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Sample records for accreted oceanic terranes

  1. Continental accretion: From oceanic plateaus to allochthonous terranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ben-Avraham, Z.; Nur, A.; Jones, D.; Cox, A.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the regions of the anomalously high sea-floor topography in today's oceans may be modern allochthonous terranes moving with their oceanic plates. Fated to collide with and be accreted to adjacent continents, they may create complex volcanism, cut off and trap oceanic crust, and cause orogenic deformation. The accretion of plateaus during subduction of oceanic plates may be responsible for mountain building comparable to that produced by the collision of continents. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  2. A comparison of the seismic structure of oceanic island arc crust and continental accreted arc terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Amalgamation of island arcs and their accretion to pre-existing continents is considered to have been one of the primary mechanisms of continental growth over the last 3 Ga, with arc terranes identified within Late Archean, Proterozoic, and Phanerozoic continental crust. Crustal-scale seismic refraction surveys can provide P wave velocity models that can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, and although they indicate some velocity variation in accreted arcs, these terranes have significantly lower velocities, and are hence significantly more felsic, than modern island arcs. Modern oceanic arcs exhibit significant variations in crustal thickness, from as little as 10 km in the Bonin arc to 35 km in the Aleutian and northern Izu arcs. Although globally island arcs appear to have a mafic composition, intermediate composition crust is inferred in central America and parts of the Izu arc. The absence of a sharp velocity contrast at the Moho appears to be a first order characteristic of island arc crust, and indicates the existence of a broad crust-mantle transition zone. Multichannel seismic reflection surveys complement refraction surveys by revealing structures associated with variations in density and seismic velocity at the scale of a few hundred meters or less to depths of 60 km or more. Surveys from the Mariana and Aleutian arcs show that modern middle and lower arc crust is mostly non-reflective, but reflections are observed from depths 5-25 km below the refraction Moho suggesting the localized presence of arc roots that may comprise gabbro, garnet gabbro, and pyroxenite within a broad transition from mafic lower crust to ultramafic mantle. Such reflective, high velocity roots are likely separated from the overlying arc crust prior to, or during arc-continent collision, and seismic reflections within accreted arc crust document the collisional process and final crustal architecture.

  3. Circum-Pacific accretion of oceanic terranes to continental blocks: accretion of the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite to the E Gondwana continental margin, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Alastair

    2016-04-01

    Accretionary orogens, in part, grow as a result of the accretion of oceanic terranes to pre-existing continental blocks, as in the circum-Pacific and central Asian regions. However, the accretionary processes involved remain poorly understood. Here, we consider settings in which oceanic crust formed in a supra-subduction zone setting and later accreted to continental terranes (some, themselves of accretionary origin). Good examples include some Late Cretaceous ophiolites in SE Turkey, the Jurassic Coast Range ophiolite, W USA and the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite of South Island, New Zealand. In the last two cases, the ophiolites are depositionally overlain by coarse clastic sedimentary rocks (e.g. Permian Upukerora Formation of South Island, NZ) that then pass upwards into very thick continental margin fore-arc basin sequences (Great Valley sequence, California; Matai sequence, South Island, NZ). Field observations, together with petrographical and geochemical studies in South Island, NZ, summarised here, provide evidence of terrane accretion processes. In a proposed tectonic model, the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite was created by supra-subduction zone spreading above a W-dipping subduction zone (comparable to the present-day Izu-Bonin arc and fore arc, W Pacific). The SSZ oceanic crust in the New Zealand example is inferred to have included an intra-oceanic magmatic arc, which is no longer exposed (other than within a melange unit in Southland), but which is documented by petrographic and geochemical evidence. An additional subduction zone is likely to have dipped westwards beneath the E Gondwana margin during the Permian. As a result, relatively buoyant Early Permian supra-subduction zone oceanic crust was able to dock with the E Gondwana continental margin, terminating intra-oceanic subduction (although the exact timing is debatable). The amalgamation ('soft collision') was accompanied by crustal extension of the newly accreted oceanic slab, and

  4. Terrane accretion: Insights from numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Katharina; Gerya, Taras

    2016-04-01

    The oceanic crust is not homogenous, but contains significantly thicker crust than norm, i.e. extinct arcs, spreading ridges, detached continental fragments, volcanic piles or oceanic swells. These (crustal) fragments may collide with continental crust and form accretionary complexes, contributing to its growth. We analyse this process using a thermo-mechanical computer model (i2vis) of an ocean-continent subduction zone. In this model the oceanic plate can bend spontaneously under the control of visco-plastic rheologies. It moreover incorporates effects such as mineralogical phase changes, fluid release and consumption, partial melting and melt extraction. Based on our 2-D experiments we suggest that the lithospheric buoyancy of the downgoing slab and the rheological strength of crustal material may result in a variety of accretionary processes. In addition to terrane subduction, we are able to identify three distinct modes of terrane accretion: frontal accretion, basal accretion and underplating plateaus. We show that crustal fragments may dock onto continental crust and cease subduction, be scrapped off the downgoing plate, or subduct to greater depth prior to slab break off and subsequent exhumation. Direct consequences of these processes include slab break off, subduction zone transference, structural reworking, formation of high-pressure terranes, partial melting and crustal growth.

  5. Pillow basalts of the Angayucham terrane: oceanic plateau and island crust accreted to the Brooks Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, J.S.; Budahn, J.R.; Murchey, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Angayucham Mountains (north margin of the Yukon-Koyukuk province) are made up of an imbricate stack of four to eight east-west trending, steeply dipping, fault slabs composed of Paleozoic, Middle to Late Triassic, and Early Jurassic oceanic upper crustal rocks. Field relations and geochemical characteristics of the basaltic rocks suggest that the fault slabs were derived from an oceanic plateau or island setting and were emplaced onto the Brooks Range continental margin. The basalts are variably metamorphosed to prehnite-pumpellyite and low-greenschist facies. Major element analyses suggest that many are hypersthene-normative olivine tholeiites. The Triassic and Jurassic basalts are geochemically most akin to modern oceanic plateau and island basalts. Field evidence also favors an oceanic plateau or island setting. The great composite thickness of pillow basalt probably resulted from obduction faulting, but the lack of fault slabs of gabbro or peridotite suggests that obduction faults did not penetrate below oceanic layer 2, a likely occurrence if layer 2 were anomalously thick, as in the vicinity of an oceanic island. -from Authors

  6. Magmatic and kinematic history of Siletzia, a Paleocene-Eocene accreted oceanic terrane in the Oregon Coast Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, R. E.; Bukry, D.; Wooden, J. L.; Friedman, R. M.; Haeussler, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    The basalt basement of the Oregon and Washington Coast Ranges, known as the Siletz terrane or Siletzia after the type Siletz River Volcanics of Oregon, consists of more than 2 million km3 of Paleocene and early Eocene tholeiitic and alkalic basalt sutured to North America in Eocene time. Siletzia is up to 30 km thick in Oregon and thins northward; it is thought to be an oceanic plateau or island chain, possibly created near the Yellowstone hotspot. Most Siletz lavas were erupted between 56 and 49 Ma based on 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb ages of flows. The ages are consistent with measured magnetic polarities of lavas and coccolith zones (CP8b to 11) from interbedded sediments, and they become younger to the north. Sedimentary interbeds also contain continentally-derived cobbles near Roseburg, OR and in the Olympic Mountains, suggesting some of the basalt flows were erupted close to the margin. Some researchers consider Siletzia the product of marginal rifting, slab window or hot spot magmatism during ridge subduction. Siletzia may have been much larger; similar rocks are found as far north as the Yakutat terrane in Alaska and south into California. Geologic mapping near Roseburg, Tillamook, and the Willapa Hills, along with U/Pb, 40Ar/39Ar, paleomagnetism, and coccolith zones provide constraints on Siletzia's final docking in Oregon at 51 Ma. Low thermal maturity for Tyee basin fill deposited on Siletzia and its shallowing upward section are incompatible with rifting. Slip vectors from the basin-bounding faults indicate margin-normal thrusting ocurred from the start of basin filling. Margin-parallel folding and thrusting of Siletzia, which was disrupted by subsequent clockwise block rotation, can be restored to its original NW strike and indicates a NW-trending continental margin at the time of collision. After collision, Siletzia migrated modestly northward (< 300 km from paleomagnetic evidence), rotating clockwise into its present position. Collision was followed by a

  7. Oceanic terranes of S-Central America - 200 Million years of accretion history recorded on the W-edge of the Caribbean Plate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, P. O.; Flores, K.; Bandini, A.; Buchs, D.; Andjic, G.; Baumgartner-Mora, C.

    2012-04-01

    (Chortis Block s. str.), and became exhumed again by the earliest Cretaceous (139 Ma phengite age). A pre-Albian basaltic plateau-like basement is suspected but yet undated in the Matambú Terrane (Central Nicoya Peninsula). It is overlain by the Albian Loma Chumico Formation. A pre-Turonian basement hosting the 90 Ma old Tortugal Picrites and alkaline baselts characterizes the Manzanillo Terrane ( around the Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica). The overlying Coniacian-Santonian to early Campanian Berrugate Formation represents the first Cretaceous evolved arc activity. It must be located on the edge of the MCOT, since the CLIP is still forming at that time. To the SE of the S-Nicoya fault zone, Turonian-Santonian (~90-85 Ma) oceanic plateaus represent outcrops of the CLIP. These include parts of Herradura (Costa Rica) and the Azuero Plateau (Coiba, Sona and Azuero, Panama). Late Campanian to Paleocene arcs rest on the CLIP: The Golfito Complex (Costa Rica) and the Azuero Arc (Panama), possibly also the San Blas Complex (Panama) and the Serrania de Baudo (W-Colombia). Late Cretaceous to Eocene plateau/seamount basalts and oceanic sediments became accreted during the Early Tertiary: The Tulin Group (Herradura), Quepos, The Osa Igneous Complex, Burica, the Osa Mélange (Costa Rica/Panama), and the Azuero Accretionary Complex (Panama).

  8. Deformation during terrane accretion in the Saint Elias orogen, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruhn, R.L.; Pavlis, T.L.; Plafker, G.; Serpa, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Saint Elias orogen of southern Alaska and adjacent Canada is a complex belt of mountains formed by collision and accretion of the Yakutat terrane into the transition zone from transform faulting to subduction in the northeast Pacific. The orogen is an active analog for tectonic processes that formed much of the North American Cordillera, and is also an important site to study (1) the relationships between climate and tectonics, and (2) structures that generate large- to great-magnitude earthquakes. The Yakutat terrane is a fragment of the North American plate margin that is partly subducted beneath and partly accreted to the continental margin of southern Alaska. Interaction between the Yakutat terrane and the North American and Pacific plates causes significant differences in the style of deformation within the terrane. Deformation in the eastern part of the terrane is caused by strike-slip faulting along the Fairweather transform fault and by reverse faulting beneath the coastal mountains, but there is little deformation immediately offshore. The central part of the orogen is marked by thrusting of the Yakutat terrane beneath the North American plate along the Chugach-Saint Elias fault and development of a wide, thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt. Strike-slip faulting in this segment may he localized in the hanging wall of the Chugach-Saint Elias fault, or dissipated by thrust faulting beneath a north-northeast-trending belt of active deformation that cuts obliquely across the eastern end of the fold-and-thrust belt. Superimposed folds with complex shapes and plunging hinge lines accommodate horizontal shortening and extension in the western part of the orogen, where the sedimentary cover of the Yakutat terrane is accreted into the upper plate of the Aleutian subduction zone. These three structural segments are separated by transverse tectonic boundaries that cut across the Yakutat terrane and also coincide with the courses of piedmont glaciers that flow from

  9. A tectonic reconstruction of accreted terranes along the paleo-Pacific margin of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bammel, Brandon

    The southern oceanic margin of Gondwana was nearly 40,000 km long or 24,854.8 miles. The southern margin was the result of the Terra Australis orogen. Spanning 18,000 km or 11,184.7 miles and is proposed as one of the largest and longest lived orogens in Earth history. The paleo-Pacific margin of Gondwana consisted of segments of the Australian-Antarctic craton, southern South America (modern Argentina and Chile), southern South Africa, Marie Byrdland, New Zealand and its adjacent continental shelf, the Ellsworth Mountains, and the Transantarctic Mountains. The process of terrane accretion has played a substantial part in the assembly of the continents as they look today. The paleo-Pacific margin of Gondwana was an active region of terrane accretion from the Neoproterozoic to the Late Mesozoic. This research study examines the accretion of terranes across the paleo-Pacific Gondwana margin to provide a comprehensive reconstruction. A paleogeographic basemap was created using PALEOMAP Project maps and the geology data was provided by the School of Geoscience from the University of Witwatersrand of South Africa. Location and data analyzed for terranes were collected building a PDF library of journal articles across numerous geological publications.

  10. Deep Structure and Past Kinematics of Accreted Terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillhouse, John W.

    The concept of "accreted terranes," that continents grow by the addition of displaced fragments of crust, was the central topic of a recent multidisciplinary symposium sponsored by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG). This volume contains a selection of papers presented in Symposium 12 at XIX General Assembly of the IUGG, held August 15-18, 1987, in Vancouver. Convenors Edward Irving and David Stone focused the program on two major themes. The first was to track the displacement of terranes using paleomagnetism, geologic mapping, and paleontology. The second theme was to explore the deep structure of accreted terranes using seismological, geochemical, and potential-field methods. Given the scope of those topics, it is no surprise that the participants represented many specialties within the field of solid-earth geophysics. The program included case histories from a collection of fold belts spanning much time and long distances, from the Proterozoic sutures of North America to the Cenozoic accretionary complexes of the Pacific rim.

  11. Accretion in the wake of terrane collision: The Neogene accretionary wedge off Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fruehn, J.; Von Huene, R.; Fisher, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Subduction accretion and repeated terrane collision shaped the Alaskan convergent margin. The Yakutat Terrane is currently colliding with the continental margin below the central Gulf of Alaska. During the Neogene the terrane's western part was subducted after which a sediment wedge accreted along the northeast Aleutian Trench. This wedge incorporates sediment eroded from the continental margin and marine sediments carried into the subduction zone on the Pacific plate. Prestack depth migration was performed on six seismic reflection lines to resolve the structure within this accretionary wedge and its backstop. The lateral extent of the structures is constrained by high-resolution swath bathymetry and seismic lines collected along strike. Accretionary structure consists of variably sized thrust slices that were deformed against a backstop during frontal accretion and underplating. Toward the northeast the lower slope steepens, the wedge narrows, and the accreted volume decreases notwith-standing a doubling of sediments thickness in the trench. In the northeasternmost transect, near the area where the terrane's trailing edge subducts, no frontal accretion is observed and the slope is eroded. The structures imaged along the seismic lines discussed here most likely result from progressive evolution from erosion to accretion, as the trailing edge of the Yakutat Terrane is subducting.

  12. Generation of new continental crust and terrane accretion in Southeastern Alaska and Western British Columbia: constraints from P- and S-wave wide-angle seismic data (ACCRETE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Igor B.; Smithson, Scott B.; Chen, Jingru; Hollister, Lincoln S.

    2001-11-01

    The ACCRETE study addresses the question of continental assemblage in southeastern Alaska and western British Columbia through accretion of exotic terranes and generation of new crust by magmatic addition in a former continental arc. We present results of wide-angle P- and S-wave seismic interpretation of a 300-km long marine-land seismic line across the contacts between accreted terranes and Coast Mountains. Additional constraints on the model are obtained from correlation with geologic mapping. Our results indicate that the Coast Shear Zone (CSZ) is a nearly vertical fault zone probably related to a transpressive regime. West of the CSZ, the mid-Cretaceous (90 Ma) thrust belt is rooted in the deep crust and is truncated by the CSZ. From the interpretation of the imaged sub-vertical reflecting zones, we infer the positions of the Alexander-Wrangellia terrane boundary (AWB) and of Tertiary extensional grabens within Dixon Entrance near its intersection with the profile. The observed values of Vp and Vp/Vs in the lower crust of the Alexander terrane are similar to those of oceanic crust and distinctly different from the Coast Mountains Batholith (CMB) to the northeast. The crust under the CMB (32 km) is thinner than the average continental crust, and the Moho is sharp (˜200 m) and highly reflective. The low-velocity mantle (7.9 km/s) suggests high temperature consistent with the stability of garnet in mafic rocks in the lower crust. The lower crustal velocity of 6.9 km/s supports a lower crust composed of interlayered garnet pyroxene granulite and quartzofeldspathic-restite related to batholith generation. The crustal section under the CMB is seismically identical to the lower two thirds of normal crust, heated and inflated by intrusions of tonalite, and gabbro interlayered with restites from batholith generation and uplifted during exhumation.

  13. Assessment of Paleozoic terrane accretion along the southern central Andes using detrital zircon geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, R.; Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.; Fosdick, J. C.; Capaldi, T.; Stockli, D. F.; Alvarado, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Two distinct Paleozoic terranes known as Cuyania and Chilenia occupy the southern central Andes of Argentina and Chile. Because the proposed terrane boundaries coincide with major structural elements of the modern Andean system at 30-36°S, it is important to understand their origins and potential role in guiding later Andean deformation. The Cuyania terrane of western Argentina encompasses the Precordillera (PC) and a thick-skinned thrust block of the western Sierras Pampeanas, persisting southward to the San Rafael Basin (SRB). Although recently challenged, Cuyania has been long considered a piece of southern Laurentia that rifted away during the early Cambrian and collided with the Argentine margin during the Ordovician. Chilenia is situated west of Cuyania and includes the Frontal Cordillera (FC) and Andean magmatic arc. This less-studied terrane was potentially accreted during an enigmatic Devonian orogenic event. We present new detrital zircon U-Pb age data from siliciclastic sedimentary rocks that span the entire Paleozoic to Triassic from the FC, PC, and SRB. Cambrian rocks of the PC exhibit similar zircon age distributions with prominent ~1.4 and subordinate ~1.1 Ga populations, which are distinct from other Paleozoic strata. Plutonic rocks with these ages are common in southern Laurentia, whereas ~1.4 Ga zircons are uncommon in South American age distributions. This supports a Laurentian origin for Cuyania in isolation from Argentina during the Cambrian. Upper Paleozoic strata from the PC, FC, and SRB all yield similar age data suggesting shared provenance across the proposed Cuyania-Chilenia suture. Age distributions also notably lack Devonian-age grains. The regional paucity of Devonian plutonic rocks and detrital zircon casts doubt on a possible arc system between these terranes at this time, a key requisite for the mid-Paleozoic transfer and accretion of Chilenia to the Argentine margin. Collectively, these data question the precise boundaries of the

  14. Accreted terranes of northwestern British Columbia, Canada: Lithospheric velocity structure and tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Philip T. C.; Clowes, Ron M.

    2004-06-01

    Lithospheric structure beneath the accreted terranes of the northwestern Canadian Cordillera is interpreted from analyses of P wave refraction and wide-angle reflection data. The 535 km long profile extends from the deformed and displaced ancestral North American margin across the Omineca belt suture zone and Intermontane superterrane to the Coast belt. This region is interpreted to have grown westward through a progression from thin-skinned to thick-skinned accretionary tectonics. Large lateral variations of velocities (2.0-6.4 km/s) within the upper 15 km correlate with the mapped geological and terrane elements; fault offsets and the imbricated base of an overlap basin are clearly identified. Inboard of the Stikine accreted terrane a zone of slow upper crustal velocities thins to the east, consistent with an interpretation of thin-skinned accretion leaving slivers of terranes overlying a wedge of metamorphosed Proterozoic continental margin sediments. However, in the lower crust the proposed underlying cratonic ramp is not distinguished from outboard or overlying accreted crust by lateral P velocity contrasts or wide-angle reflections. The Moho remains nearly horizontal beneath the Intermontane and Omineca belts, gradually thinning to the east from 36.5 to 35 km. To the southwest below the Coast belt and to the northeast beneath the Tintina fault, the crust thins to 32 km. Upper mantle velocities across the Coast, Intermontane, and Omineca belts are 7.8-7.9 km/s. The slow upper mantle and lower crustal velocities are indicative of high temperatures that may permit the flat Moho or weak lower crust to partially decouple the crust from the mantle. Reflections in the upper mantle between 50-70 km depth may be related to the base of the lithosphere or to heterogeneities introduced through melting or accretionary subduction events.

  15. Crustal structure of accreted terranes in southern Alaska, Chugach Mountains and Copper River Basin, from seismic refraction results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuis, G.S.; Ambos, E.L.; Mooney, W.D.; Christensen, N.I.; Geist, E.

    1991-01-01

    Seismic refraction data were collected along a 320-km-long "transect' line in southern Alaska, crossing the Prince William, Chugach, Peninsular, and Wrangellia terranes, and along several shorter lines within individual terranes. Velocity structure in the upper crust (less than 9-km depth) differs among the four terranes. In contrast, layers in the middle crust (9- to 25-km depth) in some case extend across projected terrane boundaries. The top of a gently north dipping sequence of low- and high-velocity layers (5.7-7.8 km/s), more than 10 km thick, extends from near the surface in the southern Chugach terrane to more than 20-km depth beneath the southern Peninsular terrane. This sequence, truncated by the suture between the Prince William and Chugach terranes, is interpreted to be an underplated "terrane' made up of fragments of the Kula plate and its sedimentary overburden that were accreted during subduction in the late Mesozoic and/or early Tertiary, during or between times of accretion of the Prince William and Chugach terranes. -from Authors

  16. Three-dimensional velocity structure of Siletzia and other accreted terranes in the Cascadia forearc of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Wells, R.E.; Fisher, M.A.; Flueh, E.; ten Brink, U.S.

    1999-01-01

    Eocene mafic crust with high seismic velocities underlies much of the Oregon and Washington forearc and acts as a backstop for accretion of marine sedimentary rocks from the obliquely subducting Juan de Fuca slab. Arc-parallel migration of relatively strong blocks of this terrane, known as Siletzia, focuses upper crustal deformation along block boundaries, which are potential sources of earthquakes. In a three-dimensional velocity model of coastal Washington, we have combined surface geology, well data, and travel times from earthquakes and controlled source seismic experiments to resolve the major boundaries of the Siletz terrane with the adjacent accreted sedimentary prism and volcanic arc. In southern Washington and northern Oregon the Siletz terrane appears to be a thick block (???20 km) that extends west of the coastline and makes a high-angle contact with the offshore accreted sedimentary prism. On its east flank the high-velocity Siletz terrane boundary coincides with an en echelon zone of seismicity in the arc. In northern Washington the western edge of Siletzia makes a lower-angled, fault-bound contact with the accretionary prism. In addition, alternating, east-west trending uplifts and downwarps of the Siletz terrane centered on the antiformal Olympic Mountains may reflect focusing of north-south compression in the northern part of the Siletz terrane. This compressional strain may result from northward transport and clockwise rotation of the Siletz terrane into the relatively fixed Canadian Coast Mountains restraining bend along the coast.

  17. From Back-Arc Drifting to Arc Accretion: the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Evolution of the Guerrero Terrane in Central Mexico (Sierra de Guanajuato)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, M.; Solari, L.; Centeno-García, E.; Mori, L.; Camprubi, A.

    2011-12-01

    Three paleogeographic scenarios have been proposed for the Mesozoic volcano-sedimentary successions that compose the Guerrero terrane, western Mexico. In the "type 1" scenario the Guerrero terrane is an exotic Pacific arc accreted to nuclear Mexico by the consumption of a pre-Cretaceous oceanic basin, named Arperos Basin. The "type 2" scenario considers the Guerrero terrane as a fringing multi-arc system, accreted by the closure of relatively small pre-Cretaceous oceanic basins at multiple subduction zones with varying polarities. Alternatively, in the "type 3" scenario the Guerrero terrane is interpreted as a North American west-facing para-autochthonous arc, which drifted into the paleo-Pacific domain by the opening of the Cretaceous back-arc oceanic Arperos Basin, and subsequently accreted back to the Mexican mainland. In order to test these reconstructions and understand the dynamics of the arc accretion, we present here a combined study that includes sandstone provenance, U-Pb geochronology, and structural data from the Arperos Basin in the Sierra de Guanajuato, central Mexico. Our data document that the Arperos Basin developed in a back-arc setting, and evolved from continental to oceanic conditions from the Late Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous. Sandstone provenance analysis shows an asymmetric distribution of the infill sources for the Arperos Basin: continent-recycled sedimentary rocks were deposited along its north-eastern side, whereas magmatic arc-recycled clastic rocks developed at its south-western side. Such an asymmetric distribution closely fits with sedimentological models proposed for present-day continent-influenced back-arc basins. Based on these evidences, we favor a "type 3" scenario for the Guerrero terrane, which is then considered to represent a detached slice of the Mexican leading-edge that drifted in the paleo-Pacific domain during Late Jurassic-lower Early Cretaceous back-arc extension, and subsequently accreted back to the Mexican

  18. Paleoproterozoic Cordilleran-style accretion along the south eastern margin of the eastern Dharwar craton: Evidence from the Vinjamuru arc terrane of the Krishna orogen, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Chiranjeeb; Vadlamani, Ravikant; Kaptan, Om Prakash

    2016-10-01

    Cordilleran-style accretion involving development of an intra-oceanic arc due to ocean-ward migration following the earlier choking of the subduction zone at an active continental margin, caused probably by the North China crustal ribbon that had by ~ 1.78 Ga accreted to the EDC margin. The formation of the outboard intra-oceanic Ongole arc terrane occurred thereafter and was eventually accreted (and metamorphosed) to the Vinjamuru arc terrane between ~ 1.63 and 1.55 Ga to form the two arc terranes of the Krishna orogen; we discount any continental collision at this stage as tectonics along this margin, post 1.5 Ga, switched to an extensional regime.

  19. Diapirs of the Mediterranean ridge: The tectonic regime of an incipient accreted terrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mart, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The occurrence of diapirs in the Mediterranean ridge stems mostly from the massive deposition of salt and gypsum in the Mediterranean basin during the late Miocean. The diapiric emplacement of the evaporitic sequence is not obvious, because the mobilization of the salt beds and the initiation of the diapiric upward flow are constrained by the relatively shallow thickness of the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary overburden and by the low heat flow that prevails in the eastern Mediterranean. The diapirs consist also of early Cretaceous shales as well as other gravitationally metastable strata which are less mobile than salt. Studies of subduction trenches and their surroundings show that shallow ridges occur seaward of the trenches in many places. The collisional motion between the African and the Eurasian plates would further enhance accretion of sediments in the Mediterranean ridge, which would attain subaerial exposure, and eventually would become a mountain range accreted to southern Europe. The numerous diapirs of salt and shales that occur in the ridge would be common features in the future accreted terrane, indicating an intermediate extensional phase in the tectonic history of the development of crustal growth.

  20. Crust and lithosphere structure of the northwestern U.S. with ambient noise tomography: Terrane accretion and Cascade arc development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haiying; Humphreys, Eugene D.; Yao, Huajian; van der Hilst, Robert D.

    2011-04-01

    To address the tectonic and magmatic modifications of the Pacific Northwest lithosphere, including transformation of the Farallon oceanic terrane "Siletzia" into continent, we study the crust and uppermost mantle of the Pacific Northwest with fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave ambient noise tomography using periods 6-40 s, resolving isotropic shear-wave velocity structure from the surface to 70 km depth (3 crustal layers and 2 upper mantle layers). We optimize this estimate with the aid of a neighborhood search algorithm, which we also use with receiver functions to estimate Moho depth. Horizontal node spacing is 0.25°. The EarthScope Transportable Array, the Wallowa array, a portion of the High Lava Plains array, and seven permanent stations are joined to achieve high resolution. Very slow western Columbia Basin upper crust above very fast lower crust expresses the large Eocene sedimentary basins above a magmatically underplated crust of extended Siletzia lithosphere. High-velocity lower crust in adjacent areas to the east and south represents Siletzia thrust under the pre-accretion North America forearc. This interpretation is supported by an anomalous absence of post-accretion magmatism in these areas, implying an absence of slab removal. The southeast termination of the fast lower crust is especially strong and sharp about 35 km southeast of the Klamath-Blue Mountains gravity lineament, suggesting the Farallon slab to the southeast was torn away. The Columbia River Flood Basalts erupted at ~ 16 Ma, apparently creating a hole of diameter ~ 150 km in the edge of the underthrust Siletzia lithosphere. The magmatically active Oregon Cascade arc is slow at all depths, and the much less active Washington Cascades tend to have a volcano-centered structure that is slow in the lower crust but fast in the upper crust and upper mantle. This structure suggests that magmatic intrusion has increased upper crustal velocity, but that the higher temperatures beneath the active

  1. Middle Jurassic strata link Wallowa, Olds Ferry, and Izee terranes in the accreted Blue Mountains island arc, northeastern Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.D.L. ); Vallier, T. ); Stanley, G.D. Jr. ); Ash, S.R. ); White, D.L.

    1992-08-01

    Middle Jurassic strata atop the Wallowa terrane in northeastern Oregon link the Wallowa, Izee, and Olds Ferry terranes as related elements of a single long-lived and complex oceanic feature, the Blue Mountains island arc. Middle Jurassic strata in the Wallowa terrane include a dacitic ash-flow deposit and contain fossil corals and bivalves of North American affinity. Plant fossils in fluvial sandstones support a Jurassic age and indicate a seasonal temperate climate. Corals in a transgressive sequence traditionally overlying the fluvial units are of Bajocian age and are closely related to endemic varieties of the Western Interior embayment. They are unlike Middle Jurassic corals in other Cordilleran terranes; their presence suggests that the Blue Mountains island arc first approached the North American craton at high paleolatitudes in Middle Jurassic time. The authors consider the Bajocian marine strata and underlying fluvial volcaniclastic units to be a basin-margin equivalent of the Izee terrane, a largely Middle Jurassic (Bajocian) succession of basinal volcaniclastic and volcanic rocks known to overlie the Olds Ferry and Baker terranes.

  2. Zircon dating of oceanic crustal accretion.

    PubMed

    Lissenberg, C Johan; Rioux, Matthew; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Bowring, Samuel A; Mével, Catherine

    2009-02-20

    Most of Earth's present-day crust formed at mid-ocean ridges. High-precision uranium-lead dating of zircons in gabbros from the Vema Fracture Zone on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge reveals that the crust there grew in a highly regular pattern characterized by shallow melt delivery. Combined with results from previous dating studies, this finding suggests that two distinct modes of crustal accretion occur along slow-spreading ridges. Individual samples record a zircon date range of 90,000 to 235,000 years, which is interpreted to reflect the time scale of zircon crystallization in oceanic plutonic rocks.

  3. Slab window migration and terrane accretion preserved by low-temperature thermochronology of a magmatic arc, northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenthner, William R.; Barbeau, David L.; Reiners, Peter W.; Thomson, Stuart N.

    2010-03-01

    Existing paleogeographic reconstructions indicate that the northern Antarctic Peninsula was central to several Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic events that have implications for ocean circulation and continental margin evolution. To evaluate the exhumational record of these processes, we collected new samples and measured fission track and (U-Th)/He cooling ages of apatite and zircon from 13 Jurassic and Cretaceous granitoids in western Graham Land between the northern tip of the peninsula and the Antarctic Circle. Apatite He data reveal distinct ages and systematic age patterns north and south of Anvers Island, near the midpoint of the study area: To the south, apatite He ages range from 16 to 8 Ma and young northward, whereas to the north they range between 65 and 24 Ma (with one exception at 11 Ma) and young southward. Thermal histories inferred from the ages and closure temperatures of multiple thermochronometers in single samples indicate distinct histories for northern and southern Graham Land. Northern sites reveal a Late Cretaceous pulse of rapid cooling (>7°C/Myr) followed by very slow cooling (˜1°C/Myr) to the Recent, whereas southern sites record either a pulse of rapid mid-Miocene cooling (˜8°C/Myr) or steady and moderate cooling (˜3°C/Myr) from the Late Cretaceous to the Recent. We interpret the Late Cretaceous rapid cooling in the northern part of the study area as a possible manifestation of terrane accretion associated with the Palmer Land event. We interpret the systematic spatial trends in apatite He ages and contrasting thermal histories along the peninsula as recording progressive Late Cenozoic northward opening of a slab window south of Anvers Island. This is consistent with a time transgressive pulse of ˜2-3 km of rock uplift and exhumation in the upper plate following ridge-trench collision, cessation of subduction, and opening of the slab window, presumably caused by increased asthenospheric upwelling beneath the overriding plate.

  4. Terranes and suture zones in east central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churkin, M., Jr.; Foster, H. L.; Chapman, R. M.; Weber, F. R.

    1982-05-01

    East central Alaska, with its 17 terranes, forms a part of the mosaic of allochthonous terranes that join the North American and Siberian plates. These terranes range from continental and continental margin, such as the Tatonduk with its thick well-bedded succession of marine shelf rocks, to seamount, arc, and ocean floor terranes. The Yukon crystalline terrane, the largest described here, is a composite of at least four subterranes juxtaposed across the Tintina fault with the Tatonduk terrane, a northwestern extension of the North American plate in Alaska. Inboard of the Yukon crystalline terrane are packets of closely appressed microterranes separated from the Tatonduk and other terranes belonging to North America by major suture zones. These microterranes lie between North America and the mosaic of accretionary terranes that form the more southerly part of Alaska. The most obviously allochthonous microterranes within the suture zones are the Woodchopper Canyon, an Early Devonian basaltic seamount, and the White Mountains, an Ordovician volcanic arc terrane capped by Silurian and Devonian carbonate bank deposits. The nearest counterpart of these terranes is the Alexander terrane in southeastern Alaska. The Tintina fault of Mesozoic and Cenozoic age, like the Denali fault, primarily follows old suture zones that separate terranes. Strike slip faulting developed after collision in places where further convergence was oblique to the terrane margins. Where terranes met head-on, their leading edges lie along a multiple set of high-angle faults that outline microterranes in accretion zones.

  5. Strontium and oxygen isotopic evidence for strike/slip movement of accreted terranes in the Idaho Batholith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Elizabeth M.; Beard, Brian L.; Valley, John W.

    2007-07-01

    The oxygen and strontium isotope compositions of granitic rocks of the Idaho Batholith provide insight into the magma source, assimilation processes, and nature of the suture zone between the Precambrian craton and accreted arc terranes. Granitic rocks of the Idaho Batholith intrude basement rocks of different age: Triassic/Jurassic accreted terranes to the west of the Salmon River suture zone and the Precambrian craton to the east. The age difference in the host rocks is reflected in the abrupt increase in the initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of granitic rocks in the batholith across the previously defined 0.706 line. Initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of granitic rocks along Slate Creek on the western edge of the batholith jump from less than 0.704 to greater than 0.707 along an approximately 700 m transect normal to the Salmon River suture. Initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios along the Slate Creek transect do not identify a transition zone between accreted arcs and the craton and suggest a unique tectonic history during or after suturing that is not documented along other transects on the west side of the Idaho Batholith. The lack of transition zone along Slate Creek may be a primary structure due to transcurrent/transpressional movement rather than by contractional thrust faulting during suturing or be the result of post-imbrication modification.

  6. The Precambrian terranes of Yemen and their correlation with those of Saudi Arabia and Somalia: Implications for the accretion of Gondwana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windley, B.F.; Whitehouse, M.J.; Stoeser, D.B.; Al-Khirbash, S.; Ba-Bttat, M. A. O.; Al-Ghotbah, A.

    2001-01-01

    Most of the basement of Yemen consists of early Precambrian continental high-grade terranes and Neoproterozoic low-grade island arcs that were accreted together to form an arc-continent collage during the Pan-African orogeny (Windley et al., 1996; Whitehouse et al., 1998; Whitehouse et al., in press). The suture zones between the arc and gneiss terranes are major crustal- scale tectonic boundaries. The terranes are situated east of the Nabitah suture and of the collage of low-grade, mainly island arc terranes of the Arabian Shield, but they have been reworked by a Neoproterozoic event associated with island arc accretion. Further east in Yemen are mostly unconformable, very weakly deformed and very low-grade or unmetamorphosed sediments. Thus Yemen provides key information on the broad zone of Neoproterozoic reworking associated with the collisional boundary between western and eastern Gondwana. 

  7. Bokan Mountain peralkaline granitic complex, Alexander terrane (southeastern Alaska): evidence for Early Jurassic rifting prior to accretion with North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dostal, Jaroslav; Karl, Susan M.; Keppie, J. Duncan; Kontak, Daniel J.; Shellnutt, J. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The circular Bokan Mountain complex (BMC) on southern Prince of Wales Island, southernmost Alaska, is a Jurassic peralkaline granitic intrusion about 3 km in diameter that crosscuts igneous and metasedimentary rocks of the Alexander terrane. The BMC hosts significant rare metal (rare earth elements, Y, U, Th, Zr, and Nb) mineralization related to the last stage of BMC emplacement. U–Pb (zircon) and 40Ar/39Ar (amphibole and whole-rock) geochronology indicates the following sequence of intrusive activity: (i) a Paleozoic basement composed mainly of 469 ± 4 Ma granitic rocks; (ii) intrusion of the BMC at 177 ± 1 Ma followed by rapid cooling through ca. 550 °C at 176 ± 1 Ma that was synchronous with mineralization associated with vertical, WNW-trending pegmatites, felsic dikes, and aegirine–fluorite veins and late-stage, sinistral shear deformation; and (iii) intrusion of crosscutting lamprophyre dikes at >150 Ma and again at ca. 105 Ma. The peralkaline nature of the BMC and the WNW trend of associated dikes suggest intrusion during NE–SW rifting that was followed by NE–SW shortening during the waning stages of BMC emplacement. The 177 Ma BMC was synchronous with other magmatic centres in the Alexander terrane, such as (1) the Dora Bay peralkaline stock and (2) the bimodal Moffatt volcanic suite located ~30 km north and ~100 km SE of the BMC, respectively. This regional magmatism is interpreted to represent a regional extensional event that precedes deposition of the Late Jurassic – Cretaceous Gravina sequence that oversteps the Wrangellia and Alexander exotic accreted terranes and the Taku and Yukon–Tanana pericratonic terranes of the Canadian–Alaskan Cordillera.

  8. Biogeographic complexity in Triassic bivalves of the Wallowa terrane, northwestern US: oceanic islands, not continents, provide the best analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, C.R.

    1987-12-01

    High levels of endemism and complex, overlapping biogeographic patterns characterize modern molluscan faunas of the Hawaiian Islands and the Triassic bivalve fauna of the Wallowa volcanic-arc terrane in Hells Canyon, Oregon. Such biogeographic complexities and high levels of endemism in many modern and Mesozoic island settings constrain the use of faunal data as a primary basis for paleogeographic reconstruction of accreted terranes. Large, taxonomically diver samples are required to identify genuine biogeographic patterns in these insular settings. Selective use of individual species, genera, or families to reconstruct terrane paleogeography may give misleading results.

  9. Ocean plateau-seamount origin of basaltic rocks, Angayucham terrane, central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, F.; Jones, D.L.; Budahn, J.R.; Coney, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Angayucham terrane of north-central Alaska (immediately S of the Brooks Range) is a large (ca. 500 km E-W), allochthonous complex of Devonian to Lower Jurassic pillow basalt, diabase sills, gabbro plutons, and chert. The mafic rocks are transitional normal-to-enriched, mid-ocean-ridge (MORB) type tholeiites (TiO2 1.2-3.4%, Nb 7-23 ppm, Ta 0.24-1.08 ppm, Zr 69-214 ppm, and light REE's slightly depleted to moderately enriched). Geologic and geochemical constraints indicate that Angayucham terrane is the upper "skin' (ca. 3-4 km thick) of a long-lived (ca. 170-200 ma) oceanic plateau whose basaltic-gabbroic rocks are like those of seamounts of the East Pacific Rise. -Authors

  10. Aleutian terranes from Nd isotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, R. W.; Kay, S. M.; Rubenstone, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Nd isotope ratios substantiate the identification of oceanic crustal terranes within the continental crustal basement of the Aleutian island arc. The oceanic terranes are exposed in the westernmost Aleutians, but to the east, they are completely buried by isotopically distinct arc-volcanic rocks. Analogous oceanic terranes may be important components of the terrane collages that comprise the continents.

  11. Hurricane Mountain Formation melange: history of Cambro-Ordovician accretion of the Boundary Mountains terrane within the northern Appalachian orthotectonic zone

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, G.M.; Boudette, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Hurricane Mountain Formation (HMF) melange and associated ophiolitic and volcanogenic formations of Cambrian and lowermost Ordovician age bound the SE margin of the Precambrian Y (Helikian) Chain Lakes Massif in western Maine. HMF melange matrix, though weakly metamorphosed, contains a wide variety of exotic greenschist to amphibolite facies blocks as components of its polymictic assemblage, but blocks of high-grade cratonal rocks such as those of Chain Lakes or Grenville affinity are lacking. Formations of melange exposed in structural culminations of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks NE of the HMF in Maine and in the Fournier Group in New Brunswick are lithologically similar and probably tectonically correlative with the HMF; taken together, they may delineate a common pre-Middle Ordovician tectonic boundary. The authors infer that the Hurricane Mountain and St. Daniel melange belts define the SE and NW margins of the Boundary Mountains accreted terrane (BMT), which may consist of cratonal basement of Chain Lakes affinity extending from eastern Gaspe (deBroucker and St. Julien, 1985) to north-central New Hampshire. The Laurentian continental margin, underlain by Grenville basement, underplated the NW margin of this terrane, marked by the SDF suture zone, in late Cambrian to early Ordovician time, while terranes marked by Cambrian to Tremadocian (.) lithologies dissimilar to the Boundary Mountains terrane were accreted to its outboard margin penecontemporaneously. The docking of the Boundary Mountains terrane and the initiation of its peripheral melanges are equated to the Penobscottian disturbance.

  12. Tectonostratigraphic terranes of the frontier circum-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, D.G.; Jones, D.L.; Schermer, E.R.

    1983-03-01

    Many major exploration frontiers around the Pacific are in regions where complex geologic relations reflect plate-tectonic processes, crustal mobility, and accretion of exotic terranes. The destruction of the proto-Pacific ocean (Panthalassa) involved accretion of terranes to cratonal regions such as Gondwana and Laurasia. Terranes in southwestern New Zealand and eastern Antarctica were also probably accreted during the Paleozoic. The southern margin of Siberia, extending into China, underwent a protracted period of accretion from the late Precambrian through the early Mesozoic. Mid-Paleozoic accretion is reflected in the Innuitian foldbelt of the Arctic Ocean, the Black Clastic unit of the northern Rocky Mountains, and the Antler orogeny of the western US cordillera. The Mesozoic breakup of Pangaea and the acceleration of subduction aided in the rifting and dispersal of terranes from equatorial paleolatitudes. Fragments of these terranes now compose much of the continental margins of the Pacific basin, including New Zealand, Indochina, southern China, southeast Siberia, the North American cordillera, and South America. Some terranes are presently being further fragmented by post-accretionary dispersion processes such as strike-slip faulting in western North America and Japan. Although the character and distribution of terranes in the western US are fairly well documented, details are needed for other terranes around the Pacific basin. Interpretation of structure and stratigraphy at depth will be aided by more data on the timing of accretion and the nature of deformation associated with accretion and dispersion. Such data are needed for further define specific exploration targets in the circum-Pacific region.

  13. Geophysical Modeling of Tectonostratigraphic Terrane Boundaries and Crustal Structure Across a Pacific Ocean-Gulf of Mexico Transect, Southern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Flores-Ruiz, J. H.; Spranger, M.

    2006-12-01

    Geophysical models of terrane boundaries and lithospheric structure beneath southern Mexico derived from gravity and aeromagnetic surveys are presented. The transect crosses southern Mexico from the active Pacific margin to the passive Gulf of Mexico margin, across four distinct terranes (Xolapa, Oaxaca, Juarez and Maya) with Precambrian, Paleozoic and Mesozoic basements and contrasting tectonostratigraphic records. The crust/mantle boundary displays a smooth large amplitude variation along the transect from Puerto Escondido at the Pacific margin to Los Tuxtlas-Alvarado at the Gulf of Mexico, roughly between 28 km and 44 km deep. Crustal thickness variations correspond well with inferred terrane distribution and major surface discontinuities. Suture zones are complex as a result of the kinematics of terrane accretion, contrasting crustal rheological properties, shallow level detachments, post-accretion deformation, thermal conditions and characteristics of relative terrane/plate motions. Pre-suturing characteristics of terranes including crustal structure are difficult to document because of deformation resulting from suturing and any subsequent post-accretion processes. In a simplified way, gravity anomalies from the Pacific margin to the Gulf of Mexico show: large positive 50 mgal anomaly above the continental slope units and the intrusive and metamorphic rocks of the Xolapa complex, then anomalies increasingly negative (with minimum values of -180 mgal over the Acatlan and Oaxaca metamorphics. The Juchatengo mylonitic zone is characterized by a gradient change, while minimum gravity values approximately coincide with the wide mylonitic zone north of Oaxaca city. The Juarez terrane and the region over the Sierra de Juarez is characterized by positive gradient. Finally, the Gulf coastal plain is marked by a positive anomaly in the order of -40 mgal. Geophysical models are combined with the seismic models of the Geolimex profile and used to evaluate the crustal

  14. Late Cretaceous - Paleogene forearc sedimentation and accretion of oceanic plateaus and seamounts along the Middle American convergent margin (Costa Rica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Peter O.; Baumgartner-Mora, Claudia; Andjic, Goran

    2016-04-01

    -derived plateaus and seamounts. Scarce redeposited remnants of Campanian-Maastrichtian and Late Paleocene-Early Eocene shallow water limestones are associated either with shoals on oceanic seamounts such as the Tulín and Quepos Terranes, or on accreted and uplifted plateaus, such as the Inner Osa Igneous Complex. The latter was probably accreted during the Early Paleocene and partly uplifted and maintained in the photic zone during the Late Paleocene - Late Eocene, as indicated by shallow water material both in place (Burica Peninsula, western Panama) and resedimented in deep water hemipelagic series. The Paleocene-Middle Eocene period is punctuated by the accretion of large pieces of plateaus and oceanic islands that may have temporarily extinguished the arc in southern Costa Rica. Only distal (airborne and suspension) volcanic material is known from that time. By Late Eocene, arc-volcanic activity resumed. The accretion of small seamounts and mass wasting of earlier accreted material from the hanging wall created the Osa Mélange. It contains scarce remnants of the insular shallow water carbonates along with a big volume of arc-derived detritals, including upper Eocene shallow water resediments.

  15. Seismic anisotropy of the subcrustal lithosphere in Europe: Another clue to recognition of accreted terranes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babuška, Vladislav; Plomerová, J.

    P-wave residuals computed relative to a reference Earth model and normalized for effects originating in focal regions and along ray paths in the deep mantle provide information on deep lithospheric structure. The variations of the directionally independent representative average residuals, which are computed for waves arriving from different azimuths and with steep incidence angles, reflect compositional and thermal inhomogeneities. In our model they are attributed to variations of the lithosphere thickness. On the other hand, the variations of relative residuals that depend on the angles of azimuth and incidence form spatial patterns suggesting the existence of large-scale dipping anisotropic structures in the subcrustal lithosphere. The P-velocity anisotropy of these structures (9-11% on the average) agrees with the anisotropy of olivine ultramafites as measured in the laboratory. Orientations of the deep anisotropic structures change in the vicinity of important tectonic suture zones, for example, at the suture between the Saxothuringicum and Moldanubicum in central Europe, at the Insubric line in the Alps, and at the deep contact between the Rhodopean Massif and the Moesian Platform in the central Balkans. The structures probably retain preferred orientations of olivine crystals originating from an ancient oceanic lithosphere and may thus represent relict paleosubduction zones by which the continental lithosphere grew in the past.

  16. COMPOSITIONALLY DRIVEN CONVECTION IN THE OCEANS OF ACCRETING NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Medin, Zach; Cumming, Andrew E-mail: cumming@physics.mcgill.ca

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the effect of chemical separation as matter freezes at the base of the ocean of an accreting neutron star, and argue that the retention of light elements in the liquid acts as a source of buoyancy that drives a slow but continual mixing of the ocean, enriching it substantially in light elements, and leading to a relatively uniform composition with depth. We first consider the timescales associated with different processes that can redistribute elements in the ocean, including convection, sedimentation, crystallization, and diffusion. We then calculate the steady-state structure of the ocean of a neutron star for an illustrative model in which the accreted hydrogen and helium burn to produce a mixture of O and Se. Even though the H/He burning produces only 2% oxygen by mass, the steady-state ocean has an oxygen abundance more than 10 times larger, almost 40% by mass. Furthermore, we show that the convective motions transport heat inward, with a flux of {approx}0.2 MeV nucleon{sup -1} for an O-Se ocean, heating the ocean and steepening the outward temperature gradient. The enrichment of light elements and heating of the ocean due to compositionally driven convection likely have important implications for carbon ignition models of superbursts.

  17. Stable Isotope Evidence for a Complex Fluid Evolution of the Northwestern British Columbia Coast Ranges Related to Terrane Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moertle, J.; Holk, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Stable isotope geochemistry reveals a complex fluid evolution for the Western Metamorphic Belt (WMB), Coast Ranges Batholith (CRB), Central Gneiss Complex (CGC) and Coast Ranges Megalineament (CRM). These fluids are a product of a complex tectonic history related to terrane accretion that includes oblique convergence, metamorphism, magmatism, and orogenic collapse. From W-to-E, these fluid systems are as follows. High-pressure greenschist-to-amphibolite facies metasedimentary rocks of the WMB record variable mineral δD (-61 to -104‰) and δ18O (e.g., quartz +9.6 to +13.4‰) values with multiple minerals in apparent isotopic equilibrium (T ~ 450-550°C) suggest a low W/R system dominated by metamorphic fluids. Variable and non-equilibrium δD (-53 to -143‰) and δ18O (e.g., biotite +2.3 to +5.3‰) values from diorites of the Quottoon pluton affected by the ductile CRM suggest a complex evolution that involved both metamorphic and meteoric-hydrothermal fluids in this dextral shear zone; these results differ from those 300 km along strike to the north that documented only metamorphic fluids in the CRM (Goldfarb et al., 1988). Our data and those of Magaritz and Taylor (1976) from granulite facies metasediments of the CGC and plutons of the western CRB reveal homogeneous δD values (-62 to -78‰) and a restricted range of δ18O values (e.g., quartz +8.5 to +11.5‰) with all minerals in equilibrium at T > 570°C indicate a system dominated by magmatic fluids. Calculated whole-rock δ18O values (~ +7‰) for the Quottoon pluton and CRB intrusive rocks suggest a mantle origin for these magmas. Reinterpretation of very low δD (< -150‰) and quartz-feldspar δ18O pairs that display extreme disequilibrium (feldspar δ18O values as low as -5‰) from the Ponder pluton, eastern CRB, and Hazelton Group point reveals that the major meteoric-hydrothermal system that affected these rocks was related to Eocene detachment faulting along the Shames Lake fault system, a

  18. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  19. Origin of narrow terranes and adjacent major terranes occurring along the denali fault in the eastern and central alaska range, alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nokleberg, W.J.; Richter, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    Several narrow terranes occur along the Denali fault in the Eastern and Central Alaska Range in Southern Alaska. These terranes are the Aurora Peak, Cottonwood Creek, Maclaren, Pingston, and Windy terranes, and a terrane of ultramafic and associated rocks. Exterior to the narrow terranes to the south is the majorWrangellia island arc composite terrane, and to the north is the major Yukon Tanana metamorphosed continental margin terrane. Overlying mainly the northern margin of the Wrangellia composite terrane are the Kahiltna overlap assemblage to the west, and the Gravina- Nutzotin-Gambier volcanic-plutonic- sedimentary belt to the east and southeast. The various narrow terranes are interpreted as the result of translation of fragments of larger terranes during two major tectonic events: (1) Late Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous accretion of the Wrangellia island arc composite terrane (or superterrane composed of the Wrangellia, Peninsular, and Alexander terranes) and associated subduction zone complexes; and (2) starting in about the Late Cretaceous, dextral transport of the Wrangellia composite terrane along the Denali fault. These two major tectonic events caused: (1) entrapment of a lens of oceanic lithosphere along the suture belt between the Wrangellia composite terrane and the North American Craton Margin and outboard accreted terranes to form the ultramafic and mafic part of the terrane of ultramafic and associated rocks, (2) subsequent dextral translation along the Denali fault of the terrane of ultramafic and associated rocks, (3) dextral translation along the Denali fault of the Aurora Peak, Cottonwood Creek, and Maclaren and continental margin arc terranes from part of the Coast plutonic-metamorphic complex (Coast-North Cascade plutonic belt) in the southwest Yukon Territory or Southeastern Alaska, (4) dextral translation along the Denali fault of the Pingston passive continental margin from a locus along the North American Continental Margin, and (5

  20. Accretion of Grenvillian terranes to the southwestern border of the Río de la Plata craton, western Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Ricardo; Basei, Miguel A. S.; González, Pablo D.; Sato, Ana M.; Naipauer, Maximiliano; Campos Neto, Mario; Cingolani, Carlos A.; Meira, Vinicius T.

    2011-04-01

    A comprehensive review of the geological, geochronological, and isotopic features of the Mesoproterozoic Grenvillian terranes attached to the southwest of the Río de la Plata craton in Early Paleozoic times is presented in this paper. They are grouped into the northern (sierras de Umango, Maz and del Espinal and surroundings), central (Sierra de Pie de Palo, southern Precordillera and Frontal Cordillera), and southern (San Rafael and Las Matras Blocks) segments. The Mesoproterozoic basement consists mainly of arc related, intermediate to acidic and mafic-ultramafic rocks of 1,244-1,027 Ma, with juvenile, Laurentian affinity. Exception to it is the Maz Group, with a protracted history and reworked character. They are affected by 846-570 Ma, extensional magmatism in the northern and central segments, which represents the Neoproterozoic breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent. Successive passive margin sedimentation is registered in Late Neoproterozoic (~640-580 Ma) and Cambro-Ordovician (~550-470 Ma) times. The southern segment is noted for the younger sedimentation alone, and for showing the exclusive primary unconformable relationship between the Mesoproterozoic basement and Early Ordovician cover. The effects of Early Paleozoic Famatinian orogeny, associated with the collisions of Cuyania and Chilenia terranes, are recorded as main phase (480-450 Ma), late phase (440-420 Ma), and Chanic phase (400-360 Ma). Among them, the tectonothermal climax is the Ordovician main phase, to which klippe and nappe structures typical of collisional orogens are related in the northern and central segments. Preliminary data allow us to suggest a set of paired metamorphic belts, with an outboard high-P/T belt, and an inboard Barrowian P/T belt.

  1. Setting and occurrence of Late Paleozoic radiolarians in the Sylvester allochthon, part of a proto-Pacific ocean floor terrane in the Canadian Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harms, T.A.; Murchey, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    Late Paleozoic radiolarians have been used to establish th allochthon of the Slide Mountain terrane in British Columbia, and have thereby greatly clarified the geology and tectonic history of the terrane. As the Sylvester radiolarian fauna is limited, age assignments were based on a few distinctive and diagnostic robust forms. Radiolarians occur in cherts from a wide variety of different oceanic sequences that are structurally juxtaposed within the Sylvester allochthon. Like others in a suite of correlative terranes that lie along the length of the Cordillera, the Sylvester allochthon and the radiolarian bearing cherts in it derive from the telescoping together of slices from what was, in the late Paleozoic, a large area of the proto-Pacific ocean. ?? 1992.

  2. From Back-arc Drifting to Arc Accretion: the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Evolution of the Guerrero Terrane Recorded by a Major Provenance Change in Sandstones from the Sierra de los Cuarzos, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios Garcia, N. B.; Martini, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Guerrero terrane composed of Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous arc assemblages, were drifted from the North American continental mainland during lower Early Cretaceous spreading in the Arperos back arc basin, and subsequently accreted back to the continental margin in the late Aptian. Although the accretion of the Guerrero terrane represents one of the major tectonic processes that shaped the southern North American Pacific margin, the stratigraphic record related to such a regional event was not yet recognized in central Mexico. Due to the Sierra de los Cuarzos is located just 50 km east of the Guerrero terrane suture belt, its stratigraphic record should be highly sensitive to first order tectonic changes and would record a syn-tectonic deposits related to this major event. In that study area, were identified two main Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous clastic units. The Sierra de los Cuarzos formation represents the lowermost exposed stratigraphic record. Sedimentary structures, sandstones composition, and U-Pb detrital zircon ages document that the Sierra de los Cuarzos formation reflects a vigorous mass wasting along the margin of the North American continental mainland, representing the eastern side of the Arperos back arc basin. Sandstones of the Sierra de los Cuarzos formation are free from detrital contributions related to the Guerrero terrane juvenile sources, indicating that the Arperos Basin acted like an efficient sedimentological barrier that inhibited the influence of the arc massifs on the continental mainland deposits. The Sierra de los Cuarzos formation is overlain by submarine slope deposits of the Pelones formation, which mark a sudden change in the depositional conditions. Provenance analysis documents that sandstones from the Pelones formation were fed by the mafic to intermediate arc assemblages of the Guerrero terrane, as well as by quartz-rich sources of the continental mainland, suggesting that, by the time of deposition of the Pelones

  3. Structural analysis of terrane accretions in the eastern Brooks Range and adjacent areas in central Alaska and Canada. Technical progress report No. 6

    SciTech Connect

    Coney, P.J.; Harms, T.A.

    1985-03-14

    Work on radiolarian separation and identification of samples from the Sylvester Allochthon is nearing completion. A preliminary chronostratigraphic chart showing the age range and lithologic type of all dated units has been drawn. The comparative petrography of lithologies from the Sylvester Allochthon and the Angayucham and Mosquito Terranes, and from deformed clastic rocks of the Venetie Terrane is being studied. Several preliminary structure sections have been drawn across the Sylvester Terrane. (ACR)

  4. The quantum event of oceanic crustal accretion: impacts of diking at mid-ocean ridges.

    PubMed

    Delaney, J R; Kelley, D S; Lilley, M D; Butterfield, D A; Baross, J A; Wilcock, W S; Embley, R W; Summit, M

    1998-07-10

    Seafloor diking-eruptive events represent the irreducible, quantum events of upper oceanic crustal accretion. They record events by which a large portion of the oceanic crust has formed through geological history. Since 1993, the U.S. Navy's real-time Sound Surveillance System has allowed location of ongoing acoustic signatures of dike emplacement and basalt eruptions at ridge crests in the northeast Pacific. These diking-eruptive events trigger a sequence of related, rapidly evolving physical, chemical, and biological processes. Magmatic volatiles released during these events may provide nutrients for communities of subsea-floor microorganisms, some of which thrive in high-temperature anaerobic environments. Many of the organisms identified from these systems are Archaea. If microorganisms can thrive in the water-saturated pores and cracks within deep, volcanically active portions of our planet, other hydrothermally active planets may harbor similar life forms.

  5. The Quantum Event of Oceanic Crustal Accretion: Impacts of Diking at Mid-Ocean Ridges

    PubMed

    Delaney; Kelley; Lilley; Butterfield; Baross; Wilcock; Embley; Summit

    1998-07-10

    Seafloor diking-eruptive events represent the irreducible, quantum events of upper oceanic crustal accretion. They record events by which a large portion of the oceanic crust has formed through geological history. Since 1993, the U.S. Navy's real-time Sound Surveillance System has allowed location of ongoing acoustic signatures of dike emplacement and basalt eruptions at ridge crests in the northeast Pacific. These diking-eruptive events trigger a sequence of related, rapidly evolving physical, chemical, and biological processes. Magmatic volatiles released during these events may provide nutrients for communities of subseafloor microorganisms, some of which thrive in high-temperature anaerobic environments. Many of the organisms identified from these systems are Archaea. If microorganisms can thrive in the water-saturated pores and cracks within deep, volcanically active portions of our planet, other hydrothermally active planets may harbor similar life forms.

  6. Circum-North Pacific tectonostratigraphic terrane map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Monger, James W.H.; Baranov, Boris B.; Byalobzhesky, Stanislav G.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Feeney, Tracey D.; Fujita, Kazuya; Gordey, Steven P.; Grantz, Arthur; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Natal'in, Boris A.; Natapov, Lev M.; Norton, Ian O.; Patton, William W.; Plafker, George; Scholl, David W.; Sokolov, Sergei D.; Sosunov, Gleb M.; Stone, David B.; Tabor, Rowland W.; Tsukanov, Nickolai V.; Vallier, Tracy L.; Wakita, Koji

    1994-01-01

    after accretion of most terranes in the region; (2) Cenozoic and Mesozoic basinal deposits that occur within a terrane or on the craton; (3) plutonic rocks. The postaccretion igneous units are identified by age-lithologic abbreviations and by name. These overlap assemblages and basinal deposits formed mainly during sedimentation and magmatism that occurred after accretion of terranes to each other or to a continental margin. Overlap assemblages provide minimum ages on the timing of accretion of terranes. Some Cenozoic and Mesozoic overlap assemblages and basinal deposits, as well as fragments of terranes, are extensively offset by movement along postaccretion faults. In addition, in onshore areas, the map depicts major preaccretion plutonic rocks that are limited to individual terranes. and in offshore areas. the map depicts major oceanic plates,-ocean floor magnetic lineations. oceanic spreading ridges, and seamounts. The map consists of five sheets. Sheets I and 2 depict, at a scale of I :5.000.000. the tectonostratigraphic terranes. preaccretion plutonic rocks, and postaccretion Cenozoic and Mesozoic overlap sedimentary, volcanic. and plutonic assemblages, and basinal deposits for the Circum- orth Pacific including the Russian Far East, northern Hokkaido Island of Japan, Alaska. the Canadian Cordillera, part of the U.S.A. Pacific Northwest. and adjacent offshore areas. Sheet 3 provides the list of map units for Sheets I and 2. Sheet 4 is a index map showing generalized onshore terranes and overlap assemblages for onshore parts of the Circum-North Pacific at a scale of I: I 0,000,000. Sheet 4 is a guide to the more complicated onshore features depicted on Sheets I and 2. Sheet 5 is an index map showing the major geographic regions for the Circum-North Pacific. Significant differences exist between the representation of onshore and offshore geology on Sheets I and 2. These are: (I) compared to the onshore part of the map, the offshore part is depicted in a more

  7. The internal structure of oceanic plateaus: inferences from obducted Cretaceous terranes in western Colombia and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Andrew C.; Tarney, John; Nivia, Alvaro; Marriner, Giselle F.; Saunders, Andrew D.

