. All these risk factors are influenced by social factors and in India the more important factors are poverty and illiteracy. Changing lifestyles as a result of rising incomes are significant risk factors for non communicable diseases. The social evils that influence poverty and health are macrolevel national and regional issues such as physical geography, governance patterns and failures, geopolitics, economic policy, natural resources decline, population growth, the demographic trap and the fiscal trap. Household and microlevel factors include the poverty trap, cultural barriers, lack of innovation and saving, absence of trade or business, unemployment, technological reversal, adverse productivity shock, social issues related to females, and adolescent social issues. Social determinants important for non communicable diseases, defined by the World Health Organization include the social gradient, stress, early life events, social exclusion, improper work conditions, unemployment, lack of social support, addiction, food scarcity or excess and uneven distribution, lack of proper transport, and illiteracy or low educational status. There are multiple pathways through which social factors influence health, and pathophysiological mechanisms involve homeostatic and allostatic changes in response to stress, neuroendocrine changes and altered autonomic functions, and abnormal inflammatory and immune responses. A concerted action to eradicate these social evils shall have to focus on reducing poverty, improving educational status and providing equitable and accessible healthcare to all

  10. [Accreditation model for acute hospital care in Catalonia, Spain].

    PubMed

    López-Viñas, M Luisa; Costa, Núria; Tirvió, Carmen; Davins, Josep; Manzanera, Rafael; Ribera, Jaume; Constante, Carles; Vallès, Roser

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of an accreditation model for healthcare centres in Catalonia which was launched for acute care hospitals, leaving open the possibility of implementing it in the rest of lines of service (mental health and addiction, social health, and primary healthcare centres) is described. The model is based on the experience acquired over more tan 31 years of hospital accreditation and quality assessment linked to management. In January 2006 a model with accreditation methodology adapted to the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) model was launched. 83 hospitals are accredited, with an average of 82.6% compliance with the standards required for accreditation. The number of active assessment bodies is 5, and the accreditation period is 3 years. A higher degree of compliance of the so-called "agent" criteria with respect to "outcome" criteria is obtained. Qualitative aspects for implementation to be stressed are: a strong commitment both from managers and staff in the centres, as well as a direct and fluent communication between the accreditation body (Ministry of Health of the Government of Catalonia) and accredited centres. Professionalism of audit bodies and an optimal communication between audit bodies and accredited centres is also added. PMID:25128363

  11. Accrediting organizations and quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, H N; Salmon, J W

    2000-10-01

    This paper reviews the various organizations in the United States that perform accreditation and establish standards for healthcare delivery. These agencies include the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO), the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA), the American Medical Accreditation Program (AMAP), the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission/Utilization Review Accreditation Commission (AAHC/URAC), and the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory HealthCare (AAAHC). In addition, the Foundation for Accountability (FACCT) and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) play important roles in ensuring the quality of healthcare. Each of the accrediting bodies is unique in terms of their mission, activities, compositions of their boards, and organizational histories, and each develops their own accreditation process and programs and sets their own accreditation standards. For this reason, certain accrediting organizations are better suited than others to perform accreditation for a specific area in the healthcare delivery system. The trend toward outcomes research is noted as a clear shift from the structural and process measures historically used by accrediting agencies. Accreditation has been generally viewed as a desirable process to establish standards and work toward achieving higher quality care, but it is not without limitations. Whether accrediting organizations are truly ensuring high quality healthcare across the United States is a question that remains to be answered. PMID:11184667

  12. Is Gerontology Ready for Accreditation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, William E.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Montgomery, Rhonda J. V.

    2012-01-01

    The authors review widely accepted criteria for program accreditation and compare gerontology with well-established accredited fields including clinical psychology and social work. At present gerontology lacks many necessary elements for credible professional accreditation, including defined scope of practice, applied curriculum, faculty with…

  13. Suggested New Standards to Measure Social Accountability of Medical Schools in the Accreditation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdalla, Mohamed Elhassan

    2014-01-01

    The role of medical schools as stakeholder for health improvement is well recognized. Medical schools are responsible of producing competent doctors who are capable to meet the society health needs and expectations. Other functions of medical schools are its participation in service and conduction of research. The concept of social accountability…

  14. 42 CFR 8.13 - Revocation of accreditation and accreditation body approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Revocation of accreditation and accreditation body approval. 8.13 Section 8.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Revocation of accreditation and accreditation body approval. (a) SAMHSA action following revocation...

  15. 42 CFR 8.13 - Revocation of accreditation and accreditation body approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revocation of accreditation and accreditation body approval. 8.13 Section 8.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Revocation of accreditation and accreditation body approval. (a) SAMHSA action following revocation...

  16. Enhancing interprofessional education: integrating public health and social work perspectives.

    PubMed

    Addy, Cheryl L; Browne, Teri; Blake, Elizabeth W; Bailey, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    National stakeholders in health system improvement and patient safety including accreditation bodies have requested health professional educational programs to include multiple interprofessional experiences through didactic and experiential opportunities. Clinical and population health faculty at the University of South Carolina redesigned and expanded an introductory interprofessional course to include more than 500 students from public health, social work, medicine, pharmacy, and nursing. Students participated in 3 live class meetings and completed required online coursework to explore concepts related to social determinants of health and health disparities, health system improvement, patient safety, cultural competency, and ethics to address interprofessional education core competencies. Course modifications and expanded student enrollment improved understanding of key health concepts and appreciation of interprofessional collaboration. PMID:25706002

  17. The status of medical laboratory towards of AFRO-WHO accreditation process in government and private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mesfin, Eyob Abera; Taye, Bineyam; Belay, Getachew; Ashenafi, Aytenew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO) introduces a step wise incremental accreditation approach to improving quality of laboratory and it is a new initiative in Ethiopia and activities are performed for implementation of accreditation program. Methods Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in 30 laboratory facilities including 6 laboratory sections to determine their status towards of accreditation using WHO AFRO accreditation checklist and 213 laboratory professionals were interviewed to assess their knowledge on quality system essentials and accreditation in Addis Ababa Ethiopia. Results Out of 30 laboratory facilities 1 private laboratory scored 156 (62%) points, which is the minimum required point for WHO accreditation and the least score was 32 (12.8%) points from government laboratory. The assessment finding from each section indicate that 2 Clinical chemistry (55.2% & 62.8%), 2 Hematology (55.2% & 62.8%), 2 Serology (55.2% & 62.8%), 2 Microbiology (55.2% & 62.4%), 1 Parasitology (62.8%) & 1 Urinalysis (61.6%) sections scored the minimum required point for WHO accreditation. The average score for government laboratories was 78.2 (31.2%) points, of these 6 laboratories were under accreditation process with 106.2 (42.5%) average score, while the private laboratories had 71.2 (28.5%) average score. Of 213 respondents 197 (92.5%) professionals had a knowledge on quality system essentials whereas 155 (72.8%) respondents on accreditation. Conclusion Although majority of the laboratory professionals had knowledge on quality system and accreditation, laboratories professionals were not able to practice the quality system properly and most of the laboratories had poor status towards the WHO accreditation process. Thus government as well as stakeholders should integrate accreditation program into planning and health policy. PMID:26889317

  18. Quality Implementation in Health Physics Unit, Cosenza Hospital. Accreditation Program as Quality Improvement instrument.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, M; Siciliano, R

    2016-01-01

    Achieving high levels of quality in healthcare, which could be measurable, is increasingly important at present and is dictated by the radical changes of the welfare system imposed today by the well known economic constraints. However, even in the ongoing legislation, the practices concerning the verification and review of the quality of health care has had a major impact in the galaxy of Health. On the one hand, the citizen is developing an awareness of the possibilities of choice (Empowerment) between a plurality of providers of healthcare services, on the other hand providers themselves are obliged, within the logic of a global market, to retrain their offers to respond satisfactorily to the needs of citizens. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how the adoption of Operational Procedures, following the granting of a certificate of accreditation to the Unit of Medical Physics, has changed the approach to the work on the part of health workers, in the direction of a dynamic quality improvement. PMID:27479767

  19. "Swimming in the Swamp"--Inquiry into Accreditation, Community Development, and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimons, Camilla; Dorman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from extensive experience as community educators, this paper discusses accreditation and its relationship to community development as informed by a cooperative inquiry conducted by tutors. Beginning with our rationale for undertaking the inquiry, it details our approach to community development and the centrality of education within this.…

  20. Social cohesion matters in health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The concept of social cohesion has invoked debate due to the vagueness of its definition and the limitations of current measurements. This paper attempts to examine the concept of social cohesion, develop measurements, and investigate the relationship between social cohesion and individual health. Methods This study used a multilevel study design. The individual-level samples from 29 high-income countries were obtained from the 2000 World Value Survey (WVS) and the 2002 European Value Survey. National-level social cohesion statistics were obtained from Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development datasets, World Development Indicators, and Asian Development Bank key indicators for the year 2000, and from aggregating responses from the WVS. In total 47,923 individuals were included in this study. The factor analysis was applied to identify dimensions of social cohesion, which were used as entities in the cluster analysis to generate a regime typology of social cohesion. Then, multilevel regression models were applied to assess the influences of social cohesion on an individual’s self-rated health. Results and discussion Factor analysis identified five dimensions of social cohesion: social equality, social inclusion, social development, social capital, and social diversity. Then, the cluster analysis revealed five regimes of social cohesion. A multi-level analysis showed that respondents in countries with higher social inclusion, social capital, and social diversity were more likely to report good health above and beyond individual-level characteristics. Conclusions This study is an innovative effort to incorporate different aspects of social cohesion. This study suggests that social cohesion was associated with individual self-rated after controlling individual characteristics. To achieve further advancement in population health, developed countries should consider policies that would foster a society with a high level of social inclusion

  1. A hybrid health service accreditation program model incorporating mandated standards and continuous improvement: interview study of multiple stakeholders in Australian health care.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, David; Hinchcliff, Reece; Hogden, Anne; Mumford, Virginia; Debono, Deborah; Pawsey, Marjorie; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2016-07-01

    The study aim was to investigate the understandings and concerns of stakeholders regarding the evolution of health service accreditation programs in Australia. Stakeholder representatives from programs in the primary, acute and aged care sectors participated in semi-structured interviews. Across 2011-12 there were 47 group and individual interviews involving 258 participants. Interviews lasted, on average, 1 h, and were digitally recorded and transcribed. Transcriptions were analysed using textual referencing software. Four significant issues were considered to have directed the evolution of accreditation programs: altering underlying program philosophies; shifting of program content focus and details; different surveying expectations and experiences and the influence of external contextual factors upon accreditation programs. Three accreditation program models were noted by participants: regulatory compliance; continuous quality improvement and a hybrid model, incorporating elements of these two. Respondents noted the compatibility or incommensurability of the first two models. Participation in a program was reportedly experienced as ranging on a survey continuum from "malicious compliance" to "performance audits" to "quality improvement journeys". Wider contextual factors, in particular, political and community expectations, and associated media reporting, were considered significant influences on the operation and evolution of programs. A hybrid accreditation model was noted to have evolved. The hybrid model promotes minimum standards and continuous quality improvement, through examining the structure and processes of organisations and the outcomes of care. The hybrid model appears to be directing organisational and professional attention to enhance their safety cultures. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26044988

  2. Is gerontology ready for accreditation?

    PubMed

    Haley, William E; Ferraro, Kenneth F; Montgomery, Rhonda J V

    2012-01-01

    The authors review widely accepted criteria for program accreditation and compare gerontology with well-established accredited fields including clinical psychology and social work. At present gerontology lacks many necessary elements for credible professional accreditation, including defined scope of practice, applied curriculum, faculty with applied professional credentials, and resources necessary to support professional credentialing review. Accreditation with weak requirements will be dismissed as "vanity" accreditation, and strict requirements will be impossible for many resource-poor programs to achieve, putting unaccredited programs at increased risk for elimination. Accreditation may be appropriate in the future, but it should be limited to professional or applied gerontology, perhaps for programs conferring bachelor's or master's degrees. Options other than accreditation to enhance professional skills and employability of gerontology graduates are discussed. PMID:22289064

  3. 42 CFR 8.4 - Accreditation body responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accreditation body responsibilities. 8.4 Section 8.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CERTIFICATION OF OPIOID TREATMENT PROGRAMS Accreditation § 8.4 Accreditation body responsibilities. (a) Accreditation surveys and for cause...

  4. Social health insurance reexamined.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Adam

    2010-05-01

    Social health insurance (SHI) is enjoying something of a revival in parts of the developing world. Many countries that have in the past relied largely on tax finance (and out-of-pocket payments) have introduced SHI, or are thinking about doing so. And countries with SHI already in place are making vigorous efforts to extend coverage to the informal sector. Ironically, this revival is occurring at a time when the traditional SHI countries in Europe have either already reduced payroll financing in favor of general revenues, or are in the process of doing so. This paper examines how SHI fares in health-care delivery, revenue collection, covering the formal sector, and its impacts on the labor market. It argues that SHI does not necessarily deliver good quality care at a low cost, partly because of poor regulation of SHI purchasers. It suggests that the costs of collecting revenues can be substantial, even in the formal sector where non-enrollment and evasion are commonplace, and that while SHI can cover the formal sector and the poor relatively easily, it fares badly in terms of covering the non-poor informal sector workers until the economy has reached a high level of economic development. The paper also argues that SHI can have negative labor market effects. PMID:19399789

  5. [Poverty, social exclusion, social capital and health].

    PubMed

    Del Rey Calero, Juan

    2004-01-01

    Social capital is the social structure which facilitates the actions of individuals, stimulates production and allows for success. Poverty maintains basic needs unmet (food, health, autonomy) over time and unvoluntarily. Social exclusion does not allow individuals to participate in society. The following dimensions are assessed: financial poverty, social inclusion, employment, health and education. Social participation, work integration, empowerment, self-esteem, and personal achievement should be promoted. In Europe 15% of people is exposed to poverty; in Spain corresponding figures are 13.4%, while for the elderly reached 21%. Extreme poverty affects 6.2% population and severe poverty 14.2%. Women and those living in Andalusia, Canary Islands and Extremadura are particularly affected, health inequality are for elderly, immigration, gender, social class, and should be reduced 10% for 2010. The Gini indez measures the income distribution; in the European Union (EU) it is 0.29 while in Spain is 0.33. Poverty and health are inversely correlated, health care expenditure in Spain is 7.5% og GDP. Life expectancy in U.E. is 75.5 years for men and 81.6 years for women, while in Spain it is 78 and 83.1 respectively. Infant mortality in EU is 4.5/1000, 4.1 per thousand in Spain. Lastly, the number of children per women in EU is 1.47 and in Spain 1.3. PMID:15553403

  6. The Next Accreditation System.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Lynne M

    2016-02-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has implemented a new accreditation system for graduate medical education in the United States. This system, called the Next Accreditation System, focuses on more continuous monitoring of the outcomes of residency training, and for high-quality programs, less on the detailed processes of that training. This allows programs to innovate to best meet the needs of their trainees and communities. This new system also reviews the clinical learning environment at each institution sponsoring graduate medical education, focusing on professionalism, trainee supervision, duty hour and fatigue management, care transitions, and integration of residents into patient safety and health care quality. This Next Accreditation System is too new to fully assess its outcomes in better preparing residents for medical practice. Assessments of its early implementation, however, suggest we can expect such outcomes in the near future. PMID:26859375

  7. Accreditation and the Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timpe, Eugene

    1977-01-01

    A report to the Association on a study of the accreditation question. The topics covered are: a definition of accreditation; a listing of major accredited; a description of the process of accreditation; and procedures for becoming an accrediting agency. (AMH)

  8. Health Law as Social Justice.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2014-01-01

    Health law is in the midst of a dramatic transformation. From a relatively narrow discipline focused on regulating relationships among individual patients, health care providers, and third-party payers, it is expanding into a far broader field with a burgeoning commitment to access to health care and assurance of healthy living conditions as matters of social justice. Through a series of incremental reform efforts stretching back decades before the Affordable Care Act and encompassing public health law as well as the law of health care financing and delivery, reducing health disparities has become a central focus of American health law and policy. This Article labels, describes, and furthers a nascent "health justice" movement by examining what it means to view health law as an instrument of social justice. Drawing on the experiences of the reproductive justice, environmental justice, and food justice movements, and on the writings of political philosophers and ethicists on health justice, I propose that health justice offers an alternative to the market competition and patient rights paradigms that currently dominate health law scholarship, advocacy, and reform. I then examine the role of law in reducing health disparities through the health justice lens. I argue that the nascent health justice framework suggests three commitments for the use of law to reduce health disparities. First, to a broader inquiry that views access to health care as one among many social determinants of health deserving of public attention and resources. Second, to probing inquiry into the effects of class, racial, and other forms of social and cultural bias on the design and implementation of measures to reduce health disparities. And third, to collective action grounded in community engagement and participatory parity. In exploring these commitments, I highlight tensions within the social justice framework and between the social justice framework and the nascent health justice movement

  9. 42 CFR 8.5 - Periodic evaluation of accreditation bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 8.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... inspecting a selected sample of the OTPs accredited by the accrediting body and by evaluating the accreditation body's reports of surveys conducted, to determine whether the OTPs surveyed and accredited by...

  10. 42 CFR 8.5 - Periodic evaluation of accreditation bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 8.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... inspecting a selected sample of the OTPs accredited by the accrediting body and by evaluating the accreditation body's reports of surveys conducted, to determine whether the OTPs surveyed and accredited by...

  11. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations' expectations for transfusion medicine in health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Belanger, A C

    1999-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations' standards related to transfusion medicine found in its hospital, laboratory, and home care accreditation manuals. Hospital standards focus on the review and evaluation of the entire transfusion process from the order through the outcome to the patient, with special attention to the blood use review process. Laboratory standards provide the structure for the detailed review of the technical procedures and practices for collecting, processing, storing, testing, and transporting blood products. Home care standards relate to policies and procedures, infection control practices, education of the patient and family, and monitoring of adverse events and complications for transfusions of blood products performed in the home. PMID:10383795

  12. [Social marketing and public health].

    PubMed

    Arcaro, P; Mannocci, A; Saulle, R; Miccoli, S; Marzuillo, C; La Torre, G

    2013-01-01

    Social marketing uses the principles and techniques of commercial marketing by applying them to the complex social context in order to promote changes (cognitive; of action; behavioral; of values) among the target population in the public interest. The advent of Internet has radically modified the communication process, and this transformation also involved medical-scientific communication. Medical journals, health organizations, scientific societies and patient groups are increasing the use of the web and of many social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google, YouTube) as channels to release scientific information to doctors and patients quickly. In recent years, even Healthcare in Italy reported a considerable application of the methods and techniques of social marketing, above all for health prevention and promotion. Recently the association for health promotion "Social marketing and health communication" has been established to promote an active dialogue between professionals of social marketing and public health communication, as well as among professionals in the field of communication of the companies involved in the "health sector". In the field of prevention and health promotion it is necessary to underline the theme of the growing distrust in vaccination practices. Despite the irrefutable evidence of the efficacy and safety of vaccines, the social-cultural transformation together with the overcoming of compulsory vaccination and the use of noninstitutional information sources, have generated confusion among citizens that tend to perceive compulsory vaccinations as needed and safe, whereas recommended vaccinations as less important. Moreover, citizens scarcely perceive the risk of disease related to the effectiveness of vaccines. Implementing communication strategies, argumentative and persuasive, borrowed from social marketing, also for the promotion of vaccines is a priority of the health system. A typical example of the application of social marketing, as

  13. [Social inequalities in maternal health].

    PubMed

    Azria, E; Stewart, Z; Gonthier, C; Estellat, C; Deneux-Tharaux, C

    2015-10-01

    Although medical literature on social inequalities in perinatal health is qualitatively heterogeneous, it is quantitatively important and reveals the existence of a social gradient in terms of perinatal risk. However, published data regarding maternal health, if also qualitatively heterogeneous, are relatively less numerous. Nevertheless, it appears that social inequalities also exist concerning severe maternal morbidity as well as maternal mortality. Analyses are still insufficient to understand the mechanisms involved and explain how the various dimensions of the women social condition interact with maternal health indicators. Inadequate prenatal care and suboptimal obstetric care may be intermediary factors, as they are related to both social status and maternal outcomes, in terms of maternal morbidity, its worsening or progression, and maternal mortality. PMID:26433316

  14. Social Networks and Health.

    PubMed

    Perdiaris, Christos; Chardalias, Konstantinos; Magita, Andrianna; Mechili, Aggelos E; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the social networks have been developed into an advanced communications tool, which is important for all people to contact each other. These specific networks do offer lots of options as well as plenty of advantages and disadvantages. The social websites are many in number and titles, such as the facebook, the twitter, the bandoo etc. One of the most important function-mechanisms for the social network websites, are the marketing tools. The future goal is suggested to be the evolution of these programs. The development of these applications, which is going to lead into a new era for the social digital communication between the internet users, all around the globe. PMID:26153011

  15. Accreditation of Employee Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geale, John

    A British project was conducted to improve understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of certification for work-based training and to analyze factors that influence the demand for accreditation. Three studies investigated what was happening in three employment sectors: tourism (service/commercial), social services (public administration),…

  16. International Social Work: A Situational Analysis of Accredited CSWE Institutions in Mid-Western USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamin, Sylvester Amara

    2012-01-01

    The importance of International social work education these days cannot be overstated as social work has been established in nearly every part of the world. Also, globalization has been pivotal as it has facilitated the movement of people, improved technology and other social problems as well. American higher education is challenged to expand and…

  17. Beyond accreditation: a multi-track quality-enhancing strategy for primary health care in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Shadi S; Alameddine, Mohamad S; Natafgi, Nabil M

    2014-01-01

    Many define an equitable health care system as one that provides logistical and financial access to "quality" care to the population. Realizing that fact, many low- and middle-income countries started investing in enhancing the quality of care in their health care systems, recently in primary health care. Unfortunately, in many instance, these investments have been exclusively focused on accreditation due to available guidelines and existing accrediting structures. A multi-track quality-enhancing strategy (MTQES) is proposed that includes, in addition to promoting resource-sensitive accreditation, other quality initiatives such as clinical guidelines, performance indicators, benchmarking activities, annual quality-enhancing projects, and annual quality summit/meeting. These complementary approaches are presented to synergistically enhance a continuous quality improvement culture in the primary health care sector, taking into consideration limited resources available, especially in low- and middle-income countries. In addition, an implementation framework depicting MTQES in three-phase interlinked packages is presented; each matches existing resources and quality infrastructure. Health care policymakers and managers need to think about accreditation as a beginning rather than an end to their quest for quality. Improvements in the structure of a health delivery organization or in the processes of care have little value if they do not translate to reduced disparities in access to "quality" care, and not merely access to care. PMID:24919309

  18. 21 CFR 900.13 - Revocation of accreditation and revocation of accreditation body approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... human health or because the accreditation body fraudulently accredited facilities, that the certificates... accreditation body approval. 900.13 Section 900.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MAMMOGRAPHY QUALITY STANDARDS ACT MAMMOGRAPHY Quality Standards...

  19. 21 CFR 900.13 - Revocation of accreditation and revocation of accreditation body approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... human health or because the accreditation body fraudulently accredited facilities, that the certificates... accreditation body approval. 900.13 Section 900.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MAMMOGRAPHY QUALITY STANDARDS ACT MAMMOGRAPHY Quality Standards...

  20. Accredited Birth Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... 59803 406-541-7115 Accredited Since February 2010 60 Interior Birthing Center Accredited 1636 30th Avenue, Suite ... Boulder Accredited 2800 Folsom Street, Suite C Boulder, CO 80304 303-443-3993 Accredited since July 2014 ...

  1. A comparison of academic curricula in the MPH and MHA-type degrees in health administration at the accredited schools of public health.

    PubMed

    Singh, D A; Stoskope, C H; Ciesla, J R

    1996-01-01

    Based on a survey of the departments of health services administration in accredited schools of public health, this study presents (1) a profile of the M.P.H. and M.H.A. (and similar) programs concentrating in health administration, and (2) a comparison of the M.P.H. and M.H.A. degrees. All 27 schools currently accredited by the Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH) are represented in this research. The curriculum from each school was broken down and classified into eight components: (1) epidemiology, (2) statistics, (3) accounting/finance, (4) management theory, (5) management application, (6) public health policy, (7) electives, and (8) other. That the M.H.A. programs compared to the M.P.H. programs, have higher course requirements to furnish skills in business management and quantitative/analytical areas is the main hypothesis tested. Statistically significant differences were found in seven of the eight curriculum components for M.P.H. and M.H.A. degrees. Overall, the M.H.A. degree was found to be more rigorous in applied management and analytical courses. Implications and recommendations are discussed. PMID:10166709

  2. Working in collaboration to achieve UNICEF baby friendly accreditation.

    PubMed

    Leyland, Anne; Bond, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Effective training and education of health professionals is required to ensure that women receive the best education, support and advice to breastfeed (National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) 2006). In England it has been recommended that purchasing authorities should incorporate UNICEF standards into their commissioning plans (NICE 2006), thereby embedding the evidence into mainstream health and social services. Whilst many university programmes are underpinned with UNICEF standards, relatively few universities have achieved full accreditation in the UK (UNICEF 2009). PMID:25109073

  3. Social inequalities and perceived health.

    PubMed

    Hunt, S M; McEwen, J; McKenna, S P

    1985-01-01

    The association between morbidity and mortality indicators and low socio-economic status has been observed for many centuries. In 1980 the publication of the Black Report in Britain drew attention to the failure of the National Health Service to close the gap between rich and poor in relation to health status. The gradients of morbidity and mortality which are linked to social class have been observed throughout Europe, in the U.S.A. and Australia. However, information on how people feel, as opposed to how they become ill, and the cause of their death, is scarce. Measures of perceived need can provide important additions to routinely collected data because they give access to the experiential status of respondents and thus provide vital data on which to base planning, provision and evaluation of health services. A standard reliable and valid measure of perceived health, the Nottingham Health Profile, was used to conduct a postal survey of differential status in subjective health between social classes in England. The results showed statistically significant differences between social classes in the age group 20-44 years only. For both men and women these were in their experience of sleep problems, emotional problems and lack of energy. In all cases the lower the social class the greater the amount and severity of perceived distress. After the age of 45 these differences, although still present, were not so marked, perhaps because of the excess mortality rates in lower socio-economic groups and the lowering of expectations with age. It is suggested that younger people from unskilled and semi-skilled occupations and, of course, the unemployed, are more vulnerable than their better off compatriots because of a kind of psychic susceptibility which is a consequence of social circumstances and the inability to cushion the effects of ill health. A type of Marxian "immiseration' may occur whereby in contemporary society health status is undermined by spiritual and social

  4. Health, Wellbeing and Social Sciences.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Giovanni; Agostoni, Carlo

    2016-09-01

    For social interventions aimed at improving nutrition behavior evidence from randomized trials is essential but cannot be the only approach of research activities. Interventions on dietary habits require considerations on food security, economic and environmental sustainability, and a broad meaning of wellbeing which includes, but also goes beyond, health effects. The model of research in nutrition requires a new consideration of observational studies, mainly through different analytical models. Nutrition and food studies need research programs where medical (nutrition and health), psychology (how we behave), economics (how resources are used and their impact on wellbeing) and sociology (how social determinant shape behavior) collaborate. PMID:25785783

  5. Social determinants of mental health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jessica; Balfour, Reuben; Bell, Ruth; Marmot, Michael

    2014-08-01

    A person's mental health and many common mental disorders are shaped by various social, economic, and physical environments operating at different stages of life. Risk factors for many common mental disorders are heavily associated with social inequalities, whereby the greater the inequality the higher the inequality in risk. The poor and disadvantaged suffer disproportionately, but those in the middle of the social gradient are also affected. It is of major importance that action is taken to improve the conditions of everyday life, beginning before birth and progressing into early childhood, older childhood and adolescence, during family building and working ages, and through to older age. Action throughout these life stages would provide opportunities for both improving population mental health, and for reducing risk of those mental disorders that are associated with social inequalities. As mental disorders are fundamentally linked to a number of other physical health conditions, these actions would also reduce inequalities in physical health and improve health overall. Action needs to be universal: across the whole of society and proportionate to need. Policy-making at all levels of governance and across sectors can make a positive difference. PMID:25137105

  6. Hospital accreditation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C

    1998-01-01

    Health service accreditation systems have explicit standards for organisation against which the participating hospital assesses itself before a structured visit by outside "surveyors". They submit a written report back to the hospital with commendations and recommendations for development prior to a follow-up survey. Accreditation may be awarded for a fixed term or may be with held by an independent assessment Board if the hospital does not meet a defined threshold of standards. In Europe, some government and medical organisations initially distanced themselves from the pilot hospital wide programmes, arguing that they would cost too much and undermine management, or that they were irrelevant to clinical practice. But gradually it became obvious that accreditation worked for hospitals; purchasers and insurers saw its potential for quality and resource management; and professional bodies recognised the links between clinical training, practice and outcome and the environment in which health care is provided. If nothing else, it offered a multi-professional bridge between the existing numerous fragmented systems such as inspecting (statutory safety), visiting (professional training), and monitoring (service contracts). The introduction of accreditation appears to benefit hospitals in many different countries and health systems and provides a vehicle for integrated quality management which is visible to funding agencies, government and the public. Interest is growing within Europe. PMID:10179643

  7. 42 CFR 414.68 - Imaging accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Imaging accreditation. 414.68 Section 414.68 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.68 Imaging accreditation. (a)...

  8. 42 CFR 414.68 - Imaging accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Imaging accreditation. 414.68 Section 414.68 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.68 Imaging accreditation. (a)...

  9. Social Accountability of Medical Schools: Do Accreditation Standards Help Promote the Concept?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdalla, Mohamed Elhassan

    2014-01-01

    The social accountability of medical schools is an emerging concept in medical education. This issue calls for the consideration of societal needs in all aspects of medical programmes, including the values of relevance, quality, cost-effectiveness and equity. Most importantly, these needs must be defined collaboratively with people themselves.…

  10. Service Learning in Baccalaureate Social Work Education: Results of a National Survey of Accredited Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petracchi, Helen E.; Weaver, Addie; Schelbe, Lisa; Song, Hyun-a

    2016-01-01

    Service learning is neither field education nor volunteerism. Rather, it is a pedagogical approach designed to reinforce classroom instruction with concurrent service activities occurring in the local community. This service is driven by community-identified needs. Service learning supports social work values, yet the profession has been slow to…

  11. The Course on Homosexuality at Fudan University: Make a "Hole" to "Borrow" Light from Humanities and Social Sciences for Public Health Education in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yanning; Gu, Steven

    2006-01-01

    In the Fall Semester of 2003, an accredited course for graduate students, entitled "Homosexual Health Social Sciences," was launched at the School of Public Health of Fudan University, located in Shanghai, China. Using participant observation, in-depth interview and document review, this article details the experiences and strategies in…

  12. Is the hospital decision to seek accreditation an effective one?

    PubMed

    Grepperud, Sverre

    2015-01-01

    The rapid expansion in the number of accredited hospitals justifies inquiry into the motives of hospitals in seeking accreditation and its social effectiveness. This paper presents a simple decision-theoretic framework where cost reductions and improved quality of care represent the endpoint benefits from accreditation. We argue that hospital accreditation, although acting as a market-signaling device, might be a socially inefficient institution. First, there is at present no convincing evidence for accreditation causing output quality improvements. Second, hospitals could seek accreditation, even though doing so is socially inefficient, because of moral hazard, consumer misperceptions, and nonprofit motivations. Finally, hospitals that seek accreditation need not themselves believe in output quality improvements from accreditation. Consequently, while awaiting additional evidence on accreditation, policy makers and third-party payers should exercise caution in encouraging such programs. PMID:25470449

  13. 75 FR 59605 - National Veterinary Accreditation Program; Currently Accredited Veterinarians Performing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... United States and internationally. On December 9, 2009 (74 FR 64998-65013, Docket No. APHIS-2006- 0093... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 161 RIN 0579-AC04 National Veterinary Accreditation Program... National Veterinary Accreditation Program (NVAP) may continue to perform accredited duties and to elect...

  14. Health Literacy, Social Support, and Health Status among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…

  15. Local perceptions on factors influencing the introduction of international healthcare accreditation in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sax, Sylvia; Marx, Michael

    2014-12-01

    One contributor to poor health outcomes in developing countries is weak health systems; key to strengthening them are interventions to improve quality of health services. Though the value of healthcare accreditation is increasingly recognized, there are few case studies exploring its adaptation in developing countries. The aim of our study in Pakistan was to identify perceived factors influencing the adaptation of international healthcare accreditation within a developing country context. We used qualitative methods including semi-structured interviews, a structured group discussion, focus groups and non-participant observation of management meetings. Data analysis used a grounded theory approach and a conceptual framework adapted from implementation science. Using our conceptual framework categories of 'inner' and 'outer' setting, we found six perceived inner health system factors that could influence the introduction of healthcare accreditation and two 'outer' setting factors, perceived as external to the health system but able to influence its introduction. Our research identified that there is no 'one size fits all' approach to introducing healthcare accreditation as a means to improve healthcare quality. Those planning to support healthcare accreditation, such as national and provincial ministries and international development partners, need to understand how the three components of healthcare accreditation fit into the local health system and into the broader political and social environment. In our setting this included moving to supportive and transparent external evaluation mechanisms, with a first step of using locally developed and agreed standards. In addition, sustainable implementation of the three components was seen as a major challenge, especially establishment of a well-managed, transparent accreditation agency able to lead processes such as training and support for peer surveyors. Consideration of local change mechanisms and cultural practices is

  16. 42 CFR 8.13 - Revocation of accreditation and accreditation body approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Revocation of accreditation and accreditation body approval. 8.13 Section 8.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CERTIFICATION OF OPIOID TREATMENT PROGRAMS Certification and Treatment Standards §...

  17. 42 CFR 8.13 - Revocation of accreditation and accreditation body approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Revocation of accreditation and accreditation body approval. 8.13 Section 8.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CERTIFICATION OF OPIOID TREATMENT PROGRAMS Certification and Treatment Standards §...

  18. 42 CFR 8.13 - Revocation of accreditation and accreditation body approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Revocation of accreditation and accreditation body approval. 8.13 Section 8.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CERTIFICATION OF OPIOID TREATMENT PROGRAMS Certification and Treatment Standards §...