    1998-07-01

    Although the structure of mantle plume-derived oceanic plateaus has recently been assessed using remote geophysical techniques combined with petrological modelling, it is nevertheless desirable to test whether these (theoretical) rock types (dunites, gabbros and basalts) actually exist, and to establish their geochemical nature. Oceanic plateaus may have initially formed above or near sea level during a short vigorous pulse, and thereafter commonly subside to abyssal depths as the lithosphere cools, thus making sampling of their deeper levels extremely difficult. However, the Cretaceous-age Colombian-Caribbean oceanic plateau was partially accreted against the South American continent so making the imbricated segments available for study. During the process of plateau accretion and imbrication it is predominantly the basaltic layers which are obducted, but parts of the sequence down to layered and banded gabbros with associated pyroxenites and dunites (sometimes foliated) can be exposed where the imbricate thrusting brings up deeper levels. Most of the upper crustal sequence in western Colombia is composed of basaltic pillowed and massive flows and sills that are chemically uniform and `undepleted' relative to normal mid-ocean ridge basalts. Komatiites and (more abundant) picrites are found at intervals, and appear to occur near the base of the sequence. In these zones both `depleted' and moderately `enriched' basalt and komatiite compositions occur, and may result from dynamic partial melting and mixing processes associated with the high-temperature part of the plume. It is possible to integrate these compositional characteristics into a general model for oceanic plateau structure where the rate of magma supply is in excess of that which can be accommodated by normal spreading processes, thus leading to extrusion of flows and the emplacement of sills and high-level magma chambers (but relatively few dykes). The dense and chemically heterogeneous ultramafic magmas

  8. Sedimentary record of terminal Cretaceous accretions in Ecuador: The Yunguilla Group in the Cuenca area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaillard, Etienne; Bengtson, Peter; Ordoñez, Martha; Vaca, Wilmer; Dhondt, Annie; Suárez, Johnny; Toro, Jorge

    2008-03-01

    A reappraisal of the "Late Cretaceous Yunguilla Formation" of the Cuenca area enables the definition of four distinct formations, correlatable with those of southwestern Ecuador. A mid- to late-Campanian marine transgression (Jadán Formation) is overlain by quartz-rich conglomerates of fan-delta to turbiditic fan environment (Quimas Formation) of latest Campanian-earliest Maastrichtian age, which are interpreted as evidence of the accretion of a first oceanic terrane (San Juan). Disconformable, arkosic turbidites and cherts (Tabacay Formation) of early Maastrichtian age are thought to represent the erosion of the newly accreted oceanic terrane. A major unconformity of late Maastrichtian age, caused by the accretion of a second oceanic terrane (Guaranda), is followed by the deposition of quartz-rich micaceous shelf sandstones (Saquisilí Formation) of Paleocene age. A third accretion event (late Paleocene) is recorded in coastal Ecuador. Each accretion event correlates with the uplift and erosion of the Eastern Cordillera and with a sedimentary hiatus in the eastern areas. In Ecuador, accretion of oceanic terranes contributed to the build up of the Andes through tectonic underplating of low-density material, and the eastern areas did not behave as flexural foreland basins during late Cretaceous-Paleogene times.

  9. Early Paleozoic subduction processes of the Paleo-Asian Ocean: Insights from geochronology and geochemistry of Paleozoic plutons in the Alxa Terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qian; Zhao, Guochun; Sun, Min; Han, Yigui; Eizenhöfer, Paul R.; Hou, Wenzhu; Zhang, Xiaoran; Zhu, Yanlin; Wang, Bo; Liu, Dongxing; Xu, Bing

    2016-10-01

    The Alxa Terrane is situated in a key area between the North China and Tarim cratons. Paleozoic magmatic records in this terrane place important constraints on the subduction processes of the southern Paleo-Asian Ocean. New data of zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock elemental and isotopic data reveal two groups of intermediate to felsic plutons in the Alxa Terrane. One group consists of diorites and granitoids that were emplaced at ca. 460-440 Ma and characterized by lower Al2O3/TiO2 ratios and higher TiO2 contents, implying high temperature-low pressure crystallization conditions and a shallow source region. The second group is dominated by granitoids aged at ca. 420-407 Ma and displays high Sr and Ba, low Y and high rare earth elements, with very high Sr/Y ratios and mostly positive Eu anomalies. These characteristics imply low temperature-high pressure crystallization conditions and source regions at deep crustal levels where garnet is stable in the residual phase. Both of the two groups are mostly calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline, depleted in Nb, Ta and Ti and enriched in Ba, K and Sr, indicative of an arc affinity most likely related to the southward subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Zircon εHf(t) and whole-rock εNd(t) values of these magmatic rocks decrease from 458 Ma to 440 Ma and increase from 417 Ma to 407 Ma, whereas whole-rock initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios display an opposite trend. Such an isotopic change suggests a tectonic switch from an advancing to a retreating subduction regime at ~ 407 Ma. Synthesized data from this and previous studies suggest that the 460-400 Ma magmatic arc in the Alxa Terrane represented the western extension of the Paleozoic arc belt on the northern margin of the North China Craton.

  10. Accretion tectonics and crustal structure in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coney, P.J.; Jones, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    The entire width of the North American Cordillera in Alaska is made up of "suspect terranes". Pre-Late Cretaceous paleogeography is poorly constrained and the ultimate origins of the many fragments which make up the state are unclear. The Prince William and Chugach terranes accreted since Late Cretaceous time and represent the collapse of much of the northeast Pacific Ocean swept into what today is southern Alaska. Greater Wrangellia, a composite terrane now dispersed into fragments scattered from Idaho to southern Alaska, apparently accreted into Alaska in Late Cretaceous time crushing an enormous deep-marine flysch basin on its inboard side. Most of interior eastern Alaska is the Yukon Tanana terrane, a very large entirely fault-bounded metamorphic-plutonic assemblage covering thousands of square kilometers in Canada as well as Alaska. The original stratigraphy and relationship to North America of the Yukon-Tanana terrane are both obscure. A collapsed Mesozoic flysch basin, similar to the one inboard of Wrangellia, lies along the northern margin. Much of Arctic Alaska was apparently a vast expanse of upper Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic deep marine sediments and mafic volcanic and plutonic rocks now scattered widely as large telescoped sheets and Klippen thrust over the Ruby geanticline and the Brooks Range, and probably underlying the Yukon-Koyukuk basin and the Yukon flats. The Brooks Range itself is a stack of north vergent nappes, the telescoping of which began in Early Cretaceous time. Despite compelling evidence for thousands of kilometers of relative displacement between the accreted terranes, and large amounts of telescoping, translation, and rotation since accretion, the resulting new continental crust added to North America in Alaska carries few obvious signatures that allow application of currently popular simple plate tectonic models. Intraplate telescoping and strike-slip translations, delamination at mid-crustal levels, and large-scale lithospheric

  11. TIME-DEPENDENT, COMPOSITIONALLY DRIVEN CONVECTION IN THE OCEANS OF ACCRETING NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Medin, Zach; Cumming, Andrew E-mail: cumming@physics.mcgill.ca

    2015-03-20

    We discuss the effect of convection driven by chemical separation at the ocean-crust boundary of accreting neutron stars. We extend the steady-state results of Medin and Cumming to transient accretors, by considering the time-dependent cases of heating during accretion outbursts and cooling during quiescence. During accretion outbursts, inward heat transport has only a small effect on the temperature profile in the outer layers until the ocean is strongly enriched in light elements, a process that takes hundreds of years to complete. During quiescence, however, inward heat transport rapidly cools the outer layers of the ocean while keeping the inner layers hot. We find that this leads to a sharp drop in surface emission at around a week followed by a gradual recovery as cooling becomes dominated by the crust. Such a dip should be observable in the light curves of these neutron star transients, if enough data is taken at a few days to a month after the end of accretion. If such a dip is definitively observed, it will provide strong constraints on the chemical composition of the ocean and outer crust.

  12. Bedrock geology and tectonic evolution of the Wrangellia, Peninsular, and Chugach terranes along the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect in the Chugach Mountains and southern Copper River Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plafker, G.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Lull, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Trans-Alaskan Crustal Transect in the southern Copper River Basin and Chugach Mountains traverses the margins of the Peninsular and Wrangellia terranes, and the adjacent accretionary oceanic units of the Chugach terrane to the south. The southern Wrangellia terrane margin consists of a polymetamorphosed magmatic arc complex at least in part of Pennsylvanian age (Strelna Metamorphics and metagranodiorite) and tonalitic metaplutonic rocks of the Late Jurassic Chitina magmatic arc. The southern Peninsular terrane margin is underlain by rocks of the Late Triassic(?) and Early Jurassic Talkeetna magmatic arc (Talkeetna Formation and Border Ranges ultramafic-mafic assemblage) on Permian or older basement rocks. The Peninsular and Wrangellia terranes are parts of a dominantly oceanic superterrane (composite Terrane II) that was amalgamated by Late Triassic time and was accreted to terranes of continental affinity north of the Denali fault system in the mid- to Late Cretaceous. The Chugach terrane in the transect area consists of three successively accreted units. A regional thermal event that culminated in early middle Eocene time (48-52 Ma) resulted in widespread greenschist facies metamorphism and plutonism. -from Authors

  13. Petrogenesis of Middle-Late Triassic volcanic rocks from the Gangdese belt, southern Lhasa terrane: Implications for early subduction of Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Ding, Lin; Zhang, Li-Yun; Kapp, Paul; Pullen, Alex; Yue, Ya-Hui

    2016-10-01

    The Gangdese belt is dominantly composed of igneous rocks that formed during the northward subduction of Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath the Lhasa terrane and has played a crucial role in understanding the pre-collisional evolution of southern Tibet. This paper presents new geochronological and geochemical (whole-rock major and trace element and Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotope) data for recently identified volcanic rocks exposed in Changguo area, southernmost part of the Lhasa terrane. Zircon U-Pb dating from six samples yields consistent ages of 237.1 ± 1.1 Ma to 211.7 ± 1.5 Ma for magma emplacement through volcanic eruption, showing the Middle-Late Triassic magmatic activity in the southernmost Gangdese Belt. The Changguo volcanic rocks are mainly composed of basaltic and andesitic rocks and exhibit LILE enrichment and HFSE depletion. They also exhibit relatively uniform Nd-Hf isotopic compositions (εNd(t) = + 5.20 to + 7.74 and εHf(t)zircon = + 10.2 to + 15.9). The basaltic magmas were likely sourced from partial melting of sub-arc mantle wedge that was metasomatized by not only the aqueous fluid derived from subducting altered oceanic crust but also hydrous melt derived from subducting seafloor sediments, and subsequently experienced fractional crystallization and juvenile crustal contamination during ascent. The andesitic magmas were generated by partial melting of mafic-ultramafic metasomes through melt/fluid-peridotite reaction at slab-mantle interface. Taking into account the temporal and spatial distribution of the Early Mesozoic magmatic rocks and regional detrital zircon data, we further propose that the northward subduction of Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath the Lhasa terrane commenced by Middle Triassic.

  14. The Basement of the Central Andes: The Arequipa and Related Terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Victor A.

    2008-05-01

    The basement of the Central Andes provides insights for the dispersal of Rodinia, the reconstruction of Gondwana, and the dynamics of terrane accretion along the Pacific. The Paleoproterozoic Arequipa terrane was trapped during collision between Laurentia and Amazonia in the Mesoproterozoic. Ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism correlates with the collapse of the Sunsás-Grenville orogen after 1000 Ma and is related to slab break-off and dispersal of Rodinia. The Antofalla terrane separated in the Neoproterozoic, forming the Puncoviscana basin. Its closure was coeval with the collision of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas. The rift-drift transitions of the early Paleozoic clastic platform showed a gradual younging to the north, in agreement with counterclockwise rotation based on paleomagnetic data of Antofalla. North of Arequipa arc magmatism and high-grade metamorphism are linked to collision of the Paracas terrane in the Ordovician, during the Famatinian orogeny in the Sierras Pampeanas. The early Paleozoic history of the Arequipa massif is explained by a backarc, which further south changed to open oceanic conditions and subsequent collision. The Antofalla terrane reaccreted to the continental margin by the late Ordovician. These accretions and subsequent separations during the Mesoproterozoic, Neoproterozoic early Cambrian, and late Cambrian middle Ordovician are explained by changes in absolute motion of the Gondwana supercontinent during plate global reorganization.

  15. Central role of detachment faults in accretion of slow-spreading oceanic lithosphere.

    PubMed

    Escartín, J; Smith, D K; Cann, J; Schouten, H; Langmuir, C H; Escrig, S

    2008-10-01

    The formation of oceanic detachment faults is well established from inactive, corrugated fault planes exposed on sea floor formed along ridges spreading at less than 80 km Myr(-1) (refs 1-4). These faults can accommodate extension for up to 1-3 Myr (ref. 5), and are associated with one of the two contrasting modes of accretion operating along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The first mode is asymmetrical accretion involving an active detachment fault along one ridge flank. The second mode is the well-known symmetrical accretion, dominated by magmatic processes with subsidiary high-angle faulting and the formation of abyssal hills on both flanks. Here we present an examination of approximately 2,500 km of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between 12.5 and 35 degrees N, which reveals asymmetrical accretion along almost half of the ridge. Hydrothermal activity identified so far in the study region is closely associated with asymmetrical accretion, which also shows high levels of near-continuous hydroacoustically and teleseismically recorded seismicity. Increased seismicity is probably generated along detachment faults that accommodate a sizeable proportion of the total plate separation. In contrast, symmetrical segments have lower levels of seismicity, which occurs primarily at segment ends. Basalts erupted along asymmetrical segments have compositions that are consistent with crystallization at higher pressures than basalts from symmetrical segments, and with lower extents of partial melting of the mantle. Both seismic evidence and geochemical evidence indicate that the axial lithosphere is thicker and colder at asymmetrical sections of the ridge, either because associated hydrothermal circulation efficiently penetrates to greater depths or because the rising mantle is cooler. We suggest that much of the variability in sea-floor morphology, seismicity and basalt chemistry found along slow-spreading ridges can be thus attributed to the frequent involvement of detachment faults

  16. Cooling of the magma ocean due to accretional disruption of the surface insulating layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Sho

    1992-12-01

    Planetary accretion has been considered as a process to heat planets. Some fraction of the kinetic energy of incoming planetesimals is trapped to heat the planetary interior (Kaula, 1979; Davies, 1984). Moreover, blanketing effect of a primary atmosphere (Hayashi et al., 1979; Sasaki, 1990) or a degassed atmosphere (Abe and Matsui, 1986; Zahnle et al., 1988) would raise the surface temperature of the Earth-size planets to be higher than the melting temperature. The primordial magma ocean was likely to be formed during accretion of terrestrial planets. In the magma ocean, if crystallized fractions were heavier than melt, they would sink. But if solidified materials were lighter than the melt (like anorthosite of the lunar early crust) they would float to form a solid shell surrounding the planet. (In an icy satellite, solidified water ice should easily float on liquid water because of its small density.) The surface solid lid would prevent efficient convective heat transfer and slow the interior cooling. Consider that the accretion of planetesimals still continues in this cooling stage. Shock disruption at planetesimal impact events may destroy the solid insulating layer. Even if the layer survives impacts, the surface layer is finally overturned by Rayleigh-Taylor instability, since accreting materials containing metals are heavier than the surface solidified lid of silicates.

  17. The open scars of Latin America: The Bolivian Orocline as a basament-related hinge, and the influence of accreted terranes on the paleomagnetic rotational patterns of the Chilean forearc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Gomez, M. A.; Arriagada, C.; Gómez, I.; Roperch, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    We made a paleomagnetic study in two separate zones of the Chilean forearc, between 18-22ºS and between 28-32ºS, sampling igneous and sedimentary rocks with ages ranging from Triassic to Miocene. More than 500 samples showed a stable magnetization, with hematite and magnetite being the principal carriers of magnetism. The rotation pattern obtained, added to previously published paleomagnetic data, show a continuous database for the Chilean forearc, between 19 and 35ºS, allowing us to separate distinct patterns in 4 major rotational zones: (1) Between 18-19.5ºS there is a strong anticlockwise rotational pattern, in agreement with the data known in southern Peru. (2) Between 19.5-22.5ºS, there is little to no rotation, with the southern limit being related to a major structural feature: The Antofagasta-Calama Lineament. (3) Between 22.5-29ºS there is a strong clockwise rotation pattern of nearly 30º. (4) Between 29-32ºS there is again a little to non-rotational pattern, in the area of the Pampean flat-slab. Overlapping these zones and the recognized accreted terranes boundaries shows a clear spatial relation between these and the limits of the rotated zones. We propose that the limits of this rotational domains can be linked to basament hinge-like weakness zones that helped to create the margin curvatures observed today. Under this model, the bolivian orocline would be the result of the opening of a hinge, helped by other geodynamics features like sea mountains and ridges, at the limit between the old accreted paleozoic terranes of Antofalla and Arequipa.

  18. Tectono-stratigraphic terrane map of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Nokleberg, W.J.; Brew, D.A.; Grantz, A.; Plafker, G.; Moore, T.E.; Patton, W.W. Jr. ); Mollstalcup, E.J. ); Miller, T.P. )

    1993-04-01

    A new terrane map compelled at a scale of 2.5 million is a comprehensive portrayal of the major tectono-stratigraphic terranes, pre-accretionary plutonic rocks, faults or sutures that bound terranes, and younger overlap sedimentary , volcanic, and plutonic assemblages of Alaska. Terranes are divided by tectonic affinity into cratonal, passive continental margin, metamorphosed continental margin, continental margin arc, island arc, oceanic crust, sea mount, ophiolite, accretionary wedge, subduction zone, turbidite basin, and metamorphic environments. Overlap assemblages consist of sequences of sedimentary, volcanic, and plutonic rocks that link or weld together adjacent terranes after emplacement, and provide important constraints on the timing of tectonic juxtaposition. Groups of terranes and overlap assemblages, with similar tectonic environments and geologic histories, can be correlated within Alaska and into the adjacent Canadian Cordillera. These groups include: (1) highly deformed and metamorphosed continental margin terranes (Seward, Coldfoot, Ruby, Yukon-Tanana, Kootenay) that are interpreted either as displaced fragments of the North American or other continental margins; (2) ophiolite terranes (Angayucham, Tozitna, Inoko, Seventymile, Slide Mountain) that are interpreted as remnants of one or more major, long-lived, Paleozoic and early Mesozoic oceanic basins; (3) Jurassic and Early Cretaceous island arc terranes (Koyukuk, Togiak, Nyac) that are interpreted as remnants of a discontinuous, short-lived, Mesoxoic island arc system; and (4) the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous Kahiltna and Gravina-Nutzotin overlap assemblages that are interpreted as parts of a major arc and flysch sequence.

  19. Tectonics and terranes of the Southeastern Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, R.C. )

    1993-02-01

    The southeastern Caribbean plate (Ca) is comprised of the following terranes: Tobago, Grenada Basin, St. Vincent, Araya-Margarita, and Paria-Trinidad-Barbardos (PTB). All are alient relative to South America (SA) east of Caracas except for PTB, which is of continental provenance and parautochthonous and lies within the principal movement zone of the Ca-Sa plate boundary. The Tobago terrane extends between the eastern Venezuelan coastline and the Grenada Basin. On its south, the Tobago terrane overrode PTB and the South American passive margin during Neogene oblique collision. The Mesozoic tectonostratigraphy of the Tobago terrane is not unlike that of the Colombian Basin, suggesting the Tobago may belong to the Pacific-derived Caribbean plate. The Grenada Basin terrane consists of Eocene and older oceanic crust that now occupies the southern Lesser Antilles arc platform and the southern Grenada Basin. Such crust abducted southward below the Tobago terrane in mid-Cenozoic time, probably taking up boundary-normal shortening during oblique collision of the Ca and Sa plates. The oceanic crust of the GB terrane arose by backarc spreading of unknown orientation. The St. Vincent terrane extends north in the Antilles from St. Vincent; it is defined by thick crust, perhaps an old arc basement. The Araya-Margarita terrane is a probable subduction complex of Mesozoic age of metamorphism that has been transported far eastward from an unknown site with the Ca plate.

  20. Continental accretion: contrasting Mesozoic and Early Proterozoic tectonic regimes in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condie, Kent C.; Chomiak, Beverly

    1996-11-01

    Mesozoic terranes, tectonic setting may differ, whereas in most Early Proterozoic terranes tectonic setting appears to have remained the same. Unlike the Mesozoic terranes, which were fragmented during collision and displaced along transcurrent faults, Early Proterozoic terranes show no evidence of major transcurrent offset. Using accretion age windows of 120 My for the Mesozoic and 115 My for the Early Proterozoic, we obtain total crustal accretion rates of 1.33 km 3/y and 1.73 km 3/y, respectively, for 6000 km of strike length in each case. Early Proterozoic crustal accretion in southwestern North America was strikingly different from that in northwestern North America during the Mesozoic. Mesozoic accretion involves transformation of mafic oceanic terranes into continental crust. In contrast, most of the juvenile Early Proterozoic crust appears to have evolved directly into mature continental crust without passing through an 'oceanic' stage. This probably occurred in a continental margin arc system. Our results also indicate that oceanic terranes cannot evolve into continental crust as closed chemical systems. Although some Mesozoic oceanic terranes began to evolve into continental crust before accretion to North America, most of the transition occurred during and shortly after accretion. This may have been accomplished by incompatible element enrichment associated with subduction-related processes beneath collisionally thickened crust. The accreted Mesozoic crust has not yet evolved into mature continental crust and whether it will depends on the duration of subduction processes along the continental margin in the future.

  1. The Khida terrane - Geology of Paleoproterozoic rocks in the Muhayil area, eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeser, D.B.; Whitehouse, M.J.; Stacey, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The bulk of the Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia is underlain by Neoproterozoic terranes of oceanic affinity that were accreted during Pan-African time (about 680- 640Ma). Geologicalmappingandisotopicinvestigations during the 1980’s,however, provided the first evidence for Paleoproterozoic continental crust within the east- central part of the shield in Saudi Arabia. These studies delineated an older basement domain, herein referred to as the Khida terrane (Fig. l), which is defined as that part of the southern Afif composite terrane underlain by Paleoproterozoicto Archean continental crust (Stoeser and Stacey, 1988). The isotopic and geochronologic work to support our current studies within the Khida terrane are discussed in a companion abstract (Whitehouse et al., this volume). The regional geology and geochronology of the region has been summarized in detail by Johnson (1996). The current study is based on the continued use of samples previously collected in the Khida area by the authors and others as well as new field work conducted by us in 1999. This work further defines the occurrence of late Paleoproterozoic rocks at Jabal Muhayil, which is located at the eastern margin of the exposed terrane (Fig. 1). Our isotopic work is at an early stage and this abstract partly relates geologic problems that remain to be resolved. 

  2. Tracing source terranes using U-Pb-Hf isotopic analysis of detrital zircons: provenance of the Orhanlar Unit of the Palaeotethyan Karakaya subduction-accretion complex, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustaömer, Timur; Ayda Ustaömer, Petek; Robertson, Alastair; Gerdes, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Sandstones of the Late Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic Karakaya Complex are interpreted to have accumulated along an active continental margin related to northward subduction of Palaeotethys. The age of deposition and provenance of the sandstones are currently being determined using radiometric dating of detrital zircons, coupled with dating of potential source terranes. Our previous work shows that the U-Pb-Hf isotopic characteristics of the sandstones of all but one of the main tectonostratigraphic units of the Karakaya Complex are compatible with a provenance that was dominated by Triassic and Permo-Carboniferous magmatic arc-type rocks, together with a minor contribution from Lower to Mid-Devonian igneous rocks (Ustaömer et al. 2015). However, one of the tectono-stratigraphic units, the Orhanlar Unit, which occurs in a structurally high position, differs in sedimentary facies and composition from the other units of the Karakaya Complex. Here, we report new isotopic age data for the sandstones of the Orhanlar Unit and also from an extensive, associated tectonic slice of continental metamorphic rocks (part of the regional Sakarya Terrane). Our main aim is to assess the provenance of the Orhanlar Unit sandstones in relation to the tectonic development of the Karakaya Complex as a whole. The Orhanlar Unit is composed of shales, sandstone turbidites and debris-flow deposits, which include blocks of Devonian radiolarian chert and Carboniferous and Permian neritic limestones. The sandstones are dominated by rock fragments, principally volcanic and plutonic rocks of basic-to-intermediate composition, metamorphic rocks and chert, together with common quartz, feldspar and mica. This modal composition contrasts significantly with the dominantly arkosic composition of the other Karakaya Complex sandstones. The detrital zircons were dated by the U-Pb method, coupled with determination of Lu-Hf isotopic compositions using a laser ablation microprobe attached to a multicollector

  3. Tracing source terranes using U-Pb-Hf isotopic analysis of detrital zircons: provenance of the Orhanlar Unit of the Palaeotethyan Karakaya subduction-accretion complex, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustaömer, Timur; Ayda Ustaömer, Petek; Robertson, Alastair; Gerdes, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Sandstones of the Late Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic Karakaya Complex are interpreted to have accumulated along an active continental margin related to northward subduction of Palaeotethys. The age of deposition and provenance of the sandstones are currently being determined using radiometric dating of detrital zircons, coupled with dating of potential source terranes. Our previous work shows that the U-Pb-Hf isotopic characteristics of the sandstones of all but one of the main tectonostratigraphic units of the Karakaya Complex are compatible with a provenance that was dominated by Triassic and Permo-Carboniferous magmatic arc-type rocks, together with a minor contribution from Lower to Mid-Devonian igneous rocks (Ustaömer et al. 2015). However, one of the tectono-stratigraphic units, the Orhanlar Unit, which occurs in a structurally high position, differs in sedimentary facies and composition from the other units of the Karakaya Complex. Here, we report new isotopic age data for the sandstones of the Orhanlar Unit and also from an extensive, associated tectonic slice of continental metamorphic rocks (part of the regional Sakarya Terrane). Our main aim is to assess the provenance of the Orhanlar Unit sandstones in relation to the tectonic development of the Karakaya Complex as a whole. The Orhanlar Unit is composed of shales, sandstone turbidites and debris-flow deposits, which include blocks of Devonian radiolarian chert and Carboniferous and Permian neritic limestones. The sandstones are dominated by rock fragments, principally volcanic and plutonic rocks of basic-to-intermediate composition, metamorphic rocks and chert, together with common quartz, feldspar and mica. This modal composition contrasts significantly with the dominantly arkosic composition of the other Karakaya Complex sandstones. The detrital zircons were dated by the U-Pb method, coupled with determination of Lu-Hf isotopic compositions using a laser ablation microprobe attached to a multicollector

  4. Geodynamic evolution of crust accretion at the axis of the Reykjanes Ridge, Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkur'ev, S. A.; Demets, C.; Gurevich, N. I.

    2009-05-01

    The results of analysis of the anomalous magnetic field of the Reykjanes Ridge and the adjacent basins are presented, including a new series of detailed reconstructions for magnetic anomalies 1-6 in combination with a summary of the previous geological and geophysical investigations. We furnish evidence for three stages of evolution of the Reykjanes Ridge, each characterized by a special regime of crustal accretion related to the effect of the Iceland hotspot. The time interval of each stage and the causes of the variation in the accretion regime are considered. During the first, Eocene stage (54-40 Ma) and the third, Miocene-Holocene stage (24 Ma-present time at the northern Reykjanes Ridge north of 59° N and 17-11 Ma-present time at the southern Reykjanes Ridge south of 59° N), the spreading axis of the Reykjanes Ridge resembled the present-day configuration, without segmentation, with oblique orientation relative to the direction of ocean floor opening (at the third stage), and directed toward the hotspot. These attributes are consistent with a model that assumes asthenospheric flow from the hotspot toward the ridge axis. Decompression beneath the spreading axis facilitates this flow. Thus, the crustal accretion during the first and the third stages was markedly affected by interaction of the spreading axis with the hotspot. During the second, late Eocene-Oligocene to early Miocene stage (40-24 Ma at the northern Reykjanes Ridge and 40 to 17-11 Ma at the southern Reykjanes Ridge), the ridge axis was broken by numerous transform fracture zones and nontransform offsets into segments 30-80 km long, which were oriented orthogonal to the direction of ocean floor opening, as is typical of many slow-spreading ridges. The plate-tectonic reconstructions of the oceanic floor accommodating magnetic anomalies of the second stage testify to recurrent rearrangements of the ridge axis geometry related to changing kinematics of the adjacent plates. The obvious contrast in the

  5. Global variations in gravity-derived oceanic crustal thickness: Implications on oceanic crustal accretion and hotspot-lithosphere interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Zhu, J.

    2012-12-01

    emplacements on the plate. (2) In contrast, crustal thickness near fast and intermediately fast spreading ridges typically does not exceed 7-8 km. The relatively weak lithosphere at fast and intermediately fast ridges might make it harder for excess magmatism to accrete. We further speculate that the relatively wide partial melting zones in the upper mantle beneath the fast and intermediately fast ridges might act as "buffer" zones, thus diluting the melt anomalies from the underlying hotspots or regions of mantle heterogeneities. (3) As the crustal age increases and the lithospheric plate thickens, regions of thickened crust start to develop on ocean basins that were originally created at fast and intermediately fast ridges. The integrated crustal volume for fast and intermediately fast ocean crust appears to reach peak values for certain geological periods, such as 40-50 Ma and 70-80 Ma. The newly constructed global models of gravity-derived crustal thickness, combining with geochemical and other constraints, can be used to investigate the processes of oceanic crustal accretion and hotspot-lithosphere interactions.

  6. Geochemical evidence for the tectonic setting of the Coast Range ophiolite: A composite island arc oceanic crust terrane in western California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, John W.; Kimbrough, David L.

    1985-01-01

    The Middle to Late Jurassic age Coast Range ophiolite (CRO) of California contains two geochemically distinct volcanic rock associations that formed in different tectonic settings. Volcanic rocks from the southern CRO (Point Sal, Cuesta Ridge, Stanley Mountain, Llanada, Quinto Creek, and Del Puerto) and parts of the northern CRO (Healdsburg, Elder Creek) are similar to low-K tholeiites and calc-alkaline rocks of the island-arc suite. The thin volcanic sections of these ophiolite remnants suggest formation by intra-arc rifting. In contrast, volcanic rocks from Stonyford seamount and Paskenta in the northern CRO are transitional subalkaline metabasalts with geochemical characteristics similar to enriched mid-ocean ridge basalts or ocean-island tholeiites. These rocks are associated with Tithonian radiolarian cherts and may be part of the Franciscan Complex. Alternatively, they may represent a change in tectonic setting within the CRO during the Late Jurassic. Regardless, the CRO as currently conceived cannot be considered a single terrane with one mode of origin.

  7. The Geometry of Accreted "Packets" in Subduction Zones: Examples from the Eastern Belt of the Franciscan in California and the Torlesse Terrane in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, T. C.

    2015-12-01

    Accretion is a complex process, the details of which cannot be resolved seismically. Well-exposed ancient examples offer a better opportunity. This study focuses on two areas with nearly 100% exposure: glaciated exposures of the Torlesse near Arthur's Pass, New Zealand and stream-cut exposures of the Franciscan Eastern Belt in Grindstone and Thomes Creeks, California. Rocks are mainly turbidites of prehnite-pumpellyite to lower blueschist grade, described as "broken formation" with no melange or exotic blocks present. The dominant structural features are steeply dipping beds cut by thrust faults oriented at a modest angle to bedding. Fault spacing ranges from ~100 to 600 meters with the angle between bedding and faults usually ranging from 0° to 35°. Between faults, bedding continuity, though locally disrupted, is generally well-preserved. Deformation associated with the faults is variable. In some cases, fault contacts are sharp and show little deformation of adjacent beds. In other cases, small folds, boudinage, and intense fracturing and veining define fault zones. Intensity of deformation varies along the fault plane and is commonly more intense on one side than the other. Of note are two additional faults present in the Thomes Creek area; they are out-of-sequence thrusts (OOST's) that cross-cut the other faults at high angles and are associated with a greater degree of deformation. Aside from these OOST's, deformation associated with the faults is roughly an order of magnitude less than that described in the literature for "megathrusts." The faults described above (excluding the OOST's) represent primary surfaces along which "packets" of relatively intact rocks were accreted. This study and others show that these fault-bounded packets can be traced along strike for a few km to at least 10 km or more where not cut by OOST's or younger faults. The faults appear to form after a period of diffuse, largely extensional shear in semi-consolidated sediments; as

  8. A simple tectonic model for crustal accretion in the Slave Province: A 2.7-2.5 Ga granite greenstone terrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, P. F.

    1986-01-01

    A prograding (direction unspecified) trench-arc system is favored as a simple yet comprehensive model for crustal generation in a 250,000 sq km granite-greenstone terrain. The model accounts for the evolutionary sequence of volcanism, sedimentation, deformation, metamorphism and plutonism, observed througout the Slave province. Both unconformable (trench inner slope) and subconformable (trench outer slope) relations between the volcanics and overlying turbidities; and the existence of relatively minor amounts of pre-greenstone basement (microcontinents) and syn-greenstone plutons (accreted arc roots) are explained. Predictions include: a varaiable gap between greenstone volcanism and trench turbidite sedimentation (accompanied by minor volcanism) and systematic regional variations in age span of volcanism and plutonism. Implications of the model will be illustrated with reference to a 1:1 million scale geological map of the Slave Province (and its bounding 1.0 Ga orogens).

  9. Numerical modeling of the subduction initiation after accretion of oceanic island.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakin, A.

    2012-04-01

    Accretion of the large terrains leads to the temporal blockage of subduction and accumulation of the oceanic slab material. New subduction front started in the thickened contact zone. This process is modeled numerically in 2D. We apply constant velocity condition at the inlet vertical boundary. Another vertical boundary is treated as a free slide one, Winkler boundary condition is applied to the lower boundary. Sticky air used to represent stress free upper boundary. Scenario of the new front initiation depends on the assumed rheology of oceanic slab and docked island. At the application of the purely viscous rheology of all components of the system: island viscosity 1023 Pas, upper mantle viscosity 3·1019 Pas and slab viscosity in the range 6·1020-6·1022 Pas, we find a variety of dynamic styles. At low slab viscosity in the time scale of several millions years plate is thickened and experienced RTI instability. New subduction front is started after plate break up near the island edge. At the more realistic η=6·1022 Pas oceanic slab is folded before plunging into the mantle. In the intermediate range thickening of the oceanic slab takes place with low angle subduction followed by accelerated submergence of the widen slab tip. Too large time of the transient process and too large scale of oceanic slab accumulation contradict to the observations. Visco-plastic rheology of the crustal rocks brings model closer to the real world. At the early stage of deformation conjugate "viscous faults" form in the oceanic slab in respond to the shortening. Later on sliding along these faults doubles oceanic plate thickness at the contact with docked island. Permanent fault (with dip away from island) was created to accommodate bending of oceanic plate. Thickened plate tip starts to descend with low angle of ca 35o. The most important observation is breakage of island edge that is carried downward with subducted oceanic plate. We compare our results with data on the current

  10. Geochemical and isotopic perspectives on the origin and evolution of the Siletzia Terrane.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, B. A.; Weis, D.; Mullen, E.; Kerr, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Siletzia terrane, located in the Cascadia forearc region of Oregon, Washington and Vancouver Island, consists of a series of accreted basaltic pillow lavas, massive flows and intrusive sheets. It represents a late Paleocene-Eocene oceanic large igneous province (LIP), previously proposed to represent an accreted oceanic plateau, hotspot island chain, backarc basin, island arc, or a sequence of slab window volcanics formed by ridge subduction. A province-wide geochemical reassessment of the terrane, including new high precision Sr-Pb-Nd-Hf isotope data on basaltic samples, has been used to assess the validity of the proposed tectonomagmatic models for Siletzia. The trace element data show REE patterns that are flat to LREE enriched with an absence of any arc signatures. These features are comparable to other oceanic plateaus such as the Ontong Java and the Caribbean and so therefore support a mantle plume origin. Initial isotope ratios range from 206Pb/204Pb = 18.869 - 19.673, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.527 - 15.609, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.551 - 39.220, ɛHf = +9.0 - 14.8, ɛNd = +5.0 - 8.0 and 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70304 - 0.70397. The isotope signatures become more varied southward across the terrane and reveal two trends: i) HIMU-DMM and ii) another extending from DMM towards the Imnaha component, thought to represent the mantle plume source of the Columbia River Basalts and Yellowstone 1,2. The data may support the previously proposed idea that the volcanism of the Siletzia terrane represents initial melting of the mantle plume head of the Yellowstone hotspot 3,4,5. Other evidence indicating a LIP origin includes the relatively rapid eruption/intrusion of an estimated magma volume of 2.6 x 106 km3 6 between ~56-49 Ma 5, which, in conjunction with our new elemental and isotopic data, indicates that the Siletzia terrane most likely represents an accreted oceanic plateau. 1. Wolff et al., (2008) Nature Geoscience 1, 177-180. 2. Jean et al., (2014) EPSL 389, 119-131 3. Duncan (1982

  11. Origin of plagiogranites in oceanic complexes: A case study of the Nicoya and Santa Elena terranes, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whattam, Scott A.; Gazel, Esteban; Yi, Keewook; Denyer, Percy

    2016-10-01

    The origin of minor leucocratic intrusions known as "plagiogranites" in oceanic complexes dominated by basaltic compositions have been debated in the literature. Here we use well preserved plagiogranites within the contrasting Santa Elena Ophiolite and the Nicoya Complex, NW Costa Rica, to investigate the origin and age of these leucocratic intrusions. Magmatic zircons of plagiogranites of the Santa Elena ophiolite and the Nicoya Complex, yield weighted mean SHRIMP 206Pb/238U ages of 125.3 ± 2.0 Ma and 90.9 ± 2.0 Ma to 88.5 ± 2.0 Ma (n = 5), respectively. These ages record the main magmatic phases of formation of these intrusions preserved in each complex. Relatively flat, unfractionated chondrite-normalized REE patterns of plagiogranites from both complexes mimic signatures of related mafic rocks, which is consistent with formation via fractional crystallization from a mafic source as opposed to partial melting of a mafic (basalt, amphibolite) protolith. In the case of the Nicoya Complex, modelling suggests that the Nicoya plagiogranites are consistent as ~ 10-15% residual liquids after fractional crystallization from its mafic parental source. Trace element systematics of the plagiogranites are consistent with an oceanic arc origin for Santa Elena and a mostly mid-ocean ridge to oceanic-plateau origin for Nicoya.

  12. Californian blueschists, subduction, and the significance of tectonostratigraphic terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, W. G.

    1984-07-01

    Glaucophane and related schists are present as tectonic fragments in ophiolitic suture zones and as discrete lithotectonic belts along the accreted Mesozoic/Tertiary Californian margin. Occurrences include parts of the Klamath Mountains, the western Sierran Foothills, the Coast Ranges, faulted marginal segments of the Mojave Desert, the Transverse Ranges, and the southern California borderland. These high-pressure, low-temperature blueschist assemblages reflect the thermal regime of subduction-zone environments. Considerable underflow accompanied drifting and the assembly of far-traveled tectonostratigraphic terranes, as documented by sea-floor magnetic anomaly patterns and age relationships of the oceanic crust-capped lithosphere: the eastern limbs of paleo-Pacific plates (especially the Farallon-Cocos), have been extensively or completely overridden by the westward-encroaching North American plate—7000 km since Early Cretaceous time and nearly 10 000 km since Jurassic time. Subduction is attested to by remnant high-pressure mineral assemblages scattered throughout California; by construction of related, roughly contemporaneous calc-alkaline volcanic-plutonic belts and forearc basin deposits; and by the stranding of ophiolitic complexes. Although substantial northward drift transported exotic oceanic and continental materials to the growing Californian crust and caused extensive dislocation of the post-Paleozoic continental margin, much of the plate motion evidently involved a large component of convergence and eastward underflow. Terrane shuffling has complicated the picture, but the dominant mechanism of continental growth at the Californian margin during Mesozoic and Paleogene time was subduction.

  13. The influence of hotspots on crustal accretion of the South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Lin, J.; Zhu, J.; Tao, C.

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the spatial variations in topography and crustal thickness in the South Atlantic Ocean between 10°N and 60°S, focusing on the influence of hotspots on oceanic crustal accretion. We first calculated residual mantle Bouguer gravity anomaly (RMBA) by subtracting from free-air anomaly (FAA), the effects of seafloor topography, sediment thickness, and lithospheric cooling as a function of crustal age. The RMBA was then inverted to yield a model of gravity-derived oceanic crustal thickness, calibrated by seismically determined profiles globally. Finally, to reveal asymmetry in crustal thickness across the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (SMAR), we rotated the points on the African plate east of the SMAR to their "mirror" conjugate points on the South American plate, using the Euler pole rotation theorem. Results of analysis show that 2.8% by area (1.5% by volume) of the South Atlantic Ocean crust is < 5.2 km, 36% by area (28% by volume) is between 5.2 km and 7.6 km, while 62% by area (71% by volume) is > 7.6 km. The percentages of thickened crust (i.e., > 7.6 km) are larger for the South Atlantic than for the global oceanic crust, revealing significant hotspot influence in the South Atlantic. We further calculated that the average oceanic crustal thickness on the African plate is 0.31 km thicker than that of the South American plate, which might result from more hotspots on the African plate. Prior to 80 Ma, the integrated effect of hotspots appears to be greater on the South American plate than the African plate. During 0 to 80 Ma, however, the asymmetry seems to be reversed, i.e., influence of hotspots on the African plate appears to be greater than on the South American plate. Based on the asymmetry in crustal thickness, we partitioned the South Atlantic into 5 sub-areas: Region 1 (5°N-10°N), Region 2 (5°N-5°S), Region 3 (5°S-20°S), Region 4 (15°S-35°S), and Region 5 (30°S-50°S). In Regions 1, 3 and 5, the average crust thickness is greater on

  14. Continental growth through accreted oceanic arc: Zircon Hf-O isotope evidence for granitoids from the Qinling orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Wu, Yuan-Bao; Gao, Shan; Qin, Zheng-Wei; Hu, Zhao-Chu; Zheng, Jian-Ping; Yang, Sai-Hong

    2016-06-01

    The continental crust is commonly viewed as being formed in subduction zones, but there is no consensus on the relative roles of oceanic or continental arcs in the formation of the continental crust. The main difficulties of the oceanic arc model are how the oceanic arcs can be preserved from being subducted, how we can trace the former oceanic arcs through their high-Si products, and how the oceanic arcs can generate the high-Si, K-rich granitoid composition similar to the upper continental crust. The eastern Qinling orogen provides an optimal place to address these issues as it preserves the well-exposed Erlangping oceanic arc with large amounts of granitoids. In this study, we present an integrated investigation of zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopes for four representative granitoid plutons in the Erlangping unit. In situ zircon SIMS U-Pb dating indicated that the Zhangjiadazhuang, Xizhuanghe, and Taoyuan plutons formed at 472 ± 7, 458 ± 6 and 443 ± 5 Ma, respectively, all of which postdated the deep subduction of the Qinling microcontinent under the Erlangping oceanic arc. The Zhangjiadazhuang, Xizhuanghe, and Taoyuan plutons are sodic granitoid and have highly positive εHf(t) (+7.6 to +12.9) and relatively low δ18O (4.7-5.0‰) values, which were suggested to result from prompt remelting of hydrothermally altered lower oceanic crust of the accreted Erlangping oceanic arc. The zircon grains from the Manziying monzogranitic pluton show similar Hf-O isotopic compositions to those of the Xizhuanghe pluton, and thus the Manziying monzogranitic pluton was likely derived from the dehydration melting of previous tonalites as exemplified by the Xizhuanghe pluton. The deep subduction of Qinling microcontinent resulted in the accretion of the Erlangping oceanic arc, which implies that arc-continent collision provides an effective way for preventing oceanic arcs from being completely subducted. The highly positive εHf(t) and relatively low δ18O values of zircon

  15. The Pelagonian terrane in Greece: a piece of peri-Gondwanan mosaic of the Eastern Mediterranean and a new piece of information about the geological evolution of Avalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlatkin, Olga; Avigad, Dov; Gerdes, Axel

    2016-04-01

    The North-East Mediterranean region is a crustal mosaic comprised of proximal (Cadomian) and exotic (Avalonian) peri-Gondwanan terranes that were accreted to the European margin and repeatedly reshaped during several orogenic events, including Caledonian, Variscan and Alpine. The Pelagonian terrane in Greece is a peri-Gondwanan terrane of the Avalonian affinity: the properties of its >700 Ma-aged "Proto-Pelagonian" basement are attesting its peri-Amazonian origin. Our new survey reveals the Proto-Pelagonian rocks in most of the basement outcrops. Additionally, 600 Ma-aged orthogneisses were discovered, which is typical for the Avalonian magmatic arc. Here we also report the data obtained on the overstep Late Ediacaran to Early Mesozoic Pelagonian rock section, using U-Pb-Hf isotope geochemistry, and supported by structural and lithological observations. The Late Ediacaran Pelagonian metasedimentary sequence yields mainly magmatic ages between 750-560 Ma with Hf-TDM ages of 1.0-1.4 Ga, indicating the detrital transport exclusively from the Avalonian microcontinent that was insular at that time. These data are well correlated with the correspondent Avalonian sequences from Atlantic Canada and the British Midlands. It is generally suggested that Avalonian terranes were detached from Gondwana by the Rheic Ocean opening in the Early Ordovician and accreted to the European margin in the course of the Caledonian orogeny, while the Cadomian terranes have detached and accreted later, during the Variscan convergence. Despite this, no Caledonian magmatism is manifested within Pelagonian basement. Moreover, the post-Caledonian zircon data displays no Caledonian zircon ages, with a gap between 520 and 350 Ma. Voluminous intrusion of late-Variscan (ca. 300 Ma) Pelagonian granites indicates the upper-plate position for the Pelagonian terrane at that time. It suggests that the Pelagonian terrane wasn't involved in the Caledonian orogeny, but had remained adjacent to Gondwana or

  16. Tectonomagmatic setting and provenance of the Santa Marta Schists, northern Colombia: Insights on the growth and approach of Cretaceous Caribbean oceanic terranes to the South American continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, A.; Valencia, V.; Bustamante, C.; García-Casco, A.; Ojeda, G.; Ruiz, J.; Saldarriaga, M.; Weber, M.

    2010-10-01

    Metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary rocks accreted to the northern South American continental margin are major vestiges of the Caribbean oceanic plate evolution and its interactions with the continent. Selected whole rock geochemistry, Nd-Sr isotopes and detrital zircon geochronology were obtained in metabasic and metasedimentary rocks from the Santa Marta and San Lorenzo Schists in northernmost Colombia. Trace element patterns are characterized by primitive island arc and MORB signatures. Similarly initial 87Sr/ 86Sr-ɛ Nd isotopic relations correlate with oceanic arcs and MORB reservoirs, suggesting that the protoliths were formed within a back-arc setting or at the transition between the inta-oceanic arc and the Caribbean oceanic crust. Trace element trends from associated metasedimentary rocks show that the provenance was controlled by a volcanic arc and a sialic continental domain, whereas detrital U/Pb zircons from the Santa Marta Schists and adjacent southeastern metamorphic units show Late Cretaceous and older Mesozoic, Late Paleozoic and Mesoproterozoic sources. Comparison with continental inland basins suggests that this arc-basin is allocthonous to its current position, and was still active by ca. 82 Ma. The geological features are comparable to other arc remnants found in northeastern Colombia and the Netherland Antilles. The geochemical and U/Pb detrital signatures from the metasedimentary rocks suggest that this tectonic domain was already in proximity to the continental margin, in a configuration similar to the modern Antilles or the Kermadec arc in the Pacific. The older continental detritus were derived from the ongoing Andean uplift feeding the intra-oceanic tectonic environment. Cross-cutting relations with granitoids and metamorphic ages suggest that metamorphism was completed by ca. 65 Ma.

  17. Neoproterozoic-Early Devonian magmatism in the Antigonish Highlands, Avalon terrane, Nova Scotia: Tracking the evolution of the mantle and crustal sources during the evolution of the Rheic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, J. Brendan; Dostal, Jaroslav; Keppie, J. Duncan

    2008-12-01

    that was itself derived from a depleted-mantle source between 0.95 and 1.1 Ga. The remarkable geochemical and isotopic similarity of the Neoproterozoic, to Middle Devonian mafic and felsic magmas indicate that the crust and sub-continental lithospheric mantle beneath the Antigonish Highlands were coupled during the rift and drift of Avalonia from the Gondwanan margin during the formation of the Rheic Ocean in the Ordovician, its accretion to Baltica and to Laurentia in the Silurian, and post-accretionary strike-slip movement of Avalon along the Laurentian margin. Although the Sm-Nd isotopic data suggest that Avalonian basement and lithospheric mantle formed over the same time interval (0.8 to 1.1 Ga), the divergence of their respective envelopes with time reflects their differing ɛNd values and Sm/Nd ratios. We suggest that Avalonian crustal basement and its enriched mantle were both formed between 0.8 and 1.1 Ga in a Panthalassa-type ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Rodinia and were accreted to the northern Gondwanan margin at about 650 Ma, prior to the oldest magmatic event in the Antigonish Highlands.

  18. Late Jurassic sodium-rich adakitic intrusive rocks in the southern Qiangtang terrane, central Tibet, and their implications for the Bangong-Nujiang Ocean subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yalin; He, Juan; Han, Zhongpeng; Wang, Chengshan; Ma, Pengfei; Zhou, Aorigele; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Xu, Ming

    2016-02-01

    The lack of magmatic records with high-quality geochronological and geochemical data in the central segment of the southern Qiangtang subterrane in central Tibet inhibits a complete understanding of the subduction polarity of the Bangong-Nujiang Ocean lithosphere during the Mesozoic. In this study, we present the zircon U-Pb age as well as geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data for the Late Jurassic pluton from the Kangqiong area in the central segment of the southern Qiangtang subterrane. The Kangqiong pluton primarily consists of granodiorites (SiO2 = 62.87-65.17 wt.%) and was emplaced in the Late Jurassic (147.6 ± 2.4-149.9 ± 2.1 Ma). The granodiorites display high Na2O numbers (Na2O/K2O = 1.75-2.24) as well as high MgO (2.21-3.14 wt.%) and Mg-numbers (53-58), are characterized by a low abundance of heavy rare earth elements (e.g., Yb = 1.05-1.92 ppm) and Y (12.63-17.52 ppm), and high Sr/Y (29-61) and La/Yb (14-18) ratios, which are comparable in composition to those of slab-derived adakitic rocks. The Kangqiong adakitic granodiorites have initial (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.70611 to 0.70669, negative εNd(t) values (- 1.06 to - 0.25), (206Pb/204Pb)t ratios of 18.42 to 18.47, (207Pb/204Pb)t ratios of 15.62 to 15.63, and (208Pb/204Pb)t ratios of 38.50 to 38.60. These geochemical signatures indicate that the magmas were most likely derived from the partial melting of the subducted Bangong-Nujiang oceanic crust and minor contaminants from the accretionary complex. Our results, in combination with the coeval magmatism in the western segment of the southern Qiangtang subterrane, indicate that the Bangong-Nujiang oceanic lithosphere was subducted northward beneath the Qiangtang Terrane, forming a west-east magmatic arc over 800 km during the Late Jurassic.

  19. Evidence for Late Eocene emplacement of the Malaita Terrane, Solomon Islands: Implications for an even larger Ontong Java Nui oceanic plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musgrave, Robert J.

    2013-06-01

    Most tectonic models for the Solomon Islands Arc invoke a Miocene collision with the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) to halt cessation of Pacific Plate subduction, initiate Australian Plate subduction, and emplace the Malaita Terrane, which shares the characteristic basement age and geochemistry of OJP. Existing paleomagnetic evidence, however, required the Malaita Terrane to have been fixed to the arc from at least the Late Eocene. New sampling has yielded a paleomagnetic pole from Aptian-Albian limestones and mudstones that falls between the apparent polar wander paths for the Australian Plate and OJP, confirming the extended period of residence of the Malaita Terrane on the arc. Arc-derived turbidities within Late Eocene through Miocene limestones on Malaita and Santa Isabel, and related clasts in broadly contemporary sandstones and conglomerates on Santa Isabel, also attest to early emplacement. Modeling the emplacement at 35 Ma satisfies both the paleomagnetic data and the sediment provenance. Continuing the reconstruction to 125 Ma leaves the Malaita Terrane far from OJP at the time of plateau formation. OJP is now understood to have formed as part of a larger Ontong Java Nui, also comprising the Hikurangi and Manihiki plateaus, separated by spreading during the Cretaceous. Restoring the separation of the known elements, and invoking an additional triple junction, unites the (now largely subducted) Malaita Terrane with the rest of Ontong Java Nui. Subduction of substantial areas of the Ontong Java Nui plateau, with little geological signal other than a reduction in arc volcanism, is a corollary.

  20. Gondwanan basement terranes of the Variscan-Appalachian orogen: Baltican, Saharan and West African hafnium isotopic fingerprints in Avalonia, Iberia and the Armorican Terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Bonnie J.; Collins, William Joseph; Murphy, James Brendan; Gutierrez-Alonso, Gabriel; Hand, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Iberia, Avalonia and the "Armorican" terranes form key constituents of the Variscan-Appalachian orogen, but their Neoproterozoic origins along the northern Gondwanan margin continue to be strongly debated. Here, we present a new detrital zircon U-Pb-Hf dataset from Neoproterozoic-Silurian sedimentary sequences in NW Iberia and Avalonia, in conjunction with the comprehensive existing datasets from potential source cratons, to demonstrate that the provenance of each terrane is relatively simple and can be traced back to three major cratons. The enigmatic Tonian-Stenian detrital zircons in autochthonous Iberian rocks were derived from the Saharan metacraton in the latest Neoproterozoic-early Cambrian. Avalonia is commonly considered to have been derived from the Amazonian margin of Gondwana, but the hafnium isotopic characteristics of the detrital zircon grains in early Neoproterozoic rocks bear much stronger similarities to Baltica. The hafnium isotopic array also suggests the early Avalonian oceanic arc was built on a sliver of "Grenvillian-type crust" (~ 2.0-1.0 Ga) possibly of Baltican affinity at ~ 800 Ma, prior to accretion with a continental margin at ~ 640 Ma. The Upper Allochthon of Iberia is frequently linked to the West African Craton in the late Neoproterozoic-early Cambrian, however the hafnium isotopic array presented here does not support this connection; rather it is more similar to the hafnium array from Avalonia. The Armorican terranes have strong detrital zircon isotopic links to the West African Craton during the late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian.

  1. Variscan terrane boundaries in the Odenwald-Spessart basement, Mid-German Crystalline Zone: New evidence from ocean ridge, intraplate and arc-derived metabasaltic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, T. M.; Lee, S.-H.; Schmädicke, E.; Frimmel, H. E.; Okrusch, M.

    2015-04-01

    different age must have occurred during the formation of the continental arc precursor rocks. Retrogressed eclogites from the eastern Odenwald are tholeiitic metabasalts with chondrite-normalised flat rare earth element patterns, intermediate to high TiO2 concentrations and very low Th/Nb ratios. The least retrogressed eclogites lack negative Nb-Ta anomalies. In addition, the rocks have depleted Nd isotope compositions (εNd360 Ma = 7.1-8.5), Nd model ages of 470-425 Ma, superchondritic 147Sm/144Nd ratios and 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios similar to bulk Earth. These features are consistent with the notion that the eclogite protoliths originated in a shallow, depleted mid-ocean ridge mantle and were emplaced in a mid-ocean ridge setting. During crustal emplacement, the composition of these rocks was variably modified by subduction-related fluids and/or assimilation of crustal material. The hitherto unknown differences in the composition and genesis of the various amphibolites in the southern and northern Spessart basement require revision of existing tectonostratigraphic models for the area. Instead of representing one contiguous unit, the various amphibolites are interpreted to belong to two different terranes that became juxtaposed in the Spessart-Odenwald basement. These terranes are separated by a major fault (Otzberg-Michelbach Fault Zone), along which rocks of inferred peri-Gondwana origin, now exposed in the western Odenwald and the northernmost Spessart were thrust onto probable Baltica/Avalonia-derived rocks that are exposed as a tectonic window in the eastern Odenwald and the central and southern Spessart. It is further suggested that the Otzberg-Michelbach Fault Zone is part of the lithospheric-scale Rheic Suture.

  2. Tectonic evolution of the East Junggar terrane, CAOB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xing-Wang

    2016-04-01

    The East Junggar terrane is one of the important tectonic units of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB; Zonenshain et al., 1990). Debate surrounds the tectonics of the East Junggar area, including tectonic setting, age, basement nature, subduction polarity and collisional time between the East Junggar terrane and Junggar block (e.g., Xiao et al., 2008, 2011; Long et al., 2012; Huang et al., 2012). Among the two popular models, one suggests that the Junggar is a continental block (e.g. Zhang et al., 1984, 1993; Watson et al., 1987; Xiao et al., 1992; He et al., 1994; Li et al., 2000; Charvet et al., 2001, 2007; Xu et al., 2003; Zhao et al., 2003; Buslov et al., 2004; Xu and Ma, 2004; Dong et al., 2009; Bazhenov et al., 2012; Choulet et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2012). The other model proposes that the Junggar has a basement of Paleozoic oceanic crust (e.g., Carroll et al., 1990; Zheng et al., 2007) or oceanic island arc complexes (e.g., Coleman, 1989; Chen and Jahn, 2004; Windley et al., 2007) of the Altaid Paleozoic rocks (e.g., Sengör et al., 1993; Sengör and Natal'in, 1996; Allen and Vincent, 1997; Filippova et al., 2001; Xiao et al., 2004a, 2004b, 2008, 2009, 2010a, 2010b, 2012). The tectonics in the Eastern Junggar area are interpreted to be related to late Paleozoic intra-oceanic accretion induced by northward subduction of the Junggar oceanic lithosphere (e.g. Xiao et al., 2008, 2009; Biske and Seltmann, 2010; Wan et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2011) or by the southward subduction of the Paleo-Asian oceanic lithosphere (Zhang et al., 2004; Wong et al., 2010; Su et al., 2012). Recently, we did detailed field survey and petrological, geochemical and chronological analysis of the metamorphosed volcanic rocks and magmatic rocks, and new discovered gneiss and magnetite quartzite enclaves from the Taheir tectonic window in the East Junggar region which is situated between the Zaisan-Erqis-the Main Mongolian Lineament-suture and the Kelameili suture. The new results

  3. Incipient oceanic accretion at the foot of the Gondwanian passive margin : the Neyriz ophiolites (Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannessary, M. R.; Whitechurch, H.; Ricou, L. E.; Muntener, O.; Ildefonse, B.; Manatschal, G.

    2003-04-01

    directly on the harzburgites. The structures and petrology of the Neyriz ophiolite reflect likely the initiation of a proto-ridge intruding an old oceanic lithosphere at the distal part of the pre-existing Triassic continental margin. Thus, Neyriz and Oman ophiolites that are issued from the same Cretaceous accretion system in the Tethys are different. The former attest from the incipience of an ultra low spreading ridge, the later from steady state processes at a fast to ultra fast spreading ridge.

  4. Magma Systems Formation and Crustal Accretion in Intermediate-rate Spreading Ridges of the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, E. P.; Galushkin, Y. I.; Sveshnikov, A. A.; Grokholsky, A.

    2008-12-01

    Fast spreading mid-ocean ridges (MOR) are known to be characterized by well-developed axial rises with axial magma chambers (AMC) in the crust, whereas slow spreading centers with deep rift valleys are devoid of AMC. An AMC disappears when spreading rate is about 4-5 cm/year. Approximately the same spreading rate is marked by axial morphology transition from axial rises to rift valleys. This transition was thoroughly analyzed for South-East Indian intermediate spreading ridge. Typical patterns of bathymetric profiles across the rift axis with transitional morphology were revealed. Dimensions and relative position of profile constituents change regularly with morphology turning from axial rises to rift valleys. A non-steady thermal model of spreading with periodic axial intrusions allows an explanation of location, size and shape of the crust and mantle magma chambers. This model also permits us to analyze changes in parameters including spreading rate, temperature and composition of the mantle and crust rocks. In the axial zones of intermediate spreading ridges with higher mantle temperature (e.g., under the influence of mantle plumes or hot spots), the modeling confirms an occurrence of the zones with higher melt concentration (magma chambers) at two levels: at depth ~2 km and more in the crust and just below the Moho boundary in the mantle. In the axial zones of intermediate spreading ridges with lower mantle temperature, a quasi steady-state magma chamber in the crust does not exist, but here, formation of the short-living magma chambers in the crust is possible. Difference in location depth, shape and sizes of magma chambers in spreading ridges result in considerable differences in rheologic behavior and accretion mechanisms of the crust and therefore in relief and deep structure of the crust. The steady-state crust magma chambers in the fast spreading ridges or in the intermediate spreading ridges with higher mantle temperature secure a differentiation of

  5. Baltica from the late Precambrian to mid-Palaeozoic times: The gain and loss of a terrane's identity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocks, L. Robin M.; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2005-09-01

    The old terrane of Baltica occupies the mass of northern Europe eastwards to the Urals and lies mostly to the north of the Trans-European Suture Zone. The core, the East European Craton, is thick and formed of rocks dating back to well over 3 billion yr, and Protobaltica can be identified as forming part of the supercontinent of Rodinia at about 1 billion yr ago. Following Rodinia's break up at about 800 Ma, Protobaltica remained attached to Laurentia until it became the newly independent Baltica at between 570 and 550 Ma, with the inauguration of plate spreading to form the northern part of the Iapetus Ocean. To the south, during the Early Cambrian, Baltica was separated from Gondwana by the relatively narrow Ran Ocean. Baltica remained a separate terrane until its docking, firstly with Avalonia at the very end of the Ordovician (443 Ma), and then with Laurentia during the Silurian in the Scandian part of the Caledonide Orogeny. The terrane was much enlarged in the Vendian to include the areas such as Timan-Pechora now lying to the north as they became accreted to Baltica during the late Precambrian Timanide Orogeny. During the Cambrian and Ordovician, Baltica firstly rotated through more than 120° and then drifted northwards from high to low palaeolatitudes. New maps present Baltica's outline and progressive positioning, its late Precambrian and Lower Palaeozoic history, and the Cambrian, Ordovician and Silurian land, basins and biofacies belts within and around it. Some of the Lower Palaeozoic faunas are reviewed briefly: the oceans surrounding Baltica were so wide during the Early Ordovician that a substantial part of the benthic fauna of trilobites, brachiopods and other phyla were endemic. As those oceans narrowed, so the faunas of Baltica became progressively more similar to those of adjacent terranes. Some plankton distributions augment the palaeomagnetic data in latitudinal positioning.