  19. One Health in social networks and social media

    PubMed Central

    Mekaru, S.R.; Brownstein, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the rapidly evolving world of social media, social networks, mobile applications and citizen science, online communities can develop organically and separately from larger or more established organisations. The One Health online community is experiencing expansion from both the bottom up and the top down. In this paper, the authors review social media’s strengths and weaknesses, earlier work examining Internet resources for One Health, the current state of One Health in social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube) and online social networking sites (e.g. LinkedIn and ResearchGate), as well as social media in One Health-related citizen science projects. While One Health has a fairly strong presence on websites, its social media presence is more limited and has an uneven geographic distribution. In work following the Stone Mountain Meeting, the One Health Global Network Task Force Report recommended the creation of an online community of practice. Professional social networks as well as the strategic use of social media should be employed in this effort. Finally, One Health-related research projects using volunteers (citizen science) often use social media to enhance their recruitment. Including these researchers in a community of practitioners would take full advantage of their existing social media presence. In conclusion, the interactive nature of social media, combined with increasing global Internet access, provides the One Health community with opportunities to meaningfully expand their community and promote their message. PMID:25707189

  20. One Health in social networks and social media.

    PubMed

    Mekaru, S R; Brownstein, J S

    2014-08-01

    In the rapidly evolving world of social media, social networks, mobile applications and citizen science, online communities can develop organically and separately from larger or more established organisations. The One Health online community is experiencing expansion from both the bottom up and the top down. In this paper, the authors review social media's strengths and weaknesses, earlier work examining Internet resources for One Health, the current state of One Health in social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube) and online social networking sites (e.g. LinkedIn and ResearchGate), as well as social media in One Health-related citizen science projects. While One Health has a fairly strong presence on websites, its social media presence is more limited and has an uneven geographic distribution. In work following the Stone Mountain Meeting,the One Health Global Network Task Force Report recommended the creation of an online community of practice. Professional social networks as well as the strategic use of social media should be employed in this effort. Finally, One Health-related research projects using volunteers (citizen science) often use social media to enhance their recruitment. Including these researchers in a community of practitioners would take full advantage of their existing social media presence. In conclusion, the interactive nature of social media, combined with increasing global Internet access, provides the One Health community with opportunities to meaningfully expand their community and promote their message. PMID:25707189

  1. The establishment of the School of Public Health at the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center: the first nationally accredited school of public health in a public university in New York City.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Pascal James; LaRosa, Judith H; Kavaler, Florence; Benker, Karen; Schechter, Leslie

    2011-02-01

    The State University of New York (SUNY), Downstate Medical Center initiated a Master of Public Health (MPH) degree program in July 2001 following planning efforts that began in 1995. Twelve students entered the program in June 2002, and currently some 110 MPH students and 12 Doctor of Public Health (DrPH) students are enrolled. This article describes the long and complex process of transforming the original MPH degree program, with its single focus on urban and immigrant health, with a student enrollment of 12 and 8 full-time faculty, into a school of public health with a large student enrollment of 122 students, 25 full-time faculty, five MPH degree tracks, and four DrPH degree tracks. The process of establishing the SUNY Downstate School of Public Health in 2009 from its inception as an MPH program in 2001 spanned a period of 8 years. This process was guided by a commitment to two basic principles. The first was to maintain the original 2005 program accreditation by the Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH). The second was to sequentially secure accreditation for all subsequent four MPH and four DrPH degree tracks through CEPH's procedure of substantive change approval. This policy assured continuous national CEPH accreditation of the original Urban and Immigrant Health MPH degree track and all added degree programs. The 5-year period following the initial CEPH accreditation of the MPH program in 2005 was one of intense development during which all of the essential elements for CEPH accreditation of a school of public health were put into place. This rapid development was made possible by the vision and full support of Downstate's president, John C. LaRosa, MD, FACP, and the dedicated efforts of many. This included the students, faculty, staff, and administrators of the School of Public Health, the school's Community Advisory Group, several external advisors, and many in the medical center's Central Administration, College of Medicine, School of Graduate

  2. Locating global health in social medicine.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Seth M; Greene, Jeremy A; Stonington, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    Global health's goal to address health issues across great sociocultural and socioeconomic gradients worldwide requires a sophisticated approach to the social root causes of disease and the social context of interventions. This is especially true today as the focus of global health work is actively broadened from acute to chronic and from infectious to non-communicable diseases. To respond to these complex biosocial problems, we propose the recent expansion of interest in the field of global health should look to the older field of social medicine, a shared domain of social and medical sciences that offers critical analytic and methodological tools to elucidate who gets sick, why and what we can do about it. Social medicine is a rich and relatively untapped resource for understanding the hybrid biological and social basis of global health problems. Global health can learn much from social medicine to help practitioners understand the social behaviour, social structure, social networks, cultural difference and social context of ethical action central to the success or failure of global health's important agendas. This understanding - of global health as global social medicine - can coalesce global health's unclear identity into a coherent framework effective for addressing the world's most pressing health issues. PMID:24819951

  3. [Social Sciences and Humanities in Health in ABRASCO: the construction of social theory in health.

    PubMed

    Ianni, Aurea Maria Zöllner; Spadacio, Cristiane; Barboza, Renato; Alves, Olga Sofia Fabergé; Viana, Sabrina Daniela Lopes; Rocha, Ane Talita

    2014-11-01

    The development of recent social thinking in health in Brazil is associated with the establishment of the Public Health field and the Brazilian Association of Graduate Studies in Public Health (ABRASCO). The area of Social Sciences in Health was created together with the founding of ABRASCO. This article presents the main aspects related to the establishment and institutionalization of Social Sciences in Health in ABRASCO, based on interviews with its presidents and the coordinators of the Social Sciences Committees from 1995 to 2011. The interviews allowed capturing and analyzing the context in which this field was established and its relevance and history in Public Health as a whole, grouped in five analytical categories: (1) the development of Social Sciences and the Humanities in Health; (2) interdisciplinarity in Public Health; (3) the contribution of Social Sciences to Public Health; (4) Social Sciences in Health and the "traditional" Social Sciences; and (5) challenges for Social Sciences and the Humanities in Health. PMID:25493984

  4. 21 CFR 900.13 - Revocation of accreditation and revocation of accreditation body approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MAMMOGRAPHY QUALITY STANDARDS ACT MAMMOGRAPHY Quality Standards and... longer in effect because it has lost its accreditation may not practice mammography. (b) Withdrawal...

  5. 21 CFR 900.13 - Revocation of accreditation and revocation of accreditation body approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MAMMOGRAPHY QUALITY STANDARDS ACT MAMMOGRAPHY Quality Standards and... longer in effect because it has lost its accreditation may not practice mammography. (b) Withdrawal...

  6. 21 CFR 900.13 - Revocation of accreditation and revocation of accreditation body approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MAMMOGRAPHY QUALITY STANDARDS ACT MAMMOGRAPHY Quality Standards and... longer in effect because it has lost its accreditation may not practice mammography. (b) Withdrawal...

  7. Accreditation across cultures: a case study.

    PubMed

    McLean, Robert A; Blackwell, Jerry L; Stoskopf, Carleen H

    2006-01-01

    Accreditation of academic programs is one of the most significant developments in the evolution of professional education in the United States. Efforts in several fields to extend programmatic accreditation to institutions outside the United States have had mixed results. This report describes such an accreditation experience in health services administration, its pitfalls, and the lessons that the site visit team (the authors) learned. The authors hope that others undertaking such tasks can benefit from this experience. PMID:16848377

  8. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  9. Are rural health professionals also social entrepreneurs?

    PubMed

    Farmer, Jane; Kilpatrick, Sue

    2009-12-01

    Social entrepreneurs formally or informally generate community associations and networking that produces social outcomes. Social entrepreneurship is a relatively new and poorly understood concept. Policy promotes generating community activity, particularly in rural areas, for health and social benefits and 'community resilience'. Rural health professionals might be well placed to generate community activity due to their status and networks. This exploratory study, conducted in rural Tasmania and the Highlands and Islands of Scotland considered whether rural health professionals act as social entrepreneurs. We investigated activities generated and processes of production. Thirty-eight interviews were conducted with general practitioners, community nurses, primary healthcare managers and allied health professionals living and working rurally. Interviewees were self-selecting responders to an invitation for rural health professionals who were 'formally or informally generating community associations or networking that produced social outcomes'. We found that rural health professionals initiated many community activities with social outcomes, most related to health. Their identification of opportunities related to knowledge of health needs and examples of initiatives seen elsewhere. Health professionals described ready access to useful people and financial resources. In building activities, health professionals could simultaneously utilise skills and knowledge from professional, community member and personal dimensions. Outcomes included social and health benefits, personal 'buzz' and community capacity. Health professionals' actions could be described as social entrepreneurship: identifying opportunities, utilising resources and making 'deals'. They also align with community development. Health professionals use contextual knowledge to envisage and grow activities, indicating that, as social entrepreneurs, they do not explicitly choose a social mission, rather they

  10. Immigration as a social determinant of health.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Heide; Holmes, Seth M; Madrigal, Daniel S; Young, Maria-Elena DeTrinidad; Beyeler, Naomi; Quesada, James

    2015-03-18

    Although immigration and immigrant populations have become increasingly important foci in public health research and practice, a social determinants of health approach has seldom been applied in this area. Global patterns of morbidity and mortality follow inequities rooted in societal, political, and economic conditions produced and reproduced by social structures, policies, and institutions. The lack of dialogue between these two profoundly related phenomena-social determinants of health and immigration-has resulted in missed opportunities for public health research, practice, and policy work. In this article, we discuss primary frameworks used in recent public health literature on the health of immigrant populations, note gaps in this literature, and argue for a broader examination of immigration as both socially determined and a social determinant of health. We discuss priorities for future research and policy to understand more fully and respond appropriately to the health of the populations affected by this global phenomenon. PMID:25494053

  11. Assessing fitness-to-practice of overseas-trained health practitioners by Australian registration & accreditation bodies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Assessment of fitness-to-practice of health professionals trained overseas and who wish to practice in Australia is undertaken by a range of organisations. These organisations conduct assessments using a range of methods. However there is very little published about how these organisations conduct their assessments. The purpose of the current paper is to investigate the methods of assessment used by these organisations and the issues associated with conducting these assessments. Methods A series of semi-structured interviews was undertaken with a variety of organisations who undertake assessments of overseas-trained health professionals who wish to practice in Australia. Content analysis of the interviews was used to identify themes and patterns. Results Four themes were generated from the content analysis of the interviews: (1) assessing; (2) process; (3) examiners; and (4) cost-efficiency. The themes were interconnected and each theme also had a number of sub-themes. Conclusions The organisations who participated in the present study used a range of assessment methods to assess overseas trained health professionals. These organisations also highlighted a number of issues, particularly related to examiners and process issues, pre- and post-assessment. Organisations demonstrated an appreciation for ongoing review of their assessment processes and incorporating evidence from the literature to inform their processes and assessment development. PMID:23020885

  12. Assessment and Accreditation for Languages: The Emerging Consensus?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubner, Anke, Ed.; Ibarz, Toni, Ed.; Laviosa, Sara, Ed.

    Chapter titles include the following: "Language Teaching, Accreditation and the Social Purpose of Adult Education" (Liam Kane); "Student Attitudes to Learning, Assessment and Accreditation" (Fran Beaton); "Assessment on a Fully Accredited Open Language Programme: Achieving Beneficial Backwash in a Standardised Scheme" (Dounia Bissar); "Introducing…

  13. Social Science Collaboration with Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Elizabeth; Renauld, Mia; Edelstein, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Social science research has been central in documenting and analyzing community discovery of environmental exposure and consequential processes. Collaboration with environmental health science through team projects has advanced and improved our understanding of environmental health and justice. Objective We sought to identify diverse methods and topics in which social scientists have expanded environmental health understandings at multiple levels, to examine how transdisciplinary environmental health research fosters better science, and to learn how these partnerships have been able to flourish because of the support from National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). Methods We analyzed various types of social science research to investigate how social science contributes to environmental health. We also examined NIEHS programs that foster social science. In addition, we developed a case study of a community-based participation research project in Akwesasne in order to demonstrate how social science has enhanced environmental health science. Results Social science has informed environmental health science through ethnographic studies of contaminated communities, analysis of spatial distribution of environmental injustice, psychological experience of contamination, social construction of risk and risk perception, and social impacts of disasters. Social science–environmental health team science has altered the way scientists traditionally explore exposure by pressing for cumulative exposure approaches and providing research data for policy applications. Conclusions A transdisciplinary approach for environmental health practice has emerged that engages the social sciences to paint a full picture of the consequences of contamination so that policy makers, regulators, public health officials, and other stakeholders can better ameliorate impacts and prevent future exposure. Citation Hoover E, Renauld M, Edelstein MR, Brown P. 2015. Social

  14. Social capital and health promotion: a review.

    PubMed

    Hawe, P; Shiell, A

    2000-09-01

    Interest in social capital and health has emerged at an exciting time. In public health, there is a renewed interest in mechanisms that link social inequalities and health. In epidemiology, there has been a critical interrogation of methods and a call for a more explicit use of theory. In health promotion over the last 20-30 years, social health interventions have been somewhat marginalised in an era dominated by interest in traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. Now that social hypotheses are being reborn in health, there is a risk that the sophistication that has developed in social health promotion and the literatures that have informed it could be overlooked. In this paper, we present a brief history of social capital and how it has come into recent prominence through the debate linking income inequality and health. We present the background to this, the earlier literatures on social environmental influences on health and the possible processes thought to underlie this relationship. Social capital has relational, material and political aspects. We suggest that, although the relational properties of social capital are important (eg, trust, networks), the political aspects of social capital are perhaps under recognised. The paper also reviews how complex social processes at the community level have come to be operationalised by social theorists and intervention agents in other fields. We suggest that social capital research so far has inadequately captured the underlying constructs, in particular the qualitative difference between the macro/context level and the micro/individual level. While being cautious about the science, we conclude that social capital's power as rhetoric and as a metaphor may be of value. We conclude by suggesting that the coalescence of interests in context-level influences on health now invites a revitalisation of theories and interventions inspired by diverse fields, such as geography and ecological community psychology. PMID

  15. Reproductive tourism in Argentina: clinic accreditation and its implications for consumers, health professionals and policy makers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elise; Behrmann, Jason; Martin, Carolina; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2010-08-01

    A subcategory of medical tourism, reproductive tourism has been the subject of much public and policy debate in recent years. Specific concerns include: the exploitation of individuals and communities, access to needed health care services, fair allocation of limited resources, and the quality and safety of services provided by private clinics. To date, the focus of attention has been on the thriving medical and reproductive tourism sectors in Asia and Eastern Europe; there has been much less consideration given to more recent 'players' in Latin America, notably fertility clinics in Chile, Brazil, Mexico and Argentina. In this paper, we examine the context-specific ethical and policy implications of private Argentinean fertility clinics that market reproductive services via the internet. Whether or not one agrees that reproductive services should be made available as consumer goods, the fact is that they are provided as such by private clinics around the world. We argue that basic national regulatory mechanisms are required in countries such as Argentina that are marketing fertility services to local and international publics. Specifically, regular oversight of all fertility clinics is essential to ensure that consumer information is accurate and that marketed services are safe and effective. It is in the best interests of consumers, health professionals and policy makers that the reproductive tourism industry adopts safe and responsible medical practices. PMID:19508291

  16. Social capital and health – implications for health promotion

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Malin

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review of the PhD Thesis of Malin Eriksson, entitled ‘Social capital, health and community action – implications for health promotion.’ The article presents a theoretical overview of social capital and its relation to health, reviews empirical findings of the links between social capital and (self-rated) health, and discusses the usefulness of social capital in health promotion interventions at individual and community levels. Social capital, conceptualized as an individual characteristic, can contribute to the field of health promotion by adding new knowledge on how social network interventions may best be designed to meet the needs of the target group. The distinction of different forms of social capital, i.e. bonding, bridging, and linking, can be useful in mapping the kinds of networks that are available and health-enhancing (or damaging) and for whom. Further, social capital can advance social network interventions by acknowledging the risk for unequal distribution of investments and returns from social network involvement. Social capital, conceptualized as characterizing whole communities, provides a useful framework for what constitutes health-supporting environments and guidance on how to achieve them. Mapping and mobilization of social capital in local communities may be one way of achieving community action for health promotion. Social capital is context-bound by necessity. Thus, from a global perspective, it cannot be used as a ‘cookbook’ on how to achieve supportive environments and community action smoothly. However, social capital can provide new ideas on the processes that influence human interactions, cooperation, and community action for health promotion in various contexts. PMID:21311607

  17. Social marketing: its place in public health.

    PubMed

    Ling, J C; Franklin, B A; Lindsteadt, J F; Gearon, S A

    1992-01-01

    This review of the public health role of social marketing begins by tracing the history of social marketing and noting that social marketing adopts the traditional marketing framework of product, price, place, and promotion and embraces several methods of commercial marketing as well as consumer research. However, no universally acknowledged definition exists. A review of the literature is divided into three time periods representing early theoretical development, the evaluation of experiences, and increasing acceptance. Concerns about social marketing are discussed in terms of ethics, disempowerment, and the commercialization of health information. Examples of social marketing are then provided from developing countries and are analyzed in groupings defined as tangible products, sustained health practices, and service utilization. Practitioners' views and concerns are also reviewed. The strengths of social marketing include knowledge of the audience, systematic use of qualitative methods, use of incentives, closer monitoring, strategic use of the mass media, realistic expectations, aspiring to high standards, and recognition of price. Weaknesses of social marketing include its time, money, and human requirements; the fact that marketing elements are missing (public health lacks the flexibility to adjust products and services to clients' interests and preferences); and the potential serious impact on the future of Public Service Announcements, which may die out because social marketers pay for air time. After placing social marketing in context with other practices designed to achieve social change, the review ends with the prediction that the public health role of social marketing is likely to increase. The World Health Organization's recent call for health promotion and the UN Children's Fund's social mobilization actions are provided as examples of this increased role. It is noted, however, that social marketing alone cannot solve public health problems. PMID

  18. Health On the Net Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... non-profit, non-governmental organization, accredited to the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. For 20 years, HON has focused on the essential question of the provision of health information to ...

  19. Communication Access to Health and Social Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Susie; Pound, Carole; Hewitt, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the efforts of a group of people in the United Kingdom at Connect-the communication disability network-to make health and social services more communicatively accessible to people with aphasia. The project involved listening to people with aphasia talk about their experiences with health and social care services and working…

  20. Integrating Social Theory Into Public Health Practice

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, Louise; Gendron, Sylvie; Bilodeau, Angèle; Chabot, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The innovative practice that resulted from the Ottawa Charter challenges public health knowledge about programming and evaluation. Specifically, there is a need to formulate program theory that embraces social determinants of health and local actors’ mobilization for social change. Likewise, it is imperative to develop a theory of evaluation that fosters reflexive understanding of public health programs engaged in social change. We believe advances in contemporary social theory that are founded on a critique of modernity and that articulate a coherent theory of practice should be considered when addressing these critical challenges. PMID:15798114

  1. The Social Determinants of Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Sederer, Lloyd I

    2016-02-01

    Ninety percent of the determinants of our health derive from our lifetime social and physical environment-not from the provision of health care. The author describes behaviors, such as poor eating, excessive drinking and abuse of drugs, smoking, and physical inactivity, and social factors, such as adverse childhood experiences, poor education, food insecurity, poor housing quality, unemployment, and discrimination, that contribute to ill health and early demise. Better health and mental health can be achieved by understanding and responding to these determinants of health. PMID:26522677

  2. Expected Ethical Competencies of Public Health Professionals and Graduate Curricula in Accredited Schools of Public Health in North America

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Brandy; Semaan, Salaam

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed expected ethics competencies of public health professionals in codes and competencies, reviewed ethics instruction at schools of public health, and recommended ways to bridge the gap between them. Methods. We reviewed the code of ethics and 3 sets of competencies, separating ethics-related competencies into 3 domains: professional, research, and public health. We reviewed ethics course requirements in 2010–2011 on the Internet sites of 46 graduate schools of public health and categorized courses as required, not required, or undetermined. Results. Half of schools (n = 23) required an ethics course for graduation (master’s or doctoral level), 21 did not, and 2 had no information. Sixteen of 23 required courses were 3-credit courses. Course content varied from 1 ethics topic to many topics addressing multiple ethics domains. Conclusions. Consistent ethics education and competency evaluation can be accomplished through a combination of a required course addressing the 3 domains, integration of ethics topics in other courses, and “booster” trainings. Enhancing ethics competence of public health professionals is important to address the ethical questions that arise in public health research, surveillance, practice, and policy. PMID:22994177

  3. The dynamics of social capital and health.

    PubMed

    Lavalle, Tiziana; Omosebi, Charles Damimola; Desmarteau, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of Robert Putnam's arrival in Italy to study regionalization, this review of the literature on social capital aimed to establish whether current knowledge, social or socio-anthropological research have yielded new findings on how social capital is built and maintained or developed in a community and to what extent this influences social well-being. This is particularly important for those working in the health sector to make sure that health-related decision-making and behaviour foster rather than destroy the development of social capital. Our literature search was based on specific articles published in scientific journals in the humanist, managerial and medical fields, book titles or subtitles containing references to "social capital or social cooperation or reciprocity". Our findings led us to the conclusion that a complex series of coordinated actions are required for social capital to develop and that, once developed, social capital has a positive impact on social relations, economic results and social stability. In addition, we understood why it is useful to retain three stages, conditioning, development and capitalization, in modelling the development of social capital. Conditioning requires transparency, pragmatism and long-term vision. Development and capitalization require the predominant variables to be chosen. The development of social capital is part of a good strategy for health promotion and prevention. PMID:26828341

  4. Social Determinants of Health: Implications for Environmental Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Amy; Northridge, Mary E.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors draw on the disciplines of sociology and environmental and social epidemiology to further understanding of mechanisms through which social factors contribute to disparate environmental exposures and health inequalities. They propose a conceptual framework for environmental health promotion that considers dynamic social…

  5. Migrating from user fees to social health insurance: exploring the prospects and challenges for hospital management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2003 Ghana introduced a social health insurance scheme which resulted in the separation of purchasing of health services by the health insurance authority on the one hand and the provision of health services by hospitals at the other side of the spectrum. This separation has a lot of implications for managing accredited hospitals. This paper examines whether decoupling purchasing and service provision translate into opportunities or challenges in the management of accredited hospitals. Methods A qualitative exploratory study of 15 accredited district hospitals were selected from five of Ghana’s ten administrative regions for the study. A semi-structured interview guide was designed to solicit information from key informants, Health Service Administrators, Pharmacists, Accountants and Scheme Managers of the hospitals studied. Data was analysed thematically. Results The results showed that under the health insurance scheme, hospitals are better-off in terms of cash flow and adequate stock levels of drugs. Adequate stock of non-drugs under the scheme was reportedly intermittent. The major challenges confronting the hospitals were identified as weak purchasing power due to low tariffs, non computerisation of claims processing, unpredictable payment pattern, poor gate-keeping systems, lack of logistics and other new and emerging challenges relating to moral hazards and the use of false identity cards under pretence for medical care. Conclusion Study’s findings have a lot of policy implications for proper management of hospitals. The findings suggest rationalisation of the current tariff structure, the application of contract based payment system to inject efficiency into hospitals management and piloting facility based vetting systems to offset vetting loads of the insurance authority. Proper gate-keeping mechanisms are also needed to curtail the phenomenon of moral hazard and false documentation. PMID:22726666

  6. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals’ target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother’s health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277

  7. College Student Services Accreditation Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1979-01-01

    This questionnaire is intended for use as one aspect in accrediting the "Student Personnel Services" which an institution of higher learning provides for students. Areas in question include personal development, health fostering, vocational preparation, effective personalized learning, economic viability, transpersonal offerings, and satisfactory…

  8. Accrediting industrial safety training programs

    SciTech Connect

    Beitel, L.

    1992-12-31

    There are job-specific training requirements established by regulations that Impose stringent training requirements on a contractor, for example, the Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA). Failure to comply with OSHA training requirements can result in severe penalties being levied against a company. Although an accredited training program is expensive, it is a possible solution for minimizing risks associated with job-specific training requirements for employees. Operating DOE contractors direct approximately 10 percent of the operating funds toward training activities. Training needs for contractors span a broad range, from requirements awareness training for managers, to general training required on a one-time basis for all employees, to highly specialized training programs for employees involved In clean-up operations at hazardous waste sites. With this kind of an investment in training, it is logical to maximize the most return on an investment of training funds and to limit exposure to liability suits whenever possible. This presentation will provide an overview of accredited industrial safety programs. The criteria for accredited industrial safety programs will be defined. The question of whether accredited training programs are necessary will be examined. Finally, advantages and disadvantages will be identified for accrediting industrial safety training programs.

  9. Accrediting industrial safety training programs

    SciTech Connect

    Beitel, L.

    1992-01-01

    There are job-specific training requirements established by regulations that Impose stringent training requirements on a contractor, for example, the Occupational Safety Health Act (OSHA). Failure to comply with OSHA training requirements can result in severe penalties being levied against a company. Although an accredited training program is expensive, it is a possible solution for minimizing risks associated with job-specific training requirements for employees. Operating DOE contractors direct approximately 10 percent of the operating funds toward training activities. Training needs for contractors span a broad range, from requirements awareness training for managers, to general training required on a one-time basis for all employees, to highly specialized training programs for employees involved In clean-up operations at hazardous waste sites. With this kind of an investment in training, it is logical to maximize the most return on an investment of training funds and to limit exposure to liability suits whenever possible. This presentation will provide an overview of accredited industrial safety programs. The criteria for accredited industrial safety programs will be defined. The question of whether accredited training programs are necessary will be examined. Finally, advantages and disadvantages will be identified for accrediting industrial safety training programs.

  10. Modeling social influences on human health.

    PubMed

    Karelina, Kate; DeVries, A Courtney

    2011-01-01

    Social interactions have long-term physiological, psychological, and behavioral consequences. Social isolation is a well-recognized but little understood risk factor and prognostic marker of disease; it can have profoundly detrimental effects on both mental and physical well-being, particularly during states of compromised health. In contrast, the health benefits associated with social support (both reduced risk and improved recovery) are evident in a variety of illnesses and injury states; however, the mechanisms by which social interactions influence disease pathogenesis remain largely unidentified. The substantial health impact of the psychosocial environment can occur independently of traditional disease risk factors and is not accounted for solely by peer-encouraged development of health behaviors. Instead, social interactions are capable of altering shared pathophysiological mechanisms of multiple disease states in distinct measurable ways. Converging evidence from animal models of injury and disease recapitulates the physiological benefits of affiliative social interactions and establishes several endogenous mechanisms (inflammatory signals, glucocorticoids, and oxytocin) by which social interactions influence health outcomes. Taken together, both clinical and animal research are undoubtedly necessary to develop a complete mechanistic understanding of social influences on health. PMID:21097660

  11. Global Health in the Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David J.

    2005-01-01

    It may surprise students to realize that health problems in other countries affect them, too. Where people live and the conditions under which they live directly affect their health. The health of a population can also offer insight into a region's social, political, and economic realities. As a powerful lens into how human societies function,…

  12. [Universalization of health or of social security?].

    PubMed

    Levy-Algazi, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the architecture of Mexico's health system based on the main economic problem, failing to achieve a GDP growth rate to increase real wages and give workers in formal employment coverage social security. This analysis describes the relationship between social security of the population and employment status of it (either formal or informal employment) and the impact that this situation poses to our health system. Also, it ends with a reform proposal that will give all workers the same social rights, ie to grant universal social security. PMID:22116175

  13. Social Determinants of Health: Housing and Income.

    PubMed

    Forchuk, Cheryl; Dickins, Kevin; Corring, Deborah J

    2016-01-01

    Social determinants of health such as housing and income have a large impact on mental health. Community-based initiatives have worked to address access to housing, prevent homelessness and assist people who are homeless with mental health problems. There have been several large research projects to tease out multiple subgroups such as youth and veterans and other individuals experiencing long-term homelessness. The issue of poverty has been addressed by exploring issues related to employment. The use of social enterprises is a promising practice to address issues around poverty, social inclusion and employment. Similarly, the community has worked to move hospital-based employment programs to the community. PMID:26854545

  14. The Future of Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Judith S.

    2012-01-01

    Accreditation, the primary means of assuring and improving academic quality in U.S. higher education, has endured for more than 100 years. While accommodating many changes in higher education and society, accreditation's fundamental values and practices have remained essentially intact, affirming their sturdiness. Accreditation is a form of…

  15. Accreditation: The American Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Clem; Silver, Harold

    The report presents the findings of an investigation into the trends and issues concerning accreditation of professionals and institutions of higher education in the United States. In late 1988 and early 1989, the study examined the accreditation of courses in nursing, engineering, and teacher education, and the accreditation of institutions in…

  16. Accreditation's Legal Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graca, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Like most issues in higher education, the accreditation paradigm in the United States is defined in large measure by the legal and political climate in which the academy finds itself. In the case of accreditation in particular, the legal substrate is of particular importance given the central role of accreditation in a college's ability to receive…

  17. A College Emerges from Accrediting Limbo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurthie, Beth

    2001-01-01

    Describes how California's Bethany College survived four years of tough love from the accrediting Western Association of Schools and Colleges and emerged with a clean bill of health and a future. (EV)

  18. [Social representations of municipal health counselors on health surveillance].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Maria Caldeira; Dallari, Sueli Gandolfi

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study is to describe and analyze the social representations of the Health Counselors of the city of Belo Horizonte regarding their experiences with health surveillance. The research used the interview technique based on a semi-structured script. The data obtained were analyzed using the Collective Subject Discourse technique. It was found that the existing gap between health surveillance and the Municipal Health Council is offset by the broad spectrum of "hands-on" experience acquired by the counselors. This experience assumes greater significance in terms of practical knowledge, directly influencing the thinking and know-how of these individuals on the topic. In practice, proof of the social appropriation of the importance of health surveillance as health action qualifies as an effective model of health care. It effectively influences the determinants and conditioning factors of the health/sickness process, while simultaneously promoting educational initiatives that contribute to raising health awareness. PMID:26221821

  19. 42 CFR 8.3 - Application for approval as an accreditation body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for approval as an accreditation body... accreditation body. (a) Eligibility. Private nonprofit organizations or State governmental entities, or... an accreditation body. (b) Application for initial approval. Three copies of an accreditation...

  20. 42 CFR 8.3 - Application for approval as an accreditation body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for approval as an accreditation body... accreditation body. (a) Eligibility. Private nonprofit organizations or State governmental entities, or... an accreditation body. (b) Application for initial approval. Three copies of an accreditation...

  1. 42 CFR 8.3 - Application for approval as an accreditation body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application for approval as an accreditation body... accreditation body. (a) Eligibility. Private nonprofit organizations or State governmental entities, or... an accreditation body. (b) Application for initial approval. Three copies of an accreditation...

  2. Adolescence and the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Viner, Russell M; Ozer, Elizabeth M; Denny, Simon; Marmot, Michael; Resnick, Michael; Fatusi, Adesegun; Currie, Candace

    2012-04-28

    The health of adolescents is strongly affected by social factors at personal, family, community, and national levels. Nations present young people with structures of opportunity as they grow up. Since health and health behaviours correspond strongly from adolescence into adult life, the way that these social determinants affect adolescent health are crucial to the health of the whole population and the economic development of nations. During adolescence, developmental effects related to puberty and brain development lead to new sets of behaviours and capacities that enable transitions in family, peer, and educational domains, and in health behaviours. These transitions modify childhood trajectories towards health and wellbeing and are modified by economic and social factors within countries, leading to inequalities. We review existing data on the effects of social determinants on health in adolescence, and present findings from country-level ecological analyses on the health of young people aged 10-24 years. The strongest determinants of adolescent health worldwide are structural factors such as national wealth, income inequality, and access to education. Furthermore, safe and supportive families, safe and supportive schools, together with positive and supportive peers are crucial to helping young people develop to their full potential and attain the best health in the transition to adulthood. Improving adolescent health worldwide requires improving young people's daily life with families and peers and in schools, addressing risk and protective factors in the social environment at a population level, and focusing on factors that are protective across various health outcomes. The most effective interventions are probably structural changes to improve access to education and employment for young people and to reduce the risk of transport-related injury. PMID:22538179

  3. The Health and Social Care Act 2012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although the National Health Service (NHS) is regarded as a national treasure, it is no longer immune from the colossal financial pressures brought about by global recession. Economic sustainability has largely driven the reform process leading to the Health and Social Care Act (HSCA) 2012, however; other considerations have also played a role in the journey to turn the health and social care service into an institution which is fit for the 21st-century needs. This article examines the impact of the HSCA 2012 on those made vulnerable through mental ill health. It then considers three issues: First, whether parity between mental and physical health can have life beyond political rhetoric; second, what impact driving up efficiency within the NHS will have upon mental health patients; and finally, the extent to which the personalisation agenda can be meaningfully applied within the mental health context. PMID:26273147

  4. 77 FR 19288 - Medicare Program; Renewal of Deeming Authority of the Utilization Review Accreditation Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... of the Utilization Review Accreditation Commission for Medicare Advantage Health Maintenance... Advantage ``deeming authority'' of the Utilization Review Accreditation Commission (URAC) for Health... covered services through a Medicare Advantage (MA) organization that contracts with CMS. The...

  5. Social capital to strengthen health policy and health systems.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jessica; Morrison, Ken; Hardee, Karen

    2014-12-01

    This article recounts the development of a model for social capital building developed over the course of interventions focused on HIV-related stigma and discrimination, safe motherhood and reproductive health. Through further engagement with relevant literature, it explores the nature of social capital and suggests why undertaking such a process can enhance health policy and programmes, advocacy and governance for improved health systems strengthening (HSS) outcomes. The social capital process proposed facilitates the systematic and effective inclusion of community voices in the health policy process-strengthening programme effectiveness as well as health system accountability and governance. Because social capital building facilitates communication and the uptake of new ideas, norms and standards within and between professional communities of practice, it can provide an important mechanism for integration both within and between sectors-a process long considered a 'wicked problem' for health policy-makers. The article argues that the systematic application of social capital building, from bonding through bridging into linking social capital, can greatly enhance the ability of governments and their partners to achieve their HSS goals. PMID:24277736

  6. Health promotion financing with Mongolia's social health insurance.

    PubMed

    Bayarsaikhan, Dorjsuren; Nakamura, Keiko

    2015-03-01

    Health promotion is receiving more attention in Mongolia. A survey is undertaken to examine health promotion in terms of health-related information, education, counseling, screening, preventive and medical checkups. Almost all (97.5%) of the subjects feel that access to reliable and systematically organized health-related information is important. About 60% of the subjects expressed that the amount of currently available information is inadequate. There are several factors that limit the implementation of public health programs. These include inadequate focus on promoting health at individual level, lack of funds, and limited incentives to promote health. This article examined social health insurance as an option to address these issues. Three hypothetical benefits package options expanded to health promotion were developed and simulated by a computerized tool. The simulations show that all 3 options are financially sustainable at the existing level of contribution if Mongolia will gain near universal health insurance coverage and improve revenue collection practices. PMID:25834269

  7. Science and social responsibility in public health.

    PubMed Central

    Weed, Douglas L; McKeown, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologists and environmental health researchers have a joint responsibility to acquire scientific knowledge that matters to public health and to apply the knowledge gained in public health practice. We examine the nature and source of these social responsibilities, discuss a debate in the epidemiological literature on roles and responsibilities, and cite approaches to environmental justice as reflective of them. At one level, responsibility refers to accountability, as in being responsible for actions taken. A deeper meaning of responsibility corresponds to commitment to the pursuit and achievement of a valued end. Epidemiologists are committed to the scientific study of health and disease in human populations and to the application of scientific knowledge to improve the public's health. Responsibility is also closely linked to reliability. Responsible professionals reliably perform the tasks they set for themselves as well as the tasks society expects them to undertake. The defining axiom for our approach is that the health of the public is a social good we commit ourselves to pursue, thus assuming an obligation to contribute to its achievement. Epidemiologists cannot claim to be committed to public health as a social good and not accept the responsibility of ensuring that the knowledge gained in their roles as scientists is used to achieve that good. The social responsibilities of environmental health researchers are conspicuous in the environmental justice movement, for example, in community-based participatory research. Responsibility is an ethical concept particularly well suited to frame many key aspects of the ethics of our profession. PMID:14602514

  8. 42 CFR 414.68 - Imaging accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Imaging accreditation. 414.68 Section 414.68 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.68 Imaging...

  9. 42 CFR 414.68 - Imaging accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Imaging accreditation. 414.68 Section 414.68 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.68 Imaging...

  10. 42 CFR 414.68 - Imaging accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Imaging accreditation. 414.68 Section 414.68 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.68 Imaging...

  11. Medicine, morality and health care social media.

    PubMed

    Timimi, Farris K

    2012-01-01

    Social media includes many different forms of technology including online forums, blogs, microblogs (i.e. Twitter), wikipedias, video blogs, social networks and podcasting. The use of social media has grown exponentially and time spent on social media sites now represents one in five minutes spent online. Concomitant with this online growth, there has been an inverse trajectory in direct face-to-face patient-provider moments, which continue to become scarcer across the spectrum of health care. In contrast to standard forms of engagement and education, social media has advantages to include profound reach, immediate availability, an archived presence and broad accessibility. Our opportunity as health care providers to partner with our patients has never been greater, yet all too often we allow risk averse fears to limit our ability to truly leverage our good content effectively to the online community. This risk averse behavior truly limits our capacity to effectively engage our patients where they are--online. PMID:22856531

  12. [Social inequality and health in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Neri, Marcelo; Soares, Wagner

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between social inequality and health in Brazil. The strategy adopted by the authors was to analyze needs and uses of medical care as well as access to health insurance plans according to income distribution. Determinants of health care consumption were also studied by means of logistic regression. The main source of data was the 1998 National Sample Household Survey of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (PNAD-IBGE). In general, individuals in the lowest income distribution deciles had less access to health insurance, greater need for medical care, and lower consumption of such services. Other determinants of health care consumption were heavily associated with the most privileged social strata (greater access to schooling, water supply, sewerage, electricity, garbage collection, and health insurance) and with factors pointing to the capacity to supply these services in country. PMID:12563503

  13. Social marketing: consumer focused health promotion.

    PubMed

    Blair, J E

    1995-10-01

    1. Social marketing provides a theoretical basis to increase awareness of preventable health conditions and to increase participation in wellness programs. 2. The philosophy of social marketing underscores the necessity to be aware of and responsive to the consumer's perception of needs. 3. Social marketing is distinguished by its emphasis on "non-tangible" products such as ideas, attitudes, and lifestyle changes. 4. "Marketing mix" is a social marketing strategy that intertwines elements of product, price, place, and promotion to satisfy needs and wants of consumers. PMID:7575787

  14. Social inequalities and health inequity in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Boutayeb, Abdesslam

    2006-01-01

    Background According to the last census, Morocco has a population approaching 30 million people. The country has made good progress in the control of preventable childhood diseases but social inequalities and health inequities remain major problems for the third millennium. Despite the progress achieved during the last decade, the country still ranks at the 125th place according to the Human Development Index. This unpleasant position is mainly explained by illiteracy, education and health indicators. Method Our study was based mainly on annual reports and regular publications released by the United Nations (UN), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Health Organisation (WHO), The Moroccan Health Ministry and related papers published in international journals. Results and discussion As indicated by the last Arab Human Development Reports (AHDR 2002, AHDR 2003, AHDR 2004) and implicitly confirmed by the "National Initiative for Human Development" (NIHD) launched in May 2005 by the King of Morocco, many districts and shanty towns, urban or peri-urban, and a multitude of rural communes live in situations characterized by difficult access to basic social services of which education and health are examples. Conclusion Recent evidence showed that improved health is more than a consequence of development. It is a central input into economic and social development and poverty reduction. Serious initiatives for human development should consider the reduction of social inequalities and health inequities as a first priority. Otherwise, the eventual development achieved cannot be sustained. PMID:16522204

  15. Social inequalities in health in nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Shively, Carol A.; Day, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Overall health has been linked to socioeconomic status, with the gap between social strata increasing each year. Studying the impact of social position on health and biological functioning in nonhuman primates has allowed researchers to model the human condition while avoiding ethical complexities or other difficulties characteristic of human studies. Using female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), our lab has examined the link between social status and stress for 30 years. Female nonhuman primates are especially sensitive to social stressors which can deleteriously affect reproductive health, leading to harmful consequences to their overall health. Subordinates have lower progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase of menstrual cycle, which is indicative of absence or impairment of ovulation. Subordinate animals receive more aggression, less affiliative attention, and are more likely to exhibit depressive behaviors. They also express higher stress-related biomarkers such as increased heart rates and lower mean cortisol. While no differences in body weight between dominant and subordinate animals are observed, subordinates have lower bone density and more visceral fat than their dominant counterparts. The latter increases risk for developing inflammatory diseases. Differences are also observed in neurological and autonomic function. A growing body of data suggests that diet composition may amplify or diminish physiological stress responses which have deleterious effects on health. More experimental investigation of the health effects of diet pattern is needed to further elucidate these differences in an ongoing search to find realistic and long-term solutions to the declining health of individuals living across the ever widening socioeconomic spectrum. PMID:27589665

  16. Social inequalities in health in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Shively, Carol A; Day, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    Overall health has been linked to socioeconomic status, with the gap between social strata increasing each year. Studying the impact of social position on health and biological functioning in nonhuman primates has allowed researchers to model the human condition while avoiding ethical complexities or other difficulties characteristic of human studies. Using female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), our lab has examined the link between social status and stress for 30 years. Female nonhuman primates are especially sensitive to social stressors which can deleteriously affect reproductive health, leading to harmful consequences to their overall health. Subordinates have lower progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase of menstrual cycle, which is indicative of absence or impairment of ovulation. Subordinate animals receive more aggression, less affiliative attention, and are more likely to exhibit depressive behaviors. They also express higher stress-related biomarkers such as increased heart rates and lower mean cortisol. While no differences in body weight between dominant and subordinate animals are observed, subordinates have lower bone density and more visceral fat than their dominant counterparts. The latter increases risk for developing inflammatory diseases. Differences are also observed in neurological and autonomic function. A growing body of data suggests that diet composition may amplify or diminish physiological stress responses which have deleterious effects on health. More experimental investigation of the health effects of diet pattern is needed to further elucidate these differences in an ongoing search to find realistic and long-term solutions to the declining health of individuals living across the ever widening socioeconomic spectrum. PMID:27589665

  17. Does accreditation stimulate change? A study of the impact of the accreditation process on Canadian healthcare organizations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background One way to improve quality and safety in healthcare organizations (HCOs) is through accreditation. Accreditation is a rigorous external evaluation process that comprises self-assessment against a given set of standards, an on-site survey followed by a report with or without recommendations, and the award or refusal of accreditation status. This study evaluates how the accreditation process helps introduce organizational changes that enhance the quality and safety of care. Methods We used an embedded multiple case study design to explore organizational characteristics and identify changes linked to the accreditation process. We employed a theoretical framework to analyze various elements and for each case, we interviewed top managers, conducted focus groups with staff directly involved in the accreditation process, and analyzed self-assessment reports, accreditation reports and other case-related documents. Results The context in which accreditation took place, including the organizational context, influenced the type of change dynamics that occurred in HCOs. Furthermore, while accreditation itself was not necessarily the element that initiated change, the accreditation process was a highly effective tool for (i) accelerating integration and stimulating a spirit of cooperation in newly merged HCOs; (ii) helping to introduce continuous quality improvement programs to newly accredited or not-yet-accredited organizations; (iii) creating new leadership for quality improvement initiatives; (iv) increasing social capital by giving staff the opportunity to develop relationships; and (v) fostering links between HCOs and other stakeholders. The study also found that HCOs' motivation to introduce accreditation-related changes dwindled over time. Conclusions We conclude that the accreditation process is an effective leitmotiv for the introduction of change but is nonetheless subject to a learning cycle and a learning curve. Institutions invest greatly to conform to

  18. Women's health in urban Mali: Social Predictors and Health Itineraries

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Riley M; Vala-Haynes, Emily; Valeggia, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Social and marital factors may influence women's health outcomes. This is of particular relevance in sub-Saharan Africa, where women's health indicators lag behind the rest of the world. Our study examines the impact of social mediators of women's health during key events (pregnancy and illness) in urban Mali. In this cross-sectional study, we interviewed 324 women aged 15-80, living in Bamako, the capital city, in 1999. We used mixed quantitative and qualitative methods to obtain detailed histories of pregnancy and illness during specific time periods preceding the survey. We examined the role of marital factors (polygyny, widowhood), social factors (sources of support and scales derived for social network and social power), and household wealth on women's therapeutic itineraries. We compared the sociodemographic characteristics of our sample with those of the 2001 Mali Demographic and Health Survey and used their data on contraception to enrich analyses. We found that most pregnant women delivered in a health center and most women sought medical care during an illness event. Household wealth influenced illness reporting, and financial concerns were obstacles to medical care. Polygyny was associated with lower prevalence of contraceptive use, lower social power, as well as with less support received during pregnancy from women's husbands and in-laws. Widowhood appeared to increase susceptibility to illness, while decreasing resort to biomedical care. Our social composite scores highlighted differences in healthcare utilization in an urban setting with near-uniform access to biomedical care. We validate the utility of locally-derived composite scores, which may provide a deeper understanding into the social mediation of health outcomes for women. PMID:22818488

  19. 42 CFR 8.6 - Withdrawal of approval of accreditation bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 8.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... accreditation bodies. If SAMHSA determines that an accreditation body is not in substantial compliance with this... that the accreditation body has a major deficiency, such as commission of fraud, material...

  20. 42 CFR 8.6 - Withdrawal of approval of accreditation bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 8.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... accreditation bodies. If SAMHSA determines that an accreditation body is not in substantial compliance with this... that the accreditation body has a major deficiency, such as commission of fraud, material...

  1. 77 FR 37680 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Application From the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care for Continued Approval of Its Ambulatory... Association for Ambulatory Health Care for continued recognition as a national accrediting organization for... 6 years or as determined by CMS. The Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care...

  2. Social Capital and Health in a Digital Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharif, Behjat A.

    2007-01-01

    Quality of life is directly influenced by the quality of social relationships. Social capital, a reflection of the cohesiveness of social networks, is considered a significant determinant of health outcomes. Among social beings, lack of quality social connections correlates with poor health consequences. Membership in social networks and social…

  3. Privacy policies for health social networking sites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    Health social networking sites (HSNS), virtual communities where users connect with each other around common problems and share relevant health data, have been increasingly adopted by medical professionals and patients. The growing use of HSNS like Sermo and PatientsLikeMe has prompted public concerns about the risks that such online data-sharing platforms pose to the privacy and security of personal health data. This paper articulates a set of privacy risks introduced by social networking in health care and presents a practical example that demonstrates how the risks might be intrinsic to some HSNS. The aim of this study is to identify and sketch the policy implications of using HSNS and how policy makers and stakeholders should elaborate upon them to protect the privacy of online health data. PMID:23599228

  4. Comparison of Accreditation Criteria: CBHDP, NLN, and COA Accreditation Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frels, Lois; Horton, Betty

    1991-01-01

    Presents a detailed comparison of similarities and differences in the accreditation criteria of two nursing accrediting agencies--the National League for Nursing and the Council on Accreditation--as they relate to nurse anesthesiology programs. (JOW)

  5. IMIA Dynamic Accreditation Procedure: Suggestions, Simplicity and Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Marcano-Cedeño, Alexis; Wageih, Mohamed A; Gómez, Enrique J; Mantas, John

    2015-01-01

    The International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) is the world body for biomedical and health informatics (BMHI). IMIA accreditation program allows the health and medical informatics programs around the world to reach to an international level. Staffs (professors, students, education programmes directors, others) that work on the accredited BMHI programs will have the opportunity to be engaged with organizations that possess a world-class research and education profile from other countries, which will have great impacts on their field at their institutions, within their country providing the high quality overall health services. IMIA accreditation procedure is usually a long process and slightly complicated. The goal of this paper is to illustrate and to simplify the IMIA accreditation process to increase the success of the applicants. Toward more dynamic IMIA accreditation procedure, the paper presents 4 steps: translation, IMIA-Accreditation Step by Step Guideline, Questions and Answers, and finally the (new) Labelling System. PMID:26152968

  6. Health professions students' use of social media.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Carolyn; Giordano, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The internet is increasingly a part of everyday life by facilitating networking opportunities and offering ways to associate with others who have similar interests, values, or goals. An online survey was administered to 644 first-year students and 413 graduating students via Surveymonkey to investigate their media preferences, to gauge if they are active on social media sites, and to evaluate how they responded to advertisements. Students were in the following health professions: biotechnology, couple and family therapy, medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, public health, radiologic and imaging sciences, and pharmacy. Results indicate that students prefer online media as their primary source of information. The majority of students were using Facebook, and very few were using Twitter or LinkedIn or other social networking sites. Understanding social media usage has several implications for educating, connecting with, and researching health professions students from all stages of their academic career. PMID:21695367

  7. Social Networks in Improvement of Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Sivic, Suad; Toromanovic, Selim; Borojevic, Tea; Pandza, Haris

    2012-01-01

    Social network is a social structure made of individuals or organizations associated with one or more types of interdependence (friendship, common interests, work, knowledge, prestige, etc.) which are the “nodes” of the network. Networks can be organized to exchange information, knowledge or financial assistance under the various interest groups in universities, workplaces and associations of citizens. Today the most popular and widely used networks are based on application of the Internet as the main ICT. Depending on the method of connection, their field of activity and expertise of those who participate in certain networks, the network can be classified into the following groups: a) Social Networks with personal physical connectivity (the citizens’ associations, transplant networks, etc.), b) Global social internet network (Facebook, Twitter, Skype), c) specific health internet social network (forums, Health Care Forums, Healthcare Industry Forum), d) The health community internet network of non professionals (DailyStrength, CaringBridge, CarePages, MyFamilyHealth), e) Scientific social internet network (BiomedExperts, ResearchGate, iMedExchange), f) Social internet network which supported professionals (HealthBoards, Spas and Hope Association of Disabled and diabetic Enurgi), g) Scientific medical internet network databases in the system of scientific and technical information (CC, Pubmed/Medline, Excerpta Medica/EMBASE, ISI Web Knowledge, EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Social Science Index, etc.). The information in the network are exchanged in real time and in a way that has until recently been impossible in real life of people in the community. Networks allow tens of thousands of specific groups of people performing a series of social, professional and educational activities in the place of living and housing, place of work or other locations where individuals are. Network provides access to information related to education, health, nutrition, drugs

  8. Social networks in improvement of health care.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet; Sivic, Suad; Toromanovic, Selim; Borojevic, Tea; Pandza, Haris

    2012-01-01

    Social network is a social structure made of individuals or organizations associated with one or more types of interdependence (friendship, common interests, work, knowledge, prestige, etc.) which are the "nodes" of the network. Networks can be organized to exchange information, knowledge or financial assistance under the various interest groups in universities, workplaces and associations of citizens. Today the most popular and widely used networks are based on application of the Internet as the main ICT. Depending on the method of connection, their field of activity and expertise of those who participate in certain networks, the network can be classified into the following groups: a) Social Networks with personal physical connectivity (the citizens' associations, transplant networks, etc.), b) Global social internet network (Facebook, Twitter, Skype), c) specific health internet social network (forums, Health Care Forums, Healthcare Industry Forum), d) The health community internet network of non professionals (DailyStrength, CaringBridge, CarePages, MyFamilyHealth), e) Scientific social internet network (BiomedExperts, ResearchGate, iMedExchange), f) Social internet network which supported professionals (HealthBoards, Spas and Hope Association of Disabled and diabetic Enurgi), g) Scientific medical internet network databases in the system of scientific and technical information (CC, Pubmed/Medline, Excerpta Medica/EMBASE, ISI Web Knowledge, EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Social Science Index, etc.). The information in the network are exchanged in real time and in a way that has until recently been impossible in real life of people in the community. Networks allow tens of thousands of specific groups of people performing a series of social, professional and educational activities in the place of living and housing, place of work or other locations where individuals are. Network provides access to information related to education, health, nutrition, drugs, procedures

  9. Operationalizing universal health coverage in Nigeria through social health insurance.

    PubMed

    Okpani, Arnold Ikedichi; Abimbola, Seye

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria faces challenges that delay progress toward the attainment of the national government's declared goal of universal health coverage (UHC). One such challenge is system-wide inequities resulting from lack of financial protection for the health care needs of the vast majority of Nigerians. Only a small proportion of Nigerians have prepaid health care. In this paper, we draw on existing evidence to suggest steps toward reforming health care financing in Nigeria to achieve UHC through social health insurance. This article sets out to demonstrate that a viable path to UHC through expanding social health insurance exists in Nigeria. We argue that encouraging the states which are semi-autonomous federating units to setup and manage their own insurance schemes presents a unique opportunity for rapidly scaling up prepaid coverage for Nigerians. We show that Nigeria's federal structure which prescribes a sharing of responsibilities for health care among the three tiers of government presents serious challenges for significantly extending social insurance to uncovered groups. We recommend that rather than allowing this governance structure to impair progress toward UHC, it should be leveraged to accelerate the process by supporting the states to establish and manage their own insurance funds while encouraging integration with the National Health Insurance Scheme. PMID:26778879

  10. Operationalizing universal health coverage in Nigeria through social health insurance

    PubMed Central

    Okpani, Arnold Ikedichi; Abimbola, Seye

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria faces challenges that delay progress toward the attainment of the national government's declared goal of universal health coverage (UHC). One such challenge is system-wide inequities resulting from lack of financial protection for the health care needs of the vast majority of Nigerians. Only a small proportion of Nigerians have prepaid health care. In this paper, we draw on existing evidence to suggest steps toward reforming health care financing in Nigeria to achieve UHC through social health insurance. This article sets out to demonstrate that a viable path to UHC through expanding social health insurance exists in Nigeria. We argue that encouraging the states which are semi-autonomous federating units to setup and manage their own insurance schemes presents a unique opportunity for rapidly scaling up prepaid coverage for Nigerians. We show that Nigeria's federal structure which prescribes a sharing of responsibilities for health care among the three tiers of government presents serious challenges for significantly extending social insurance to uncovered groups. We recommend that rather than allowing this governance structure to impair progress toward UHC, it should be leveraged to accelerate the process by supporting the states to establish and manage their own insurance funds while encouraging integration with the National Health Insurance Scheme. PMID:26778879

  11. Symmetry in social exchange and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegrist, Johannes

    2005-10-01

    Symmetry is a relevant concept in sociological theories of exchange. It is rooted in the evolutionary old norm of social reciprocity and is particularly important in social contracts. Symmetry breaking through violation of the norm of reciprocity generates strain in micro-social systems and, above all, in victims of non-symmetric exchange. In this contribution, adverse healthconsequences of symmetry breaking in contractual social exchange are analysed, with a main focus on the employment contract. Scientific evidence is derived from prospective epidemiological studies testing the model of effort-reward imbalance at work. Overall, a twofold elevated risk of incident disease is observed in employed men and women who are exposed to non-symmetric exchange. Health risks include coronary heart disease, depression and alcohol dependence, among others. Preliminary results suggest similar effects on health produced by symmetry breaking in other types of social relationships (e.g. partnership, parental roles). These findings underline the importance of symmetry in contractual social exchange for health and well-being.

  12. Structural social capital and health in Italy.

    PubMed

    Fiorillo, Damiano; Sabatini, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the first empirical assessment of the causal relationship between social capital and health in Italy. The analysis draws on the 2000 wave of the Multipurpose Survey on Household conducted by the Italian Institute of Statistics on a representative sample of the population (n=46,868). Our measure of social capital is the frequency of meetings with friends. Based on IV and bivariate probit estimates, we find that individuals who meet friends every day or more time times a week are approximately 11-16% more likely to report good health. PMID:25805101

  13. 42 CFR 423.168 - Accreditation organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accreditation organizations. 423.168 Section 423.168 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control...

  14. 42 CFR 423.168 - Accreditation organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accreditation organizations. 423.168 Section 423.168 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control...

  15. 42 CFR 424.58 - Accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accreditation. 424.58 Section 424.58 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) CONDITIONS FOR MEDICARE PAYMENT To Whom Payment Is Ordinarily Made §...

  16. Supplementing Public Health Inspection via Social Media.

    PubMed

    Schomberg, John P; Haimson, Oliver L; Hayes, Gillian R; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness is prevented by inspection and surveillance conducted by health departments across America. Appropriate restaurant behavior is enforced and monitored via public health inspections. However, surveillance coverage provided by state and local health departments is insufficient in preventing the rising number of foodborne illness outbreaks. To address this need for improved surveillance coverage we conducted a supplementary form of public health surveillance using social media data: Yelp.com restaurant reviews in the city of San Francisco. Yelp is a social media site where users post reviews and rate restaurants they have personally visited. Presence of keywords related to health code regulations and foodborne illness symptoms, number of restaurant reviews, number of Yelp stars, and restaurant price range were included in a model predicting a restaurant's likelihood of health code violation measured by the assigned San Francisco public health code rating. For a list of major health code violations see (S1 Table). We built the predictive model using 71,360 Yelp reviews of restaurants in the San Francisco Bay Area. The predictive model was able to predict health code violations in 78% of the restaurants receiving serious citations in our pilot study of 440 restaurants. Training and validation data sets each pulled data from 220 restaurants in San Francisco. Keyword analysis of free text within Yelp not only improved detection of high-risk restaurants, but it also served to identify specific risk factors related to health code violation. To further validate our model we applied the model generated in our pilot study to Yelp data from 1,542 restaurants in San Francisco. The model achieved 91% sensitivity 74% specificity, area under the receiver operator curve of 98%, and positive predictive value of 29% (given a substandard health code rating prevalence of 10%). When our model was applied to restaurant reviews in New York City we achieved 74% sensitivity

  17. Supplementing Public Health Inspection via Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Schomberg, John P.; Haimson, Oliver L.; Hayes, Gillian R.; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness is prevented by inspection and surveillance conducted by health departments across America. Appropriate restaurant behavior is enforced and monitored via public health inspections. However, surveillance coverage provided by state and local health departments is insufficient in preventing the rising number of foodborne illness outbreaks. To address this need for improved surveillance coverage we conducted a supplementary form of public health surveillance using social media data: Yelp.com restaurant reviews in the city of San Francisco. Yelp is a social media site where users post reviews and rate restaurants they have personally visited. Presence of keywords related to health code regulations and foodborne illness symptoms, number of restaurant reviews, number of Yelp stars, and restaurant price range were included in a model predicting a restaurant’s likelihood of health code violation measured by the assigned San Francisco public health code rating. For a list of major health code violations see (S1 Table). We built the predictive model using 71,360 Yelp reviews of restaurants in the San Francisco Bay Area. The predictive model was able to predict health code violations in 78% of the restaurants receiving serious citations in our pilot study of 440 restaurants. Training and validation data sets each pulled data from 220 restaurants in San Francisco. Keyword analysis of free text within Yelp not only improved detection of high-risk restaurants, but it also served to identify specific risk factors related to health code violation. To further validate our model we applied the model generated in our pilot study to Yelp data from 1,542 restaurants in San Francisco. The model achieved 91% sensitivity 74% specificity, area under the receiver operator curve of 98%, and positive predictive value of 29% (given a substandard health code rating prevalence of 10%). When our model was applied to restaurant reviews in New York City we achieved 74

  18. Social determinants of health and oral health: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Viral V.; Rajesh, G.; Rao, Ashwini; Shenoy, Ramya; Pai, Mithun

    2015-01-01

    Several conventional approaches have been tried in the past to resolve health inequities in India. However, achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is yet to be fully realized as the benefits have been meager. The recent concept of targeting social determinants of general and oral health in order to achieve health for all has shown positive results in the developed as well as the developing nations. Based on the framework recommended by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health, several policies have been introduced and suitably backed up with the intention of providing health care even to people living in remote sections of the society. This paper intends to highlight the rationale for social determinants approach in Indian context, its application and future recommendations for the same. It is considered as a radical approach, and adequate measures have been implemented by health systems to achieve the desired targets without delay. However, in order to achieve UHC, redistribution of the available resources and converting the “normative” needs into “felt” needs of the people is going to be an uphill task to accomplish. PMID:26500407

  19. Health by association? Social capital, social theory, and the political economy of public health.

    PubMed

    Szreter, Simon; Woolcock, Michael

    2004-08-01

    Three perspectives on the efficacy of social capital have been explored in the public health literature. A "social support" perspective argues that informal networks are central to objective and subjective welfare; an "inequality" thesis posits that widening economic disparities have eroded citizens' sense of social justice and inclusion, which in turn has led to heightened anxiety and compromised rising life expectancies; a "political economy" approach sees the primary determinant of poor health outcomes as the socially and politically mediated exclusion from material resources. A more comprehensive but grounded theory of social capital is presented that develops a distinction between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital. It is argued that this framework helps to reconcile these three perspectives, incorporating a broader reading of history, politics, and the empirical evidence regarding the mechanisms connecting types of network structure and state-society relations to public health outcomes. PMID:15282219

  20. 38 CFR 18.452 - Health and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Health and other social... Social Services § 18.452 Health and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on the basis of handicap: (1) Deny a...

  1. Health and the Structure of Adolescent Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Steven A.; Schaefer, David R.; Kornienko, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Much research has explored the role of social networks in promoting health through the provision of social support. However, little work has examined how social networks themselves may be structured by health. This article investigates the link between individuals' health and the characteristics of their social network positions.We first develop…

  2. 38 CFR 18.452 - Health and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and other social... Social Services § 18.452 Health and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on the basis of handicap: (1) Deny a...

  3. School Ethos and Personal, Social, Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jackie; Busfield, Robert; O'Shea, Alison; Sibthorpe, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss research undertaken within a London borough in 2009 that aimed to examine how Personal, Social, Health and Economic education (PSHE) was perceived and delivered. The ethos of schools was incorporated into the enquiry as a key determinate of both perception and delivery of PSHE. The findings are presented with particular…

  4. Health Promotion by Social Cognitive Means

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandura, Albert

    2004-01-01

    This article examines health promotion and disease prevention from the perspective of social cognitive theory. This theory posits a multifaceted causal structure in which self-efficacy beliefs operate together with goals, outcome expectations, and perceived environmental impediments and facilitators in the regulation of human motivation, behavior,…

  5. Social Participation in Health 2.0

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Bradford W.; Hansen, Derek; Finholt, Thomas; Munson, Sean; Kellogg, Wendy; Thomas, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Computer scientists are working with biomedical researchers, policy specialists, and medical practitioners to usher in a new era in healthcare. A recently convened panel of experts considered various research opportunities for technology-mediated social participation in Health 2.0. PMID:21379365

  6. [Work and health: Two social rights].

    PubMed

    García Blanco, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Work and health are two concepts whose formulation varies from one society to another depending on unique and temporal appreciation. Updating them to our time involves the challenge to understand their construction as part of consuming organized societies. Political and social processes during the last decades must be analyzed, and so must be the worker subject as a psychophysics unit. Health, as well, ought to be considered a universal right, from where to focus and understand pathological social behaviors impacting the workplace. The subject's social dimension and the health-work relationship are dynamic. And keeping this dynamic involves to continuously review principles, norms and regulations which need to fit reality, and specific communication and language modes, as well as working conditions and environmental aspects. These processes must be considered as taking part in Argentina's social imaginary worth highlighting: a shift in how the State's role is considered, the public policy's sense, the importance of working in a complementary and interdisciplinary way, redesigning the concept of health through the broadening of those under the State's care and considering and building the workplace as a healthy space. PMID:27089165

  7. Social Capital and Health Inequality: Evidence from Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Lijun; Lin, Nan

    2009-01-01

    Does social capital, resources embedded in social relationships, influence health? This research examines whether social capital impacts depressive symptoms and overall perceived health status over and above the effects of social support. Our analyses use unique data from the Taiwan Social Change Survey collected in 1997, and measures social…

  8. Accreditation and certification.

    PubMed

    Setti Bassanini, M C

    1998-11-01

    In Italy the debate has focused on three different assessment systems: accreditamento autorizzativo (regulatory accreditation), accreditamento di eccellenza (excellence accreditation), and certification. Regulatory accreditation verifies the conformance to a set of quality standards that entitle an organisation to the status of belonging to the NHS. Excellence accreditation attempts to maintain incremental improvement of the quality of services. Certification is a means by which an independent third party declares that a determined product or process conforms to the ISO 9000 set of standards; the main objective of certification is to increase the "credibility" of a company on the market in order to orient and at the same time assure customers. Certification loses meaning in a regulated market, as the Italian NHS, in which there is a distinction between the consumer and the paying body. Regulatory accreditation should be deeply rooted in regional planning; the recognition of accredited organisations should be the result of a demonstrated capacity to co-operate in achieving the goals of regional planning and not of conformance to organisational standards. Regional experiences of regulating accreditation show a high level of contamination between systems for quality assessment. The large number of standards proposed seemed to be redundant with respect to the aims that should be pursued by a regulating accreditation system. The furthering of quality in the NHS requires a complex system of quality assessment within which a plurality of subjects, each with different interests, work together to determine the final result by each one setting up procedures consistent with its own particular problems: the institutions set up regulatory accreditation and the professions develop excellence accreditation in their individual professional associations. What is important is to establish relationships across the various levels so as to give the whole system cohesion and consistency

  9. 43 CFR 17.250 - Health, welfare, and social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health, welfare, and social services. 17... § 17.250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies to health, welfare, and other...) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on...

  10. 38 CFR 18.452 - Health and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Health and other social...-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap Health and Social Services § 18.452 Health and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, or...

  11. 43 CFR 17.250 - Health, welfare, and social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health, welfare, and social services. 17... § 17.250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies to health, welfare, and other...) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on...

  12. 38 CFR 18.452 - Health and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Health and other social...-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap Health and Social Services § 18.452 Health and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, or...

  13. 43 CFR 17.250 - Health, welfare, and social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health, welfare, and social services. 17... § 17.250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies to health, welfare, and other...) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on...

  14. 43 CFR 17.250 - Health, welfare, and social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Health, welfare, and social services. 17... § 17.250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies to health, welfare, and other...) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on...

  15. Social determinants of health and health inequities in Nakuru (Kenya)

    PubMed Central

    Muchukuri, Esther; Grenier, Francis R

    2009-01-01

    Background Dramatic inequalities dominate global health today. The rapid urban growth sustained by Kenya in the last decades has created many difficulties that also led to worsening inequalities in health care. The continuous decline in its Human Development Index since the 1990s highlights the hardship that continues to worsen in the country, against the general trend of Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper examines the health status of residents in a major urban centre in Kenya and reviews the effects of selected social determinants on local health. Methods Through field surveys, focus group discussions and a literature review, this study canvasses past and current initiatives and recommends priority actions. Results Areas identified which unevenly affect the health of the most vulnerable segments of the population were: water supply, sanitation, solid waste management, food environments, housing, the organization of health care services and transportation. Conclusion The use of a participatory method proved to be a useful approach that could benefit other urban centres in their analysis of social determinants of health. PMID:19439105

  16. Health in global context; beyond the social determinants of health?

    PubMed Central

    Krumeich, Anja; Meershoek, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    The rise of the social determinants of health (SDH) discourse on the basis of statistical evidence that correlates ill health to SDH and pictures causal pathways in comprehensive theoretical frameworks led to widespread awareness that health and health disparities are the outcome of complex pathways of interconnecting SDH. In this paper we explore whether and how SDH frameworks can be translated to effectively inform particular national health policies. To this end we identified major challenges for this translation followed by reflections on ways to overcome them. Most important challenges affecting adequate translation of these frameworks into concrete policy and intervention are 1) overcoming the inclination to conceptualize SDH as mere barriers to health behavior to be modified by lifestyle interventions by addressing them as structural factors instead; 2) obtaining sufficient in-depth insight in and evidence for the exact nature of the relationship between SDs and health; 3) to adequately translate the general determinants and pathways into explanations for ill health and limited access to health care in local settings; 4) to develop and implement policies and other interventions that are adjusted to those local circumstances. We conclude that to transform generic SDH models into useful policy tools and to prevent them to transform in SDH themselves, in depth understanding of the unique interplay between local, national and global SDH in a local setting, gathered by ethnographic research, is needed to be able to address structural SD in the local setting and decrease health inequity.

  17. 45 CFR 155.1045 - Accreditation timeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accreditation timeline. 155.1045 Section 155.1045 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT...

  18. Consumer preferences in social health insurance.

    PubMed

    Kerssens, Jan J; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2005-03-01

    Allowing consumers greater choice of health plans is believed to be the key to high quality and low costs in social health insurance. This study investigates consumer preferences (361 persons, response rate 43%) for hypothetical health plans which differed in 12 characteristics (premium, deductibles, no-claim discount, extension of insurance and financial services, red tape involved, medical help-desk, choice of family physicians and hospitals, dental benefits, physical therapy benefits, benefits for prescription drugs and homeopathy). In 90% the health plan with the most attractive characteristics was preferred, indicating a predominantly rational kind of choice. The most decisive characteristics for preference were: complete dental benefits, followed by zero deductibles, and free choice of hospitals. PMID:15452743

  19. Arab Adolescents: Health, Gender, and Social Context.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future. PMID:25770651

  20. Quality Assurance for Social Service Programs: Lessons from Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulton, Claudia J.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that many aspects of quality assurance in health care can be applied to social service agencies. Reviews what has been learned about quality assurance in health care and suggests guidelines for its implementation in social services. (Author/JAC)

  1. Mechanisms linking the social environment to health in African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The social environment may influence health directly or indirectly through psychosocial factors, such as perceived stress, depressive symptoms and discrimination. This study explored potential psychosocial mediators of the associations between the social environment and physical and mental health in...

  2. Social networking: applications for health care recruitment.

    PubMed

    Russell, Judith

    2007-01-01

    In today's competitive landscape for health care talent, nursing executives and human resource professionals need to assess and evaluate new avenues for recruitment. The strategy of filling positions by means of print advertising is becoming outmoded quickly. As an industry, health care typically lags behind other industries when it relates to technology. This is especially true in implementing any interactive strategies to target hard-to-fill positions. Social networking sites have appeared on the Internet landscape quickly and continue to flourish. Nurse leaders need to capitalize on this phenomenon. PMID:18080628

  3. Online social networking and mental health.

    PubMed

    Pantic, Igor

    2014-10-01

    During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction. PMID:25192305

  4. Online Social Networking and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction. PMID:25192305

  5. Social Capital: Does It Add to the Health Inequalities Debate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Funk, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the relationship between advantage, social capital and health status to assess (a) whether social capital adds explanatory power to what we already know about the relationship between advantage and health and (b) whether social capital adds anything beyond its component parts, namely social participation and trust.…

  6. Social Media and Health Education: What the Early Literature Says

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham, Robyn; Carter, Lorraine; Nowrouzi, Behdin; McLean, Natalie; Guimond, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Social media allows for a wealth of social interactions. More recently, there is a growing use of social media for the purposes of health education. Using an adaptation of the Networked student model by Drexler (2010) as a conceptual model, this article conducts a literature review focusing on the use of social media for health education purposes.…

  7. Social Integration and Mental Health of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deimling, Gary T.; Harel Zev

    Social support has been found to be positively related to well being in elderly individuals. To examine the effects of social integration (social resources, social interaction, and perceived adequacy of resources), and health, age, marital status, and socioeconomic status (SES) on mental health among urban elderly individuals, 1,727 persons from…

  8. Tales of Accreditation Woe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickmeyer, Nathan

    2002-01-01

    Offers cautionary tales depicting how an "Enron mentality" infiltrated three universities and jeopardized their accreditation status. The schools were guilty, respectively, of bad bookkeeping, lack of strategy and stable leadership, and loss of academic integrity by selling degrees. (EV)

  9. Accountability and Accreditation for Special Libraries: It Can Be Done!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glockner, Brigitte

    2004-01-01

    Health librarians are very familiar with the accreditation process in hospitals. In 2000 the first ALIA National Policy Congress recommended that accreditation of special libraries should be implemented. The proposed guidelines have been roughly based on the EQuIP Program of the Australian Council on Healthcare Standards. This program is…

  10. 29 CFR 1919.8 - Suspension or revocation of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspension or revocation of accreditation. 1919.8 Section 1919.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION § 1919.8 Suspension or revocation of accreditation....

  11. 43 CFR 17.250 - Health, welfare, and social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health, welfare, and social services. 17... § 17.250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies to health, welfare, and other social service programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance and to recipients...

  12. HPS instrument calibration laboratory accreditation program

    SciTech Connect

    Masse, F.X; Eisenhower, E.H.; Swinth, K.L.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an accurate overview of the development and structure of the program established by the Health Physics Society (HPS) for accrediting instrument calibration laboratories relative to their ability to accurately calibrate portable health physics instrumentation. The purpose of the program is to provide radiation protection professionals more meaningful direct and indirect access to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) national standards, thus introducing a means for improving the uniformity, accuracy, and quality of ionizing radiation field measurements. The process is designed to recognize and document the continuing capability of each accredited laboratory to accurately perform instrument calibration. There is no intent to monitor the laboratory to the extent that each calibration can be guaranteed by the program; this responsibility rests solely with the accredited laboratory.

  13. Do Social and Economic Policies Influence Health? A Review

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Pamela; Geronimo, Kimberly; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Although social and economic policies are not considered part of health services infrastructure, such policies may influence health and disease by altering social determinants of health (SDH). We review social and economic policies in the US that have measured health outcomes among adults in four domains of SDH including housing and neighborhood, employment, family strengthening/marriage, and income supplementation. The majority of these policies target low-income populations. These social policies rarely consider health as their initial mission or outcomes. When measuring health, the programs document mental health and physical health benefits more than half the time, although some effects fade with time. We also find considerable segregation of program eligibility by gender and family composition. Policy makers should design future social policies to evaluate health outcomes using validated health measures; to target women more broadly across the socioeconomic spectrum; and to consider family caregiving responsibilities as ignoring them can have unintended health effects. PMID:25984439

  14. Stress, Negative Social Exchange, and Health Symptoms in University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kevin J.; Hershberger, Paul J.; Russell, Richard K.; Markert, Ronald J.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the contributions of positive social support and negative social exchange in the relationship between stress and health symptoms. College student surveys indicated that negative social exchange significantly predicted physical symptoms, while positive social support did not. The relationship between negative social interaction and…

  15. 42 CFR 493.55 - Application for registration certificate and certificate of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for registration certificate and... Certificate of Accreditation § 493.55 Application for registration certificate and certificate of accreditation. (a) Filing of application. A laboratory may be issued a certificate of accreditation in lieu...

  16. 42 CFR 493.55 - Application for registration certificate and certificate of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for registration certificate and... Certificate of Accreditation § 493.55 Application for registration certificate and certificate of accreditation. (a) Filing of application. A laboratory may be issued a certificate of accreditation in lieu...

  17. 42 CFR 493.55 - Application for registration certificate and certificate of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for registration certificate and... Certificate of Accreditation § 493.55 Application for registration certificate and certificate of accreditation. (a) Filing of application. A laboratory may be issued a certificate of accreditation in lieu...