  6. Silurian Gastropoda from the Alexander terrane, southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohr, D.M.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    Gastropods are described from Ludlow-age strata of the Heceta Limestone on Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska. They are part of a diverse megabenthic fauna of the Alexander terrane, an accreted terrane of Siberian or Uralian affinities. Heceta Limestone gastropods with Uralian affinities include Kirkospira glacialis, which closely resembles "Pleurotomaria" lindstromi Oehlert of Chernyshev, 1893, Retispira cf. R. volgulica (Chernyshev, 1893), and Medfracaulus turriformis (Chernyshev, 1893). Medfracaulus and similar morphotypes such as Coelocaulus karlae are unknown from rocks that are unquestionably part of the North American continent (Laurentia) during Late Silurian time. Beraunia is previously known only from the Silurian of Bohemia. Pachystrophia has previously been reported only from western North American terranes (Eastern Klamath, York, and Farewell terranes) and Europe. Bathmopterus Kirk, 1928, is resurrected and is only known from the Silurian of southeast Alaska. Newly described taxa include Hecetastoma gehrelsi n. gen. and n. sp. and Baichtalia tongassensis n. gen. and n. sp. ??2008 The Geological Society of America.

  7. Nd, Pb, Sr, and O isotopic characterization of Saudi Arabian Shield terranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeser, D.B.; Frost, C.D.

    2006-01-01

    New Nd, Sr and O isotopic data for granitoid rocks of the Saudi Arabian Shield are presented together with published Nd, Pb, Sr and O isotopic data and all available geologic and geochronologic information to re-evaluate the terranes defined for the Saudi Arabian part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Three groups of terranes are identified: 1) the western arc terranes, 2) the eastern arc terranes, and 3) the Khida terrane. The Khida terrane is the only terrane composed of pre-Neoproterozoic continental crust. The western arc terranes are of oceanic arc affinity, and have the least radiogenic Pb and Sr and most radiogenic Nd isotopic compositions and some of the lowest ??18O values of any rocks of the Saudi Arabian Shield. Although some previous studies have characterized the eastern arc terranes as of continental affinity, this study shows that they too are composed of Neoproterozoic oceanic arcs, although their sources have slightly elevated 208Pb/204Pb, Nd, Sri, and ??18O values compared to the western arc terranes. These data suggest that either the isotopic composition of the mantle source for the western arc terranes is more depleted than that of the eastern arc terranes or the eastern arc terranes have been mixed with a small amount of cratonic source material, or both. We further elaborate on the Hulayfah-Ad Dafinah fault zone as a major boundary within the Saudi Arabian portion of the East African Orogen. With further study, its northern extension may be shown to pass through what has been defined as the Hail terrane, and its southern extension appears to lie under cover east of the Tathlith-Malahah terrane and extend into Yemen. It may represent the collision zone between East and West Gondwana, and at the very least it is an important suture between groups of arc terranes of contrasting isotopic composition caught between two converging continents.

  8. Volcanism, jump and propagation on the Sheba ridge, eastern Gulf of Aden: segmentation evolution and implications for oceanic accretion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Acremont, Elia; Leroy, Sylvie; Maia, Marcia; Gente, Pascal; Autin, Julia

    2010-02-01

    The rifting between Arabia and Somalia, which started around 35 Ma, was followed by oceanic accretion from at least 17.6 Ma leading to the formation of the present-day Gulf of Aden. Bathymetric, gravity and magnetic data from the Encens-Sheba cruise are used to constrain the structure and segmentation of the oceanic basin separating the conjugate continental margins in the eastern part of the Gulf of Aden between 51°E and 55.5°E. Data analysis reveals that the oceanic domain along this ridge section is divided into two distinct areas. The Eastern area is characterized by a shorter wavelength variation of the axial segmentation and an extremely thin oceanic crust. In the western segment, a thicker oceanic crust suggests a high melt supply. This supply is probably due to an off-axis melting anomaly located below the southern flank of the Sheba ridge, 75 km east of the major Alula-Fartak transform fault. This suggests that the axial morphology is produced by a combination of factors, including spreading rate, melt supply and the edge effect of the Alula-Fartak transform fault, as well as the proximity of the continental margin. The oceanic domains have undergone two distinct phases of accretion since the onset of seafloor spreading, with a shift around 11 Ma. At that time, the ridge jumped southwards, in response to the melting anomaly. Propagating ridges were triggered by the melting activity, and propagated both eastward and westward. The influence of the melting anomaly on the ridges decreased, stopping their propagation since less than 9 Ma. From that time up to the present, the N025°E-trending Socotra transform fault developed in association with the formation of the N115°E-trending segment #2. In recent times, a counter-clockwise rotation of the stress field associated with kinematic changes could explain the structural morphology of the Alula-Fartak and Socotra-Hadbeen fracture zones.

  9. Ordovician ocean plate stratigraphy and thrust duplexes of the Ballantrae Complex, SW Scotland: Implications for the pelagic deposition rate and forearc accretion in the closing Iapetus Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisaki, Wataru; Asanuma, Hisashi; Suzuki, Kazue; Sawaki, Yusuke; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi; Maruyama, Shigenori; Windley, Brian F.

    2015-11-01

    The Ballantrae Complex (at Bennane Lea in SW Scotland) contains important ocean plate stratigraphy (basalt, chert, mudstone, sandstone) in an accretionary prism that is associated with a classic Ordovician ophiolite. We used the ocean plate stratigraphy to sub-divide the prism into 11 tectonic units. To determine the depositional age of bedded cherts, zircons were separated from 9 tuff beds from 6 different units. All the tuffs have early to middle Ordovician ages, even though their present positions are mutually distant. These ages are consistent with microfossil records of radiolaria and graptolites. The stratigraphic-structural relationships demonstrate that the ocean plate stratigraphy has been repeated by bedding-parallel thrusts; this is typical of a modern accretionary duplex. We calculated the sedimentation rate of Early to Middle Ordovician bedded cherts at Bennane Lea on the basis of U-Pb zircon ages obtained from several tuff beds; the data indicate that the depositional rate (0.6-3 m/myr) was as slow as that of Mesozoic-Cenozoic equivalents defined by radiolaria. The age spectra of detrital zircons from Ballantrae sandstones show prominent single peaks at ca. 467 and 478 Ma, and a lack of Precambrian zircons. Integration of our new zircon ages with published isotopic data and palaeo-geographic maps indicates that the sandstones were deposited near an intra-oceanic arc and far from any continent containing Precambrian rocks. The pelagic-to-clastic sediments at Bennane Lea were deposited in the closing Iapetus Ocean from ca. 477 Ma to ca. 464 Ma, when they were accreted with the intra-oceanic arc of Ballantrae.

  10. Geochemical investigation of Gabbroic Xenoliths from Hualalai Volcano: Implications for lower oceanic crust accretion and Hualalai Volcano magma storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ruohan; Lassiter, John C.; Barnes, Jaime D.; Clague, David A.; Bohrson, Wendy A.

    2016-05-01

    The patterns of axial hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges both affect and are influenced by the styles of magma plumbing. Therefore, the intensity and distribution of hydrothermal alteration in the lower oceanic crust (LOC) can provide constraints on LOC accretion models (e.g., "gabbro glacier" vs. "multiple sills"). Gabbroic xenoliths from Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii include rare fragments of in situ Pacific lower oceanic crust. Oxygen and strontium isotope compositions of 16 LOC-derived Hualalai gabbros are primarily within the range of fresh MORB, indicating minimal hydrothermal alteration of the in situ Pacific LOC, in contrast to pervasive alteration recorded in LOC xenoliths from the Canary Islands. This difference may reflect less hydrothermal alteration of LOC formed at fast ridges than at slow ridges. Mid-ocean ridge magmas from slow ridges also pond on average at greater and more variable depths and undergo less homogenization than those from fast ridges. These features are consistent with LOC accretion resembling the "multiple sills" model at slow ridges. In contrast, shallow magma ponding and limited hydrothermal alteration in LOC at fast ridges are consistent with the presence of a long-lived shallow magma lens, which limits the penetration of hydrothermal circulation into the LOC. Most Hualalai gabbros have geochemical and petrologic characteristics indicating derivation from Hualalai shield-stage and post-shield-stage cumulates. These xenoliths provide information on the evolution of Hawaiian magmas and magma storage systems. MELTS modeling and equilibration temperatures constrain the crystallization pressures of 7 Hualalai shield-stage-related gabbros to be ∼2.5-5 kbar, generally consistent with inferred local LOC depth. Therefore a deep magma reservoir existed within or at the base of the LOC during the shield stage of Hualalai Volcano. Melt-crust interaction between Hawaiian melts and in situ Pacific crust during magma storage partially

  11. The African Plate: A history of oceanic crust accretion and subduction since the Jurassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, C.; Torsvik, T. H.; Labails, C.; van Hinsbergen, D.; Werner, S.; Medvedev, S.

    2012-04-01

    Initially part of Gondwana and Pangea, and now surrounded almost entirely by spreading centres, the African plate moved relatively slowly for the last 200 million years. Yet both Africa's cratons and passive margins were affected by tectonic stresses developed at distant plate boundaries. Moreover, the African plate was partly underlain by hot mantle (at least for the last 300 Ma) - either a series of hotspots or a superswell, or both - that contributed to episodic volcanism, basin-swell topography, and consequent sediment deposition, erosion, and structural deformation. A systematic study of the African plate boundaries since the opening of surrounding oceanic basins is presently lacking. This is mainly because geophysical data are sparse and there are still controversies regarding the ages of oceanic crust. The publication of individual geophysical datasets and more recently, global Digital Map of Magnetic Anomalies (WDMAM, EMAG2) prompted us to systematically reconstruct the ages and extent of oceanic crust around Africa for the last 200 Ma. Location of Continent Ocean Boundary/Continent Ocean Transition and older oceanic crust (Jurassic and Cretaceous) are updates in the light of gravity, magnetic and seismic data and models of passive margin formation. Reconstructed NeoTethys oceanic crust is based on a new model of microcontinent and intr-oceanic subduction zone evolution in this area.The new set of oceanic palaeo-age grid models constitutes the basis for estimating the dynamics of oceanic crust through time and will be used as input for quantifying the paleo-ridge push and slab pull that contributed to the African plate palaeo-stresses and had the potential to influence the formation of sedimentary basins.

  12. Evidence for Cambrian deformation in the Ellsworth-Whitmore Mountains terrane, Antarctica: Stratigraphic and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duebendorfer, Ernest M.; Rees, Margaret N.

    1998-01-01

    The Ellsworth-Whitmore Mountains terrane is a large geologically and geophysically defined crustal block that lies between the Transantarctic Mountains and West Antarctica. The Cambrian position of the terrane is controversial, with many workers placing it between East Antarctica and southern Africa and distant from Cambrian orogenic belts. We present structural and stratigraphic evidence for Cambrian deformation in the Heritage Range, Ellsworth Mountains. From our revised stratigraphy and structural history of the Heritage Range, we propose that the Ellsworth-Whitmore Mountains block was located within the belt of Pan-African deformation, within the Late Cambrian continental arc, and was part of a collage of allochthonous terranes that included the Queen Maud terrane and probably the Bowers terrane of Antarctica. These terranes were situated outboard of Coats Land in the Cambrian and were subsequently translated and accreted to East Antarctica, probably during early Paleozoic time.

  13. Oceanic plateaus, the fragmentation of continents, and mountain building

    SciTech Connect

    Nur, A.; Ben-Avraham, Z.

    1982-05-10

    Many anomalous rises in today's oceans may be submerged continental fragments detached from previous continents, ancient island arcs, or basaltic piles formed by hot spots and spreading centers. These rises are embedded in their respective moving oceanic plates and are fated to be consumed at active margins. Where such rises are being consumed at present, e.g., the Nazca Ridge, they cause cessation of volcanism, disruption of the downgoing slab, and possible shifts in plate boundary configuration. Many past rises, including numerous continental fragments have been recognized within mountain belts as allochthonous terranes. They constitute a large portion of the orogenic belts in the North Pacific from Mexico through western North America, Alaska, east Siberia, Japan and in New Zealand. The orogenic deformation in these belts is possibly the result of the accretion of the allochtronous terranes. Many terranes have been accreted with substantial deformation also in the Alpine chain, well before major continent-continent collisions. It is suggested, therefore, that the accretion of fragments may be the common process of the deformation phase of mountain building. Subduction of normal oceanic crust may be insufficient for deformation, whereas full continent-continent collision may be necessary. The general validity of this conclusion depends critically on whether allochthonous terranes caused orogenic deformation in the Andes or not. Most of the accreted fragments with continental affinites in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic orogenic belts of the world can be traced back to the breakup of Gondwana, beginning with a Pacifica domain in the Permian through a larger India domain in the early Mesozoic and continuing through the separation of the Somalia plate in the near future. The reasons for this 250 million year breakup process are not known, but some kind of thermal process, possible of mantle-wide scale, is implied.

  14. Application of cladistics to terrane history—parsimony analysis of qualitative geological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Gavin C.

    Hypotheses of terrane dispersal or accretion can be represented graphically as branching diagrams (cladograms), but an assessment of competing hypotheses of terrane history requires a method of analysis of supporting evidence which resolves the most parsimonious explanation of all available data. Cladistics is a rigorous analytical method first developed for phylogeny reconstruction (i.e. biological history), but applicable to any hierarchical data set. Given appropriate definitions, the various types of geological, geophysical and biological data used to support hypotheses of fragmentation or fusion history for geological regions (terranes) assumed to have had independent geological histories can be organized hierarchically. Terrane fragmentation is equivalent to phylogenetic splitting of biological taxa, and standard algorithms for parsimony analysis may be directly applied. Terrane accretion may be represented as a coalescing area cladogram, and the supporting evidence also forms a hierarchical data set, but with two main differences. The less general attributes historically precede the more general (the reverse applies in phylogeny reconstruction), and the branching points (nodes on the cladogram), unlike hypothetical common ancestors in phylogeny reconstruction, represent defined geographic areas, with a geological structure which can be investigated. In cladistic reconstruction of evolutionary history the common ancestors are hypothetical, and their attributes can only be inferred from the distribution of attributes amongst the terminals (known biological taxa); in contrast, the end product of terrane accretion is a composite structure (geological province) within which juxtaposition of terranes may eliminate some of the possible historical sequences which led to its formation.

  15. Terrane suturing, Mindoro, Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Wynne, D.B.; McCabe, R.; Mazzullo, J.; Malicse, A.

    1985-01-01

    A middle to late Miocene suture zone (SZ) on Mindoro Island separates the older North Palawan Continental terrane (NPCT) (west) from the younger Central Philippine Arc Terrane (CPAT) (east). The SZ consists of mafic and ultramafic rocks and amphibolites thrust westward against slaty meta-sediments (NPCT). East of the SZ lies the East Mindoro Basin (EMB), separated from the SZ by the East Mindoro Fault Zone (EMFZ). Locally, topography and geology suggest normal motion on the EMFZ. However, in central Mindoro, topographic expression of the EMFZ is very diffuse and geologic map patterns are complex. Lithotectonic units and sequences are sometimes repeated and motion appears to have been multiphase. In the eastern central SZ, westerly thrust CPAT ( ) crystalline rocks are overlain by lower Pliocene shelfal limestone. This limestone contains both serpentinite pebbles and metamorphic, polcrystalline quartz grains near its base, thus constraining thrusting and terrane suturing to pre-Pliocene. 100 km NNW, at the town of Puerto Galera, the same relations are observed, although thrusting appears to have been SSW there. 100 km WNW of Puerto Galera, a northeast-dipping ophiolite on Ambil Island lies several km NE of slaty metasediments (NPCT ) on Luband Island. The authors suggest that these three ultramafic exposures represent western CPAT Basement, thrust westward against portions of the advancing NPCT.

  16. Ophiolitic terranes of northern and central Alaska and their correlatives in Canada and northeastern Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, W.W. Jr. )

    1993-04-01

    All of the major ophiolitic terranes (Angayucham, Tozitna, Innoko, Seventymile, and Goodnews terranes) in the northern and central Alaska belong to the Tethyan-type' of Moores (1982) and were obducted onto Paleozoic and Proterozoic continental and continental margin terranes in Mesozoic time. Tethyan-type' ophiolitic assemblages also occur in the Slide Mountain terrane in the Canadian Cordillera and extend from western Alaska into northeastern Russia. Although investigators have suggested widely different ages from their times of abduction onto the continent, these ophiolitic terranes display some remarkably similar features: (1) they consist of a stack of imbricated thrust slices dominated by ocean floor sediments, basalt, and high-level gabbro of late Paleozoic and Triassic age; (2) their mafic-ultramafic complexes generally are confined to the uppermost thrust sheets; (3) they lack the large tectonic melanges zones and younger accretionary flysch deposits associated with the ophiolitic terranes of southern Alaska and the Koryak region of northeastern Russia; (4) blueschist mineral assemblages occur in the lower part of these ophiolite terranes and (or) in the underlying continental terranes; and (5) they are bordered on their outboard' side by Mesozoic intraoceanic volcanic arc terranes. Recent geochemical and geologic studies of the mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Anagayucham and Tozitna terranes strongly suggest they were generated in a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) and that they are directly overlain by volcanic rocks of the Koyukuk terrane.

  17. Accretion, subduction, and underplating along the southern Alaska continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Plafker, G.; Ambos, E.L.; Fuis, G.S.; Mooney, W.D.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Campbell, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    In 1984-1985 the Trans Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT) program completed geologic, seismic refraction, gravity, and magnetic studies along a 350-km-long corridor that extends northward from the Gulf of Alaska coast near Cordova to the Denali fault at the Richardson Highway. From south to north, this segment of the transect traverses: 1) part of the Prince William terrance (PWT), composed of an accreted Paleocene and Eocene deep-sea fan complex, oceanic volcanic rocks, and pelagic sediments; 2) the Chugach terrane (CGT) composed of a) accreted Late Cretaceous flysch and oceanic basaltic rocks, b) accreted and subducted (.) Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous sheared melange, and c) subducted Early (.) Jurassic or older blueschist/greenschist; and 3) Wrangellia-Peninsular terranes (WRT/PET) consisting primarily of late Paleozoic intraoceanic andesitic arc rocks with associated mafic and ultramafic plutonic rocks, an overlying distinctive Triassic sedimentary and volcanic sequence, and superposed intrusive and extrusive magmatic rocks of the Jurassic Talkeetna arc. At the southern margin of both the CGT and WRT/PET, shallow high-velocity zones characterized by positive gravity and magnetic anomalies reflect uplift of mafic and ultramafic basement along these thrusts. The Contact and Border Ranges fault systems appear to merge into a subhorizontal low-velocity zone of uncertain origin that underlies the CGT and southern WRT/PET at 5-9 km depth. A few kilometers beneath the shallow low-velocity zone in a 30-km-thick stack of eight northward-dipping layers of alternating high and low velocity, interpreted as subducted and underplated mantle and oceanic crust rocks. Distribution of earthquake hypocenters suggests that active subduction involves at least the lowest two and possibly the lower four layers.

  18. Evolution of eclogite facies metamorphism in the St. Cyr klippe, Yukon-Tanana terrane, Yukon, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Meredith Blair

    The St. Cyr klippe hosts well preserved to variably retrogressed eclogites found as sub-meter to hundreds of meter scale lenses within quartzofeldspathic schists in the Yukon-Tanana terrane, Canadian Cordillera. The St. Cyr area consists of structurally imbricated, polydeformed, and polymetamorphosed units of continental arc and oceanic crust. The eclogite-bearing quartzofeldspathic schists form a 30 by 6 kilometer thick, northwest-striking, coherent package. The schists consist of metasediments and felsic intrusives that are intercalated on the tens of meter scale. The presence of phengite and Permian age zircon crystallized under eclogite facies metamorphic conditions indicates that the eclogite was metamorphosed in situ with its quartzofeldspathic host. I investigated the metamorphic evolution of the eclogite-facies rocks in the St. Cyr klippe using isochemical phase equilibrium thermodynamic (pseudosection) modeling. I constructed P-T pseudosections in the system Na2O-K2O-CaO-FeO-O2-MnO-MgO-Al2O 3-SiO2-TiO2-H2O for the bulk-rock composition of an eclogite and a host metatonalite. In combination with petrology and mineral compositions, St. Cyr eclogites followed a five-stage clockwise P-T path. Peak pressure conditions for the eclogites and metatonalites reached up to 3.2 GPa, well within the coesite stability field, indicating the eclogites reached ultrahigh-pressure conditions. Decompression during exhumation occurred with a corresponding temperature increase. SHRIMP-RG zircon dating shows that the protolith of the eclogites formed within the Yukon-Tanana terrane during early, continental arc activity, between 364 and 380 Ma, while the metatonalite protolith formed at approximately 334 Ma, during the Little Salmon Cycle of the Klinkit phase of Yukon-Tanana arc activity. Both the eclogites and the metatonalites were then subducted to mantle depths and metamorphosed to ultrahigh-pressure conditions during the late Permian, between 266 and 271 Ma. The results of

  19. Lithospheric Accretion and the Nature of Anomalously Thick Oceanic Moho Transition Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedimovic, M.; Carbotte, S.; Tischer, M.; Diebold, J.; Babcock, J.; Harding, A.; Kent, G.; Canales, P.; Detrick, R.

    2004-12-01

    The oceanic Moho transition zone (MTZ) separates layered gabbros of the crust derived by magma crystallization from the uppermost residual peridotites, generally harzburgites, representing mantle rocks. Mapping of the Oman and the Bay of Islands ophiolite complexes, both of which are inferred to be composed of obducted oceanic lithosphere formed at fast spreading ridges, has shown that the MTZ is mostly composed of sills and lenses of gabbro intruded into dunite. Thickness of the MTZ can vary from a few meters to over two kilometres. Within the thick MTZ, individual gabbro sills and lenses can reach thickness of a few hundred meters. Thermal modelling, tomography, compliance and PmS converted wave studies support the geologic evidence and suggest presence of gabbroic melt accumulations within the MTZ, in the vicinity of fast and intermediate spreading centres. However, seismic reflection imaging, which has been instrumental for determining the structure of the oceanic crust and for defining the geometry of axial magma chambers, has not yet been successful at imaging the gabbro sills and gabbro-melt lenses imbedded into dunite, casting some doubt on their existence within the present day oceanic lithosphere. Here we show images of a series of groups of subcrustal reflection events that resulted from our analysis of some 1500 km of multichannel seismic data collected in 2002 across the Juan de Fuca ridge flanks as part of the EW0207 cruise. Because the Moho discontinuity is well imaged along most of the survey track and the inferred crustal thickness is remarkably uniform, the location of these events as being within the MTZ is well constrained. We provide evidence that the imaged events are true subcrustal reflections and discuss why imaging the structure of thick MTZs is challenging when both dunite - gabbro and dunite - gabbro-melt interfaces are strong reflectors of acoustic energy. We also discuss mechanisms for the emplacement of gabbro sills within the dunites

  20. Scaphopoda from the Alexander Terrane, Southeast Alaska-The first occurrence of Scaphopoda in the Silurian

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohr, D.M.; Blodgett, R.B.; Baichtal, J.

    2006-01-01

    The scaphopods Dentalium hecetaensis n. sp. and Rhytiodentalium cf. kentuckyensis Pojeta et Runnegar, 1979, are described from Ludlow-age strata of the Heceta Limestone on Prince of Wales Island, Southeast Alaska. This is the first occurrence of Silurian scaphopods known to date. They are part of a diverse macrobenthic fauna of the Alexander terrane, an accreted southern Alaskan terrane of Siberian or Uralian affinities. ?? 2006 Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS.

  1. Peninsular terrane basement ages recorded by Paleozoic and Paleoproterozoic zircon in gabbro xenoliths and andesite from Redoubt volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, Charles R.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Historically Sactive Redoubt volcano is an Aleutian arc basalt-to-dacite cone constructed upon the Jurassic–Early Tertiary Alaska–Aleutian Range batholith. The batholith intrudes the Peninsular tectonostratigraphic terrane, which is considered to have developed on oceanic basement and to have accreted to North America, possibly in Late Jurassic time. Xenoliths in Redoubt magmas have been thought to be modern cumulate gabbros and fragments of the batholith. However, new sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb ages for zircon from gabbro xenoliths from a late Pleistocene pyroclastic deposit are dominated by much older, ca. 310 Ma Pennsylvanian and ca. 1865 Ma Paleoproterozoic grains. Zircon age distributions and trace-element concentrations indicate that the ca. 310 Ma zircons date gabbroic intrusive rocks, and the ca. 1865 Ma zircons also are likely from igneous rocks in or beneath Peninsular terrane basement. The trace-element data imply that four of five Cretaceous–Paleocene zircons, and Pennsylvanian low-U, low-Th zircons in one sample, grew from metamorphic or hydrothermal fluids. Textural evidence of xenocrysts and a dominant population of ca. 1865 Ma zircon in juvenile crystal-rich andesite from the same pyroclastic deposit show that this basement has been assimilated by Redoubt magma. Equilibration temperatures and oxygen fugacities indicated by Fe-Ti–oxide minerals in the gabbros and crystal-rich andesite suggest sources near the margins of the Redoubt magmatic system, most likely in the magma accumulation and storage region currently outlined by seismicity and magma petrology at ∼4–10 km below sea level. Additionally, a partially melted gabbro from the 1990 eruption contains zircon with U-Pb ages between ca. 620 Ma and ca. 1705 Ma, as well as one zircon with a U-Th disequilibrium model age of 0 ka. The zircon ages demonstrate that Pennsylvanian, and probably Paleoproterozoic, igneous rocks exist in, or possibly beneath, Peninsular

  2. Constraints on the accretion of the gabbroic lower oceanic crust from plagioclase lattice preferred orientation in the Samail ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanTongeren, J. A.; Hirth, G.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    The debate over the processes of igneous accretion of gabbroic lower crust at submarine spreading centers is centered on two end-member hypotheses: Gabbro Glaciers and Sheeted Sills. In order to determine which of these two hypotheses is most applicable to a well-studied lower crustal section, we present newly published data (VanTongeren et al., 2015 EPSL v. 427, p. 249-261) on plagioclase lattice preferred orientations (LPO) in the Wadi Khafifah section of the Samail ophiolite, Oman. Based on our results we provide five critical observations that any model for the accretion of the lower oceanic crust must satisfy: (1) There is a distinctive change in the orientation of the outcrop-scale layering from near-vertical to sub-horizontal that is also reflected in the plagioclase fabrics in the uppermost ~1000-1500 m of the gabbroic crust; (2) The distinction between the upper gabbros and lower gabbros is not a geochemical boundary. Rather, the change in outcrop-scale orientation from near-vertical to sub-horizontal occurs stratigraphically lower in the crust than a change in whole-rock geochemistry; (3) There is no systematic difference in plagioclase fabric strength in any crystallographic axis between the upper gabbros and the lower gabbros; (4) Beneath the abrupt transition from sub-vertical to sub-horizontal fabric, there is no systematic change in the geographic orientation of the plagioclase fabric, or in the development of a dominant lineation direction within the upper gabbros or the lower gabbros; (5) In the lower gabbros, the obliquity between the (010) and the modal layering remains approximately constant and indicates a consistent top to the right sense of shear throughout the stratigraphy. Our observations are most consistent with the Sheeted Sills hypothesis, in which the majority of lower crustal gabbros are crystallized in situ and fabrics are dominated by compaction and localized extension rather than by systematically increasing shear strain with

  3. Seismic structure and crustal accretion along an intermediate-rate mid-ocean ridge segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weekly, Robert Todd

    Epicenters and magnitudes for 36,523 earthquakes recorded along the Endeavour segment between August 2003 and October 2006 are automatically determined using a local ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) network. The catalog is dominated by two swarm sequences in January and February 2005 in the vicinity of the Endeavour overlapping spreading center, which included earthquakes in West Valley, the northern portion of the Endeavour segment, southwest Endeavour Valley and the Endeavour vent fields. These swarms are attributed to volcanism including a dike intrusion on the northern Endeavour in February 2005 and smaller diking events on the propagating tip of the West Valley segment in both swarms. The dike on the northern Endeavour propagated to the south, which is inconsistent with magma sourced from the axial magma chamber beneath the elevated central portion of the segment. Following the swarms, seismic activity on the Endeavour segment decreased on average to ˜15% of pre-swarm values and almost ceased at the segment ends. I infer that a six-year non-eruptive event that started with a swarm in 1999 and finished with the 2005 swarms ruptured the entire segment and relieved plate-spreading stresses. The inferred coupling between the 1999 and 2005 events, the observation of extensive precursory activity prior to the 2005 swarms, and the interaction between seismically active regions during the swarms is consistent with static triggering with delays influenced by viscoelastic relaxation, hydraulic diffusion and magma withdrawal and replenishment. The isotropic and anisotropic P-wave velocity structure of the upper oceanic crust on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge is studied using refracted travel time data collected by an active-source, three-dimensional tomography experiment. The isotropic velocity structure is characterized by low crustal velocities in the overlapping spreading centers (OSCs) at the ends of the segment. These low velocities are indicative of

  4. Gondwanan/peri-Gondwanan origin for the Uchee terrane, Alabama and georgia: Carolina zone or Suwannee terrane(?) and its suture with Grenvillian basement of the Pine Mountain window

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steltenpohl, M.G.; Mueller, P.M.; Heatherington, A.L.; Hanley, T.B.; Wooden, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Taconian) has been reported. This younger history, together with the ages of metaigneous rocks and evidence for pre-Grenville basement, suggests the Uchee terrane is likely of Gondwanan origin and may he related to Carolina zone terranes that accreted during the Alleghanian orogeny. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  5. Crustal accretion along the global mid-ocean ridge system based on basaltic glass and olivine-hosted melt inclusion compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanless, V. D.; Behn, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The depth and distribution of crystallization at mid-ocean ridges controls the overall architecture of the oceanic crust, influences hydrothermal circulation, and determines geothermal gradients in the crust and uppermost mantle. Despite this, there is no overall consensus on how crystallization is distributed within the crust/upper mantle or how this varies with spreading rate. Here, we examine crustal accretion at mid-ocean ridges by combining crystallization pressures calculated from major element barometers on mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glasses with vapor-saturation pressures from melt inclusions to produce a detailed map of crystallization depths and distributions along the global ridge system. We calculate pressures of crystallization from >11,500 MORB glasses from the global ridge system using two established major element barometers (1,2). Additionally, we use vapor-saturation pressures from >400 olivine-hosted melt inclusions from five ridges with variable spreading rates to constrain pressures and distributions of crystallization along the global ridge system. We show that (i) crystallization depths from MORB glasses increase and become less focused with decreasing spreading rate, (ii) maximum glass pressures are greater than the maximum melt inclusion pressure, which indicates that the melt inclusions do not record the deepest crystallization at mid-ocean ridges, and (iii) crystallization occurs in the lower crust/upper mantle at all ridges, indicating accretion is distributed throughout the crust at all spreading rates, including those with a steady-state magma lens. Finally, we suggest that the remarkably similar maximum vapor-saturation pressures (~ 3000 bars) in melt inclusion from all spreading rates reflects the CO2 content of the depleted upper mantle feeding the global mid-ocean ridge system. (1) Michael, P. & W. Cornell (1998), Journal of Geophysical Research, 103(B8), 18325-18356; (2) Herzberg, C. (2004), Journal of Petrology, 45(12), 2389.

  6. Gulf of California analogue for origin of Late Paleozoic ocean basins adjacent to western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Murchey, B.L. )

    1993-04-01

    Ocean crust accreted to the western margin of North America following the Late Devonian to earliest Missippian Antler orogeny is not older than Devonian. Therefore, ocean crust all along the margin of western North America may have been very young following the Antler event. This situation can be compared to the present-day margin of North America which lies adjacent to young ocean crust as a result of the subduction of the Farallon plate and arrival of the East Pacific spreading ridge. Syn- and post-Antler rifting that occurred along the North American margin may well be analogous to the formation of the Gulf of California by the propagation of the East Pacific spreading ridge. Black-arc rifting associated with the subduction of very old ocean crust seems a less likely mechanism for the early stages of ocean basin formation along the late Paleozoic margin of western North America because of the apparent absence of old ocean crust to the west of the arc terranes. The eastern Pacific basins were as long-lived as any truly oceanic basins and may have constituted, by the earliest Permian, a single wedge-shaped basin separated from the western Pacific by rifted fragments of North American arc-terranes. In the Permian, the rifted arcs were once again sites of active magmatism and the eastern Pacific basins began to close, from south (Golconda terrane) to north. Final closure of the northernmost eastern Pacific basin (Angayucham in Alaska) did not occur until the Jurassic.

  7. Kinematics of the mosquito terrane, Coldfoot Area, Alaska: Keys to Brooks Range tectonics: Final report, Project No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, T.A.; Coney, P.J.

    1988-04-01

    Within the large-scale geometry of the Brooks Range, the Angayucham terrane occurs as a vast overthrust sheet. From the north flank of the Ruby terrane it underlies the Koyukuk basin and stretches north as the roof thrust to the various nappe terranes of the Brooks Range. The tectonic relationship of the Ruby terrane to the south flank of the Brooks Range lies largely obscured beneath the Angayucham in the eastern apex of the Koyukuk basin. The Mosquito terrane occurs as a window through the Angayucham at this juncture. The composition and structures of the Mosquito terrane reveal that is the result of shear along a sub-horizontal step or flange within the prominent, through-going dextral strike-slip fault system which cuts across the eastern Koyukuk basin and southeastern Brooks Range. Units of the Mosquito were derived from both the Angayucham and Ruby terranes. A consistent tectonic fabric imposed upon them is kinematically linked to the strike-slip system and indicates a northeasterly direction of transport across the terrane. The presence of Ruby-correlative units within the Mosquito suggests the Ruby underlies the Angayucham and that it is in contact with terrances of the southern Brooks Range at that structural level along high-angle strike-slip faults. These relationships demonstrate that an episode of dextral transpression is the latest in the history of terrane accretion and tectonic evolution of the Brooks Range. 35 refs.

  8. The Wisconsin magmatic terrane: An Early Proterozoic greenstone-granite terrane formed by plate tectonic processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, K. J.; Laberge, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    The Wisconsin magmatic terrane (WMT) is an east trending belt of dominantly volcanic-plutonic complexes of Early Proterozoic age (approx. 1850 m.y.) that lies to the south of the Archean rocks and Early Proterozoic epicratonic sequence (Marquette Range Supergroup) in Michigan. It is separated from the epicratonic Marquette Range Supergroup by the high-angle Niagara fault, is bounded on the south, in central Wisconsin, by Archean gneisses, is truncated on the west by rocks of the Midcontinent rift system, and is intruded on the east by the post-orogenic Wolf river batholith. The overall lithologic, geochemical, metallogenic, metamorphic, and deformational characteristics of the WMT are similar to those observed in recent volcanic arc terranes formed at sites of plate convergence. It is concluded that the WMT represents an evolved oceanic island-arc terrane accreated to the Superior craton in the Early Proterozoic. This conclusion is strengthened by the apparent absence of Archean basement from most of the WMT, and the recent recognition of the passive margin character of the epicratonic Marquette Range Supergroup.

  9. Significance of serpentinization of lower crust in deep-sea hydrothermal biosphere -case study of gabbroic rocks from accreted oceanic plateau (Mikabu high P/T rocks, Japan)-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Y.; Ishimori, C.; Fukumura, S.; Okamoto, K.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrothermal activity in the Archean-Ridge system has been considered to play a major role to maintain the oldest biosphere in early Earth. In the present ridge-system, hydrogen production in the serpentinized peridotite layer, is considered as major energy source. However, low temperature hydrothermal zone in the lower crust layer in the ridge has been recognized as hydrogen producing zone. Thickness of oceanic crust is less then 10 km in the present Earth. However, the thickness of Archean oceanic crust has been estimated as 50 km. That is, hydration process of oceanic crust in the Archean-ridge is significantly important. Hydration rate of the peridotite layer in the Archean ridge is less extensive than Phanerozoic because thicker oceanic crust prevents hydration in the peridotite layer. Lower crustal rocks of accreted oceanic plateau is one of the best sample to describe hydration process due to deep-sea-hydrothermal alteration because it is easy to observe huge outcrops and collect samples systematically in whole section. We have collected gabbroic rocks from Mikabu high P/T rocks in Toba area and from Ootoyo area, Japan because there are large scale trench cliffs in the mine. Serpentinization of olivine gabbro and troctolite and hydrogen production rate will be shown in the present poster.

  10. The Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt, Russian South East: Terranes and the formation of continental lithosphere based on geological and isotopic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanchuk, A. I.; Kemkin, I. V.; Kruk, N. N.

    2016-04-01

    The Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt, Russian South East, consists of folded terranes made up of Jurassic and Early Cretaceous accretionary prisms, turbidite basins, and island arc terranes that are overlapped unconformably by undeformed upper Cenomanian to Cenozoic volcanic deposits. The Jurassic and Early Cretaceous accretionary prisms, together with the Early Cretaceous island arc, are related to subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate. The turbidite basin, which began to form at the beginning of the Early Cretaceous, is related to left-lateral movement of the Paleo-Pacific plate along the Paleo-Asian continental margin. The collage of terranes that make up the Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt was amalgamated in two stages. The first began after Jurassic subduction beneath the Asian continent was terminated, and the second took place in the late Albian, when the Early Cretaceous island arc collided with the continental margin. Intense deformation of the terranes took place along the continental margin in the form of large-scale translations from south to north, together with oroclinal folding. The deformation resulted in rapid thickening of sediments in the upper crust, resulting in turn in the formation of granitic-metamorphic material in the continental lithosphere. In the southwestern part of the Sikhote-Alin orogen, granites were intruded during the Hauterivian-Aptian, while the entire orogenic belt was affected by intrusions in the late Albian-early Cenomanian. Synorogenic intraplate volcanic rocks and alkaline ultramafic-mafic intrusions also testify to the fact that the orogenic processes in the Sikhote-Alin were related to a transform continental margin, and not to subduction. Geochemical and Nd isotopic data indicate, the primary continental crust of the Sikhote-Alin was of a "hybrid" nature, consisting of juvenile basic components accreted from an oceanic plate and recycled sedimentary material derived from the erosion of ancient blocks.

  11. Sinistral Displacement of the Pearya Terrane along the Canadian Arctic Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClelland, W.; Malone, S.; von Gosen, W.; Piepjohn, K.; Läufer, A.

    2012-12-01

    Structural and geochronologic observations from the Pearya terrane, northern Ellesmere Island, provide insight into the origin of the Canadian Arctic margin. The composite terrane records amalgamation of various fragments between 475 and 460 Ma and was accreted via sinistral transpression to the northern margin of Laurentia by 425 Ma (Trettin et al., 1991). New U-Pb SHRIMP-RG (USGS/Stanford) data from igneous rocks of the Pearya terrane help refine magmatic components of the composite terrane to include Neoproterozoic arc plutons (ca 960-970 Ma), a Cambrian syenite-monzodiorite complex (Ward Hunt pluton: 539 ± 4 Ma), Ordovician arc magmatism (Ayles Fiord pluton: 475 ± 3 Ma; Cape Richards pluton: 464 ± 3 Ma) and Devonian-Carboniferous magmatism (Petersen Bay plutonic complex: 332 ± 2 Ma). Samples from the Ordovician Taconite River Formation provide unimodal peaks characteristic of arc settings with LA-ICPMS (Arizona LaserChron Center) detrital zircon U/Pb ages ranging from 440 to 480 Ma. The Pearya terrane is cut by the Pearya shear zone, a major ductile structure defined by a thick zone of sub-vertical mylonites that consistently display a sinistral sense of shear. Mylonites exposed at Cape Columbia are cross-cut by leucocratic pegmatite dikes that give a U-Pb zircon age of 453 ± 3.5 Ma. Quartz and feldspar deformation textures coupled with the orientation of a studied dike are consistent with emplacement during late sinistral deformation. Displacement on the Pearya shear zone at or prior to 450 Ma is interpreted to record translation of the Pearya terrane toward or along the north Laurentian margin, outboard of the Franklinian basin, in the early stages of the Baltica-Laurentia Caledonian collision. The Pearya shear zone merges with or is truncated by the Petersen Bay fault, a complex northwest-southeast contractional structure that marks a segment of the Ellesmerian boundary between the Pearya terrane and Franklinian basin. Major structures within the Pearya

  12. Deformation and sedimentation along a developing terrane suture: Eastern Sunda forearc, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.L.; Silver, E.A.; Prasetyo, H.; Meyer, A.W.

    1986-12-01

    The collision of the eastern Sunda arc with northwest Australia has resulted in the development of a suture between the Sumba ridge and Sawu-Timor terranes along a zone of intraforearc convergence. The developing suture varies from the low-angle Sawu thrust, with attendant mud diapirs in the Sumba basin, to high-angle reverse faults near a basement high of the underthrust Sumba ridge terrane. Bottom currents, associated with the flow of Pacific Ocean deep water into the Indian Ocean, have eroded the terranes and subsequently deposited the detritus in an assemblage of contourites along the suture. This study reveals the high structural variability of a terrane suture and the oceanographic influence on the deposition of overlap assemblages.

  13. The Mars Hill Terrane: An enigmatic southern Appalachian terrane

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, L.A.; Johnson, P.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    The Mars Hill Terrane (MHT) in the Appalachian Blue Ride Belt is bordered by complex, locally reactivated thrust and strike-slip faults. On the east, the MHT is bounded by the allochthonous, ensimatic Toe Terrane (TT) across the diachronous, ductile Holland Mountain-Soque River Fault System. The MHT is separated on the northwest from ensialic Laurentian basement (LB), by the Fries-Hayesville Fault System. On the south, the MHT is truncated by the Shope Fork Fault. The MHT is characterized by migmatitic biotite-pyroxene-hornblende gneiss, but contains 1--1.8 b.y. old quartz-feldspar gneisses, plus ultramafic rocks, calc-silicate rocks, mica schists and gneisses, and Neoproterozoic Bakersville gabbros. This rock assemblage contrasts with that of the adjoining terranes. The only correlative units between the MHT and adjoining terranes are Neoproterozoic gabbro, Ordovician-Devonian granitoid plutons, and ultramafic rocks. Gabbro links the MHT with LB rocks. Apparently similar calc-silicate rocks differ petrographically among terranes. During Taconic or Acadian events, both the TT and MHT reached amphibolite to granulite metamorphic grade, but the LB did not exceed greenschist grade. The data conflict. The O-D plutons, ultramafic rocks, and metamorphic histories suggest that the TT had docked with the MHT by Ordovician time. The premetamorphic character of the Holland Mtn.-Soque River Fault System supports that chronology. Neoproterozoic gabbros suggest a MHT-LB link by Cambrian time, but the LB experienced neither O-D plutonism nor Paleozoic amphibolite-granulite facies metamorphism.

  14. Variations of the SCLM structures and geochemical features of the peridotites in different mantle terranes beneath Siberian craton.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashchepkov, I. V.; Vladykin, N. V.; Kuligin, S. S.; Smelov, A. P.; Ntaflos, T.; Kostrovitsky, S. I.; Lelyukh, M. I.; Rotman, A. Ya.; Afanasiev, V. P.; Tychkov, N. S.; Malygina, E. V.; Ovchinnikov, Yu. I.; Palessky, S. V.; Nikolaeva, I. V.; Khmelnikova, O. S.; Nigmatulina, E. N.

    2012-04-01

    Yubileinaya lin They together may represent the peridotites similar to those from the subduction front and probably upper part. They also show sharp peaks in U , enrichment in Sr, Ba, Rb etc (Chen, Zeng 2007) The peridotites of the Archean times exposed in ophiolite series commonly have very flat uniform trace element spider diagrams (Furnes et al., 2009). Mantle in lower part of Hapschan terrane which is and accretion complex is extremely depleted in Al and Ca the lower part but the dunites are more Fe- rich then common Mariana like mantle. But the upper part here corresponds to the peridotites which are highly metasomatized with fluid enriched melts. The SCLM in Berikte granite-greenstone terrane like Markha again contains mildly depleted associations and abundant eclogites of hybrid origin (Taylor et al., 2003) near 40 kbar boundary. This boundary probably is not transparent for the eclogites in high temperature conditions. This may be one of the reasons of the division if the lithospheric mantle into two parts and the origin of the pyroxenitic lens. Mantle peridotites here have features of the high degree oceanic type depletion like in Daldyn region (Ashchepkov et al., 2012).

  15. Tectonic evolution of the East Junggar terrane, CAOB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xing-Wang

    2016-04-01

    The East Junggar terrane is one of the important tectonic units of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB; Zonenshain et al., 1990). Debate surrounds the tectonics of the East Junggar area, including tectonic setting, age, basement nature, subduction polarity and collisional time between the East Junggar terrane and Junggar block (e.g., Xiao et al., 2008, 2011; Long et al., 2012; Huang et al., 2012). Among the two popular models, one suggests that the Junggar is a continental block (e.g. Zhang et al., 1984, 1993; Watson et al., 1987; Xiao et al., 1992; He et al., 1994; Li et al., 2000; Charvet et al., 2001, 2007; Xu et al., 2003; Zhao et al., 2003; Buslov et al., 2004; Xu and Ma, 2004; Dong et al., 2009; Bazhenov et al., 2012; Choulet et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2012). The other model proposes that the Junggar has a basement of Paleozoic oceanic crust (e.g., Carroll et al., 1990; Zheng et al., 2007) or oceanic island arc complexes (e.g., Coleman, 1989; Chen and Jahn, 2004; Windley et al., 2007) of the Altaid Paleozoic rocks (e.g., Sengör et al., 1993; Sengör and Natal'in, 1996; Allen and Vincent, 1997; Filippova et al., 2001; Xiao et al., 2004a, 2004b, 2008, 2009, 2010a, 2010b, 2012). The tectonics in the Eastern Junggar area are interpreted to be related to late Paleozoic intra-oceanic accretion induced by northward subduction of the Junggar oceanic lithosphere (e.g. Xiao et al., 2008, 2009; Biske and Seltmann, 2010; Wan et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2011) or by the southward subduction of the Paleo-Asian oceanic lithosphere (Zhang et al., 2004; Wong et al., 2010; Su et al., 2012). Recently, we did detailed field survey and petrological, geochemical and chronological analysis of the metamorphosed volcanic rocks and magmatic rocks, and new discovered gneiss and magnetite quartzite enclaves from the Taheir tectonic window in the East Junggar region which is situated between the Zaisan-Erqis-the Main Mongolian Lineament-suture and the Kelameili suture. The new results

  16. Evolution of the Asir terrane and Phanerozoic rifting in southwestern Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Fairer, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    The Asir terrane, defined by D.B. Stoeser and V.E. Camp, in southwestern Saudi Arabia was formed from about 1200 Ma to 560 Ma by the coalescence of the Baish ensimatic island-arch complex and the Andean-type Tarib arc complex. In this period, the Afif and Ar Rayn exotic terranes impinged from the east and were accreted to the Asir terrane along a west-directed subduction zone to form the Nabitah suture. Mapping on the eastern side of the Asir terrane by the author shows that the Ablah sedimentary basin was compressed and tectonically incorporated into west-directed thrust faults as the Asir terrane was accreted to the African craton. A saprolite mantle formed over the Asir terrane during a late-Precambrian-early Paleozoic episode of chemical weathering. Later, the terrane gradually subsided and was covered by Paleozoic seas in which the Wajid Sandstone and the Kholan and Amran Limestones were deposited. Initiation of a thermal cell at the Afar triple junction during the latest Cretaceous or early Tertiary caused crustal attenuation and sagging into a proto-Red Sea rift. Rifting and uplift of the Arabian Shield by as much as 2000 meters since the middle Miocene are indicated by deposition of the Asir group volcaniclastic and clastic rocks, emplacement of shallow, layered-intrusive rocks and basaltic dikes, and displacement of the Wajid Sandstone. Proterozoic thrust faults were reactivated as normal and strike-slip faults by Miocene rifting, and sandstone dikes were injected downward into the faults. Quaternary volcanism, stream incision, and historic earthquake activity are evidence of continued uplift.

  17. Moho Depth of the Yakutat Terrane, Southern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christeson, G. L.; Van Avendonk, H. J.; Gulick, S. P.; Pavlis, G. L.; Hansen, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Yakutat terrane, a thickened oceanic plateau, is currently colliding with southern Alaska forming the Chugach-St. Elias orogen. Two-dimensional marine seismic profiles acquired during the STEEP project map the Moho of the terrane at a constant depth of 30-32 km over a distance >300 km from the Bering Glacier east to the Dangerous River Zone, and over a distance of >100 km from the Transition fault north towards Yakutat Bay. However, Moho depth of the terrane is poorly constrained to the north beneath the Chugach-St. Elias mountains. Fortunately, good Moho reflections are observed by land-based seismometers recording the marine shots of the STEEP project over source-receiver offsets up to 200 km. We will use these data to invert for Yakutat terrane Moho depth. We will first use all first-arriving energy to do a three-dimensional tomographic inversion for crustal velocity structure, and then will invert all interpreted Moho reflections for Moho depth. The results should give us new insights into the tectonic processes associated with the Chugach-St. Elias orogen.

  18. Intra-oceanic subduction shaped the assembly of Cordilleran North America.

    PubMed

    Sigloch, Karin; Mihalynuk, Mitchell G

    2013-04-01

    The western quarter of North America consists of accreted terranes--crustal blocks added over the past 200 million years--but the reason for this is unclear. The widely accepted explanation posits that the oceanic Farallon plate acted as a conveyor belt, sweeping terranes into the continental margin while subducting under it. Here we show that this hypothesis, which fails to explain many terrane complexities, is also inconsistent with new tomographic images of lower-mantle slabs, and with their locations relative to plate reconstructions. We offer a reinterpretation of North American palaeogeography and test it quantitatively: collision events are clearly recorded by slab geometry, and can be time calibrated and reconciled with plate reconstructions and surface geology. The seas west of Cretaceous North America must have resembled today's western Pacific, strung with island arcs. All proto-Pacific plates initially subducted into almost stationary, intra-oceanic trenches, and accumulated below as massive vertical slab walls. Above the slabs, long-lived volcanic archipelagos and subduction complexes grew. Crustal accretion occurred when North America overrode the archipelagos, causing major episodes of Cordilleran mountain building. PMID:23552944

  19. Intra-oceanic subduction shaped the assembly of Cordilleran North America.

    PubMed

    Sigloch, Karin; Mihalynuk, Mitchell G

    2013-04-01

    The western quarter of North America consists of accreted terranes--crustal blocks added over the past 200 million years--but the reason for this is unclear. The widely accepted explanation posits that the oceanic Farallon plate acted as a conveyor belt, sweeping terranes into the continental margin while subducting under it. Here we show that this hypothesis, which fails to explain many terrane complexities, is also inconsistent with new tomographic images of lower-mantle slabs, and with their locations relative to plate reconstructions. We offer a reinterpretation of North American palaeogeography and test it quantitatively: collision events are clearly recorded by slab geometry, and can be time calibrated and reconciled with plate reconstructions and surface geology. The seas west of Cretaceous North America must have resembled today's western Pacific, strung with island arcs. All proto-Pacific plates initially subducted into almost stationary, intra-oceanic trenches, and accumulated below as massive vertical slab walls. Above the slabs, long-lived volcanic archipelagos and subduction complexes grew. Crustal accretion occurred when North America overrode the archipelagos, causing major episodes of Cordilleran mountain building.

  20. Pre-Mesozoic terranes and the tectonic framework of the Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, W.A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Pre-Mesozoic rocks beneath the Gulf Coastal Plain reflect the late Precambrian (Pc)-Cambrian (Cb) rifted continental margin and the late Paleozoic Appalachian-Ouachita orogen (AOO). The AL promontory of Pc continental crust is bounded by a NW-striking transform margin (AL-OK transform) and a NE-striking rifted margin (southern Blue Ridge rift). Terrane accretion during the AOO differed markedly on the orthogonal adjacent sides of the AL promontory (ALp). Late Paleozoic compressional fabrics and terrane-boundary sutures, as well as extensional fabrics of the older rifted margin, influenced the geometry of Mesozoic extension and opening of the Gulf of Mexico. Along the SW side of the ALp, arc-continent collision resulted in accretion of an arc and subduction complex onto the margin of N American crust. The Ouachita allochthon includes off-shelf passive-margin rocks in an accretionary prism and synorogenic turbidites that represent a forearc basin and trench. Carbonate-shelf strata of the N American passive margin remained in place beneath the Ouachita allochthon. Along the southeast side of the ALp, passive-margin carbonate-shelf rocks are imbricated in the Appalachian thrust belt and bordered by an internal metamorphic belt of accreted terranes; both are underlain by relatively shallow Pc basement. The SE-dipping Suwannee-Wiggins suture terminates the shallow continental crust, truncates previously accreted terranes, and forms the boundary between N America and the Suwannee terrane. Mesozoic extensional structures include NE-and NW-striking fault systems. A NE-striking Triassic graben overlies the Suwannee-Wiggins suture, suggesting that Mesozoic extension used the Late Paleozoic compressional fabric of the suture. A NW-striking system of Triassic fault-bounded basins coincides with the trace of the Cb AL-OK transform fault, suggesting that the older crustal boundary controlled the location of a Mesozoic transform/transfer fault system.

  1. Insights into Oceanic Crust Accretion from a Comparison of Rock Magnetic and Silicate Fabrics from Lower Crustal Gabbros from Hess Deep Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horst, A. J.; Morris, A.; Friedman, S. A.; Cheadle, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanisms of lower crustal accretion remain a long-standing question for those who study fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges. One of the goals of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 345 is to test accretionary models by investigating the structure of the lower oceanic crust exposed within the Hess Deep Rift. Located near the tip of the westward-propagating Cocos-Nazca spreading center, Hess Deep Rift exposes crust formed at the East Pacific Rise. During IODP Expedition 345, primitive gabbroic rocks were recovered from a dismembered lower crustal section at ~4850 meters below sealevel. Constraints on physical processes during magmatic accretion are provided by the relative orientation and strength of rock fabrics. We present anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) fabric data from gabbros recovered from the two deepest holes (U1415J and U1415P). AMS measurements provide petrofabric data that may be used to constrain magma emplacement and subsequent magmatic flow. Bulk susceptibility ranges from 1.15 x 10-4 to 5.73 x 10-2 SI, with a majority of the samples having susceptibility greater than 10-3 SI, suggesting magnetite is the dominant contributor to the AMS signal. Low-temperature demagnetization data show Verwey transitions near 125K indicating the presence of nearly stoichiometric magnetite in most samples. AMS reveals dominantly oblate fabrics with a moderate degree of anisotropy (P') ranging from 1.01 to 1.38 (average P' = 1.13). Fabric strength varies within each of the petrologically-defined units recovered from different crustal blocks. Additional remanence anisotropy fabric analyses of a few specimens reveal nearly identical directions of principal axes compared to AMS, but with larger degrees of anisotropy. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data from one sample shows a moderate plagioclase crystallographic preferred orientation best defined by a b-axis maxima that is coincident with the AMS minimum principal axis. This comparison

  2. Structural analysis of the southern Peninsular, southern Wrangellia, and northern Chugach terranes along the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect, northern Chugach Mountains, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nokleberg, W.J.; Plafker, G.; Lull, J.S.; Wallace, W.K.; Winkler, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    Structural and tectonic analysis of the southern Peninsular, southern Wrangellia, and northern Chugach terranes, along the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect in the northern Chugach Mountains documents a long succession of Early Jurassic through Cenozoic deformational events. The deformational events are generally characterized by distinctive structural fabrics and metamorphisms. Most of the events are interpreted to be related to subduction-related accretion or terrane accretion. Each period of subduction-related accretion consisted of underplating of the outboard unit beneath the adjacent inboard unit. The fabric associated with each subduction-related accretion consisted of folding, intense shearing, and local rolling of planar structures. Age and structural relationships suggest migration of the zone of subduction-related accretion from the BRFS to the north, through each accreting unit, to younger bounding thrust faults to the south. -from Author

  3. The Izu Peninsula, Japan: Zircon geochronology reveals a record of intra-oceanic rear-arc magmatism in an accreted block of Izu-Bonin upper crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Kenichiro; Fiske, Richard S.; Dunkley, Daniel J.; Ishizuka, Osamu; Oikawa, Teruki; Isobe, Ichiyo; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

    2011-03-01

    The Izu Peninsula, central Japan, is situated in a zone where the active intra-oceanic Izu-Bonin arc has been colliding end-on with the mainland Honshu arc for the past 15 million years. As a result of this arc-arc collision, parts of the submarine Izu-Bonin upper crustal sequences have been accreted and uplifted to form the Izu Peninsula, exposing seafloor volcaniclastic deposits, associated lava flows, and coeval intrusive bodies. Parts of this sequence have been subjected to extensive hydrothermal alteration, and these altered rocks have previously been interpreted as representative of hypothetical widespread Middle Miocene basement that presumably underlay northern Izu-Bonin arc volcanoes. New zircon U-Pb ages presented here, however, show that both fresh and altered volcanic sequences exposed in Izu Peninsula are broadly contemporaneous and were products of the same Late Miocene to Pleistocene magmatism. Geochemical characteristics of these sequences show them to have formed in the Izu-Bonin rear-arc environment, providing an unusual opportunity to investigate in detail the growth and architecture of a rear-arc region in an active intra-oceanic arc. Moreover, zircon ages from altered basal units of Kozushima and Niijima, Quaternary volcanic islands in the northern Izu-Bonin rear-arc, show that these islands rest on units only slightly older (< 1 Ma) than the main body of these subaerial edifices, not, as previously believed, part of a regional older Miocene basement. The near-continuum growth of these arc volcanoes and their underlying successions, plus the absence of a distinctly older basement underlying the Izu Peninsula and northern Izu-Bonin arc, provide new insight into upper crust development in an intra-oceanic, convergent margin environment.

  4. Middle Proterozoic age for the Montpelier Anorthosite, Goochland terrane, eastern Piedmont, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Horton, J.W.; Walter, M.

    1996-01-01

    Uranium-lead dating of zircons from the Montpelier Anorthosite confirms previous interpretations, based on equivocal evidence, that the Goochland terrane in the eastern Piedmont of Virginia contains Grenvillian basement rocks of Middle Proterozoic age. A very few prismatic, elongate, euhedral zircons, which contain 12-29 ppm uranium, are interpreted to be igneous in origin. The vast majority of zircons are more equant, subangular to anhedral, contain 38-52 ppm uranium, and are interpreted to be metamorphic in origin. One fraction of elongate zircon, and four fragments of a very large zircon (occurring in a nelsonite segregation) yield an upper intercept age of 1045 ?? 10 Ma, interpreted as the time of anorthosite crystallization. Irregularly shaped metamorphic zircons are dated at 1011 ?? 2 Ma (weighted average of the 207Pb/206Pb ages). The U-Pb isotopic systematics of metamorphic titanite were reset during the Alleghanian orogeny at 297 ?? 5 Ma. These data provide a minimum age for gneisses of the Goochland terrane that are intruded by the anorthosite. Middle Proterozoic basement rocks of the Goochland terrane may be correlative with those in the Shenandoah massif of the Blue Ridge tectonic province, as suggested by similarities between the Montpelier Anorthosite and the Roseland anorthosite. Although the areal extent of Middle Proterozoic basement and basement-cover relations in the eastern Piedmont remain unresolved, results of this investigation indicate that the Goochland terrane is an internal massif of Laurentian crust rather than an exotic accreted terrane.

  5. Along-axis variability in crustal accretion at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Results from the OCEAN study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henstock, T.J.; White, Robert S.; McBride, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    The OCEAN experiment is an integrated geophysical study of a region of the Cape Verde abyssal plain that formed at 140 Ma. Deep seismic reflection and ocean bottom hydrophone (OBH) refraction data were acquired along lines parallel and perpendicular to the paleoridge axis trend identified from a detailed magnetic anomaly survey. The igneous basement is overlain by about 1.3 km of sediment which enables improved imaging of intracrustal structure beyond that possible near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge axis. We describe the results of a 150-km long profile oriented parallel to magnetic anomalies M15 and M16, along which deep seismic reflection data collected by the British Institutions Reflection Profiling Syndicate are complemented by refraction data constrained by four OBHs. The line spans an entire spreading segment between two fracture zones; the northern of which has an offset of 40 km and the other (central) has an offset of only 10 km. Away from the fracture zones, the mean igneous crustal thickness is 7.2 km; near both fracture zones, thinning of up to 4 km is observed, giving a mean igneous crustal thickness over the whole segment of approximately 6.5 km. Differences are seen between the two fracture zones in their seismic velocity structure, in the associated basement topography, and in the presence of a strong reflection extending into the mantle beneath the northern fracture zone. The boundary between oceanic layers 2 and 3 correlates with variably coherent normal incidence reflections and a change in the character of the reflectivity. A number of planar reflections up to 10 km in length are present within the middle and lower crust, dipping outward from beneath low-amplitude basement highs at ??? 15??; these appear to be present only within layer 3. The Moho has several expressions in the reflection data, including isolated reflection events, a local increase in reflected amplitudes, and a downward decrease in coherent reflections. At the center of the segment

  6. Features and geotectonic evolution of the Alxa Terrane at North Qilian Mountains in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaozhi; Zhengmin, Min

    2015-04-01

    The Alxa Terrane in west China, covered with Badain Jaran and Tengger Deserts at the earth's surface, lies geographically on the north of the Qilian-Mountains Structural Belt and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with intense tectonic activities. The Mongolian Plateau with Cenozoic activities and the Ordos Plateau are on the north and east of the terrane separately. Tectonically the terrane lies among the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, the Qilian-Qinling Orogenic Belt in the Tarim Plate, and the North China Craton. In view of its special geotectonic location, the knowledge about the Alxa Terrane generation and evolution would be significant to the understanding of plates and terranes convergence and evolution in west China and to hydrocarbon exploration in those small and medium basins in the Hexi Corridor. The conclusions include (1) the Alxa Terrane is a component part in the west of the North China Plate instead of a part separated from the Tarim Plate. Neoarchean rocks occurring in the Beidashan area in west Alxa are mainly composed of granodiorite gneiss with typical TTG gneiss features. The age of the magmatic zircon nucleus is about 2522±30 Ma, which is basically consistent with that of TFG gneiss pervasively distributing in the North China Craton; (2) the Alxa Terrane was a relatively isolated small terrane in the Archaean and Proterozoic Eras. The lithologies of the crystalline basement are different from those in the Tarim and North China Plates. Tectothermal events took place 800-1000 Ma and 400-600 Ma ago separately in Alxa, which had few signatures in the North China Plate. The North China Plate and the Alxa Terrane converged in the south and diverged in the north due to the impact of the Caledonian Movement and then merged at the early stage of the Middle Ordovician. During the Middle Hercynian Movement, the Paleoasian Ocean in the north closed and new crust appeared in the Early Permian to form the trench-arc-basin system at the north margin. During the Late

  7. Upper crustal seismic structure of the Endeavour segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge from traveltime tomography: Implications for oceanic crustal accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weekly, Robert T.; Wilcock, William S. D.; Toomey, Douglas R.; Hooft, Emilie E. E.; Kim, Eunyoung

    2014-04-01

    isotropic and anisotropic P wave velocity structure of the upper oceanic crust on the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge is studied using refracted traveltime data collected by an active-source, three-dimensional tomography experiment. The isotropic velocity structure is characterized by low crustal velocities in the overlapping spreading centers (OSCs) at the segment ends. These low velocities are indicative of pervasive tectonic fracturing and persist off axis, recording the history of ridge propagation. Near the segment center, velocities within the upper 1 km show ridge-parallel bands with low velocities on the outer flanks of topographic highs. These features are consistent with localized thickening of the volcanic extrusive layer from eruptions extending outside of the axial valley that flow down the fault-tilted blocks that form the abyssal hill topography. On-axis velocities are generally relatively high beneath the hydrothermal vent fields likely due to the infilling of porosity by mineral precipitation. Lower velocities are observed beneath the most vigorous vent fields in a seismically active region above the axial magma chamber and may reflect increased fracturing and higher temperatures. Seismic anisotropy is high on-axis but decreases substantially off axis over 5-10 km (0.2-0.4 Ma). This decrease coincides with an increase in seismic velocities resolved at depths ≥1 km and is attributed to the infilling of cracks by mineral precipitation associated with near-axis hydrothermal circulation. The orientation of the fast-axis of anisotropy is ridge-parallel near the segment center but curves near the segment ends reflecting the tectonic fabric within the OSCs.