  18. 42 CFR 493.55 - Application for registration certificate and certificate of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application for registration certificate and... Certificate of Accreditation § 493.55 Application for registration certificate and certificate of accreditation. (a) Filing of application. A laboratory may be issued a certificate of accreditation in lieu...

  19. 42 CFR 493.55 - Application for registration certificate and certificate of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for registration certificate and... Certificate of Accreditation § 493.55 Application for registration certificate and certificate of accreditation. (a) Filing of application. A laboratory may be issued a certificate of accreditation in lieu...

  20. 42 CFR 488.5 - Effect of JCAHO or AOA accreditation of hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of JCAHO or AOA accreditation of hospitals... General Provisions § 488.5 Effect of JCAHO or AOA accreditation of hospitals. (a) Deemed to meet. Institutions accredited as hospitals by the JCAHO or AOA are deemed to meet all of the Medicare conditions...

  1. 21 CFR 900.3 - Application for approval as an accreditation body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application for approval as an accreditation body. 900.3 Section 900.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MAMMOGRAPHY QUALITY STANDARDS ACT MAMMOGRAPHY Accreditation § 900.3 Application for approval as an accreditation body....

  2. 9 CFR 161.2 - Performance of accredited duties in different States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Performance of accredited duties in different States. 161.2 Section 161.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ACCREDITATION OF VETERINARIANS AND SUSPENSION OR REVOCATION OF SUCH ACCREDITATION REQUIREMENTS AND STANDARDS...

  3. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  4. Evolving Alignment in International Continuing Professional Development Accreditation.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Graham T; Aboulsoud, Samar; Gordon, Jennifer; McKenna, Mindi; Meuser, James; Staz, Mark; Campbell, Craig M

    2016-01-01

    Several of the world's accreditation systems for continuing professional development (CPD) are evolving to encourage continuous improvement in the competence and performance of health care providers and in the organizations in which they provide patient care. Clinicians learn best when they can to choose from a diverse array of activities and formats that are relevant and meet their needs. Since choice and diversity are key to meeting clinicians' needs, several CPD accreditors have been engaging in deliberate, concerted efforts to identify a core set of principles that can serve as the basis for determining substantive equivalency between CPD accreditation systems. Substantive equivalency is intended to support the mobility of learners, allowing them to access accredited learning activities that are recognized by various CPD accreditation systems in a manner that maximizes the value of those accreditation systems, while minimizing the burden of adhering to their requirements. In this article, we propose a set of core principles that all CPD accreditation systems must express as the basis for determining substantive equivalency between CPD accreditation systems. The article will illustrate how five CPD accreditation systems (two in the USA, two in Canada, and one in Qatar), differing in focus (activity-based versus provider-based), context, and culture, express these values and metrics, and concludes by identifying the value of substantive equivalency for learners, medical regulators, and CPD accreditation systems. PMID:27584065

  5. [Personality, achievement and health in social change].

    PubMed

    Schröder, H

    1999-11-01

    All countries with modern industrial societies are undergoing epochal changes. These processes include globalization, internationalization and structural alterations in the work environment which have social and psychophysical consequences for the individual. These problems are rarely discussed concerning their pathogenic or health-supporting effects. Transformations of society primarily change the relationship between the demands, expectations and requirements placed on the individual and his or her abilities and competencies necessary to find solutions. This challenge simulataneously offers chances and risks for an individual's personality development, namely new demands on an individual's regulation of potential and achievement. Not only is competence in the workplace required, but social skills, emotional and self-reflective qualities are vital as well. Developing these abilities requires two tasks. One promotes and develops such skills in the individual. The second would promote sound political decisions enabling the skills in the individual to be actualized. PMID:10628074

  6. Social Influences, Social Context, and Health Behaviors among Working-Class, Multi-Ethnic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmons, Karen M.; Barbeau, Elizabeth M.; Gutheil, Caitlin; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Stoddard, Anne M.

    2007-01-01

    Little research has explored the relationship between social influences (e.g., social networks, social support, social norms) and health as related to modifying factors that may contribute to health disparities. This is a cross-sectional analysis of fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity, using baseline data from two cancer prevention…

  7. Considering Accreditation in Gerontology: The Importance of Interprofessional Collaborative Competencies to Ensure Quality Health Care for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Lynette R.; Koontz, Jennifer Scott; Rogers, Nicole; Brickell, Jean

    2012-01-01

    The health care needs of older adults can be complex and multifaceted. Safe, effective, equitable, and person-centered service provision relies on skilled interprofessional, team-based practice. Too often, students seeking a career specializing in gerontology are not exposed to such interprofessional, team-based learning and practice during their…

  8. Perceived social position and health: Is there a reciprocal relationship?

    PubMed

    Garbarski, Dana

    2010-03-01

    Recent work exploring the relationship between socioeconomic status and health has employed a psychosocial concept called perceived social position as a predictor of health. Perceived social position is likely the "cognitive averaging" (Singh-Manoux, Marmot, & Adler, 2005) of socioeconomic characteristics over time and, like other socioeconomic factors, is subject to interplay with health over the life course. Based on the hypothesis that health can also affect perceived social position, in this paper we used structural equation modeling to examine whether perceived social position and three different health outcomes were reciprocally related in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a longitudinal cohort study of older adults in the United States. The relationship between perceived social position and health differed across health outcomes-self-reported health, the Health Utilities Index, and depressive symptoms-as well as across operationalization of perceived social position-compared to the population of the United States, compared to one's community, and a latent variable of which the two items are indicators. We found that perceived social position affected self-reported health when operationalized as latent and US perceived social position, yet there was a reciprocal relationship between self-reported health and community perceived social position. There was a reciprocal relationship between perceived social position and the Health Utilities Index, and depressive symptoms affected perceived social position for all operationalization of perceived social position. The findings suggest that the causal relationship hypothesized in prior studies--that perceived social position affects health--does not necessarily hold in empirical models of reciprocal relationships. Future research should interrogate the relationship between perceived social position and health rather than assume the direction of causality in their relationship. PMID:20006415

  9. Health and social inequities in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, P; Mamboury, C; Minder, C E

    1990-01-01

    Despite standards of living and life expectancy amongst the highest in Europe, Switzerland exhibits fairly substantial social inequities in health. As regards male mortality by socio-economic group, these differentials are both marked and independent of cause of death. There is a wealth of information on morbidity and disability supporting the hypothesis that people in lower socio-economic groups tend to age faster and suffer more at younger ages. It is similarly evident that infants of low class mothers, particularly those unwed, underprivileged immigrant, are at excess risk. The Swiss results are of political and scientific interest in that they suggest that the average wealth of a community does not determine health differentials. PMID:2218617

  10. Veterinary Accreditation. A Reference Guide for Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This reference manual was designed as a guide for veterinarians who have been accredited by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services. The guide provides instructions on the following topics: identifying animals, reportable diseases and conditions, brucellosis, tuberculosis, pseudorabies, miscellaneous…

  11. Your Health Buddies Matter: Preferential Selection and Social Influence on Weight Management in an Online Health Social Network.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jingbo

    2016-12-01

    A growing number of online social networks are designed with the intention to promote health by providing virtual space wherein individuals can seek and share information and support with similar others. Research has shown that real-world social networks have a significant influence on one's health behavior and outcomes. However, there is a dearth of studies on how individuals form social networks in virtual space and whether such online social networks exert any impact on individuals' health outcomes. Built on the Multi-Theoretical Multilevel (MTML) framework and drawing from literature on social influence, this study examined the mechanisms underlying the formation of an online health social network and empirically tested social influence on individual health outcomes through the network. Situated in a weight management social networking site, the study tracked a health buddy network of 709 users and their weight management activities and outcomes for 4 months. Actor-based modeling was used to test the joint dynamics of preferential selection and social influence among health buddies. The results showed that baseline, inbreeding, and health status homophily significantly predicted preferential selection of health buddies in the weight management social networking site, whereas self-interest in seeking experiential health information did not. The study also found peer influence of online health buddy networks on individual weight outcomes, such that an individual's odds of losing weight increased if, on average, the individual's health buddies were losing weight. PMID:27055008

  12. Measurement of Health Disparities, Health Inequities, and Social Determinants of Health to Support the Advancement of Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Talih, Makram; Huang, David; Moonesinghe, Ramal; Bouye, Karen; Beckles, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Reduction of health disparities and advancement of health equity in the United States require high-quality data indicative of where the nation stands vis-à-vis health equity, as well as proper analytic tools to facilitate accurate interpretation of these data. This article opens with an overview of health equity and social determinants of health. It then proposes a set of recommended practices in measurement of health disparities, health inequities, and social determinants of health at the national level to support the advancement of health equity, highlighting that (1) differences in health and its determinants that are associated with social position are important to assess; (2) social and structural determinants of health should be assessed and multiple levels of measurement should be considered; (3) the rationale for methodological choices made and measures chosen should be made explicit; (4) groups to be compared should be simultaneously classified by multiple social statuses; and (5) stakeholders and their communication needs can often be considered in the selection of analytic methods. Although much is understood about the role of social determinants of health in shaping the health of populations, researchers should continue to advance understanding of the pathways through which they operate on particular health outcomes. There is still much to learn and implement about how to measure health disparities, health inequities, and social determinants of health at the national level, and the challenges of health equity persist. We anticipate that the present discussion will contribute to the laying of a foundation for standard practice in the monitoring of national progress toward achievement of health equity. PMID:26599027

  13. [Social equity in the health domain].

    PubMed

    Pereira, J

    1990-01-01

    In the European debate on equity in health and health care a crucial question has received scant consideration. It concerns the precise specification of a health system's objectives and the manner by which they can be suitably interpreted to permit monitoring of implemented policies. This article is an attempt to review actual and potential contributions to this area of study. It adopts the view that the meaning of equity in the health domain depends crucially on how social justice is defined and that this in turn depends on value judgements or the views of society held by individuals, groups or governments. Such an approach allows one to choose principles of distribution which are in agreement with a society's value set and subsequently to apply them as the correct yardstick for measuring the success of policy. Following an initial exposition of the approach, the main body of the article discusses the question of competing theories of society - Libertarian, Liberal and Democratic Socialist - and appraises the various distribution principles, to be found in the economic and philosophical literature, which they imply. The final section offers some brief conclusions and avenues for further research. PMID:15962156

  14. Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges 2004 Accreditation Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Association of Schools and Colleges, Aptos, CA. Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges.

    According to the Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges (ACCJC), the primary purpose of an ACCJC-accredited institution is to foster learning in its students. This paper presents ACCJC's four accreditation standards: (1) Institutional Mission and Effectiveness--the institution provides means for students to learn, assesses…

  15. Demystifying Accreditation: Action Plans for a National or Regional Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Ann L.

    2006-01-01

    As part of educational reform, many institutions of higher education are undergoing accreditation processes. Based on interviews, observations, and the author's experiences in accreditation reviews, this discussion delineates three stages of planning for an accreditation process. Recommendations are organized by each stage of preparation into…

  16. Independence, Accreditation, and the Public Interest. Special Report on Accreditation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Policy Board on Higher Education Institutional Accreditation, Washington, DC.

    This report outlines the National Policy Board (NPB) on Higher Education Institutional Accreditation's position on the state of higher education accreditation in the United States, in light of the many challenges faced by the current system of voluntary accreditation, peer review, and self-regulation. Federal and state governments, along with…

  17. The Condition of Accreditation: U.S. Accreditation in 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Higher Education Accreditation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Institutions are accredited by three types of accreditors: national faith-related organizations that accredit religiously affiliated and doctrinally based institutions that are primarily degree-granting and nonprofit; national career-related organizations that accredit mainly for-profit career-based degree-granting and non-degree-granting…

  18. Use and Acceptance of Social Media among Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Carl; West, Joshua; Neiger, Brad; Thackeray, Rosemary; Barnes, Michael; McIntyre, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Background: As social media use grows in popularity, health educators are challenged to think differently about how to communicate with audiences. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore social media use and factors that determine acceptance of social media use among health educators. Methods: A random sample of Certified Health…

  19. Social Support and Health Maintenance among Older Married Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Elizabeth H.

    Research in the areas of social networks and social support has illustrated some of the complex ways in which those areas contribute to health. A study was conducted to examine the structure of social support among older women, its influences on physical and emotional health status and on behaviors associated with increased risk of chronic…

  20. Social Support and Health Through the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Sidney

    Social support is defined, and its place in the broader scheme of support systems is delineated. The literature relating this concept to various aspects of health is summarized, and a possible theoretical explanation for the way in which social support acts to promote the health of individuals is proffered. Social support, defined as the sum of…

  1. Social marketing and public health intervention.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, R C; Flora, J A

    1988-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of community-based health education programs has out-paced the knowledge base of behavior change strategies that are appropriate and effective for public health interventions. However, experiences from a variety of large-scale studies suggest that principles and techniques of social marketing may help bridge this gap. This article discusses eight essential aspects of the social marketing process: the use of a consumer orientation to develop and market intervention techniques, exchange theory as a model from which to conceptualize service delivery and program participation, audience analysis and segmentation strategies, the use of formative research in program design and pretesting of intervention materials, channel analysis for devising distribution systems and promotional campaigns, employment of the "marketing mix" concept in intervention planning and implementation, development of a process tracking system, and a management process of problem analysis, planning, implementation, feedback and control functions. Attention to such variables could result in more cost-effective programs that reach larger numbers of the target audience. PMID:3056876

  2. [The state, social class and health].

    PubMed

    Belmartino, S; Bloch, C

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyses the health policies implemented in Argentina during the last four decades, relating their application to concomitant development strategies that were underwritten by political projects advancing different 'societal models'. Our hypothesis is that, in Argentina over the last four decades, there have been three major attempts at adjusting the internal needs of capitalist development to the conditions imposed by the world capitalist system. Such strategies, globally termed 'populist', 'developmentalist' and 'authoritarian', imply a modification of the relationships between state and economy (mode of development) and between state and society (mode of hegemony). They also involve peculiar ways of approaching the contradiction between accumulation and distribution, and consequently, different methods for solving social problems and alternative paths to the consolidation of a hegemonic project. Within this context, both the rationale offered by the state for its proposed health and welfare policies, as well as the actual implementation of these policies conforms to the basic principles of each of the models in force. In the populist model, the political project involves a progressive expansion of the participation of the popular sectors, both in the labour and consumption markets and in the political system. Its health plan conforms with this model by recognizing the state's responsibility both to increase its participation in health services and to promote corporativist activities in the sector, in accordance with the global mobilization/incorporation policy controlled by the mass organizations. In the developmentalist model, emphasis falls on the need to privilege accumulation over distribution; investments in infrastructure are treated as a priority as they are considered indispensable to ensure the future generalization of public welfare. The argument is that the impact of medical assistance on labour productivity must go hand in hand with the

  3. Community Health Workers and Their Value to Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Michael S.; Gunter, Kathryn E.; Palmisano, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) play a vital and unique role in linking diverse and underserved populations to health and social service systems. Despite their effectiveness, as documented by empirical studies across various disciplines including public health, nursing, and biomedicine, the value and potential role of CHWs in the social work…

  4. Ethics, collective health, qualitative health research and social justice.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Iara Coelho Zito; Correa, Fernando Peñaranda

    2015-09-01

    The scientific field is characterized by the disputes about the delimitation of the field problems, methods and theories that can be considered scientific. The recognition that it is not neutral, that a researcher is a moral subject, and its practices are moral ones, entail that moral reflections, that is, ethics, should be a core process of every researcher. Therefore ethics is not a heteronomous issue, and cannot be reduced to guidelines. In the first part of this article we examine the need to develop an open approach to the construction of guidelines in a plural scientific field that must take into account diverse paradigms, which implies different values. The Brazilian process of writing guidelines on research ethics for social science and humanities in the context of the Ministry of Health will be discussed as an example. In the second part we expand the analysis of research ethics posing a perspective that integrates qualitative research, social justice and discipline trends. In the final considerations we explore the possibility that research ethics is better discussed taking into account the ontology, epistemology and political values rather than one specific methodological approach or from a dichotomic perspective between biomedicine versus social science and humanities. PMID:26331495

  5. Social innovation for the promotion of health equity.

    PubMed

    Mason, Chris; Barraket, Jo; Friel, Sharon; O'Rourke, Kerryn; Stenta, Christian-Paul

    2015-09-01

    The role of social innovations in transforming the lives of individuals and communities has been a source of popular attention in recent years. This article systematically reviews the available evidence of the relationship between social innovation and its promotion of health equity. Guided by Fair Foundations: The VicHealth framework for health equity and examining four types of social innovation--social movements, service-related social innovations, social enterprise and digital social innovations--we find a growing literature on social innovation activities, but inconsistent evaluative evidence of their impacts on health equities, particularly at the socio-economic, political and cultural level of the framework. Distinctive characteristics of social innovations related to the promotion of health equity include the mobilization of latent or unrealised value through new combinations of (social, cultural and material) resources; growing bridging social capital and purposeful approaches to linking individual knowledge and experience to institutional change. These have implications for health promotion practice and for research about social innovation and health equity. PMID:26420807

  6. 42 CFR 8.3 - Application for approval as an accreditation body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for approval as an accreditation body. 8.3 Section 8.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... accreditation body. (a) Eligibility. Private nonprofit organizations or State governmental entities,...

  7. 42 CFR 8.3 - Application for approval as an accreditation body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... these materials when electronic submission systems are developed and available. Accreditation body... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for approval as an accreditation body. 8.3 Section 8.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  8. 77 FR 51540 - Medicare Program; Approved Renewal of Deeming Authority of the Accreditation Association for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... Authority of the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care, Inc. for Medicare Advantage Health... Medicare Advantage ``deeming authority'' of the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care, Inc... apply for MA deeming authority are generally recognized by the health care industry as entities...

  9. 42 CFR 8.6 - Withdrawal of approval of accreditation bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Withdrawal of approval of accreditation bodies. 8.6 Section 8.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CERTIFICATION OF OPIOID TREATMENT PROGRAMS Accreditation § 8.6 Withdrawal of approval...

  10. 42 CFR 8.6 - Withdrawal of approval of accreditation bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Withdrawal of approval of accreditation bodies. 8.6 Section 8.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CERTIFICATION OF OPIOID TREATMENT PROGRAMS Accreditation § 8.6 Withdrawal of approval...

  11. 42 CFR 8.6 - Withdrawal of approval of accreditation bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Withdrawal of approval of accreditation bodies. 8.6 Section 8.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CERTIFICATION OF OPIOID TREATMENT PROGRAMS Accreditation § 8.6 Withdrawal of approval...

  12. Roles of interpersonal and media socialization agents in adolescent self-reported health literacy: a health socialization perspective.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Reber, Bryan H; Lariscy, Ruthann W

    2011-02-01

    This study proposes a health socialization model and applies it to examine direct, relative and mediating roles of interpersonal and media health socialization agents in predicting adolescent self-reported health literacy. We conducted a paper-and-pencil survey among 452 seventh graders in rural and urban school districts. Our regression analysis results show that both interpersonal and media socialization agents are significantly and positively related to adolescent health literacy. Media socialization agents seem to play a strong role in health literacy orientation, not much weaker than those of interpersonal socialization agents. The proposed health socialization model could contribute to the literature on how adolescents acquire health-related information and channels through which they are most receptive. PMID:21248025

  13. Realizing the promise of social psychology in improving public health.

    PubMed

    Klein, William M P; Shepperd, James A; Suls, Jerry; Rothman, Alexander J; Croyle, Robert T

    2015-02-01

    The theories, phenomena, empirical findings, and methodological approaches that characterize contemporary social psychology hold much promise for addressing enduring problems in public health. Indeed, social psychologists played a major role in the development of the discipline of health psychology during the 1970s and 1980s. The health domain allows for the testing, refinement, and application of many interesting and important research questions in social psychology, and offers the discipline a chance to enhance its reach and visibility. Nevertheless, in a review of recent articles in two major social-psychological journals (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), we found that only 3.2% of 467 studies explored health-related topics. In this article, we identify opportunities for research at the interface of social psychology and health, delineate barriers, and offer strategies that can address these barriers as the discipline continues to evolve. PMID:24981514

  14. Dis-Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Anne D.

    2008-01-01

    Higher education accreditation, created to help safeguard the quality of academic programming, has instead become a kind of insider's game that protects American colleges and universities from close scrutiny, when not pressuring them to become more politically correct. In this article, the author presents a survey of the sorry current state of…

  15. Roles of Interpersonal and Media Socialization Agents in Adolescent Self-Reported Health Literacy: A Health Socialization Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Reber, Bryan H.; Lariscy, Ruthann W.

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a health socialization model and applies it to examine direct, relative and mediating roles of interpersonal and media health socialization agents in predicting adolescent self-reported health literacy. We conducted a paper-and-pencil survey among 452 seventh graders in rural and urban school districts. Our regression analysis…

  16. [Health and social harm related alcohol].

    PubMed

    Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Sordo, Luis; Molist, Gemma; Hoyos, Juan; Guitart, Anna M; Barrio, Gregorio

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol affects the brain and most organs and systems, and its use is related to a large number of health problems. These include mental, neurological, digestive, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, perinatal, cancerous, and infectious diseases, as well as intentional and non-intentional injuries. Physiopathological mechanisms still remain unraveled, though direct toxicity of ethanol and its metabolites, nutritional deficit and intestinal microbial endotoxin absorption have been suggested, all of which would be further modulated by use patterns and genetic and environmental factors. Individually it is difficult to precisely predict who will or will not suffer health consequences. At population level several disorders show a linear or exponential dose-response relationship, as is the case with various cancer types, hepatopathies, injuries, and probably risky behaviors such as unsafe sex. Other health problems such as general mortality in people above 45 years of age, ischemic disease or diabetes mellitus show a J-shaped relationship with alcohol use. The overall effect of alcohol on the global burden of disease is highly detrimental, despite the possible beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. Large differences are found by country, age, gender, socioeconomic and other factors. Disease burden is mostly related with alcohol's capacity to produce dependence and with acute intoxication. Often alcohol also produces negative consequences for other people (violence, unattended family or work duties, etc) which are generally not taken into account when evaluating burden of disease. The aim of this study was to describe the main alcohol-related social and health harms, as well as their generating mechanisms, using secondary data sources. PMID:25090405

  17. States Moving from Accreditation to Accountability. Accreditation: State School Accreditation Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wixom, Micah Ann

    2014-01-01

    Accreditation policies vary widely among the states. Since Education Commission of the States last reviewed public school accreditation policies in 1998, a number of states have seen their legislatures take a stronger role in accountability--resulting in a move from state-administered accreditation systems to outcomes-focused state accountability…

  18. Homophily and health behavior in social networks of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Flatt, Jason D.; Agimi, Yll; Albert, Steve M.

    2016-01-01

    A common network phenomenon, homophily, involves developing relationships with others that are similar to you. The intent of this study was to determine if older adults’ health behaviors were shared within social networks. We interviewed older adults from low-income senior housing (egos) on egocentric social network characteristics and key health behaviors for themselves and for named social ties (alters). Findings suggest strong effects for homophily, especially for those who smoked and were physically inactive. Public health interventions for older adults should consider the influence that social relationships have on personal health behaviors. Network-based interventions may be required. PMID:22929377

  19. All Health Is Global Health, All Medicine Is Social Medicine: Integrating the Social Sciences Into the Preclinical Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Jennifer; Greene, Jeremy A; Farmer, Paul E; Jones, David S

    2016-05-01

    As physicians work to achieve optimal health outcomes for their patients, they often struggle to address the issues that arise outside the clinic. Social, economic, and political factors influence patients' burden of disease, access to treatment, and health outcomes. This challenge has motivated recent calls for increased attention to the social determinants of health. At the same time, advocates have called for increased attention to global health. Each year, more U.S. medical students participate in global health experiences. Yet, the global health training that is available varies widely. The discipline of social medicine, which attends to the social determinants of disease, social meanings of disease, and social responses to disease, offers a solution to both challenges. The analyses and techniques of social medicine provide an invaluable toolkit for providing health care in the United States and abroad.In 2007, Harvard Medical School implemented a new course, required for all first-year students, that teaches social medicine in a way that integrates global health. In this article, the authors argue for the importance of including social medicine and global health in the preclinical curriculum; describe Harvard Medical School's innovative, integrated approach to teaching these disciplines, which can be used at other medical schools; and explore the barriers that educators may face in implementing such a curriculum, including resistance from students. Such a course can equip medical students with the knowledge and tools that they will need to address complex health problems in the United States and abroad. PMID:26703416

  20. Industrial Hygiene Laboratory accreditation: The JSC experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadner, Dawn E.

    1993-01-01

    The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) is a society of professionals dedicated to the health and safety of workers and community. With more than 10,000 members, the AIHA is the largest international association serving occupational and environmental health professionals practicing industrial hygiene in private industry, academia, government, labor, and independent organizations. In 1973, AIHA developed a National Industrial Hygiene Laboratory Accreditation Program. The purposes of this program are shown.

  1. Exploring the Influence of Social Determinants, Social Capital, and Health Expertise on Health and the Rural Church.

    PubMed

    Plunkett, Robyn; Leipert, Beverly; Olson, Joanne

    2016-09-01

    In rural communities, religious places can significantly shape health for individuals, families, and communities. Rural churches are prominent community centers in rural communities and are deeply woven into rural culture. Thus, health influences arising from the rural church likely have health implications for the greater community. This article explores health influences emerging from rural churches using social determinants of health, social capital, and health expertise. Although nurses are important health resources for all populations, their value in rural areas may be exceedingly significant. The contribution of nurses to church-based health capital in rural communities may be quite significant and underestimated, although it remains poorly understood. PMID:26385751

  2. 42 CFR 488.6 - Other national accreditation programs for hospitals and other providers and suppliers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES General Provisions § 488.6 Other national accreditation programs for... health agency providers of outpatient physical therapy, occupational therapy or speech pathology...

  3. Social relationships and health: the relative roles of family functioning and social support.

    PubMed

    Franks, P; Campbell, T L; Shields, C G

    1992-04-01

    The associations between social relationships and health have been examined using two major research traditions. Using a social epidemiological approach, much research has shown the beneficial effect of social supports on health and health behaviors. Family interaction research, which has grown out of a more clinical tradition, has shown the complex effects of family functioning on health, particularly mental health. No studies have examined the relative power of these two approaches in explicating the connections between social relationships and health. We hypothesized that social relationships (social support and family functioning) would exert direct and indirect (through depressive symptoms) effects on health behaviors. We also hypothesized that the effects of social relationships on health would be more powerfully explicated by family functioning than by social support. We mailed a pilot survey to a random sample of patients attending a family practice center, including questions on depressive symptoms, cardiovascular health behaviors, demographics, social support using the ISEL scale, and family functioning using the FEICS scale. FEICS is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess family emotional involvement and criticism, the media elements of family expressed emotion. Eighty-three useable responses were obtained. Regression analyses and structural modelling showed both direct and indirect statistically significant paths from social relationships to health behaviors. Family criticism was directly associated (standardized coefficient = 0.29) with depressive symptoms, and family emotional involvement was directly associated with both depressive symptoms (coefficient = 0.35) and healthy cardiovascular behaviors (coefficient = 0.32). The results support the primacy of family functioning factors in understanding the associations among social relationships, mental health, and health behaviors. The contrasting relationships between emotional involvement and

  4. US Opinions on Health Determinants and Social Policy as Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Booske, Bridget C.

    2011-01-01

    To examine what factors the public thinks are important determinants of health and whether social policy is viewed as health policy, we conducted a national telephone survey of 2791 US adults from November 2008 through February 2009. Respondents said that health behaviors and access to health care have very strong effects on health; they were less likely to report a very strong role for other social and economic factors. Respondents who recognized a stronger role for social determinants of health and who saw social policy as health policy were more likely to be older, women, non-White, and liberal, and to have less education, lower income, and fair/poor health. Increasing public knowledge about social determinants of health and mobilizing less advantaged groups may be useful in addressing broad determinants of health. PMID:21778491

  5. Social capital: theory, evidence, and implications for oral health.

    PubMed

    Rouxel, Patrick L; Heilmann, Anja; Aida, Jun; Tsakos, Georgios; Watt, Richard G

    2015-04-01

    In the last two decades, there has been increasing application of the concept of social capital in various fields of public health, including oral health. However, social capital is a contested concept with debates on its definition, measurement, and application. This study provides an overview of the concept of social capital, highlights the various pathways linking social capital to health, and discusses the potential implication of this concept for health policy. An extensive and diverse international literature has examined the relationship between social capital and a range of general health outcomes across the life course. A more limited but expanding literature has also demonstrated the potential influence of social capital on oral health. Much of the evidence in relation to oral health is limited by methodological shortcomings mainly related to the measurement of social capital, cross-sectional study designs, and inadequate controls for confounding factors. Further research using stronger methodological designs should explore the role of social capital in oral health and assess its potential application in the development of oral health improvement interventions. PMID:25533022

  6. Using Baldrige criteria to meet or exceed Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education Standards.

    PubMed

    Leist, James C; Gilman, Stuart C; Cullen, Robert J; Sklar, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Continuing medical education providers accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) may apply organizational assessment strategies beyond the ACCME Essential Areas, Elements, and Criteria. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Program offers an organizational assessment strategy commonly used in business, health care, and education settings. An analysis of both standards pointed out useful associations between the ACCME Essential Areas and the Baldrige National Quality Program Education Criteria (2003). Including leadership, governance, and social responsibility, the Baldrige Education Criteria provide a more comprehensive organizational assessment and stronger emphasis on a wider variety of results. The present analysis suggests that a continuing medical education provider could meet, and possibly exceed, the ACCME standards by applying the Baldrige Education Criteria in a "self-study" process to define, measure, monitor, and document fundamental organizational responsibilities and performance. PMID:15069913

  7. [Social inequalities in health and primary care. SESPAS Report 2012].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Santaolaya Cesteros, María; Campos Esteban, Pilar

    2012-03-01

    The health system is a social determinant of health. Although not the most important determinant of health, the health system's potential contribution to reducing social inequalities in health should not be underestimated. Due to its characteristics, primary health care is well placed to attain equity in health. To make progress in achieving this goal, the main measures to be considered are the removal of barriers to access to services, the provision of care proportionate to need, and engagement in intersectoral work. This article reviews the background and framework for action to tackle social inequalities in health and provides a summary of the primary health care actions that could help to reduce social inequalities in health and are mentioned in the most important national and international documents on health policy. We hope to stimulate debate, promote research in the field and encourage implementation. The proposals are grouped in the following five intervention lines: information systems; participation; training; intersectoral work; and reorientation of health care. Each intervention is ordered according to its targets (population and civil society; primary health team; health center and health area management; and health policy decision-makers). PMID:22321945

  8. Accreditation and Continuous Quality Improvement In Athletic Training Education

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Kimberly S.; Rakich, Jonathon S.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To apply the continuous quality improvement model commonly associated with the business sector to entrylevel athletic training education program accreditation. Data Sources: We applied athletic training educational program accreditation as a tool for ensuring quality in the entrylevel athletic training education programs accredited by the Commission on the Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs. Literature from the business, education, and athletic training fields is integrated to support this paradigm shift in athletic training education. Data Synthesis: The advent of mandated entry-level athletic training educational program accreditation has forced institutions to evaluate their educational programs. Accreditation will promote continuous quality improvement in athletic training education through mechanisms such as control measures and process improvement. Conclusions/Recommendations: Although accreditation of entry-level athletic training education programs has created some dissonance among athletic training professionals, it will strengthen the profession as a whole. Athletic training educators must capture the synergy generated from this change to ensure quality educational experiences for all our students as we move forward to secure a strong position in the allied health care market. PMID:16558629

  9. Health inequalities and social group differences: what should we measure?

    PubMed Central

    Murray, C. J.; Gakidou, E. E.; Frenk, J.

    1999-01-01

    Both health inequalities and social group health differences are important aspects of measuring population health. Despite widespread recognition of their magnitude in many high- and low-income countries, there is considerable debate about the meaning and measurement of health inequalities, social group health differences and inequities. The lack of standard definitions, measurement strategies and indicators has and will continue to limit comparisons--between and within countries, and over time--of health inequalities, and perhaps more importantly comparative analyses of their determinants. Such comparative work, however, will be essential to find effective policies for governments to reduce health inequalities. This article addresses the question of whether we should be measuring health inequalities or social group health differences. To help clarify the strengths and weaknesses of these two approaches, we review some of the major arguments for and against each of them. PMID:10444876

  10. 77 FR 19290 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Renewal of Deeming Authority of the Accreditation Association for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Deeming Authority of the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care, Inc. for Medicare Advantage... Care, Inc. (AAAHC) for Health Maintenance Organizations and Preferred Provider Organizations for a term... generally recognized by the health care industry as entities that accredit HMOs and PPOs. As we specify...

  11. Effects of Social Capital on General Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Ayano

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of social capital as a potential factor in understanding the controversial relationship between income inequality and individual health status, arguing a positive, important role for social capital. Most of the health research literature focuses on individual health status and reveals that social capital increases individual health. However, the difficulty in measuring social capital, together with what may be the nearly impossible task of attributing causality, should relegate the concept to a more theoretical role in health research. Nonetheless, social capital receives academic attention as a potentially important factor in health research. This paper finds that the mixed results of empirical research on income inequality and health status remain a problem in the context of defining a stable relationship between socioeconomic status and health status. Clearly, further research is needed to elaborate on the income inequality and health relationship. In addition, focused, rigorous examination of social capital in a health context is needed before health researchers can comfortably introduce it as a concept of influence or significance. PMID:24762345

  12. Social Integration and the Mental Health of Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Theda; Joe, Sean; Shields, Joseph; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of family, school, and religious social contexts on the mental health of Black adolescents has been understudied. This study used Durkheim's social integration theory to examine these associations in a nationally representative sample of 1,170 Black adolescents, ages 13-17. Mental health was represented by positive and negative…

  13. An Organizational Framework of Personal Health Records for Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Syed Omair

    2009-01-01

    This work proposes an organizational framework for creating a community to share personal health record (PHR) information in the form of a Health Records Social Network (HRSN). The work builds upon existing social network community concepts as well as the existing Systemized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) model used by the medical community and…

  14. Intergroup Relations and Health Disparities: A Social Psychological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Major, Brenda; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Dovidio, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article considers how the social psychology of intergroup processes helps to explain the presence and persistence of health disparities between members of socially advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Method Social psychological theory and research on intergroup relations, including prejudice, discrimination, stereotyping, stigma, prejudice concerns, social identity threat, and the dynamics of intergroup interactions, is reviewed and applied to understand group disparities in health and health care. Potential directions for future research are considered. Results Key features of group relations and dynamics, including social categorization, social hierarchy, and the structural positions of groups along dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, influence how members of high status groups perceive, feel about, and behave toward members of low status groups, how members of low status groups construe and cope with their situation, and how members of high and low status groups interact with each other. These intergroup processes, in turn, contribute to health disparities by leading to differential exposure to and experiences of chronic and acute stress, different health behaviors, and different quality of health care experienced by members of advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Within each of these pathways, social psychological theory and research identifies mediating mechanisms, moderating factors, and individual differences that can affect health. Conclusions A social psychological perspective illuminates the intergroup, interpersonal, and intrapersonal processes by which structural circumstances which differ between groups for historical, political, and economic reasons can lead to group differences in health. PMID:23646834

  15. Employment, Social Networks, and Health in the Retirement Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mor-Barak, Michal E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined impact of employment on health of retirees (n=175). Results indicated that employment in retirement years was related to larger social networks and indirectly to better perceived health. Of three social network factors identified (family, friends, confidants), employment was significantly related only to friendship component. (Author/NB)

  16. Incorporating Integrative Health Services in Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gant, Larry; Benn, Rita; Gioia, Deborah; Seabury, Brett

    2009-01-01

    More than one third of Americans practice complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Social workers continue to provide most first-line health, mental health, and psychological referral and direct practice services in the United States, despite a lack of systematic education and training opportunities in CAM. Schools of social work are…

  17. Completely Isolated? Health Information Seeking among Social Isolates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Carter, Knute D.

    2011-01-01

    To better target messages it is important to determine where people seek their health information. Interpersonal networks are a common way most people gather health information, but some people have limited networks. Using data from the 2004 General Social Survey (N = 984), we compared social isolates and nonisolates in their health…

  18. Social Isolation, Psychological Health, and Protective Factors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…

  19. Social Support and Social Anxiety in Use and Perceptions of Online Mental Health Resources: Exploring Social Compensation and Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ruppel, Erin K; McKinley, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    This study used the frameworks of social compensation and social enhancement to examine how social anxiety and social support were related to college students' (N=443) use and perceptions of online mental health resources (Web sites and online support groups). Potential interactions between social support and social anxiety were also examined. Consistent with the social compensation hypothesis, perceived usefulness of Web sites was positively associated with social support. Perceived usefulness of online support groups was positively associated with social support when participants reported average or high, but not low, social anxiety. In contrast, previous use of Web sites was consistent with the social compensation hypothesis. Participants who reported less social support were more likely to have used a Web site for a mental or emotional problem. These findings suggest that college students' use and perceptions of online mental health resources vary as a function of social support and social anxiety, and that patterns suggestive of social compensation and social enhancement depend on whether perceptions or actual use of resources are examined. Combined with the significant interaction between social support and social anxiety on perceived usefulness of online support groups, these findings highlight the potential complexity of social compensation and enhancement phenomena. PMID:26252931

  20. The proper contributions of social workers in health practice.

    PubMed

    Huntington, J

    1986-01-01

    Current and potential future contributions of social workers to health practice are considered at the three levels of direct service to patients, influence on the processes and procedures of the health setting and influence on its future planning and service development. The capacity of U.S.A. and U.K. social work to contribute at these levels is compared in the light of their contrasting relationships to the health system. U.S.A. social work in health care is practised as employees of the health setting or as private practitioners and contains the majority of U.S.A. social workers. It remains a specialism that sustains a major body of published work, commitment to knowledge-building, standard setting and performance review, and a psycho-social orientation shared by a growing number of medical and nursing professionals. Its approach to the health system is that of the pursuit of professional credibility in the secondary setting by adopting the professional-technical practice model of the clinician. U.K. social work since the early 1970s has been committed to generic education and practice and to the development of its own primary setting in social services departments which now employ almost all U.K. social workers. Area team social work in these departments, typified by statutory work with the most deprived sections of the population, has become the dominant culture of British social work, with implications for the occupational identity and career prospects of those social workers who are outposted or attached to health settings but no longer employed by them. British social work and its management now approach the health system from a position of organizational independence which should strengthen their capacity to influence the health system. The cultural differences between social work and medicine, however, are experienced more keenly than ever as many social workers adopt a socio-political practice model that is at odds with the professional-technical model

  1. The Community Mental Health Center Movement: A Social Systems Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, David L.; Newton, Peter M.

    A sociopsychological approach is applied to social systems in examining the community mental health center movement. The interrelated concepts of task(s), social structure, culture, and social process help explicate the overwhelming emphasis on direct clinical service at the cost of indirect service. The historical evolution of the task-mandate…

  2. Men's mental health: a call to social workers.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Kevin; Wendt, Douglas

    2015-04-01

    Substantial attention is paid to the mental health needs of women and children by social work researchers, educators, and practitioners--and with good reason, as these are two vulnerable populations in U.S. society. However, the status of men's mental health; its resulting effect on individuals, families, and communities; and the various challenges associated with it are often overlooked by social workers. The authors document the prevalence of common mental health issues among men in the United States, the unique problems that men face, and help-seeking behaviors. They also discuss how social work is in an exceptional position to help men, and the systemic effects that social work practice with men can have. The authors assert that helping improve men's mental health is critical for social work, particularly given its values recognizing the dignity and worth of all individuals. Their goal is to raise awareness and spark an open dialogue about social work practice with men. PMID:25929008

  3. Social capital and health of older Europeans: causal pathways and health inequalities.

    PubMed

    Sirven, Nicolas; Debrand, Thierry

    2012-10-01

    This study uses a time-based approach to examine the causal relationship (Granger-like) between health and social capital for older people in Europe. We use panel data from waves 1 and 2 of SHARE (the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe) for the analysis. Additional wave 3 data on retrospective life histories (SHARELIFE) are used to model the initial conditions in the model. For each of the first 2 waves, a dummy variable for involvement in social activities (voluntary associations, church, social clubs, etc.) is used as a proxy for social capital as involvement in Putnamesque associations; and seven health dichotomous variables are retained, covering a wide range of physical and mental health measures. A bivariate recursive Probit model is used to simultaneously investigate (i) the influence of baseline social capital on current health - controlling for baseline health and other current covariates, and (ii) the impact of baseline health on current participation in social activities - controlling for baseline social capital and other current covariates. As expected, we account for a reversed causal effect: individual social capital has a causal beneficial impact on health and vice-versa. However, the effect of health on social capital appears to be significantly higher than the social capital effect on health. These results indicate that the sub-population reaching 50 years old in good health has a higher propensity to take part in social activities and to benefit from it. Conversely, the other part of the population in poor health at 50, may see their health worsening faster because of the missing beneficial effect of social capital. Social capital may therefore be a potential vector of health inequalities for the older population. PMID:22748478

  4. Social Rhythm and Mental Health: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Margraf, Jürgen; Lavallee, Kristen; Zhang, XiaoChi; Schneider, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Background Social rhythm refers to the regularity with which one engages in social activities throughout the week, and has established links with bipolar disorder, as well as some links with depression and anxiety. The aim of the present study is to examine social rhythm and its relationship to various aspects of health, including physical health, negative mental health, and positive mental health. Method Questionnaire data were obtained from a large-scale multi-national sample of 8095 representative participants from the U.S., Russia, and Germany. Results Results indicated that social rhythm irregularity is related to increased reporting of health problems, depression, anxiety, and stress. In contrast, greater regularity is related to better overall health state, life satisfaction, and positive mental health. The effects are generally small in size, but hold even when controlling for gender, marital status, education, income, country, and social support. Further, social rhythm means differ across Russia, the U.S., and Germany. Relationships with mental health are present in all three countries, but differ in magnitude. Conclusions Social rhythm irregularity is related to mental health in Russia, the U.S., and Germany. PMID:26954568

  5. Mammography accreditation program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, P.

    1993-12-31

    In the mid-1980`s, the movement toward the use of dedicated mammography equipment provided significant improvement in breast cancer detection. However, several studies demonstrated that this change was not sufficient to ensure optimal image quality at a low radiation dose. In particular, the 1985 Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends identified the wide variations in image quality and radiation dose, even from dedicated units. During this time period, the American Cancer Society (ACS) launched its Breast Cancer Awareness Screening Campaign. However, there were concerns about the ability of radiology to respond to the increased demand for optimal screening examinations that would result from the ACS program. To respond to these concerns, the ACS and the American College of Radiology (ACR) established a joint committee on mammography screening in 1986. After much discussion, it was decided to use the ACR Diagnostic Practice Accreditation Program as a model for the development of a mammography accreditation program. However, some constraints were required in order to make the program meet the needs of the ACS. This voluntary, peer review program had to be timely and cost effective. It was determined that the best way to address these needs would be to conduct the program by mail. Finally, by placing emphasis on the educational nature of the program, it would provide an even greater opportunity for improving mammographic quality. The result of this effort was that, almost six years ago, in May 1987, the pilot study for the ACR Mammography Accreditation Program (MAP) began, and in August of that year, the first applications were received. In November 1987, the first 3-year accreditation certificates were awarded.

  6. 76 FR 52548 - National Veterinary Accreditation Program; Currently Accredited Veterinarians Performing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... spread of animal diseases throughout the United States and internationally. On December 9, 2009 (74 FR... accredited duties. In a notice published in the Federal Register and effective on September 28, 2010 (75 FR... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 161 RIN 0579-AC04 National Veterinary...

  7. Health literacy: critical opportunities for social work leadership in health care and research.

    PubMed

    Liechty, Janet M

    2011-05-01

    One-third of U.S. adults do not have adequate health literacy to manage their health care needs; and low health literacy is a major concern due to its association with poor health outcomes, high health care costs, and health communication problems. Low health literacy is a potential driver of health disparities, and its alleviation is central to the values and concerns of the social work profession. Despite the extensive knowledge and skills that social workers can bring to bear to assist patients with low health literacy, the concept of health literacy is underused in social work scholarship.This gap reflects missed opportunities for social workers to contribute their expertise to the evolving field of health literacy and to strategically align their work with organizational and national priorities.To address this gap, this article provides an overview of health literacy, its relevance to social work, and its representation in disciplinary literature; and it outlines opportunities for health social workers to systematically incorporate health literacy concepts and tools into their practices with patients and families. Implications for a social work research and practice agenda in health literacy are discussed. PMID:21661299

  8. Constructing a Health and Social Indicator Framework for Indigenous Community Health Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Elisabeth; Cargo, Margaret D.; Daniel, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Health and social indicators that capture the distinct historical, social, and cultural contexts of Indigenous communities can play an important role in informing the planning and delivery of community interventions. There is currently considerable interest in cataloguing and vetting meaningful community-level health and social indicators that…

  9. A Framework for Educating Health Professionals to Address the Social Determinants of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization defines the social determinants of health as "the conditions in which people are born, grow, work, live, and age, and the wider set of forces and systems shaping the conditions of daily life." These forces and systems include economic policies, development agendas, cultural and social norms, social policies,…

  10. Social Support: A Critical Factor in Women's Health and Health Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurdle, Donna E.

    2001-01-01

    Social networks and social support are reported to be healthy activities, particularly for women. The support is credited with reducing morality rates, improving recovery from serious illness, and increasing use of preventive health practices. Health promotion with women is an underdeveloped area of social work practice that needs to be…

  11. Social Relationships and Health Behavior Across Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Umberson, Debra; Crosnoe, Robert; Reczek, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    Sociological theory and research point to the importance of social relationships in affecting health behavior. This work tends to focus on specific stages of the life course, with a division between research on childhood/adolescent and adult populations. Yet recent advances demonstrate that early life course experiences shape health outcomes well into adulthood. We synthesize disparate bodies of research on social ties and health behavior throughout the life course, with attention to explaining how various social ties influence health behaviors at different life stages and how these processes accumulate and reverberate throughout the life course. PMID:21921974

  12. Financial coping strategies of mental health consumers: managing social benefits.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Mary Ager

    2014-05-01

    Mental health consumers depend on social benefits in the forms of supplemental security income and social security disability insurance for their livelihood. Although these programs pay meager benefits, little research has been undertaken into how this population makes ends meet. Using a qualitative approach, this study asks what are the financial coping strategies of mental health consumers? Seven approaches were identified: subsidies, cost-effective shopping, budgeting, prioritizing, technology, debt management, and saving money. Results illustrate the resourcefulness of mental health consumers in managing meager social benefits and highlight the need to strengthen community mental health efforts with financial capabilities education. PMID:24346222

  13. Social capital, health behaviours and health: a population-based associational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social capital is associated with health behaviours and health. Our objective was to explore how different dimensions of social capital and health-related behaviours are associated, and whether health behaviours mediate this association between social capital and self-rated health and psychological well-being. Methods We used data from the Health 2000 Survey (n=8028) of the adult population in Finland. The response rate varied between 87% (interview) and 77% (the last self-administered questionnaire). Due to item non-response, missing values were replaced using multiple imputation. The associations between three dimensions of social capital (social support, social participation and networks, trust and reciprocity) and five health behaviours (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, vegetable consumption, sleep) were examined by using logistic regression and controlling for age, gender, education, income and living arrangements. The possible mediating role of health behaviours in the association between social capital and self-rated health and psychological well-being was also analysed with a logistic regression model. Results Social participation and networks were associated with all of the health behaviours. High levels of trust and reciprocity were associated with non-smoking and adequate duration of sleep, and high levels of social support with adequate duration of sleep and daily consumption of vegetables. Social support and trust and reciprocity were independently associated with self-rated health and psychological well-being. Part of the association between social participation and networks and health was explained by physical activity. Conclusions Irrespective of their social status, people with higher levels of social capital – especially in terms of social participation and networks – engage in healthier behaviours and feel healthier both physically and psychologically. PMID:23805881

  14. Social Relationships, Leisure Activity, and Health in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Po-Ju; Wray, Linda; Lin, Yeqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although the link between enhanced social relationships and better health has generally been well established, few studies have examined the role of leisure activity in this link. This study examined how leisure influences the link between social relationships and health in older age. Methods Using data from the 2006 and 2010 waves of the nationally representative U.S. Health and Retirement Study and structural equation modelling analyses, we examined data on 2,965 older participants to determine if leisure activities mediated the link between social relationships and health in 2010, controlling for race, education level, and health in 2006. Results The results demonstrated that leisure activities mediate the link between social relationships and health in these age groups. Perceptions of positive social relationships were associated with greater involvement in leisure activities, and greater involvement in leisure activities was associated with better health in older age. Discussion & Conclusions The contribution of leisure to health in these age groups is receiving increasing attention, and the results of this study add to the literature on this topic, by identifying the mediating effect of leisure activity on the link between social relationships and health. Future studies aimed at increasing leisure activity may contribute to improved health outcomes in older adults. PMID:24884905

  15. An empirical analysis of White privilege, social position and health.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Goodman, Melody S

    2014-09-01

    Accumulated evidence has demonstrated that social position matters for health. Those with greater socioeconomic resources and greater perceived standing in the social hierarchy have better health than those with fewer resources and lower perceived standing. Race is another salient axis by which health is stratified in the U.S., but few studies have examined the benefit of White privilege. In this paper, we investigated how perceptions of inequality and subjective and objective social status affected the health and well-being of N = 630 White residents in three Boston neighborhoods lying on a social gradient differentiated by race, ethnicity, income and prestige. Outcomes were self-rated health, dental health, and happiness. Results suggested that: neighborhood residence was not associated with health after controlling for individual level factors (e.g., positive ratings of the neighborhood, education level); objective measures of socioeconomic status were associated with better self-reported and dental health, but subjective assessments of social position were more strongly associated; and White residents living in the two wealthiest neighborhoods, and who perceived Black families as welcome in their neighborhoods enjoyed better health than those who believed them to be less welcome. However, those who lived in the least wealthy and most diverse neighborhood fared worse when reporting Black families to be welcome. These results suggest that White privilege and relative social position interact to shape health outcomes. PMID:25014267

  16. An empirical analysis of White privilege, social position and health

    PubMed Central

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A.; Goodman, Melody S.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulated evidence has demonstrated that social position matters for health. Those with greater socioeconomic resources and greater perceived standing in the social hierarchy have better health than those with fewer resources and perceived standing. Race is another salient axis by which health is stratified in the U.S., but few studies have examined the benefit of White privilege. In this paper, we investigated how perceptions of inequality, subjective and objective social status affected the health and well-being of N=630 White residents in three Boston neighborhoods lying on a social gradient differentiated by race, ethnicity, income and prestige. Outcomes were self-rated health, dental health, and happiness. Results suggested that: neighborhood residence was not associated with health after controlling for individual level factors (e.g., positive ratings of the neighborhood, education level); objective measures of socioeconomic status were associated with better self-reported and dental health, but subjective assessments of social position were more strongly associated; and White residents living in the two wealthiest neighborhoods, and who perceived Black families as welcome in their neighborhoods enjoyed better health than those who believed them to be less welcome. However, those who lived in the least wealthy and most diverse neighborhood fared worse when reporting Black families to be welcome. These results suggest that White privilege and relative social position interact to shape health outcomes. PMID:25014267

  17. 40 CFR 60.535 - Laboratory accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Laboratory accreditation. 60.535... Wood Heaters § 60.535 Laboratory accreditation. (a)(1) A laboratory may apply for accreditation by the... Heater Laboratory Accreditation. (2) (3) If accreditation is denied under this section, the...

  18. 15 CFR 280.103 - Laboratory accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laboratory accreditation. 280.103... QUALITY Petitions, Affirmations, and Laboratory Accreditation § 280.103 Laboratory accreditation. A laboratory may be accredited by any laboratory accreditation program that may be established by any entity...

  19. [Immigration and health: social inequalities in health disparities in the health system, in welfare and work].

    PubMed

    Pullini, A

    2011-01-01

    Within the analysis of the socio-economic context and the data from hospital discharges, the themes of social inequalities, health disparities, determinants of health care are discussed. Regular immigrants versus irregular, wealthy people versus those in poverty, they have access to and receive different health treatments, besides presenting risk conditions significantly different in relation to their social situation. Through the analysis of hospital discharge records as well as data from injuries at work, besides underestimations in foreign people and the greater risk of injuries for immigrants, it is evident how the aspects of inequalities connected to socioeconomic determinants and the different access to health services are pivotal for our health and welfare and that a profound change is required to tackle them properly, focusing on intervention on health care system, according to models which take into account not only evidence based medicine, but also narrative medicine, not only health protection, but also health promotion, so that equity and quality of health care is warranted for everyone. PMID:22187915

  20. [Social capital and health promotion in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Sapag, Jaime C; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2007-02-01

    Latin America faces common development and health problems and equity and overcoming poverty are crucial in the search for comprehensive and high impact solutions. The article analyzes the definition of social capital, its relationship with health, its limitations and potentialities from a perspective of community development and health promotion in Latin America. High-priority challenges are also identified as well as possible ways to better measure and to strengthen social capital. Particularly, it is discussed how and why social capital may be critical in a global health promotion strategy, where empowerment and community participation, interdisciplinary and intersectorial work would help to achieve Public Health aims and a sustainable positive change for the global development. Also, some potential limitations of the social capital concept in the context of health promotion in Latin America are identified. PMID:17273645

  1. [Trends in social inequalities in health in Catalonia, Spain].

    PubMed

    Borrell, Carme; Palència, Laia; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Malmusi, Davide; Bartoll, Xavier; Puigpinós, Rosa

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the evolution of social class inequalities in men and women in health status, health related behaviours and utilization of health services in Catalonia between 1994 and 2006. This is a study of trends based on the analysis of the Encuesta de Salud de Cataluña. To examine the association between 12 dependent variables and social class in each survey, robust Poisson regression models were fitted. People belonging to manual class showed the worst indicators. Over the period, social class inequalities in health status and health services utilisation tended to remain constant or to decrease (performing breast cancer screening). Conversely, inequalities in smoking increased. In Catalonia there are social class inequalities in health, among men and women, that tend to remain stable over the years. PMID:22310366

  2. Social control of health behavior: associations with conscientiousness and neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Elliott, Marc N; Klein, David J

    2006-09-01

    Despite considerable research demonstrating associations of conscientiousness and neuroticism with health-related behavior, our understanding of how and why these traits are related to lifestyle is limited. This study examined the social regulation of health behavior in a probability sample of 509 household residents who completed a Random Digit Dial (RDD) telephone survey. Results suggest that the social regulation of health behavior experienced by highly conscientious individuals has more to do with their own internalized notions of responsibility and obligation to others than to specific actions by others aimed at influencing their health habits. In contrast, individuals with higher neuroticism experience more overt attempts by others to influence their health habits but have more negative affective and behavioral responses to these social influence attempts. Findings suggest that elucidating the distinct social influence processes that operate for conscientiousness and neuroticism may further understanding of how these traits are related to health behaviors and status. PMID:16902235

  3. Social Capital and Health: A Review of Prospective Multilevel Studies

    PubMed Central

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background This article presents an overview of the concept of social capital, reviews prospective multilevel analytic studies of the association between social capital and health, and discusses intervention strategies that enhance social capital. Methods We conducted a systematic search of published peer-reviewed literature on the PubMed database and categorized studies according to health outcome. Results We identified 13 articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. In general, both individual social capital and area/workplace social capital had positive effects on health outcomes, regardless of study design, setting, follow-up period, or type of health outcome. Prospective studies that used a multilevel approach were mainly conducted in Western countries. Although we identified some cross-sectional multilevel studies that were conducted in Asian countries, including Japan, no prospective studies have been conducted in Asia. Conclusions Prospective evidence from multilevel analytic studies of the effect of social capital on health is very limited at present. If epidemiologic findings on the association between social capital and health are to be put to practical use, we must gather additional evidence and explore the feasibility of interventions that build social capital as a means of promoting health. PMID:22447212

  4. Accreditation of veterinary inspection systems.

    PubMed

    Gary, F

    2003-08-01

    Accreditation of Veterinary Services could be a key factor in facilitating international recognition of certificates. For this to occur, accreditation must be conducted within the international normative framework on compliance evaluation. The EN 45004 standard for inspection bodies is the most appropriate organisational reference. It makes a clear distinction between the technical activity of inspection, and decisions which fall within the competence of public authorities. However, there are few international normative texts describing inspection methods, which is a major obstacle to the development of a widely recognised accreditation system. Organisations that accredit inspection bodies exist in many countries, but there are no agreements on multilateral recognition. This paper describes the accreditation cycle and outlines the possibilities for accrediting networks or individual sites. PMID:15884604

  5. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716

  6. Health and Social Media: Perfect Storm of Information

    PubMed Central

    Bau, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The use of Internet in the health domain is becoming a major worldwide trend. Millions of citizens are searching online health information and also publishing content about their health. Patients are engaging with other patients in online communities using different types of social media. The boundaries between mobile health, social media, wearable, games, and big data are becoming blurrier due the integration of all those technologies. In this paper we provide an overview of the major research challenges with the area of health social media. Methods We use several study cases to exemplify the current trends and highlight future research challenges. Results Internet is exploding and is being used for health purposes by a great deal of the population. Social networks have a powerful influence in health decisions. Given the lack of knowledge on the use of health social media, there is a need for complex multidisciplinary research to help us understand how to use social networks in favour of public health. A bigger understanding of social media will give health authorities new tools to help decision-making at global, national, local, and corporate level. Conclusions There is an unprecedented amount of data that can be used in public health due the potential combination of data acquired from mobile phones, Electronic Health Records, social media, and other sources. To identify meaningful information from those data sources it is not trial. Moreover, new analytics tools will need to be developed to analyse those sources of data in a way that it can benefit healthcare professionals and authorities. PMID:25995958

  7. Macroeconomic policies and increasing social-health inequality in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zaboli, Rouhollah; Seyedin, Seyed Hesam; Malmoon, Zainab

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health is a complex phenomenon that can be studied from different approaches. Despite a growing research in the areas of Social Determinants of Health (SDH) and health equity, effects of macroeconomic policies on the social aspect of health are unknown in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the effect of macroeconomic policies on increasing of the social-health inequality in Iran. Methods: This study was a mixed method research. The study population consisted of experts dealing with social determinants of health. A purposive, stratified and non-random sampling method was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect the data along with a multiple attribute decision-making method for the quantitative phase of the research in which the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) was employed for prioritization. The NVivo and MATLAB softwares were used for data analysis. Results: Seven main themes for the effect of macroeconomic policies on increasing the social-health inequality were identified. The result of TOPSIS approved that the inflation and economic instability exert the greatest impact on social-health inequality, with an index of 0.710 and the government policy in paying the subsidies with a 0.291 index has the lowest impact on social-health inequality in the country. Discussion: It is required to invest on the social determinants of health as a priority to reduce health inequality. Also, evaluating the extent to which the future macroeconomic policies impact the health of population is necessary. PMID:25197677

  8. Social capital and health among older adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about social capital and health among older adults in South Africa. This study investigates the association between social capital and several health variables, namely: self-rated health, depressive symptoms, cognitive functioning and physical inactivity, among older South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a national probability sample of 3840 individuals aged 50 years or older who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008 in South Africa. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, cognitive functioning and physical activity. Social capital was assessed with six components, namely: marital status, social action, sociability, trust and solidarity, safety, and civic engagement. Results The social capital assessment revealed that 56% of the respondents were married or cohabiting, 45% reported low (0) social action, 42% reported medium (2–3) sociability, 43% reported high (2) trust and solidarity, 50% reported high (2–4) civic engagement and 42% reported medium (6) psychological resources. In multivariate analysis, self-reported good health was associated with younger age, having secondary education and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity and greater psychological resources). Depressive symptoms were associated with lower social capital (not being married or cohabiting, lack of high trust and solidarity and low psychological resources). Better cognitive functioning was associated with younger age, higher educational level, greater wealth and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity, lack of safety, higher civic engagement and greater psychological resources). Physical inactivity was associated with older age and lower social capital (lower social action, lack of safety, lower civic engagement and poorer psychological resources). Conclusions

  9. Poor people, poor places, and poor health: the mediating role of social networks and social capital.

    PubMed

    Cattell, V

    2001-05-01

    This paper explores the dynamics between poverty and exclusion; neighbourhood, and health and well being by considering the role of social networks and social capital in the social processes involved. It is based on qualitative research taking two deprived areas as exemplary case studies, and involving depth interviews with residents. Neighbourhood influences on networks and social capital were explored, network typologies developed reflecting structural and cultural aspects of individual's networks, and pathways implicated in health effects considered. The complexity of social capital is addressed. The role of three factors in influencing social networks and social capital are demonstrated: neighbourhood characteristics and perceptions; poverty and social exclusion, and social consciousness. Perceptions of inequality could be a source of social capital as well as demoralisation. Different network structures-dense and weak, homogeneous and heterogeneous- were involved in the creation of social capital and had implications for well being. Coping, enjoyment of life and hope are identified as benefits. Although participation in organisations was confirmed as beneficial, it is suggested that today's heterogeneous neighbourhoods also require regenerated local work opportunities to develop bridging ties necessary for the genesis of inclusive social capital and better health. Despite the capacity of social capital to buffer its harsher effects, the concept is not wholly adequate for explaining the deleterious effects of poverty on health and well being. PMID:11314847

  10. Health and Social Security Needs of Rickshaw Pullers in Ranchi.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anant; Thomas, Joe; Wadhwa, Sonal S; Mishra, Aprajita; Dasgupta, Smita

    2016-07-01

    A significant number of "marginalized" population groups are denied their health rights, healthcare access, benefits of government health programs, and other health-related social security benefits. These population groups, particularly the rickshaw pullers of India, are vulnerable because of their poor social and economic status, migration history, lack of permanent settlements, lack of social capital, and so on. These reasons, coupled with other social-political reasons, lead to no or limited access to health services and poor health conditions. This study intends to explore and understand the context and health seeking behavior of rickshaw pullers in Ranchi, the capital city of Jharkhand state in India, with special reference to wider social determinants of health such as, access, affordability, and delivery of health services. The data was collected from 1,000 rickshaw pullers from 40 "rickshaw garages" in Ranchi. The findings of the study show that rickshaw pullers can't afford to "attach" much importance to their health due to various reasons and suffer from a variety of occupational and other illnesses. The health conditions of the rickshaw pullers are affected by poverty, negligence, illiteracy, lack of awareness and unavailability of affordable, quality health services. These are only a symptom of the larger structural issues affecting health. The study suggests that rickshaw pullers, being a marginalized and excluded population group, require special health and social security programs that include safe, affordable, and accessible services along with a special focus on health education, behavior change, and promotion of appropriate health-seeking behavior. PMID:27050732

  11. Social capital and health: implication for health promotion by lay citizens in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Keiko; Iwakuma, Miho; Nakayama, Takeo

    2015-12-01

    A non-profit organization was formed in 2009 by lay citizens of Nagahama, Japan in response to a community-based genome-epidemiologic study, the 'Nagahama Zero(0)-ji Prevention Cohort Project (N0PCP)'. This organization aims to promote health by taking advantage of citizens' social networks. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion affirms the importance of creating supportive environments and coordinating social relationships. Supportive environments (infrastructure) and social relationships (resources) work together as aspects of social capital. This study sought to examine the association between self-rated health and social capital, at both individual and neighborhood levels, and to discuss suitable health promotion strategies for local circumstances.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011, using a self-administered postal questionnaire. Social capital indicators included aspects of support in the environment (social support, neighborhood connectedness, informal social controls, neighborhood trust, general trust, and attachment to place) and social relationships (number of activities; participation in neighborhood activities; participation in recreational activities; and social leverage regarding physical health, mental health, and acquisition of health information). Neighborhood-level social capital was calculated as the percentage of individuals in a neighborhood in the 'high social capital' category. At the individual level, participation in recreational activities, high general trust, and discussion regarding mental health problems with family members were associated with self-rated health positively, whereas discussion of mental health problems with acquaintances had a negative correlation. At the neighborhood level, a highly supportive environment did not contribute to good health, whereas aggregated attachment to place had a positive correlation. There were no significant inter-regional health differences.The results of this study suggest that

  12. Social capital and health: implication for health promotion by lay citizens in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Keiko; Iwakuma, Miho; Nakayama, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    A non-profit organization was formed in 2009 by lay citizens of Nagahama, Japan in response to a community-based genome-epidemiologic study, the ‘Nagahama Zero(0)-ji Prevention Cohort Project (N0PCP)’. This organization aims to promote health by taking advantage of citizens’ social networks. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion affirms the importance of creating supportive environments and coordinating social relationships. Supportive environments (infrastructure) and social relationships (resources) work together as aspects of social capital. This study sought to examine the association between self-rated health and social capital, at both individual and neighborhood levels, and to discuss suitable health promotion strategies for local circumstances. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011, using a self-administered postal questionnaire. Social capital indicators included aspects of support in the environment (social support, neighborhood connectedness, informal social controls, neighborhood trust, general trust, and attachment to place) and social relationships (number of activities; participation in neighborhood activities; participation in recreational activities; and social leverage regarding physical health, mental health, and acquisition of health information). Neighborhood-level social capital was calculated as the percentage of individuals in a neighborhood in the ‘high social capital’ category. At the individual level, participation in recreational activities, high general trust, and discussion regarding mental health problems with family members were associated with self-rated health positively, whereas discussion of mental health problems with acquaintances had a negative correlation. At the neighborhood level, a highly supportive environment did not contribute to good health, whereas aggregated attachment to place had a positive correlation. There were no significant inter-regional health differences. The results of this study

  13. Social cognitive factors and perceived social influences that improve adolescent eHealth literacy.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    While adolescents are increasingly using the Internet for health information, little research has been done to assess and improve their "eHealth literacy"-the abilities to find, evaluate, and apply online health information. This study examines the extent to which adolescents' levels of eHealth literacy can be improved by known determinants such as social cognitive factors and perceived social influences, either independently or jointly. Among 182 middle-schoolers, an eHealth literacy intervention was carried out. It involved qualitative and quantitative baseline research, three online training sessions, and a postintervention survey. According to hierarchical regression model results, social cognitive factors of outcome expectations and involvement, but not health motivation, significantly improved eHealth literacy, and all the perceived social influence variables significantly improved eHealth literacy. However, no joint effect of social cognitive factors and perceived social influences was found. In light of these findings, educators need to make eHealth literacy programs personally relevant to adolescents and reinforce local social norms about the importance of seeking health information online. PMID:22452551

  14. Assessing the social and physical determinants of circumpolar population health

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, David L.; Dotterrer, Bruce; Brown, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Systematic reviews of the social and physical determinants of health provide metrics for evaluation of programs to mitigate health disparities. Previous meta-analyses of the population health literature have identified several proximate social and physical determinants of population health in the circumpolar north including addiction, environmental exposures, diet/nutrition and global climate change. Proximate health determinants are most amenable to early detection and modification or mitigation through disease prevention or health promotion interventions. Design There is a need for research to replicate these findings based on the latest science. This presentation describes a study applying Dahlgren and Whitehead's (1991) socio-ecological model of health determinants to identify the proximate social and physical determinants of health in the circumpolar north. Methods The study consisted of a systematic review of recent studies that link determinants of health with the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Alaska. Our search strategy employed a keyword search using the Circumpolar Health Bibliographic Database (CHBD) and 4 databases within the Web of Knowledge (WoK) data gateway. Keywords included various terms for the arctic, all relevant nations and territories within the region, as well as leading health outcomes. Results Studies meeting the following inclusion criteria were reviewed: original research within a circumpolar population, published in English during 2011, and involving a rigorous demonstration of a link between a social determinant and selected health outcomes. Conclusions Study conclusions includes a list of determinants identified, their associated outcomes and the study designs implemented to assess that association. PMID:23986893

  15. Developing Social Marketing Capacity to Address Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, S.; Smart, E.; Kopela, J.; Gibson, T.; King, V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Social marketing is increasingly being seen as a potentially effective means of pursuing health education practice generally and within various specific areas such as mental health and wellbeing and more broadly in tackling health inequalities. This paper aims to report and reflect on the authors' experiences of undertaking a health…

  16. Evaluation of a Health and Fitness Social Media Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimming, Renee E.; Polsgrove, Myles Jay; Bower, Glenna G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: University health and fitness faculty members are continually striving to enhance the health knowledge of their students. Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to survey student reflections of a social media experience. Methods: Students were placed into one of two groups: Learners (N = 92) or Pre-Service Health and Fitness…

  17. Investments in social capital--implications of social interactions for the production of health.

    PubMed

    Bolin, Kristian; Lindgren, Björn; Lindström, Martin; Nystedt, Paul

    2003-06-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model of the family as producer of health- and social capital. There are both direct and indirect returns on the production and accumulation of health- and social capital. Direct returns (the consumption motives) result since health and social capital both enhance individual welfare per se. Indirect returns (the investment motives) result since health capital increases the amount of productive time, and social capital improves the efficiency of the production technology used for producing health capital. The main prediction of the theoretical model is that the amount of social capital is positively related to the level of health; individuals with high levels of social capital are healthier than individuals with lower levels of social capital, ceteris paribus. An empirical model is estimated, using a set of individual panel data from three different time periods in Sweden. We find that social capital is positively related to the level of health capital, which supports the theoretical model. Further, we find that the level of social capital (1) declines with age, (2) is lower for those married or cohabiting, and (3) is lower for men than for women. PMID:12742602

  18. NCI Central Review Board Receives Accreditation

    Cancer.gov

    The Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs has awarded the NCI Central Institutional Review Board full accreditation. AAHRPP awards accreditation to organizations demonstrating the highest ethical standards in clinical res

  19. Current Developments in Accreditation and Certification for Health Promotion and Health Education: A Perspective on Systems of Quality Assurance in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Randall R.; Lysoby, Linda; King, Laura Rasar; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.; Roe, Kathleen M.; Allegrante, John P.

    2009-01-01

    The health education profession in the United States employs parallel, and overlapping, systems of voluntary credentialing to ensure quality in professional preparation. The U.S. approach to quality assurance comprises credentialing at the individual level, including certification, and at the institutional level, including regional and…

  20. Social inequalities in health: a proper concern of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Marmot, Michael; Bell, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Social inequalities are a proper concern of epidemiology. Epidemiological thinking and modes of analysis are central, but epidemiological research is one among many areas of study that provide the evidence for understanding the causes of social inequalities in health and what can be done to reduce them. Understanding the causes of health inequalities requires insights from social, behavioral and biological sciences, and a chain of reasoning that examines how the accumulation of positive and negative influences over the life course leads to health inequalities in adult life. Evidence that the social gradient in health can be reduced should make us optimistic that reducing health inequalities is a realistic goal for all societies. PMID:27084546

  1. Public Health and Social Ideas in Modern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Nísia Trindade

    2007-01-01

    Public health in Brazil achieved remarkable development at the turn of the 20th century thanks in part to physicians and social thinkers who made it central to their proposals for “modernizing” the country. Public health was more than a set of medical and technical measures; it was fundamental to the project of nation building. I trace the interplay between public health and social ideas in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Physicians and social thinkers challenged the traditional belief that Brazil’s sociocultural and ethnic diversity was an obstacle to modernization, and they promoted public health as the best prescription for national unity. Public health ideas in developing countries such as Brazil may have a greater impact when they are intertwined with social thought and with the processes of nation building and construction of a modern society. PMID:17538074

  2. The Role of Social Support and Social Networks in Health Information Seeking Behavior among Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Wonsun

    2013-01-01

    Access to health information appears to be a crucial piece of the racial and ethnic health disparities puzzle among immigrants. There are a growing number of scholars who are investigating the role of social networks that have shown that the number and even types of social networks among minorities and lower income groups differ (Chatman, 1991;…

  3. Social Cohesion, Social Support and Health Among Latinos in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Alegria, Margarita; Sribney, William; Mulvaney-Day, Norah E.