  8. Provenance of Permian-Triassic Gondwana Sequence Units Accreted to the Banda Arc: Constraints from U/Pb and Hf Analysis of Zircons and Igneous Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, J. A.; Spencer, C. J.; Harris, R. A.; Hoiland, C.

    2011-12-01

    Analysis of zircons from Australian affinity Permo-Triassic units of the Timor region yield age distributions with large peaks at 230-400 Ma and 1750-1900 Ma (n=435). Similar zircon age peaks are also found in rocks from NE Australia and the eastern Cimmerian block. It is likely that these terranes, which are now widely separated, were once part of the northern edge of Gondwana near what is now the NW margin of Australia. The Cimmerian Block was removed from Gondwana during Early Permian rifting and initiation of the Neo-Tethys Ocean. Hf analysis of zircon from the Aileu Complex in Timor and Kisar shows bimodal (juvenial and evolved) magmatism in the Gondwana Sequence of NW Australia at ~300 Ma. The magmatic event produced basalt with rift valley and ocean floor geochemical affinities, and rhyolite. Similar rock types and isotopic signatures are also found in Permo-Triassic igneous units throughout the Cimmerian continental block. The part of the Cimmerian Block with zircon distributions most like the Gondwana Sequence of NW Australia is the terranes of northern Tibet and Malaysia. The large 1750-1900 Ma zircon peak is much more wide spread, and appears in terranes from Baoshan (SW China) to Borneo. The Permo-Triassic rocks of the Timor region fill syn-rift intracratonic basins that successfully rifted in the Jurassic to form the NW margin of Australia. This passive continental margin first entered the Sunda Trench in the Timor region at around 8 Ma causing the Permo-Triassic rocks to accrete to the edge of the Asian Plate and emerge as a series of mountainous islands in the young collision zone. Eventually, the Australian continental margin will collide with the southern edge of the Asian plate and these Gondwana terranes will rejoin. However, it may be difficult to reconstruct the various ventures of they made over the past 300 Ma.

  9. Neoproterozoic oceanic arc remnants in the Moroccan Anti-Atlas: reconstructing deep to shallow arc crustal sequence and tracking Pan-African subduction-accretion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantafyllou, Antoine; Berger, Julien; Baele, Jean-Marc; Bruguier, Olivier; Diot, Hervé; Ennih, Nasser; Plissart, Gaëlle; Monnier, Christophe; Spagna, Paul; Watlet, Arnaud; Vandycke, Sara

    2015-04-01

    established that they were recrystallized under garnet-granulites P-T conditions (up to ~1000°C at 12 kbar). Preliminary geochemical data of hornblende-gabbros and garnet-bearing granulites portray similar trace geochemical signatures ((La/Sm)N: 0.8-1.6 ; (Nb/La) < 0.46) as studied paleo-arc complexes. These P-T results and new geochemical data argue that Asmlil mafic complex could represent a deep arc root comparable to the deep section of exposed oceanic arcs (i.e. Kohistan, Talkeetna, Amalaoulaou). We propose that Iriri and Asmlil units depict the deep-to-shallow sequence of a single Cryogenian oceanic arc (760-740 Ma), as discrete exposures along the southern edge of Anti-Atlas ophiolitic assemblages. Nevertheless, this primary arc has been likely broke up and intruded by subsequent hydrous arc-related magmas under medium- to high-grade P-T conditions (700 to 650 Ma). We interpret this period as an oceanic pre-collision stage when subduction geometry is intensively perturbed (c.g. composite subductions, polarity inversion), doping production of typical hydrous arc magma that intrudes original arc. This complex arc melange has been lastly accreted and sealed on the West African Craton margin.

  10. A kinematic model for the formation of the Siletz-Crescent forearc terrane by capture of coherent fragments of the Farallon and Resurrection plates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCrory, Patricia A.; Wilson, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    The volcanic basement of the Oregon and Washington Coast ranges has been proposed to represent a pair of tracks of the Yellowstone hotspot formed at a mid-ocean ridge during the early Cenozoic. This interpretation has been questioned on many grounds, especially that the range of ages does not match the offshore spreading rates and that the presence of continental coarse clastic sediments is difficult to reconcile with fast convergence rates between the oceanic plates and North America. Updates to basement geochronology and plate motion history reveal that these objections are much less serious than when they were first raised. Forward plate kinematic modeling reveals that predicted basement ages can be consistent with the observed range of about 55–49 Ma, and that the entire basement terrane can form within about 300 km of continental sources for clastic sediments. This kinematic model indicates that there is no firm reason to reject the near-ridge hotspot hypothesis on the basis of plate motions. A novel element of the model is the Resurrection plate, previously proposed to exist between the Farallon and Kula plates. By including the defunct Resurrection plate in our reconstruction, we are able to model the Farallon hotspot track as docking against the Oregon subduction margin starting about 53 Ma, followed by docking of the Resurrection track to the north starting about 48 Ma. Accretion of the Farallon plate fragment and partial subduction of the Resurrection fragment complicates the three-dimensional structure of the modern Cascadia forearc. We interpret the so-called “E” layer beneath Vancouver Island to be part of the Resurrection fragment. Our new kinematic model of mobile terranes within the Paleogene North American plate boundary allows reinterpretation of the three-dimensional structure of the Cascadia forearc and its relationship to ongoing seismotectonic processes.

  11. Kilbuck terrane: Oldest known rocks in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Box, S.E. ); Moll-Stalcup, E.J.; Wooden, J.L. ); Bradshaw, J.Y. )

    1990-12-01

    The Kilbuck terrane in southwestern Alaska is a narrow, thin crustal sliver or flake of amphibolite facies orthogneiss. The igneous protolith of this gneiss was a suite of subduction-related plutonic rocks. U-Pb data on zircons from trondhjemitic and granitic samples yield upper-intercept (igneous) ages of 2,070 {plus minus}16 and 2,040 {plus minus}74 Ma, respectively. Nd isotope data from these rocks suggest that a diorite-tonalite-trondhjemite suite ({epsilon}{sub Nd}(T) = +2.1 to +2.7; T is time of crystallization) evolved from partial melts of depleted mantle with no discernible contamination by older crust, whereas a coeval granitic pluton ({epsilon}{sub Nd}(T) = {minus}5.7) contains a significant component derived from Archean crust. Orthogneisses with similar age and Nd isotope characteristics are found in the Idono complex 250 km to the north. Early Proterozoic rocks are unknown elsewhere in Alaska. However, Phanerozoic plutons cutting several continental terranes in Alaska (southern Brooks Range and Ruby, Seward, and Yukon-Tanana terranes) have Nd isotope compositions indicative of Early Proterozoic (or older) crustal components that could be correlative with rocks of the Kilbuck terrane. Rocks with similar igneous ages in cratonal North America are rare, and those few that are known have Nd isotope compositions distinct from those of the Kilbuck terrane. Conversely, provinces with Nd model ages of 2.0-2.1 Ga are characterized by extensive 1.8 Ga or younger plutonism, which is unknown in the Kilbuck terrane. At present the case for a North American parentage of the Kilbuck terrane is not compelling. The possibility that the Kilbuck terrane was displaced from provinces of similar age in other cratons (e.g., Australian, Baltic, Guiana, and west African shields), or from the poorly dated Siberian craton, cannot be excluded.

  12. Use and abuse of crustal accretion calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallister, John S.; Cole, James C.; Stoeser, Douglas B.; Quick, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Recent attempts to calculate the average growth rate of continental crust for the Late Proterozoic shield of Arabia and Nubia are subject to large geological uncertainties, and widely contrasting conclusions result from dissimilar boundary conditions. The four greatest sources of divergence are (1) the extent of 620-920 Ma arc-terrane crust beneath Phanerozoic cover; (2) the extent of pre-920 Ma continental crust within the arc terranes; (3) the amount of postaccretion magmatic addition and erosion; and (4) the aggregate length and average life span of Late Proterozoic magmatic-arc systems that formed the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Calculations restricted to the relatively well known Arabian segment of the Arabian-Nubian Shield result in average crustal growth rates and arc accretion rates comparable to rates for modern arc systems, but we recognize substantial uncertainty in such results. Critical review of available geochemical, isotopic, and geochronological evidence contradicts the often stated notion that intact, pre-920 Ma crust is widespread in the eastern Arabian Shield. Instead, the arc terranes of the region apparently were "contaminated" with sediments derived, in part, from pre-920 Ma crust. Available geologic and radiometric data indicate that the Arabian-Nubian Shield and its "Pan-African" extensions constitute the greatest known volume of arc-accreted crust on Earth that formed in the period 920-620 Ma. Thus, the region may truly represent a disproportionate share of Earth's crustal growth budget for this time period.

  13. The Ellsworth terrane, coastal Maine: Geochronology, geochemistry, and Nd-Pb isotopic composition - Implications for the rifting of Ganderia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, K.J.; Stewart, D.B.; Tucker, R.D.; Pollock, J.C.; Ayuso, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Ellsworth terrane is one of a number of fault-bounded blocks that occur along the eastern margin of Ganderia, the western-most of the peri-Gondwanan domains in the northern Appalachians that were accreted to Laurentia in the Paleozoic. Geologic relations, detrital zircon ages, and basalt geochemistry suggest that the Ellsworth terrane is part of Ganderia and not an exotic terrane. In the Penobscot Bay area of coastal Maine, the Ellsworth terrane is dominantly composed of bimodal basalt-rhyolite volcanic sequences of the Ellsworth Schist and unconformably overlying Castine Volcanics. We use new U-Pb zircon geochronology, geochemistry, and Nd and Pb isotopes for these volcanic sequences to constrain the petrogenetic history and paleotectonic setting of the Ellsworth terrane and its relationship with Ganderia. U-Pb zircon geochronology for rhyolites indicates that both the Ellsworth Schist (508.6 ?? 0.8 Ma) and overlying Castine Volcanics (503.5 ?? 2.5 Ma) are Middle Cambrian in age. Two tholefitic basalt types are recognized. Type Tb-1 basalt, present as pillowed and massive lava flows and as sills in both units, has depleted La and Ce ([La/Nd]N = 0.53-0.87) values, flat heavy rare earth element (REE) values, and no positive Th or negative Ta anomalies on primitive mantle-normalized diagrams. In contrast, type Th-2 basalt, present only in the Castine Volcanics, has stightly enriched LREE ([La/Yb]N = 1.42-2.92) values and no Th or Th anomalies. Both basalt types have strongly positive ??Nd (500) values (Th-1 = +7.9-+8.6; Th-2 = +5.6-+7.0) and relatively enriched Pb isotopic compositions (206Ph/204Pb = 18.037-19.784; 207/204Pb = 15.531-15.660; 2088Pb/204Pb = 37.810-38.817). The basalts have compositions transitional between recent normal and enriched mid-ocean-ridge basalt, and they were probably derived by partial melting of compositionatly heterogeneous asthenosphenc mantle. Two types of rhyolite also are present. Type R-1 rhyolite, which mostly occurs as tuffs

  14. Structural analysis of the Carolina-Inner Piedmont terrane boundary: Implications for the age and kinematics of the central Piedmont suture, a terrane boundary that records Paleozoic Laurentia-Gondwana interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Thomas E.

    1998-06-01

    New field mapping along the Carolina-Inner Piedmont terrane boundary in South Carolina and eastern Georgia reveals preaccretionary, synaccretionary, and postaccretionary faults. The dextral strike-slip Lowndesville shear zone is adjacent to a ˜50-km-long segment of the terrane boundary. However, the Lowndesville shear zone is correlated eastward with the dextral strike-slip Beaver Creek shear zone, which is within the Carolina terrane and predates ˜415 Ma. The Lowndesville shear zone is overprinted by a dextral strike-slip phyllonite zone, named the Deal Creek shear zone. The Deal Creek shear zone is correlated eastward with the Gold Hill-Silver Hill shear zone which is also within the Carolina terrane and records dextral strike-slip motion between ˜400 and ˜325 Ma. The Cross Anchor and Mulberry Creek faults both truncate the Lowndesville and the Deal Creek shear zones and form the terrane boundary. The Mulberry Creek fault, probably of Triassic-Jurassic age, juxtaposes the Lowndesville shear zone adjacent to the Carolina-Inner Piedmont terrane boundary west of Waterloo, South Carolina. The Cross Anchor fault is the terrane boundary east of Waterloo, South Carolina, and forms the southeastern boundary of the Whitmire reentrant. Crosscutting relationships indicate that the Cross Anchor fault is the oldest fault which juxtaposes the Carolina and Inner Piedmont terranes in the study area. These structural interpretations and available geochronological data indicate that the Cross Anchor fault is a ˜325 Ma thrust fault and may be the central Piedmont suture. An early Alleghanian suture resolves the problem of inserting the Carolina terrane into the western Iapetus Ocean.

  15. Southeastern Alaska tectonostratigraphic terranes revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Brew, D.A.; Ford, A.B.

    1985-04-01

    The presence of only three major tectonostratigraphic terranes (TSTs) in southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia (Chugach, Wrangell, and Alexander) is indicated by critical analysis of available age, stratigraphic, and structural data. A possible fourth TST (Stikine) is probably an equivalent of part or all of the Alexander. The Yakutat block belongs to the Chugach TST, and both are closely linked to the Wrangell and Alexander(-Stikine) TSTs; the Gravina TST is an overlap assemblage. THe Alexander(-Stikine) TSTs is subdivided on the basis of age and facies. The subterranes within it share common substrates and represent large-scale facies changes in a long-lived island-arc environment. The Taku TSTs is the metamorphic equivalent of the upper part (Permian and Upper Triassic) of the Alexander(-Stikine) TSTs with some fossil evidence preserved that indicates the age of protoliths. Similarly, the Tracy Arm TST is the metamorphic equivalent of (1) the lower (Ordovician to Carboniferous) Alexander TST without any such fossil evidence and (2) the upper (Permian to Triassic) Alexander(-Stikine) with some newly discovered fossil evidence. Evidence for the ages of juxtaposition of the TSTs is limited. The Chugach TST deformed against the Wrangell and Alexander TSTs in late Cretaceous. Gravina rocks were deformed at the time and also earlier. The Wrangell TST was stitched to the Alexander(-Stikine) by middle Cretaceous plutons but may have arrived before its Late Jurassic plutons were emplaced. The Alexander(-Stikine) and Cache Creek TSTs were juxtaposed before Late Triassic.

  16. Constraints From Deep-Imaging Magnetotellurics on the Lithospheric Structure and Evolution of the Enigmatic Okwa Terrane, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, M. R.; Jones, A. G.; Evans, R. L.

    2009-12-01

    The Okwa Terrane, located in central Botswana, is perhaps one of the least understood terranes within the southern African Archean to Palaeoproterozoic tectonic framework. Thick Quaternary Kalahari sand-cover provides minimal crustal exposure with which to define the nature and evolution of the terrane: its potential affiliations and tectonic relationships with adjacent terranes remain speculative and largely unconstrained. The Okwa Terrane, as defined primarily in potential field images, is bounded to the west and north by the Early Proterozoic Rehoboth Terrane, to the south by the Archean Kaapvaal Craton, and to the east, across a poorly defined boundary, by the Palaeoproterozoic Magondi orogenic belt and the Archean Zimbabwe Craton. While the Okwa Terrane is inferred in some interpretations to constitute the northern-most portion of the Kaapvaal Craton, there is no direct evidence to support an Archean lithospheric stabilisation age for the terrane. The oldest recorded crustal ages, for intrusive granites located in the Okwa Inlier, are between 2.1 and 2.0 Ga. Gneissic deformation of the granites is recognised at ~1.8 Ga and, in alternative interpretations, is regarded as the accretion age of the Okwa Terrane with the Kaapvaal Craton along the major east-west trending Palala Shear Zone. A reported diamondiferous kimberlite pipe in the Gope cluster of the Okwa Terrane suggests a lithospheric thickness in excess of the depth of the diamond stability field (~160 km), at least at the time of kimberlite eruption at ~80 Ma. The multinational Southern African Magnetotelluric Experiment (SAMTEX) has acquired, during the period between 2003 and 2008, more than 730 magnetotelluric (MT) sites along 14,000 kilometers of profile length across southern Africa. In acquiring MT data on two orthogonal ~600 km-long profiles across the Okwa Terrane, SAMTEX provides the first deep crustal and lithospheric mantle images of the terrane. MT stations were installed at roughly 20 km

  17. Tectonostratigraphic reconstruction Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary in the northwestern Andes: from extensional tectonics to arc accretion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, S.; Patino, A. M.; Cardona, A.; Mejia, D.; Leon, S.; Jaramillo, J. S.; Valencia, V.; Parra, M.; Hincapie, S.

    2014-12-01

    Active continental margins characterized by continuous convergence experienced overimposed tectonic configurations that allowed the formation of volcanic arcs, back arc basins, transtensional divergent tectonics or the accretion of exotic volcanic terranes. Such record, particularly the extensional phases, can be partially destroyed and obscure by multiple deformational events, the accretion of exotic terranes and strike slip fragmentation along the margin. The tectonic evolution of the northern Andes during the Mesozoic is the result of post Pangea extension followed by the installation of a long-lived Jurassic volcanic arc (209 - 136 ma) that apparently stops between 136 Ma and 110 Ma. The Quebradagrande Complex has been define as a single Lower Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary unit exposed in the western flank of the Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes that growth after the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous magmatic hiatus. The origin of this unit have been related either to an oceanic volcanic arc or a marginal basin environment. The existence of such contrasting models reflect the regional perspective followed in published studies and the paucity of detail analysis of the volcano-sedimentary sequences.We integrate multiple approaches including structural mapping, stratigraphy, geochemistry, U-Pb provenance and geochronology to improve the understanding of this unit and track the earlier phases of accumulation that are mask on the overimposed tectonic history. Our preliminary results suggest the existence of different volcano-sedimentary units that accumulated between 100 Ma and 82 Ma.The older Lower Cretaceous sequences was deposited over Triassic metamorphic continental crust and include a upward basin deepening record characterized by thick fan delta conglomerates, followed by distal turbidites and a syn-sedimentary volcanic record at 100 ma. The other sequence include a 85 - 82 Ma fringing arc that was also formed close to the continental margin or

  18. Guerrero terrane of Mexico: Its role in the Southern, Cordillera from new geochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centeno-García, Elena; Ruíz, Joaquín; Coney, Peter J.; Patchett, P. Jonathan; Ortega-Gutiérrez, Fernando

    1993-05-01

    The Guerrero terrane makes up most of the western part of Mexico, is one of the largest terranes of the North American Cordillera, and is characterized by an Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous volcanic-sedimentary sequence of are affinity. Metamorphic rocks that crop out in the western area of the terrane (Arteaga complex) may represent its basement. They are mostly composed of terrigenous sediments (Varales Formation) with minor basaltic pillow lavas, chert, tuff, and limestone. Initial ɛNd values (+13) and rare earth element (REE) values for pillow lavas of the Arteaga complex are characteristic of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). In contrast, the Varales Formation sedimentary rocks from the Arteaga complex have negative initial ɛNd (-6.2 and -7.2) and are enriched in light REEs. These data indicate that the sediments of the Varales Formation were supplied from an evolved continental crust. The overlying Jurassic(?)-Cretaceous arc-related rocks have initial ɛNd (+7.9 to +3.9) and REE patterns similar to those of evolved intraoceanic island arcs. These data show that the evolution of the Guerrero terrane had an early pre-Cretaceous(?) stage, which consisted of an oceanic crust receiving sediments from a continental source, and a Cretaceous stage, which was the development of an island arc.The oceanic-continental isotopic signature of the Arteaga complex is different from other western North American Cordilleran terranes (e.g., Alexander, Wrangelfia) that are more completely "oceanic" in affinity. Nevertheless, the extensive Jurassic(?).Cretaceous arc represents additions of juvenile material to the western North American Cordillera.

  19. A mantle plume initiation model for the wrangellia flood basalt and other oceanic plateaus.

    PubMed

    Richards, M A; Jones, D L; Duncan, R A; Depaolo, D J

    1991-10-11

    The vast Wrangellia terrane of Alaska and British Columbia is an accreted oceanic plateau with Triassic strata that contain a 3- to 6-kilometers thick flood basalt, bounded above and below by marine sedimentary rocks. This enormous outpouring of basalt was preceded by rapid uplift and was followed by gradual subsidence of the plateau. The uplift and basalt eruptions occurred in less than approximately 5 million years, and were not accompanied by significant extension or rifting of the lithosphere. This sequence of events is predicted by a mantle plume initiation, or plume head, model that has recently been developed to explain continental flood volcanism. Evidence suggests that other large oceanic basalt plateaus, such as the Ontong-Java, Kerguelen, and Caribbean, were formed as the initial outbursts of the Louisville Ridge, Kerguelen, and Galapagos hot spots, respectively. Such events may play an important role in the creation and development of both oceanic and continental crust.

  20. Pb-Nd Isotopes Indicate the Origin of Island Arc Terranes in the Early Paleozoic Pacific.

    PubMed

    Münker

    2000-03-01

    The Takaka Terrane in New Zealand is one of the best exposed arc fragments of the early Paleozoic Australian-Antarctic convergent margin and constitutes one of the most outboard terranes of this margin in paleogeographic reconstructions. Pb-Nd isotope compositions of clinopyroxenes from the Cambrian Devil River Volcanics of the Takaka Terrane enable identification of the location of the terrane in the Paleo-Pacific Ocean. The Devil River Volcanics, a suite of primitive arc and back-arc rocks, are interbedded with the partly continent-derived Haupiri Group sediments. Extremely radiogenic Pb and unradiogenic Nd compositions in the arc rocks cannot be explained by assimilation of the Haupiri Group sediments or a continental basement of such a composition. Pb isotope compositions of the Takaka Terrane sediments are much less radiogenic and overlap with crustal compositions of the Lachlan Fold Belt in Australia, suggesting that both units are derived from one source, the Australian-Antarctic Pacific margin. Pb-Nd isotope compositions in the Devil River Volcanics reflect contamination of their mantle sources by subducted sediments derived from Archean provinces in either Antarctica or Laurentia. Both provinces show characteristically high 207Pb/204Pb500 and were located at the Pacific rim in the Cambrian. Mixing between mantle and Proterozoic continental material from present western South America or eastern Laurentia cannot explain the high 207Pb/204Pb500 in the New Zealand rocks. As in New Zealand, extreme spreads in Pb-Nd isotope compositions in other Cambrian volcano-sedimentary sequences in southeast Australia and Tasmania can be explained by the same model, suggesting that all these fragments originated along the Australian-Antarctic Gondwana margin. Pb isotope compositions of arc rocks, therefore, provide a new tool for terrane analysis in the early Paleozoic Pacific ocean.

  1. To accrete or not accrete, that is the question

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von, Huene R.

    1986-01-01

    Along modern convergent margins tectonic processes span a spectrum from accretion to erosion. The process of accretion is generally recognized because it leaves a geologic record, whereas the process of erosion is generally hypothetical because it produces a geologic hiatus. Major conditions that determine the dominance of accretion or erosion at modern convergent margins are: 1) rate and direction of plate convergence, 2) sediment supply and type in the trench, and 3) topography of the subducting ocean floor. Most change in structure has been ascribed to plate motion, but both erosion and accretion are observed along the same convergence margin. Thus sediment supply and topography are probably of equivalent importance to plate motion because both erosion and accretion are observed under constant conditions of plate convergence. The dominance of accretion or erosion at a margin varies with the thickness of trench sediment. In a sediment flooded trench, the proportions of subducted and accreted sediment are commonly established by the position of a decollement along a weak horizon in the sediment section. Thus, the vertical variation of sediment strength and the distribution of horizontal stress are important factors. Once deformation begins, the original sediment strength is decreased by sediment remolding and where sediment thickens rapidly, increases in pore fluid pressure can be pronounced. In sediment-starved trenches, where the relief of the subducting ocean floor is not smoothed over, the front of the margin must respond to the topography subducted as well as that accreted. The hypothesized erosion by the drag of positive features against the underside of the upper plate (a high stress environment) may alternate with erosion due to the collapse of a margin front into voids such as graben (a low stress environment). ?? 1986 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  2. Origin of Siletzia, an Accreted Large Igneous Province in the Cascadia Forearc, and the Early History of the Yellowstone Hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, R. E.; Bukry, D.; Friedman, R. M.; Pyle, D. G.; Duncan, R. A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Wooden, J.

    2014-12-01

    Siletzia as named by Irving (1979) is a Paleogene large igneous province forming the oceanic basalt basement of coastal OR, WA and S. BC that was accreted to North America in the early Eocene. U-Pb (magmatic, detrital zircon) and 40Ar/39Ar ages constrained by mapping, global coccolith (CP) zones, and magnetic polarities permit correlation of basalts with the geomagnetic polarity time scale of Gradstein et al. (2012). Siletzia was rapidly erupted 56-49 Ma (Chron 25-22), and accretion was completed between 51 and 49 Ma in Oregon. Magmatism continued until ca. 46 Ma with emplacement of a basalt sill complex during or shortly after accretion. Siletzia's great crustal thickness, rapid eruption, and timing of accretion are consistent with formation as an oceanic plateau. Eight m.y. after accretion, margin-parallel extension and regional dike swarms mark the Tillamook magmatic episode in the forearc (41.6 Ma; CP zone 14a; Chron 19r). We examined the origin of Siletzia and the possible role of a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) in an open source plate modeling program. In most reference frames, the YHS is on or near an inferred northeast-striking Kula- Farallon and/or Resurrection-Farallon ridge 60 to 50 Ma. The YHS thus could have provided a 56-49 Ma source on the Farallon plate for Siletzia, which accreted to North America by 50 Ma. A sister plateau, the Eocene basalt basement of the Yakutat terrane, now in Alaska, formed on the adjacent Kula (or Resurrection) plate and accreted to coastal British Columbia at about the same time. Following accretion of Siletzia, the leading edge of North America overrode the YHS ca. 42 Ma. The encounter with an active YHS may explain the voluminous high-Ti tholeiitic to alkalic magmatism of the 42-34 Ma Tillamook episode and extension in the forearc. Clockwise rotation of western Oregon about a pole in the backarc has since moved the Tillamook center and underlying Siletzia northward ~250 km from the probable hotspot track on North

  3. Tethyan, Mediterranean, and Pacific analogues for the Neoproterozoic Paleozoic birth and development of peri-Gondwanan terranes and their transfer to Laurentia and Laurussia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppie, J. Duncan; Nance, R. Damian; Murphy, J. Brendan; Dostal, J.

    2003-04-01

    Modern Tethyan, Mediterranean, and Pacific analogues are considered for several Appalachian, Caledonian, and Variscan terranes (Carolina, West and East Avalonia, Oaxaquia, Chortis, Maya, Suwannee, and Cadomia) that originated along the northern margin of Neoproterozoic Gondwana. These terranes record a protracted geological history that includes: (1) ˜1 Ga (Carolina, Avalonia, Oaxaquia, Chortis, and Suwannee) or ˜2 Ga (Cadomia) basement; (2) 750-600 Ma arc magmatism that diachronously switched to rift magmatism between 590 and 540 Ma, accompanied by development of rift basins and core complexes, in the absence of collisional orogenesis; (3) latest Neoproterozoic-Cambrian separation of Avalonia and Carolina from Gondwana leading to faunal endemism and the development of bordering passive margins; (4) Ordovician transport of Avalonia and Carolina across Iapetus terminating in Late Ordovician-Early Silurian accretion to the eastern Laurentian margin followed by dispersion along this margin; (5) Siluro-Devonian transfer of Cadomia across the Rheic Ocean; and (6) Permo-Carboniferous transfer of Oaxaquia, Chortis, Maya, and Suwannee during the amalgamation of Pangea. Three potential models are provided by more recent tectonic analogues: (1) an "accordion" model based on the orthogonal opening and closing of Alpine Tethys and the Mediterranean; (2) a "bulldozer" model based on forward-modelling of Australia during which oceanic plateaus are dispersed along the Australian plate margin; and (3) a "Baja" model based on the Pacific margin of North America where the diachronous replacement of subduction by transform faulting as a result of ridge-trench collision has been followed by rifting and the transfer of Baja California to the Pacific Plate. Future transport and accretion along the western Laurentian margin may mimic that of Baja British Columbia. Present geological data for Avalonia and Carolina favour a transition from a "Baja" model to a "bulldozer" model. By

  4. Isotopic age constraints on provenance of exotic terranes, latest Permian collision and fast Late Triassic post-collisional cooling and tectonic exhumation of the Korean collision belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Koenraad; Han, Seokyoung; Ruffet, Gilles; Yi, Keewook

    2016-04-01

    The Korean peninsula is located in the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent where major late Palaeozoic to early Mesozoic continental collision zones, like the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and the Central China Orogen, merge with circum-Pacific subduction-accretion systems. We present an integrated view of the Korean collision belt using recent Ar/Ar laser-probe step-heating single grain ages from the uppermost Gyeonggi Massif, central Korea's Palaeoproterozoic high-grade granite-gneiss terrane affected by Permo-Triassic metamorphism, the bordering Hongseong zone and the overlying Imjingang belt and the correlative Taean Formation, as well as SHRIMP isotopic ages of detrital zircons from meta-sandstones from the latter metamorphic marine turbidite sequences. We show that early Paleozoic isolated exotic terranes form part of the collision belt and were reworked in Permo-Triassic time. Age spectra of zircons from mature meta-sandstones in the Misan Formation (Imjingang Belt) and Taean Formation do not match the age distribution of the Gyeonggi Massif, to which both are usually assigned, as they show only subordinate 1.9-1.8 Ga and ~2.5 Ga age modes but dominant 441-426 Ma and 978-919 Ma peaks. Much of the sediment appears to have been derived from distant, exotic middle Paleozoic and Early Neoproterozoic magmatic sources, not present in Gyeonggi or other Korean basement massifs. The youngest concordant zircon ages are: 394, 398 and 402 Ma, showing that both formations are at least of Early Devonian age. Terranes with a substratum with Early Neoproterozoic and Silurian-Devonian granitoids are present in the South Chinese Cathaysia Terrane and in the Qinling Terrane (Central China Orogen). Both formations may, hence, represent the submarine fan part of a routing system and a delta-shelf system originally situated in China. The Taean Formation and Imjingang Belt are thus exotic Paleozoic terranes tectonically emplaced in the Korean collision belt. Muscovite, biotite

  5. The Greater Caucasus - A Galatian or Hanseatic terrane? Comment on “The formation of Pangea” by G.M. Stampfli, C. Hochard, C. Vérard, C. Wilhem and J. von Raumer [Tectonophysics 593 (2013) 1-19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2013-11-01

    A set of new global plate tectonic reconstructions sheds light on the evolution of the Earth's oceans, continents, and individual terranes in the Palaeozoic-Triassic. The Greater Caucasus is interpreted as a Hanseatic terrane that separated from Laurussia in the Devonian and then collided with the Gondwana-derived Galatian Superterrane. However, this contrasts with the hypothesis according to which the Greater Caucasus Terrane is Galatian in its nature. The reasons for the interpretation of the Greater Caucasus as a Hanseatic block are unclear, and this interpretation does not explain some observations. Further research is necessary in order to understand the plate tectonic position of the Greater Caucasus Terrane in the Palaeozoic.

  6. Fragments of the Vendian-Paleozoic oceanic crust of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in foldbelts (Altai-Sayan, Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonova, I.; Buslov, M.

    2003-04-01

    Four main accretion-collision stages of the evolution of the Paleo-Asian ocean have been recognized in Altai-Sayan: 1) Early-Middle Cambrian, 2) Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician, 3) Devonian-Early Carboniferous and 4) Late Paleozoic. The 1st and 2nd stages characterize evolution of the Kuznetsk-Altai island-arc system, which was accreted to the Siberian continent. The third stage refers to two collisional events during the closing of the Paleo-Asian Ocean: the Gondwana-derived Altai-Mongolian terrane collided with the Siberian continent (D3), and the latter collided with the Kazakhstan continent (C2). Each stage was recorded in folded rock units. Paleooceanic crust fragments occur within accretionary wedges and suture zone. Their geological identification was supported by geochemical data. The better studied areas are Kurai and Katun accretionary wedges, Charysh-Terekta shear zone, and Chara ophiolitic suture zone. Identification of the Vendian-Early Carboniferous oceanic crust extended our knowledge about the Paleo-Asian Ocean evolution. The Kurai and Katun accretionary wedges recorded the Vendian-Cambrian stage of the Kuznetsk-Altai island arc evolution. The Charysh-Terekta zone resulted from the Late Devonian collision of the Altai-Mongolian terrane and the Siberian continent. The Chara ophiolitic suture was formed after the Late Carboniferous-Permian collision of the Siberian and Kazakhstan continents. The Kurai accretionary wedge is composed of the tectonic sheets of the Baratal paleoisland and Chagan-Uzun ophiolites. The Katun accretionary wedge involves paleo-oceanic island rock units: limestones, dolomites, siliceous shales, and basaltic flows. The Charysh-Terekta zone is composed of several tectonic lenses (e.g. Zasurin Formation) comprising sandstones, cherts, pillow-basalts, volcanoclastics, and gabbro-diabase sills and dikes. The Chara ophiolitic belt consists of several melange zones with high-pressure metamorphic rocks (metabasaltic rocks) metamorphosed

  7. Oceanic Basalts of the Paleo-Asian Ocean: Geochemistry and Structural Setting in Folded Zones of Altai and East Kazakhstan (Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonova, I. Y.; Buslov, M. M.; Kokh, D. A.

    2003-12-01

    Four periods of basaltic volcanism of the Paleo-Asian Ocean have been studied: 1) Vendian-Early Cambrian (Kurai zone); 2) Early-Middle Cambrian (Katun zone); 3) Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician (Zasurin Formation) and 4) Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous (Chara belt) ages. The studied entities are oceanic basalts incorporated in four Caledonian accretion-collision zones.The Early Cambrian collision of the Siberian continent and Gondwana-derived terranes formed the Kurai and Katun accretionary zones in Gorny Altai. The Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician collision of the Siberian continent and Gondwana-derived terranes formed shear zones comprising oceanic sediments and basalts (Zasurin Formation). The Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous collision of the Siberian and Kazakhstan continents formed the Chara shear belt including basaltic terranes (Buslov et al., 2001). Geochemical features of tholeiites, subalkaline and alkaline basalts incorporated in accretionary terranes illustrate the history of oceanic volcanism with OIB, OPB and MORB affinities. According to REE there are LREE-enriched, transitional and MORB/OPB-like samples. LREE vary and are considerably enriched (LaN (ppm) 25-65 for Kurai, 35-55 for Katun, 100-160 for Zasurin, and 35-105 for Chara OIB) relative to chondrites. HREE have much smaller ranges: 6 to 13 times that of chondrites for Kurai and Katun and 10 to 20 times for Zasurin and Chara. There is also a positive correlation between La/Yb and SiO2. In the multi-element diagrams Kurai samples display Sr enrichment relative to K, whereas Zasurin and Chara samples show negative Sr peaks. Except for the Katun wedge, most display moderate to strong Nb-Ta depletion suggesting fractionation of ilmenite and magnetite at the base of the crust or a previous melting episode in the source. For all groups of basalts, transitions between end members of basalts: from N-MORB, through E-MORB and T-MORB (OPB?) to OIB were found. Zr/Y and Sm/Nb ratios show two distinct linear

  8. The Record of Collision and Accretion in the History of a Convergent Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moresi, L. N.; Betts, P. G.; Miller, M. S.; Cayley, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    Convergent margins become congested when they try to swallow buoyant, exotic crust or an oceanic swell associated with anomalously buoyant plume material. Mountain belts (orogens) that form at these convergent plate margins are the sites of significant lateral continental growth. Modern examples of accretionary margins are the North American Cordillera and southwest Pacific. The geologic record is riddled with accretionary orogens, such as the Tasmanides along the eastern margin of the supercontinent Gondwana and the Altaides that formed on the southern margin of Laurasia. In modern and ancient examples of long lived accretionary orogens, the overriding plate is subjected to episodes of crustal extension and back arc basin development, often related to subduction roll back and transient episodes of orogenesis and crustal shortening, coincident with accretion of exotic crust. In previous work, (Mason et al, 2010), we found that buoyant material ingested by a subduction zone produces a relative advance of the local region of the trench (either reduced rollback or absolute advance) naturally leading to the characteristic indentation of the plate boundary by the plateau. Depending on the strength and buoyancy of the incoming anomaly relative to the oceanic lithosphere, it may be subducted or it may be accreted with the associated formation of a slab window. Extending this model to ocean-continent convergent zones (Moresi et al, 2014), we show how the indentation of buoyant exotic material also dominates terrane accretion. When large blocks of material congest a subduction zone, the subduction zone needs to undergo signficiant re-arrangement for convergence to continue. We have modelled this process and observe characteristic patterns in the deformation of the over-riding plate, in the timing of the escape of material from behind the indenter, and in the oroclinal geometry that remains once the collision has completed. References Mason, W. G., Moresi, L., Betts, P. G

  9. Tectonically reset Rb-Sr system during Late Ordovician terrane assembly in lapetus, western Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Kennan, P.S.; Murphy, F.C.

    1987-12-01

    The uncertainty of a ca. 460 Ma age of mylonitization of acid igneous rocks in the western Irish Caledonides required reevaluation of the published Rb-Sr whole-rock data. The authors found that the data support an alternative ca. 426 +/- 10 Ma age of mylonitic resetting. This time of deformation relates to the assembly of suspect terranes during Late Ordovician closure of the Iapetus ocean.

  10. Late Paleozoic orogeny in Alaska's Farewell terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, D.C.; Dumoulin, J.; Layer, P.; Sunderlin, D.; Roeske, S.; McClelland, B.; Harris, A.G.; Abbott, G.; Bundtzen, T.; Kusky, T.

    2003-01-01

    Evidence is presented for a previously unrecognized late Paleozoic orogeny in two parts of Alaska's Farewell terrane, an event that has not entered into published scenarios for the assembly of Alaska. The Farewell terrane was long regarded as a piece of the early Paleozoic passive margin of western Canada, but is now thought, instead, to have lain between the Siberian and Laurentian (North American) cratons during the early Paleozoic. Evidence for a late Paleozoic orogeny comes from two belts located 100-200 km apart. In the northern belt, metamorphic rocks dated at 284-285 Ma (three 40Ar/39Ar white-mica plateau ages) provide the main evidence for orogeny. The metamorphic rocks are interpreted as part of the hinterland of a late Paleozoic mountain belt, which we name the Browns Fork orogen. In the southern belt, thick accumulations of Pennsylvanian-Permian conglomerate and sandstone provide the main evidence for orogeny. These strata are interpreted as the eroded and deformed remnants of a late Paleozoic foreland basin, which we name the Dall Basin. We suggest that the Browns Fork orogen and Dall Basin comprise a matched pair formed during collision between the Farewell terrane and rocks to the west. The colliding object is largely buried beneath Late Cretaceous flysch to the west of the Farewell terrane, but may have included parts of the so-called Innoko terrane. The late Paleozoic convergent plate boundary represented by the Browns Fork orogen likely connected with other zones of plate convergence now located in Russia, elsewhere in Alaska, and in western Canada. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The age and tectonic setting of the Puncoviscana Formation in northwestern Argentina: An accretionary complex related to Early Cambrian closure of the Puncoviscana Ocean and accretion of the Arequipa-Antofalla block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escayola, Mónica P.; van Staal, Cees R.; Davis, William J.

    2011-12-01

    TIMS and SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology of selected parts of the Puncoviscana Formation suggest its deposition took place mainly during the Early Cambrian, coeval with 540-535 Ma calc-alkaline Pampean arc volcanism mainly preserved as tuff beds in the oldest identified parts of this unit. Syn- to post-tectonic plutons constrains the Tilcarian-Pampean orogeny to have occurred between ca. 530 Ma and deposition of the unconformably overlying Middle-Upper Cambrian Meson Group. Deposition of the Puncoviscana Formation continued after the onset of the Tilcarian-Pampean orogeny. We propose that the Puncoviscana Formation rocks older than 530 Ma were deposited in the arc-trench gap of the west-facing Pampean arc and/or the associated trench, whereas the rocks younger than 530 Ma were deposited in a syn-collision foreland basin. The Puncoviscana Formation rocks were progressively assembled into a west-younging accretionary complex, consistent with the style of deformation and low-grade metamorphism. The age of the syn-collision plutons (≤530 Ma) suggest the foredeep deposits record the transition from trench to foreland basin, due to arrival of the Arequipa-Antofalla block at the west-facing trench at ca. 530 Ma. Our geochronological and Pb-isotope investigations suggest that the Arequipa-Antofalla terrane was a coherent, ribbon-shaped crustal block that also included the western part of the Pampia terrane. A compilation of existing U-Pb zircon studies suggests that the Pampean arc extended along the length of the proto-Andean margin of West Gondwana, represented by the previously amalgamated Amazonia and Rio de La Plata cratons, and probably was initiated during the late Ediacaran after 600 Ma. Following earlier workers, we reaffirm that the Arequipa-Antofalla block was originally separating Laurentia and Amazonia in Rodinia. It probably rifted from Laurentia during the Ediacaran between 600 and 570 Ma, following an earlier departure of Amazonia (˜650 Ma?). The

  12. Detrital zircon provenance of Cambrian Ordovician and Carboniferous strata of the Oaxaca terrane, southern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, Robert J.; Gehrels, George E.; Ruiz, Joaquin; Flores de Dios Gonzaléz, Luis Antonio

    2005-12-01

    U-Pb geochronologic analyses have been conducted on 135 detrital zircon grains from Paleozoic strata of the Oaxaca terrane of southern Mexico. The grains are mainly mid-Proterozoic in age (age probability peak of 993 Ma), with subordinate clusters of ˜358 and ˜472 Ma. The mid-Proterozoic ages can be used to evaluate three possible paleopositions for the Oaxaca terrane during mid-Proterozoic time. Formation in proximity to northwest South America appears most likely, as southwestern portions of the Amazon craton (and perhaps basement massifs in the northern Andes) contain igneous rocks of the appropriate age. A more specific test of ties to these regions is not yet possible due to the limited number of U-Pb determinations from the region. Formation in proximity to Grenville-age rocks in northeast North America is less likely, as detrital zircons shed from these rocks are mostly older than 993 Ma. Previously proposed links with Grenville-age rocks in southwestern North America are not supported by our data, as there is little overlap of ages from the Oaxaca terrane and from Grenville-derived detrital zircons in southwestern US and northwestern Mexico. The presence of Paleozoic grains in our samples does not help constrain the Late Proterozoic-early Paleozoic displacement of the Oaxaca terrane, as magmatism of this age was apparently widespread within and adjacent to the Iapetus and Rheic ocean basins.

  13. Thermal structure of the accreting earth

    SciTech Connect

    Turcotte, D.L.; Pflugrath, J.C.

    1985-02-15

    The energy associated with the accretion of the earth and the segregation of the core is more than sufficient to melt the entire earth. In order to understand the thermal evolution of the early earth it is necessary to study the relevant heat transfer mechanisms. In this paper we postulate the existence of a global magma ocean and carry out calculations of the heat flux through it in order to determine its depth. In the solid mantle heat is transferred by the upward migration of magma. This magma supplies the magma ocean. The increase in the mantle liquidus with depth (pressure) is the dominant effect influencing heat transfer through the magma ocean. We find that a magma ocean with a depth of the order of 20 km would have existed as the earth accreted. We conclude that the core segregated and an atmosphere was formed during accretion.

  14. A mid-Permian chert event: widespread deposition of biogenic siliceous sediments in coastal, island arc and oceanic basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murchey, B.L.; Jones, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Radiolarian and conodont of Permian siliceous rocks from twenty-three areas in teh the circum-Pacific and Mediterranean regions reveal a widespread Permian Chert Event during the middle Leonardian to Wordian. Radiolarian- and (or) sponge spicule-rich siliceous sediments accumulated beneath high productivity zones in coastal, island arc and oceanic basins. Most of these deposits now crop out in fault-bounded accreted terranes. Biogenic siliceous sediments did not accumulate in terranes lying beneath infertile waters including the marine sequences in terranes of northern and central Alaska. The Permian Chert Event is coeval with major phosphorite deposition along the western margin of Pangea (Phosphoria Formation and related deposits). A well-known analogue for this event is middle Miocene deposition of biogenic siliceous sediments beneath high productivity zones in many parts of the Pacific and concurrent deposition of phosphatic as well as siliceous sediments in basins along the coast of California. Interrelated factors associated with both the Miocene and Permian depositional events include plate reorientations, small sea-level rises and cool polar waters. ?? 1992.

  15. Geology and metallogeny of the Ar Rayn terrane, eastern Arabian shield: Evolution of a Neoproterozoic continental-margin arc during assembly of Gondwana within the East African orogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doebrich, J.L.; Al-Jehani, A. M.; Siddiqui, A.A.; Hayes, T.S.; Wooden, J.L.; Johnson, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    characteristics of the Ar Rayn terrane are analogous to the Andean continental margin of Chile, with opposite subduction polarity. The Ar Rayn terrane represents a continental margin arc that lay above a west-dipping subduction zone along a continental block represented by the Afif composite terrane. The concentration of epithermal, porphyry Cu and IOCG mineral systems, of central arc affiliation, along the AAF suggests that the AAF is not an ophiolitic suture zone, but originated as a major intra-arc fault that localized magmatism and mineralization. West-directed oblique subduction and ultimate collision with a land mass from the east (East Gondwana?) resulted in major transcurrent displacement along the AAF, bringing the eastern part of the arc terrane to its present exposed position, juxtaposed across the AAF against a back-arc basin assemblage represented by the Abt schist of the Ad Dawadimi terrane. Our findings indicate that arc formation and accretionary processes in the Arabian shield were still ongoing into the latest Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran), to about 620-600 Ma, and lead us to conclude that evolution of the Ar Rayn terrane (arc formation, accretion, syn- to postorogenic plutonism) defines a final stage of assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent along the northeastern margin of the East African orogen. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Gabbro-peridotite Interaction in the Northern Cache Creek Composite Terrane Ophiolite, British Columbia and Yukon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorevski, A.

    2015-12-01

    The northern Cache Creek composite terrane comprises a thrust stack of chert, limestone, siltstone, basalt, gabbro and ultramafic complexes ranging in age from Mississippian to Triassic. Fields studies and geochemical investigations indicate that ophiolitic mafic-ultramafic complexes formed in a supra-subduction zone setting. Ophiolitic rocks in the southeast form a structurally disrupted Penrose-type ophiolite; however, northwestern ophiolitic rocks generally lack lower and middle crust in most sections, exhibit a direct contact between supracrustal and mantle sections and locally contain ophicalcites suggesting that supracrustal rocks were structurally emplaced over mantle along extensional detachment(s). Mantle peridotite in the footwall of the detachment is extensively intruded by vari-textured, fine-grained to pegmatitic gabbro sills, dykes and stocks. These gabbro intrusions are locally boudinaged within fresh peridotite suggesting that the host mantle was rapidly exhumed prior to emplacement of the gabbro. Intrusive relationships between gabbro and variably serpentinized mantle peridotite are observed throughout the northern Cache Creek terrane (>300 km) suggesting a presence of a regional-scale Middle Triassic ocean-core complex. Overall, these data indicate that parts of the northern Cache Creek terrane formed in a setting analogous to backarc ocean core complexes such as the Godzilla Megamullion in the Parece Vela backarc basin, western Pacific.

  17. Geochemistry of accreted metavolcanic rocks from the Neoproterozoic Gwna Group of Anglesey-Lleyn, NW Wales, U.K.: MORB and OIB in the Iapetus Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Takuya; Uno, Masaoki; Sato, Tomohiko; Fujisaki, Wataru; Haraguchi, Satoru; Li, Yi-bing; Sawaki, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Shinji; Maruyama, Shigenori

    2015-11-01

    The Gwna Group in Anglesey-Lleyn, NW Wales, UK, is a Neoproterozoic accretionary complex that consists of basalt, bedded chert, red claystone, and trench turbidite that have been intercalated in coherent and incoherent mélanges that are considered typical Ocean plate stratigraphy (OPS). The sediments in the OPS can be useful for constraining the geological environment in the Iapetus Ocean. Most basalts in this area have undergone hydrothermal alteration, greenschist facies regional metamorphism, and surface oxidation. This indicates that immobile elements such as Al2O3 and TiO2, Rare Earth Elements (REE) and High Field Strength Elements (HSFE) are appropriate for discriminating the origin of the basalts in the Gwna Group. Most basalts showing light REE-enriched pattern in CI chondrite-normalized spider diagrams in within-plate basalt (WPB) fields, and some have flat patterns in spider diagrams in mid-oceanic ridge basalt (MORB) fields. In view of these relations, we conclude that the former erupted in an oceanic island. Oceanic island basalts (OIB) are common in Phanerozoic accretionary complexes, and this study presents the first evidence of OIB in a Neoproterozoic accretionary complex of the Gwna Group in Anglesey-Llyen and Llyen area. The OIB-like basalts are locally capped by red hematite-rich claystones. This indicates that a fully oxic pelagic condition was present around the oceanic island in the Iapetus Ocean in the Neoproterozoic, which is consistent with the redox condition estimated from contemporaneous shallow marine sediments. On the other hand, the presence of black mudstones on top of MORB-like meta-basalts suggests that deep-sea anoxia conditions were prevalent during the end-Proterozoic.

  18. Paleomagnetic contributions to the Klamath Mountains terrane puzzle-a new piece from the Ironside Mountain batholith, northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mankinen, Edward A.; Gromme, C. Sherman; Irwin, W. Porter

    2013-01-01

    We obtained paleomagnetic samples from six sites within the Middle Jurassic Ironside Mountain batholith (~170 Ma), which constitutes the structurally lowest part of the Western Hayfork terrane, in the Klamath Mountains province of northern California and southern Oregon. Structural attitudes measured in the coeval Hayfork Bally Meta-andesite were used to correct paleomagnetic data from the batholith. Comparing the corrected paleomagnetic pole with a 170-Ma reference pole for North America indicates 73.5° ± 10.6° of clockwise rotation relative to the craton. Nearly one-half of this rotation may have occurred before the terrane accreted to the composite Klamath province at ~168 Ma. No latitudinal displacement of the batholith was detected.

  19. A 2-D tomographic model of the Juan de Fuca plate from accretion at axial seamount to subduction at the Cascadia margin from an active source ocean bottom seismometer survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horning, G.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Han, S.; Carton, H.; Nedimović, M. R.; Keken, P. E.

    2016-08-01

    We report results from a wide-angle controlled source seismic experiment across the Juan de Fuca plate designed to investigate the evolution of the plate from accretion at the Juan de Fuca ridge to subduction at the Cascadia margin. A two-dimensional velocity model of the crust and upper mantle is derived from a joint reflection-refraction traveltime inversion. To interpret our tomography results, we first generate a plausible baseline velocity model, assuming a plate cooling model and realistic oceanic lithologies. We then use an effective medium theory to infer from our tomography results the extent of porosity, alteration, and water content that would be required to explain the departure from the baseline model. In crust of ages >1 Ma and away from propagator wakes and regions of faulting due to plate bending, we obtain estimates of upper crustal hydration of 0.5-2.1 wt % and find mostly dry lower crust and upper mantle. In sections of the crust affected by propagator wakes we find upper estimates of upper crustal, lower crustal, and upper mantle hydration of 3.1, 0.8, and 1.8 wt %, respectively. At the Cascadia deformation front, we find that the amount of water stored at uppermost mantle levels in the downgoing JdF plate is very limited (<0.3 wt %), with most of the water carried into the subduction zone being stored in the oceanic crust.

  20. Paleomagnetic Progress in Peri-Gondwanan Terranes of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunow, A. M.; Thompson, M. D.; Barr, S. M.; White, C. E.

    2009-05-01

    Paleopoles from primary Ediacaran magnetization directions established the Gondwanan origin of northern Appalachian Avalonian terranes, but magnetic overprints in the same rocks also provide useful tectonic information. Thus, in the Southeastern New England Avalon Zone, virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) calculated from magnetic B and C components in both 595 Ma Lynn-Mattapan volcanic rocks and 490-488 Ma Nahant Gabbro track mid- and late Paleozoic segments of the North American apparent polar wander path (APWP), suggesting the influence of Acadian and Neo-Acadian accretionary events. We report here on multi- vectorial magnetizations in pilot samples from Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia where the Bras d'Or and Mira terranes represent both Ganderian and Avalonian elements transferred from Gondwana. Overprint relationships in these terranes may constrain their amalgamation with each other as well their docking with Laurentia. As in southeastern New England, secondary remanences can be identified in Cape Breton Island as consistent magnetization directions in rocks of differing ages. The S- to SSE-trending and gently downward pointing direction reported in 1985 by Johnson and Van der Voo in Middle Cambrian sedimentary rocks of the Bourinot Group (Bras d'Or terrane), for example, is also present in the 563 Ma Main à Dieu Formation and in 620 Ma Chisholm Brook Granite and East Bay Hill rhyolite (Mira terrane). This magnetization represents the C component already found around Boston, MA. The resulting VGPs in both areas occupy positions on the North American APWP consistent with a Neo-Acadian overprint, possibly related to the docking of the Meguma terrane against previously accreted Avalonia. Other overprint directions encountered in this investigation give rise to VGPs that do not coincide with the North American APWP, hence appear to reflect tectonic events independent of Laurentia. One such cluster comprising both Mira and Bras d'Or VGPs includes the paleopole also

  1. Slim accretion disks

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowicz, M.A.; Czerny, B.; Lasota, J.P.; Szuszkiewicz, E.

    1988-09-01

    A new branch of equilibrium solutions for stationary accretion disks around black holes is found. These solutions correspond to moderately super-Eddington accretion rates. The existence of the new branch is a consequence of an additional cooling due to general relativistic Roche lobe overflow and horizontal advection of heat. On an accretion rate versus surface density plane the new branch forms, together with the two standard branches (corresponding to the Shakura-Sunyaev accretion disk models) a characteristically S-shaped curve. This could imply a limit cycle-type behavior for black hole accretion flows with accretion rates close ot the Eddington one. 29 references.

  2. The western transverse ranges microplate as a native terrane

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, M.D.; Reed, W.E. )

    1994-04-01

    Palocurrent measurements from the entire Cretaceous section of the western Transverse Ranges microplate (WTRM) yield a northerly flow direction. Point count data indicate a mixed provenance for both conglomerates and associated sandstones. The dominant provenance was mixed magmatic arc/recycled orogen and disected/transitional arc terranes. Petrographic, quantitative SEM and microprobe analysis also indicate the presence of diagnostic Franciscan mineralogy in these sediments, including glaucophane, riebeckite, lawsonite, and serpentine, suggesting derivation from a subduction complex. Olistoclasts of chert, jadeitic graywacke, serpentine and blueschist are found intermixed within the arc-derived sediments. Olistoclasts range in size from sub-millimeter to centimeter scale and olistoliths range up to 150 m. Well preserved internal bedding in some of the olistoliths suggest emplacement by landsliding indicating very short transport distance. This Franciscan material represents the oldest melange-derived material reported from this part of California and documents uplift and erosion of the subduction complex earlier than previously suggested. These data are consistent with deposition in a Cretaceous fore-arc basin located west or south of the San Diego area. The allochthonous WTRM of southern California can be reconstructed to an originally north-south oriented fore-arc basin. After deposition of the Sespe Formation (22 Ma [+-]) the microplate was slivered by strike-slip faults and rotated clockwise approximately 90[degrees], after which, the block again accreted against the continental margin. Our reconstruction suggest that depositional and structural trends for Eocene and Cretaceous sediments is likely to be different from that in the Miocene Monterey pay zones in the Santa Barbara channel region. If our reconstruction is correct, exploration strategy for Eocene and Cretaceous petroleum in the southern California Bight should take this tectonic model into account.

  3. Kilbuck terrane: oldest known rocks in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Box, S.E.; Moll-Stalcup, E. J.; Wooden, J.L.; Bradshaw, J.Y.

    1990-01-01

    The Kilbuck terrane in southwestern Alaska is a narrow, thin crustal sliver or flake of amphibolite facies orthogneiss. The igneous protolith of this gneiss was a suite of subduction-related plutonic rocks. U-Pb data on zircons from trondhjemitic and granitic samples yield upper-intercept (igneous) ages of 2070 ?? 16 and 2040 ?? 74 Ma, respectively. Nd isotope data from these rocks suggest that a diorite-tonalite-trondhjemite suite (??Nd[T] = +2.1 to +2.7; T is time of crystallization) evolved from partial melts of depleted mantle with no discernible contamination by older crust, whereas a coeval granitic pluton (??Nd[T] = -5.7) contains a significant component derived from Archean crust. Orthogneisses with similar age and Nd isotope characteristics are found in the Idono complex 250 km to the north. Early Proterozoic rocks are unknown elsewhere in Alaska. The possibility that the Kilbuck terrane was displaced from provinces of similar age in other cratons (e.g., Australian, Baltic, Guiana, and west African shields), or from the poorly dated Siberian craton, cannot be excluded. -from Authors

  4. High-resolution geology, petrology and age of a tectonically accreted section of Paleoarchean oceanic crust, Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosch, Eugene; Vidal, Olivier; McLoughlin, Nicola; Whitehouse, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The ca. 3.53 to 3.29 Ga Onverwacht Group of the Barberton greenstone belt (BGB), South Africa records a rare sequence of exceptionally well-preserved volcanic, intrusive and volcani-clastic Paleaoarchean rocks. Numerous conflicting models exist for the geologic evolution and stratigraphy of this early Archean greenstone belt, ranging from plume-type dynamics to modern-style plate tectonics. Although much work has focussed on the komatiites of the ca. 3.48 Ga Komati Formation since their discovery in 1969, far less petrological attention has been given to the younger oceanic rock sequences of the Kromberg type-section in the mid-Onverwacht Group. In this study, we present new field observations from a detailed re-mapping of the Kromberg type-section, and combine this with high-resolution lithological observations from continuous drill core of the Barberton Scientific Drilling Project [1]. The new mapping and field observations are compared to a recent preliminary study of the Kromberg type-section [2]. A U-Pb detrital provenance study was conducted on a reworked, volcani-clastic unit in the upper Kromberg type-section for the first time. This included U-Pb age determination of 110 detrital zircons by secondary ion microprobe analyses (SIMS), providing constraints on maximum depositional age, provenance of the ocean-floor detritus, and timing for the onset of Kromberg ocean basin formation. These new zircon age data are compared to a previous U-Pb detrital zircon study conducted on the structurally underlying sediments of the ca. 3.43 Ga Noisy formation [3]. A multi-pronged petrological approach has been applied to various rock units across the Kromberg, including thermodynamic modelling techniques applied to metabasalts and metapyroxenites for PT-estimates, bulk- and in-situ isotope geochemistry providing constraints on protolith geochemistry and metamorphic history. Consequently, it is shown that this previously poorly studied Kromberg oceanic rock sequence of the

  5. North America as an exotic terrane'' and the origin of the Appalachian--Andean Mountain system

    SciTech Connect

    Dalziel, I.W.D; Gahagan, L.M. . Inst. for Geophysics); Dalla Salda, L.H. . Centro de Investigaciones Geologicas)

    1992-01-01

    North America was sutured to Gondwana in the terminal Alleghanian event of Appalachian orogenesis, thus completing the late Paleozoic assembly of Pangea. The suggestion that the Pacific margins of East Antarctica-Australia and Laurentia may have been juxtaposed during the Neoproterozoic prompts reevaluation of the widely held assumptions that the ancestral Appalachian margin rifted from northwestern Africa during the earliest Paleozoic opening of Iapetus, and remained juxtaposed to that margin, even though widely separated from it at times, until the assembly of Pangea. The lower Paleozoic carbonate platform of northwestern Argentina has been known for a long time to contain Olenellid trilobites of the Pacific or Columbian realm. Although normally regarded as some kind of far-travelled terrane that originated along the Appalachian margin of Laurentia, it has recently been interpreted as a fragment detached from the Ouachita embayment of Laurentia following Taconic-Famatinian collision with Gondwana during the Ordovician. The Oaxaca terrane of Mexico, on the other hand, contains a Tremadocian trilobite fauna of Argentine-Bolivian affinities, and appears to have been detached from Gondwana following the same collision. The Wilson cycle'' of Iapetus ocean basin opening and closing along the Appalachian and Andean orogens may have involved more than one such continental collision during clockwise drift of Laurentia around South America following late Neoproterozoic to earliest Cambrian separation. Together with the collisions of baltic and smaller terranes with Laurentia, this could explain the protracted Paleozoic orogenic history of both the Appalachian and proto-Andean orogens.