    2009-01-01

    The role of individual versus community level social connections in promoting health is an important factor to consider when addressing Latino health. This analysis examines the relationships between social support, social cohesion, and health in a sample of Latinos in the United States. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study, the analysis uses ordered logistic regression to explore the relationships of family support, friend support, family cultural conflict, and neighborhood social cohesion with self-rated physical and mental health, taking into account language proficiency and use, nativity, and sociodemographic variables. Family support, friend support, and neighborhood social cohesion were positively related to self-rated physical and mental health, and family cultural conflict was negatively related when controlled only for sex and age. After controlling for education, income, and other demographic measures, only family support was found to have a weak association with self-rated physical health; however, the relationship seemed to be mediated by language. In contrast, family support and family cultural conflict were strongly associated with self-rated mental health, after controlling for language, education, income, and other demographic measures. The study did not find neighborhood social cohesion to be significantly related to either self-rated physical or mental health, after accounting for the effects of the other social connection variables. Language of interview did not explain the highly significant effects of language proficiency and use. Social connections are important for health and mental health, but language and other sociodemographic factors seem to be related to how Latinos establish these social linkages. Further investigation into the role of language in the development and maintenance of social connections may help unravel the mechanisms by which they promote or decrease health. PMID:17049701

  4. Social determinants of health: a view on theory and measurement.

    PubMed

    De Maio, Fernando; Mazzeo, John; Ritchie, Dannie

    2013-07-01

    The theory and measurement of the social determinants of health featured in a three-part seminar series on Social Determinants of Health, Law and Policy held at the Taubman Center for Public Policy, Brown University in February 2012. The seminar series represents a broader commitment to engage the public, health providers, researchers, and policy makers in dialogue for the purposes of identifying and addressing social determinants of health at community and state levels. This article summarizes and expands upon the first part of the series by defining social determinants of health and exploring methodological debates over their measurement, with a focus on income inequality, racism and discrimination, housing security, and food security. The authors of this article and the members of the seminar series represent the kind of interdisciplinary and applied work necessary for addressing the five key areas of social determinants of health identified in Healthy People 2020: economic stability, education, social and community context, health and health care, and neighborhood and environment. PMID:23819135

  5. Health and Social Care Interventions Which Promote Social Participation for Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, Sharon; Morris, David; Newlin, Meredith; Webber, Martin

    2016-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are among the most socially excluded in society. There is a significant gap in research evidence showing how health and social care workers can intervene to improve the social participation of adults with learning disabilities. A systematic review and modified narrative synthesis was used to appraise the quality…

  6. 42 CFR 488.8 - Federal review of accreditation organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Federal review of accreditation organizations. 488.8 Section 488.8 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT...

  7. [Use of social marketing in population health programs (literature review)].

    PubMed

    Kholmogorova, G T; Gladysheva, N V

    1991-01-01

    At present health education programmes abroad make wide use of social marketing strategy. Unlike commercial marketing whose purpose is competition and struggle for the expansion of commodity markets, social marketing is aimed at disseminating certain ideas or introducing certain practices, using largely the technological base and strategy of commercial marketing. The authors give 8 fundamental principles of social marketing (consumer orientation, the theory of barter, the analysis of audience and segmentation, special surveys to detect the orientation of population, the choice of channels for information transmission application of "marketing mixture", control of ongoing programme and marketing management). Application fields of social marketing in public health are discussed. PMID:1785061

  8. Social internet sites as a source of public health information.

    PubMed

    Vance, Karl; Howe, William; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2009-04-01

    Social media websites, such as YouTube, Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, and Second Life are rapidly emerging as popular sources of health information especially for teens and young adults. Social media marketing carries the advantages of low cost, rapid transmission through a wide community, and user interaction. Disadvantages include blind authorship, lack of source citation, and presentation of opinion as fact. Dermatologists and other health care providers should recognize the importance of social media websites and their potential usefulness for disseminating health information. PMID:19254656

  9. Philosophical problems with social research on health inequalities.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, S P; Forbes, A

    2000-01-01

    This paper offers a realist critique of social research on health inequalities. A conspectus of the field of health inequalities research identifies two main research approaches: the positivist quantitative survey and the interpretivist qualitative 'case study'. We argue that both approaches suffer from serious philosophical limitations. We suggest that a turn to realism offers a productive 'third way' both for the development of health inequality research in particular and for the social scientific understanding of the complexities of the social world in general. PMID:11186025

  10. Religious social capital: Its measurement and utility in the study of the social determinants of health

    PubMed Central

    Maselko, Joanna; Hughes, Cayce; Cheney, Rose

    2014-01-01

    As a social determinant of health, religiosity remains not well understood, despite the prevalence of religious activity and prominence of religious institutions in most societies. This paper introduces a working measure of Religious Social Capital and presents preliminary associations with neighborhood social capital and urban stressors. Religious social capital is defined as the social resources available to individuals and groups through their social connections with a religious community. Domains covered include group membership, social integration, values/norms, bonding/bridging trust as well as social support. Cross-sectional data come from a convenience sample of 104 community dwelling adults residing in a single urban neighborhood in a large US city, who also provided information on neighborhood social capital, and experiences of urban stressors. Results suggest that religious social capital is a valid construct that can be reliably measured. All indicators of religious social capital were higher among those who frequently attended religious services, with the exception of bridging trust (trust of people from different religious groups). A weak, inverse, association was also observed between religious and neighborhood social capital levels. Levels of religious social capital were correlated with higher levels of reported urban stressors, while neighborhood social capital was correlated with lower urban stressor levels. A significant percent of the sample was unaffiliated with a religious tradition and these individuals were more likely to be male, young and more highly educated. Social capital is a promising construct to help elucidate the influence of religion on population health. PMID:21802182

  11. 42 CFR 488.9 - Onsite observation of accreditation organization operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... evaluation of survey results or the accreditation decision-making process, and interviews with the... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Onsite observation of accreditation organization operations. 488.9 Section 488.9 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. Social integration and the mental health of Black adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Theda; Joe, Sean; Shields, Joseph; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2014-01-01

    The influence of family, school, and religious social contexts on the mental health of Black adolescents has been understudied. This study used Durkheim’s Social Integration Theory to examine these associations in a nationally representative sample of 1,170 Black adolescents, ages 13-17. Mental health was represented by positive and negative psychosocial well-being indicators. Results showed that adolescents’ integration into family and school were related to better mental health. Additionally, commitment to religious involvement positively influenced mental health. Although the direct effect of religious involvement was inversely related to mental health, mediation analyses revealed a positive influence through religious commitment. Findings suggest a greater emphasis on all three social contexts when designing strategies to improve the mental health of Black adolescents. PMID:24815855

  13. Social Gradients in the Health of Indigenous Australians

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianghong; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    The pattern of association between socioeconomic factors and health outcomes has primarily depicted better health for those who are higher in the social hierarchy. Although this is a ubiquitous finding in the health literature, little is known about the interplay between these factors among indigenous populations. We begin to bridge this knowledge gap by assessing evidence on social gradients in indigenous health in Australia. We reveal a less universal and less consistent socioeconomic status patterning in health among Indigenous Australians, and discuss the plausibility of unique historical circumstances and social and cultural characteristics in explaining these patterns. A more robust evidence base in this field is fundamental to processes that aim to reduce the pervasive disparities between indigenous and nonindigenous population health. PMID:22095336

  14. Australian health professions student use of social media.

    PubMed

    Usher, Kim; Woods, Cindy; Casellac, Evan; Glass, Nel; Wilson, Rhonda; Mayner, Lidia; Jackson, Debra; Brown, Janie; Duffy, Elaine; Mather, Carey; Cummings, Elizabeth; Irwin, Pauletta

    2014-01-01

    Increased bandwidth, broadband network availability and improved functionality have enhanced the accessibility and attractiveness of social media. The use of the Internet by higher education students has markedly increased. Social media are already used widely across the health sector but little is currently known of the use of social media by health profession students in Australia. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to explore health profession students' use of social media and their media preferences for sourcing information. An electronic survey was made available to health profession students at ten participating universities across most Australian states and territories. Respondents were 637 first year students and 451 final year students. The results for first and final year health profession students indicate that online media is the preferred source of information with only 20% of students nominating traditional peer-reviewed journals as a preferred information source. In addition, the results indicate that Facebook usage was high among all students while use of other types of social media such as Twitter remains comparatively low. As health profession students engage regularly with social media, and this use is likely to grow rather than diminish, educational institutions are challenged to consider the use of social media as a validated platform for learning and teaching. PMID:25109207

  15. Health 2.0-Lessons Learned: Social Networking With Patients for Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suparna; Kilian, Reena; Leung, Fok-Han

    2014-07-01

    The advent of social networking as a major platform for human interaction has introduced a new dimension into the physician-patient relationship, known as Health 2.0. The concept of Health 2.0 is young and evolving; so far, it has meant the use of social media by health professionals and patients to personalize health care and promote health education. Social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter offer promising platforms for health care providers to engage patients. Despite the vast potential of Health 2.0, usage by health providers remains relatively low. Using a pilot study as an example, this commentary reviews the ways in which physicians can effectively harness the power of social networking to meaningfully engage their patients in primary prevention. PMID:24522931

  16. Sociality and health: impacts of sociality on disease susceptibility and transmission in animal and human societies

    PubMed Central

    Kappeler, Peter M.; Cremer, Sylvia; Nunn, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a theme issue presenting the latest developments in research on the impacts of sociality on health and fitness. The articles that follow cover research on societies ranging from insects to humans. Variation in measures of fitness (i.e. survival and reproduction) has been linked to various aspects of sociality in humans and animals alike, and variability in individual health and condition has been recognized as a key mediator of these relationships. Viewed from a broad evolutionary perspective, the evolutionary transitions from a solitary lifestyle to group living have resulted in several new health-related costs and benefits of sociality. Social transmission of parasites within groups represents a major cost of group living, but some behavioural mechanisms, such as grooming, have evolved repeatedly to reduce this cost. Group living also has created novel costs in terms of altered susceptibility to infectious and non-infectious disease as a result of the unavoidable physiological consequences of social competition and integration, which are partly alleviated by social buffering in some vertebrates. Here, we define the relevant aspects of sociality, summarize their health-related costs and benefits, and discuss possible fitness measures in different study systems. Given the pervasive effects of social factors on health and fitness, we propose a synthesis of existing conceptual approaches in disease ecology, ecological immunology and behavioural neurosciences by adding sociality as a key factor, with the goal to generate a broader framework for organismal integration of health-related research. PMID:25870402

  17. 7 CFR 205.506 - Granting accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Accreditation of Certifying Agents § 205.506 Granting accreditation....

  18. 7 CFR 205.506 - Granting accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Accreditation of Certifying Agents § 205.506 Granting accreditation....

  19. 7 CFR 205.506 - Granting accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Accreditation of Certifying Agents § 205.506 Granting accreditation....

  20. 7 CFR 205.506 - Granting accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Accreditation of Certifying Agents § 205.506 Granting accreditation....

  1. Quality indicators to compare accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Arkaravichien, Wiwat; Wongpratat, Apichaya; Lertsinudom, Sunee

    2016-08-01

    Background Quality indicators determine the quality of actual practice in reference to standard criteria. The Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand), with technical support from the International Pharmaceutical Federation, developed a tool for quality assessment and quality improvement at community pharmacies. This tool has passed validity and reliability tests, but has not yet had feasibility testing. Objective (1) To test whether this quality tool could be used in routine settings. (2) To compare quality scores between accredited independent and accredited chain pharmacies. Setting Accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies in the north eastern region of Thailand. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in 34 accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies. Quality scores were assessed by observation and by interviewing the responsible pharmacists. Data were collected and analyzed by independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test as appropriate. Results were plotted by histogram and spider chart. Main outcome measure Domain's assessable scores, possible maximum scores, mean and median of measured scores. Results Domain's assessable scores were close to domain's possible maximum scores. This meant that most indicators could be assessed in most pharmacies. The spider chart revealed that measured scores in the personnel, drug inventory and stocking, and patient satisfaction and health promotion domains of chain pharmacies were significantly higher than those of independent pharmacies (p < 0.05). There was no statistical difference between independent pharmacies and chain pharmacies in the premise and facility or dispensing and patient care domains. Conclusion Quality indicators developed by the Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand) could be used to assess quality of practice in pharmacies in routine settings. It is revealed that the quality scores of chain pharmacies were higher than those of independent pharmacies

  2. Transforming Global Health with Mobile Technologies and Social Enterprises

    PubMed Central

    Kayingo, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    More than 2,000 people convened for the ninth annual Global Health and Innovation Conference at Yale University on April 21-22, 2012. Participants discussed the latest innovations, ideas in development, lessons learned, opportunities and challenges in global health activities. Several themes emerged, including the important role of frontline workers, strengthening health systems, leveraging social media, and sustainable and impact-driven philanthropy. Overall, the major outcome of the conference was the increased awareness of the potential of mobile technologies and social enterprises in transforming global health. Experts warned that donations and technological advances alone will not transform global health unless there are strong functioning health infrastructures and improved workforce. It was noted that there is a critical need for an integrated systems approach to global health problems and a need for scaling up promising pilot projects. Lack of funding, accountability, and sustainability were identified as major challenges in global health. PMID:23012591

  3. Extending Social Cognition Models of Health Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Henderson, Marion

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study assessed the extent to which indices of social structure, including family socio-economic status (SES), social deprivation, gender and educational/lifestyle aspirations correlated with adolescent condom use and added to the predictive utility of a theory of planned behaviour model. Analyses of survey data from 824 sexually…

  4. Social capital, health, and elderly driver status

    PubMed Central

    Isbel, Stephen T.; Berry, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Driving a car enables many people to engage in meaningful activities that, in turn, help develop and maintain personal social capital. Social capital, a combination of community participation and social cohesion, is important in maintaining well-being. This paper argues that social capital can provide a framework for investigating the general role of transportation and driving a car specifically to access activities that contribute to connectedness and well-being among older people. This paper proposes theoretically plausible and empirically testable hypotheses about the relationship between driver status, social capital, and well-being. A longitudinal study may provide a new way of understanding, and thus of addressing, the well-being challenges that occur when older people experience restrictions to, or loss of, their driver’s license. PMID:27505020

  5. Social capital and post-disaster mental health

    PubMed Central

    Wind, Tim R.; Fordham, Maureen; Komproe, Ivan H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite national and international policies to develop social capital in disaster-affected communities, empiric evidence on the association between social capital and disaster mental health is limited and ambiguous. Objective The study explores the relationship between social capital and disaster mental health outcomes (PTSD, anxiety, and depression) in combination with individual factors (appraisal, coping behavior, and social support). Design This is a community-based cross-sectional study in a flood-affected town in northern England. The study is part of the MICRODIS multi-country research project that examines the impact of natural disasters. It included 232 flood-affected respondents. Results The findings showed that a considerable part of the association between cognitive and structural social capital and mental health is exerted through individual appraisal processes (i.e. property loss, primary and secondary appraisal), social support, and coping behavior. These individual factors were contingent on social capital. After the inclusion of individual characteristics, cognitive social capital was negatively related to lower mental health problems and structural social capital was positively associated to experiencing anxiety but not to PTSD or depression. Depression and anxiety showed a different pattern of association with both components of social capital. Conclusions Individual oriented stress reducing interventions that use appraisal processes, social support, and coping as starting points could be more effective by taking into account the subjective experience of the social context in terms of trust and feelings of mutual support and reciprocity in a community. Findings indicate that affected people may especially benefit from a combination of individual stress reducing interventions and psychosocial interventions that foster cognitive social capital. PMID:21695072

  6. Accreditations as Local Management Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cret, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    The development of accreditation agencies within the Higher Education sector in order to assess and guarantee the quality of services or product is still a growing phenomenon in Europe. Accreditations are conceived by institutional authors and by authors who directly deal with quality assurance processes as a means of legitimization or a means of…

  7. Aligning Assessments for COSMA Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Curt; Johnson, Dennis A.; Alderman, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Many higher education sport management programs are currently in the process of seeking accreditation from the Commission on Sport Management Accreditation (COSMA). This article provides a best-practice method for aligning student learning outcomes with a sport management program's mission and goals. Formative and summative assessment procedures…

  8. Specialized Accreditation and Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Stuart

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of academic libraries and the accrediting process focuses on an evaluation and comparison of library guidelines from 17 specialized accrediting bodies with guidelines from regional accreditors. Input versus output measures are discussed, and suggestions for improving the library's participation in the process are offered. (Contains 25…

  9. 42 CFR 488.8 - Federal review of accreditation organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... organization proposes to adopt new requirements or change its survey process. An accreditation organization... national accreditation organization. CMS's review and evaluation of a national accreditation organization... criteria— (1) The equivalency of an accreditation organization's accreditation requirements of an entity...

  10. Are there social determinants of health and disease?

    PubMed

    Thisted, Ronald A

    2003-01-01

    The concept of a determinant is tied to the idea of a mechanism for action. Ideas from epidemiology, particularly the epidemiologic triad of agent, host, and environment, can help to make sense of factors that affect the absence of disease or that interfere with a mechanism that alters health. However, assembling convincing evidence for the existence of social determinants of health is a challenge, in part because of the difficulties of bridging the social and biological realms. While social contexts are measured using aggregates of individuals, disease and dysfunction occur at the individual level, leading to difficult problems of ecological inference. Although social factors have been shown to be associated with differences in mortality from specific causes, these factors account for only a small portion of the mortality from any individual cause. This suggests that the pathways through which social factors influence health are affected by their interactions with other factors. PMID:14563075

  11. Canadian values, social policy and the health of our kids.

    PubMed

    Denburg, Avram

    2016-01-01

    What explains the widening disparities in child health and social circumstance in Canada? And why do we tolerate such inequality? In the present commentary, the author argues that to understand - and ultimately influence - the trajectory of child health and well-being in our country, we must attend to the impact of social policy on the life chances of Canadian children. This, in turn, demands that we probe the fundamental values that guide social policy in modern welfare states and locate Canada's place in this political spectrum. The author explores the controversial tax policy of income-splitting to contextualize this discussion of values, and argues that our polity increasingly privileges economic liberty above equality or solidarity. Until those best positioned to advocate for children - including paediatricians and child health care providers - begin to engage with social policy, the health and well-being of Canada's children will remain a tale of two increasingly different worlds. PMID:27441015

  12. A conceptual framework for the social analysis of reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Price, Neil L; Hawkins, Kirstan

    2007-03-01

    The dominant conceptual framework for understanding reproductive behaviour is highly individualistic. In this article, it is demonstrated that such a conceptualization is flawed, as behaviour is shaped by social relations and institutions. Using ethnographic evidence, the value of a social analysis of the local contexts of reproductive health is highlighted. A framework is set out for conducting such a social analysis, which is capable of generating data necessary to allow health programmes to assess the appropriate means of improving the responsiveness of service-delivery structures to the needs of the most vulnerable. Six key issues are identified in the framework for the analysis of social vulnerability to poor reproductive health outcomes. The key issues are: poverty and livelihood strategies, gender, health-seeking behaviour, reproductive behaviour, and access to services. The article concludes by briefly identifying the key interventions and strategies indicated by such an analysis. PMID:17615901

  13. A Conceptual Framework for the Social Analysis of Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Kirstan

    2007-01-01

    The dominant conceptual framework for understanding reproductive behaviour is highly individualistic. In this article, it is demonstrated that such a conceptualization is flawed, as behaviour is shaped by social relations and institutions. Using ethnographic evidence, the value of a social analysis of the local contexts of reproductive health is highlighted. A framework is set out for conducting such a social analysis, which is capable of generating data necessary to allow health programmes to assess the appropriate means of improving the responsiveness of service-delivery structures to the needs of the most vulnerable. Six key issues are identified in the framework for the analysis of social vulnerability to poor reproductive health outcomes. The key issues are: poverty and livelihood strategies, gender, health-seeking behaviour, reproductive behaviour, and access to services. The article concludes by briefly identifying the key interventions and strategies indicated by such an analysis. PMID:17615901

  14. Extending social cognition models of health behaviour.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Henderson, Marion

    2011-08-01

    A cross-sectional study assessed the extent to which indices of social structure, including family socio-economic status (SES), social deprivation, gender and educational/lifestyle aspirations correlated with adolescent condom use and added to the predictive utility of a theory of planned behaviour model. Analyses of survey data from 824 sexually active 16-year-olds (505 women and 319 men) tested three hypotheses. Firstly, social structure measures will correlate with behaviour-specific cognitions that predict condom use. Secondly, cognition measures will not fully mediate the effects of social structural indices and thirdly, the effects of cognitions on condom use will be moderated by social structure indices. All three hypotheses were supported. SES, gender and aspirations accounted for between 2 and 7% of the variance in behaviour-specific cognitions predicting condom use. Aspirations explained a further 4% of the variance in condom use, controlling for cognition effects. Mother's SES and gender added an additional 5%, controlling for aspirations. Overall, including significant moderation effects, of social structure indices increased the variance explained from 20.5% (for cognition measures alone) to 31%. These data indicate that social structure measures should to be investigated in addition to cognitions when modelling antecedents of behaviour, including condom use. PMID:21459763

  15. Child Social Exclusion Risk and Child Health Outcomes in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Itismita; Edvardsson, Martin; Abello, Annie; Eldridge, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This paper studies the relationship between the risk of child social exclusion, as measured by the Child Social Exclusion (CSE) index and its individual domains, and child health outcomes at the small area level in Australia. The CSE index is Australia’s only national small-area index of the risk of child social exclusion. It includes five domains that capture different components of social exclusion: socio-economic background, education, connectedness, housing and health services. Methods The paper used data from the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM), University of Canberra for the CSE Index and its domains and two key Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) data sources for the health outcome measures: the National Hospital Morbidity Database and the National Mortality Database. Results The results show positive associations between rates of both of the negative health outcomes: potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH) and avoidable deaths, and the overall risk of child social exclusion as well as with the index domains. This analysis at the small-area level can be used to identify and study areas with unexpectedly good or bad health outcomes relative to their estimated risk of child social exclusion. We show that children’s health outcomes are worse in remote parts of Australia than what would be expected solely based on the CSE index. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that developing composite indices of the risk of child social exclusion can provide valuable guidance for local interventions and programs aimed at improving children’s health outcomes. They also indicate the importance of taking a small-area approach when conducting geographic modelling of disadvantage. PMID:27152596

  16. Social networks, stress and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Achat, H; Kawachi, I; Levine, S; Berkey, C; Coakley, E; Colditz, G

    1998-12-01

    Although evidence suggests that social networks reduce the risk of mortality and are negatively associated with severe mental disability, little is known about their relationship to everyday functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In addition, the importance of social networks in the presence of chronic stress remains unclear. We examined the association between social networks and aspects of mental functioning (mental health, vitality and role-emotional functioning) and the relationship between social networks and mental functioning in the presence of stressors. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to examine data in 47,912 middle-aged and older healthy women. The Medical Outcomes Study Shortform Health Survey measured dimensions of quality of life. We observed strong associations between levels of social networks and multivariate-adjusted quality of life scores, particularly in potentially high stress situations. Compared to the most socially integrated, women who were socially isolated had reductions in mental health and vitality scores of 6.5 and 7.4 points, respectively and a 60% increased risk of limitation in role-emotional functioning. Social networks are positively associated with mental functioning in women. This association is strongest for women reporting high levels of home and work stressors. PMID:10097622

  17. Social Problem Solving and Health Behaviors of Undergraduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Timothy R.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relationship of social problem solving to health behaviors as reported by 126 undergraduate students. Findings revealed significant relationships between elements of social problem solving and wellness and accident prevention behaviors, and traffic and substance risk taking. However, correlations revealed differences between men and…

  18. The Turning Point Social Marketing National Excellence Collaborative: integrating social marketing into routine public health practice.

    PubMed

    Pirani, Sylvia; Reizes, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Social marketing can be an effective tool for achieving public health goals. Social marketing uses concepts from commercial marketing to plan and implement programs designed to bring about behavior change that will benefit individuals and society. Although social marketing principles have been used to address public health problems, efforts have been dominated by message-based, promotion-only strategies, and effective implementation has been hampered by both lack of understanding of and use of all of the components of a social marketing approach and lack of training. The Turning Point initiative's Social Marketing National Excellence Collaborative (SMNEC) was established to promote social marketing principles and practices to improve public health across the nation. After 4 years, the Collaborative's work has resulted in improved understanding of social marketing among participating members and the development of new tools to strengthen the social marketing skills among public health practitioners. The Collaborative has also made advances in incorporating and institutionalizing the practice of social marketing within public health in participating states. PMID:15711443

  19. Health Insecurity and Social Protection: Pathways, Gaps, and Their Implications on Health Outcomes and Poverty.

    PubMed

    Gama, Elvis

    2015-01-01

    Health insecurity has emerged as a major concern among health policy-makers particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It includes the inability to secure adequate healthcare today and the risk of being unable to do so in the future as well as impoverishing healthcare expenditure. The increasing health insecurity among 150 million of the world's poor has moved social protection in health (SPH) to the top of the agenda among health policy-makers globally. This paper aims to provide a debate on the potential of social protection contribution to addressing health insecurity, poverty, and vulnerability brought by healthcare expenditure in low-income countries, to explore the gaps in current and proposed social protection measures in healthcare and provide suggestions on how social protection intervention aimed at addressing health insecurity, poverty, and vulnerability may be effectively implemented. PMID:26927589

  20. Rural Mental Health Ecology: A Framework for Engaging with Mental Health Social Capital in Rural Communities.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rhonda L; Wilson, G Glenn; Usher, Kim

    2015-09-01

    The mental health of people in rural communities is influenced by the robustness of the mental health ecosystem within each community. Theoretical approaches such as social ecology and social capital are useful when applied to the practical context of promoting environmental conditions which maximise mental health helping capital to enhance resilience and reduce vulnerably as a buffer for mental illness. This paper explores the ecological conditions that affect the mental health and illness of people in rural communities. It proposes a new mental health social ecology framework that makes full use of the locally available unique social capital that is sufficiently flexible to facilitate mental health helping capital best suited to mental health service delivery for rural people in an Australian context. PMID:26163020

  1. Health Insecurity and Social Protection: Pathways, Gaps, and Their Implications on Health Outcomes and Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Gama, Elvis

    2016-01-01

    Health insecurity has emerged as a major concern among health policy-makers particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It includes the inability to secure adequate healthcare today and the risk of being unable to do so in the future as well as impoverishing healthcare expenditure. The increasing health insecurity among 150 million of the world’s poor has moved social protection in health (SPH) to the top of the agenda among health policy-makers globally. This paper aims to provide a debate on the potential of social protection contribution to addressing health insecurity, poverty, and vulnerability brought by healthcare expenditure in low-income countries, to explore the gaps in current and proposed social protection measures in healthcare and provide suggestions on how social protection intervention aimed at addressing health insecurity, poverty, and vulnerability may be effectively implemented. PMID:26927589

  2. Social capital and health: Does egalitarianism matter? A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M Kamrul; Merlo, Juan; Kawachi, Ichiro; Lindström, Martin; Gerdtham, Ulf-G

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to critically review the notion of social capital and review empirical literature on the association between social capital and health across countries. The methodology used for the review includes a systematic search on electronic databases for peer-reviewed published literature. We categorize studies according to level of analysis (single and multilevel) and examine whether studies reveal a significant health impact of individual and area level social capital. We compare the study conclusions according to the country's degrees of economic egalitarianism. Regardless of study design, our findings indicate that a positive association (fixed effect) exists between social capital and better health irrespective of countries degree of egalitarianism. However, we find that the between-area variance (random effect) in health tends to be lower in more egalitarian countries than in less egalitarian countries. Our tentative conclusion is that an association between social capital and health at the individual level is robust with respect to the degree of egalitarianism within a country. Area level or contextual social capital may be less salient in egalitarian countries in explaining health differences across places. PMID:16597324

  3. [Social urban development and poverty control as health promotion].

    PubMed

    Trojan, A

    2001-03-01

    The Salomon Neumann Medal of the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention bears the inscription. "Medicine is a Social Science". This provocative statement is most topical. It compels us to actively promote health by healthier living and environmental conditions apart from medical prevention. A core of this sphere of action is the reduction of social inequalities. Several recent congresses and publications have clearly shown that this subject remains one of the biggest challenges facing health promotion. German law has set the signs for reducing socially rooted inequalities for chances of health. This article postulates the thesis that health promotion can find allies for a healthy public policy in programmes planning for healthy urban development and for combatting poverty. The specific approaches for combatting social inequalities in the health sphere are reported and examples are given how such a health promotion policy may be translated into reality on a communal level. Finally, spotlight is on the dilemma of combatting inequality of chance due to differences in social status. PMID:11329919

  4. Health and social fields in the context of lifestyle migration.

    PubMed

    Legido-Quigley, Helena; McKee, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Migrants occupy different social fields encompassing both their origin and their destination. Much previous work on interactions within these fields has focused on economic migrants. In this paper we seek to understand the social fields occupied by British pensioners who have moved to Spain and how these interact with their health and their experience of the healthcare system. We explore the links between health, social fields, healthcare, place and social relationships. We use in-depth interviews conducted among those living in a variety of settings. We draw upon Bourdieu's concept of habitus and social fields and differentiate, between ways of being and ways of belonging in the fields. We identified three social fields. The first embraced interviewees' social networks back in the UK where implicit comparisons of healthcare were made. The second embraced their expatriate social networks in Spain which includes their conceptualization of a "healthy life", while the third included the interaction with Spanish institutions, including the healthcare system. This conceptual framework provides new insights for those considering retirement abroad, and those that want to understand how lifestyles and navigating distinct social fields influence health and the healthcare experience. PMID:22986008

  5. [Oral health: social representations among pregnant mothers. Medellin, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Escobar-Paucar, Gloria; Sosa-Palacio, Catalina; Sánchez-Mejía, Angela

    2011-11-01

    Based on the theory of social representations, a qualitative investigation was conducted in order to assess social representations in oral heath in pregnant mothers living in an urban environment. Twenty-eight pregnant adult women attending a prenatal program at a health institution in the city of Medellín, Colombia, were interviewed. The interviews were recorded and transcribed; analysis was performed through open, axial and selective coding, in line with grounded theory. Findings revealed that although pregnant mothers are not greatly concerned about oral health after birth and in early childhood, it increases in importance during growth and development of the child when, besides chewing and feeding aspects, it acquires a socially important role. Analysis revealed how social representations anchored in tradition, with new elements from health professional discourses as well as mass media influences coexist in mothers in an urban environment. These include the close relationship between oral health and teeth, health linked to healthy practices as well as recourse to health services and oral health as a social advantage, related to esthetic aspects. PMID:22124835

  6. Social Provisions and Young Women's Health-Related Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Ulvick, Jocelyn D; Spink, Kevin S

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors involved in being active enough for health benefits is necessary to promote health-related physical activity. Given the documented role of social support in women's activity (Molloy et al. 2010), this study examined the relationship between Weiss's (1974) social provisions and health-related physical activity in young women. College undergraduate women (N = 136) from a kinesiology course completed a modified Social Provisions Scale (Cutrona and Russell 1987) and reported on the physical activity they engaged in with others over a 4-week period in the fall of 2011. We used average daily energy expenditure, calculated based on participants' reported activity involvement, to classify participants as either sufficiently or insufficiently active (Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Research Institute 1999). A logistic regression using sufficient/insufficient activity levels for health as the dependent variable revealed that the six provisions reliably differentiated between those who were active enough for health benefits versus not. Of the six, two provisions were significantly associated with health-related physical activity--specifically, those who held higher perceptions of reassurance of worth and social integration were more likely to be in the sufficiently-active group. These results provide an initial indication of the specific social provisions associated with young women who are active enough to achieve health benefits. PMID:26086201

  7. Overcoming social segregation in health care in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cotlear, Daniel; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia; Atun, Rifat; Barreto, Ivana C H C; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Cueto, Marcos; Francke, Pedro; Frenz, Patricia; Guerrero, Ramiro; Lozano, Rafael; Marten, Robert; Sáenz, Rocío

    2015-03-28

    Latin America continues to segregate different social groups into separate health-system segments, including two separate public sector blocks: a well resourced social security for salaried workers and their families and a Ministry of Health serving poor and vulnerable people with low standards of quality and needing a frequently impoverishing payment at point of service. This segregation shows Latin America's longstanding economic and social inequality, cemented by an economic framework that predicted that economic growth would lead to rapid formalisation of the economy. Today, the institutional setup that organises the social segregation in health care is perceived, despite improved life expectancy and other advances, as a barrier to fulfilling the right to health, embodied in the legislation of many Latin American countries. This Series paper outlines four phases in the history of Latin American countries that explain the roots of segmentation in health care and describe three paths taken by countries seeking to overcome it: unification of the funds used to finance both social security and Ministry of Health services (one public payer); free choice of provider or insurer; and expansion of services to poor people and the non-salaried population by making explicit the health-care benefits to which all citizens are entitled. PMID:25458715

  8. [Merits of acquiring ISO15189 accreditation].

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Masami

    2010-01-01

    In Japan, an ISO15189 accreditation system was started in 2005. To date, 47 hospitals have been accredited. In this session, I will present the merits of acquiring accreditation regarding ISO15189 based on our experience. Our hospital has 263 beds. The Clinical Examination Section consists of 12 staff (including 5 part-time workers): 7 in change of sample examination and 5 in charge of physiological examination. The annual number of samples is approximately 150,000. Samples collected on health checkups account for 90%. To improve the quality and service, assessment by third persons has been positively utilized in our hospital. Accreditation regarding ISO9001, ISO14001, ISO27001, privacy mark, hospital function assessment, the functional assessment of "ningen-dock"/health checkup hospitals, labor/hygiene service function assessment, and ISO15189 has been acquired. Patients may not recognize ISO. So, it must be utilized, considering that the acquisition of accreditation is not a goal but a starting point. Furthermore, cost-performance should be improved to achieve utilization-related merits. It is important to not only acquire accreditation but also help clinical staff and patients become aware of some changes/merits. Patients may consult a hospital for the following reasons: confidence in the hospital, and the staffs kind/polite attitudes. Long-term management strategies should be established without pursuing only short-term profits. I will introduce several merits of acquiring accreditation regarding ISO15189. Initially, incidental conditions for bids and appeal points include accreditation regarding ISO15189. Our corporation has participated in some competitive bids regarding health checkup business. In some companies, the bid conditions included ISO acquisition. In our hospital, clinical trials have been positively carried out. For participation in trials, hospitals must pass an institutional examination. However, ISO acquisition facilitates the preparation of

  9. Exploring Social Quality and Community Health Outcomes: An Ecological Model.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    Quality of life is widely used as a measure of individual well-being in developed countries. Social quality (SQ), however, describes how favorable the socioenvironmental components are that impact the life chance of an individual. Despite the associations between SQ, including institutional capacity and citizen capacity, and other community indicators, the impact of SQ on community health status has not been fully examined. This study investigated the interrelationships among institutional capacity, citizen capacity, and their associations with community-level health indicators such as mortality and suicide among 230 local governments in South Korea. Under the principles of conceptual suitability, clarity, reliability, consistency, changeability, and comparability, a total of 81 SQ indicators were collected, and 19 indicators of the 81 indicators were selected. The 19 indicators were transformed by the imputation of missing values, standardization, and geographic information system transformation. It was found that the health outcome of local government was superior as social welfare, political participation, and education were higher. According to the result of the regression analysis based on the regional type, social welfare had the most influence on the health level of local government in both metropolises and small-/medium-sized cities. In addition, education and political participation had a positive effect on the health indicator of local metropolis government. However, SQ indicators did not have any meaningful influence at the county level. Therefore, small- and medium-sized cities need to promote the collective health of the local government through improving social welfare, and metropolises need to consider the complex relationship among other indicators while increasing the level of social welfare and education. Meanwhile, counties need to develop health indicators that reflect aged population characteristics and social environment of rural areas

  10. 'Health equity through action on the social determinants of health': taking up the challenge in nursing.

    PubMed

    Reutter, Linda; Kushner, Kaysi Eastlick

    2010-09-01

    Reducing health inequities is a priority issue in Canada and worldwide. In this paper, we argue that nursing has a clear mandate to ensure access to health and health-care by providing sensitive empowering care to those experiencing inequities and working to change underlying social conditions that result in and perpetuate health inequities. We identify key dimensions of the concept of health (in)equities and identify recommendations to reduce inequities advanced in key global and Canadian documents. Using these documents as context, we advocate a 'critical caring approach' that will assist nurses to understand the social, political, economic and historical context of health inequities and to tackle these inequities through policy advocacy. Numerous societal barriers as well as constraints within the nursing profession must be acknowledged and addressed. We offer recommendations related to nursing practice, education and research to move forward the agenda of reducing health inequities through action on the social determinants of health. PMID:20712665

  11. Implementing Social Norm Pedagogy to Impact Students' Personal Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Mary M.; Stover, Sheri

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative exploratory research study describes the incorporation of Social Norms as a unique pedagogical method in an undergraduate Health Behaviors course (N = 32). With the use of an audience response system (clickers), students anonymously answered health-behavior related questions. Aggregate data from the class was compared to state…

  12. Children's "Social Capital": Implications for Health and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Virginia

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the health implications of data produced in the course of a research project that explored the usefulness of the concept of "social capital" in relation to the health and well-being of children. The research used qualitative methods to explore 12-15 year olds' subjective experiences of their neighbourhoods, their…

  13. Social Antecedents of Learned Helplessness in the Health Care Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Kenneth

    1982-01-01

    Examines social factors that lead to the development of learned helplessness in elderly persons in the health care setting, including stereotyping elderly by health care professionals, effects of unequal interpersonal exchange, and behaviors associated with sick and healer roles. Discusses programatic and educational prophylaxis and solutions to…

  14. Social Influences on Young People's Sexual Health in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Stephen; Aggleton, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of social context on young people's sexual lives and sexual health, and to highlight the need for HIV prevention and sexual health programmes which better take into account these contextual influences. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on findings from a multi-method,…

  15. Model, Framework, and Platform of Health Persuasive Social Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ayubi, Soleh Udin

    2013-01-01

    Persuasive technology (PT) has the potential to support individuals to perform self-management and social support as a part of health behavior change. This has led a few researchers in the intersection of the areas of health behavior change and software engineering to apply behavior change and persuasion theories to software development practices,…

  16. Community Mental Health: Issues for Social Work Practice and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Arthur J., Ed.

    Articles by social work educators on some of the critical issues in community mental health are presented. Examined are some conceptual and program developments related to coordination, continuity of care, and the use of teams in planning and service delivery for community mental health (Lawrence K. Berg). The issue of civil commitment to and…

  17. Healthy and Active Ageing: Social Capital in Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Davies, John Kenneth; Aranda, Kay; Zissi, Anastasia; Chatzikou, Maria; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines the context of health promotion actions that are focused on/contributing to strengthening social capital by increasing community participation, reciprocal trust and support as the means to achieve better health and more active ageing. Method: The methodology employed was a literature review/research synthesis, and a…

  18. Leveraging the Social Determinants of Health: What Works?

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lauren A.; Tan, Annabel Xulin; Coyle, Caitlin E.; Ndumele, Chima; Rogan, Erika; Canavan, Maureen; Curry, Leslie A.; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2016-01-01

    We summarized the recently published, peer-reviewed literature that examined the impact of investments in social services or investments in integrated models of health care and social services on health outcomes and health care spending. Of 39 articles that met criteria for inclusion in the review, 32 (82%) reported some significant positive effects on either health outcomes (N = 20), health care costs (N = 5), or both (N = 7). Of the remaining 7 (18%) studies, 3 had non-significant results, 2 had mixed results, and 2 had negative results in which the interventions were associated with poorer health outcomes. Our analysis of the literature indicates that several interventions in the areas of housing, income support, nutrition support, and care coordination and community outreach have had positive impact in terms of health improvements or health care spending reductions. These interventions may be of interest to health care policymakers and practitioners seeking to leverage social services to improve health or reduce costs. Further testing of models that achieve better outcomes at less cost is needed. PMID:27532336

  19. Health as situational adaption: a social psychological perspective.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, A A

    1985-01-01

    A model to encompass the complex relationship between the individual and his social, physical and cultural environments and to provide strategies for intervention has not yet been developed. While professionals acknowledge the importance of an ecological and holistic conception of man-environment interaction, various biases and ideologies prevent them from adequately taking this interaction into account. To overcome this inadequacy this paper explores a relational conception of health, the central importance of the socially defined situation for health and adaption, the limits of medicine and holism in intervening in problems of adaption and suggests a situational approach to the study of health and adaption. By stressing the socially defined situation and the social psychological actor it may be possible to sensitize the actor to socially situated man-environment transactions, to preserve the actor's confidence in his own health, to encourage individual responsibility for maintaining health and to promote an awareness of signs and symptoms that require medical attention. Within a larger framework, however, it is not effective to intervene in the individual's social situations if we do not also attempt to alter the macro economic, political, cultural and structural elements in society which encourage, produce and support unhealthy environmental conditions. PMID:4095588

  20. Sociotechnical Challenges and Progress in Using Social Media for Health

    PubMed Central

    Cavusoglu, Hasan; Frisch, Larry; Fels, Sidney

    2013-01-01

    Social media tools that connect patients, caregivers, and health providers offer great potential for helping people access health advice, receive and give social support, manage or cope with chronic conditions, and make day-to-day health decisions. These systems have seen widespread adoption, but often fail to support the goals as fully as designers and users would like. Through Ackerman’s lens of the “sociotechnical gap” and computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) as a science of the artificial, we review contemporary sociotechnical challenges and progress for using social media to support health. These challenges include a tension between privacy and sharing, policy information credibility, accessibility, and tailoring in social spaces. Those studying, building, deploying, and using social media systems to further health goals will benefit from approaching this work by borrowing from Ackerman’s framing of CSCW. In particular, this requires acknowledgment that technical systems will not fully meet our social goals, and then adopting design and educational approaches that are appropriate to fill this gap, building less-nuanced systems as partial solutions and tools for advancing our understanding, and by working with the CSCW research community to develop and pursue key lines of inquiry. PMID:24148206

  1. Social Norms about a Health Issue in Work Group Networks

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to advance theorizing about how small groups understand health issues through the use of social network analysis. To achieve this goal, an adapted cognitive social structure examines group social norms around a specific health issue, H1N1 flu prevention. As predicted, individual’s attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived social norms were each positively associated with behavioral intentions for at least one of the H1N1 health behaviors studied. Moreover, collective norms of the whole group were also associated with behavioral intentions, even after controlling for how individual group members perceive those norms. For members of work groups in which pairs were perceived to agree in their support for H1N1 vaccination, the effect of individually perceived group norms on behavioral intentions was stronger than for groups with less agreement. PMID:26389934

  2. Social media targeting of health messages

    PubMed Central

    Betsch, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    In their contribution, Remschmidt and colleagues1 put forward an innovative approach for recruiting female, German study participants from diverse social and ethnical backgrounds to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding HPV vaccination. The approach involves placing advertisements on the social media platform Facebook that specify tags for not only the sought after socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender) but also self-relevant aspects of the target group. These tags determine which Facebook users will see the ad. By sequentially adjusting the tags, the researchers were able to recruit different sub-populations, resulting in a final sample similar to a representative German sample for a particular age group. PMID:25483481

  3. Health Value, Perceived Social Support, and Health Self-Efficacy as Factors in a Health-Promoting Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Erin S.; Tucker, Carolyn M.; Herman, Keith C.

    2007-01-01

    During their college years, students may adopt health-promoting lifestyles that bring about long-term benefits. Objective and Participants: The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of health value, family/friend social support, and health self-efficacy in the health-promoting lifestyles of a diverse sample of 162 college students.…

  4. Taking the chaos out of accreditation surveys in sterile processing: High-level disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Seavey, Rose

    2016-05-01

    Health care accreditation processes are conducted with a focus on safety and quality of patient care. Accreditation, or lack of it, can affect the organization's ability to be reimbursed for services provided. Sterile processing in health care facilities has become an increasingly larger focus of the accreditation survey process. Health care organizations that reprocess medical devices must be prepared to demonstrate compliance with standards when they are surveyed. Understanding and following current guidelines and recommendations can help ensure the health care facility is ready for unannounced accreditation surveys. PMID:27131133

  5. Social determinants of workers' health in Central America.

    PubMed

    Aragón, Aurora; Partanen, Timo; Felknor, Sarah; Corriols, Marianela

    2011-01-01

    This communication summarizes the available data on work-related determinants of health in Central America. The Central American working population is young and moving from agriculture toward industry and services. Ethnicity, gender, migration, subemployment and precarious work, informality, rural conditions, low-level educational, poverty, ubiquitous worksite health hazards, insufficient occupational health services, low labor inspection density, and weak unions define the constellation of social determinants of workers' health in Central America. Data are, however, scanty both for hazards and work-related illnesses and injuries. Governments and industries have the responsibility of opening decent work opportunities, especially for those facing multiple inequalities in social determinants of health. A first step would be the ratification and implementation of the ILO Convention (187) on occupational safety and health by the seven national governments of the region. PMID:21905391

  6. Applying social theory to understand health-related behaviours.

    PubMed

    Holman, Daniel; Borgstrom, Erica

    2016-06-01

    Health-related behaviours are a concern for contemporary health policy and practice given their association with a range of illness outcomes. Many of the policies and interventions aimed at changing health-related behaviours assume that people are more or less free to choose their behaviour and how they experience health. Within sociology and anthropology, these behaviours are viewed not as acts of choice but as actions and practices situated within a larger sociocultural context. In this paper, we outline three theoretical perspectives useful in understanding behaviours that may influence one's health in this wider context: theories of social practice, social networks and interactionism. We argue that by better understanding how health-related behaviours are performed in people's everyday lives, more suitable interventions and clinical management can be developed. PMID:26494826

  7. Precarious employment: understanding an emerging social determinant of health.

    PubMed

    Benach, J; Vives, A; Amable, M; Vanroelen, C; Tarafa, G; Muntaner, C

    2014-01-01

    Employment precariousness is a social determinant that affects the health of workers, families, and communities. Its recent popularity has been spearheaded by three main developments: the surge in "flexible employment" and its associated erosion of workers' employment and working conditions since the mid-1970s; the growing interest in social determinants of health, including employment conditions; and the availability of new data and information systems. This article identifies the historical, economic, and political factors that link precarious employment to health and health equity; reviews concepts, models, instruments, and findings on precarious employment and health inequalities; summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of this literature; and highlights substantive and methodological challenges that need to be addressed. We identify two crucial future aims: to provide a compelling research program that expands our understanding of employment precariousness and to develop and evaluate policy programs that effectively put an end to its health-related impacts. PMID:24641559

  8. Science for Reducing Health Inequalities Emerges From Social Justice Movements.

    PubMed

    Wing, Steve

    2016-05-01

    Although the health sciences have investigated economic and social inequalities in morbidity and mortality for hundreds of years, health inequalities persist and are, by some measures, increasing. This is not simply a situation in which the knowledge exists but is not implemented. Rather, science in general and epidemiology in particular have focused on quantifying the effects of specific agents considered in isolation. This approach is powerful, but, in the absence of ecological concepts that connect parts and wholes, contributes to maintaining health inequalities. By joining movements for human rights and social justice, health scientists can identify research questions that are relevant to public health, develop methods that are appropriate to answering those questions, and contribute to efforts to reduce health inequalities. PMID:26936957

  9. Job satisfaction, burnout, and turnover in health care social workers.

    PubMed

    Siefert, K; Jayaratne, S; Chess, W A

    1991-08-01

    The findings of two consecutive surveys of job satisfaction and burnout in national samples of health care social workers are presented. Between 1979 and 1989, there were significant increases in the proportion of social workers employed in private versus public agencies, in quantitative workload, and in social workers' perceptions of the challenges presented by their jobs. Role conflict and role ambiguity, lack of comfort, and dissatisfaction with financial rewards emerged as significant predictors of depersonalization and burnout. However, a significant increase in social workers' feelings of personal accomplishment also occurred, and high challenge emerged as a significant predictor of sense of effectiveness. PMID:1894206

  10. Guide to Accreditation, 2012. [December 2011 Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teacher Education Accreditation Council, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Teacher Education Accreditation Council's (TEAC's) "Guide to Accreditation" is primarily for the faculty, staff, and administrators of TEAC member programs. It is designed for use in preparing for both initial and continuing accreditation. Program personnel should understand and accept all the components of the TEAC accreditation process…

  11. 15 CFR 285.9 - Granting accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Granting accreditation. 285.9 Section... VOLUNTARY LABORATORY ACCREDITATION PROGRAM § 285.9 Granting accreditation. (a) The Chief of NVLAP is responsible for all NVLAP accreditation actions, including granting, denying, renewing, suspending,...

  12. Standards of Quality: Accreditation Guidelines Redesigned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsythe, Hazel; Andrews, Frances; Stanley, M. Sue; Anderson, Carol L.

    2011-01-01

    To ensure optimal standards for AAFCS program accreditation, the Council for Accreditation (CFA) conducted a review and revision of the "2001 AAFCS Standards for Accreditation." The CFA took a three-pronged approach including (a) a review of academic accreditations that had relationships to the FCS disciplines, (b) concept, content, and process…

  13. 7 CFR 983.1 - Accredited laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accredited laboratory. 983.1 Section 983.1 Agriculture..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.1 Accredited laboratory. An accredited laboratory is a laboratory that has been approved or accredited by the U.S. Department of Agriculture....

  14. 7 CFR 983.1 - Accredited laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accredited laboratory. 983.1 Section 983.1 Agriculture..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.1 Accredited laboratory. An accredited laboratory is a laboratory that has been approved or accredited by the U.S. Department of Agriculture....

  15. 7 CFR 983.1 - Accredited laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accredited laboratory. 983.1 Section 983.1 Agriculture..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.1 Accredited laboratory. An accredited laboratory is a laboratory that has been approved or accredited by the U.S. Department of Agriculture....

  16. 7 CFR 983.1 - Accredited laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accredited laboratory. 983.1 Section 983.1 Agriculture..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.1 Accredited laboratory. An accredited laboratory is a laboratory that has been approved or accredited by the U.S. Department of Agriculture....

  17. 7 CFR 983.1 - Accredited laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accredited laboratory. 983.1 Section 983.1 Agriculture..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.1 Accredited laboratory. An accredited laboratory is a laboratory that has been approved or accredited by the U.S. Department of Agriculture....

  18. Neighbourhood social capital: measurement issues and associations with health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, J D; Lakerveld, J; van Lenthe, F J; Kawachi, I; McKee, M; Rutter, H; Glonti, K; Compernolle, S; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Feuillet, T; Oppert, J-M; Nijpels, G; Brug, J

    2016-01-01

    We compared ecometric neighbourhood scores of social capital (contextual variation) to mean neighbourhood scores (individual and contextual variation), using several health-related outcomes (i.e. self-rated health, weight status and obesity-related behaviours). Data were analysed from 5,900 participants in the European SPOTLIGHT survey. Factor analysis of the 13-item social capital scale revealed two social capital constructs: social networks and social cohesion. The associations of ecometric and mean neighbourhood-level scores of these constructs with self-rated health, weight status and obesity-related behaviours were analysed using multilevel regression analyses, adjusted for key covariates. Analyses using ecometric and mean neighbourhood scores, but not mean neighbourhood scores adjusted for individual scores, yielded similar regression coefficients. Higher levels of social network and social cohesion were not only associated with better self-rated health, lower odds of obesity and higher fruit consumption, but also with prolonged sitting and less transport-related physical activity. Only associations with transport-related physical activity and sedentary behaviours were associated with mean neighbourhood scores adjusted for individual scores. As analyses using ecometric scores generated the same results as using mean neighbourhood scores, but different results when using mean neighbourhood scores adjusted for individual scores, this suggests that the theoretical advantage of the ecometric approach (i.e. teasing out individual and contextual variation) may not be achieved in practice. The different operationalisations of social network and social cohesion were associated with several health outcomes, but the constructs that appeared to represent the contextual variation best were only associated with two of the outcomes. PMID:26879117

  19. Hospital accreditation: lessons from low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Smits, Helen; Supachutikul, Anuwat; Mate, Kedar S

    2014-01-01

    The growth of accreditation programs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) provides important examples of innovations in leadership, governance and mission which could be adopted in developed countries. While these accreditation programs in LMICs follow the basic structure and process of accreditation systems in the developed world, with written standards and an evaluation by independent surveyors, they differ in important ways. Their focus is primarily on improving overall care country-wide while supporting the weakest facilities. In the developed world accreditation efforts tend to focus on identifying the best institutions as those are typically the only ones who can meet stringent and difficult evaluative criteria. The Joint Learning Network for Universal Health Coverage (JLN), is an initiative launched in 2010 that enables policymakers aiming for UHC to learn from each other's successes and failures. The JLN is primarily comprised of countries in the midst of implementing complex health financing reforms that involve an independent purchasing agency that buys care from a mix of public and private providers [Lancet 380: 933-943, 2012]. One of the concerns for participating countries has been how to preserve or improve quality during rapid expansion in coverage. Accreditation is one important mechanism available to countries to preserve or improve quality that is in common use in many LMICs today. This paper describes the results of a meeting of the JLN countries held in Bangkok in April of 2013, at which the current state of accreditation programs was discussed. During that meeting, a number of innovative approaches to accreditation in LMICs were identified, many of which, if adopted more broadly, might enhance health care quality and patient safety in the developed world. PMID:25185526

  20. Malaysia's social policies on mental health: a critical theory.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, A Rahamuthulla

    2003-01-01

    This article aims to review the social policies on mental health and mental illness in Malaysia. Using critical theory, major policy issues pertaining to mental health and mental illness such as mental health legislation, prevalence rates and quality of services available to the people with mental health problems are discussed in detail. Implications of these issues on persons with mental health problems are critically evaluated. The paper highlights that the other countries in ASEAN region also require similar review by policy literature. PMID:14620736

  1. Advancing Global Health – The Need for (Better) Social Science

    PubMed Central

    Hanefeld, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    In his perspective "Navigating between stealth advocacy and unconscious dogmatism: the challenge of researching the norms, politics and power of global health," Ooms argues that actions taken in the field of global health are dependent not only on available resources, but on the normative premise that guides how these resources are spent. This comment sets out how the application of a predominately biomedical positivist research tradition in global health, has potentially limited understanding of the value judgements underlying decisions in the field. To redress this critical social science, including health policy analysis has much to offer, to the field of global health including on questions of governance. PMID:27239873

  2. Social Studies. Health: Drugs, Society and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Brenda F.

    The major intent of this interdisciplinary quinmester course for grades seven through twelve is to examine the need, problems, consequences, and social aspects of drug abuse. By studying the history and medicine of drug use, students learn background information that helps them define and categorize legitimate and illegitimate drug use, and…

  3. Social Health Status in Iran: An Empirical Study

    PubMed Central

    AMINI RARANI, Mostafa; RAFIYE, Hassan; KHEDMATI MORASAE, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    Background: As social health is a condition-driven, dynamic and fluid concept, it seems necessary to construct and obtain a national and relevant concept of it for every society. Providing an empirical back up for Iran’s concept of social health was the aim of the present study. Methods: This study is an ecologic study in which available data for 30 provinces of Iran in 2007 were analyzed. In order to prove construct validity and obtain a social health index, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on six indicators of population growth, willful murder, poverty, unemployment, insurance coverage and literacy. Results: Following the factor analysis, two factors of Diathesis (made up of high population growth, poverty, low insurance coverage and illiteracy) and Problem (made up of unemployment and willful murder) were extracted. The diathesis and problem explained 48.6 and 19.6% of social health variance respectively. From provinces, Sistan & Baluchistan had the highest rate of poverty and violence and the lowest rate of literacy and insurance coverage. In terms of social health index, Tehran, Semnan, Isfahan, Bushehr and Mazandaran had the highest ranks while Sistan and Baluchistan, Lurestan, Kohkiloyeh and Kermanshah occupied the lowest ones. Conclusion: There are some differences and similarities between Iranian concept of social health and that of other societies. However, a matter that makes our concept special and different is its attention to population. The increase in literacy rate and insurance coverage along with reduction of poverty, violence and unemployment rates can be the main intervention strategies to improve social health status in Iran. PMID:23515572

  4. Social media for diabetes health education - inclusive or exclusive?

    PubMed

    Pal, B Rani

    2014-01-01

    Technological innovations are rising rapidly and are inevitably becoming part of the health care environment. Patients frequently access Social media as a forum for discussion of personal health issues; and healthcare providers are now considering ways of harnessing social media as a source of learning and teaching. This review highlights some of the complex issues of using social media as an opportunity for interaction between public- patient-healthcare staff; considers the impact of self- education and self-management for patients with diabetes, and explores some recent advances in delivering education for staff. When using any information technology, the emphasis should rely on being assessed rigorously to show it promotes health education safely, can be recognized as delivering up-to- date health information effectively, and should ensure there is no bias in selective communication, or disadvantage to isolated patient groups. PMID:25316149

  5. Social stratification, health, and violence in the very young.

    PubMed

    Boyce, W Thomas

    2004-12-01

    Inequalities in human social groups contribute in important ways to the initiation and perpetuation of violence. Because both social inequalities and interpersonal aggression emerge in early life, it is important to study their developmental origins in the collective and individual behavior of young children. As young as 2 years of age, children assemble stable, linearly transitive dominance hierarchies when brought together in novel social groups. Just as the consequences of socioeconomic status may be due in part to experiences of social ordering per se, subjective childhood experiences of occupying a lesser or greater position on a scale of social influence may similarly affect health, safety, and behavior in early development. Children's experiences with social ordering may represent a first, formative encounter with the hierarchical social relations that affect health and susceptibility to violence over the human lifespan. We have studied the health correlates of group stressors, dominance positions, and biobehavioral reactivity within cohorts of preschool children and semi free-ranging rhesus macaques. Social position is ascertained using naturalistic observations of critical dyadic events, and stress-reactivity is measured using assessments of behavioral and biological responses to standardized challenges. Outcome measures, including indicators of mental and physical health and interpersonal injuries, have been assessed--in the case of children--with parent- and teacher-report questionnaires, child self-report protocols, and frequent, objective physical examinations of the child and--in the case of rhesus monkeys--with daily observations of violence-related injuries. Results to date have suggested the following provisional conclusions: (1) Children and monkeys form stable, linearly transitive social hierarchies in which identifiable subgroups of individuals occupy dominant and subordinate social positions. (2) Individuals occupying subordinate positions

  6. Value and impact of international hospital accreditation: a case study from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Halasa, Y A; Zeng, W; Chappy, E; Shepard, D S

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the economic impact of Joint Commission International hospital accreditation on 5 structural and outcome hospital performance measures in Jordan. We conducted a 4-year retrospective study comparing 2 private accredited acute general hospitals with matched non-accredited hospitals, using difference-in-differences and adjusted covariance analyses to test the impact and value of accreditation on hospital performance measures. Of the 5 selected measures, 3 showed statistically significant effects (all improvements) associated with accreditation: reduction in return to intensive care unit (ICU) within 24 hours of ICU discharge; reduction in staff turnover; and completeness of medical records. The net impact of accreditation was a 1.2 percentage point reduction in patients who returned to the ICU, 12.8% reduction in annual staff turnover and 20.0% improvement in the completeness of medical records. Pooling both hospitals over 3 years, these improvements translated into total savings of US$ 593 000 in Jordan's health-care system. PMID:25876820

  7. Social inequalities in health: measuring the contribution of housing deprivation and social interactions for Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Social factors have been proved to be main determinants of individuals’ health. Recent studies have also analyzed the contribution of some of those factors, such as education and job status, to socioeconomic inequalities in health. The aim of this paper is to provide new evidence about the factors driving socioeconomic inequalities in health for the Spanish population by including housing deprivation and social interactions as health determinants. Methods Cross-sectional study based on the Spanish sample of European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) for 2006. The concentration index measuring income-related inequality in health is decomposed into the contribution of each determinant. Several models are estimated to test the influence of different regressors for three proxies of ill-health. Results Health inequality favouring the better-off is observed in the distribution of self-assessed health, presence of chronic diseases and presence of limiting conditions. Inequality is mainly explained, besides age, by social factors such as labour status and financial deprivation. Housing deprivation contributes to pro-rich inequality in a percentage ranging from 7.17% to 13.85%, and social interactions from 6.16% to 10.19%. The contribution of some groups of determinants significantly differs depending on the ill-health variable used. Conclusions Health inequalities can be mostly reduced or shaped by policy, as they are mainly explained by social determinants such as labour status, education and other socioeconomic conditions. The major role played on health inequality by variables taking part in social exclusion points to the need to focus on the most vulnerable groups. JEL Codes H51, I14, I18 PMID:23241384

  8. The Role of Social Relationships in Predicting Loneliness: The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Leitsch, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explore associations between objective and subjective social network characteristics and loneliness in later life, using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a nationally representative sample of individuals ages 57 to 85 in the United States. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the associations…

  9. Social and ethical analysis in health technology assessment.

    PubMed

    Tantivess, Sripen

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a review of the domestic and international literature on the assessment of the social and ethical implications of health technologies. It gives an overview of the key concepts, principles, and approaches that should be taken into account when conducting a social and ethical analysis within health technology assessment (HTA). Although there is growing consensus among healthcare experts that the social and ethical ramifications of a given technology should be examined before its adoption, the demand for this kind of analysis among policy-makers around the world, including in Thailand, has so far been lacking. Currently decision-makers mainly base technology adoption decisions using evidence on clinical effectiveness, value for money, and budget impact, while social and ethical aspects have been neglected. Despite the recognized importance of considering equity, justice, and social issues when making decisions regarding health resource allocation, the absence of internationally-accepted principles and methodologies, among other factors, hinders research in these areas. Given that developing internationally agreed standards takes time, it has been recommended that priority be given to defining processes that are justifiable, transparent, and contestable. A discussion of the current situation in Thailand concerning social and ethical analysis of health technologies is also presented. PMID:24964703

  10. Health and Behavioral/Social Sciences in Health Services Administration Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Univ. Programs in Health Administration, Washington, DC.

    This final report summarizes a nationwide effort to determine appropriate health and behavioral sciences curricula components for graduate programs in health administration. Chapters 1 through 3 summarize the background, methodology, and findings of the project. Chapter 4 presents an analysis of health sciences and behavioral/social science…

  11. Consolidating the social health insurance schemes in China: towards an equitable and efficient health system.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingyue; Fang, Hai; Liu, Xiaoyun; Yuan, Beibei; Xu, Jin

    2015-10-10

    Fragmentation in social health insurance schemes is an important factor for inequitable access to health care and financial protection for people covered by different health insurance schemes in China. To fulfil its commitment of universal health coverage by 2020, the Chinese Government needs to prioritise addressing this issue. After analysing the situation of fragmentation, this Review summarises efforts to consolidate health insurance schemes both in China and internationally. Rural migrants, elderly people, and those with non-communicable diseases in China will greatly benefit from consolidation of the existing health insurance schemes with extended funding pools, thereby narrowing the disparities among health insurance schemes in fund level and benefit package. Political commitments, institutional innovations, and a feasible implementation plan are the major elements needed for success in consolidation. Achievement of universal health coverage in China needs systemic strategies including consolidation of the social health insurance schemes. PMID:26466052

  12. 34 CFR 104.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 104.52... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits,...

  13. 34 CFR 104.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 104.52... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits,...

  14. 34 CFR 104.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 104.52... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits,...

  15. 45 CFR 605.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 605.52... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on...

  16. 34 CFR 104.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 104.52... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits,...

  17. 45 CFR 605.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 605.52... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on...

  18. Health insurance and corporate social responsibility.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Innovation drives productivity in the nonprofit sector as well as in the commercial sector. The greatest advances come not from incremental improvements in efficiency but from new and better approaches. The most powerful way to create social value, therefore, is by developing a new means to address social problems and putting it into widespread practice. The expertise, research capacity, and reach that companies bring to philanthropy can help nonprofits create new solutions that they could never afford to develop on their own. Corporate managers sometimes work directly with faculty and community residents to implement local business projects. These projects often have significant societal benefits, especially since student collaboration and involvement extend to communities in many different inner cities. These projects are incredibly diverse and through such initiatives, management education not only provides an educationally rewarding outlet for students but also endows and enriches inner city communities. Management students sometimes work directly with faculty and community residents to implement local business projects. These projects often have significant societal benefits, especially since student collaboration and involvement extend to communities in many different inner cities. These projects are incredibly diverse and through such initiatives, management education not only provides an educationally rewarding outlet for students but also endows and enriches inner city communities. This article looks at how to use corporate social responsibility and service learning to drive innovation for local inner-city economic development. PMID:19197657

  19. New English and Spanish Social Health Measures Will Facilitate Evaluating Health Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Elizabeth A.; DeWalt, Darren A.; Bode, Rita K.; Garcia, Sofia F.; DeVellis, Robert F.; Correia, Helena; Cella, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop psychometrically sound, culturally relevant and linguistically equivalent English and Spanish self-report measures of social health guided by a comprehensive conceptual model and applicable across chronic illnesses. Methods The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Social Health Workgroup implemented a mixed methods approach to evaluate earlier results (v1.0); expand and refine domain definitions and items; translate items into Spanish; and obtain qualitative feedback. Computer-based and paper/pencil questionnaire administration was conducted with a variety of U.S. respondent samples during 2009–2012. Analyses included exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), two-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) modeling, evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF), and evaluation of criterion and construct validity. Results Qualitative feedback supported the conceptualization of the Social Health domain framework (Social Function and Social Relationships sub-components). Validation testing participants (n=2,208 English; n=644 Spanish) were diverse in terms of gender, age, education and ethnicity/race. EFA, CFA and IRT identified seven unidimensional factors with good model fit. There was no DIF by language, and good evidence of criterion and construct validity. Conclusions PROMIS English and Spanish language instruments (v2.0), including computer-adaptive tests and fixed-length short forms, are publicly available for assessment of Social Function (Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities, and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities) and Social Relationships (Companionship; Emotional, Informational and Instrumental Support; and Social Isolation). Measures of social health will play a key role in applications that use ecologic (or determinants of health) models that emphasize how patients’ social environments influence their health. PMID:24447188

  20. Health Care Reform and Social Movements in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2003-01-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or “change from below,” in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage. PMID:12511390

  1. Health Care Reform and Social Movements in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2008-01-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or “change from below,” in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage. PMID:18687625

  2. Integrating Social impacts on Health and Health-Care Systems in Systemic Seismic Vulnerability Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz-Plapp, T.; Khazai, B.; Daniell, J. E.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a new method for modeling health impacts caused by earthquake damage which allows for integrating key social impacts on individual health and health-care systems and for implementing these impacts in quantitative systemic seismic vulnerability analysis. In current earthquake casualty estimation models, demand on health-care systems is estimated by quantifying the number of fatalities and severity of injuries based on empirical data correlating building damage with casualties. The expected number of injured people (sorted by priorities of emergency treatment) is combined together with post-earthquake reduction of functionality of health-care facilities such as hospitals to estimate the impact on healthcare systems. The aim here is to extend these models by developing a combined engineering and social science approach. Although social vulnerability is recognized as a key component for the consequences of disasters, social vulnerability as such, is seldom linked to common formal and quantitative seismic loss estimates of injured people which provide direct impact on emergency health care services. Yet, there is a consensus that factors which affect vulnerability and post-earthquake health of at-risk populations include demographic characteristics such as age, education, occupation and employment and that these factors can aggravate health impacts further. Similarly, there are different social influences on the performance of health care systems after an earthquake both on an individual as well as on an institutional level. To link social impacts of health and health-care services to a systemic seismic vulnerability analysis, a conceptual model of social impacts of earthquakes on health and the health care systems has been developed. We identified and tested appropriate social indicators for individual health impacts and for health care impacts based on literature research, using available European statistical data. The results will be used to

  3. The health and social system for the aged in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shinya

    2002-08-01

    Japan implemented a new social insurance scheme for the frail and elderly, Long-Term-Care Insurance (LTCI) on 1 April 2000. This was an époque-making event in the history of the Japanese public health policy, because it meant that in modifying its tradition of family care for the elderly, Japan had moved toward socialization of care. One of the main ideas behind the establishment of LTCI was to "de-medicalize" and rationalize the care of elderly persons with disabilities characteristic of the aging process. Because of the aging of the society, the Japanese social insurance system required a fundamental reform. The implementation of LTCI constitutes the first step in the future health reform in Japan. The LTCI scheme requires each citizen to take more responsibility for finance and decision-making in the social security system. The introduction of LTCI is also bringing in fundamental structural changes in the Japanese health system. With the development of the Integrated Delivery System (IDS), alternative care services such as assisted living are on-going. Another important social change is a community movement for the healthy longevity. For example, a variety of public health and social programs are organized in order to keep the elderly healthy and active as long as possible. In this article, the author explains on-going structural changes in the Japanese health system. Analyses are focused on the current debate for the reorganization of the health insurance scheme for the aged in Japan and community public health services for them. PMID:12462371

  4. Chaos as a social determinant of child health: Reciprocal associations?

    PubMed

    Kamp Dush, Claire M; Schmeer, Kammi K; Taylor, Miles

    2013-10-01

    This study informs the social determinants of child health by exploring an understudied aspect of children's social contexts: chaos. Chaos has been conceptualized as crowded, noisy, disorganized, unpredictable settings for child development (Evans, Eckenrode, & Marcynyszyn, 2010). We measure chaos at two levels of children's ecological environment - the microsystem (household) and the mesosystem (work-family-child care nexus) - and at two points in early childhood (ages 3 and 5). Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3288), a study of predominantly low-income women and their partners in large US cities, we develop structural equation models that assess how maternal-rated child health (also assessed at ages 3 and 5) is associated with latent constructs of chaos, and whether there are important reciprocal effects. Autoregressive cross-lagged path analysis suggest that increasing chaos (at both the household and maternal work levels) is associated with worse child health, controlling for key confounders like household economic status, family structure, and maternal health status. Child health has little effect on chaos, providing further support for the hypothesis that chaos is an important social determinant of child health in this sample of relatively disadvantaged children. This suggests child health may be improved by supporting families in ways that reduce chaos in their home and work/family environments, and that as researchers move beyond SES, race, and family structure to explore other sources of health inequalities, chaos and its proximate determinants may be a promising avenue for future research. PMID:23541250

  5. Social desirability bias in reporting of holiday season healthfulness.

    PubMed

    Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Byrd, Elizabeth S; Dominick, S R; Wolf, Christopher A; Acharya, Lalatendu

    2016-12-01

    Respondents participating in survey or interview based research often tend to give answers that put themselves in a favorable light, displaying social desirability bias (SDB). Understanding the susceptibility of individuals to underreport their perceived unhealthy holiday behaviors or over report holiday behaviors they perceive as healthy has important implications for health promotion and health policy surrounding the holiday season. This study examines SDB specific to the reporting of holiday food consumption and health-related behaviors. An online survey of 620 U.S. consumers was utilized to collect data in which SDB was accounted for via indirect questioning. The online survey was conducted by Purdue University from November 17-19, 2014. Up to 64% of respondents displayed SDB for the eight holiday health statements studied. Respondents over the age of 45 and without children more frequently displayed social desirability bias. Respondents who displayed SDB with respect to acceptable health related holiday food consumption behaviors may be more susceptible to social pressures surrounding other consumption decision making. Understanding SDB in health and behavior reporting, in particular for the traditionally challenging, in terms of health outcomes, holiday season is critical for health practitioners as they seek to promote healthy behaviors. PMID:27453811

  6. Promoting Oral Health Using Social Media Platforms: Seeking Arabic Online Oral Health Related Information (OHRI).

    PubMed

    Almaiman, Sarah; Bahkali, Salwa; Alabdulatif, Norah; Bahkaly, Ahlam; Al-Surimi, Khaled; Househ, Mowafa

    2016-01-01

    Access to oral health care services around the world is limited by a lack of universal coverage. The internet and social media can be an important source for patients to access supplementary oral health related information (OHRI). Online OHRI presents an opportunity to enhance dental public health education about innumerable oral health issues and promote dental self-care. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of social media users among the Saudi population and identify the preferred social media platform for seeking Arabic OHRI and its impact on seekers' knowledge, attitude, and behavior. A total of 2652 Twitter followers were surveyed, using a web-based self-administered questionnaire to collect data on demographic characteristics and online OHRI seeking behavior More than two thirds, 67.7% (n= 1796), of the participants reported they were seeking Arabic online OHRI, while 41.1% of the participants reported they had no preference for using a specific social media platform. These results emphasize the need and importance of supporting the content of social media with trusted and high quality online OHRI resources to promote a high level of public awareness about oral health and dental health services. Further studies in this regard are highly recommended on a larger scale of nationalities to explore the role of social media platform preference in promoting health promotion and dental public health awareness. PMID:27350526

  7. 9 CFR 77.29 - Interstate movement from accreditation preparatory States and zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement from accreditation preparatory States and zones. 77.29 Section 77.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.29 Interstate movement from accreditation...

  8. 9 CFR 77.14 - Interstate movement from accreditation preparatory States and zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement from accreditation preparatory States and zones. 77.14 Section 77.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.14 Interstate movement from accreditation...

  9. 9 CFR 77.27 - Interstate movement from modified accredited States and zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement from modified accredited States and zones. 77.27 Section 77.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.27 Interstate movement from modified accredited...

  10. 9 CFR 77.12 - Interstate movement from modified accredited States and zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement from modified accredited States and zones. 77.12 Section 77.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.12 Interstate movement from modified accredited...

  11. 9 CFR 77.29 - Interstate movement from accreditation preparatory States and zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement from accreditation preparatory States and zones. 77.29 Section 77.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.29 Interstate movement from accreditation...

  12. 9 CFR 77.14 - Interstate movement from accreditation preparatory States and zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement from accreditation preparatory States and zones. 77.14 Section 77.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.14 Interstate movement from accreditation...

  13. 9 CFR 77.27 - Interstate movement from modified accredited States and zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement from modified accredited States and zones. 77.27 Section 77.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.27 Interstate movement from modified accredited...