  6. Nature and melting processes of the lithosphere beneath the North-East Qiangqtang terrane, Central Tibet, during Eocene times.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goussin, Fanny; Guillot, Stéphane; Schulmann, Karel; Cordier, Carole; Oliot, Emilien; Replumaz, Anne; Roperch, Pierrick; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    At the time of the collision with India (~55Ma), the southern margin of Asia was a composite continental domain resulting from an already long history of successive accretions of different terranes having different rheologies. Knowledge about the structure, composition and thermal state of the Tibetan lithosphere through time is thus fundamental to understand the respective contributions of pre-Cenozoïc and Cenozoïc tectonics in the building of the Plateau to its present-day elevations. We focused on the boundary between the Qiangtang terrane to the south, and the Songpan-Ganze terrane to the north. We jointly studied deep crustal xenoliths and associated (ultra-)potassic magmatism from the Eocene basins of Nangqian and Xialaxiu (Qinghai Province, China), north of the Qiangtang terrane. The aims were to retrieve the composition and the thermal state of the lower crust during Eocene times, to study the behavior of the lower crust and lithospheric mantle of the Eastern Qiangtang terrane and the adjacent Songpan-Ganze terrane at the time of the collision, and the link with the magmatic activity. Crustal xenoliths are of two types: biotite-rich, amphibole bearing metasediments; and garnet-bearing quartzo-feldspathic gneisses. Such assemblages are typical of very high-grade amphibolite and granulite facies metamorphism; further study should allow us to quantify the pressures and temperatures those rocks experienced until the time they were sampled by their host lavas. Major element geochemistry places the c.a. 51-49 Ma (Spurlin et al., 2005) Xialaxiu volcanic field in a fairly differentiated (SiO2~65-70 wt%) high-K field of the calc-alcaline series. Trace element analysis suggests a strong crustal contamination of the primary mantellic melts. C.a. 38-37 Ma (Spurlin et al., 2005) Nangqian magmatic bodies span across the alkaline series, with high to extreme (K2O~6wt%) values. Complex major and trace element patterns, coupled with high-resolution microprobe data on

  7. A geologic guide to Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska; a tectonic collage of northbound terranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkler, Gary R.; with contributions by MacKevett, E. M.; Plafker, George; Richter, D.H.; Rosenkrans, D.S.; Schmoll, H.R.

    2000-01-01

    Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, the largest unit in the U.S. National Park System, encompasses near 13.2 million acres of geological wonderments. This geologic guide presents history of exploration and Earth-science investigation; describes the complex geologic makeup; characterizes the vast college of accretion geologic terranes in this area of Alaska's continental margin; recapitulates the effects of earthquakes, volcanoes, and glaciers; characterizes the copper and gold resources of the parklands; and describes outstanding locales within the park and preserve area. A glossary of geologic terms and a categorized list of additional sources of information complete this report.

  8. The Western Sierras Pampeanas: Protracted Grenville-age history (1330-1030 Ma) of intra-oceanic arcs, subduction-accretion at continental-edge and AMCG intraplate magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapela, C. W.; Pankhurst, R. J.; Casquet, C.; Baldo, E.; Galindo, C.; Fanning, C. M.; Dahlquist, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    basic amphibolites with geochemical fingerprints of emplacement in a more mature crust, and (ii) a 1027 ± 17 Ma TTG juvenile suite, which is the youngest Grenville-age magmatic event registered in the Western Sierras Pampeanas. The geodynamic history in both study areas reveals a complex orogenic evolution, dominated by convergent tectonics and accretion of juvenile oceanic arcs to the continent.

  9. Petrology and geochemistry of primitive lower oceanic crust from Pito Deep: Implications for the accretion of the lower crust at the Southern East Pacific Rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perk, N.W.; Coogan, L.A.; Karson, J.A.; Klein, E.M.; Hanna, H.D.

    2007-01-01

    A suite of samples collected from the uppermost part of the plutonic section of the oceanic crust formed at the southern East Pacific Rise and exposed at the Pito Deep has been examined. These rocks were sampled in situ by ROV and lie beneath a complete upper crustal section providing geological context. This is only the second area (after the Hess Deep) in which a substantial depth into the plutonic complex formed at the East Pacific Rise has been sampled in situ and reveals significant spatial heterogeneity in the plutonic complex. In contrast to the uppermost plutonic rocks at Hess Deep, the rocks studied here are generally primitive with olivine forsterite contents mainly between 85 and 88 and including many troctolites. The melt that the majority of the samples crystallized from was aggregated normal mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB). Despite this high Mg# clinopyroxene is common despite model predictions that clinopyroxene should not reach the liquidus early during low-pressure crystallization of MORB. Stochastic modeling of melt crystallisation at various levels in the crust suggests that it is unlikely that a significant melt mass crystallized in the deeper crust (for example in sills) because this would lead to more evolved shallow level plutonic rocks. Similar to the upper plutonic section at Hess Deep, and in the Oman ophiolite, many samples show a steeply dipping, axis-parallel, magmatic fabric. This suggests that vertical magmatic flow is an important process in the upper part of the seismic low velocity zone beneath fast-spreading ridges. We suggest that both temporal and spatial (along-axis) variability in the magmatic and hydrothermal systems can explain the differences observed between the Hess Deep and Pito Deep plutonics. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  10. The radiolarian evidence for the accretion of the Fu-saki Formation with the inferred oceanic plate stratigraphy: A case of weakly-metamorphosed accretionary complex in Ishigaki Jima, southern Ryukyu Arc, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakae, Satoshi

    2013-09-01

    The island of Ishigaki Jima, located in the western part of the southern Ryukyu Arc, Japan, is underlain by a basement comprising the Tumuru and Fu-saki formations. The former is a pelitic glaucophane schist with a metamorphic age of 220-190 Ma, and the latter is a weakly metamorphosed accretionary complex, composed mainly of chert, mudstone and sandstone with minor amounts of limestone and mafic rocks. The Fu-saki Formation was weakly metamorphosed at ∼140 Ma. Latest Carboniferous-Early Jurassic microfossils have been obtained from the limestones, cherts and siliceous mudstones of this formation, but no fossils have been collected from the phyllitic mudstones. The radiolarian fauna of the phyllitic mudstones described herein indicates a late Pliensbachian-early Toarcian (Early Jurassic) age. This result, when combined with existing data, enables the reconstruction of an oceanic plate stratigraphy, showing a succession of (in ascending order) Upper Carboniferous-Triassic cherts, Sinemurian-lower Pliensbachian siliceous mudstones and upper Pliensbachian-lower Toarcian phyllitic mudstones and sandstones. The radiolarians from the phyllitic mudstones are important in constraining the timing of the accretion of the Fu-saki Formation to the base of the Tumuru Formation.

  11. The buried southern continuation of the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary and Oaxaca Fault, southern Mexico: Magnetotelluric constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Corbo-Camargo, F.; Arzate-Flores, J.; Keppie, J. D.; Arango-Galván, C.; Unsworth, M.; Belmonte-Jiménez, S. I.

    2013-04-01

    Thirty magnetotelluric soundings were made along two NW-SE profiles to the north and south of Oaxaca City in southern Mexico. The profiles crossed the N-S Oaxaca Fault and the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary defined by the Juarez mylonitic complex. Dimensionality analysis of the MT data showed that the subsurface resistivity structure is 2D or 3D. The Oaxaca and correlative Guichicovi terranes consist of ca. 1-1.4 Ga granulitic continental crust overlain by Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks, characterized by high and low resistivities, respectively. The Juarez terrane consists of oceanic Mesozoic metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks, characterized by a low to medium resistivity layer, that is approximately 10 km thick. The Oaxaca Fault is a Cenozoic aged, normal fault that reactivated the dextral and thrust Juarez mylonitic complex north of Oaxaca City: its location south of Oaxaca City is uncertain. In the southern profile, the MT data show a ca. 20-50 km wide, west-dipping, relatively low resistivity zone material that extends through the entire crust. This is inferred to be the Juarez terrane bounded on either side by the ca. 1-1.4 Ga granulites. The Oaxaca Fault is imaged only by a major electrical resistivity discontinuity (low to the west, high to the east) along both the western border of the Juarez mylonitic complex (northern profile) and the San Miguel de la Cal mountains (southern profile) suggesting continuity.

  12. Late Paleozoic intrusive rocks from the southeastern Lhasa terrane, Tibetan Plateau, and their Late Mesozoic metamorphism and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xin; Zhang, Zeming; Liu, Feng; He, Zhenyu; Lin, Yanhao

    2014-06-01

    The Lhasa terrane in southern Tibet experienced Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic-Cenozoic composite orogenesis. This work reports a study on the petrology, geochemistry, zircon U-Pb chronology and Hf isotopes of Late Paleozoic and Late Mesozoic intrusive rocks from the southeastern Lhasa terrane. The Late Paleozoic intrusive rocks crystallized in the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous of 371 to 355 Ma, representing a bimodal igneous association formed in the back-arc extensional setting. The mafic end-member originated from the enriched mantle and experienced contamination of crustal materials, characterized by a slight enrichment of LREE, positive anomalies of U, K and Pb and negative anomalies of Th, Nb, Ta and Ti. The felsic end-member was derived from the partial melting of the ancient continental crust, characterized by metaluminous, positive anomalies of Th, Zr and Hf, negative anomalies of Ba, Sr, Nb, Ta and Ti and negative εHf(t) values of zircon with TDM2 ages from 1.90 to 1.40 Ga. The Late Cretaceous (ca. 107 Ma) mafic intrusions, along with the Late Paleozoic intrusive rocks, underwent nearly syn-intrusion amphibolite-facies metamorphism under P-T conditions of 0.56 to 0.69 GPa and 692 to 735 °C during the Andean-type orogeny correlated with the subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic slab beneath the Lhasa terrane. This study provides a new insight into the pre-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Lhasa terrane.

  13. The basement of the Eastern Cordillera, Colombia: An allochthonous terrane in northwestern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forero Suarez, A.

    The fault system of the Borde Llanero of Colombia represents the limit between two early Paleozoic geologic provinces: the Guiana Shield (Gondwana) to the east, and an allochthonous terrane — formerly a piece of the North American continent — to the west. The Baudó Range, the Western Cordillera, and the western flank of the Central Cordillera are the result of post-Jurassic accretion. In contrast the pre-Emsian metamorphic rocks of the eastern flank of the Central Cordillera, of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, and of the Mérida Andes correspond to an allochthonous terrane that was accreted to the north-western continental border of South America during the collision between North America and Gondwana in Silurian-Early Devonian times. Geochronologic and petrographic data indicate the presence of the Grenvillian granulite belt, represented by the Garzón-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta belt. This belt is separated from the Guiana Shield by a magmatic tract which is parallel to the Borde Llanero of Venezuela and Colombia. The late Paleozoic regional metamorphism in the Northern Andes of Colombia occurred during Late Silurian-Early Devonian times. Since the late Emsian, a sedimentary cycle was initiated on this allochthonous basement. The faunal records of northwestern South America and the North American continent are indistinguishable for that time. This similarity clearly shows that both northwestern South America and the North American regions of the Appalachians and New Mexico belong to the same paleobiogeographic province. The faunal communication in this case supports the idea of the immediate neighborhood of the two continents.

  14. Linking Tengchong Terrane in SW Yunnan with Lhasa Terrane in southern Tibet through magmatic correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jincheng; Zhu, Dicheng; Dong, Guochen; Zhao, Zhidan; Wang, Qing

    2016-04-01

    New zircon U-Pb data, along with the data reported in the literature, reveal five phases of magmatic activity in the Tengchong Terrane since the Early Paleozoic with spatial and temporal variations summarized as: Cambrian-Ordovician (500-460 Ma) to the eastern, minor Triassic (245-206 Ma) in the eastern and western, abundant Early Cretaceous (131-114 Ma) in the eastern, extensive Late Cretaceous (77-65 Ma) in the central, and Paleocene-Eocene (65-49 Ma) in the central and western Tengchong Terrane, in which the Cretaceous-Eocene magmatism was migrated from east to west (Xu et al., 2012). The increased zircon eHf(t) of the Early Cretaceous granitoids from -12.3 to -1.4 at ca. 131-122 Ma to -4.6 to +7.1 at ca. 122-114 Ma identified for the first time in this study and the magmatic flare-up at ca. 53 Ma in the central and western Tengchong Terrane (Wang et al., 2014, Ma et al., 2015) indicate the increased contributions from mantle- or juvenile crust-derived components. The spatial and temporal variations and changing magmatic compositions with time in the Tengchong Terrane closely resemble the Lhasa Terrane in southern Tibet. Such similarities, together with the data of stratigraphy and paleobiogeography (Zhang et al., 2013), enable us to propose that the Tengchong Terrane in SW Yunnan is most likely linked with the Lhasa Terrane in southern Tibet, both of which experience similar tectonomagmatic histories since the Early Paleozoic. References Ma, L.Y., Wang, Y.J., Fan, W.M., Geng, H.Y., Cai, Y.F., Zhong, H., Liu, H.C., Xing, X.W., 2014. Petrogenesis of the early Eocene I-type granites in west Yingjiang (SW Yunnan) and its implication for the eastern extension of the Gangdese batholiths. Gondwana Research 25, 401-419. Wang, Y.J., Zhang, L.M., Cawood, P.A., Ma, L.Y., Fan, W.M., Zhang, A.M., Zhang, Y.Z., Bi, X.W., 2014. Eocene supra-subduction zone mafic magmatism in the Sibumasu Block of SW Yunnan: Implications for Neotethyan subduction and India-Asia collision

  15. Ediacaran to Cambrian oceanic rocks of the Gondwana margin and their tectonic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Raumer, Jürgen F.; Stampfli, Gérard M.; Arenas, Ricardo; Sánchez Martínez, Sonia

    2015-07-01

    In tectonic maps of Variscan Europe, allochthonous pieces of Cadomian basement clearly stand out with their predominant metabasic to ultrabasic elements, the so-called exotic terranes with ophiolites. Most of these domains are observed in basements of the Central Iberian Allochthone, the South Armorican domain, the nappe structures of the French Massif Central, the Saxothuringian Zone and the Bohemian Massif. Similar relics can be recognized in many Alpine basement areas, and correlations with supposedly more autochthonous basements, such as the Ossa Morena Zone and the Central Iberian basement, can be envisaged. All of these relics are thought to represent the interrupted trace of a former continuous or discontinuous structure, characterized by the presence of ocean-derived proto-Rheic rock suites. These can be interpreted as pieces of former magmatic arcs of Ediacaran to Cambrian age accreted to the Gondwana margin, which later were scattered as allochthonous units during the Variscan plate-tectonic processes. The presence of similar rock suites of Ordovician age in the Alpine realm is explained by the accretion of exotic China-derived basements and their collision with the Gondwana margin during the opening of the Rheic Ocean.

  16. Second look at suspect terranes in southern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratschbacher, Lothar; Riller, Ulrich; Meschede, Martin; Herrmann, Uwe; Frisch, Wolfgang

    1991-12-01

    The boundary between the Xolapa and the Guerrero, Mixteca, and Juarez (or Oaxaca) terranes is a zone of normal faulting indicating north-south subhorizontal extension. Stratigraphic and geochronometric evidence dates tectonic uplift of the Xolapa terrane as Late Cretaceous and Tertiary. We propose that the Xolapa terrane represents a late Mesozoic-early Tertiary magmatic arc built near or on North American continental crust, and we discuss, as possible tectonic uplift mechanisms, (1) extension associated with back-arc rifting, (2) extension during gravitational spreading of the upper and middle crust, and (3) transtension within a strike-slip regime established during formation of the Caribbean. Both far- and near-field deformations indicate distributed transtension. Therefore, a single regional tectonic framework can account for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic geologic history of these terranes.

  17. Precise U-Pb Zircon Constraints on the Earliest Magmatic History of the Carolina Terrane.

    PubMed

    Wortman; Samson; Hibbard

    2000-05-01

    -type basement. This observation, together with the juvenile Nd isotopic character of the Virgilina volcanic arc sequence, suggests that the oldest part of the Carolina terrane was built on oceanic crust away from a continental crustal influence. PMID:10769159

  18. Crustal and upper mantle structure of central Qiangtang terrane (Tibet Plateau) imaged with magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, S.; Hu, X.; Li, J.

    2013-12-01

    Since the Tethys Ocean closed, the ongoing collision between India and Aisa continents has created the Tibet Plateau, which is the most spectacular topographic feature on the surface of the earth. In the last decades, a large number of geological and geophysical studies have been undertaken in the Tibet Plateau, but most of these studies were focused on southern Tibet, where the collision of the Indian tectonic plate with Eurasia was occurred, and southeast Tibet, where lateral extrusion of crustal material may be occurred, absent in the central Tibet. As research continues, it has become clear that a complete understanding of the formation and deformation of the Tibet Plateau requires a study of the entire plateau. The Qiangtang terrane is located in the central Tibet Plateau. In 1993-1994, three profiles of broadband MT data (320 Hz to 2000 s) along N-S trending ranges from 86°E to 91°E were collected by China University of Geoscience in central Qiangtang terrane for the purpose of oil and gas exploration, the previous interpretation was focused on the shallow structures. In this study, we reanalyze the three MT profiles to produce more detailed images of the deep electrical structure of the Qiangtang terrane. Dimensionality analysis and geoelectric strike analysis of these data show that they appear to be two dimensional. 2-D inversion model show that there is a pervasive conductivity layer in the mid- to lower crustal and upper mantle, especially in the north Qiangtang terrane, which was considered to be the result of partial melt. The partial melt fraction is sufficient for crustal flow to occur. The similarity of the inversion models of the three profiles show that there is west-east crustal flow along the Jinsha River suture in central Qiangtang terrane, which seems to be western extension of the crustal flow observed in southeast Tibet by Bai et al. (2010). The inversion results also show difference of the electrical structure between the west and east

  19. Precise U-Pb Zircon Constraints on the Earliest Magmatic History of the Carolina Terrane.

    PubMed

    Wortman; Samson; Hibbard

    2000-05-01

    -type basement. This observation, together with the juvenile Nd isotopic character of the Virgilina volcanic arc sequence, suggests that the oldest part of the Carolina terrane was built on oceanic crust away from a continental crustal influence.

  20. Two flysch belts having distinctly different provenance suggest no stratigraphic link between the Wrangellia composite terrane and the paleo-Alaskan margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hults, Chad P.; Wilson, Frederic H.; Donelick, Raymond A.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    The provenance of Jurassic to Cretaceous flysch along the northern boundary of the allochthonous Wrangellia composite terrane, exposed from the Lake Clark region of southwest Alaska to the Nutzotin Mountains in eastern Alaska, suggests that the flysch can be divided into two belts having different sources. On the north, the Kahiltna flysch and Kuskokwim Group overlie and were derived from the Farwell and Yukon-Tanana terranes, as well as smaller related terranes that were part of the paleo-Alaskan margin. Paleocurrent indicators for these two units suggest that they derived sediment from the north and west. Sandstones are predominantly lithic wacke that contain abundant quartz grains, lithic rock fragments, and detrital mica, which suggest that these rocks were derived from recycled orogen and arc sources. Conglomerates contain limestone clasts that have fossils matching terranes that made up the paleo-Alaskan margin. In contrast, flysch units on the south overlie and were derived from the Wrangellia composite terrane. Paleocurrent indicators for these units suggest that they derived sediment from the south. Sandstones are predominantly feldspathic wackes that contain abundant plagioclase grains and volcanic rock fragments, which suggest these rocks were derived from an arc. Clast compositions in conglomerate south of the boundary match rock types of the Wrangellia composite terrane. The distributions of detrital zircon ages also differentiate the flysch units. Flysch units on the north average 54% Mesozoic, 14% Paleozoic, and 32% Precambrian detrital zircons, reflecting derivation from the older Yukon-Tanana, Farewell, and other terranes that made up the paleo-Alaskan margin. In comparison, flysch units on the south average 94% Mesozoic, 1% Paleozoic, and 5% Precambrian zircons, which are consistent with derivation from the Mesozoic oceanic magmatic arc rocks in the Wrangellia composite terrane. In particular, the flysch units on the south contain a large

  1. Archaean Greenstone Belt Architecture and Stratigraphy: are Comparisons With Ophiolites and Oceanic Plateaux Valid?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedard, J. H.; Bleeker, W.; Leclerc, F.

    2005-12-01

    Archaean greenstone belts and coeval plutonic belts (dominated by TTGs, tonalite-tronhjemite-granodiorite), are commonly interpreted to represent assembled fragments of oceanic crust, oceanic plateaux or juvenile arc terranes, variably reworked by Archaean orogenic processes related to the operation of plate tectonics. However, many of the lava successions that have been interpreted to represent accreted oceanic plateaux are demonstrably ensialic, can be correlated over long distances along-strike, have depositional contacts onto older continental crustal rocks, show tholeiitic to calc-alkaline cyclicity, and have isotopic signatures indicating assimilation of older felsic crust. Inferred Archaean ophiolites do not have sheeted dyke complexes or associated mantle rocks, and cannot be proven to be oceanic terranes formed by seafloor-spreading. Archaean supracrustal sequences are typically dominated by tholeiitic to komatiitic lavas, typically interpreted to represent the products of decompression melting of mantle plumes. Subordinate proportions of andesites, dacites and rhyolites also occur, and these, together with the coeval TTGs, are generally interpreted to represent arc magmas. In the context of uniformitarian interpretations, the coeval emplacement of putative arc- and plume-related magmas requires extremely complex geodynamic scenarios. However, the relative rarity of the archetypal convergent margin magma type (andesite) in Archaean sequences, and the absence of Archaean blueschists, ultra-high-pressure terranes, thrust and fold belts, core complexes and ophiolites, along with theoretical arguments against Archaean subduction, together imply that Archaean cratonic crust was not formed through uniformitarian plate-tectonic processes. A simpler interpretation involves soft intraoceanic collisions of thick (30-50km), plume-related, basaltic-komatiitic oceanic plateaux, with ongoing mafic magmatism leading to anatexis of the hydrated plateau base to generate

  2. Petrology and tectonics of Phanerozoic continent formation: From island arcs to accretion and continental arc magmatism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, C.-T.A.; Morton, D.M.; Kistler, R.W.; Baird, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Mesozoic continental arcs in the North American Cordillera were examined here to establish a baseline model for Phanerozoic continent formation. We combine new trace-element data on lower crustal xenoliths from the Mesozoic Sierra Nevada Batholith with an extensive grid-based geochemical map of the Peninsular Ranges Batholith, the southern equivalent of the Sierras. Collectively, these observations give a three-dimensional view of the crust, which permits the petrogenesis and tectonics of Phanerozoic crust formation to be linked in space and time. Subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America during the Triassic to early Cretaceous was characterized by trench retreat and slab rollback because old and cold oceanic lithosphere was being subducted. This generated an extensional subduction zone, which created fringing island arcs just off the Paleozoic continental margin. However, as the age of the Farallon plate at the time of subduction decreased, the extensional environment waned, allowing the fringing island arc to accrete onto the continental margin. With continued subduction, a continental arc was born and a progressively more compressional environment developed as the age of subducting slab continued to young. Refinement into a felsic crust occurred after accretion, that is, during the continental arc stage, wherein a thickened crustal and lithospheric column permitted a longer differentiation column. New basaltic arc magmas underplate and intrude the accreted terrane, suture, and former continental margin. Interaction of these basaltic magmas with pre-existing crust and lithospheric mantle created garnet pyroxenitic mafic cumulates by fractional crystallization at depth as well as gabbroic and garnet pyroxenitic restites at shallower levels by melting of pre-existing lower crust. The complementary felsic plutons formed by these deep-seated differentiation processes rose into the upper crust, stitching together the accreted terrane, suture and former

  3. Laurentian and Baltican components of Terranes in NW Washington: Implications for Displacement of Paleozoic Terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schermer, E. R.; Brown, N.; Gehrels, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    New field, U-Pb, and Lu-Hf data constrain the geologic history, age, and origin of the Yellow Aster Complex (YAC) in NW Washington, and suggest that this Paleozoic arc terrane originated along the paleo-Arctic margin of NE Laurentia. Field work shows the oldest YAC consists of quartzo-feldspathic paragneiss (meta-arkosic sandstone + conglomerate) and quartzose calc-silicate gneiss (meta-calcareous siltstone) in gradational contact. Paragneisses are cut by syn- and post-tectonic intrusions, and faulted against granitic orthogneiss. U-Pb results show that 1) maximum depositional ages of paragneisses are Silurian to early Devonian (399 to 434 Ma); 2) quartzose calc-silicate gneisses show a broad age peak from 1000-1900 Ma, while quartzofeldspathic gneisses contain several distinct Precambrian age peaks, including at 1.8-2.0 Ga and 2.4-2.5 Ga; 3) Both gneisses contain early Paleozoic grains with peaks at ~400-420 and ~450-460 Ma; 4) pre-tectonic orthogneiss and syn- and post-tectonic dikes range from 410 to 398 Ma; 4) All intrusive rocks contain apparently xenocrystic ~450 Ma grains. Lu-Hf data show that nearly all Paleozoic grains have negative epsilon Hf values, and zircons in the meta-arkose samples are more highly evolved than those in the calc-silicate. Several meta-arkose samples yield epsilon Hf values of -40 to -50, which is rare in the North American Cordillera, and requires the involvement of Early Archean crustal components. The most likely source region is Greenland, which implies derivation from the paleo-Arctic margin of northeastern Laurentia or Baltica. The chemistry and petrology of the igneous rocks suggest the terrane was in a continental arc setting during or very shortly after deposition of the sedimentary rocks. The data suggest that sedimentation, deformation, metamorphism, and magmatism all occurred within a brief (~15 m.y.) period in the early Devonian. These relationships suggest a Caledonian origin for YAC prior to translation to the

  4. Seismic images of a Grenvillian terrane boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milkereit, B.; Forsyth, D. A.; Green, A.G.; Davidson, A.; Hanmer, S.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Hinze, W. J.; Mereu, R. F.

    1992-01-01

    A series of gently dipping reflection zones extending to mid-crustal depths is recorded by seismic data from Lakes Ontario and Erie. These prominent reflection zones define a broad complex of southeast-dipping ductile thrust faults in the interior of the Grenville orogen. One major reflection zone provides the first image of a proposed Grenvillian suture—the listric boundary zone between allochthonous terranes of the Central Gneiss and Central Metasedimentary belts. Curvilinear bands of reflections that may represent "ramp folds" and "ramp anticlines" that originally formed in a deep crustal-scale duplex abut several faults. Vertical stacking of some curvilinear features suggests coeval or later out-of-sequence faulting of imbricated and folded thrust sheets. Grenvillian structure reflections are overlain by a thin, wedge-shaped package of shallow-dipping reflections that probably originates from sediments deposited in a local half graben developed during a period of post-Grenville extension. This is the first seismic evidence for such extension in this region, which could have occurred during terminal collapse of the Grenville orogen, or could have marked the beginning of pre-Appalachian continental rifting.

  5. The East African Orogen: Accretion versus Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröner, A.; Muhongo, S.; Sommer, H.; Vogt, M.

    2003-04-01

    The East African Orogen is an extensive Neoproterozoic (Pan-African) orogenic belt extending from Arabia to Mozambique and containing elements of both accretion and collision tectonics. The predominantly upper crustal northern part (Arabian-Nubian Shield, ANS) consists of Neoproterozoic juvenile arc assemblages that accreted onto the African continent along ophiolite-decorated sutures. In contrast, the tectonic evolution of the predominantly middle to lower crustal southern part (Mozambique belt, MB) is still poorly understood, and simple continental collision models as previously applied are not compatible with new isotopic and petrological data. Published Nd isotopic systematics and our new zircon ages demonstrate that large parts of the high-grade MB in Tanzania consists of late Archaean to Palaeoproterozoic granitoid gneisses which may either constitute an extension of the Tanzania craton to the E, reworked during the Pan-African orogeny, or these rocks may constitute a separate terrane, or terranes, tectonically interdigitated with Neoproterozoic gneisses, similar to the situation in Madagascar. Small-scale tectonic interlayering of >1800 Ma and 650-800 Ma gneisses have been documented at several localities, and the amount of pre-Neoproterozoic crust in the MB appears to be ˜70% or more. Relatively small volumes of ˜1000-1100 Ma granitoids have so far only been recorded in southern Tanzania, and their significance in the orogenic evolution and their relation to more extensive rocks of this age in northern Mozambique are not known. High-grade metamorphism in the MB of Tanzania led to granulite and charnockite formation and occurred at 620-640 Ma, slightly earlier than in Mozambique (˜615 Ma) but significantly earlier than in Malawi (˜550-580 Ma) and in Madagascar (˜550-560 Ma). The significance of these age differences is not understood. Petrological data suggest both clockwise and anti-clockwise PT path for the metamorphic assemblages, suggesting that

  6. Paleogeographic reconstruction of northwestern Oregon based on Eocene freshwater deposition in accreted terrane

    SciTech Connect

    Ries, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    Freshwater deposits exposed in the Coast Range of Oregon have been identified by the absence of marine organisms, significant floral remains, and the identification of a freshwater fish assemblage. These facies have been correlated with foraminiferal and lithologic horizons from test wells from the Mist Gas field of northwestern Oregon. Consistent records of inner neritic and marginal marine deposition in the Narizian stage, upper Cowlitz Formation, suggest the existence of an Eocene volcanic archipelago. Foraminiferal correlation through this stage is complicated by the absence of stratigraphically significant species in several of the wells. Floral remains from exposed sections have provided diverse elements, allowing paleogeographic reconstruction. A sea level coastal swamp was dominated by a subtropical flora consisting of Sabalites, Platanophyllum, and Equisetum. The swamp was apparently backed by higher altitude volcanic uplands dominated by a more temperate flora including Cornus, Chamaecyparis, Ailanthus, Pinus, and Picea.

  7. Geology of the Southern Zambales Ophiolite Complex, (Philippines): juxtaposed terranes of diverse origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumul, G. P.; Dimalanta, C. B.

    1997-08-01

    The Zambales Ophiolite Complex, which is made up of three massifs—Masinloc, Cabangan and San Antonio, was generated in a subduction-related marginal basin. Combined field geological and geochemical evidences show that the Cabangan and San Antonio massifs are genetically related to the Coto (transitional mid-ocean ridge-island arc) and Acoje (island arc) blocks of the Masinloc massif, respectively. A tectonic contact, the Subic Bay Fault Zone, is believed to separate the San Antonio and Cabangan massifs. The San Antonio massif is a displaced terrane rifted from the Acoje block and translated southward to its present position through the West Luzon Shear (?)/Subic Bay Fault Zone. The Zambales Ophiolite Complex could have not formed through the rifting or folding of the arc-related Acoje block-San Antonio massif to generate the transitional mid-ocean ridge-island arc like Coto block-Cabangan massif!

  8. Tectonic slicing of subducting oceanic crust along plate interfaces: Numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruh, J. B.; Le Pourhiet, L.; Agard, Ph.; Burov, E.; Gerya, T.

    2015-10-01

    Multikilometer-sized slivers of high-pressure low-temperature metamorphic oceanic crust and mantle are observed in many mountain belts. These blueschist and eclogite units were detached from the descending plate during subduction. Large-scale thermo-mechanical numerical models based on finite difference marker-in-cell staggered grid technique are implemented to investigate slicing processes that lead to the detachment of oceanic slivers and their exhumation before the onset of the continental collision phase. In particular, we investigate the role of the serpentinized subcrustal slab mantle in the mechanisms of shallow and deep crustal slicing. Results show that spatially homogeneous serpentinization of the sub-Moho slab mantle leads to complete accretion of oceanic crust within the accretionary wedge. Spatially discontinuous serpentinization of the slab mantle in form of unconnected patches can lead to shallow slicing of the oceanic crust below the accretionary wedge and to its deep slicing at mantle depths depending on the patch length, slab angle, convergence velocity and continental geothermal gradient. P-T paths obtained in this study are compared to natural examples of shallow slicing of the Crescent Terrane below Vancouver Island and deeply sliced crust of the Lago Superiore and Saas-Zermatt units in the Western Alps.

  9. Forming the lunar farside highlands by accretion of a companion moon.

    PubMed

    Jutzi, M; Asphaug, E

    2011-08-03

    The most striking geological feature of the Moon is the terrain and elevation dichotomy between the hemispheres: the nearside is low and flat, dominated by volcanic maria, whereas the farside is mountainous and deeply cratered. Associated with this geological dichotomy is a compositional and thermal variation, with the nearside Procellarum KREEP (potassium/rare-earth element/phosphorus) Terrane and environs interpreted as having thin, compositionally evolved crust in comparison with the massive feldspathic highlands. The lunar dichotomy may have been caused by internal effects (for example spatial variations in tidal heating, asymmetric convective processes or asymmetric crystallization of the magma ocean) or external effects (such as the event that formed the South Pole/Aitken basin or asymmetric cratering). Here we consider its origin as a late carapace added by the accretion of a companion moon. Companion moons are a common outcome of simulations of Moon formation from a protolunar disk resulting from a giant impact, and although most coplanar configurations are unstable, a ∼1,200-km-diameter moon located at one of the Trojan points could be dynamically stable for tens of millions of years after the giant impact. Most of the Moon's magma ocean would solidify on this timescale, whereas the companion moon would evolve more quickly into a crust and a solid mantle derived from similar disk material, and would presumably have little or no core. Its likely fate would be to collide with the Moon at ∼2-3 km s(-1), well below the speed of sound in silicates. According to our simulations, a large moon/Moon size ratio (∼0.3) and a subsonic impact velocity lead to an accretionary pile rather than a crater, contributing a hemispheric layer of extent and thickness consistent with the dimensions of the farside highlands and in agreement with the degree-two crustal thickness profile. The collision furthermore displaces the KREEP-rich layer to the opposite hemisphere

  10. Black hole accretion.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Ramesh; Quataert, Eliot

    2005-01-01

    Black holes are most often detected by the radiation produced when they gravitationally pull in surrounding gas, in a process called accretion. The efficiency with which the hot gas radiates its thermal energy strongly influences the geometry and dynamics of the accretion flow. Both radiatively efficient thin disks and radiatively inefficient thick disks are observed. When the accreting gas gets close to the central black hole, the radiation it produces becomes sensitive to the spin of the hole and the presence of an event horizon. Analysis of the luminosities and spectra of accreting black holes has yielded tantalizing evidence for both rotating holes and event horizons. Numerical simulations imply that the relativistic jets often seen from accreting black holes may be powered in part by the spin of the hole. PMID:15637269

  11. Geophysical modeling of the northern Appalachian Brompton-Cameron, Central Maine, and Avalon terranes under the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maguire, T.J.; Sheridan, R.E.; Volkert, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    A regional terrane map of the New Jersey Coastal Plain basement was constructed using seismic, drilling, gravity and magnetic data. The Brompton-Cameron and Central Maine terranes were coalesced as one volcanic island arc terrane before obducting onto Laurentian, Grenville age, continental crust in the Taconian orogeny [Rankin, D.W., 1994. Continental margin of the eastern United States: past and present. In: Speed, R.C., (Ed.), Phanerozoic Evolution of North American Continent-Ocean Transitions. DNAG Continent-Ocean Transect Volume. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, pp. 129-218]. Volcanic island-arc rocks of the Avalon terrane are in contact with Central Maine terrane rocks in southern Connecticut where the latter are overthrust onto the Brompton-Cameron terrane, which is thrust over Laurentian basement. Similarities of these allochthonous island arc terranes (Brompton-Cameron, Central Maine, Avalon) in lithology, fauna and age suggest that they are faulted segments of the margin of one major late Precambrian to early Paleozoic, high latitude peri-Gondwana island arc designated as "Avalonia", which collided with Laurentia in the early to middle Paleozoic. The Brompton Cameron, Central Maine, and Avalon terranes are projected as the basement under the eastern New Jersey Coastal Plain based on drill core samples of metamorphic rocks of active margin/magmatic arc origin. A seismic reflection profile across the New York Bight traces the gentle dipping (approximately 20 degrees) Cameron's Line Taconian suture southeast beneath allochthonous Avalon and other terranes to a 4 sec TWTT depth (approximately 9 km) where the Avalonian rocks are over Laurentian crust. Gentle up-plunge (approximately 5 degrees) projections to the southwest bring the Laurentian Grenville age basement and the drift-stage early Paleozoic cover rocks to windows in Burlington Co. at approximately 1 km depth and Cape May Co. at approximately 2 km depths. The antiformal Shellburne

  12. Precambrian ophiolites of arabia: geologic settings, UPb geochronology, Pb-isotope characteristics, and implications for continental accretion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, J.S.; Stacey, J.S.; Fischer, L.B.; Premo, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    Disrupted ophiolites occur in linear belts up to 900 km long between microplates that collided during the late Proterozoic to form the Arabian Shield. UPb zircon ages and Pb-isotope data from these ophiolitic rocks help constrain the history of accretion of the Arabian Shield and thereby contribute to the definition of its microplates and terranes. Terranes of the central and western Arabian Shield are generally thought to represent intraoceanic island arcs that range in age from about 900 to 640 Ma; however, a region of the eastern Arabian Shield contains rocks of Early Proterozoic age and may represent an exotic continental fragment entrained between the arc complexes. Ophiolites of the Yanbu suture (northwestern shield), dated by UPb (zircon) and SmNd (mineral isochron) methods, yield model ages of 740-780 Ma. These are among the oldest well-dated rocks in the northwestern Arabian Shield. Ages from the Jabal al Wask complex overlap with ages of adjacent arc rocks. This overlap in age supports geologic and geochemical evidence that the Wask complex represents a fragment of back-arc oceanic lithosphere formed during arc magmatism. Older ages of about 780 Ma for gabbro from the Jabal Ess ophiolite suggest that the ophiolite is either a fragment of fore-arc oceanic crust or oceanic basement on which an arc was built. Gabbro samples from ophiolites of the Bir Umq suture (west-central Arabian Shield) yield zircons with ages of 820-870 Ma and $ ??1250 Ma. The 820-870 Ma dates overlap with ages of the oldest nearby arc rocks; this favors an intra-arc or near-arc paleotectonic setting. The older zircons suggest that middle or early Proterozoic crustal material, possibly derived from the Mozambique belt of Africa, was present during back- or intra-arc magmatism. Plagiogranite from the Bir Tuluhah ophiolitic complex at the nothern end of the 900 km-long Nabitah mobile belt was dated by the zircon UPb method at ??? 830 Ma. This date is in the range of the oldest dated arc

  13. Geomorphic terranes of the central Klamath Mountains: Applications to ecosystem management

    SciTech Connect

    De La Fuente, J.; Biery, E.; Creasy, M.; Elder, D.; Haessig, P.; Laurent, T.; Snavely, W. )

    1993-04-01

    Five geomorphic terranes have been identified in the Dillon Mountain area, about 20 miles southwest of Happy Camp, California. These terranes are defined as lands with similar geologic histories, where modern geomorphic processes are similar, and where soils and biotic communities are similar. They include: (1) slump/earthflow terrane; (2) glacial deposit terrane; (3) mountain slope terrane; (4) headwall terrane (steep, fan-shaped headwaters of first order drainages); and (5) inner gorge terrane (the steep landform which develops adjacent to rapidly downcutting streams). These primary geomorphic terranes are further subdivided on a basis of lithology, slope gradient, and geomorphic setting. Geomorphic terrane maps are derived from primary data layers in a geographic information system (GIS). The primary data layers include field-generated lithology, structure, and geomorphology. Slope gradient information is also used, and is derived from digital terrain data, modified by field observations. The distribution of geomorphic terranes is strongly influenced by local stratigraphy, which includes portions of the Western Jurassic Belt (Galice Formation), and the Western Paleozoic and Triassic Belt (Rattlesnake Creek, and Hayfork terranes). Tectonic and climatic events of the Pleistocene Epoch also played a major role in the formation and distribution of geomorphic terranes. These included rapid uplift, seismic activity, and alternating glacial and interglacial conditions. Work is underway to refine the geomorphic terranes by applying other variables such as bedrock structure, precipitation zones, and elevation zones.

  14. Thondhjemite of the Talkeetna Mountains: An unusually large low-K pluton in Alaska's Peninsular terrane

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, A.B.; Arth, J.G.; Csejtey, B. )

    1993-04-01

    An unusually large, elongate Jurassic pluton of trondhjemite, about 120- by 10--15 km in dimensions, intruded Jurassic plutonic and metamorphic rocks of the Peninsular terrane in the central Talkeetna Mountains of south-central Alaska. Muscovite and biotite yield minimum ages of 150--145 Ma. The N40[degree]E-trending body is concordant with regional structures. It is the youngest member of a subduction-related Jurassic plutonic suite in the Peninsular terrane that, along with Wrangellia, was accreted to the North American continent in the middle Cretaceous. Rocks, commonly sheared, are medium to coarse grained and leucocratic (CI = 3--9). Biotite is the chief mafic mineral. Minor muscovite and garnet are common and green hornblende rare. Samples (n = 27) from the body's entire length have an average Mg[number sign] of 45 and an SiO[sub 2] continuum of 67--74% (avg. 70.7%). High Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] (14.4--17.9%, avg. 16.5%) is typical of continental trondhjemite. Averages for Zr (109 ppm) and Nb (3.5 ppm) and the ratios K/Rb (491) and Zr/Nb (34) are typical of orogenic igneous rocks of subduction origin. Four samples analyzed have low ([sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr)[sub i] (avg. 0.7036). Very low Rb/Sr (avg. 0.027) is similar to Idaho batholith trondhjemites. REE patterns with low to moderate LREE and HREE with flat patterns and low contents suggest residual garnet or hornblende during partial melting or fractionation. The pluton appears homogeneous in outcrop. However, some geographic variations in chemistry, as in SiO[sub 2] contents and especially in Eu/Eu[sup *], suggest existence of perhaps three regionally separate plumbing systems, or chambers in which different processes such as plagioclase accumulation or hornblende fractionation were active.

  15. Laser Ablation Analyses of Pb Isotopes in Ancient Feldspars: Application to a Polymetamorphic Terrane, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogstad, E. J.; Baker, J. A.; Waight, T. E.

    2001-12-01

    Laser ablation was used to sample the Pb isotopic compositions of various feldspars, as well as isotopic standards. The ablated material was analyzed by MC-ICP-MS. The resulting accuracy and external precision are comparable to conventional (i.e., not double or triple-spiked) feldspar Pb isotope analyses done by TIMS. However, the data can be acquired with no chemical separation and require only a few minutes per sample. A pilot study was made of the feldspars from a polymetamorphic terrane in West Greenland, in which Late Archean gneisses were deformed and metamorphosed during the Early Proterozoic. In this terrane, isotopic contrasts have long been sought to delineate any suture between discrete Archean continental blocks that might mark the site of ocean closure. Previous whole rock Nd and Pb isotopic studies had yielded equivocal results on the presence of such an isotopic discontinuity. The laser ablation feldspar data presented here, combined with existing whole rock Pb data, point to real differences in the sources of gneisses from various parts of the orogen. This indicates that the laser ablation method of sampling feldspar Pb holds real potential for future reconnaissance studies of old continental crust in a manner similar to that of zircon U-Pb geochronology studies.

  16. Accretion/underplating, detachment and exhumation: short/long-term rheology of the subduction plate interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agard, Philippe; Angiboust, Samuel; Plunder, Alexis; Guillot, Stéphane; Yamato, Philippe; Oncken, Onno; Ruh, Jonas; Burov, Evgueni; Bonnet, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    The presence of km-scale accreted terranes/units in both ancient and present-day subduction zones attests to changes in strain localization along the plate interface, whereby these terranes/units get detached from the downgoing slab (or, in places, are eroded away from the tip of the upper plate) and either directly exhumed or accreted/underplated below the upper plate before final exhumation. The rock record (P-T-t data) indicates that, for a given subduction zone, exhumation is episodic: no more than a few My compared to the ~100 My lifetime of typical subduction zones. Not much is known, however, regarding this process and important open questions remain: what exactly is episodic (i.e., detachment from the slab and/or exhumation?), for how long and where? How is mechanical coupling impacted by the initial structure of the incoming plates (structural/lithological heterogeneities, thermo-fluid regime, geodynamic boundary conditions, etc...)? We herein present both new and literature structural and P-T-t data ranging from shallow (i.e., 15-20 km) to intermediate depths (~100 km) along the subduction interface, that span a range from long-term to short-lived events of underplating and/or exhumation, and confront them with the recent wealth of geophysical data gathered on subduction zones. Structural and petrological data indicate that the slicing of km-scale units mostly occurs at specific depths where major mechanical changes occur along the plate interface: at 30-40 km (downdip of the seismogenic zone) and 70-80 km (where mechanical coupling between the two plates resumes and where eclogites get critically dense). This suggests that switches in mechanical coupling (i.e., in the rheology of the material) are key in controlling the ability to detach pieces from the slab (and that later exhumation is rather controlled by large-scale, lithospheric-scale boundary conditions). The study of rock remnants detached from the slab and underplated during subduction infancy (i

  17. Origin of a crustal splay fault and its relation to the seismogenic zone and underplating at the erosional north Ecuador-south Colombia oceanic margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collot, J.-Y.; Agudelo, W.; Ribodetti, A.; Marcaillou, B.

    2008-12-01

    Splay faults within accretionary complexes are commonly associated with the updip limit of the seismogenic zone. Prestack depth migration of a multichannel seismic line across the north Ecuador-south Colombia oceanic margin images a crustal splay fault that correlates with the seaward limit of the rupture zone of the 1958 (Mw 7.7) tsunamogenic subduction earthquake. The splay fault separates 5-6.6 km/s velocity, inner wedge basement rocks, which belong to the accreted Gorgona oceanic terrane, from 4 to 5 km/s velocity outer wedge rocks. The outer wedge is dominated by basal tectonic erosion. Despite a 3-km-thick trench fill, subduction of 2-km-high seamount prevented tectonic accretion and promotes basal tectonic erosion. The low-velocity and poorly reflective subduction channel that underlies the outer wedge is associated with the aseismic, décollement thrust. Subduction channel fluids are expected to migrate upward along splay faults and alter outer wedge rocks. Conversely, duplexes are interpreted to form from and above subducting sediment, at ˜14- to 15-km depths between the overlapping seismogenic part of the splay fault and the underlying aseismic décollement. Coeval basal erosion of the outer wedge and underplating beneath the apex of inner wedge control the margin mass budget, which comes out negative. Intraoceanic basement fossil listric normal faults and a rift zone inverted in a flower structure reflect the evolution of the Gorgona terrane from Cretaceous extension to likely Eocene oblique compression. The splay faults could have resulted from tectonic inversion of listric normal faults, thus showing how inherited structures may promote fluid flow across margin basement and control seismogenesis.

  18. Accretion and Subduction of Oceanic Lithosphere: 2D and 3D Seismic Studies of Off-Axis Magma Lenses at East Pacific Rise 9°37-40'N Area and Downgoing Juan de Fuca Plate at Cascadia Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Shuoshuo

    Two thirds of the Earth's lithosphere is covered by the ocean. The oceanic lithosphere is formed at mid-ocean ridges, evolves and interacts with the overlying ocean for millions of years, and is eventually consumed at subduction zones. In this thesis, I use 2D and 3D multichannel seismic (MCS) data to investigate the accretionary and hydrothermal process on the ridge flank of the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 9°37-40'N and the structure of the downgoing Juan de Fuca plate at the Cascadia subduction zone offshore Oregon and Washington. Using 3D multichannel seismic (MCS) data, I image a series of off-axis magma lenses (OAML) in the middle or lower crust, 2-10 km from the ridge axis at EPR 9°37-40'N. The large OAMLs are associated with Moho travel time anomalies and local volcanic edifices above them, indicating off-axis magmatism contributes to crustal accretion though both intrusion and eruption (Chapter 1). To assess the effect of OAMLs on the upper crustal structure, I conduct 2-D travel time tomography on downward continued MCS data along two across-axis lines above a prominent OAML in our study area. I find higher upper crustal velocity in a region ~ 2 km wide above this OAML compared with the surrounding crust. I attribute these local anomalies to enhanced precipitation of alteration minerals in the pore space of upper crust associated with high-temperature off-axis hydrothermal circulation driven by the OAML (Chapter 2). At Cascadia, a young and hot end-member of the global subduction system, the state of hydration of the downgoing Juan de Fuca (JdF) plate is important to a number of subduction processes, yet is poorly known. As local zones of higher porosity and permeability, faults constitute primary conduits for seawater to enter the crust and potentially uppermost mantle. From pre-stack time migrated MCS images, I observe pervasive faulting in the sediment section up to 200 km from the deformation front. Yet faults with large throw and

  19. Terrestrial accretion under oxidizing conditions.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Julien; Badro, James; Antonangeli, Daniele; Ryerson, Frederick J

    2013-03-01

    The abundance of siderophile elements in the mantle preserves the signature of core formation. On the basis of partitioning experiments at high pressure (35 to 74 gigapascals) and high temperature (3100 to 4400 kelvin), we demonstrate that depletions of slightly siderophile elements (vanadium and chromium), as well as moderately siderophile elements (nickel and cobalt), can be produced by core formation under more oxidizing conditions than previously proposed. Enhanced solubility of oxygen in the metal perturbs the metal-silicate partitioning of vanadium and chromium, precluding extrapolation of previous results. We propose that Earth accreted from materials as oxidized as ordinary or carbonaceous chondrites. Transfer of oxygen from the mantle to the core provides a mechanism to reduce the initial magma ocean redox state to that of the present-day mantle, reconciling the observed mantle vanadium and chromium concentrations with geophysical constraints on light elements in the core. PMID:23306436

  20. Rotating Bondi Accretion Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Myeong-Gu; Han, Du-Hwan

    2016-06-01

    The characteristics of accretion flow onto a black hole are determined by the physical condition of gas at large radius. When the gas has no angular momentum and is polytropic, the accretion flow becomes the classic Bondi flow. The mass accretion rate in such case is an eigenvalue and uniquely determined by the density and the temperature of the surrounding gas for a given black hole mass. When the gas has angular momentum above some critical value, the angular momentum of the gas should be removed by viscosity to reach the black hole horizon. We study, within the slim disk approximation, rotating polytropic accretion flow with alpha viscosity as an an extension of the Bondi flow. The characteristics of the accretion flow are now determined by the temperature, density, and angular momentum of the gas at the outer boundary. We explore the effects of the viscosity parameter and the outer boundary radius on the physical characteristic of the flow, especially on the mass accretion rate, and compare the result with previous works of Park (2009) and Narayan & Fabian (2011).

  1. The evolution of the neoproterozoic São Gabriel juvenile terrane, southern Brazil based on SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages and ?18O data on detrital zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lena, L. O.; Pimentel, M. M.; Philipp, R. P.; Armstrong, R. A.; Sato, K.

    2013-12-01

    . This is explained by the installation of a continental magmatic arc along the western margin of the Rio de La Plata Craton. Period III took place between ca. 690-650 represented by the accretion of the arc system to the Rio de La Plata Craton. In this timeframe only continental crust-derived magmas are recognized and no mantle δ18O values are observed. In summary, our data provides an insight into the progressive evolution of the São Gabriel terrane from an intra-oceanic subduction zone at ca. 879-750 Ma to a continental arc setting (ages < 690 Ma) into three distinct periods, which preceded ocean closure and continental collision at the end of the Neoproterozoic.

  2. Geologic framework of the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Detterman, Robert L.; DuBois, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The boundaries separating the Alaska Peninsula terrane from other terranes are commonly indistinct or poorly defined. A few boundaries have been defined at major faults, although the extensions of these faults are speculative through some areas. The west side of the Alaska Peninsula terrane is overlapped by Tertiary s

  3. Geologic framework of the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Detterman, Robert L.; DuBois, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The boundaries separating the Alaska Peninsula terrane from other terranes are commonly indistinct or poorly defined. A few boundaries have been defined at major faults, although the extensions of these faults are speculative through some areas. The west side of the Alaska Peninsula terrane is overlapped by Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks and Quaternary deposits.

  4. Implications of magmatic records for Neotethyan subduction beneath the Eurasian margin (Lhasa terrane, southern Tibet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jieqing; Aitchison, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    Evidence for magmatism is widely developed in the Lhasa terrane of southern Tibet. Much of this is related to northward subduction of the Neotethyan Ocean prior the India-Eurasia collision. To better understand the tectono-magmatism, we systematically studied the published data for Middle Jurassic-Eocene igneous rocks in southern Tibet. Many of these rocks formed during two important intervals from ca. 110-80 Ma and ca. 65-40 Ma. On the basis of the reported rocks in this area, we considered the possibility that a Neotethyan mid-ocean ridge was subducted during the early peak episode (ca. 110-80 Ma). With this ridge subduction system, hot asthenosphere rose up through a slab window causing both oceanic slab and mantle wedge melting that resulted in peak volcanism during the Late Cretaceous. As young and hot crust at a mid-ocean ridge has a relatively low density, and thus potentially positive buoyancy, the subduction of a buoyant mid-ocean ridge may have led to a reduction in the angle of subduction. Evidence for termination of arc magmatism by the flat subducted oceanic slab is recorded by a magmatic gap ca. 80-65 Ma. Around ca. 65 Ma, the magmatic record appears again accompanied by a southward migration that represents resumption of an oceanic slab subduction at a normal subduction angle. Subsequently, magmatism lasts to ca. 36 Ma before the India-Eurasia collision and reached a peak of activity associated with a magmatic flare-up at 50 Ma. In this subduction system, some magmatic processes triggered formation of porphyry ore deposits and affected the temporal and spatial distribution of ores.

  5. Paleomagnetism of the Late Cretaceous ignimbrite from the Okhotsk-Chukotka Volcanic Belt, Kolyma-Omolon Composite Terrane: Tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otofuji, Yo-ichiro; Zaman, Haider; Shogaki, Gen; Seki, Hanae; Polin, Vladimir F.; Miura, Daisuke; Ahn, Hyeon-Seon; Ivanov, Yurii; Minyuk, Porel; Zimin, Peter

    2015-11-01

    New Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic results from the Okhotsk-Chukotka Volcanic Belt in the Kolyma-Omolon Composite Terrane yield stable and consistent remanent directions. The Late Cretaceous (86-81 Ma) ignimbrites from the Kholchan and Ola suites were sampled at 19 sites in the Magadan area (60.4° N, 151.0° E). We isolated the characteristic paleomagnetic directions from 16 sampled sites using an alternating field demagnetization procedure. The primary nature of these directions is ascertained by dual polarities and positive fold tests. A tilt-corrected mean direction (D = 42.8°, I = 84.7°, k = 46.0, α95 = 10.0°) yields a paleomagnetic pole of 66.7° N, 168.5° E (A95 = 18.8°) which appears almost identical to the 90-67 Ma pole reported from the Lake El'gygytgyn area of the Okhotsk-Chukotka Volcanic Belt (Chukotka Terrane). This consistency suggests that the Kolyma-Omolon Composite Terrane and Chukotka Terrane has acted as a single tectonic unit since 80 Ma without any significant internal deformation. Accordingly, we calculate a combined 80 Ma characteristic paleomagnetic pole (Long. = 164.7° E, Lat. = 68.0°, A95 = 10.9°, N = 12) for the Kolyma-Omolon-Chukotka Block which falls 16.5-17.5° south of the same age poles from Europe and East Asia. We ascribe this discrepancy in pole positions to tectonic activity in the area and infer a southward displacement of 1640 ± 1380 km for the Kolyma-Omolon-Chukotka Block with respect to the North American and Eurasian blocks since 80 Ma; more than 260 km of it is attributed to tectonic displacement in the Arctic Ocean due to the opening of the Canadian Basin.

  6. Tubiphytes-archaeolithoporella-girvanella reefal facies in Permian buildup, Mino terrane, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Hiroyoshi; Horibo, Kenji; Kumamoto, Yasuko

    1990-10-01

    The Lower to Middle Permian Okumino buildup of the Mino terrane, central Japan, formed a carbonate cap on a seamount which was sitting in an open-ocean realm. Microscopic examination reveals considerable amounts of Tubiphytes, Archaeolithoporella, and Girvanella in these rocks. These low laminar encrusting organisms together with cystopore bryozoa and syndepositional radial-fibrous cements formed bindstones. The bindstones are interpreted as having formed wave-resistant algal reefal mounds on the marginal terrace of the Okumino buildup which also has the lagoonal flat, sand bar or shoal, and foreslope facies. The Okumino buildup is closer in its biotic association of major encrusting organisms to the Trogkofel buildup in southern Alps than to the Capitan Reef Complex in New Mexico and Texas. The similarity implies that Tubiphytes and Archaeolithoporella were the most predominant and significant rock-forming encrusting organisms in Early to early Middle Permian times.

  7. Petrology and tectonic significance of gabbros, tonalites, shoshonites, and anorthosites in a late Paleozoic arc-root complex in the Wrangellia Terrane, southern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, J.S. ); Barker, F. )

    1989-11-01

    Plutonic rocks intrusive into the late Paleozoic Tetelna Formation of southern Alaska are the underpinnings of the late Paleozoic Skolai arc of the Wrangellia Terrane. There are four groups of intrusive rocks within the Skolai arc: (1) Gabbro-diorite plutons that contain gabbroic to anorthositic cumulates along with a differentiated series of gabbros and diorites of basaltic to andesitic composition; (2) Silicic intrusions including tonalite, granodiorite, and granite; (3) Monzonitic to syenitic plutonic rocks of the Ahtell complex and related dikes and sills; (4) Fault-bounded bytownite anorthosite of uncertain age and association. These anorthosites may be related to post-Skolai, Nikolai Greenstone magmatism. The silicic rocks yield discordant U-Pb zircon ages of 290-320 Ma (early to late Pennsylvanian). The monzonitic rocks of the Ahtell complex have shoshonitic chemistry. Similar shoshonitic rocks are widespread in both the Wrangellia terrane and the neighboring Alexander terrane and intrude the contact between the two. In modern oceanic arcs, shoshonitic rocks are typically associated with tectonic instability occurring during the initial stages of subduction or just prior to or during termination or flip of an established subduction zone. The nature of any tectonic instability which may have led to the cessation of subduction in the Skolai arc is unclear. Possibilities include collision of the arc with a ridge, an oceanic plateau, another arc, or a continental fragment. One possibility is that the shoshonitic magmatism marks the late Paleozoic amalgamation of Wrangellia and the Alexander terrane. The scarcity of arc rocks predating the shoshonites in the Alexander terrane supports this possibility, but structural corroboration is lacking.

  8. The Nature of Mare Basalts in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Gillis, Jeffrey J.; Korotev, Randy L.; Jolliff, Bradley L.

    2000-01-01

    Unlike Apollo 12 and 15 basalts, many mare lavas of the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT) have Th concentrations of 2.5-6 ppm and perhaps greater, as well as high TiO2. Lunar "picritic" volcanic glasses from the PKT have a similar range.

  9. Geophysical constraints for terrane boundaries in southern Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Alexandra; Schulmann, Karel; Munschy, Marc; Miehe, Jean-Marc; Edel, Jean-Bernard; Lexa, Ondrej; Fairhead, Derek

    2014-10-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is a typical accretionary orogen divided into numerous lithostratigraphic terranes. In theory, these terranes should be characterized by contrasting magnetic and gravity signatures owing to their dissimilar petrophysical properties. To test this hypothesis, the extent of tectonostratigraphic terranes in southern Mongolia was compared with the potential field data. The analysis reveals that the terrane boundaries are not systematically defined by strong gravity and magnetic gradients. The correlation of the magnetic signal with the geology reveals that the magnetic highs coincide with Late Carboniferous to Early Permian volcanic-plutonic belts. The matched filtering shows a good continuity of signal along the boundaries of these high magnetic anomalies toward the deeper crustal levels which may indicate the presence of deeply rooted tectonomagmatic zones. The axes of high-density bodies in the western and central parts of the study area are characterized by periodic alternations of NW-SE trending gravity anomalies corresponding to up to 20 km wide cleavage fronts of Permo-Triassic age. The matched filtering analysis shows good continuity of signal to the depth of these gravity highs which may indicate presence of deeply rooted high-strain zones. The magnetic signal is interpreted to be as the result of a giant Permo-Triassic magmatic event associated with lithosphere-scale deformation, whereas the gravity pattern is related to the postaccretionary shortening of the CAOB between the North China and Siberia cratons.

  10. Episodic dike intrusions in the northwestern Sierra Nevada, California: Implications for multistage evolution of a Jurassic arc terrane

    SciTech Connect

    Dilek, Y.; Moores, E.M. ); Thy, P. )

    1991-02-01

    In the northwestern Sierra Nevada, California, volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Smartville and Slate Creek complexes, both fragments of a Jurassic arc terrane, are tectonically juxtaposed against ophiolitic and marine rocks that represent late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic oceanic basement. This oceanic basement is intruded by Early Jurassic dikes that are coeval with hypabyssal and plutonic rocks within the Smartville and Slate Creek complexes. These dikes have geochemical characteristics reflecting a depleted and metasomatized source, as commonly observed in modern fore-arc settings and incipient volcanic arcs, and are interpreted to be the conduits for the Early Jurassic arc volcanism, which was built on and across the disrupted oceanic basement. Late Jurassic sheeted dikes intruding the Smartville complex have basaltic compositions compatible with an intra-arc or back-arc origin and indicate that a spreading event occurred within the arc in early Late Jurassic time. These interpretations support models for a complex multistage evolution via episodic magmatism and deformation within a singly ensimatic Jurassic arc terrane west of the North American continent.

  11. Detailed structure and stratigraphy of the eastern Marble Mountain terrane, Klamath Mountains, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.E.; Hacker, B.R. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Amphibolite-grade rocks in the eastern Marble Mountains (MM), N. California, consist of several fault-bounded, SSE-dipping lithotectonic units. Each unit is ca. 2 km thick and is characterized by differences in rock type, metamorphism, and structural style. The lowermost unit composed of well-foliated and lineated epidote amphibolite grading upward into clinopyroxene-bearing amphibolite with a consistent NE-SW lineation. Structurally overlying these rocks are andalusite- and staurolite-bearing, epidote-amphibolite facies rocks (Wright Lake assemblage (WLa)) that have variable foliation and lineation orientations. The WLa consists of meta-supracrustal rocks with well-preserved relict textures, and massive, meta-ultramafic rock. Supracrustal rocks include polymict conglomerate and breccia, fine- to medium-grained clastic rocks, alkalic pillow basalt, chert, and carbonate. Conglomerate clasts include partially recrystallized granitoids and quartzite. Previous studies have interpreted the WLa to represent a fragment of oceanic crust, but coeval coarse-grained sedimentation and alkalic volcanism, small volume of mafic volcanics, conglomerate composition, and lack of oceanic plutonic and hypabyssal rocks suggest deposition in an arc-related rift or transtensional basin. Previous studies have also described the terrane as melange, but recognition of local pseudostratigraphy allows mapping of multiply folded, isoclinal, nappe-like structures. Small-scale nappes are generally 100+ m thick and are imbricated with massive meta-ultramafic rocks along gently to steeply east-dipping shear zones. Shear zones are characterized by metamorphosed ultramafic fault rocks that suggest a range of brittle to ductile behavior. Regionally distributed, Ar/Ar hornblende ages of 149.9[+-]0.4, 150.3[+-]0.6, 152.1[+-]4.7, 152.5[+-]2.5 Ma and Ar/Ar biotite ages of 148.8[+-]2.6 and 149.9[+-]0.4 Ma indicate the MM terrane cooled rapidly through ca. 500--300 C in the Late Jurassic.

  12. Multiple accretion at the eastern margin of the Rio de la Plata craton: the prolonged Brasiliano orogeny in southernmost Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saalmann, K.; Gerdes, A.; Lahaye, Y.; Hartmann, L. A.; Remus, M. V. D.; Läufer, A.