  14. 9 CFR 77.12 - Interstate movement from modified accredited States and zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement from modified accredited States and zones. 77.12 Section 77.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.12 Interstate movement from modified accredited...

  15. 76 FR 24569 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Accreditation as a Claims Agent or Attorney) Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Accreditation as a Claims Agent or Attorney) Under... INFORMATION: Titles: a. Application for Accreditation as a Claims Agent or Attorney, VA Form 21a. b. Filing of... mental health of the applicant. The data is used to determine the applicant's eligibility...

  16. 9 CFR 77.14 - Interstate movement from accreditation preparatory States and zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement from accreditation preparatory States and zones. 77.14 Section 77.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.14 Interstate movement from accreditation...

  17. 76 FR 15945 - National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) Workshop for Laboratories Interested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ...) is considering establishing an accreditation program for laboratories that test HIT electronic health... Sections 4 and 5 of the NIST handbook 150 to the test and services in the new LAP. Program-specific requirements include the details of the scope of accreditation, test and measurement equipment,...

  18. 7 CFR 353.8 - Accreditation of non-government facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accreditation of non-government facilities. 353.8 Section 353.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT CERTIFICATION § 353.8 Accreditation of non-government facilities. (a) The Administrator...

  19. 7 CFR 353.8 - Accreditation of non-government facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accreditation of non-government facilities. 353.8 Section 353.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT CERTIFICATION § 353.8 Accreditation of non-government facilities. (a) The Administrator...

  20. 7 CFR 353.8 - Accreditation of non-government facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accreditation of non-government facilities. 353.8 Section 353.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT CERTIFICATION § 353.8 Accreditation of...

  1. Characterisation of health and social development.

    PubMed

    Almeida, R M; Thamer, M; Attinger, E O

    1992-01-01

    The relative performance of less developed countries in their health, demographic and economic sectors was assessed by means of comparative indices constructed with the help of a factor analysis. This approach reduces the problems usually associated with such indices, like the arbitrary weighting of their components. PMID:1737805

  2. Essentials of an Accredited Curriculum for Optometric Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    The standards are intended for the information of schools, optometrists, clinics, and prospective students. They concern organization and administration, faculty, student selection, curriculum, and accreditation policies. The general academic program should include English, social and behavioral science, mathematics, history, and office skills.…

  3. [Social media and health communication: do we need rules?].

    PubMed

    Santoro, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Social media, online social networks and apps for smartphones and tablets are changing the way to communicate health and health issues to consumers and health professionals. Google, Facebook, Apple, and other companies have launched tools to make easier the doctor-patient communication, to group patients with similar diseases allowing them to share stories, experiences, and opinions, and to remotely track and monitor users health and wellbeing. However several concerns about patients' and consumers' privacy remain. Doctor-patient communication through e-mail and social media also introduces other ethical and privacy issues that were addressed only by few medical societies with appropriate guidelines and policies. In addition, pharmaceutical companies have started to use social media channels to communicate with doctors, patients and consumers. This type of communication has been only partially regulated by the Food and Drug Administration with the recently published guidelines for industries. Similar concerns exist for health and medical applications for smartphones and tablets for which only few agencies (including Food and Drug Administration) are requiring a formal (even if restricted in typology) validation. It's time for Europe and Italy to adopt appropriate guidelines for the use of the new media in health communication. PMID:25621774

  4. Social Entrepreneurship in Religious Congregations’ Efforts to Address Health Needs

    PubMed Central

    Werber, Laura; Mendel, Peter J.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Examine how religious congregations engage in social entrepreneurship as they strive to meet health-related needs in their communities. Design Multiple case studies. Setting Los Angeles County, California. Participants Purposive sample of 14 congregations representing diverse races-ethnicities (African American, Latino, and white) and faith traditions (Jewish and various Christian). Method Congregations were recruited based on screening data and consultation of a community advisory board. In each congregation, researchers conducted interviews with clergy and lay leaders (n=57); administered a congregational questionnaire; observed health activities, worship services, and neighborhood context; and reviewed archival information. Interviews were analyzed using a qualitative, code-based approach. Results Congregations’ health-related activities tended to be episodic, small in scale, and local in scope. Trust and social capital played important roles in congregations’ health initiatives, providing a safe, confidential environment and leveraging resources from – and for – faith-based and secular organizations in their community networks. Congregations also served as “incubators” for members to engage in social entrepreneurship. Conclusion Although the small scale of congregations’ health initiatives suggest they may not have the capacity to provide the main infrastructure for service provision, congregations can complement the efforts of health and social providers with their unique strengths. Specifically, congregations are distinctive in their ability to identify unmet local needs, and congregations’ position in their communities permit them to network in productive ways. PMID:23875986

  5. Identity Management and Mental Health Discourse in Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Pavalanathan, Umashanthi; De Choudhury, Munmun

    2015-01-01

    Social media is increasingly being adopted in health discourse. We examine the role played by identity in supporting discourse on socially stigmatized conditions. Specifically, we focus on mental health communities on reddit. We investigate the characteristics of mental health discourse manifested through reddit's characteristic ‘throwaway’ accounts, which are used as proxies of anonymity. For the purpose, we propose affective, cognitive, social, and linguistic style measures, drawing from literature in psychology. We observe that mental health discourse from throwaways is considerably disinhibiting and exhibits increased negativity, cognitive bias and self-attentional focus, and lowered self-esteem. Throwaways also seem to be six times more prevalent as an identity choice on mental health forums, compared to other reddit communities. We discuss the implications of our work in guiding mental health interventions, and in the design of online communities that can better cater to the needs of vulnerable populations. We conclude with thoughts on the role of identity manifestation on social media in behavioral therapy. PMID:27376158

  6. Social Relationships and Health: The Toxic Effects of Perceived Social Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, John T.; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Research in social epidemiology suggests that the absence of positive social relationships is a significant risk factor for broad-based morbidity and mortality. The nature of these social relationships and the mechanisms underlying this association are of increasing interest as the population gets older and the health care costs associated with chronic disease escalate in industrialized countries. We review selected evidence on the nature of social relationships and focus on one particular facet of the connection continuum – the extent to which an individual feels isolated (i.e., feels lonely) in a social world. Evidence indicates that loneliness heightens sensitivity to social threats and motivates the renewal of social connections, but it can also impair executive functioning, sleep, and mental and physical well-being. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in lonely older adults. PMID:24839458

  7. [Health and social information systems in support of local health planning: issues and challenges].

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Louise; Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Casteigts, Arnaud; Chartier, Mariette; Trugeon, Alain; Warnke, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Health information is indispensable for monitoring the progress that has been made in improving and maintaining population health and health system functions. In the context of health reforms aiming to bring health systems closer to populations and with the objective of consistent health services planning at the community level, access to reliable social and health data has become a major issue. The need to develop specific treatment tools and the appropriation of results by the various actors involved (decision makers, planners, researchers and consumers) are central to the presentations and exchanges in this symposium. PMID:24737809

  8. Integrated Approaches to Address the Social Determinants of Health for Reducing Health Inequity

    PubMed Central

    Mitlin, Diana; Mulholland, Catherine; Hardoy, Ana; Stern, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    The social and physical environments have long since been recognized as important determinants of health. People in urban settings are exposed to a variety of health hazards that are interconnected with their health effects. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have underlined the multidimensional nature of poverty and the connections between health and social conditions and present an opportunity to move beyond narrow sectoral interventions and to develop comprehensive social responses and participatory processes that address the root causes of health inequity. Considering the complexity and magnitude of health, poverty, and environmental issues in cities, it is clear that improvements in health and health equity demand not only changes in the physical and social environment of cities, but also an integrated approach that takes into account the wider socioeconomic and contextual factors affecting health. Integrated or multilevel approaches should address not only the immediate, but also the underlying and particularly the fundamental causes at societal level of related health issues. The political and legal organization of the policy-making process has been identified as a major determinant of urban and global health, as a result of the role it plays in creating possibilities for participation, empowerment, and its influence on the content of public policies and the distribution of scarce resources. This paper argues that it is essential to adopt a long-term multisectoral approach to address the social determinants of health in urban settings. For comprehensive approaches to address the social determinants of health effectively and at multiple levels, they need explicitly to tackle issues of participation, governance, and the politics of power, decision making, and empowerment. PMID:17393340

  9. Social Stigma, Social Capital Reconstruction and Rural Migrants in Urban China: A Population Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita; Kaljee, Linda M.; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examine migrant stigma and its effect on social capital reconstruction among rural migrants who possess legal rural residence but live and work in urban China. After a review of the concepts of stigma and social capital, we report data collected through in-depth interviews with 40 rural migrant workers and 38 urban residents recruited from Beijing, China. Findings from this study indicate that social stigma against rural migrants is common in urban China and is reinforced through media, social institutions and their representatives, and day-to-day interactions. As an important part of discrimination, stigma against migrant workers creates inequality, undermines trust, and reduces opportunities for interpersonal interactions between migrants and urban residents. Through these social processes, social stigma interferes with the reconstruction of social capital (including bonding, bridging and linking social capital) for individual rural migrants as well as for their communities. The interaction between stigma and social capital reconstruction may present as a mechanism by which migration leads to negative health consequences. Results from this study underscore the need for taking measures against migrant stigma and alternatively work toward social capital reconstruction for health promotion and disease prevention among this population. PMID:21516266

  10. Microcredit and the social determinants of health: a conceptual approach.

    PubMed

    Salt, Rebekah

    2011-01-01

    Social determinants of health, such as human behavior, environment, and socioeconomics, contribute to health disparities at the individual and population levels. The association between socioeconomics and health is established, and it is acknowledged that people with a lower socioeconomic status experience poorer health. The impetus of microcredit programs is to provide financial alternatives for low-income populations, the majority of whom are women with limited or no access to traditional lending, to start small businesses, generate income, and progress toward self-sufficiency. The income-health link within the context of microcredit has been internationally acknowledged; however, there is scarce research in this area in the United States. This article presents a review of the conceptual approach used to explore the microcredit and health link from a public health nursing perspective. Establishing conceptual foundations can enhance research focused on targeted interventions aimed at lasting change in social and health status. Exploring the link between microcredit and health can enrich research efforts and may offer innovative strategies and interventions to improve health-promoting capacity in impoverished groups. PMID:21535114

  11. Race, Social and Environmental Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Men.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Roland J; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Griffith, Derek M; Bruce, Marino A; Coa, Kisha; Bell, Caryn N; Young, Jessica; Bowie, Janice V; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Although understanding race differences in health behaviors among men is an important step in reducing disparities in leading causes of death in the United States, progress has been stifled when using national data because of the confounding of race, socioeconomic status, and residential segregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of disparities in health behaviors among African American and white men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore, which was conducted in a racially integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. After adjusting for age, marital status, insurance, income, educational attainment, poor or fair health, and obesity status, African American men in National Health Interview Survey had greater odds of being physically inactive (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 129-1.69), reduced odds of being a current smoker (OR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.90), and reduced odds of being a current drinker (OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.50-0.67). In the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore sample, African American and white men had similar odds of being physically inactive (OR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.50-1.24), being a current smoker (OR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.60-1.23), or being a current drinker (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.81-2.21). Because race disparities in these health behaviors were ameliorated in the sample where African American and white men were living under similar social, environmental, and socioeconomic status conditions, these findings suggest that social environment may be an important determinant of health behaviors among African American and white men. Public health interventions and health promotion strategies should consider the social environment when seeking to better understand men's health disparities. PMID:26291190

  12. Social orientations and adolescent health behaviours in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Piko, Bettina F; Skultéti, Dóra; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2010-02-01

    Adolescent health behaviours are influenced by a variety of social factors, including social orientations, such as social comparison or competitiveness. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the role that these social orientations might play in health behaviours (both health-impairing and health-promoting). Data were collected from high school students (N = 548; ages 14-20 years; 39.9% males) in two counties of the Southern Plain Region of Hungary. The self-administered questionnaires contained items on sociodemographics, such as age, sex, parental schooling, and socioeconomic status (SES) self-assessment; school achievement, health behaviours, competitiveness and social comparison. Multiple regression analyses suggest that those who scored higher on competitiveness engaged in more substance use, a pattern that was not present for health-promoting behaviours. Social comparison, however, was associated with lower levels of substance use. In addition, in relation to health-impairing behaviours, both competitiveness and social comparison interacted with sex; both social orientation variables proved to be more important for boys. Social comparison also contributed to health-promoting behaviours among boys. Findings support the idea that the role of social orientations, such as competitiveness and social comparison, can be quite different depending on sex and the nature of the health behaviour. While competitiveness may act as a risk factor for substance use among boys, social comparison may act as a protection. It appears that social orientations play less of a role in girls' health-related behaviours. More focus is needed on gender differences in influences on adolescents' health-related behaviours. Les comportements de santé des adolescents sont influencés par une variété de facteurs sociaux, incluant les orientations sociales telles que la comparaison sociale ou la compétitivité. Le but principal de la présente étude était d'examiner le r

  13. Mind the Gap: Social Media Engagement by Public Health Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Brett; Jain, Kriti M; Pekosz, Andrew; Levine, Orin

    2014-01-01

    Background The traditional vertical system of sharing information from sources of scientific authority passed down to the public through local health authorities and clinicians risks being made obsolete by emerging technologies that facilitate rapid horizontal information sharing. The rise of Public Health 2.0 requires professional acknowledgment that a new and substantive forum of public discourse about public health exists on social media, such as forums, blogs, Facebook, and Twitter. Objective Some public health professionals have used social media in innovative ways: to surveil populations, gauge public opinion, disseminate health information, and promote mutually beneficial interactions between public health professionals and the lay public. Although innovation is on the rise, most in the public health establishment remain skeptical of this rapidly evolving landscape or are unclear about how it could be used. We sought to evaluate the extent to which public health professionals are engaged in these spaces. Methods We conducted a survey of professorial- and scientist-track faculty at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. We asked all available faculty via email to complete a 30-question survey about respondent characteristics, beliefs about social media, and usage of specific technologies, including blogs, Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. Results A total of 181 (19.8%) of 912 professor- and scientist-track faculty provided usable responses. The majority of respondents rarely used major social media platforms. Of these 181 respondents, 97 (53.6%) had used YouTube, 84 (46.4%) had used Facebook, 55 (30.4%) had read blogs, and 12 (6.6%) had used Twitter in the prior month. More recent degree completion was the best predictor of higher usage of social media. In all, 122 (67.4%) agreed that social media is important for disseminating information, whereas only 55 (30.4%) agreed that social media is useful for their research

  14. Community health promotion: a framework to facilitate and evaluate supportive social environments for health.

    PubMed

    Wagemakers, Annemarie; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Koelen, Maria A; Saan, Hans; Leeuwis, Cees

    2010-11-01

    The evaluation of community health promotion designed to create supportive social environments for health is still in its infancy. There is a lack of consensus on concepts, a lack of information on interventions that bring about social change, and a lack of feasible methods and tools. Consequently, the effectiveness of community health promotion may not be evaluated under all relevant headings. Therefore, this study aims to contribute to the evaluation of change in the social environment by presenting a framework. On the basis of the relevant literature we describe the relation between social environment and health predicting mediators. We selected participation and collaboration as core concepts in moderating the social environment of health because these terms give insight into the actual dynamics of health promotion practice. We synthesize the results into a framework with operational variables and offer four guidelines on how to apply the framework: use the variables as a menu, set specific aims for social change processes, use an action research approach, and triangulate data. The framework and guidelines enable the start-up, facilitation and evaluation of social change and learning processes and provide common ground for researchers and practitioners to improve the practice of their professions. PMID:20106527

  15. Changes Not for the Fainthearted: Reorienting Health Care Systems Toward Health Equity Through Action on the Social Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Bégin, Monique; Houweling, Tanja A. J.; Taylor, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Entrenched poor health and health inequity are important public health problems. Conventionally, solutions to such problems originate from the health care sector, a conception reinforced by the dominant biomedical imagination of health. By contrast, attention to the social determinants of health has recently been given new force in the fight against health inequity. The health care sector is a vital determinant of health in itself and a key resource in improving health in an equitable manner. Actors in the health care sector must recognize and reverse the sector's propensity to generate health inequity. The sector must also strengthen its role in working with other sectors of government to act collectively on the deep-rooted causes of poor and inequitable health. PMID:19762660

  16. Transforming global health with mobile technologies and social enterprises: global health and innovation conference.

    PubMed

    Kayingo, Gerald

    2012-09-01

    More than 2,000 people convened for the ninth annual Global Health and Innovation Conference at Yale University on April 21-22, 2012. Participants discussed the latest innovations, ideas in development, lessons learned, opportunities and challenges in global health activities. Several themes emerged, including the important role of frontline workers, strengthening health systems, leveraging social media, and sustainable and impact-driven philanthropy. Overall, the major outcome of the conference was the increased awareness of the potential of mobile technologies and social enterprises in transforming global health. Experts warned that donations and technological advances alone will not transform global health unless there are strong functioning health infrastructures and improved workforce. It was noted that there is a critical need for an integrated systems approach to global health problems and a need for scaling up promising pilot projects. Lack of funding, accountability, and sustainability were identified as major challenges in global health. PMID:23012591

  17. Inequalities in health and social policy.

    PubMed

    Zieliński, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    WHO and the European Commission impart great importance to promoting activities aimed at reducing inequalities in health. The article raised methodological problems of studies on the causes of inequalities in health. Author draws attention to the need for field studies focused on comparing well-specified population groups in order to achieve greater accuracy of studies to obtain preventive actions better fit to the specific needs of a given population. He also indicates the difficulties related to the comparisons made on an international scale due to the large number of variables that could interfere with investigated exposure. A significant part of the article is devoted to the interpretation of the measurement of poverty and the relationship between economic inequality and inequities in health. The author points out that there are no simple relations in this area, but the impact of economic inequality is particularly pronounced where inequalities in income of families bring large fractions of a society below the threshold of poverty. PMID:27139342

  18. Social vaccines to resist and change unhealthy social and economic structures: a useful metaphor for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Narayan, Ravi; Sanders, David; Patel, Vikram; Quizhpe, Arturo

    2009-12-01

    The term 'social vaccine' is designed to encourage the biomedically orientated health sector to recognize the legitimacy of action on the distal social and economic determinants of health. It is proposed as a term to assist the health promotion movement in arguing for a social view of health which is so often counter to medical and popular conceptions of health. The idea of a social vaccine builds on a long tradition in social medicine as well as on a biomedical tradition of preventing illness through vaccines that protect against disease. Social vaccines would be promoted as a means to encourage popular mobilization and advocacy to change the social and economic structural conditions that render people and communities vulnerable to disease. They would facilitate social and political processes that develop popular and political will to protect and promote health through action (especially governments prepared to intervene and regulate to protect community health) on the social and economic determinants. Examples provided for the effects of social vaccines are: restoring land ownership to Indigenous peoples, regulating the advertising of harmful products and progressive taxation for universal social protection. Social vaccines require more research to improve understanding of social and political processes that are likely to improve health equity worldwide. The vaccine metaphor should be helpful in arguing for increased action on the social determinants of health. PMID:19628619

  19. Social contagion of mental health: evidence from college roommates.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Daniel; Golberstein, Ezra; Whitlock, Janis L; Downs, Marilyn F

    2013-08-01

    From a policy standpoint, the spread of health conditions in social networks is important to quantify, because it implies externalities and possible market failures in the consumption of health interventions. Recent studies conclude that happiness and depression may be highly contagious across social ties. The results may be biased, however, because of selection and common shocks. We provide unbiased estimates by using exogenous variation from college roommate assignments. Our findings are consistent with no significant overall contagion of mental health and no more than small contagion effects for specific mental health measures, with no evidence for happiness contagion and modest evidence for anxiety and depression contagion. The weakness of the contagion effects cannot be explained by avoidance of roommates with poor mental health or by generally low social contact among roommates. We also find that similarity of baseline mental health predicts the closeness of roommate relationships, which highlights the potential for selection biases in studies of peer effects that do not have a clearly exogenous source of variation. Overall, our results suggest that mental health contagion is lower, or at least more context specific, than implied by the recent studies in the medical literature. PMID:23055446

  20. Discovering Health Topics in Social Media Using Topic Models

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Michael J.; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r = .534) and obesity (r = −.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media. PMID:25084530

  1. Social contagion of mental health: Evidence from college roommates

    PubMed Central

    Golberstein, Ezra; Whitlock, Janis L.; Downs, Marilyn F.

    2015-01-01

    From a policy standpoint the spread of health conditions in social networks is important to quantify, because it implies externalities and possible market failures in the consumption of health interventions. Recent studies conclude that happiness and depression may be highly contagious across social ties. The results may be biased, however, due to selection and common shocks. We provide unbiased estimates by using exogenous variation from college roommate assignments. Our findings are consistent with no significant overall contagion of mental health and no more than small contagion effects for specific mental health measures, with no evidence for happiness contagion and modest evidence for anxiety and depression contagion. The weakness of the contagion effects cannot be explained by avoidance of roommates with poor mental health or by generally low social contact among roommates. We also find that similarity of baseline mental health predicts the closeness of roommate relationships, which highlights the potential for selection biases in studies of peer effects that do not have a clearly exogenous source of variation. Overall our results suggest that mental health contagion is lower, or at least more context-specific, than implied by the recent studies in the medical literature. PMID:23055446

  2. Twelve tips for teaching social determinants of health in medicine.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Iveris L; Artze-Vega, Isis; Wells, Alan L; Mora, Jorge Camilo; Gillis, Marin

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Background: There has been a recent movement towards social accountability in medical schools, which includes integrating the social, economic, and cultural determinants of health into the curriculum. Medical schools and their guiding bodies have met this challenge of educating future physicians to provide effective care to diverse populations with varying response and successes. Because these topics have not been systematically taught in most medical school curricula, strategies are needed to teach them alongside clinical sciences. Aim and method: We provide 12 tips on how to teach social determinants of health and cultural competency to undergraduate medical students. These recommendations are based on a review of the literature and our experience in developing and delivering a longitudinal course over the last five years. Conclusion: Medical students must be taught to think critically about the social and cultural issues impacting health, and the intersection with the basic biology and clinical skills. Teaching social determinants of health in medicine requires keeping the material concrete and applicable. Educators must engage students in active learning strategies, reflection, and focus on how to make the material relevant to the clinical care of patients. PMID:25373885

  3. Synergy for health equity: integrating health promotion and social determinants of health approaches in and beyond the Americas.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Suzanne F; Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; Fawcett, Stephen B; Poland, Blake; Schultz, Jerry A

    2013-12-01

    Health promotion and social determinants of health approaches, when integrated, can better contribute to understanding and addressing health inequities. Yet, they have typically been pursued as two solitudes. This paper presents the key elements, principles, actions, and potential synergies of these complementary frameworks for addressing health equity. The value-added of integrating these two approaches is illustrated by three examples drawn from the authors' experiences in the Americas: at the community level, through a community-based coalition for reducing chronic disease disparities among minorities in an urban center in the United States; at the national level, through healthy-settings interventions in Canada; and at the Regional level, through health cooperation based on social justice values in Latin America. Challenges to integrating health promotion and social determinants of health approaches in the Americas are also discussed. PMID:24569978

  4. [Perception of health risks: psychological and social factors].

    PubMed

    Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals. PMID:19862487

  5. Social media and suicide: a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Luxton, David D; June, Jennifer D; Fairall, Jonathan M

    2012-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that the Internet and social media can influence suicide-related behavior. Important questions are whether this influence poses a significant risk to the public and how public health approaches might be used to address the issue. To address these questions, we provide an overview of ways that social media can influence suicidal behavior, both negatively and positively, and we evaluate the evidence of the risk. We also discuss the legal complexities of this important topic and propose future directions for research and prevention programs based on a public health perspective. PMID:22401525

  6. Social Media and Suicide: A Public Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    June, Jennifer D.; Fairall, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the Internet and social media can influence suicide-related behavior. Important questions are whether this influence poses a significant risk to the public and how public health approaches might be used to address the issue. To address these questions, we provide an overview of ways that social media can influence suicidal behavior, both negatively and positively, and we evaluate the evidence of the risk. We also discuss the legal complexities of this important topic and propose future directions for research and prevention programs based on a public health perspective. PMID:22401525

  7. [Social constructionism in primary health care: an integrative review].

    PubMed

    Cadoná, Eliane; Scarparo, Helena

    2015-09-01

    This study sets out to analyze scientific articles in order to investigate how researchers in the area of Social Constructionism define "health" in Primary Health Care. An integrative review of the literature was conducted along with a decision to concentrate on those works with narrative experiences and research studies. The database researched was the Brazilian Virtual Health Library, with experiences in the scope of Primary Health Care. The effectiveness of this step resulted in 12 articles. Data were analyzed and discussed based on the perspectives of social constructionism, which generated two central themes. They were: citizenship exercises - promoting health in collective spaces; health practices - overcoming the dichotomies and absolute truths. This study revealed the relevance of the notion of shared responsibility on meanings of health contained in the texts analyzed. The researchers claim that it is possible to expand health practices into collective action to facilitate ongoing dialogue between health users and workers. However, the dominance of biomedical discourse is criticized by the researchers, because that paradigm still promotes practices of care focused on illness. PMID:26331504

  8. Global health research to promote social justice: a critical perspective.

    PubMed

    Bathum, Mary Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Researchers who use a critical perspective analyze the historical, political, economic, social, cultural, and gender factors that impact on the people being studied. Research is regarded as a way to promote social justice. The purpose of this article is to describe why and how a critical perspective was used in designing and implementing research with Aymara women healers in the high plains of Peru. The study is used to demonstrate the usefulness of a critical perspective in global health nursing research to promote social justice. PMID:18025866

  9. Health Journalism Internships: A Social Marketing Strategy to Address Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Duy H.; Shimasaki, Suzuho; Stafford, Helen Shi

    2010-01-01

    The USA seeks to eliminate health disparities by stimulating the rapid uptake of health-promoting behaviors within disadvantaged communities. A health journalism internship incorporates social marketing strategies to increase communities' access to cancer information, while helping the interns who are recruited from underrepresented communities gain admission to top graduate schools. Interns are taught basic health journalism skills that enable them to create immediate streams of cancer-related press releases for submission to community newspapers. Interns are charged with the social responsibility of continuing this dissemination process throughout their careers. Intermediate outcomes are measured as mediators of distal behavioral change goals. PMID:20186519

  10. Health journalism internships: a social marketing strategy to address health disparities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duy H; Shimasaki, Suzuho; Stafford, Helen Shi; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2010-09-01

    The USA seeks to eliminate health disparities by stimulating the rapid uptake of health-promoting behaviors within disadvantaged communities. A health journalism internship incorporates social marketing strategies to increase communities' access to cancer information, while helping the interns who are recruited from underrepresented communities gain admission to top graduate schools. Interns are taught basic health journalism skills that enable them to create immediate streams of cancer-related press releases for submission to community newspapers. Interns are charged with the social responsibility of continuing this dissemination process throughout their careers. Intermediate outcomes are measured as mediators of distal behavioral change goals. PMID:20186519

  11. Variation In Health Outcomes: The Role Of Spending On Social Services, Public Health, And Health Care, 2000-09.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Canavan, Maureen; Rogan, Erika; Talbert-Slagle, Kristina; Ndumele, Chima; Taylor, Lauren; Curry, Leslie A

    2016-05-01

    Although spending rates on health care and social services vary substantially across the states, little is known about the possible association between variation in state-level health outcomes and the allocation of state spending between health care and social services. To estimate that association, we used state-level repeated measures multivariable modeling for the period 2000-09, with region and time fixed effects adjusted for total spending and state demographic and economic characteristics and with one- and two-year lags. We found that states with a higher ratio of social to health spending (calculated as the sum of social service spending and public health spending divided by the sum of Medicare spending and Medicaid spending) had significantly better subsequent health outcomes for the following seven measures: adult obesity; asthma; mentally unhealthy days; days with activity limitations; and mortality rates for lung cancer, acute myocardial infarction, and type 2 diabetes. Our study suggests that broadening the debate beyond what should be spent on health care to include what should be invested in health-not only in health care but also in social services and public health-is warranted. PMID:27140980

  12. HealthTrust: A Social Network Approach for Retrieving Online Health Videos

    PubMed Central

    Karlsen, Randi; Melton, Genevieve B

    2012-01-01

    Background Social media are becoming mainstream in the health domain. Despite the large volume of accurate and trustworthy health information available on social media platforms, finding good-quality health information can be difficult. Misleading health information can often be popular (eg, antivaccination videos) and therefore highly rated by general search engines. We believe that community wisdom about the quality of health information can be harnessed to help create tools for retrieving good-quality social media content. Objectives To explore approaches for extracting metrics about authoritativeness in online health communities and how these metrics positively correlate with the quality of the content. Methods We designed a metric, called HealthTrust, that estimates the trustworthiness of social media content (eg, blog posts or videos) in a health community. The HealthTrust metric calculates reputation in an online health community based on link analysis. We used the metric to retrieve YouTube videos and channels about diabetes. In two different experiments, health consumers provided 427 ratings of 17 videos and professionals gave 162 ratings of 23 videos. In addition, two professionals reviewed 30 diabetes channels. Results HealthTrust may be used for retrieving online videos on diabetes, since it performed better than YouTube Search in most cases. Overall, of 20 potential channels, HealthTrust’s filtering allowed only 3 bad channels (15%) versus 8 (40%) on the YouTube list. Misleading and graphic videos (eg, featuring amputations) were more commonly found by YouTube Search than by searches based on HealthTrust. However, some videos from trusted sources had low HealthTrust scores, mostly from general health content providers, and therefore not highly connected in the diabetes community. When comparing video ratings from our reviewers, we found that HealthTrust achieved a positive and statistically significant correlation with professionals (Pearson r 10

  13. The Human Microbiome and Public Health: Social and Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, Kieran C; Virani, Alice; Wilcox, Elizabeth S

    2016-03-01

    Rapid advances in human microbiome research point to an increasing range of health outcomes related to the composition of an individual's microbiome. To date, much research has focused on individual health, with a paucity of attention to public health implications. This is a critical oversight owing to the potentially shared nature of the human microbiome across communities and vertical and horizontal mechanisms for transferring microbiomes among humans. We explored some key ethical and social implications of human microbiome research for public health. We focused on (1) insights from microbiome research about damage to individual and shared microbiomes from prevalent societal practices, and (2) ethical and social implications of novel technologies developed on the basis of emerging microbiome science. PMID:26794165

  14. Exploring mobile health in a private online social network.

    PubMed

    Memon, Qurban A; Mustafa, Asma Fayes

    2015-01-01

    Health information is very vulnerable. Certain individuals or corporate organisations will continue to steal it similar to bank account data once data is on wireless channels. Once health information is part of a social network, corresponding privacy issues also surface. Insufficiently trained employees at hospitals that pay less attention to creating a privacy-aware culture will suffer loss when mobile devices containing health information are lost, stolen or sniffed. In this work, a social network system is explored as a m-health system from a privacy perspective. A model is developed within a framework of data-driven privacy and implemented on Android operating system. In order to check feasibility of the proposed model, a prototype application is developed on Facebook for different services, including: i) sharing user location; ii) showing nearby friends; iii) calculating and sharing distance moved, and calories burned; iv) calculating, tracking and sharing user heart rate; etc. PMID:26559073

  15. Textual representations of diversity in COAMFTE accredited doctoral programs.

    PubMed

    Lawless, John J; Brooks, Stephanie; Julye, Stacey

    2006-01-01

    The use of the Internet is growing at a staggering pace. One significant use of the Internet is for potential students and the parents of potential students to explore educational possibilities. Along these lines potential marriage and family therapy students may have many questions that include a program's commitment to cultural diversity. This study utilized qualitative content analysis methodology in combination with critical race theory to examine how Commission On Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education (COAMFTE) accredited doctoral programs represented cultural text on their World Wide Web pages. Findings indicate that many COAMFTE-accredited doctoral programs re-present programmatic information about diversity that appear to be incongruent with cultural sensitivity. These apparent incongruities are highlighted by the codification, inconsistent, and isolated use of cultural text. In addition, cultural text related to social justice was absent. Implications and suggestions are discussed. PMID:16468677

  16. Social Media in Adolescent Health Literacy Education: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Carrie KW; Srinivasan, Divya Parthasarathy; Cheng, Brenda SS

    2015-01-01

    Background While health literacy has gained notice on a global stage, the initial focus on seeking associations with medical conditions may have overlooked its impact across generations. Adolescent health literacy, specifically in dentistry, is an underexplored area despite the significance of this formative stage on an individual’s approach to healthy lifestyles and behaviors. Objective The aim is to conduct a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of three major social media outlets - Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube - in supporting adolescents’ oral health literacy (OHL) education. Methods A random sample of 22 adolescents (aged 14-16 years) from an English-medium international school in Hong Kong provided informed consent. Sociodemographic information, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience were collected via a questionnaire. A pre- and post-test of OHL (REALD-30) was administered by two trained, calibrated examiners. Following pre-test, participants were randomly assigned to one of three social media outlets: Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube. Participants received alerts posted daily for 5 consecutive days requiring online accessing of modified and original OHL education materials. One-way ANOVA ( analysis of variance) was used to compare the mean difference between the pre- and the post-test results among the three social media. Results No associations were found between the social media allocated and participants’ sociodemographics, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience. Of the three social media, significant differences in literacy assessment scores were evident for participants who received oral health education messages via Facebook (P=.02) and YouTube (P=.005). Conclusions Based on the results of the pilot study, Facebook and YouTube may be more efficient media outlets for OHL promotion and education among adolescent school children when compared to Twitter. Further

  17. Path Dependency and the Politics of Socialized Health Care.

    PubMed

    Brady, David; Marquardt, Susanne; Gauchat, Gordon; Reynolds, Megan M

    2016-06-01

    Rich democracies exhibit vast cross-national and historical variation in the socialization of health care. Yet, cross-national analyses remain relatively rare in the health policy literature, and health care remains relatively neglected in the welfare state literature. We analyze pooled time series models of the public share of total health spending for eighteen rich democracies from 1960 to 2010. Building on path dependency theory, we present a strategy for modeling the relationship between the initial 1960 public share and the current public share. We also examine two contrasting accounts for how the 1960 public share interacts with conventional welfare state predictors: the self-reinforcing hypothesis expecting positive feedbacks and the counteracting hypothesis expecting negative feedbacks. We demonstrate that most of the variation from 1960 to 2010 in the public share can be explained by a country's initial value in 1960. This 1960 value has a large significant effect in models of 1961-2010, and including the 1960 value alters the coefficients of conventional welfare state predictors. To investigate the mechanism whereby prior social policy influences public opinion about current social policy, we use the 2006 International Social Survey Programme (ISSP). This analysis confirms that the 1960 values predict individual preferences for government spending on health. Returning to the pooled time series, we demonstrate that the 1960 values interact significantly with several conventional welfare state predictors. Some interactions support the self-reinforcing hypothesis, while others support the counteracting hypothesis. Ultimately, this study illustrates how historical legacies of social policy exert substantial influence on the subsequent politics of social policy. PMID:26921380

  18. Mental Health Mobile Apps: From Infusion to Diffusion in the Mental Health Social System

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations

  19. Mental Health Mobile Apps: From Infusion to Diffusion in the Mental Health Social System.

    PubMed

    East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C

    2015-01-01

    The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations

  20. Boundaries and e-health implementation in health and social care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The major problem facing health and social care systems globally today is the growing challenge of an elderly population with complex health and social care needs. A longstanding challenge to the provision of high quality, effectively coordinated care for those with complex needs has been the historical separation of health and social care. Access to timely and accurate data about patients and their treatments has the potential to deliver better care at less cost. Methods To explore the way in which structural, professional and geographical boundaries have affected e-health implementation in health and social care, through an empirical study of the implementation of an electronic version of Single Shared Assessment (SSA) in Scotland, using three retrospective, qualitative case studies in three different health board locations. Results Progress in effectively sharing electronic data had been slow and uneven. One cause was the presence of established structural boundaries, which lead to competing priorities, incompatible IT systems and infrastructure, and poor cooperation. A second cause was the presence of established professional boundaries, which affect staffs’ understanding and acceptance of data sharing and their information requirements. Geographical boundaries featured but less prominently and contrasting perspectives were found with regard to issues such as co-location of health and social care professionals. Conclusions To provide holistic care to those with complex health and social care needs, it is essential that we develop integrated approaches to care delivery. Successful integration needs practices such as good project management and governance, ensuring system interoperability, leadership, good training and support, together with clear efforts to improve working relations across professional boundaries and communication of a clear project vision. This study shows that while technological developments make integration possible, long