    2011-04-01

    The Neoproterozoic-Eoplalaeozoic Brasiliano orogeny at the eastern margin of the Rio de la Plata craton in southernmost Brazil and Uruguay comprises a complex tectonic history over 300 million years. The southern Brazilian Shield consists of a number of tectono-stratigraphic units and terranes. The São Gabriel block in the west is characterized by c.760-690 Ma supracrustal rocks and calc-alkaline orthogneisses including relics of older, c. 880 Ma old igneous rocks. Both igneous and metasedimentary rocks have positive ɛ Nd(t) values and Neoproterozoic TDM model ages; they formed in magmatic arc settings with only minor input of older crustal sources. A trondhjemite from the São Gabriel block intruding dioritc and tonalitic gneisses during the late stages of deformation (D3) yield an U-Pb zircon age (LA-ICP-MS) of 701 ± 10 Ma giving the approximate minimum age of the São Gabriel accretionary event. The Encantadas block further east, containing the supracrustal Porongos belt and the Pelotas batholith, is in contrast characterized by reworking of Neoarchean to Palaeoproterozoic crust. The 789 ± 7 Ma zircon age of a metarhyolite intercalated with the metasedimentary succession of the Porongos belt provides a time marker for the basin formation. Zircons of a sample from tonalitic gneisses, constituting the Palaeoproterozoic basement of the Porongos belt, form a cluster at 2,234 ± 28 Ma, interpreted as the tonalite crystallization age. Zircon rims show ages of 2,100-2,000 Ma interpreted as related to a Palaeoproterozoic metamorphic event. The Porongos basin formed on thinned continental crust in an extensional or transtensional regime between c. 800-700 Ma. The absence of input from Neoproterozoic juvenile sources into the Porongos basin strongly indicates that the Encantadas and São Gabriel blocks were separated terranes that became juxtaposed next to each other during the Brasiliano accretional events. The tectonic evolution comprises two episodes of magmatic

  13. Subhalo Accretion through Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Roberto E.; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2016-09-01

    We track subhalo orbits of galaxy- and group-sized halos in cosmological simulations. We identify filamentary structures around halos and use these to define a sample of subhalos accreted from filaments, as well as a control sample of subhalos accreted from other directions. We use these samples to study differences in satellite orbits produced by filamentary accretion. Our results depend on host halo mass. We find that for low masses, subhalos accreted from filaments show ∼10% shorter lifetimes compared to the control sample, show a tendency toward more radial orbits, reach halo central regions earlier, and are more likely to merge with the host. For higher-mass halos this lifetime difference dissipates and even reverses for cluster-sized halos. This behavior appears to be connected to the fact that more massive hosts are connected to stronger filaments with higher velocity coherence and density, with slightly more radial subhalo orbits. Because subhalos tend to follow the coherent flow of the filament, it is possible that such thick filaments are enough to shield the subhalo from the effect of dynamical friction at least during their first infall. We also identify subhalo pairs/clumps that merge with one another after accretion. They survive as a clump for only a very short time, which is even shorter for higher subhalo masses, suggesting that the Magellanic Clouds and other Local group satellite associations may have entered the Milky Way virial radius very recently and probably are in their first infall.

  14. Provenance of sandstones in the Golconda terrane, north central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.A. )

    1991-02-01

    The upper Paleozoic Golconda terrane of north-central Nevada is a composite of several structurally bounded subterranes made of clastic, volcanic, and carbonate rocks. The clastic rocks provide important clues for the interpretation of the provenance and paleogeographic settings of the different lithologic assemblages found in these subterranes. Two petrographically distinct sandstones are identified in the Golconda terrane in the Osgood Mountains and the Hot springs Range of north-central Nevada. The sandstone of the Mississippian Farrel Canyon Formation, part of the Dry Hills subterrane, is characterized by quartzose and sedimentary and lithic-rich clasts with a small feldspar component. in contrast, the sandstone of the Permian Poverty Peak (II) subterrane is a silty quartzarenite with no lithic component, and a very limited feldspar component. The sandstone of the Farrel Canyon Formation is similar to nonvolcanic sandstones reported from elsewhere in the Golconda terrane. Modal data reflect a provenance of a recycled orogen and permit the interpretation that it could have been derived from the antler orogen as has been proposed for other sandstones of the golconda terrane. The sandstone of the Poverty Peak (II) subterrane is more mature than any of the other sandstones in either the Golconda terrane, the Antler overlap sequence, or the Antler foreland basin sequence. Modal data put the Poverty Peak (II) sandstone in the continental block provenance category. The distinct extrabasinal provenances represented in these different sandstones support the idea that the Golconda basin was made up of complex paleogeographic settings, which included multiple sources of extrabasinal sediment.

  15. From intra-oceanic subduction to arc accretion and oblique arc-continent collision: Insights from the P-T-D-t path of the southern Río San Juan metamorphic complex, northern Dominican Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escuder-Viruete, J.; Valverde-Vaquero, P.; Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; Gabites, J.; Pérez-Estaún, A.

    2012-04-01

    +zoisite-bearing felsic melts exhibit a positive Ce anomaly relative to chondrite, an overall flat HREE pattern, and no significant negative Eu anomaly, which provide evidence for zircon growth under eclogite facies conditions. Structural and sedimentary data confirm the existence of a regional, Late Oligocene to Miocene contractional event in the complex (D3), as well as two additional late brittle deformations (D4 and D5). The compilation of this pressure-temperature-deformation-time path supports that an early subduction-related D1 deformation and high-P M1 metamorphism, was followed by a D2 extensional shearing deformation and M2 retrograde decompression, at exhumation rates of 3-4 km/Ma. The dominant tectonic mechanism responsible for exhumation of high-P rocks in the Cuaba Unit was therefore the D2 extensional tectonics, which caused tectonic juxtaposition and local metamorphic pressure gaps within the structural pile. This P-T-D-t evolution indicates that the Cuaba Unit experienced initial subduction, subsequent underplating below the forearc wedge of an island-arc, and final exhumation in the accretionary prism. At the regional scale, the Cuaba unit could be a fragment of the proto-Pacific arc that collided and was accreted bellow the E-facing, intra-oceanic, Caribbean island-arc, prior to final oblique collision with the paleo-continental margin of North America.

  16. Accretionary history of the Altai-Mongolian terrane: perspectives from granitic zircon U-Pb and Hf-isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2014-05-01

    which is likely due to basaltic magma that underplated the lower crust. Our data combined with evidence of the regional geology enable us to conclude that the Gorny Altai and Altai-Mongolian terranes possibly have similar tectonic natures, but represent two separate accretionary systems before Devonian collision. The accretion and amalgamation processes resulted in the Paleozoic granitoid magmatism and caused the two terranes to merge as a composite tectonic domain at the Siberian continental margin.

  17. Plate Margin Deformation and Active Tectonics Along the Northern Edge of the Yakutat Terrane in the Saint Elias Orogen, Alaska and Yukon, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruhn, Ronald L.; Sauber, Jeanne; Cotton, Michele M.; Pavlis, Terry L.; Burgess, Evan; Ruppert, Natalia; Forster, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    The northwest directed motion of the Pacific plate is accompanied by migration and collision of the Yakutat terrane into the cusp of southern Alaska. The nature and magnitude of accretion and translation on upper crustal faults and folds is poorly constrained, however, due to pervasive glaciation. In this study we used high-resolution topography, geodetic imaging, seismic, and geologic data to advance understanding of the transition from strike-slip motion on the Fairweather fault to plate margin deformation on the Bagley fault, which cuts through the upper plate of the collisional suture above the subduction megathrust. The Fairweather fault terminates by oblique-extensional splay faulting within a structural syntaxis, allowing rapid tectonic upwelling of rocks driven by thrust faulting and crustal contraction. Plate motion is partly transferred from the Fairweather to the Bagley fault, which extends 125 km farther west as a dextral shear zone that is partly reactivated by reverse faulting. The Bagley fault dips steeply through the upper plate to intersect the subduction megathrust at depth, forming a narrow fault-bounded crustal sliver in the obliquely convergent plate margin. Since . 20 Ma the Bagley fault has accommodated more than 50 km of dextral shearing and several kilometers of reverse motion along its southern flank during terrane accretion. The fault is considered capable of generating earthquakes because it is linked to faults that generated large historic earthquakes, suitably oriented for reactivation in the contemporary stress field, and locally marked by seismicity. The fault may generate earthquakes of Mw <= 7.5.

  18. Gravity and magnetic survey of the Oaxaca city region: Cenozoic horst-and-graben structure superimposed on the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary, southern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Enríquez, J. O.; Belmonte-Jiménez, S. I.; Keppie, J. D.; Ortega-Gutiérrez, F.; Arzate, J. A.; Martínez-Silva, J.; Martínez-Serrano, R. G.

    2010-04-01

    A geophysical survey of the Oaxaca Fault along the north-trending Etla and Zaachila valleys area, southern Mexico, shows a series of NNW-SSE Bouguer and magnetic anomalies with steeper gradients towards the east. The Oaxaca Fault represents Tertiary extensional reactivation of the Juarez shear zone that constitutes the boundary between the Oaxaca and Juárez terranes. Cooperative interpretation of six combined gravity and magnetic NE-SW profiles perpendicular to the valleys indicates the presence of a composite depression comprising three N-S sub-basins: the northern Etla and southern Zaachila sub-basins separated by the Atzompa sub-basin. The Etla sub-basin is bounded by the moderately E-dipping, Etla Fault and the more steeply W-dipping Oaxaca Fault, which together constitute a graben that continues southwards into the Atzompa graben. The deeper Zaachila sub-basin, south of Oaxaca city, is a wide V-shaped graben with a horst in the middle. The new geophysical data suggest that the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary is displaced sinistrally ca. 20 km along the E-W Donají Fault, which defines the northern boundary of the Zaachila sub-basin. On the other hand, the Oaxaca Fault may either continue unbroken southwards along the western margin of the horst in the Zaachila sub-basin or be offset along with the terrane boundary. The sinistral movement may have taken place either during the Late Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic, Laramide Orogeny as a lateral ramp in the thrust plane or under Miocene-Pliocene, NE-SW extension. The former suggests that the Donají Fault is a transcurrent fault, whereas the latter implies that it is a transfer fault. The models imply that originally the suture was continuous south of the Donaji Fault and provide a constraint for the accretion of the Oaxaca and Juarez terranes.

  19. Translation and docking of an arc terrane: geological and geochemical evidence from the southern Zambales Ophiolite Complex, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumul, G. P.; Dimalanta, C. B.; Faustino, D. V.; De Jesus, J. V.

    1998-08-01

    The Zambales Ophiolite Complex is made up of three massifs: the Masinloc, Cabangan and San Antonio Massifs. Field, petrographic and geochemical analyses show that the Cabangan and San Antonio Massifs are genetically related to the Coto (transitional mid-ocean ridge-island arc) and Acoje (island arc) blocks of the Masinloc Massif, respectively. The Subic Bay Fault Zone, a left-lateral fault zone, separates the San Antonio Massif island arc terrane from the transitional mid-ocean ridge-island arc-like sheeted diabase dikes-pillow basalts of the Cabangan Massif. The San Antonio Massif is a rifted terrane from the Acoje block which was translated southward to its present position through the West Luzon Shear-Subic Bay Fault Zone. Tectonized clinopyroxenite and gabbronorite hills, which mimic the physical and geochemical characteristics of the Acoje block and the San Antonio Massif ultramafic-mafic cumulate rocks, were left behind along the western side of the Cabangan Massif during the translation of the arc massif southward. This scenario can account for the present-day configuration of the Zambales Ophiolite Complex.

  20. Evaluating alternative models of intra-oceanic subduction of northeastern Panthalassa since the Jurassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shephard, Grace; Gurnis, Michael; Flament, Nicolas; Mihalynuk, Mitchell; Sigloch, Karin; Gaina, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Renewed interest in the palaeogeography and deep mantle structure of North America, the Arctic and Northeastern Panthalassa has reignited a discussion of the region's Mesozoic subduction history. In particular, accounting for the origins of numerous accreted terranes, ranging from Gondwana, Laurentia, Baltica, the Tethys, Siberia, China and Panthalassa has facilitated several alternative tectonic scenarios. Kinematic variability is manifested in terms of the origin and timing of ocean basin opening and closure, the evolution of intra-oceanic and/or continental subduction, subduction polarities, relative plate velocities, convergence and the rate of subduction, age of subducting lithosphere and dip of subducting slabs. With ever-increasing detail of global plate motion models, advances in numerical modeling and the resolution of seismic tomography, these alterative plate reconstructions can now be robustly tested within a geodynamic framework. Having generated several alternative plate models since the start of the Jurassic, complete with self-consistent and dynamic plate boundaries, here, we test the spatial and temporal evolution of slabs through forward models of mantle flow. In turn, we undertake a qualitative and quantitative comparison of our modelled present-day mantle structure to that inferred from models of seismic tomography, therefore providing an additional dataset to which plate reconstructions of the region can be iteratively refined.

  1. Ediacaran-Devonian opening and closing of the complex Iapetus Ocean and the formation of an accretionary orogen in the northern Appalachians and British Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Staal, Cees; Zagorevski, Alexandre

    2013-04-01

    Prior to the formation of Pangea, the Northern Appalachians-British Caledonides accretionary orogen formed over ca. 150 my by piecemeal accretion of outboard terranes to a progressively growing composite Laurentian margin. The accreted material originated either in seaways and marginal basins in the peri-Gondwanan or peri-Laurentian realms and comprises micro-continental ribbons with arc supra-structure and, to a lesser extent, supra-subduction zone oceanic slivers. The preponderance of micro-continental ribbons in Iapetus necessitates detailed knowledge of the opening history in order to understand the closure. The final opening of Iapetus took place between 550 and 540 Ma following a ca. 70 my period of rifting and formation of extensive hyper-extended, non volcanic segments with adjacent seaways partially underlain by exhumed lithospheric mantle along the Laurentian margin. The conjugate margin to Laurentia likely was represented by Arequipa-Antofalla, which was left behind when Amazonia departed earlier during the Ediacaran. Subduction in Iapetus initiated at ca. 515 Ma at opposite margins, probably as a result of a major plate reorganization following the terminal amalgamation of Gondwana. Shortly thereafter Ganderia and Avalonia diachronously rifted-off Gondwana and drifted towards Laurentia, opening the Rheic Ocean in their wake. Meguma could have travelled with Avalonia or as a separate microcontinent. Closure of the main tract of the Iapetus Ocean took place during the Late Ordovician following arc-arc collision. Iapetus' main closure did not lead to widespread orogenesis; most collisional damage took place as a result of arrival of continental ribbons at the composite Laurentian margin following closure of narrow oceanic, Iapetus-related seaways or marginal basins The resultant deformation is grouped into Cambro-Ordovician Taconic-Grampian, Silurian Salinic-Scandian and Devonian Acadian orogenies; however, these orogenies are all composite and involve

  2. Disruption and translation of an orogenic wedge by exhumation of large continental ultrahigh pressure terranes: Examples from the Scandinavian Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuthbert, S.; Brueckner, H.

    2012-04-01

    Many collisional orogens are cored by extensive metamorphic terranes composed of reworked continental crust that developed high pressure/ultrahigh pressure (HP/UHP) metamorphic assemblages during subduction into the mantle. The return of these large, buoyant masses to shallow crustal levels has a major effect on orogenic architecture. A model is proposed where thrust-dominated accretion of an orogenic wedge during continental subduction is succeeded by stretching and passive transport of the wedge on top of an exhuming UHP terrane. Initial thrusting occurs when cratons collide and one subducts beneath the other into the mantle. The subducted portion of the craton undergoes HP/UHP metamorphism while an accretionary orogenic wedge develops at its junction with the overlying craton. Subsequent exhumation of the HP/UHP portion occurs either by true extension, which pulls it out of the mantle, and/or by buoyancy-driven extrusion, which inserts it along faults between the lower craton and the base of the wedge. In either case, shearing along the top of the exhuming terrane will reverse from foreland-directed thrusting during subduction to hinterlandward normal displacement during exhumation. The latter shear traction stretches the frontal part of the orogenic wedge away from the rearward part and may even detach it, allowing a fragment to be carried passively towards the foreland on the exhuming plate. The length of displacement would be a function of the amount of exhumation of the UHP terrane, and the total displacement of the leading wedge taper could be considerably further than indicated by palinspastic restorations of thrust allochthons alone. The Jotun and Trondheim Nappe Complexes form major allochthon elements of the Caledonide orogenic wedge in southern and central Scandinavia, respectively. We propose the late-stage behaviour of these allochthons was a response to the rise and lateral transport of the underlying HP/UHP Western Gneiss Complex (WGC). During the

  3. New U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages from suture zone between Istanbul and Sakarya terranes, northwest Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbayram, Kenan; Okay, Aral; Satır, Muharrem

    2010-05-01

    We provide new isotopic data from the Intra-Pontide Suture Zone, between the Sakarya and Istanbul terranes at the west of Armutlu Peninsula. Istanbul and Sakarya terranes show different geological histories, as reflected in their stratigraphic record, and are juxtaposed along the Intra-Pontide suture. The new U/Pb zircon and Rb/Sr mica ages come from west of Armutlu Peninsula and Almacık Mountains stretching nearly 160 km E-W direction. The Istanbul terrane has a late Proterozoic basement (Chen et al., 2002; 570 Ma) overlain by a sedimentary sequence of Ordovician to Carboniferous age. The Sakarya terrane is characterized by Carboniferous (330-310 Ma) high temperature metamorphism (Okay et al., 2006), Paleozoic granitic plutonism (Topuz et al., 2007) and by the presence of Palaeo-Tethyan subduction-accretion units. The age of metamorphism of the basement gneisses at the west of Armutlu Peninsula and the age of formation of the basement metagabbros of Almacık Mountains were not constrained. The U/Pb formation age of the zircons from a metagabbro give 1325.3 ± 5.3 Ma. This age shows that mafic rocks of the Istanbul terrane basement is older than its felsic rocks (e.g. 570 Ma). Our U/Pb zircon and Rb/Sr biotite geochronological data shows that the basement gneisses of east of Armutlu Peninsula formed at Late Proterozoic (U/Pb zircon age; 500-685 Ma) and reheated at Late Jurrasic (Rb/Sr biotite age; 154.6 ± 2.7 Ma). This data agrees previously presented Mid Mesozoic (Akbayram et al, 2009; 138 Ma) collision between Istanbul and Sakarya Terranes. REFERENCES Akbayram, K., Okay, A.I., Satır, M., Topuz, G., New U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages from northwest Turkey indicate Early Cretaceous continental collision in the western Pontides, EGU General Assembly 2009 Vienna, Austria. Chen, F., Siebel, W., Satır, M., Terzioğlu, N., Saka, K., 2002. Geochronology of the Karadere basement (NW Turkey) and implications for the geological evolution of the İstanbul Zone. Int. J. Earth Sci

  4. Submarine and superimposed contact metamorphic oxygen isotopic exchange in an oceanic area, Sawyers Bar area, central Klamath Mountains, California, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, W.G.; Kolodny, Y.

    1997-02-01

    New bulk-rock oxygen isotope data indicate a complicated history of fluid-rock interactions in the upper few kilometers of a basaltic arc. attending its Mesozoic accretion to the western margin of North America. Folded, multiply recrystallized, weakly metasomatized mafic volcanics and interstratified sediments of the Sawyers Bar terrane, an eastern segment of the western Triassic and Paleozoic belt, were investigated. The following scenario can now be reconstructed: (1) island-arc tholeiites (IATs), ocean-island basalts (OIBs), and distal turbidites were deposited in a subsea environment during Permian and Early Mesozoic time (170-245 Ma). Basaltic rocks underwent low-temperature alteration by seawater; recrystallization occurred at 100-200{degrees}C and < 1 kbar. Alkali exchange and variable Mg-enrichment were accompanied by increases in bulk-rock {delta}{sup 18}O values of the greenstones from 6 to approximately 10{per_thousand}, preceeding initial stages of island-arc formation. (2) Middle Jurassic (165-170 Ma) suturing of the seaward oceanic arc structurally beneath a landward, 227 Ma blueschist terrane resulted in regional deformation and greenschist-facies metamorphism. Pervasive overprinting took place without important chemical or isotopic exchange under conditions of 300-425{degrees}C, 3 {+-} 1 kbar. (3) Granitoid plutons, emplaced during late-Middle Jurassic time (160-165 Ma), heated adjacent wallrocks to {approximately}500-600{degrees}C at pressures of approximately 2-3 kbar; thermal upgrading resulted in devolatilization of isotopically heavy metasediments and in the exchange of high {delta}{sup 18}O fluids with intercalated greenstones. {delta}{sup 18}O values in IAT and OIB metavolcanics increased from 9 to 10{per_thousand} alone axial portions of NS-trending folds to more than 15{per_thousand} where metabasalts are intimately interlayered with the metasediments. 72 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Zircon U-Pb ages and geochemistry of granitoids in the Truong Son terrane, Vietnam: Tectonic and metallogenic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Mei-Feng; Lin, Fang-Cheng; Fan, Wen-Yu; Deng, Qi; Cong, Feng; Tran, My-Dung; Zhu, Hua-Ping; Wang, Hong

    2015-04-01

    Truong Son terrane, one of the most important tectonic and metallogenic terranes in Indochina block, is composed of many volcano-plutonic complexes. Reported here is geochronological and geochemical data obtained from six different volcano-plutonic complexes. The new data reveals that the granite from the Hai Van complex is 438 Ma in age, and shows collision-related geochemical characteristics; whereas another five samples from five volcano-plutonic complexes present consistent emplacement and crystallization ages ranging from 261 to 242 Ma. Dien Bien granodiorite, Phia Bioc monzogranite and Dong Trau rhyolite display typical subduction-related calc-alkaline affinity (e.g., depletion in Nb-Ta and Ti and enrichment in Rb and La), while monzogranite from Song Ma complex displays collision-related shoshoniteseries and granites from Bengiang-Queson complex are related to post-collision calc-alkaline series. Based on these observations, in combination with the previous published geochronological data, we propose that at least four major stages of magmatic activities occurred during the Paleozoic and the Early Mesozoic through the Truong Son terrane: Ordovician-Silurian (420-470 Ma), Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (280-300 Ma), Late Permian to Mid-Triassic (245-270 Ma) and Middle-Late Triassic (200-245 Ma). These magmatic activities are not only attributed to the Tethyan Song Ma ocean southwestward subduction but also related to Paleo Tamky-Phuoc Son oceanic bidirectional subduction. Synthesized with regional metallogenic data, we identified three metallogenic epochs: (1) Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (280-300 Ma) arc-magmatic hydrothermal Cu-Au-Fe polymetallic metallogenic system related to the Tamky-Phuoc Son ocean north-dipping subduction; (2) Late Permian-Middle Triassic (245-280 Ma) arc-magmatic hydrothermal Cu-Au-Fe and orogenic W-Sn-Au polymetallic metallogenic system, which linked to both Paleo-Tethyan Song Ma ocean south-dipping subduction and Tamky

  6. Origin of Silurian reefs in the Alexander Terrane of southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Soja, C.M. )

    1991-04-01

    Lower to Upper Silurian (upper Llandovery-Ludlow) limestones belonging to the Heceta Formation record several episodes of reef growth in the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska. As the oldest carbonates of wide-spread distribution in the region, the Heceta limestones represent the earliest development of a shallow-marine platform within the Alexander arc and the oldest foundation for reef evolution. These deposits provide important insights into the dynamic processes, styles, and bathymetry associated with reef growth in tectonically active oceanic islands. Massive stromatoporoids, corals, and red algae are preserved in fragmental rudstones and represent a fringing reef that formed at the seaward edge of the incipient marine shelf. Accessory constituents in this reef include crinoids and the cyanobacterium Girvanella. Small biostromes were constructed by ramose corals and stromatoporoids on oncolitic substrates in backreef or lagoonal environments. These buildups were associated with low-diversity assemblages of brachiopods and with gastropods, amphiporids, calcareous algae and cyanobacteria. Microbial boundstones reflect the widespread encrustation of cyanobacteria and calcified microproblematica on shelly debris as stromatolitic mats that resulted in the development of a stromatactoid-bearing mud mound and a barrier reef complex. Epiphytaceans, other microbes, and aphrosalpingid sponges were the primary frame-builders of the barrier reefs. These buildups attained significant relief at the shelf margin and shed detritus as slumped blocks and debris flows into deep-water sites along the slope. The similarity of these stromatolitic-aphrosalpingid reefs to those from Siluro-Devonian strata of autochthonous southwestern Alaska suggests paleobiogeographic ties of the Alexander terrane to cratonal North America during the Silurian.

  7. Terrane Definition From Textural Measures of Aeromagnetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettings, M.

    2007-12-01

    The vertical and horizontal magnetization in the Earth's crust is an anisotropic multifractal distribution, and this results in a horizontal multifractal distribution of magnetic anomalies at and above the Earth's surface. Discreet lithologic terranes are frequently observed to exhibit a characteristic pattern or "texture" of anomalies in aeromagnetic maps. Multifractal measures provide some tools useful in quantifying different textures and the scaling properties of aeromagnetic anomalies in map view can be used to define boundaries between terranes of different magnetic textures. If the source depths are not too large, the magnetic textural measures of lithologic units can be used to map their extent beneath cover. Although magnetic anomaly textures are generally visible to the eye on aeromagnetic anomaly images, the actual boundary between two textures is frequently difficult to determine with certainty. The use of quantitative textural measures provides a more objective framework for the boundary definition problem. A high resolution aeromagnetic survey over an area of highly variable geology has been used as a test area for these studies. Two robust measures that have proven useful for textural analysis are: the number of extrema per unit area; and the surface area per unit area in a window moving over the gridded aeromagnetic data. The former measures the "noisiness" of the data, and the latter depends on anomaly amplitudes and discriminates between large and small magnetizations. Window sizes for texture analysis are typically a few km square because geologic terranes of interest are generally of the order of tens of km in characteristic dimension. Other measures investigated are based on the scaling properties of the field within the window computed from the structure function for various exponents. The minima of the structure function define the characteristic sizes of anomalies, analogous to the power spectrum for a periodic function, and the maxima

  8. Geophysical constraints for terrane boundaries in southern Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Alexandra; Schulmann, Karel; Munschy, Marc; Miehe, Jean-Marc; Edel, Jean-Bernard; Lexa, Ondrej; Fairhead, Derek

    2014-05-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is a typical accretionary orogen divided into numerous lithostratigraphic terranes corresponding to magmatic arcs, back arcs, continental basement blocks, accretionary wedges and metamorphic blocks. These terranes should be in theory characterized by contrasting magnetic and gravity signatures thanks to their different petrophysical properties. To test this hypothesis, the stratigraphically defined terranes in southern Mongolia were compared with potential field data to constrain their boundaries and extent. The existence of terranes in southern Mongolia cannot be attested by the uniform geophysical fabrics due to the lack of systematic correspondence between the high/low amplitude and high/low frequency geophysical domains and major terranes. Processed magnetic and gravity grids show that both gravity and magnetic lineaments are E-W trending in the west and correlate with direction of some geological units. In the east, both magnetic and gravity lineaments are disrupted by NE-SW trending heterogeneities resulting in complete blurring of the geophysical pattern. Correlation of magnetic signal with geological map shows that the magnetic highs coincide with late Carboniferous-early Permian volcanic and plutonic belts. The matched-filtering shows good continuity of signal to the depth located along the boundaries of these high magnetic anomalies which may imply presence of deeply rooted tectono-magmatic zones. The axes of high density bodies in the western and central part of the studied CAOB are characterized by periodic alternations of NW-SE trending high frequency and high amplitude gravity anomalies corresponding to late Permian to Triassic cleavage fronts up to 20 km wide. The matched-filtering analysis shows that the largest deformation zones are deeply rooted down to 20 km depth. Such a gravity signal is explained by the verticalization of high density mantle and lower crustal rocks due to localized vertical shearing

  9. Magnetospheric accretion in EX Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Peter; Kospal, Agnes; Bouvier, Jerome

    2016-08-01

    We propose to observe EX Lup, the prototype of the EXor class of young eruptive stars, in order to understand how the accretion process works in the quiescent system. Here, we request 2.6 hours of telescope time on Spitzer, to carry out a mid-infrared photometric monitoring, which we will supplement with simultaneous ground-based optical and near-infrared data. The multi-wavelength light curves will allow us to reliably separate the effects of fluctuating accretion rate from the rotation of the star. By analyzing the variations of the accretion rate we will determine whether EX Lup accretes through a few stable accretion columns or several short-lived random accretion streams. With this campaign, EX Lup will become one of the T Tauri systems where the accretion process is best understood.

  10. Hot Accretion Disks Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjoernsson, Gunnlaugur; Abramowicz, Marek A.; Chen, Xingming; Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    1996-08-01

    All previous studies of hot (Tp 1010-1012 K), optically thin accretion disks have neglected either the presence of e+ e- pairs or advective cooling. Thus all hot disk models constructed previously have not been self-consistent. In this paper we calculate local disk models including pair physics, relevant radiative processes in the hot plasma, and the effect of advective cooling. We use a modification of the Björnsson & Svensson mapping method. We find that the role of e+ e- pairs in the structure of hot, optically thin accretion disks is far less significant than was previously thought. The improved description of the radiation-matter interactions provided in the present paper modify the previously obtained values of the critical parameters characterizing advectively dominated flows.

  11. Massive star formation by accretion. I. Disc accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haemmerlé, L.; Eggenberger, P.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.; Charbonnel, C.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Massive stars likely form by accretion and the evolutionary track of an accreting forming star corresponds to what is called the birthline in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. The shape of this birthline is quite sensitive to the evolution of the entropy in the accreting star. Aims: We first study the reasons why some birthlines published in past years present different behaviours for a given accretion rate. We then revisit the question of the accretion rate, which allows us to understand the distribution of the observed pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars in the HR diagram. Finally, we identify the conditions needed to obtain a large inflation of the star along its pre-MS evolution that may push the birthline towards the Hayashi line in the upper part of the HR diagram. Methods: We present new pre-MS models including accretion at various rates and for different initial structures of the accreting core. We compare them with previously published equivalent models. From the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram, we deduce the accretion law that best matches the accretion history of most of the intermediate-mass stars. Results: In the numerical computation of the time derivative of the entropy, some treatment leads to an artificial loss of entropy and thus reduces the inflation that the accreting star undergoes along the birthline. In the case of cold disc accretion, the existence of a significant swelling during the accretion phase, which leads to radii ≳ 100 R⊙ and brings the star back to the red part of the HR diagram, depends sensitively on the initial conditions. For an accretion rate of 10-3M⊙ yr-1, only models starting from a core with a significant radiative region evolve back to the red part of the HR diagram. We also obtain that, in order to reproduce the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram with an accretion law deduced from the observed mass outflows in ultra-compact HII regions, the fraction of the

  12. Accretion of the Earth.

    PubMed

    Canup, Robin M

    2008-11-28

    The origin of the Earth and its Moon has been the focus of an enormous body of research. In this paper I review some of the current models of terrestrial planet accretion, and discuss assumptions common to most works that may require re-examination. Density-wave interactions between growing planets and the gas nebula may help to explain the current near-circular orbits of the Earth and Venus, and may result in large-scale radial migration of proto-planetary embryos. Migration would weaken the link between the present locations of the planets and the original provenance of the material that formed them. Fragmentation can potentially lead to faster accretion and could also damp final planet orbital eccentricities. The Moon-forming impact is believed to be the final major event in the Earth's accretion. Successful simulations of lunar-forming impacts involve a differentiated impactor containing between 0.1 and 0.2 Earth masses, an impact angle near 45 degrees and an impact speed within 10 per cent of the Earth's escape velocity. All successful impacts-with or without pre-impact rotation-imply that the Moon formed primarily from material originating from the impactor rather than from the proto-Earth. This must ultimately be reconciled with compositional similarities between the Earth and the Moon. PMID:18826928

  13. Accretion of the Earth.

    PubMed

    Canup, Robin M

    2008-11-28

    The origin of the Earth and its Moon has been the focus of an enormous body of research. In this paper I review some of the current models of terrestrial planet accretion, and discuss assumptions common to most works that may require re-examination. Density-wave interactions between growing planets and the gas nebula may help to explain the current near-circular orbits of the Earth and Venus, and may result in large-scale radial migration of proto-planetary embryos. Migration would weaken the link between the present locations of the planets and the original provenance of the material that formed them. Fragmentation can potentially lead to faster accretion and could also damp final planet orbital eccentricities. The Moon-forming impact is believed to be the final major event in the Earth's accretion. Successful simulations of lunar-forming impacts involve a differentiated impactor containing between 0.1 and 0.2 Earth masses, an impact angle near 45 degrees and an impact speed within 10 per cent of the Earth's escape velocity. All successful impacts-with or without pre-impact rotation-imply that the Moon formed primarily from material originating from the impactor rather than from the proto-Earth. This must ultimately be reconciled with compositional similarities between the Earth and the Moon.

  14. Accretion disk coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, N. E.; Holt, S. S.

    1981-01-01

    Recent observations of partial X-ray eclipses from 4U1822-37 have shown that the central X-ray source in this system is diffused by a large Compton-thick accretion disk corona (ADC). Another binary, 4U2129-47, also displays a partial eclipse and contains an ADC. The possible origin of an ADC is discussed and a simple hydrostatic evaporated ADC model is developed which, when applied to 4U1822-37, 4U2129+47 and Cyg X-3, can explain their temporal and spectral properties. The quasi-sinusoidal modulation of all three sources can be reconciled with the partial occultation of the ADC by a bulge at the edge of the accretion disk which is caused by the inflowing material. The height of this bulge is an order of magnitude larger than the hydrostatic disk height and is the result of turbulence in the outer region of the disk. The spectral properties of all three sources can be understood in terms of Compton scattering of the original source spectrum by the ADC. Spectral variations with epoch in Cyg X-3 are probably caused by changes in the optical depth of the corona. A consequence of our model is that any accreting neutron star X-ray source in a semi-detached binary system which is close to its Eddington limit most likely contains an optically thick ADC.

  15. The geochemical constraints on Earth's accretion and core formation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudge, J. F.; Kleine, T.; Bourdon, B.

    2010-12-01

    There are now a wide range of geochemical observations that can be used to place constraints on Earth's first hundred million years. During this time the Earth accreted through collisions between numerous planetary embryos, and these collisions are thought to have caused significant melting and segregation of metal, forming the Earth's core. Information on the pressure, temperature, and oxygen fugacity conditions of core formation can be obtained from the abundances of siderophile elements in Earth's mantle and high pressure partitioning experiments. Timing information can be obtained from isotopic measurements, notably Hf-W and U-Pb. Here we present a simple geochemical box model that can be used to provide constraints on Earth's accretion and core formation. A key parameter in the model is the degree of equilibration during metal-silicate segregation. Existing models have shown that the siderophile element abundances are consistent with full equilibration in a deep magma ocean, with an increase in oxygen fugacity during accretion. Here we show that the siderophile element abundances are equally consistent with scenarios involving partial equilibration. The Hf-W isotopic observations constrain the degree of equilibration to be at least 36%. The timing constraints depend strongly on the degree of equilibration, but nevertheless bounds can be placed on the timing of Earth's accretion. With full equilibration, the Hf-W observations imply a rapid early accretion stage (at least 80% of Earth accreting within 35 Myr), but with partial equilibration accretion may be much more protracted. If Pb partitions into Earth’s core, the U-Pb observations can be used to constrain the late stages of accretion, and are consistent with the final 10% of Earth’s accretion occurring during the Moon-forming giant impact at ~4.45Ga.

  16. Hydrocarbon gas potential of accretionary melange terranes: an example from the olympic peninsula, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Snavely, P.D. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Convergence between the oceanic and North American plates during middle late Eocene and late middle Miocene times produced two principal accretionary terranes of melange and broken formation on the continental margin of Washington. Hydrocarbon analyses of these melange units were undertaken to evaluate their source rock potential for oil and gas and to assess the generative processes operating in these thick melange wedges. The results of pyrolysis, vitrinite reflectance, and visual kerogen analyses of samples of these melanges are consistent and in good agreement, showing mainly Type III organic matter that is marginally mature to mature with respect to gas generation. Coastal exposure of Ozette melange commonly have a petroliferous odor which contains methane through at least the pentanes as prominent constitutents. Hydrocarbon gases from seeps and from an abandoned well in the study area have been molecular compositions and methane carbon isotopic values indicating related sources. The authors evidence suggest that the Ozette assemblage melange is the principal source for thermogenic hydrocarbon gases. Potential exploration targets may exist in western Washington where melange and broken formation are thrust beneath the Eocene oceanic crust (Crescent Formation). Gas generated from the underplated rocks could have migrated through the upper plate into structures in the Tertiary strata that overlie these Eocene basalts.

  17. Boninitic magmatism in a continental margin setting, Yukon- Tanana terrane, southeastern Yukon, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piercey, Stephen J.; Murphy, Donald C.; Mortensen, James K.; Paradis, Suzanne

    2001-08-01

    Mid-Paleozoic mafic rocks in the Finlayson Lake region of the Yukon-Tanana terrane, southeastern Yukon, Canada, have the diagnostic geochemical signatures of boninites: high MgO, Cr, Ni, and Co contents, intermediate SiO2 contents, high Mg#'s (MgO/ (MgO+FeO*), Al2O3/TiO2, and Zr(Hf)/middle rare earth element (REE) ratios; low TiO2, REE, and high-field-strength element contents; and U-shaped primitive mantle normalized trace element patterns. However, unlike most modern and ancient boninitic rocks that are typically associated with intraoceanic realms, those from the Finlayson Lake region are part of a mid-Paleozoic continental margin arc-backarc magmatic system. We propose a model in which the boninitic rocks from the Finlayson Lake region formed as a result of spreading ridge propagation into an arc built on composite basement of oceanic and continental crust. In the oceanic segment, upwelling asthenosphere induced melting of a subducted-slab metasomatized refractory mantle source to form boninitic magmatism. In the continental sector, upwelling asthenospheric mantle, and/or the melts derived thereof, induced crustal melting, which explains the large volume of temporally equivalent felsic volcanic and intrusive rocks.

  18. Mass Accretion Rate of Rotating Viscous Accretion Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Myeong-Gu

    2009-11-01

    The mass accretion rate of transonic spherical accretion flow onto compact objects such as black holes is known as the Bondi accretion rate, which is determined only by the density and the temperature of gas at the outer boundary. A rotating accretion flow has angular momentum, which modifies the flow profile from the spherical Bondi flow, and hence its mass accretion rate, but most work on disc accretion has taken the mass flux to be given with the relation between that parameter and external conditions left uncertain. Within the framework of a slim α disk, we have constructed global solutions of the rotating, viscous, hot accretion flow in the Paczyński-Wiita potential and determined its mass accretion rate as a function of density, temperature, and angular momentum of gas at the outer boundary. We find that the low angular momentum flow resembles the spherical Bondi flow and its mass accretion rate approaches the Bondi accretion rate for the same density and temperature at the outer boundary. The high angular momentum flow on the other hand is the conventional hot accretion disk with advection, but its mass accretion rate can be significantly smaller than the Bondi accretion rate with the same boundary conditions. We also find that solutions exist only within a limited range of dimensionless mass accretion rate \\dot{m} ≡ \\dot{M}/\\dot{M}_B, where \\dot{M} is the mass accretion rate and \\dot{M}_B is the Bondi accretion rate: when the temperature at the outer boundary is equal to the virial temperature, solutions exist only for 0.05 ≲ \\dot{m} ≤ 1 when α = 0.01. We also find that the dimensionless mass accretion rate is roughly independent of the radius of the outer boundary but inversely proportional to the angular momentum at the outer boundary and proportional to the viscosity parameter, \\dot{m} ≃ 9.0 α λ^{-1} when 0.1 ≲ \\dot{m} ≲ 1, where the dimensionless angular momentum measure λ ≡ l out/lB is the specific angular momentum of gas at

  19. MASS ACCRETION RATE OF ROTATING VISCOUS ACCRETION FLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Myeong-Gu

    2009-11-20

    The mass accretion rate of transonic spherical accretion flow onto compact objects such as black holes is known as the Bondi accretion rate, which is determined only by the density and the temperature of gas at the outer boundary. A rotating accretion flow has angular momentum, which modifies the flow profile from the spherical Bondi flow, and hence its mass accretion rate, but most work on disc accretion has taken the mass flux to be given with the relation between that parameter and external conditions left uncertain. Within the framework of a slim alpha disk, we have constructed global solutions of the rotating, viscous, hot accretion flow in the Paczynski-Wiita potential and determined its mass accretion rate as a function of density, temperature, and angular momentum of gas at the outer boundary. We find that the low angular momentum flow resembles the spherical Bondi flow and its mass accretion rate approaches the Bondi accretion rate for the same density and temperature at the outer boundary. The high angular momentum flow on the other hand is the conventional hot accretion disk with advection, but its mass accretion rate can be significantly smaller than the Bondi accretion rate with the same boundary conditions. We also find that solutions exist only within a limited range of dimensionless mass accretion rate m-dotident toM-dot/M-dot{sub B}, where M-dot is the mass accretion rate and M-dot{sub B} is the Bondi accretion rate: when the temperature at the outer boundary is equal to the virial temperature, solutions exist only for 0.05approxaccretion rate is roughly independent of the radius of the outer boundary but inversely proportional to the angular momentum at the outer boundary and proportional to the viscosity parameter, m-dotapprox =9.0 alphalambda{sup -1} when 0.1 approx

  20. Palaeoclimate, Sedimentation and Continental Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, A. M.; Barrett, S. F.; Scotese, C. R.

    1981-05-01

    Climate has a pervasive effect on sedimentation today, and the same climatic patterns are reflected in the distribution of lithofacies through the Palaeozoic, as the continents migrate beneath the climatic zones. The low-latitude hot wet zone is represented by thick clastics, coals and carbonates and is best developed along east coasts where prevailing winds bring moisture and heated surface waters toward the continent. The desert zones occur on the west sides of continents centred at 20 degrees north and south, and these dry belts are represented in the geological record by evaporites. Tillites, thick clastics and coals occur in the temperate rainy belts, especially on the windward, west sides of continents above 40 degrees latitude. Continental accretion occurs where subduction zones coincide with rainy zones, such that the products of erosion are transported to the trench, and thus thrust back, extending the margin of the continent. The opposite process of `tectonic erosion', wherein the descending oceanic slab continually `rasps' away the margin of the continental crust, may occur in areas where rainfall and surface run-off is insufficient to provide trench sediments. This process has been operating adjacent to the Atacama Desert in South America during the past 200 Ma. To judge by the eastward migration of the calc-alkaline intrusive foci, about 250 km of the margin of South America have been transported down the subduction zone during this period.

  1. Isotopic Studies of the Guerrero Composite Terrane, West-Central Mexico: Implications for Provenance of Crustal Rocks and Ore Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potra, A.; Macfarlane, A. W.; Salters, V. J.; Sachi-Kocher, A.

    2010-12-01

    New Pb, Sr, and Nd isotope analyses of various crustal units and ores from the Guerrero terrane are presented in order to gain insight into their provenance. Mesozoic basement rocks from the Arteaga Complex and Tejupilco metamorphic suite contain radiogenic Pb relative to bulk earth models (206Pb/204Pb between 18.701 and 19.256, 207Pb/204Pb between 15.623 and 15.693, and 208Pb/204Pb between 38.694 and 39.216), plotting to the right of the average Pb crust evolution curve of Stacey and Kramers (1975). The isotopic compositions of Pb in these rocks are substantially more radiogenic than published data on high-grade metamorphic rocks from the Grenvillian-age Oaxaca terrane, but are similar to Paleozoic basement rocks of the Mixteca terrane. Sr and Nd isotope data suggest that the basement rocks of the Guerrero terrane partly originated from ocean-floor rocks which were overlain by sediments derived from a cratonic terrane, possibly represented by the metamorphic complexes of the Oaxaca or Mixteca terranes. Lead isotope ratios of Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Zihuatanejo and Huetamo Sequences define two different clusters, with the Zihuatanejo Sequence units shifted to more radiogenic values (206Pb/204 between 18.763 and 19.437, 207Pb/204Pb between 15.580 and 15.643, and 208Pb/204Pb between 38.510 and 38.892). Samples from the Huetamo Sequence are less radiogenic than the metamorphic basement, with Pb isotope ratios between 18.630 and 18.998 for 206Pb/204, 15.563 and 15.641 for 207Pb/204Pb, and 38.369 and 38.610 for 208Pb/204Pb. They plot close to the radiogenic end of the MORB field, suggesting a possible mixing line between the basement rocks and the MORB component. Lead isotope ratios of Tertiary intrusive rocks from La Verde, El Malacate, and La Esmeralda resemble the orogene reservoir in the plumbotectonics model of Zartman and Doe (1981). Plutonic rocks from La Verde show the most radiogenic Pb compositions, suggesting a significant influence of old

  2. Forming the lunar farside highlands by accretion of a companion moon.

    PubMed

    Jutzi, M; Asphaug, E

    2011-08-01

    The most striking geological feature of the Moon is the terrain and elevation dichotomy between the hemispheres: the nearside is low and flat, dominated by volcanic maria, whereas the farside is mountainous and deeply cratered. Associated with this geological dichotomy is a compositional and thermal variation, with the nearside Procellarum KREEP (potassium/rare-earth element/phosphorus) Terrane and environs interpreted as having thin, compositionally evolved crust in comparison with the massive feldspathic highlands. The lunar dichotomy may have been caused by internal effects (for example spatial variations in tidal heating, asymmetric convective processes or asymmetric crystallization of the magma ocean) or external effects (such as the event that formed the South Pole/Aitken basin or asymmetric cratering). Here we consider its origin as a late carapace added by the accretion of a companion moon. Companion moons are a common outcome of simulations of Moon formation from a protolunar disk resulting from a giant impact, and although most coplanar configurations are unstable, a ∼1,200-km-diameter moon located at one of the Trojan points could be dynamically stable for tens of millions of years after the giant impact. Most of the Moon's magma ocean would solidify on this timescale, whereas the companion moon would evolve more quickly into a crust and a solid mantle derived from similar disk material, and would presumably have little or no core. Its likely fate would be to collide with the Moon at ∼2-3 km s(-1), well below the speed of sound in silicates. According to our simulations, a large moon/Moon size ratio (∼0.3) and a subsonic impact velocity lead to an accretionary pile rather than a crater, contributing a hemispheric layer of extent and thickness consistent with the dimensions of the farside highlands and in agreement with the degree-two crustal thickness profile. The collision furthermore displaces the KREEP-rich layer to the opposite hemisphere

  3. Plate rotation during continental collision and its relationship with the exhumation of UHP metamorphic terranes: application to the Norwegian Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottrill, Andrew; van Hunen, Jeroan; Cuthbert, Simon; Allen, Mark; Brueckner, Hannes

    2014-05-01

    Lateral variation and asynchronous onset of collision during the convergence of continents can significantly affect the burial and exhumation of subducting material. We use 3D numerical models for continental collision to discuss how deep burial and exhumation of ultra-high pressure metamorphic rocks are enhanced by oblique convergence and resulting rotation of the colliding plates. Rotation during collision locally favours eduction, the inversion of the subduction process following ocean slab break-off, and may relate to the discontinuous distribution of ultra-high pressure (UHP) terranes along collision zones. For example the terminal (Scandian) collision of Baltica and Laurentia, which formed the Scandinavian Caledonides resulted in the exhumation of only one large high pressure/ultra-high pressure (HP/UHP) terrane, the Western Gneiss Complex (WGC), near the southern end of the collision zone. Rotation of the subducting Baltica plate during collision may provide a likely explanation for this distribution. We explore this hypothesis by comparing orthogonal and oblique collision models and conclude that an oblique collision can transport continental material up to 60km deeper, and heat material up to 300°C hotter, than an orthogonal collision. Our oblique collision model predicts that subducted continental margin material returns to the surface only in the region where collision initiated. The oblique collision model is consistent with petrological and geochonological observations from the Western Gneiss Complex and makes predictions for the general evolution of the Scandinavian Caledonides. We propose the collision between Laurentia and Baltica started at the southern end of the collisional zone, and propagated northward. This asymmetric geometry resulted in the counter clockwise rotation of Baltica and the northwards movement of Baltica's rotational pole with respect to Laurentia, consistent with paleomagnetic data from other studies. Our model has applications

  4. Core Forensics: Earth's Accretion and Differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badro, J.; Brodholt, J. P.; Siebert, J.; Piet, H.; Ryerson, F. J.

    2013-12-01

    estimate outer-core density and bulk sound velocity, and combine it with seismology to define a range of possible compositions of the core that satisfies the observations, (3) a refined core formation model bringing together the continuousness of the overall process with the discreetness of the final impacts, and equilibrium thermodynamics with the non-equilibrium nature of certain processes (giant impacts, deep magma ocean). We propose a few strong constraints that come out from our models: (1) the Earth accreted in a rather oxidizing environment, (2) yielding an oxygen-rich core, in a (3) deep magma ocean (~1500 km) that could have (4) never been fully molten or fully equilibrated, at least during core extraction, despite the giant impacts.

  5. Launching jets from accretion belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Ron; Soker, Noam

    2016-05-01

    We propose that sub-Keplerian accretion belts around stars might launch jets. The sub-Keplerian inflow does not form a rotationally supported accretion disk, but it rather reaches the accreting object from a wide solid angle. The basic ingredients of the flow are a turbulent region where the accretion belt interacts with the accreting object via a shear layer, and two avoidance regions on the poles where the accretion rate is very low. A dynamo that is developed in the shear layer amplifies magnetic fields to high values. It is likely that the amplified magnetic fields form polar outflows from the avoidance regions. Our speculative belt-launched jets model has implications on a rich variety of astrophysical objects, from the removal of common envelopes to the explosion of core collapse supernovae by jittering jets.

  6. Accreting X-ray Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes the behavior of matter in environments with extreme magnetic and gravitational fields, explains the instability/stability of accretion disks in certain systems, and discusses how emergent radiation affects accretion flow. Magnetic field measurements are obtained by measuring the lowest cyclotron absorption line energy, observing the cutoff of accretion due to centrifugal inhibition and measuring the spin-up rate at high luminosity.

  7. Ion Probe U-Pb dating of the Central Sakarya basement: a peri-Gondwana terrane cut by late Lower Carboniferous subduction/collision related granitic magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayda Ustaömer, P.; Ustaömer, Timur; Robertson, Alastair. H. F.

    2010-05-01

    the Early Palaeozoic, relatively early compared to other E Mediterranean inferred Minoan terranes (e.g. Menderes, Crete, Bitlis), and then accreted to the Eurasian margin, possibly in during Late Palaeozoic time. The Central Sakarya metamorphic basement is cut by a number of granitic intrusions (collectively termed the Söğüt Granite or Sarıcakaya Granite), three of which were dated in this study. Pink, alkali feldspar-rich granite (Küplü granite) yielded an age of 324.3 ±1.5 Ma. Grey, blastomylonitic biotite granite (Çaltı granite) is dated at 327.2 ± 1.9 Ma. Another granitic body with biotite and amphibole (Borçak granite) yielded a significantly younger age of 319.5 ± 1.1 Ma. Thus, late Early Carboniferous granitic magmatism in the Central Sakarya terrane could have persisted for ≥ 8 Ma, possibly related to subduction or collision of a Central Sakarya terrane with the Eurasian margin. This work was supported by Yıldız Technical University Research Fund (Project No: 29.13.02.01) and a Royal Society Travel Grant.

  8. Turbulent Distortion of Condensate Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazoume, R.; Orou Chabi, J.; Johnson, J. A., III

    1997-01-01

    When a simple model for the relationship between the density-temperature fluctuation correlation and mean values is used, we determine that the rate of change of turbulent intensity can influence directly the accretion rate of droplets. Considerable interest exists in the accretion rate for condensates in nonequilibrium flow with icing and the potential role which reactant accretion can play in nonequilibrium exothermic reactant processes. Turbulence is thought to play an important role in such flows. It has already been experimentally determined that turbulence influences the sizes of droplets in the heterogeneous nucleation of supersaturated vapors. This paper addresses the issue of the possible influence of turbulence on the accretion rate of droplets.

  9. Ultramafic Terranes and Associated Springs as Analogs for Mars and Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David; Schulte, Mitch; Cullings, Ken; DeVincezi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Putative extinct or extant Martian organisms, like their terrestrial counterparts, must adopt metabolic strategies based on the environments in which they live. In order for organisms to derive metabolic energy from the natural environment (Martian or terrestrial), a state of thermodynamic disequilibrium must exist. The most widespread environment of chemical disequilibrium on present-day Earth results from the interaction of mafic rocks of the ocean crust with liquid water. Such environments were even more pervasive and important on the Archean Earth due to increased geothermal heat flow and the absence of widespread continental crust formation. The composition of the lower crust and upper mantle of the Earth is essentially the-same as that of Mars, and the early histories of these two planets are similar. It follows that a knowledge of the mineralogy, water-rock chemistry and microbial ecology of Earth's oceanic crust could be of great value in devising a search strategy for evidence of past or present life on Mars. In some tectonic regimes, cross-sections of lower oceanic crust and upper mantle are exposed on land as so-called "ophiolite suites." Such is the case in the state of California (USA) as a result of its location adjacent to active plate margins. These mafic and ultramafic rocks contain numerous springs that offer an easily accessible field laboratory for studying water/rock interactions and the microbial communities that are supported by the resulting geochemical energy. A preliminary screen of Archaean biodiversity was conducted in a cold spring located in a presently serpentinizing ultramafic terrane. PCR and phylogenetic analysis of partial 16s rRNA, sequences were performed on water and sediment samples. Archaea of recent phylogenetic origin were detected with sequences nearly identical to those of organisms living in ultra-high pH lakes of Africa.

  10. Kinematic significance of L tectonites in the footwall of a major terrane-bounding thrust fault, Klamath Mountains, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, W. A.

    2009-11-01

    Detailed geologic mapping, cross-section reconstructions, strain analyses, and kinematic analyses, enable the reconstruction of a ˜one-kilometer-wide domain of L tectonites in the east-west-striking, subhorizontal to gently south-dipping Pigeon Point high-strain zone (PPHSZ) associated with a major thrust fault separating oceanic- and arc-affinity terranes in the Klamath Mountains, California. L tectonites are associated with: (1) a convex-upward warp of the upper high-strain-zone boundary, (2) a transition from mafic metavolcaniclastic rocks to micaceous quartzites, (3) folds subparallel with mineral lineations, (4) emplacement of synkinematic ultramafic/mafic intrusive bodies, and (5) a local temperature increase from greenschist- to amphibolite-facies conditions. Pure-shear-dominated deformation accommodated zone-normal shortening and transport-parallel elongation coupled with subordinate top-to-the-west-directed, thrust-style simple shear. L tectonite formation was controlled by the shape of the high-strain-zone boundary driving lateral flow into the apex of the lens-shaped zone in response to a favorable kinematic geometry and bulk strain in the constrictional field. Localized magmatic heating best explains the shape of the high-strain-zone boundary, but L tectonites are not partitioned into a single rheological domain. During terrane amalgamation strain-path partitioning occurred with localized top-to-the-west-directed simple shear partitioned into a structurally overlying thrust zone and pure-shear-dominated subvertical shortening and transport-parallel elongation partitioned into the PPHSZ.

  11. Fate of an Oceanic Island-arc at the Collision Zone: Insight From a Modern Case at the Izu Collision Zone, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoike, K.

    2003-12-01

    Arc-arc or arc-continent collision zone, which separates an arc crust into materials to be left on the earth_fs surface and to be returned to the mantle, is regarded as the final disposal place of the subduction factory product. Mass balance across the collision boundary, therefore, should have great significance in the processes of continental growth and mantle evolution. The Izu Collision Zone (ICZ) located at the conjunction of the Honshu arc and the Izu-Bonin arc (IBA), is a place of ongoing orthogonal arc-arc collision, where the middle to upper crust of the northern IBA is exposed on land as accretionary terranes. The IBA-ICZ system is much advantageous for elucidating the mass balance, because that the product is simple and fresh and the flow from manufacture to disposal is quite clear. Across arc variation of buoyancy and rheological state of the lithosphere controlled principally by geothermal gradient would regulate the regime of collision tectonics. Crust-scale accretion is taking place associated with conspicuous crustal shortening and thickening in the central ICZ where the active arc that is about 100 km wide and 20 km thick is colliding. By contrast, almost the whole arc crust is subducting, leaving the off-scraped sediments as accretionary prisms in the eastern and western areas where the inactive forearc and backarc, totally 200 km wide and averagely 14 km thick, are colliding. Based on the land geology and existing seismic structure, crustal volume of the accreted IBA is estimated for the line along the axis of the ICZ and another line passing through the Tanzawa Terrane situated eastward 30 km apart from the axis. The estimation indicates that the volume of the Tanzawa line is significantly smaller (16 %) than that of the axis, in spite of being very close. This difference is explainable, if the Philippine Sea Plate slab including expected aseismic part is accompanied with 7 km thick subducted arc crust. This result of calculation implies that

  12. RADIATIVELY EFFICIENT MAGNETIZED BONDI ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, Andrew J.; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher F.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Teyssier, Romain

    2012-01-10

    We have carried out a numerical study of the effect of large-scale magnetic fields on the rate of accretion from a uniform, isothermal gas onto a resistive, stationary point mass. Only mass, not magnetic flux, accretes onto the point mass. The simulations for this study avoid complications arising from boundary conditions by keeping the boundaries far from the accreting object. Our simulations leverage adaptive refinement methodology to attain high spatial fidelity close to the accreting object. Our results are particularly relevant to the problem of star formation from a magnetized molecular cloud in which thermal energy is radiated away on timescales much shorter than the dynamical timescale. Contrary to the adiabatic case, our simulations show convergence toward a finite accretion rate in the limit in which the radius of the accreting object vanishes, regardless of magnetic field strength. For very weak magnetic fields, the accretion rate first approaches the Bondi value and then drops by a factor of {approx}2 as magnetic flux builds up near the point mass. For strong magnetic fields, the steady-state accretion rate is reduced by a factor of {approx}0.2 {beta}{sup 1/2} compared to the Bondi value, where {beta} is the ratio of the gas pressure to the magnetic pressure. We give a simple expression for the accretion rate as a function of the magnetic field strength. Approximate analytic results are given in the Appendices for both time-dependent accretion in the limit of weak magnetic fields and steady-state accretion for the case of strong magnetic fields.

  13. Paleobiogeographic affinities of emsian (late early devonian) gastropods from farewell terrane (west-central Alaska)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fryda, J.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    The vast majority of Emsian gastropods from Limestone Mountain, Medfra B-4 quadrangle, west-central Alaska (Farewell terrane) belong to species with lecithotrophic larval strategy. The present data show that there is no significant difference in the paleobiogeo-graphic distribution of Emsian gastropod genera with lecithotrophic and planktotrophic larval strategies. Numerical analysis of the faunal affinities of the Emsian gastropod fauna from the Farewell terrane reveals that this terrane has much stronger faunal connections to regions like Variscan Europe, eastern Australia, and the Alexander terrane of southeast Alaska than to cratonic North America (Laurentia). The Canadian Arctic Islands is the only region of cratonic North America (Laurentia) that shows significant faunal affinities to the Emsian gastropod faunas of the Farewell terrane. The analysis also indicates a close faunal link between the Farewell and Alexander terranes. Published paleontological and geological data suggest that the Farewell and Alexander terranes represents tectonic entities that have been rifted away from the Siberia, Baltica, or the paleo-Pacific margin of Australia. The results of the present numerical analysis are not in conflict with any of these possibilities. However, the principle of spatial continuity of the wandering path prefers Siberia as the most probable "parental" paleocontinent for the derivation of both the Farewell and Alexander terranes. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  14. Lineaments in basement terrane of the Peninsular Ranges, Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merifield, P. M. (Principal Investigator); Lamar, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS and Skylab images reveal a number of prominent lineaments in the basement terrane of the Peninsular Ranges, Southern California. The major, well-known, active, northwest trending, right-slip faults are well displayed; northeast and west to west-northwest trending lineaments are also present. Study of large-scale airphotos followed by field investigations have shown that several of these lineaments represent previously unmapped faults. Pitches of striations on shear surfaces of the northeast and west trending faults indicate oblique slip movement; data are insufficient to determine the net-slip. These faults are restricted to the pre-tertiary basement terrane and are truncated by the major northwest trending faults. They may have been formed in response to an earlier stress system. All lineaments observed in the space photography are not due to faulting, and additional detailed geologic investigations are required to determine the nature of the unstudied lineaments, and the history and net-slip of fault-controlled lineaments.

  15. The nature of Archean terrane boundaries: an example from the northern Wyoming Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mogk, D.W.; Mueller, P.A.; Wooden, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Archean northern Wyoming Province can be subdivided into two geologically distinct terranes, the Beartooth-Bighorn magmatic terrane (BBMT) and the Montana metasedimentary terrane (MMT). The BBMT is characterized by voluminous Late Archean (2.90-2.74 Ga) magmatic rocks (primarily tonalite, trondhjemite, and granite); metasedimentary rocks are preserved only as small, rare enclaves in this magmatic terrane. The magmatic rocks typically have geochemical and isotopic signatures that suggest petrogenesis in a continental magmatic arc environment. The MMT, as exposed in the northern Gallatin and Madison Ranges, is dominated by Middle Archean trondhjemitic gneisses (3.2-3.0 Ga); metasedimentary rocks, however, are significantly more abundant than in the BBMT. Each terrane has experienced a separate and distinct geologic history since at least 3.6 Ga ago based on differences in metamorphic and structural styles, composition of magmatic and metasupracrustal rocks, and isotopic ages; consequently, these may be described as discrete terranes in the Cordilleran sense. Nonetheless, highly radiogenic and distinctive Pb-Pb isotopic signatures in rocks of all ages in both terranes indicate that the two terranes share a significant aspect of their history. This suggests that these two Early to Middle Archean crustal blocks, that initially evolved as part of a larger crustal province, experienced different geologic histories from at least 3.6 Ga until their juxtaposition in the Late Archean (between 2.75 to 2.55 Ga ago). Consequently, the boundary between the BBMT and MMT appears to separate terranes that are not likely to be exotic in the sense of their Phanerozoic counterparts. Other Archean provinces do appear to contain crustal blocks with different isotopic signatures (e.g. West Greenland, India, South Africa). The use of the term exotic, therefore, must be cautious in situations where geographic indicators such as paleontologic and/or paleomagnetic data are not available

  16. Triassic arc-derived detritus in the Triassic Karakaya accretionary complex was not derived from either the S Eurasian margin (Istanbul terrane) or the N Gondwana margin (Taurides)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustaömer, Timur; Ayda Ustaömer, Petek; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Gerdes, Axel; Zulauf, Gernold

    2014-05-01

    We present new U-Pb zircon source age data for Upper Triassic sandstones of the Istanbul Terrane (S Eurasian margin) and also for Triassic sandstones of the Taurides (N Gondwana margin). The main aim is to detect and quantify the contribution of Triassic magmatism as detritus to either of these crustal blocks. This follows the recent discovery of a Triassic magmatic arc source for the Triassic sandstones of the Palaeotethyan Karakaya subduction-accretion complex (Ustaömer et al. 2013; this meeting). Carboniferous (Variscan) zircon grains also form a significant detrital population, plus several more minor populations. Six sandstone samples were studied, two from the İstanbul Terrane (Bakırlıkıran Formation of the Kocaeli Triassic Basin) and four from the Tauride Autochthon (latest Triassic Üzümdere Formation and Mid-Triassic Kasımlar Formations; Beyşehir region). Detrital zircon grains were dated by the laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb method at Goethe University, Frankfurt. Our results do not reveal Triassic detritus in the Üzümdere Formation. The U-Pb age of the analysed zircon grains ranges from 267 Ma to 3.2 Ga. A small fraction of Palaeozoic zircons are Permian (267 to 296 Ma), whereas the remainder are Early Palaeozoic. Ordovician grains (4%) form two age clusters, one at ca. 450 Ma and the other at ca. 474 Ma. Cambrian-aged grains dominate the zircon population, while the second largest population is Ediacaran (576 to 642 Ma). Smaller populations occur at 909-997 Ma, 827-839 Ma, 1.8-2.0 Ga and 2.4-2.6 Ga. The sandstones of the Kasımlar Formation have similar zircon age cluster to those of the somewhat younger Üzümdere Formation, ranging from 239 Ma to 2.9 Ga. A few grains gave Anisian ages. Cambrian zircon grains are less pronounced than in the Kasımlar Formation compared to the Üzümdere Formation. The detrital zircon record of Tauride sandstones, therefore, not indicates significant contribution

  17. Early Jurassic Volcanism in the South Lhasa Terrane, Southern Tibet: Record of Back-arc Extension in the Active Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhu, D. C.; Wang, Z.; Liu, D.; Mo, X.

    2015-12-01

    Indus-Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone (IYZSZ) represents the Mesozoic remnants of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean lithosphere after its northward subduction beneath the Lhasa Terrane. The evolution of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean prior to India-Asia collision remains unclear. To explore this period of history, we investigate zircon U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry and Nd-Hf isotopes of the Early Jurassic bimodal-like volcanic sequence around Dagze area, south Tibet. The volcanic sequence comprises calc-alkaline basalts to rhyolites whereas intermediate components are volumetrically restricted. Zircons from a basaltic andesite yielded crystallization age of 178Ma whereas those from 5 silicic rocks were dated at 183-174Ma, which suggest that both the basaltic and the silicic rocks are coeval. The basaltic rocks are enriched in LREE and LILE, and depleted in HFSE, with Epsilon Nd(t) of 1.6-4.0 and zircon Epsilon Hf(t) of 0.7-11.8, which implies that they were derived from a heterogenetic mantle source metasomatized by subduction components. Trace element geochemistry shows that the basaltic rocks are compositionally transitional from normal mid-ocean ridge basalts (N-MORB) to island arc basalts (IAB, e.g. Zedong arc basalts of ~160-155Ma in the south margin of Lhasa Terrane), with the signature of immature back-arc basin basalts. The silicic rocks display similar Nd-Hf isotopic features of the Gangdese batholith with Epsilon Nd(t) of 0.9-3.4 and zircon Epsilon Hf(t) of 2.4-17.7, indicating that they were possibly generated by anatexis of basaltic juvenile lower crust, instead of derived from the basaltic magma. These results support an Early to Middle Jurassic (183-155Ma) model that the back-arc extension tectonic setting were existing in the active continental margin in the south Lhasa Terrane.

  18. Paleomagnetism in northern Alaska (and the career of David Symons), from displaced terranes on the west coast of North America to the age dating of base metal ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewchuk, M. T.; Leach, D.; Kelley, K.; Symons, D. T.; Elmore, R. D.; Foucher, J.

    2004-05-01

    Paleomagnetism of barren and mineralized Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the Red Dog Zn-Pb deposit in the Brooks Range Mountains of northern Alaska isolated several components. Mineralized and barren rocks with quartz alteration have a steep west-southwesterly magnetization retained by magnetite (N=16, D=247, I=73, k=73). Fluid inclusions indicate that the quartz formed during deep burial and Ar/Ar dating yielded an age of 126 Ma. Heavily mineralized rocks plus mineralized shales lacking quartz replacement have a shallower southwesterly magnetization carried by pyrrhotite (N=11, D=220, I=51, k=28). Geological features and Re/Os dating indicate that the ore formed in the late Paleozoic. A Mississippian igneous sill (344 Ma, Ar/Ar) in the mine has a southwest and shallow magnetization carried by magnetite (1 site). Ultramafic igneous intrusive rocks from Asik Mountain ~100 kms south of Red Dog, have been indirectly dated at about 150 Ma (K/Ar) and have a west-southwesterly magnetization carried by magnetite (N=11, D=255, I=82, k=19). Tectonic models for the Mesozoic origin of northern Alaska can be grouped into three categories: 1) contiguous to ancestral of North America; 2) peri-autochthonous with angular displacements; and, 3) allochthonous terranes accreted to ancestral North America. The combination of geologic, radiometric and paleomagnetic data from Red Dog allows for both testing of the models and paleomagnetic dating of the Red Dog ores. The data can only be collectively explained by Mississippian syngenetic mineralization and pyrrhotite magnetization, Mesozoic northward translation and counterclockwise rotation of a displaced terrane (aka "The Alaskan Terrane Wreck") and, finally, deep burial resulting in remagnetization of some of the ores associated with quartz replacement.

  19. Chronologic constraints on the tectonic evolution of the Wilson Lake terrane of the Grenville Province, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reno, B. L.; Korhonen, F. J.; Stout, J. H.; Waight, T.

    2010-12-01

    The Wilson Lake terrane in central Labrador, Canada is one of a number of terranes that make up the Grenville Province, representing the northern extent of the Grenville Orogen in North America. Many of these terranes record evidence of two orogenies: the Labradorian Orogeny at ca. 1710-1600 Ma, and the Grenville Orogeny at ca. 1080-980 Ma. The rocks in the Wilson Lake terrane are interpreted to have been subjected to peak pressures of ~0.95 GPa and ~930°C during the Labradorian Orogeny (Korhonen et al., in prep., Stability of sapphirine + quartz in the Wilson Lake terrane: calculated equilibria in NCKFMASHTO). The final amalgamation of the Wilson Lake terrane over the underlying Parautochthonous Belt is interpreted to have occurred during the Grenville Orogeny, when the terrane was subjected to a lower-T (500-350°C) overprinting. However, petrologic and chronologic evidence for the Grenville orogeny is limited in the Wilson Lake terrane. Here we present results from a monazite chemical (U-Th)-Pb chronologic study in order to provide constraints on the metamorphic history of the Wilson Lake terrane. Monazite was analyzed in samples of orthopyroxene + sillimanite + quartz bearing and sapphirine + quartz bearing gneisses from throughout the Wilson Lake terrane. These samples contain two distinct populations of monazite: 1) a population of large (up to ~500 μm) monazite exhibits distinct core and rim zoning in yttrium X-ray compositional maps, and occurs predominately in the melanosome of the rocks, and 2) a population of smaller (up to ~50 μm) unzoned monazite rarely occurs in quartz-rich layers of the rocks. In a majority of the melanosome-hosted monazite, (U-Th)-Pb chemical ages yield cores and rims with statistically similar Labradorian ages of ca. 1705-1675 Ma. However, one sample from the middle of the terrane yields monazite grains with Labradorian age cores (ca. 1710 Ma) and post-Labradorian rims (ca. 1590 Ma). Monazite from the second, quartz

  20. ACCRETION OUTBURSTS IN CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Lubow, S. H.; Martin, R. G.

    2012-04-20

    We describe a model for the long-term evolution of a circumplanetary disk that is fed mass from a circumstellar disk and contains regions of low turbulence (dead zones). We show that such disks can be subject to accretion-driven outbursts, analogous to outbursts previously modeled in the context of circumstellar disks to explain FU Ori phenomena. Circumplanetary disks around a proto-Jupiter can undergo outbursts for infall accretion rates onto the disks in the range M-dot{sub infall} approx. 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -7} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, typical of accretion rates in the T Tauri phase. During outbursts, the accretion rate and disk luminosity increases by several orders of magnitude. Most of the planet mass growth during planetary gas accretion may occur via disk outbursts involving gas that is considerably hotter than predicted by steady state models. For low infall accretion rates M-dot{sub infall} {approx}< 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} that occur in late stages of disk accretion, disk outbursts are unlikely to occur, even if dead zones are present. Such conditions are favorable for the formation of icy satellites.

  1. The pressure-temperature-time evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula - magmatic arc and/or terrane tectonics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, A. S.; Vidal, O.; Vaughan, A.

    2003-04-01

    The tectonic mobility in orogenic systems requires that the geologic history of each rock unit must be evaluated on the merits of the information gleaned more from individual outcrops than from regional generalisation. Continental margins affected by tectonic processes commonly have a region where the stratigraphic elements should be considered suspect in regard to palaeogeographic linkages both among the elements and between each element and the adjoining continent. Such occurrences might be considered as a natural consequence of the mobility and transient state of oceanic crust so that exotic far-travelled crustal fragments can be expected. The collision of those fragments and their distribution patterns reflect in general a combination of several tectonic phases such as overthrusting, stitching of plutons along the contact and welding metamorphism. The Antarctic Peninsula is an example "par excellence" for testing those tectonic processes occurring along continental margins. Prior to Mid-Jurassic times, the peninsula in its entity is thought to have formed a part of the palaeo-Pacific margin. East-directed subduction along the margin occurred during Mesozoic-Tertiary times producing a magmatic arc complex, in which volcanic and plutonic rocks are distributed widely along the length of the peninsula. However, recent discoveries suggest also that the Antarctic Peninsula is composed of at least two terranes in transpressional contact with para-autochthonous continental Gondwana margin. The reconstruction of the geological history becomes a challenging task in the hostile environment of the Antarctic where individual outcrops are scattered over large geographical distances, and structural relationships are obscured by thick layers of ice. In this work, we are attempting to correlate for the first time the pressure-temperature-time evolution of metamorphic rocks parallel to the spine of the peninsula and their structural relationship to the volcanic and plutonic

  2. Terrane-controlled crustal shear wave splitting in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okaya, David; Christensen, Nikolas I.; Ross, Zachary E.; Wu, Francis T.

    2016-01-01

    Taiwan is the result of arc-continent collision associated with the convergence of the Philippine Sea plate with the eastern Eurasian plate continental margin. The locus of deformation is found in eastern Taiwan in the form of mountain building (Central Range) with underlying thickened lithosphere. Rapid tectonic exhumation in the Central Range has uncovered low-to-high-grade metamorphic rocks marked by steep cleavage. We carried out a crustal seismic anisotropy study across Taiwan, producing a database of over 27,000 local earthquake shear wave splitting measurements. Additionally, we carried out rock physics measurements of metamorphic outcrop samples to quantify shear wave rock anisotropy. We produced a map of station-averaged splitting measurements across Taiwan. Patterns of fast shear wave directions correlate with tectonic terranes produced by plate convergence. Deformation-related mineral-preferred orientation in the metamorphic rocks produces a significant amount of the crustal anisotropy in the Taiwan collision zone.

  3. Exploring a contagion model for karst terrane evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kemmerly, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical and geomorphic implications of a contagion model of karst depression and initiation are explored with particular emphasis on (1) identifying the parent versus daughter depression subpopulations; (2) analyzing the spatial characteristics of each subpopulation; and (3) defining the contagious karst mechanism and hot it is transmitted along solution-enlarged joints. The contagious karst mechanism suggests that the presence of one or more parent depressions does increase the the probability of daughter depressions developing along solution-enlarged joints that radiate outward from beneath parent depressions. In karst terranes where the contagious model applies, a well defined infrastructure exists with several important elements. The interaction of these elements in the infrastructure result in depressions occurring in clusters. The clusters tend to be randomly distributed and consist typically of a centrally located parent depression surrounded by numerous daughter depressions.

  4. Dynamics of core accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Ruffert, Maximilian

    2013-02-01

    We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of gas flowing around a planetary core of mass Mpl = 10M⊕ embedded in a near Keplerian background flow, using a modified shearing box approximation. We assume an ideal gas behaviour following an equation of state with a fixed ratio of the specific heats, γ = 1.42, consistent with the conditions of a moderate-temperature background disc with solar composition. No radiative heating or cooling is included in the models. We employ a nested grid hydrodynamic code implementing the `Piecewise Parabolic Method' with as many as six fixed nested grids, providing spatial resolution on the finest grid comparable to the present-day diameters of Neptune and Uranus. We find that a strongly dynamically active flow develops such that no static envelope can form. The activity is not sensitive to plausible variations in the rotation curve of the underlying disc. It is sensitive to the thermodynamic treatment of the gas, as modelled by prescribed equations of state (either `locally isothermal' or `locally isentropic') and the temperature of the background disc material. The activity is also sensitive to the shape and depth of the core's gravitational potential, through its mass and gravitational softening coefficient. Each of these factors influences the magnitude and character of hydrodynamic feedback of the small-scale flow on the background, and we conclude that accurate modelling of such feedback is critical to a complete understanding of the core accretion process. The varying flow pattern gives rise to large, irregular eruptions of matter from the region around the core which return matter to the background flow: mass in the envelope at one time may not be found in the envelope at any later time. No net mass accretion into the envelope is observed over the course of the simulation and none is expected, due to our neglect of cooling. Except in cases of very rapid cooling however, as defined by locally isothermal or

  5. Dynamics of core accretion

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Ruffert, Maximilian

    2012-12-21

    In this paper, we perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of gas flowing around a planetary core of mass Mpl = 10M⊕ embedded in a near Keplerian background flow, using a modified shearing box approximation. We assume an ideal gas behaviour following an equation of state with a fixed ratio of the specific heats, γ = 1.42, consistent with the conditions of a moderate-temperature background disc with solar composition. No radiative heating or cooling is included in the models. We employ a nested grid hydrodynamic code implementing the ‘Piecewise Parabolic Method’ with as many as six fixed nested grids, providing spatial resolutionmore » on the finest grid comparable to the present-day diameters of Neptune and Uranus. We find that a strongly dynamically active flow develops such that no static envelope can form. The activity is not sensitive to plausible variations in the rotation curve of the underlying disc. It is sensitive to the thermodynamic treatment of the gas, as modelled by prescribed equations of state (either ‘locally isothermal’ or ‘locally isentropic’) and the temperature of the background disc material. The activity is also sensitive to the shape and depth of the core's gravitational potential, through its mass and gravitational softening coefficient. Each of these factors influences the magnitude and character of hydrodynamic feedback of the small-scale flow on the background, and we conclude that accurate modelling of such feedback is critical to a complete understanding of the core accretion process. The varying flow pattern gives rise to large, irregular eruptions of matter from the region around the core which return matter to the background flow: mass in the envelope at one time may not be found in the envelope at any later time. No net mass accretion into the envelope is observed over the course of the simulation and none is expected, due to our neglect of cooling. Except in cases of very rapid cooling however, as

  6. Dynamics of core accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Ruffert, Maximilian

    2012-12-21

    In this paper, we perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of gas flowing around a planetary core of mass Mpl = 10M embedded in a near Keplerian background flow, using a modified shearing box approximation. We assume an ideal gas behaviour following an equation of state with a fixed ratio of the specific heats, γ = 1.42, consistent with the conditions of a moderate-temperature background disc with solar composition. No radiative heating or cooling is included in the models. We employ a nested grid hydrodynamic code implementing the ‘Piecewise Parabolic Method’ with as many as six fixed nested grids, providing spatial resolution on the finest grid comparable to the present-day diameters of Neptune and Uranus. We find that a strongly dynamically active flow develops such that no static envelope can form. The activity is not sensitive to plausible variations in the rotation curve of the underlying disc. It is sensitive to the thermodynamic treatment of the gas, as modelled by prescribed equations of state (either ‘locally isothermal’ or ‘locally isentropic’) and the temperature of the background disc material. The activity is also sensitive to the shape and depth of the core's gravitational potential, through its mass and gravitational softening coefficient. Each of these factors influences the magnitude and character of hydrodynamic feedback of the small-scale flow on the background, and we conclude that accurate modelling of such feedback is critical to a complete understanding of the core accretion process. The varying flow pattern gives rise to large, irregular eruptions of matter from the region around the core which return matter to the background flow: mass in the envelope at one time may not be found in the envelope at any later time. No net mass accretion into the envelope is observed over the course of the simulation and none is expected, due to our neglect of cooling. Except in cases of very rapid cooling

  7. Accretion characteristics in intermediate polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Tracey Louise

    This thesis concerns the class of interacting binaries known as intermediate polars (IPs). These are semi-detached magnetic cataclysmic variable systems in which a red dwarf secondary transfers material via Roche lobe overflow onto a white dwarf (WD). The magnetic field of the white dwarf (~10 6 to 10 7 Gauss) plays an important part in determining the type of accretion flow from the secondary. In chapter 1, I discuss binary systems in general, moving on to a more in depth look at Intermediate polars (IPs), their geometry and characteristics, ending with a brief look at all known IPs to date. In the first part of the thesis I present an analysis of the X-ray lightcurves in 16 IPs in order to examine the possible cause of the orbital modulation. I show that X-ray orbital modulation is widespread amongst IN, but not ubiquitous. The orbital modulation is most likely due to photoelectric absorption in material at the edge of the accretion disk. Assuming a random distribution of inclination angles, the fact that such a modulation is seen in seven systems out of sixteen studied (plus two eclipsing systems) implies that modulations are visible at inclination angles in excess of 60°. It is also apparent that these modulations can appear and disappear on timescales of ~years or months in an individual system, which may be evidence for precessing, tilted accretion disks. In the second half of the thesis I use a particle hydrodynamical code known as HyDisc, to investigate the accretion flows in IPs, as a function of parameter space for two dipole models. One where we assume that the density and size scale of the blobs being accreted are constant which we refer to as the n 6 model, and the other where the size scale and density of the accreted blobs are not constant referred to as the n 3 model. I show that the accretion flow can take the form of an accretion disk, accretion stream, propeller accretion and ring accretion for the n 3 model and stream and disk accretion in the

  8. Modes of crustal accretion and their implications for hydrothermal circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theissen-Krah, Sonja; Rüpke, Lars H.; Hasenclever, Jörg

    2016-02-01

    Hydrothermal convection at mid-ocean ridges links the ocean's long-term chemical evolution to solid earth processes, forms hydrothermal ore deposits, and sustains the unique chemosynthetic vent fauna. Yet the depth extent of hydrothermal cooling and the inseparably connected question of how the lower crust accretes remain poorly constrained. Here based on coupled models of crustal accretion and hydrothermal circulation, we provide new insights into which modes of lower crust formation and hydrothermal cooling are thermally viable and most consistent with observations at fast-spreading ridges. We integrate numerical models with observations of melt lens depth, thermal structure, and melt fraction. Models matching all these observations always require a deep crustal-scale hydrothermal flow component and less than 50% of the lower crust crystallizing in situ.

  9. He-accreting white dwarfs: accretion regimes and final outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piersanti, L.; Tornambé, A.; Yungelson, L. R.

    2014-12-01

    The behaviour of carbon-oxygen (CO) white dwarfs (WDs) subject to direct helium accretion is extensively studied. We aim to analyse the thermal response of an accreting WD to mass deposition at different timescales. The analysis has been performed for initial WD masses and accretion rates in the range 0.60-1.02 M⊙ and 10-9-10-5 M⊙ yr-1, respectively. Thermal regimes in the parameter space MWD-dot{M}_He leading to formation of red-giant-like structures, steady burning of He, and mild, strong and dynamical flashes have been identified and the transition between these regimes has been studied in detail. In particular, the physical properties of WDs experiencing the He-flash accretion regime have been investigated to determine the mass retention efficiency as a function of the accretor total mass and accretion rate. We also discuss to what extent the building up of a He-rich layer via H burning could be described according to the behaviour of models accreting He-rich matter directly. Polynomial fits to the obtained results are provided for use in binary population synthesis computations. Several applications for close binary systems with He-rich donors and CO WD accretors are considered and the relevance of the results for interpreting He novae is discussed.

  10. Late Triassic paleomagnetic result from the Baoshan Terrane, West Yunnan of China: Implication for orientation of the East Paleotethys suture zone and timing of the Sibumasu-Indochina collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; Huang, Baochun; Yan, Yonggang; Zhang, Donghai

    2015-11-01

    In order to better understand the paleogeographic position of the Baoshan Terrane in the northernmost part of the Sibumasu Block during formation of the Pangea supercontinent, a paleomagnetic study has been conducted on Late Triassic basaltic lavas from the southern part of the Baoshan Terrane in the West Yunnan region of Southwest China. Following detailed rock magnetic investigations and progressive thermal demagnetization, stable characteristic remanent magnetizations (ChRMs) were successfully isolated from Late Triassic Niuhetang lava flows. The ChRMs are of dual polarity and pass fold and reversal tests with magnetic carriers dominated by magnetite and subordinate oxidation-induced hematite; we thus interpret them as a primary remanence. This new paleomagnetic result indicates that the Baoshan Terrane was located at low paleolatitudes of ∼15°N in the Northern Hemisphere during Late Triassic times. Together with available paleomagnetic data from the Baoshan Terrane and surrounding areas, a wider paleomagnetic comparison supports the view that the East Paleotethys Ocean separated the Sibumasu and Indochina blocks and closed no later than Late Triassic times. We argue that the currently approximately north-to-south directed Changning-Menglian suture zone is very likely to have been oriented nearly east-to-west at the time of the Sibumasu-Indochina collision.

  11. Age and origin of the Lomonosov Ridge: a key continental fragment in Arctic Ocean reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcussen, Christian; Knudsen, Christian; Hopper, John R.; Funck, Thomas; Ineson, Jon R.; Bjerager, Morten

    2015-04-01

    -Ordovician M'Clintock orogeny that affected the Pearya terrane, which forms the northernmost part of Ellesmere Island. The Pearya Terrane has long been considered an exotic terrane in the Canadian Arctic because the Proterozoic and early Paleozoic geological history has much in common with rocks on Svalbard, along East Greenland, and other parts of the Caledonides, but not with the rocks of the Franklinian Basin and other parts of the northern Laurentian margin. The M'Clintock orogeny is interpreted to be related to the earliest phase of the Caledonian orogenic activity and the Pearya terrane is a commonly considered as small piece of Baltica that accreted to northern Ellesmere Island, probably sometime in the late Paleozoic during the Ellesmerian orogeny. These results from the Lomonosov Ridge provide an important new constraint on post-Caledonian plate tectonic configurations in the Arctic region, prior to the opening of the Amerasia and Eurasia basins.

  12. Ocmulgee fault: The Piedmont-Avalon terrane boundary in central Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, R.J. ); Hatcher, R.D. Jr. )

    1990-08-01

    The Ocmulgee fault is a fundamental boundary within the Piedmont of central Georgia separating North American, Piedmont terrane rocks from exotic rocks of the Avalon (Carolina) terrane. Contrasts in stratigraphy, metamorphic grade, and aeromagnetic signature coincide with the fault trace. The fault comprises a broad zone (ca. 2 km) of foliation dipping steeply southeast and containing localized syn- and post-thermal-peak right-lateral strike-slip shear zones. Oblique dextral convergence between the Avalon and Peidmont terranes, most likely around 350 Ma, produced the steep zone and its attendant dextral shear zones. Steep foliation within the fault zone resulted in its predisposition to later faulting.

  13. Dynamics of continental accretion.

    PubMed

    Moresi, L; Betts, P G; Miller, M S; Cayley, R A

    2014-04-10

    Subduction zones become congested when they try to consume buoyant, exotic crust. The accretionary mountain belts (orogens) that form at these convergent plate margins have been the principal sites of lateral continental growth through Earth's history. Modern examples of accretionary margins are the North American Cordilleras and southwest Pacific subduction zones. The geologic record contains abundant accretionary orogens, such as the Tasmanides, along the eastern margin of the supercontinent Gondwana, and the Altaïdes, which formed on the southern margin of Laurasia. In modern and ancient examples of long-lived accretionary orogens, the overriding plate is subjected to episodes of crustal extension and back-arc basin development, often related to subduction rollback and transient episodes of orogenesis and crustal shortening, coincident with accretion of exotic crust. Here we present three-dimensional dynamic models that show how accretionary margins evolve from the initial collision, through a period of plate margin instability, to re-establishment of a stable convergent margin. The models illustrate how significant curvature of the orogenic system develops, as well as the mechanism for tectonic escape of the back-arc region. The complexity of the morphology and the evolution of the system are caused by lateral rollback of a tightly arcuate trench migrating parallel to the plate boundary and orthogonally to the convergence direction. We find geological and geophysical evidence for this process in the Tasmanides of eastern Australia, and infer that this is a recurrent and global phenomenon.

  14. Accretion disc origin of the Earth's water.

    PubMed

    Vattuone, Luca; Smerieri, Marco; Savio, Letizia; Asaduzzaman, Abu Md; Muralidharan, Krishna; Drake, Michael J; Rocca, Mario

    2013-07-13

    Earth's water is conventionally believed to be delivered by comets or wet asteroids after the Earth formed. However, their elemental and isotopic properties are inconsistent with those of the Earth. It was thus proposed that water was introduced by adsorption onto grains in the accretion disc prior to planetary growth, with bonding energies so high as to be stable under high-temperature conditions. Here, we show both by laboratory experiments and numerical simulations that water adsorbs dissociatively on the olivine {100} surface at the temperature (approx. 500-1500 K) and water pressure (approx. 10⁻⁸ bar) expected for the accretion disc, leaving an OH adlayer that is stable at least up to 900 K. This may result in the formation of many Earth oceans, provided that a viable mechanism to produce water from hydroxyl exists. This adsorption process must occur in all disc environments around young stars. The inevitable conclusion is that water should be prevalent on terrestrial planets in the habitable zone around other stars. PMID:23734050

  15. Accretion disc origin of the Earth's water.

    PubMed

    Vattuone, Luca; Smerieri, Marco; Savio, Letizia; Asaduzzaman, Abu Md; Muralidharan, Krishna; Drake, Michael J; Rocca, Mario

    2013-07-13

    Earth's water is conventionally believed to be delivered by comets or wet asteroids after the Earth formed. However, their elemental and isotopic properties are inconsistent with those of the Earth. It was thus proposed that water was introduced by adsorption onto grains in the accretion disc prior to planetary growth, with bonding energies so high as to be stable under high-temperature conditions. Here, we show both by laboratory experiments and numerical simulations that water adsorbs dissociatively on the olivine {100} surface at the temperature (approx. 500-1500 K) and water pressure (approx. 10⁻⁸ bar) expected for the accretion disc, leaving an OH adlayer that is stable at least up to 900 K. This may result in the formation of many Earth oceans, provided that a viable mechanism to produce water from hydroxyl exists. This adsorption process must occur in all disc environments around young stars. The inevitable conclusion is that water should be prevalent on terrestrial planets in the habitable zone around other stars.

  16. ACCRETING CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS: OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2015-01-20

    I calculate the spectral energy distributions of accreting circumplanetary disks using atmospheric radiative transfer models. Circumplanetary disks only accreting at 10{sup –10} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} around a 1 M{sub J} planet can be brighter than the planet itself. A moderately accreting circumplanetary disk ( M-dot ∼10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}; enough to form a 10 M{sub J} planet within 1 Myr) around a 1 M{sub J} planet has a maximum temperature of ∼2000 K, and at near-infrared wavelengths (J, H, K bands), this disk is as bright as a late-M-type brown dwarf or a 10 M{sub J} planet with a ''hot start''. To use direct imaging to find the accretion disks around low-mass planets (e.g., 1 M{sub J} ) and distinguish them from brown dwarfs or hot high-mass planets, it is crucial to obtain photometry at mid-infrared bands (L', M, N bands) because the emission from circumplanetary disks falls off more slowly toward longer wavelengths than those of brown dwarfs or planets. If young planets have strong magnetic fields (≳100 G), fields may truncate slowly accreting circumplanetary disks ( M-dot ≲10{sup −9} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) and lead to magnetospheric accretion, which can provide additional accretion signatures, such as UV/optical excess from the accretion shock and line emission.

  17. Oceanic island arc stratigraphy in the Caribbean region: don't take it for granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larue, D. K.; Smith, A. L.; Schellekens, J. H.

    1991-11-01

    reflect arc development on thick oceanic crust (for example, a plateau). Submarine volcanic arc facies associations (OADS II) occur only in the northern Virgin Islands (Water Island Formation) and Bonaire (Washikemba Formation). Typically, great structural thicknesses (5-10 km) of arc-related strata are preserved, although condensed arc sequences built upon accreted terranes are present locally (southwest Puerto Rico, Grenada). On Grenada, the active magmatic platform is underlain by overthrust forearc(?) basin strata, indicating that magmatic platforms may grow by means other than volcanic aggradation.

  18. How do accretion discs break?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Suzan

    2016-07-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. In this study, we first calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. We compare the disc precession torque with the disc viscous torque to determine whether the disc should warp or break. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. To check our analytical findings, we perform 3D hydrodynamical numerical simulations using the PHANTOM smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and enhances accretion on to the central object. For some inclinations, the disc goes through strong Kozai cycles. Disc breaking promotes markedly enhanced and variable accretion and potentially produces high-energy particles or radiation through shocks. This would have significant implications for all binary systems: e.g. accretion outbursts in X-ray binaries and fuelling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. The behaviour we have discussed in this work is relevant to a variety of astrophysical systems, for example X-ray binaries, where the disc plane may be tilted by radiation warping, SMBH binaries, where accretion of misaligned gas can create effectively random inclinations and protostellar binaries, where a disc may be misaligned by a variety of effects such as binary capture/exchange, accretion after binary formation.

  19. The Siuna Serpentinite Melange: An Early Cretaceous Subduction/Accretion of a Jurassic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, K.; Baumgartner, P. O.; Skora, S.; Baumgartner, L.; Muntener, O.; Cosca, M.; Cruz, D.

    2007-12-01

    The Siuna Serpentinite Mélange (SSM), located in northeastern Nicaragua, is a small tectonic window of a large assemblage, the Mesquito Oceanic Terranes (MOT). The SSM was subducted during the Early Cretaceous at the border of continental Chortis Block (sensu stricto). The occurrence of the SSM is in conflict with the current plate tectonic schemes. The pre-Albian, N-S striking subduction-related mélange of SSM zone is exposed SW of the town of Siuna. It consists of metamorphosed, Ca-depleted ultramafic rocks. Relict Cr-rich spinel (Cr # 0.57-0.79) in serpentinites and chromite pods indicates a high degree of melting. The serpentinite matrix contains blocks of sedimentary and igneous origin. Late Bajocian-early Bathonian (169-167 Ma) red- ribbon-bedded radiolarites are in sedimentary contact with greenstones (calc-alkaline metandesites) and volcanic arenites. Middle Oxfordian to late Kimmeridgian/early Tithonian (159-151/148 Ma) black radiolarian-rich cherts, minor shales and siliceous mudstones blocks were found, as well as quartzites, metasandstones and riebeckite-rich metaturbidites. Furthermore, various metamafic rocks including gabbros can be found. This indicates an oceanic setting for the mélange blocks. The metamafic rocks of the mélange exhibit assemblages corresponding to different metamorphic conditions. They range from typical greenschist and amphibolite facies assemblages to high pressure barroisite bearing greenschists. Possible blueschist to eclogite facies conditions are indicated by mica schist with silica rich phengites yielding 139.2 ± 0.4 Ma 40 Ar/39Ar geochronology and blocks containing garnet with inclusions of aegirine/omphacite. Hence, the SSM resembles typical subduction zone mélanges (e.g. Franciscan, Motagua). It exposes parts of a major zone of oceanic terranes of pacific origin, the MOT, that are placed between the Chortis Block and the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP). The overlap sequence documents Aptian/Albian deep

  20. Baseline Assessment of Net Calcium Carbonate Accretion Rates on U.S. Pacific Reefs.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Ángel, Bernardo; Richards, Cristi L; Vroom, Peter S; Price, Nichole N; Schils, Tom; Young, Charles W; Smith, Jennifer; Johnson, Maggie D; Brainard, Russell E

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive quantitative baseline assessment of in situ net calcium carbonate accretion rates (g CaCO3 cm(-2) yr(-1)) of early successional recruitment communities on Calcification Accretion Unit (CAU) plates deployed on coral reefs at 78 discrete sites, across 11 islands in the central and south Pacific Oceans. Accretion rates varied substantially within and between islands, reef zones, levels of wave exposure, and island geomorphology. For forereef sites, mean accretion rates were the highest at Rose Atoll, Jarvis, and Swains Islands, and the lowest at Johnston Atoll and Tutuila. A comparison between reef zones showed higher accretion rates on forereefs compared to lagoon sites; mean accretion rates were also higher on windward than leeward sites but only for a subset of islands. High levels of spatial variability in net carbonate accretion rates reported herein draw attention to the heterogeneity of the community assemblages. Percent cover of key early successional taxa on CAU plates did not reflect that of the mature communities present on surrounding benthos, possibly due to the short deployment period (2 years) of the experimental units. Yet, net CaCO3 accretion rates were positively correlated with crustose coralline algae (CCA) percent cover on the surrounding benthos and on the CAU plates, which on average represented >70% of the accreted material. For foreeefs and lagoon sites combined CaCO3 accretion rates were statistically correlated with total alkalinity and Chlorophyll-a; a GAM analysis indicated that SiOH and Halimeda were the best predictor variables of accretion rates on lagoon sites, and total alkalinity and Chlorophyll-a for forereef sites, demonstrating the utility of CAUs as a tool to monitor changes in reef accretion rates as they relate to ocean acidification. This study underscores the pivotal role CCA play as a key benthic component and supporting actively calcifying reefs; high Mg-calcite exoskeletons makes CCA

  1. Baseline Assessment of Net Calcium Carbonate Accretion Rates on U.S. Pacific Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Ángel, Bernardo; Richards, Cristi L.; Vroom, Peter S.; Price, Nichole N.; Schils, Tom; Young, Charles W.; Smith, Jennifer; Johnson, Maggie D.; Brainard, Russell E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive quantitative baseline assessment of in situ net calcium carbonate accretion rates (g CaCO3 cm-2 yr-1) of early successional recruitment communities on Calcification Accretion Unit (CAU) plates deployed on coral reefs at 78 discrete sites, across 11 islands in the central and south Pacific Oceans. Accretion rates varied substantially within and between islands, reef zones, levels of wave exposure, and island geomorphology. For forereef sites, mean accretion rates were the highest at Rose Atoll, Jarvis, and Swains Islands, and the lowest at Johnston Atoll and Tutuila. A comparison between reef zones showed higher accretion rates on forereefs compared to lagoon sites; mean accretion rates were also higher on windward than leeward sites but only for a subset of islands. High levels of spatial variability in net carbonate accretion rates reported herein draw attention to the heterogeneity of the community assemblages. Percent cover of key early successional taxa on CAU plates did not reflect that of the mature communities present on surrounding benthos, possibly due to the short deployment period (2 years) of the experimental units. Yet, net CaCO3 accretion rates were positively correlated with crustose coralline algae (CCA) percent cover on the surrounding benthos and on the CAU plates, which on average represented >70% of the accreted material. For foreeefs and lagoon sites combined CaCO3 accretion rates were statistically correlated with total alkalinity and Chlorophyll-a; a GAM analysis indicated that SiOH and Halimeda were the best predictor variables of accretion rates on lagoon sites, and total alkalinity and Chlorophyll-a for forereef sites, demonstrating the utility of CAUs as a tool to monitor changes in reef accretion rates as they relate to ocean acidification. This study underscores the pivotal role CCA play as a key benthic component and supporting actively calcifying reefs; high Mg-calcite exoskeletons makes CCA

  2. Baseline Assessment of Net Calcium Carbonate Accretion Rates on U.S. Pacific Reefs.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Ángel, Bernardo; Richards, Cristi L; Vroom, Peter S; Price, Nichole N; Schils, Tom; Young, Charles W; Smith, Jennifer; Johnson, Maggie D; Brainard, Russell E

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive quantitative baseline assessment of in situ net calcium carbonate accretion rates (g CaCO3 cm(-2) yr(-1)) of early successional recruitment communities on Calcification Accretion Unit (CAU) plates deployed on coral reefs at 78 discrete sites, across 11 islands in the central and south Pacific Oceans. Accretion rates varied substantially within and between islands, reef zones, levels of wave exposure, and island geomorphology. For forereef sites, mean accretion rates were the highest at Rose Atoll, Jarvis, and Swains Islands, and the lowest at Johnston Atoll and Tutuila. A comparison between reef zones showed higher accretion rates on forereefs compared to lagoon sites; mean accretion rates were also higher on windward than leeward sites but only for a subset of islands. High levels of spatial variability in net carbonate accretion rates reported herein draw attention to the heterogeneity of the community assemblages. Percent cover of key early successional taxa on CAU plates did not reflect that of the mature communities present on surrounding benthos, possibly due to the short deployment period (2 years) of the experimental units. Yet, net CaCO3 accretion rates were positively correlated with crustose coralline algae (CCA) percent cover on the surrounding benthos and on the CAU plates, which on average represented >70% of the accreted material. For foreeefs and lagoon sites combined CaCO3 accretion rates were statistically correlated with total alkalinity and Chlorophyll-a; a GAM analysis indicated that SiOH and Halimeda were the best predictor variables of accretion rates on lagoon sites, and total alkalinity and Chlorophyll-a for forereef sites, demonstrating the utility of CAUs as a tool to monitor changes in reef accretion rates as they relate to ocean acidification. This study underscores the pivotal role CCA play as a key benthic component and supporting actively calcifying reefs; high Mg-calcite exoskeletons makes CCA

  3. Pennsylvanian pluton stitching of Wrangellia and the Alexander terrane, Wrangell Mountains, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, M.C.; Bergman, S.C.; Cushing, G.W. ); Plafker, G. ); Campbell, R.B.; Dodds, C.J. ); McClelland, W.C. ); Mueller, P.A. ); MacKevett, E.M. Jr.

    1988-11-01

    A quartz monzonite-syenite-alkali granite plutonic complex in eastern Alaska crosscuts the contact of the Alexander terrane and Wrangellia and intrudes the basement rocks of both terranes. Zircon U-Pb data indicate an intrusion age of 309 {plus minus} 5 Ma (Middle Pennsylvanian) for the pluton, and {sup 40}K-{sup 40}Ar age for hornblende separates indicate cooling to about 450 C during Middle Pennsylvanian-Early Permian time. The new field relations and age data demonstrate the Wrangellia and the Alexander terrane were contiguous during the Middle Pennsylvanian. This conclusion provides an important new constraint on paleogeographic reconstructions of the northwest Cordillera, and necessitates reassessment of stratigraphic and paleomagnetic data that were cited as evidence that the terranes evolved separately until the late Mesozoic.

  4. Paleozoic paleomagnetism and northward drift of the Alexander Terrane, southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Der Voo, Rob; Jones, Meridee; Gromme, C. Sherman; Eberlein, G. Donald; Churkin, Michael, Jr.

    1980-10-01

    Paleozoic limestone, graywacke, sandstone, milestone, red beds and volcanic rocks of the Alexander terrane, southeastern Alaska, have yielded six paleomagnetic pole positions after thermal and alternating-field demagnetization. These poles are from sample groups of late Middle Ordovician, Late Ordovician, Devonian, Late Devonian, and early and late Carboniferous age. To test various tectonic models for the structural development of this part of western North America, the paleomagnetic results are compared to those for the North American craton. It is found that the observed inclination and declination values deviate significantly from the values predicted for the present-day position of the Alexander terrane (55.5N, 133.5W). Better matching can be obtained for a paleoposition of the terrane at about 40N, 120W, in the present position of western Nevada and northeastern California. In addition, an in situ 25° clockwise rotation of the terrane is required to restore it to its original position.

  5. Evolution of a steam atmosphere during Earth's accretion.

    PubMed

    Zahnle, K J; Kasting, J F; Pollack, J B

    1988-01-01

    We have modeled the evolution of an impact-generated steam atmosphere surrounding an accreting Earth. The model assumes Safronov accretion; it includes degassing of planetesimals upon impact, thermal blanketing by a steam atmosphere, interchange of water between the surface and the interior, shock heating and convective cooling of Earth's interior, and hydrogen escape, both by a solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) powered planetary wind and by impact erosion (atmospheric cratering). The model does not include atmophiles other than water, chemical reaction of water with metallic iron, core formation, compression, and spatial and temporal inhomogeneity of accretion. If the incoming planetesimals were too dry or the EUV flux too high, very little water would accumulate at the surface. Essentially all water retained by such a planet would be through rehydration of silicates. If rehydration were inefficient, very little water would be retained in any form. Degassing of wetter planetesimals produces a steam atmosphere over a magma ocean, the energy of accretion being sufficient to maintain a runaway greenhouse atmosphere. The mass of the atmosphere is limited by water's solubility in the (partial) melt. This type of solution is produced for a wide range of model parameters. During accretion, approximately 30 bars of water could have kept the surface at 1500 degrees K. As the accretional energy input declined below the runaway greenhouse threshold, the steam atmosphere rained out. Outgassing of dissolved water at the close of accretion is quantitatively important. These models can leave from approximately 100 to more than 300 bars of water at the surface at the close of accretion. In general, most of the water accreted remains dissolved in the mantle. H2 could have escaped as rapidly as it formed only if the planetesimals were relatively dry. Consequently H2 should have accumulated until it reached chemical equilibrium with water vapor. Impact erosion (escape caused by impact

  6. Magmatism of the Shuteen Complex and Carboniferous subduction of the Gurvansaikhan terrane, South Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batkhishig, Bayaraa; Noriyoshi, Tsuchiya; Greg, Bignall

    2010-03-01

    The Carboniferous Shuteen Complex, a volcano-plutonic ring complex associated with Cu-Au porphyry mineralization, is located in the Gurvansaikhan island arc terrane of South Mongolia. This paper presents new data on the petrography, major and trace element chemistry, and Sr-Nd isotopic chemistry of the Shuteen Complex. We discuss the relationship between volcanic and plutonic rocks of the complex, and consider their similarity to high-Al 2O 3 trondhjemite-tonalite-granodiorite and adakites. We also consider the origin, magma source, and dynamic processes of the Shuteen Complex; propose a petrogenetic model; and investigate the composition of the subducting slab and the features of arc volcanism at the time. We assess some of the magmatic processes likely to have occurred within the Shuteen Complex, such as Carboniferous slab subduction and partial melting, and examine their influence on magma composition. The Shuteen Complex is geochemically similar to adakite-type rocks. The complex is silica-saturated (SiO 2 ⩾ 56%), rich in Al 2O 3 (⩾15%), MgO (<6%), Y (⩽18 ppm), and Yb (⩽1.9 ppm), depleted in heavy rare earth elements, rich in Sr (>400 ppm), and depleted in high field strength elements. It also has a high Sr/Y value, and ( 87Sr/ 86Sr) I < 0.7040. The Shuteen Pluton yields a well-defined isochron age of 321 ± 9 Ma, whereas the age of the Shuteen andesites is 336 ± 24 Ma. The Shuteen Complex formed within an island arc setting, and partial melting was the dominant process during petrogenesis. The primary Shuteen magma had an adakitic composition and was probably derived from the partial melting of subducting oceanic crust, possibly with minor local interaction with mantle material. The results of quantitative modelling of mass balance and partial melt equilibrium for the magma source indicate that the subducting slab contained oceanic basalt and a minor component of oceanic sediment, which together with a restite eclogite phase formed the source of the

  7. Tectono-stratigraphic terranes in Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia: Implications for the configuration of the northern Appalachian orogen

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.M.; Raeside, R.P. )

    1989-09-01

    Cape Breton Island is divided into four terranes on the basis of contrasts in pre-Carboniferous geology. The Blair River Complex in the north is an exposure of North American Grenvillian basement, analogous to the Humber zone basement in Newfoundland. Ordovician to Devonian metavolcanic, metasedimentary, gneissic, and granitic rocks of the Aspy terrane are correlative with parts of the Gander terrane of Newfoundland and New Brunswick. The Bras d'Or terrane, characterized by low-pressure gneisses, a carbonate-clastic platform sequence, and later Precambrian-Early Cambrian plutons, may be correlative with units previously included in the Gander terrane in southern Newfoundland and the Avalon terrane in southern New Brunswick. The Mira terrane in southeastern Cape Breton Island, including late Precambrian to Early Cambrian volcanic and sedimentary sequences and fossiliferous Cambrian-Ordovician units, is clearly part of the Avalon terrane. Therefore, with the exception of the Dunnage terrane, which is not represented in Cape Breton Island, the terranes of Newfoundland continue through Cape Breton Island. They are offset to the northwest to the mainland part of the Appalachian orogen in New Brunswick.

  8. Paleozoic terranes of eastern Australia and the drift history of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElhinny, Michael W.; Powell, Chris McA.; Pisarevsky, Sergei A.

    2003-02-01

    Critical assessment of Paleozoic paleomagnetic results from Australia shows that paleopoles from locations on the main craton and in the various terranes of the Tasman Fold Belt of eastern Australia follow the same path since 400 Ma for the Lachlan and Thomson superterranes, but not until 250 Ma or younger for the New England superterrane. Most of the paleopoles from the Tasman Fold Belt are derived from the Lolworth-Ravenswood terrane of the Thomson superterrane and the Molong-Monaro terrane of the Lachlan superterrane. Consideration of the paleomagnetic data and geological constraints suggests that these terranes were amalgamated with cratonic Australia by the late Early Devonian. The Lolworth-Ravenswood terrane is interpreted to have undergone a 90° clockwise rotation between 425 and 380 Ma. Although the Tamworth terrane of the western New England superterrane is thought to have amalgamated with the Lachlan superterrane by the Late Carboniferous, geological syntheses suggest that movements between these regions may have persisted until the Middle Triassic. This view is supported by the available paleomagnetic data. With these constraints, an apparent polar wander path for Gondwana during the Paleozoic has been constructed after review of the Gondwana paleomagnetic data. The drift history of Gondwana with respect to Laurentia and Baltica during the Paleozoic is shown in a series of paleogeographic maps.

  9. Effects of the Yakutat terrane collision with North America on the neighboring Pacific plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reece, R.; Gulick, S. P.; Christeson, G. L.; Barth, G. A.; van Avendonk, H.

    2011-12-01

    High-resolution bathymetry data show a 30 km N-S trending ridge within the deep-sea Surveyor Fan between the mouths of the Yakutat Sea Valley and Bering Trough in the Gulf of Alaska. The ridge originates in the north, perpendicular to and at the base of the continental slope, coincident with the Transition Fault, the strike-slip boundary between the Yakutat terrane (YAK) and the Pacific plate (PAC). The ridge exhibits greatest relief adjacent to the Transition Fault, and becomes less distinct farther from the shelf edge. Seismic reflection data reveal a sharp basement high beneath the ridge (1.1 sec of relief above "normal" basement in two-way travel time) as well as multiple similarly oriented strike-slip fault segments. The ridge, basement high, and faults are aligned and co-located with an intraplate earthquake swarm on the PAC, which includes four events > 6.5 Mw that occurred from 1987-1992. The swarm is defined by right-lateral strike-slip events, and is collectively called the Gulf of Alaska Shear Zone (GASZ). Based on the extent of historic seismicity, the GASZ extends at least 230 km into the PAC, seemingly ending at the Kodiak-Bowie Seamount Chain. Farther southwest, between the Kodiak-Bowie and Patton-Murray Seamount Chains, there is a large regional bathymetric low with an axis centered along the Aja Fracture Zone, perpendicular to the GASZ and Aleutian Trench. Basement and overlying sediment in the low are irregularly, but pervasively faulted. The GASZ and faulted bathymetric low could represent PAC deformation due to PAC-YAK coupling whereby YAK resistance to subduction is expressed as deformation in the thinner (weaker) PAC crust. The YAK is an allochthonous, basaltic terrane coupled to the PAC that began subducting at a low angle beneath North America (NA) ~25-40 Ma. Due to its 15-25 km thickness, the YAK is resistant to subduction compared to the normal oceanic crust of the PAC. As a result the plates developed differential motion along the

  10. Classical Accreting Pulsars with NICER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Soft excesses are very common center dot Lx > 1038 erg/s - reprocessing by optically thick material at the inner edge of the accretion disk center dot Lx < 1036 erg/s - photoionized or collisionally heated diffuse gas or thermal emission from the NS surface center dot Lx 1037 erg/s - either or both types of emission center dot NICER observations of soft excesses in bright X-ray pulsars combined with reflection modeling will constrain the ionization state, metalicity and dynamics of the inner edge of the magnetically truncated accretion disk Reflection models of an accretion disk for a hard power law - Strong soft excess below 3 keV from hot X-ray heated disk - For weakly ionized case: strong recombination lines - Are we seeing changes in the disk ionization in 4U1626-26? 13 years of weekly monitoring with RXTE PCA center dot Revealed an unexpectedly large population of Be/X-ray binaries compared to the Milky Way center dot Plotted luminosities are typical of "normal" outbursts (once per orbit) center dot The SMC provides an excellent opportunity to study a homogenous population of HMXBs with low interstellar absorption for accretion disk studies. Monitoring with NICER will enable studies of accretion disk physics in X-ray pulsars center dot The SMC provides a potential homogeneous low-absorption population for this study center dot NICER monitoring and TOO observations will also provide measurements of spinfrequencies, QPOs, pulsed fluxes, and energy spectra.

  11. Characterizing Accreting White Dwarf Pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the population, mass distribution, and evolution of accreting white dwarfs impacts the entire realm of binary interaction, including the creation of Type Ia supernovae. We are concentrating on accreting white dwarf pulsators, as the pulsation properties allow us a view of how the accretion affects the interior of the star. Our ground- based photometry on 11 accreting pulsators with corresponding temperatures from HST UV spectra suggest a broad instability strip in the range of 10500 to 16000K. Additionally, tracking a post-outburst heated white dwarf as it cools and crosses the blue edge and resumes pulsation provides an independent method to locate the empirical instability strip. Determining a post-outburst cooling curve yields an estimate of the amount of heating and the accreted mass during the outburst. We request additional photometry of 2 objects that present unique properties: GW Lib which has not yet returned to its pre-outburst pulsation spectrum after 6 yrs, and EQ Lyn which returned to its pre- outburst pulsation after 3 yrs but is now turning on and off without ongoing outbursts. Following the pulsation spectrum changes over stretches of several nights in a row will provide specific knowledge of the stability of the observed modes.

  12. Self consistent modeling of accretion columns in accretion powered pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkner, Sebastian; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Wolff, Michael Thomas; Becker, Peter A.; Wilms, Joern

    2016-04-01

    We combine three physical models to self-consistently derive the observed flux and pulse profiles of neutron stars' accretion columns. From the thermal and bulk Comptonization model by Becker & Wolff (2006) we obtain seed photon continua produced in the dense inner regions of the accretion column. In a thin outer layer these seed continua are imprinted with cyclotron resonant scattering features calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The observed phase and energy dependent flux corresponding to these emission profiles is then calculated, taking relativistic light bending into account. We present simulated pulse profiles and the predicted dependency of the observable X-ray spectrum as a function of pulse phase.

  13. Geophysical constraints on the lunar Procellarum KREEP Terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Robert E.

    2013-04-01

    The Moon's Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT) is distinguished by unique geochemistry and extended volcanic history. Previous thermal-conduction models using enhanced radionuclide abundances in subcrustal potassium, rare earth elements, and phosphorus (KREEP) predicted the existence of a contemporary upper-mantle melt zone as well as heat flow consistent with Apollo measurements. Here I show that such models also predict large gravity or topography anomalies that are not observed. If the topography is suppressed by a rigid lithosphere, it is possible to eliminate the gravity anomaly and still match heat flow by completely fractionating the excess radionuclides into a thin crust. This implies that upper-mantle heat sources for mare volcanism were spatially discontinuous or transient and that radionuclides defining the PKT are not necessarily directly related to mare volcanic sources. However, the mantle temperature of a crustally fractionated PKT is insufficient to match the observed electrical conductivity: globally enhanced mantle heating or a thick megaregolith may be required. Alternatively, upper-mantle enrichment in iron, hydrogen, or aluminum can provide the requisite conductivity. Iron is the most plausible: the derived lower limit to the upper-mantle magnesium number 75-80% is consistent with seismic modeling. Regardless of the specific mechanism for electrical-conductivity enhancement, the overall excellent match to simple thermal-conduction models indicates that the lunar upper mantle is not convecting at present.

  14. Metamorphism of San Antonio Terrane metapelites, San Gabriel Mountains, California

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, L.; Ishimatsu, J.; Schneiderman, J.S. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    Pelitic schists and gneisses from the San Antonio terrane in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains consist of garnet, biotite, plagioclase, quartz, sillimanite, cordierite, hercynite [+-] alkali feldspar. Large garnet porphyroblasts contain quartz, plagioclase and sillimanite inclusions. Cordierite occurs as haloes around garnet porphyroblasts and as small subgrains always associated with hercynite and together replacing sillimanite blades. Hercynite additionally appears to have nucleated on the edges of sillimanite blades. Contrary to previous investigations, hercynite appears to be a late mineral phase. Reaction textures described above have been used to calculate a set of net-transfer reactions that can be used (1) to characterize all possible exchanges of matter between minerals in the system and (2) to construct a reaction space for the system. Fourteen thin sections with large garnet porphyroblasts and abundant biotite were used for microprobe analysis. Detailed probe analyses show well-developed zoning in the plagioclase and alkali feldspar whose character varies depending on location in the thin section relative to neighboring minerals. Generally, large plagioclase porphyroblasts display normal zoning and are not as calcium-rich as plagioclase inclusions in the garnet. Garnet porphyroblasts have flat zoning profiles due to high temperatures of metamorphism. Pressures and temperatures of metamorphism have been calculated from these assemblages using garnet-biotite geothermometry and quartz-garnet-aluminosilicate-plagioclase geobarometry.

  15. The Ust-Belaya ophiolite terrane, West Koryak Orogen: Isotopic dating and paleotectonic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palandzhyan, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The Ust-Belaya ophiolite terrane in the West Koryak Orogen, which is the largest in northeastern Asia, consists of three nappe complexes. The upper Ust-Belaya Nappe is composed of a thick (>5 km) sheet of fertile peridotites and mafic rocks (remnants of the proto-Pacific lithosphere); its upper age boundary is marked by Late Neoproterozoic plagiogranites. In the middle Tolovka-Otrozhny Nappe, the Late Precambrian lherzolite-type ophiolites are supplemented by fragments of tectonically delaminated harzburgite-type ophiolites, which make up the Tolovka rock association. The isotopic age of metadacite (K-Ar method, whole-rock sample) and zircons from plagiogranite porphyry (U-Pb method, SHRIMP) determines the upper chronological limit of the Tolovka ophiolites as 262-265 Ma ago. It is suggested that igneous rocks of these ophiolites were generated in a backarc basin during the Early Carboniferous and then incorporated into the fold-nappe structure in the Mid-Permian. This was the future basement of the Koni-Taigonos arc, where the Early Carboniferous ophiolites together with Late Neoproterozoic precursors were subject to low-temperature metamorphism and intruded by plagiogranite porphyry dikes in Permian-Triassic. The polymicte serpentinite mélange, which was formed in the accretionary complex of the Koni-Taigonos arc comprises rock blocks of the upper units of Late Precambrian ophiolites (in particular, plagiogranite), the overlying Middle to Upper Devonian and Early Carboniferous deposits, as well as Early Carboniferous (?) Tolovka ophiolites and meta-ophiolites. Mélange of this type with inclusions of Late Precambrian "oceanic" granitoids also developed in the lower Utyosiki Nappe composed of Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous sedimentary and volcanic sequences, the formation of which was related to the next Uda-Murgal island-arc systems.

  16. Black hole accretion disc impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihajoki, P.

    2016-04-01

    We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength λ = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

  17. Is the Liverpool Land Eclogite Terrane, Eastern Greenland Caledonides, Baltican, Laurentian, or Both?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brueckner, H. K.; Johnston, S. M.; Belousova, E. A.; Griffin, W. L.; Hartz, E. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Liverpool land Eclogite Terrane (LLET) is a small (≈200 km2) high pressure metamorphic terrane at the southern tip of the Eastern Greenland Caledonides. Recent publications propose the LLET is a subducted Baltic terrane that underplated the Eastern Greenland Caledonides during the ca. 400 Ma Scandian Orogeny and was stranded in Greenland (Laurentia) during the opening of the Atlantic. However Johnston et al. (2011) proposed the LLET is actually a composite terrane comprised of a mid-crustal, high-pressure (granulite facies) terrane, the Jaettedal Complex, tectonically juxtaposed during the Scandian orogeny against a higher pressure (eclogite-facies), peridotite-bearing, metamorphic terrane, the Tvaerdal complex. The composite Tvaerdal/Jaettedal Terrane (now the LLET) was subsequently exhumed from beneath a Laurentian plutonic continental arc terrane, the Hurry Inlet Complex. U-Pb Precambrian ages from the Tvaerdal Complex obtained by LA-ICPMS from detrital zircons (this study) as well as published zircon dates do not distinctly match the published Proterozoic zircon age patterns of basins and crystalline complexes from either Laurentia or Baltica, therefore not resolving the provenance of the Tvaerdal Complex. However, Paleozoic zircon U-Pb dates (this study and the literature) demonstrate the Tvaerdal Complex underwent relatively short-lived high pressure/ultrahigh pressure metamorphism and subsequent anatectic melting between 415-385 Ma while recent work by Johnston et al. (2014) indicates the Jaettedal Complex underwent an earlier, much longer evolution between 460-412 Ma. The older ages from the Jaettedal coincide with ages obtained from the overlying Hurry Inlet Complex as well as other Greenland igneous terranes suggesting the Jaettedal Complex is a Laurentian terrane involved in the lengthy evolution of a continental arc complex along the eastern Greenland margin during the closure of Iapetus. The paucity of concordant 460-412 ages from the Tvaerdal

  18. Crustal melting and magma mixing in a continental arc setting: Evidence from the Yaloman intrusive complex in the Gorny Altai terrane, Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Cai, Keda; Zhao, Guochun; Kulikova, Anna V.; Rubanova, Elena S.

    2016-05-01

    Devonian granitoids from the Gorny Altai terrane show remarkable temporal-spatial-petrogenetic affinities to the counterparts from the Altai-Mongolian terrane, indicating that these two terranes were possibly under subduction of the same oceanic plate (i.e., the Ob-Zaisan Ocean). The voluminous granitoids signify significant crustal recycling and growth as a response to the underplating of extensive mantle-derived basaltic melts.

  19. Final amalgamation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in NE China: Paleo-Asian Ocean closure versus Paleo-Pacific plate subduction - A review of the evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, Simon A.

    2015-11-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) evolved through complex closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean from the Neoproterozoic to the late Phanerozoic. This caused the Chinese cratons to collide with Eurasia and led to the formation of the world's largest Phanerozoic orogenic belt. Ocean closure commenced in the west and was completed in the east near Changchun. Closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in NE China was along the Solonker-Xar Moron-Changchun-Yanji suture and this was likely completed in the Late Permian, although associated activity continued into the Triassic. There was an overlap in the latest Permian-Early Triassic between terminal activity associated with Paleo-Asian Ocean closure and the onset of tectonism associated with subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate. This switch in geodynamic setting occurred at ~ 260-250 Ma, and is reflected by a relaxing of north-south directed compression and the onset of east-west directed processes related to Paleo-Pacific subduction. By the Early Jurassic, events associated with the westward advance of the Paleo-Pacific plate dominated, leading to extensive development of I-type granites as far inland as the Great Xing'an Range. From ~ 140 Ma, the Paleo-Pacific plate retreated eastward, resulting in an extensional setting in the Early Cretaceous, the effects of which were enhanced by regional thinning of the lithosphere, commonly attributed to delamination. Throughout this period, the eastern Asian margin was tectonically complex. The north-south oriented Jiamusi-Khanka(-Bureya) block was rifted away from the eastern margin of the CAOB in the Late Triassic, but was then re-united in the Jurassic by westward-advancing subduction that affected both the western and eastern margins of the block. Accretionary complexes continued to evolve in the Cretaceous along the whole eastern margin of Asia, with final accretion of the Nadanhada Terrane (part of the Sikhote-Alin accretionary terrane) with the CAOB at ~ 130 Ma, followed by the

  20. Mediterranean-style closure of the Paleo-Tethys ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullen, A.; Kapp, P.; Gehrels, G. E.

    2008-12-01

    The Alpine-Himalayan belt expresses lateral variations in the architecture of continent-continent collisions and includes two end-member examples. One end-member, the Mediterranean, formed from a complex interaction between the Eurasian and Africa-Apulian plates which initiated rollback of Alpine-Tethys lithosphere and opened new ocean basins coeval with plate convergence. As the other end-member, the India-Asia collision is generally considered to have initiated following the closure of a single large ocean basin through the subduction of Neo-Tethys oceanic lithosphere beneath Eurasia. We propose that Mediterranean-style tectonics may have dominated during the closure of the Paleo-Tethys in central Asia based on new and previous observations. These include: (1) coeval Mid-Triassic HP-UHP metamorphism within the Qinling-Dabie orogen, Qiangtang metamorphic belt, and Indochina block; (2) coeval Late Triassic exhumation of the Qinling-Dabie orogen and Qiangtang metamorphic belt and accumulation of vast volumes of Upper Triassic flysch within the Paleo-Tethys ocean; (3) the north-south orientation of the Longman Shan thrust belt, the triangular map pattern of the Hoh-Xil-Songpan-Ganzi flysch complex, the oroclinal map patterns of Paleo-Tethys arc terranes, and the abrupt eastern termination of the Kunlun; (4) wide distribution of 224-210 Ma adakitic rocks; and (5) evidence for Late Triassic extension within terranes adjacent to the Paleo-Tethys. We propose near synchronous Mid-Triassic continent-continent collisions between the Qiangtang terrane of western Cimmerian-Gondwanan affinity and a Paleo-Tethys arc terrane or the Kunlun terrane, eastern Cimmeria-Indochina and South China block, and the South China and North China blocks. Resistance to continental subduction and oceanic slab breakoff led to a decrease in the northward drift of Gondwana-derived terranes and promoted rollback of subducting remnant Paleo-Tethys oceanic lithosphere. In particular, we suggest that

  1. Cyclicity in Silurian island-arc carbonates, Alexander terrane, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kittredge, L.E.; Soja, C.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Silurian carbonates from Alaska (Alexander terrane) record the evolution of a submarine platform during waning volcanism in an island arc. A detailed stratigraphic analysis of a 47 meter-thick sequence revealed the existence of cyclically repeated limestones: coral-stromatoporoid wackestones alternate with oncoid packstones and bioturbated, silty lime mudstones. The coral-stromatoporoid deposits are characterized by a low-diversity assemblage of dendroid corals, massive stromatoporoids, Atrypoidea brachiopods, and rare occurrences of biostromes associated with Solenopora, high-spired gastropods, and crinoids. Oncoids typically are 2-6 mm in diameter and form massive, meter-thick units. Coated grains are symmetrically developed, have a shell or algal nucleus, and are also a minor component of coral-stromatoporoid beds. These lithologic units form seven, shallowing-upwards cycles (parasequences) that range in thickness from 3-9 meters. Coral-stomatoporoid wackestones form the base of each cycle and grade upwards into oncoid packstones with silty, lime mudstones at the top. This succession of lithofacies within each cycle reflects an increase in energy levels from relatively deeper water environments to relatively shallower ones. The lack of abrasion in the corals and stromatoporoids suggests predominantly quiet-water conditions in shallow subtidal areas affected by periodic turbulence. Comparison with correlative sections in Alaska and lack of correspondence with global sea level curves suggest that the primary cause of cyclicity was tectonic perturbations with secondary eustatic effects. Cyclic deposition in peri/subtidal sites was terminated by rapid drowning of the carbonate platform during late Silurian orogenesis.

  2. Anatexis of garnet amphibolites from a subduction zone metamorphic terrane

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, S.S.; Barton, M.D.; Ernst, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    Concomitant rehydration, metasomatism and amphibolitization of eclogite blocks from a mafic/ultramafic complex of the Catalina Schist terrane, southern California, at estimated metamorphic P approx. 8-12 kb, T approx. 600/sup 0/-700/sup 0/C was apparently accompanied by partial melting of some blocks. Mobilizates of An approx./sub 10-20/ plagioclase (PL) +/- zoisite (ZO) + quartz (QZ) + celadonitic (Si approx. 3.3 p.f.u.) white mica (WM) +/- tourmaline range from stringers and dikelets (approx. 1 cm-0.5 m) in migmatitic amphibolite blocks to dikes approx. 30 m x 3 m which intrude the surrounding, locally enstatite + chlorite +/- talc +/- aluminous actinolite +/- anthophyllite-bearing ultramafic matrix. The uniform phase proportions and the coarse-grained (PL to approx. 20 cm) pegmatitic, graphic, and myrmekitic textures displayed by the dikes and dikelets suggest that they crystallized from silicate melts. WM and ZO appear to be magmatic phases. Fe-rich GT is migmatitic portions of blocks exhibits higher Mg/(Mg + Ca) p.f.u. than GT in restitic portions of blocks; rims are richer in Mg than cores. Field relations, microprobe mineral chemistry, and bulk compositions suggest the pegmatites are low fractions of amphibolite-derived partial melt. Abundant fluid inclusions occur in GT, QZ, PL and clinopyroxene. T/sub h/ for primary H/sub 2/O-rich, low salinity L + V inclusions in GT and QZ from a migmatite range from 136-169/sup 0/C; estimates of T limits for entrapment are 530-640/sup 0/C at 8 kb, 650-780/sup 0/C at 10 kb. H/sub 2/O-rich fluids evidently enabled metasomatism, amphibolitization, and anatexis of (originally) eclogitic rocks at the P-T conditions reflected by the metamorphic mineral assemblages.

  3. Holocene reef accretion: southwest Molokai, Hawaii, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engels, Mary S.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Field, Michael E.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Grossman, Eric E.; Rooney, John J.B.; Conger, Christopher L.; Glenn, Craig

    2004-01-01

    extension across Hawaii in general, is controlled by wave-induced near-bed shear stress related to refracted North Pacific swell. Holocene accretion patterns here also reflect the long-term influence of wave-induced near-bed shear stress from north swell during late Holocene time. This finding is consistent with other studies (e.g., Grigg 1998; Cabioch et al. 1999) that reflect the dominance of swell energy and sea level in controlling modern and late Holocene accretion elsewhere in Hawaii and across the Pacific and Indian oceans. Notably, however, this result is refined and clarified for Hawaii in the hypothesis of Rooney et al. (2003) stating that enhancement of the El Niño Southern Oscillation beginning approximately 5000 years ago led to increased north swell energy and signaled the end to net accretion along exposed coastlines in Hawaii. The exposure of Hale O Lono to north swell and the age of sea floor there (ca. 4,800 cal yr BP), coupled with the lack of north swell incidence at Hikauhi and the continuous accretion that has occurred there over the last millennium, strongly supports the ENSO reef hypothesis as outlined by Rooney et al. (2003). Other factors controlling Holocene reef accretion at the study site are relative sea-level position and rate of rise, and wave sheltering by Laau Point. Habitat suitable for reef accretion on the southwest shore of Molokai has shrunk throughout the Holocene.

  4. HOYLE-LYTTLETON ACCRETION IN THREE DIMENSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Blondin, John M.; Raymer, Eric

    2012-06-10

    We investigate the stability of gravitational accretion of an ideal gas onto a compact object moving through a uniform medium at Mach 3. Previous three-dimensional simulations have shown that such accretion is not stable, and that strong rotational 'disk-like' flows are generated and accreted on short timescales. We re-address this problem using overset spherical grids that provide a factor of seven improvement in spatial resolution over previous simulations. With our higher spatial resolution we found these three-dimensional accretion flows remained remarkably axisymmetric. We examined two cases of accretion with different sized accretors. The larger accretor produced very steady flow, with the mass accretion rate varying by less than 0.02% over 30 flow times. The smaller accretor exhibited an axisymmetric breathing mode that modulated the mass accretion rate by a constant 20%. Nonetheless, the flow remained highly axisymmetric with only negligible accretion of angular momentum in both cases.

  5. Perturbation growth in accreting filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, S. D.; Whitworth, A. P.; Hubber, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    We use smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the growth of perturbations in infinitely long filaments as they form and grow by accretion. The growth of these perturbations leads to filament fragmentation and the formation of cores. Most previous work on this subject has been confined to the growth and fragmentation of equilibrium filaments and has found that there exists a preferential fragmentation length-scale which is roughly four times the filament's diameter. Our results show a more complicated dispersion relation with a series of peaks linking perturbation wavelength and growth rate. These are due to gravo-acoustic oscillations along the longitudinal axis during the sub-critical phase of growth. The positions of the peaks in growth rate have a strong dependence on both the mass accretion rate onto the filament and the temperature of the gas. When seeded with a multiwavelength density power spectrum, there exists a clear preferred core separation equal to the largest peak in the dispersion relation. Our results allow one to estimate a minimum age for a filament which is breaking up into regularly spaced fragments, as well as an average accretion rate. We apply the model to observations of filaments in Taurus by Tafalla & Hacar and find accretion rates consistent with those estimated by Palmeirim et al.

  6. Crustal deformation in the south-central Andes backarc terranes as viewed from regional broad-band seismic waveform modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, Patricia; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Araujo, Mario; Triep, Enrique

    2005-11-01

    The convergence between the Nazca and South America tectonic plates generates a seismically active backarc region near 31°S. Earthquake locations define the subhorizontal subducted oceanic Nazca plate at depths of 90-120 km. Another seismic region is located within the continental upper plate with events at depths <35 km. This seismicity is related to the Precordillera and Sierras Pampeanas and is responsible for the large earthquakes that have caused major human and economic losses in Argentina. South of 33°S, the intense shallow continental seismicity is more restricted to the main cordillera over a region where the subducted Nazca plate starts to incline more steeply, and there is an active volcanic arc. We operated a portable broad-band seismic network as part of the Chile-Argentina Geophysical Experiment (CHARGE) from 2000 December to 2002 May. We have studied crustal earthquakes that occurred in the back arc and under the main cordillera in the south-central Andes (29°S-36°S) recorded by the CHARGE network. We obtained the focal mechanisms and source depths for 27 (3.5 < Mw < 5.3) crustal earthquakes using a moment tensor inversion method. Our results indicate mainly reverse focal mechanism solutions in the region during the CHARGE recording period. 88 per cent of the earthquakes are located north of 33°S and at middle-to-lower crustal depths. The region around San Juan, located in the western Sierras Pampeanas, over the flat-slab segment is dominated by reverse and thrust fault-plane solutions located at an average source depth of 20 km. One moderate-sized earthquake (event 02-117) is very likely related to the northern part of the Precordillera and the Sierras Pampeanas terrane boundary. Another event located near Mendoza at a greater depth (~26 km) (event 02-005) could also be associated with the same ancient suture. We found strike-slip focal mechanisms in the eastern Sierras Pampeanas and under the main cordillera with shallower focal depths of ~5

  7. Metamorphism of tectonic terranes in the eastern marginal zone of the Appalachian orogen, New England

    SciTech Connect

    Hepburn, J.C.; Olszewski, W.J.; Guidotti, C.V.

    1985-01-01

    Southeastern New England is subdivided into three major fault bounded tectonic terranes, each with a distinctive metamorphic history. The easternmost, the Avalon Terrane, has generally been metamorphosed no higher than the lower greenschist facies. Evidence for pre-Alleghanian metamorphism includes a Proterozoic Z(.) event, contact metamorphism adjacent to Ord.-Dev. alkaline plutons, and granulite facies crustal xenoliths in Mesozoic dikes. To the west the Nashoba Terrane has been deformed and polymetamorphosed to the sill. and 2nd sill. zones between approximately 415 and 450 m.y., based on ages of associated granitic and migmatitic rocks. 730 m.y. assumed basement gneisses (fish Brook) have likely experienced Late PC metamorphism. In the Merrimack Trough, here including the Massabesic Gneiss, the metamorphic grade ranges from the greenschist facies on the east to the 2nd sillimanite zones on the west toward the Massabesic. The two metamorphic events present here must predate the intrusion of the Exeter Diorite (473 m.y .), indicating one or both may be PC. To the east, the fault bounded Rye Formation has also experienced two pre- 470 m.y. metamorphisms (and -sill.) However, the terrane east of the Turtle Head Fault Zone (THFZ) has many similarities to the Boston Platform including general (Late PC.) lower greenschist metamorphism. Also, the area between the Norumbega FZ and the THFZ has experienced high grade metamorphism of probable Silurian age and thus may be similar to the Nashoba Terrane.

  8. On Thermohaline Mixing in Accreting White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, Detlev

    2015-06-01

    We discuss the recent claim that the thermohaline (“fingering”) instability is important in accreting white dwarfs, increasing the derived accretion fluxes potentially by orders of magnitude. We present an alternative view and conclude that at least in the steady state this is not the case and the current method of estimating accretion fluxes is correct.

  9. Crustal structure of Wrangellia and adjacent terranes inferred from geophysical studies along a transect through the northern Talkeetna Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glen, J.M.G.; Schmidt, J.; Pellerin, L.; McPhee, D.K.; O'Neill, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent investigations of the Talkeetna Mountains in south-central Alaska were undertaken to study the region's framework geophysics and to reinterpret structures and crustal composition. Potential field (gravity and magnetic) and magnetotelluric (MT) data were collected along northwest-trending profiles as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Talkeetna Mountains transect project. The Talkeetna Mountains transect area comprises eight 1:63,360 quadrangles (???9500 km2) in the Healy and Talkeetna Mountains 1?? ?? 3?? sheets that span four major lithostratigraphic terranes (Glen et al., this volume) including the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes and two Mesozoic overlap assemblages inboard (northwest) of Wrangellia. These data were used here to develop 21/2-dimensional models for the three profiles. Modeling results reveal prominent gravity, magnetic, and MT gradients (???3.25 mGal/ km, ???100nT/km, ???300 ohm-m/km) corresponding to the Talkeetna Suture Zone-a first-order crustal discontinuity in the deep crust that juxtaposes rocks with strongly contrasting rock properties. This discontinuity corresponds with the suture between relatively dense magnetic crust of Wrangellia (likely of oceanic composition) and relatively less dense transitional crust underlying Jurassic to Cretaceous flysch basins developed between Wrangellia and North America. Some area of the oceanic crust beneath Wrangellia may also have been underplated by mafic material during early to mid-Tertiary volcanism. The prominent crustal break underlies the Fog Lakes basin approximately where theTalkeetna thrust faultwaspreviouslymappedas a surface feature. Potential fieldand MT models, however, indicate that the Talkeetna Suture Zone crustal break along the transect is a deep (2-8 km), steeply west-dipping structure-not a shallow east-dipping Alpine nappe-like thrust. Indeed, most of the crustal breaks in the area appear to be steep in the geophysical data, which is consistent with regional geologic

  10. Towards combined modeling of planetary accretion and differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golabek, G. J.; Gerya, T.; Morishima, R.; Tackley, P. J.; Labrosse, S.

    2011-12-01

    Results of current 1D models on planetesimal accretion yield an onion-like thermal structure with very high internal temperatures due to powerful short-lived radiogenic heating in the planetesimals. These lead to extensive silicate melting in the parent bodies. Yet, magma ocean and impact processes are not considered in these models and core formation is, if taken into account, assumed to be instantaneous with no feedback on the mantle evolution. It was pointed out that impacts can not only deposit heat deep into the target body, which is later buried by ejecta of further impacts [1], but also that impacts expose in the crater region originally deep-seated layers, thus cooling the interior [2]. This combination of impact effects becomes even more important when we consider that planetesimals of all masses contribute to planetary accretion. This leads occasionally to collisions between bodies with large ratios between impactor and target mass. Thus, all these processes can be expected to have a profound effect on the thermal evolution during the epoch of planetary accretion and may have implications for the onset of mantle convection and cannot be described properly in 1D geometry. Here we present a new methodology, which can be used to simulate the internal evolution of a planetary body during accretion and differentiation: Using the N-body code PKDGRAV [3] we simulate the accretion of planetary embryos from an initial annulus of several thousand planetesimals. The growth history of the largest resulting planetary embryo is used as an input for the thermomechanical 2D code I2ELVIS [4]. The thermomechanical model takes recent parametrizations of impact processes like impact heating and crater excavation [5] into account. The model also includes both long- and short-lived radiogenic isotopes and a more realistic treatment of largely molten silicates [6]. Results show that late-formed planetesimals do not experience silicate melting and avoid thermal alteration

  11. Towards combined modeling of planetary accretion and differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golabek, G. J.; Gerya, T. V.; Morishima, R.; Tackley, P. J.; Labrosse, S.

    2012-09-01

    accretion yield an onion-like thermal structure with very high internal temperatures due to powerful short-lived radiogenic heating in the planetesimals. These lead to extensive silicate melting in the parent bodies. Yet, magma ocean and impact processes are not considered in these models and core formation is, if taken into account, assumed to be instantaneous with no feedback on the mantle evolution. It was pointed out that impacts can not only deposit heat deep into the target body, which is later buried by ejecta of further impacts [1], but also that impacts expose in the crater region originally deep-seated layers, thus cooling the interior [2]. This combination of impact effects becomes even more important when we consider that planetesimals of all masses contribute to planetary accretion. This leads occasionally to collisions between bodies with large ratios between impactor and target mass. Thus, all these processes can be expected to have a profound effect on the thermal evolution during the epoch of planetary accretion and may have implications for the onset of mantle convection and cannot be described properly in 1D geometry. Here we present a new methodology, which can be used to simulate the internal evolution of a planetary body during accretion and differentiation: Using the N-body code PKDGRAV[3] we simulate the accretion of planetary embryos from an initial annulus of several thousand planetesimals. The growth history of the largest resulting planetary embryo is used as an input for the thermomechanical 2D code I2ELVIS [4]. The thermomechanical model takes recent parametrizations of impact processes like impact heating and crater excavation [5] into account. The model also includes both long- and short-lived radiogenic isotopes and a more realistic treatment of largely molten silicates [6]. Results show that late-formed planetesimals do not experience silicate melting and avoid thermal alteration, whereas in early-formed bodies accretion and iron

  12. A northern Cordilleran ocean-continent transect: Sitka Sound, Alaska, to Atlin Lake, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brew, D.A.; Karl, S.M.; Barnes, D.F.; Jachens, R.C.; Ford, A.B.; Horner, R.

    1991-01-01

    The 155 km wide, 310 km long Sitka Sound - Atlin Lake continent-ocean transect includes almost all the geologic, geophysical, and geotectonic elements of the Canadian Cordillera. It crosses the Chugach, Wrangellia, Alexander, Stikine, and Cache Creek terranes, the Gravina and Laberge overlap assemblages, intrusive and metamorphic belts, and neotectonic faults that bound major blocks. -from Authors

  13. Origin of granulite terranes and the formation of the lowermost continental crust.

    PubMed

    Bohlen, S R; Mezger, K

    1989-04-21

    Differences in composition and pressures of equilibration between exposed, regional granulite terranes and suites of granulite xenoliths of crustal origin indicate that granulite terranes do not represent exhumed lowermost crust, as had been thought, but rather middle and lower-middle crustal levels. Application of well-calibrated barometers indicate that exposed granulites record equilibration pressures of 0.6 to 0.8 gigapascal (20 to 30 kilometers depth of burial), whereas granulite xenoliths, which also tend to be more mafic, record pressures of at least 1.0 to 1.5 gigapascals (35 to 50 kilometers depth of burial). Thickening of the crust by the crystallization of mafic magmas at the crust-mantle boundary may account for both the formation of regional granulite terranes at shallower depths and the formation of deep-seated mafic crust represented by many xenolith suites.

  14. Origin of granulite terranes and the formation of the lowermost continental crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohlen, S.R.; Mezger, K.

    1989-01-01

    Differences in composition and pressures of equilibration between exposed, regional granulite terranes and suites of granulite xenoliths of crustal origin indicate that granulite terranes do not represent exhumed lowermost crust, as had been thought, but rather middle and lower-middle crustal levels. Application of well-calibrated barometers indicate that exposed granulites record equilibration pressures of 0.6 to 0.8 gigapascal (20 to 30 kilometers depth of burial), whereas granulite xenoliths, which also tend to be more mafic, record pressures of at least 1.0 to 1.5 gigapascals (35 to 50 kilometers depth of burial). Thickening of the crust by the crystalliztion of mafic magmas at the crust-mantle boundary may account for both the formation of regional granulite terranes at shallower depths and the formation of deep-seated mafic crust represented by many xenolith suites.

  15. Origin of granulite terranes and the formation of the lowermost continental crust.

    PubMed

    Bohlen, S R; Mezger, K

    1989-04-21

    Differences in composition and pressures of equilibration between exposed, regional granulite terranes and suites of granulite xenoliths of crustal origin indicate that granulite terranes do not represent exhumed lowermost crust, as had been thought, but rather middle and lower-middle crustal levels. Application of well-calibrated barometers indicate that exposed granulites record equilibration pressures of 0.6 to 0.8 gigapascal (20 to 30 kilometers depth of burial), whereas granulite xenoliths, which also tend to be more mafic, record pressures of at least 1.0 to 1.5 gigapascals (35 to 50 kilometers depth of burial). Thickening of the crust by the crystallization of mafic magmas at the crust-mantle boundary may account for both the formation of regional granulite terranes at shallower depths and the formation of deep-seated mafic crust represented by many xenolith suites. PMID:17738304

  16. The Hikurangi Plateau: Tectonic Ricochet and Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, David; Moresi, Louis; Betts, Peter; Whittaker, Joanne

    2015-04-01

    80 million years between interactions with different subduction systems provided time for the Hikurangi Plateau and Pacific Ocean lithosphere to cool, densify and strengthen. Neogene subduction of the Hikurangi Plateau occurring orthogonal to its Cretaceous predecessor, provides a unique opportunity to explore how changes to the physical properties of oceanic lithosphere affect subduction dynamics. We used Underworld to build mechanically consistent collision models to understand the dynamics of the two Hikurangi collisions. The Hikurangi Plateau is a ~112 Ma, 15km thick oceanic plateau that has been entrained by subduction zones immediately preceding the final break-up of Eastern Gondwana and currently within the active Hikurangi Margin. We explore why attempted subduction of the plateau has resulted in vastly different dynamics on two separate occasions. Slab break-off occured during the collision with Gondwana, currently there is apparent subduction of the plateau underneath New Zealand. At ~100Ma the young, hot Hikurangi Plateau, positively buoyant with respect to the underlying mantle, impacted a Gondwana Margin under rapid extension after the subduction of an mid-ocean ridge 10-15Ma earlier. Modelling of plateaus within young oceanic crust indicates that subduction of the thickened crust was unlikely to occur. Frontal accretion of the plateau and accompanying slab break-off is expected to have occured rapidly after its arrival. The weak, young slab was susceptible to lateral propagation of the ~1500 km window opened by the collision, and break-off would have progressed along the subduction zone inhibiting the "step-back" of the trench seen in older plates. Slab break-off coincided with a world-wide reorganisation of plate velocites, and orogenic collapse along the Gondwana margin characterised by rapid extension and thinning of the over-riding continental plate from ~60 to 30km. Following extension, Zealandia migrated to the NW until the Miocene allowing the

  17. Tectonics and geochronology of the northern margin of the Zhongba terrane, Southern Tibet: implications for the closing processes of the western Neo-Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Li, S.; DONG, Y.; Han, G.

    2015-12-01

    belts yielded 40Ar/39Ar age of 71.6 ±1.1 Ma and 56.5±2.5 Ma, respectively. The former represents the collisional time between the Zhongba terrane and the Gangdese arc, while the latter indicates the final closing time of the Neo-Tethys ocean.

  18. Eocene high-Mg adakitic rocks of the northern Qiangtang terrane, central Tibet: possible delamination of lower crust and early uplift in the central plateau?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Chen, J.; Zhao, W.; Dong, Y.; Wang, B.; Kang, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Details of the timing and mechanisms of uplift of the Tibetan Plateau have long been debated, such as whether the earliest uplift occurred at ~45 Ma in northern and northeastern Tibet (Turner et al. 1996; Chung et al. 1998; Guo et al. 2006; Wang et al. 2008), or if the whole plateau was instead formed by one stage or more stages of uplift (Turner et al. 1996; Williams et al. 2001; Tapponnier et al. 2001; Chen et al., 2009). It is generally believed that changes at the surface and in tectonic regime are typically marked by changes in the composition of associated magmatic products. Eocene high-Mg adakitic rocks (45-36 Ma) from the Qiangtang terrane provide important insights into the possible delamination of lower crust and/or underlying lithospheric mantle with a thickened keel, as well as early uplift processes of the central Tibetan plateau. We report new geochemical data for the Luanqinshan, Yuejinla and Dongyuehu Eocene lavas from the northern Qiangtang terrane. Analysis of a Meiriqiecuo lava yielded a 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 43.35 ± 0.22 Ma, this result together with previously published ages indicate that the Eocene lavas in the northern Qiangtang terrane were mainly erupted from 45 to 36 Ma. The lava from the northern Qiangtang terrane have high Al2O3 and Sr contents, as well as high Sr/Y, La/Yb, and Mg# (43-69), but low Y and Yb concentrations. The same samples have low 87Sr/86Sr(t)(0.7062-0.7075) and low ɛNd(t) (-6.3 to -2.9). These geochemical features, combined with other characteristics of Tibetan Cenozoic lavas, indicate that they did not result from slab melting of a young oceanic crust, assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) of a mafic magma, or from either underplated or thickened continental crust. Instead, they were derived from partial melting of delaminated lower continental crust, which subsequently reacted with surrounding mantle peridotites during ascent to crustal depths. The high-Mg and low-Mg adakitic rocks (45-36 Ma), north

  19. 3D seismic analysis of the Coast Shear Zone in SE Alaska and Western British Columbia: Broadside analysis of ACCRETE wide-angle data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongyan; Morozov, Igor B.; Smithson, Scott B.

    2008-02-01

    The multidisciplinary ACCRETE project addresses the question of continental assemblage in southeast Alaska and western British Columbia by terrane accretion and magmatic addition. The previous studies of this project yielded important information for understanding the structures across the Coast Shear Zone (CSZ) and the formation of the CSZ and the Coast Mountains Batholith (CMB). The present study extends these interpretations into pseudo-3-D by using two additional wide-angle ACCRETE seismic lines. By analyzing the broadside wide-angle data using a series of laterally homogeneous 2-D models, we derive a lower-resolution 3-D velocity model of the outboard terranes and constrain variations in crustal thickness across and along the CSZ. Models of the broadside data confirms major structural and compositional trends extend along strike to the northwest. The key features are: a) a steep Moho ramp only ˜ 15-km wide is coincident with the CSZ and divides thin (˜25 ± 1 km) crust to the west below the west-vergent thrust belt (WTB) from thicker (˜ 31 ± 1 km) crust to the east below the CMB, (b) low-velocity mantle (7.7--7.9 km/s) extends beneath the entire study region indicating high crustal and upper-mantle temperatures below the WTB and CMB, and (c) the Alexander terrane is characterized by strong mid-crustal reflectivity and high lower crustal velocities that are consistent with gabbroic composition. This study extends the earlier interpretation and implies that the ramp is indeed likely associated with transpressional tectonics and magmatic crustal addition east of the CSZ.

  20. Cyclotron Resonance in Accreting Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Dipankar

    2016-07-01

    Cyclotron Resonance Absorption/Scattering features provide direct measurement of magnetic field strength in the line forming region. This has enabled the estimation of magnetic field strengths of nearly two dozen neutron stars in accreting high mass binary systems. With improved spectroscopic sensitivity, new X-ray observatories such as NuSTAR, Astrosat and Hitomi are opening the doors to studying detailed features such as the line shape and phase dependence with high significance. Such studies will help understand the nature of matter accumulation in, and outflow from, the magnetically confined accretion column on the neutron star. This talk will describe the results of MHD simulations of the matter flow in such systems, the diagnostics of such flows using cyclotron lines, and comparison with recent observations from NuSTAR and Astrosat.

  1. Obscured accretion from AGN surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignali, Cristian

    2014-07-01

    Recent models of super-massive black hole (SMBH) and host galaxy joint evolution predict the presence of a key phase where accretion, traced by obscured Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) emission, is coupled with powerful star formation. Then feedback processes likely self-regulate the SMBH growth and quench the star-formation activity. AGN in this important evolutionary phase have been revealed in the last decade via surveys at different wavelengths. On the one hand, moderate-to-deep X-ray surveys have allowed a systematic search for heavily obscured AGN, up to very high redshifts (z~5). On the other hand, infrared/optical surveys have been invaluable in offering complementary methods to select obscured AGN also in cases where the nuclear X-ray emission below 10 keV is largely hidden to our view. In this review I will present my personal perspective of the field of obscured accretion from AGN surveys.

  2. Episodic granitoid emplacement in the western Kaapvaal Craton: evidence from the Archæan Kraaipan granite-greenstone terrane, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anhaeusser, Carl R.; Walraven, Feo

    1999-02-01

    , the Mosita Adamellite, yielded a Pb evaporation age of 2749±3 Ma and is the youngest intrusive body recorded in the Kraaipan granite-greenstone terrane. Its presence beneath Kalahari sand cover is defined by Bouguer gravity data. The Kraaipan granite-greenstone terrane, with a prominent north-south trend, appears to represent an Archæan crustal segment that may have accreted episodically on to the western edge of the Kaapvaal Craton. In a manner similar to the Murchison granite-greenstone terrane in the northeastern part of the craton, the region may also have constituted an important potential source of placer Au mineralisation found in the Witwatersrand Basin.

  3. Pressure-temperature-time paths, prograde garnet growth, and protolith of tectonites from a polydeformational, polymetamorphic terrane: Salmon River suture zone, west-central Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Matthew Paul

    The metamorphic rocks of the Salmon River suture zone (SRSZ) in west-central Idaho provide a unique glimpse into mid-lower crustal processes during continental growth by island arc accretion. The SRSZ, which separates island arc terranes of the Blue Mountains Province (BMP) from the Mesozoic margin of North America, contains medium to high grade tectonites that record multiple metamorphic and deformation events. The SRSZ is divided by the Pollock Mountain thrust fault (PMtf) into two structural blocks: the higher-grade Pollock Mountain plate (PMp), and the lower-grade, underlying Rapid River plate (RRp). Previous studies interpreted pre-144 Ma metamorphism within the SRSZ related to assembly of the BMP. Counter-clockwise P-T paths for metamorphism within the RRp [peak=8--9 kbar ˜600°C, retrograde=5--7 kbar, 450--525°C] were inferred to include prograde garnet growth during pre-144 Ma loading followed by garnet growth during rapid cooling due to lithospheric delamination. The PMp was interpreted to have subsequently been buried to increasing depth and metamorphosed again at 128 Ma as a result of the BMP docking with North America. New P-T-t paths for the RRp and PMp constructed from geochronology, geothermobarometry, pseudosections, and petrography suggest that after loading, slow cooling rates caused diffusion in garnet rims, which produced counter-clockwise P-T paths. Garnet Sm-Nd ages of 112.5+/-1.5 Ma from the RRp, and 141--124 Ma from the PMp suggest that metamorphism within the SRSZ is diachronous and that crustal thickening was protracted occurring between 141--112 Ma. P-T-t paths between both plates indicate that the PMp reached peak metamorphism prior to peak metamorphism of the RRp. This suggests that the PMp was buried prior to the development of the PMtf. The RRp was subsequently buried along the PMtf, which was followed by development of the Rapid River thrust fault, which juxtaposed RRp schists onto the Wallowa terrane of the BMP. This model

  4. Dislocations of the cretaceous and cenozoic complexes of the northern part of the West Sakhalin Terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golozubov, V. V.; Kasatkin, S. A.; Malinovskii, A. I.; Nechayuk, A. E.; Grannik, V. M.

    2016-07-01

    The contemporary structure of the West Sakhalin Terrane started to form in the Pleistocene and the process of its formation continues up to now in a setting of ENE (60°-90°) shortening. Evidence of the preceding NE (30°-45°) compression was revealed during the study. This compression prevailed in the Eocene-Pliocene. Under the settings of NE (30°-45°) compression, dextral displacements occurred along the West Sakhalin and Tym'-Poronai fault systems, bounding the West Sakhalin Terrane.

  5. Theory of Black Hole Accretion Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, Marek A.; Björnsson, Gunnlaugur; Pringle, James E.

    1999-03-01

    Part I. Observations of Black Holes: 1. Black holes in our Galaxy: observations P. Charles; 2. Black holes in Active Galactic Nuclei: observations G. M. Madejski; Part II. Physics Close to a Black Hole: 3. Physics of black holes I. D. Novikov; 4. Physics of black hole accretion M. A. Abramowicz; Part III. Turbulence, Viscosity: 5. Disc turbulence and viscosity A. Brandenburg; Part IV. Radiative Processes: 6. The role of electron-positron pairs in accretion flows G. Björnsson; 7. Accretion disc-corona models and X/Y-ray spectra of accreting black holes J. Poutanen; 8. Emission lines: signatures of relativistic rotation A. C. Fabian; Part V. Accretion Discs: 9. Spectral tests of models for accretion disks around black holes J. H. Krolik; 10. Advection-dominated accretion around black holes R. Narayan, R. Mahadevan and E. Quataert; 11. Accretion disc instabilities and advection dominated accretion flows J.-P. Lasota; 12. Magnetic field and multi-phase gas in AGN A. Celotti and M. J. Rees; Part V. Discs in Binary Black Holes: 13. Supermassive binary black holes in galaxies P. Artymowicz; Part VI. Stability of Accretion Discs: 14. Large scale perturbation of an accretion disc by a black hole binary companion J. C. B. Papaloizou, C. Terquem and D. N. C. Lin; 15. Stable oscillations of black hole accretion discs M. Nowak and D. Lehr; Part VI. Coherant Structures: 16. Spotted discs A. Bracco, A. Provenzale, E. A. Spiegel and P. Yecko; Self-organized critically in accretion discs P. Wiita and Y. Xiong; Summary: old and new advances in black hole accretion disc theory R. Svensson.

  6. Theory of Black Hole Accretion Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, Marek A.; Björnsson, Gunnlaugur; Pringle, James E.

    2010-08-01

    Part I. Observations of Black Holes: 1. Black holes in our Galaxy: observations P. Charles; 2. Black holes in Active Galactic Nuclei: observations G. M. Madejski; Part II. Physics Close to a Black Hole: 3. Physics of black holes I. D. Novikov; 4. Physics of black hole accretion M. A. Abramowicz; Part III. Turbulence, Viscosity: 5. Disc turbulence and viscosity A. Brandenburg; Part IV. Radiative Processes: 6. The role of electron-positron pairs in accretion flows G. Björnsson; 7. Accretion disc-corona models and X/Y-ray spectra of accreting black holes J. Poutanen; 8. Emission lines: signatures of relativistic rotation A. C. Fabian; Part V. Accretion Discs: 9. Spectral tests of models for accretion disks around black holes J. H. Krolik; 10. Advection-dominated accretion around black holes R. Narayan, R. Mahadevan and E. Quataert; 11. Accretion disc instabilities and advection dominated accretion flows J.-P. Lasota; 12. Magnetic field and multi-phase gas in AGN A. Celotti and M. J. Rees; Part V. Discs in Binary Black Holes: 13. Supermassive binary black holes in galaxies P. Artymowicz; Part VI. Stability of Accretion Discs: 14. Large scale perturbation of an accretion disc by a black hole binary companion J. C. B. Papaloizou, C. Terquem and D. N. C. Lin; 15. Stable oscillations of black hole accretion discs M. Nowak and D. Lehr; Part VI. Coherant Structures: 16. Spotted discs A. Bracco, A. Provenzale, E. A. Spiegel and P. Yecko; Self-organized critically in accretion discs P. Wiita and Y. Xiong; Summary: old and new advances in black hole accretion disc theory R. Svensson.

  7. Spherical accretion and AGN feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nulsen, Paul

    2014-06-01

    For a supermassive black hole accreting from a hot, quasi-spherical atmosphere, it is almost inevitable that the fluid approximation fails inside some point within the Bondi radius, but well outside the black hole event horizon. Within the region where the particle mean free paths exceed the radius, the flow must be modeled in terms of the Fokker-Planck equation. In the absence of magnetic fields, it is analogous to the "loss cone" problem for consumption of stars by a black hole. The accretion rate is suppressed well below the Bondi accretion rate and a significant power must be conveyed outward for the flow to proceed. This situation is complicated significantly by the presence of a magnetic field, but I will argue that the main outcomes are similar. I will also argue that the power emerging from such a flow, although generally far too little to suppress cooling on large scales, is an important ingredient of the AGN feedback cycle on scales comparable to the Bondi radius.

  8. Accretion disks around black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramowicz, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    The physics of accretion flow very close to a black hole is dominated by several general relativistic effects. It cannot be described by the standard Shakura Sunyaev model or by its relativistic version developed by Novikov and Thome. The most important of these effects is a dynamical mass loss from the inner edge of the disk (Roche lobe overflow). The relativistic Roche lobe overflow induces a strong advective cooling, which is sufficient to stabilize local, axially symmetric thermal and viscous modes. It also stabilizes the non-axially-symmetric global modes discovered by Papaloizou and Pringle. The Roche lobe overflow, however, destabilizes sufficiently self-gravitating accretion disks with respect to a catastrophic runaway of mass due to minute changes of the gravitational field induced by the changes in the mass and angular momentum of the central black hole. One of the two acoustic modes may become trapped near the inner edge of the disk. All these effects, absent in the standard model, have dramatic implications for time-dependent behavior of the accretion disks around black holes.

  9. The Role of Parameters Controlling Tectonically Erosive and Accretive Forearcs - Results of 2D Sandbox Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohrmann, J.; Kukowski, N.; Adam, J.; Oncken, O.

    2001-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to identify and quantify the influence of the mechanical parameters controlling the mass transfer modes in the brittle part of tectonically erosive and accretive forearc settings. With scaled analogue sandbox experiments we studied the influence of the amount of sediment supply, the presence of mechanically weak layers as potential detachment, the properties of the subduction interface as well as the distribution of the vertical load in the wedge on both systems, the tectonically erosive and accretive. The results of the experiments without any backward material loss lead to a hierarchical control of the investigated parameters. Sediment supply is the main parameter: As soon as sediments enter the trench on top of the oceanic plate, accretive mass transfer will occur under any mechanical constraints. A non-accretive mass transfer occurs in the case of no sediment supply. Basal properties, i.e. friction and roughness of the basal subduction interface, exert a major influence on both, the accretive and the erosive systems: They determine the capability to underthrust material beneath the wedge. In non-accretive systems, significant roughness of the basal interface and therewith a high basal friction leads to tectonic erosion, whereas a smooth basal interface produces stagnant mass transfer. The presence of a weak layer has a different influence on the accretive and non-accretive mode: In an accretive system, a weak layer in the incoming sediment pile changes the mass transfer pattern from a purely frontally or dominantly basally accretive mode to contemporaneous frontal and basal accretion. In the case of tectonic erosion, the presence of a weak layer leads to higher rates of basal erosion and arcward material transport, but it does not change the general mass transfer pattern. The distribution of vertical load only influences secondary features of the forearc architecture: Topographic highs and lows in the forearc wedge, i.e. a deviation of

  10. A Novel μCT Analysis Reveals Different Responses of Bioerosion and Secondary Accretion to Environmental Variability.

    PubMed

    Silbiger, Nyssa J; Guadayol, Òscar; Thomas, Florence I M; Donahue, Megan J

    2016-01-01

    Corals build reefs through accretion of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) skeletons, but net reef growth also depends on bioerosion by grazers and borers and on secondary calcification by crustose coralline algae and other calcifying invertebrates. However, traditional field methods for quantifying secondary accretion and bioerosion confound both processes, do not measure them on the same time-scale, or are restricted to 2D methods. In a prior study, we compared multiple environmental drivers of net erosion using pre- and post-deployment micro-computed tomography scans (μCT; calculated as the % change in volume of experimental CaCO3 blocks) and found a shift from net accretion to net erosion with increasing ocean acidity. Here, we present a novel μCT method and detail a procedure that aligns and digitally subtracts pre- and post-deployment μCT scans and measures the simultaneous response of secondary accretion and bioerosion on blocks exposed to the same environmental variation over the same time-scale. We tested our method on a dataset from a prior study and show that it can be used to uncover information previously unattainable using traditional methods. We demonstrated that secondary accretion and bioerosion are driven by different environmental parameters, bioerosion is more sensitive to ocean acidity than secondary accretion, and net erosion is driven more by changes in bioerosion than secondary accretion. PMID:27074001

  11. A Novel μCT Analysis Reveals Different Responses of Bioerosion and Secondary Accretion to Environmental Variability

    PubMed Central

    Silbiger, Nyssa J.; Guadayol, Òscar; Thomas, Florence I. M.; Donahue, Megan J.

    2016-01-01

    Corals build reefs through accretion of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) skeletons, but net reef growth also depends on bioerosion by grazers and borers and on secondary calcification by crustose coralline algae and other calcifying invertebrates. However, traditional field methods for quantifying secondary accretion and bioerosion confound both processes, do not measure them on the same time-scale, or are restricted to 2D methods. In a prior study, we compared multiple environmental drivers of net erosion using pre- and post-deployment micro-computed tomography scans (μCT; calculated as the % change in volume of experimental CaCO3 blocks) and found a shift from net accretion to net erosion with increasing ocean acidity. Here, we present a novel μCT method and detail a procedure that aligns and digitally subtracts pre- and post-deployment μCT scans and measures the simultaneous response of secondary accretion and bioerosion on blocks exposed to the same environmental variation over the same time-scale. We tested our method on a dataset from a prior study and show that it can be used to uncover information previously unattainable using traditional methods. We demonstrated that secondary accretion and bioerosion are driven by different environmental parameters, bioerosion is more sensitive to ocean acidity than secondary accretion, and net erosion is driven more by changes in bioerosion than secondary accretion. PMID:27074001

  12. A Novel μCT Analysis Reveals Different Responses of Bioerosion and Secondary Accretion to Environmental Variability.

    PubMed

    Silbiger, Nyssa J; Guadayol, Òscar; Thomas, Florence I M; Donahue, Megan J

    2016-01-01

    Corals build reefs through accretion of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) skeletons, but net reef growth also depends on bioerosion by grazers and borers and on secondary calcification by crustose coralline algae and other calcifying invertebrates. However, traditional field methods for quantifying secondary accretion and bioerosion confound both processes, do not measure them on the same time-scale, or are restricted to 2D methods. In a prior study, we compared multiple environmental drivers of net erosion using pre- and post-deployment micro-computed tomography scans (μCT; calculated as the % change in volume of experimental CaCO3 blocks) and found a shift from net accretion to net erosion with increasing ocean acidity. Here, we present a novel μCT method and detail a procedure that aligns and digitally subtracts pre- and post-deployment μCT scans and measures the simultaneous response of secondary accretion and bioerosion on blocks exposed to the same environmental variation over the same time-scale. We tested our method on a dataset from a prior study and show that it can be used to uncover information previously unattainable using traditional methods. We demonstrated that secondary accretion and bioerosion are driven by different environmental parameters, bioerosion is more sensitive to ocean acidity than secondary accretion, and net erosion is driven more by changes in bioerosion than secondary accretion.

  13. Stratigraphy, geochronology, and accretionary terrane settings of two Bronson Hill arc sequences, northern New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moench, R.H.; Aleinikoff, J.N.

    2002-01-01

    off the southern Laurentian margin, but northwest of the principal Iapetan suture, or Red Indian line (RIL). The Boil Mountain-Jim Pond-Hurricane Mountain sequence was ramped northwestward over the Chain Lakes massif at ???475 Ma, on the basal Boil Mountain surface. This obduction probably occurred slightly before obduction on the Baie Verte-Brompton surface (BBL), farther NW, over the Laurentian margin, and was followed by Dead River flysch sedimentation, which ended with the abrupt onset of Ammonoosuc-sequence arc magmatism at ???470 Ma. Ammonoosuc eruptions probably ended at ???460 Ma, when Iapetus closed along the Red Indian line. During a following magmatic hiatus of ???3-5 m.y., now represented by portions of the Partridge Formation that overlie the Ammonoosuc Volcanics, subduction polarity reversed, and subduction resumed below the northwest-dipping Brunswick subduction complex (BSC) of New Brunswick, Canada. Quimby-sequence magmatism (???456-435 Ma) on the the newly accreted Laurentian margin occurred above the BSC, whose footwall is now buried to the southeast by mainly Silurian clastic sediments of the Merrimack-Fredericton trough, deposited in the "Fredericton Sea". In Silurian to Early Devonian time, the NW-dipping BSC footwall was paired with a SE-dipping subduction zone that produced arc magmas of the Coastal Volcanic belt, built on the composite Avalon and adjacent peri-Avalonian terranes. Orogen-normal extension produced by rapid rollback of both subduction zones narrowed the Fredericton Sea, produced the Central Maine and Connecticut Valley-Gaspe?? basins, and culminated in the Acadian orogeny when the sea completely closed in Early Devonian time. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  14. Stratigraphy, geochronology, and accretionary terrane settings of two Bronson Hill arc sequences, northern New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moench, R.H.; Aleinikoff, J.N.

    2003-01-01

    the southern Laurentian margin, but northwest of the principal Iapetan suture, or Red Indian line. The Boil Mountain-Jim Pond-Hurricane Mountain sequence was ramped northwestward over the Chain Lakes massif at ???475 Ma, on the basal Boil Mountain surface. This obduction probably occurred slightly before obduction on the Baie Vert-Brompton surface (BBL), farther NW, over the Laurentian margin, and was followed by Dead River flysch sedimentation, which ended with the abrupt onset of Ammonoosuc-sequence arc magmatism at ???470 Ma. Ammonoosuc eruptions probably ended at ???460 Ma, when Iapetus closed along the Red Indian line. During a following magmatic hiatus of ???3-5 m.y., now represented by portions of the Partridge Formation that overlie the Ammonoosuc Volcanics, subduction polarity reversed, and subduction resumed below the northwest-dipping Brunswick subduction complex (BSC) of New Brunswick, Canada. Quimby-sequence magmatism (???456-435 Ma) on the newly accreted Laurentian margin occurred above the BSC, whose footwall is now buried to the southeast by mainly Silurian clastic sediments of the Merrimack-Fredericton trough, deposited in the "Fredericton Sea". In Silurian to Early Devonian time, the NW-dipping BSC footwall was paired with a SE-dipping subduction zone that produced arc magmas of the Coastal Volcanic belt, built on the composite Avalon and adjacent peri-Avalonian terranes. Orogen-normal extension produced by rapid rollback of both subduction zones narrowed the Fredericton Sea, produced the Central Maine and Connecticut Valley-Gaspe?? basins, and culminated in the Acadian orogeny when the sea completely closed in Early Devonian time. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  15. Stratigraphy, geochronology, and accretionary terrane settings of two Bronson Hill arc sequences, northern New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moench, Robert H.; Aleinikoff, John N.

    2002-01-01

    southern Laurentian margin, but northwest of the principal Iapetan suture, or Red Indian line (RIL). The Boil Mountain-Jim Pond-Hurricane Mountain sequence was ramped northwestward over the Chain Lakes massif at ∼475 Ma, on the basal Boil Mountain surface. This obduction probably occurred slightly before obduction on the Baie Verte-Brompton surface (BBL), farther NW, over the Laurentian margin, and was followed by Dead River flysch sedimentation, which ended with the abrupt onset of Ammonoosuc-sequence arc magmatism at ∼470 Ma. Ammonoosuc eruptions probably ended at ∼460 Ma, when Iapetus closed along the Red Indian line. During a following magmatic hiatus of ∼3-5 m.y., now represented by portions of the Partridge Formation that overlie the Ammonoosuc Volcanics, subduction polarity reversed, and subduction resumed below the northwest-dipping Brunswick subduction complex (BSC) of New Brunswick, Canada. Quimby-sequence magmatism (∼456-435 Ma) on the the newly accreted Laurentian margin occurred above the BSC, whose footwall is now buried to the southeast by mainly Silurian clastic sediments of the Merrimack-Fredericton trough, deposited in the “Fredericton Sea”. In Silurian to Early Devonian time, the NW-dipping BSC footwall was paired with a SE-dipping subduction zone that produced arc magmas of the Coastal Volcanic belt, built on the composite Avalon and adjacent peri-Avalonian terranes. Orogen-normal extension produced by rapid rollback of both subduction zones narrowed the Fredericton Sea, produced the Central Maine and Connecticut Valley-Gaspé basins, and culminated in the Acadian orogeny when the sea completely closed in Early Devonian time.

  16. Stratigraphy, geochronology, and accretionary terrane settings of two Bronson Hill arc sequences, northern New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moench, Robert H.; Aleinikoff, John N.

    the southern Laurentian margin, but northwest of the principal Iapetan suture, or Red Indian line. The Boil Mountain-Jim Pond-Hurricane Mountain sequence was ramped northwestward over the Chain Lakes massif at ∼475 Ma, on the basal Boil Mountain surface. This obduction probably occurred slightly before obduction on the Baie Vert-Brompton surface (BBL), farther NW, over the Laurentian margin, and was followed by Dead River flysch sedimentation, which ended with the abrupt onset of Ammonoosuc-sequence arc magmatism at ∼470 Ma. Ammonoosuc eruptions probably ended at ∼460 Ma, when Iapetus closed along the Red Indian line. During a following magmatic hiatus of ∼3-5 m.y., now represented by portions of the Partridge Formation that overlie the Ammonoosuc Volcanics, subduction polarity reversed, and subduction resumed below the northwest-dipping Brunswick subduction complex (BSC) of New Brunswick, Canada. Quimby-sequence magmatism (∼456-435 Ma) on the newly accreted Laurentian margin occurred above the BSC, whose footwall is now buried to the southeast by mainly Silurian clastic sediments of the Merrimack-Fredericton trough, deposited in the “Fredericton Sea”. In Silurian to Early Devonian time, the NW-dipping BSC footwall was paired with a SE-dipping subduction zone that produced arc magmas of the Coastal Volcanic belt, built on the composite Avalon and adjacent peri-Avalonian terranes. Orogen-normal extension produced by rapid rollback of both subduction zones narrowed the Fredericton Sea, produced the Central Maine and Connecticut Valley-Gaspé basins, and culminated in the Acadian orogeny when the sea completely closed in Early Devonian time.

  17. Archaean Crustal Growth, Proterozoic Terrane Amalgamation and the Pan-African Orogeny, as Recorded in the NE African Sedimentary Record.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najman, Y.; Fielding, L.; Millar, I.; Butterworth, P.; Andò, S.; Padoan, M.; Barfod, D. N.; Kneller, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    The cratons of Central Africa are formed of various blocks of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic crust, flanked or truncated by Palaeoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic orogenic belts. The geology of east Africa has largely been shaped by the events of the Pan-African Orogeny when east and west Gondwana collided to form 'Greater Gondwana' at the end of the Neoproterozoic. The Pan-African orogeny in NE Africa involved the collision of Archaean cratons and the Saharan Metacraton with the Arabian Nubian Shield, a terrane comprising Neoproterozoic juvenile oceanic island arcs. Phanerozoic cover sedimentary rocks, eroded from the Pan-African orogenies, blanket much of NE Africa. Detrital data from these Phanerozoic cover sedimentary rocks, and modern rivers draining both the cover the basement, provide a wealth of information on basement evolution, of particular relevance for regions where the basement itself is poorly exposed due to ancient or modern sedimentary cover. From samples collected in Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt, we provide combined U-Pb and Hf-isotope zircon, U-Pb rutile and Ar-Ar mica datasets, heavy mineral analyses, and bulk trace element data, from Archaean basement, Phanerozoic cover and modern river sediment from the Nile and its tributaries to document the evolution of the North African crust. The data document early crust-forming events in the Congo Craton and Sahara Metacraton, phased development of the Arabian Nubian Shield culminating in the Neoproterozoic assembly of Gondwana during the Pan African Orogeny, and the orogen's subsequent erosion, with deposition of voluminous Phanerozoic cover.

  18. A Hands-On Approach to Teaching the Terrane Concept in Historical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann

    1989-01-01

    Describes an exercise in which students convert lithostratigraphic columns into chronostratigraphic columns, infer paleolatitude using paleomagnetic data, interpret depositional environments, determine the timing of deformation and terrane collision, construct models, and synthesize the results into a geologic history. Background data, procedures,…

  19. New Insights from Seismic Imaging over the Youanmi Terrane, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Omid; Juhlin, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    The Youanmi terrane is located in the central parts of the Yilgarn craton, Western Australia, an Archean granite-greenstone unit containing numerous mineral deposits such as gold, base metals, nickel, uranium and gemstones. The terrane is surrounded by the Kalgoorlie and Narryer terranes to the east and west, respectively. To the southwest it is bounded by the South West terrane. In order to study the transitions between the Youanmi terrane and the surrounding terranes, as well as identifying potential mineral rich areas, the Geological Survey of Western Australia acquired three deep crustal 2D seismic profiles with a total length of about 700 km in 2010. Correlated record lengths of 20 seconds allow the deep structure of the crust to be investigated with the data, down to Moho depths and greater. Initial processing using a conventional 2D flow show a highly reflective crust with several interesting features. We have now reprocessed the data following mainly the previous processing flow, but with a focus on the shallower crust, less than 10 seconds (about 27 km). Due to the complex geology in the region, 3D aspects of the structures need to be considered in the data processing. Therefore, we investigated the effect of cross-dip corrections to the data. The cross-dip correction has two advantages; (i) reflections are more coherent and enhanced after the correction and (ii) the orientation and dip angle of the geological structures of the corresponding reflections can be identified in the cross-line direction. Where the profiles intersect each other sparse 3D processing can be performed. First arrival travel-time tomography was also tested on parts of the dataset. Travel-time inversion may provide better velocity models at shallow depths than standard reflection seismic processing provides. Preliminary results show that the travel-time tomography has a depth of investigation of about 1 km, a depth that is of interest for mining purposes. Therefore, the tomography

  20. Lead isotope studies of the Guerrero composite terrane, west-central Mexico: implications for ore genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potra, Adriana; Macfarlane, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    New thermal ionization mass spectrometry and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry Pb isotope analyses of three Cenozoic ores from the La Verde porphyry copper deposit located in the Zihuatanejo-Huetamo subterrane of the Guerrero composite terrane are presented and the metal sources are evaluated. Lead isotope ratios of 3 Cenozoic ores from the El Malacate and La Esmeralda porphyry copper deposits located in the Zihuatanejo-Huetamo subterrane and of 14 ores from the Zimapan and La Negra skarn deposits from the adjoining Sierra Madre terrane are also presented to look for systematic differences in the lead isotope trends and ore metal sources among the proposed exotic tectonostratigraphic terranes of southern Mexico. Comparison among the isotopic signatures of ores from the Sierra Madre terrane and distinct subterranes of the Guerrero terrane supports the idea that there is no direct correlation between the distinct suspect terranes of Mexico and the isotopic signatures of the associated Cenozoic ores. Rather, these Pb isotope patterns are interpreted to reflect increasing crustal contribution to mantle-derived magmas as the arc advanced eastward onto a progressively thicker continental crust. The lead isotope trend observed in Cenozoic ores is not recognized in the ores from Mesozoic volcanogenic massive sulfide and sedimentary exhalative deposits. The Mesozoic ores formed prior to the amalgamation of the Guerrero composite terrane to the continental margin, which took place during the Late Cretaceous, in intraoceanic island arc and intracontinental marginal basin settings, while the Tertiary deposits formed after this event in a continental arc setting. Lead isotope ratios of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic ores appear to reflect these differences in tectonic setting of ore formation. Most Pb isotope values of ores from the La Verde deposit (206Pb/204Pb = 18.674-18.719) are less radiogenic than those of the host igneous rocks, but plot within the

  1. Basaltic Martian analogues from the Baikal Rift Zone and Mongolian terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurgurewicz, J.; Kostylew, J.

    2007-08-01

    In order to compare the results of studies of the western part of the Valles Marineris canyon on Mars there have been done field works on terrestrial surface areas similar with regard to geological setting and environmental conditions. One of the possible terrestrial analogues of the Valles Marineris canyon is the Baikal Rift Zone [1]. Field investigations have been done on the south end of the Baikal Lake, in the Khamar-Daban massif, where the outcrops of volcanic rocks occur. The second part of the field works has been done in the Mongolian terranes: Mandalovoo, Gobi Altay and Bayanhongor, because of environmental conditions being similar to those on Mars. The Mandalovoo terrane comprises a nearly continuous Paleozoic islandarc sequence [2]. In the Gobi Altay terrane an older sequence is capped by younger Devonian-Triassic volcanic-sedimentary deposits [2]. The Bayanhongor terrane forms a northwest-trending, discontinuous, narrow belt that consists of a large ophiolite allochton [3]. The collected samples of basalts derive from various geologic environments. The CORONA satellite-images have been used for the imaging of the Khamar-Daban massif and the Mandalovoo terrane. These images have the same spatial resolution and range as the Mars Orbiter Camera images of the Mars Global Surveyor mission. In the Mandalovoo terrane these images allowed to find an area with large amounts of tectonic structures, mainly faults (part of the Ongi massif), similar to the studied area on Mars. Microscopic observations in thin sections show diversification of composition and structures of basalts. These rocks have mostly a porphyric structure, rarely aphyric. The main components are plagioclases, pyroxenes and olivines phenocrysts, in different proportions. The groundmass usually consist of plagioclases, pyroxenes and opaques. The most diversified are basalts from the Mandalovoo terrane. Infrared spectroscopy has been used to analyse the composition of the rock material and compare

  2. Formation of massive stars by growing accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeder, Andre

    There are at present three scenarios for the formation of massive star. 1) The classical scenario of constant mass pre-Main Sequence (MS) evolution on the Kelvin-Helmholtz timescale. 2) The coalescence scenario, with merging of intermediate mass protostars. 3) The accretion scenario. The various arguments for and against these scenarios are briefly reviewed. We examine the pre-MS evolution of accreting stars for constant accretion rates and for accretion rates which are growing with the stellar masses. The location of the birthlines in the HRD and the lifetimes support accretion rates growing fastly with the stellar masses. Remarkably the dependence found is similar to that of the mass outflows from UC HII regions observed by Churchwell (1999) and Henning et al. (2000). The accretion scenario also leads to a new concept for the maximum stellar mass.

  3. Magnetized Accretion-Ejection Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jonathan

    1994-09-01

    For both active galactic nuclei (AGN) and young stellar objects (YSO), the common belief is growing that there is an interdependency between accretion of mass onto a central object and the highly collimated jets. This thesis deals with the investigation of the physical mechanism that leads to the formation of jets from a magnetized accretion disk. This has been done by solving the set of magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) equations in the case of an isothermal disk, using a self-similar approach. All the dynamical terms are included, so that the main results are independant of the modelling and thus, completely general. Indeed, a different temperature vertical profile only slightly modifies the parameters required for stationarity. A resistive thin accretion disk is thread by open magnetic field lines, sheared by its differential rotation. The field lines brake the disk and extract both angular momentum and mechanical energy from it. Because of the large magnetic "lever arm" acting on the disk, the magnetic braking is always dominant and the viscous torque is negligible. An equipartition magnetic field is enough, without significantly perturbing the Keplerian rotation. Thus, jets carry away all the angular momentum of the underlying accretion disk. Steady state accretion is achieved in the disk due to an anomalous magnetic diffusivity that allows the matter to slip across the field lines. This anomalous transport coefficient should arise from the saturation of a strong magnetic instability triggered in the disk. Ambipolar diffusion, which could have been used without losing the generality of the present results, remains however smaller than this anomalous diffusivity in the inner parts of a circumstellar disk. It has been found that steady state ejection can be achieved only if the magnetic torque changes its sign at the disk surface. From this point on, the field lines accelerate azimuthaly the matter transfering it both angular momentum and energy. This requires a

  4. The evolution of a Gondwanan collisional orogen: A structural and geochronological appraisal from the Southern Granulite Terrane, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavsa, Diana; Collins, Alan S.; Foden, John D.; Clark, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Gondwana amalgamated along a suite of Himalayan-scale collisional orogens, the roots of which lace the continents of Africa, South America, and Antarctica. The Southern Granulite Terrane of India is a generally well-exposed, exhumed, Gondwana-forming orogen that preserves a record of the tectonic evolution of the eastern margin of the East African Orogen during the Ediacaran-Cambrian (circa 600-500 Ma) as central Gondwana formed. The deformation associated with the closure of the Mozambique Ocean and collision of the Indian and East African/Madagascan cratonic domains is believed to have taken place along the southern margin of the Salem Block (the Palghat-Cauvery Shear System, PCSS) in the Southern Granulite Terrane. Investigation of the structural fabrics and the geochronology of the high-grade shear zones within the PCSS system shows that the Moyar-Salem-Attur shear zone to the north of the PCSS system is early Paleoproterozoic in age and associated with dextral strike-slip motion, while the Cauvery shear zone (CSZ) to the south of the PCSS system can be loosely constrained to circa 740-550 Ma and is associated with dip-slip dextral transpression and north side-up motion. To the south of the proposed suture zone (the Cauvery shear zone), the structural fabrics of the Northern Madurai Block suggest four deformational events (D1-D4), some of which are likely to be contemporaneous. The timing of high pressure-ultrahigh temperature metamorphism and deformation (D1-D3) in the Madurai Block (here interpreted as the southern extension of Azania) is constrained to circa 550-500 Ma and interpreted as representing collisional orogeny and subsequent orogenic collapse of the eastern margin of the East African Orogen. The disparity in the nature of the structural fabrics and the timing of the deformation in the Salem and the Madurai Blocks suggest that the two experienced distinct tectonothermal events prior to their amalgamation along the Cauvery shear zone during the

  5. Magnetic cataclysmic variable accretion flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, A. J.; Butters, O. W.; Parker, T. L.; Wynn, G. A.

    2007-08-01

    We have used a magnetic accretion model to investigate the accretion flows of magnetic cataclysmic variables (mCVs) throughout a range of parameter space. The results of our numerical simulations demonstrate that broadly four types of flow are possible: discs, streams, rings and propellers. We show that the equilibrium spin periods in asynchronous mCVs, for a given orbital period and magnetic moment, occur where the flow changes from a type characterised by spin-up (i.e. disc or stream) to one characterised by spin-down (i.e. propeller or ring). `Triple points' occur in the plane of spin-to-orbital period ratio versus magnetic moment, at which stream-disc-propeller flows or stream-ring-propeller flows can co-exist. The first of these is identified as corresponding to when the corotation radius is equal to the circularisation radius, and the second as where the corotation radius is equal to the distance from white dwarf to the L1 point. If mCVs are accreting at their equilibrium spin rates, then for a mass ratio of 0.5, those with Pspin/Porb <~ 0.10 will be disc-like, those with 0.10 <~ Pspin/Porb <~ 0.55 will be stream-like, and those with Pspin/Porb ~ 0.55 will be ring-like. In each case, some material is also lost from the binary in order to maintain angular momentum balance. The spin to orbital period ratio at which the systems transition between these flow types decreases as the mass ratio of the stellar components increases, and vice versa.

  6. Formation of massive stars by growing accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeder, André

    We calculate pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks with accretion rates growing with the actual stellar masses. We show that accretion rates growing at least as M1.5 are necessary to fit the constraints on the lifetimes and HR diagram. Most interestingly, such accretion rates growing with the stellar mass well correspond to those derived from observations of mass outflows (Churchwell 2000; Henning et al. 2000). These rates also lie in the permitted region of the dynamical models.

  7. Lithium synthesis in microquasar accretion.

    PubMed

    Iocco, Fabio; Pato, Miguel

    2012-07-13

    We study the synthesis of lithium isotopes in the hot tori formed around stellar mass black holes by accretion of the companion star. We find that sizable amounts of both stable isotopes 6Li and 7Li can be produced, the exact figures varying with the characteristics of the torus and reaching as much as 10(-2) M⊙ for each isotope. This mass output is enough to contaminate the entire Galaxy at a level comparable with the original, pregalactic amount of lithium and to overcome other sources such as cosmic-ray spallation or stellar nucleosynthesis. PMID:23030150

  8. Lithium synthesis in microquasar accretion.

    PubMed

    Iocco, Fabio; Pato, Miguel

    2012-07-13

    We study the synthesis of lithium isotopes in the hot tori formed around stellar mass black holes by accretion of the companion star. We find that sizable amounts of both stable isotopes 6Li and 7Li can be produced, the exact figures varying with the characteristics of the torus and reaching as much as 10(-2) M⊙ for each isotope. This mass output is enough to contaminate the entire Galaxy at a level comparable with the original, pregalactic amount of lithium and to overcome other sources such as cosmic-ray spallation or stellar nucleosynthesis.

  9. Slow exhumation of UHP terranes: Titanite and rutile ages of the Western Gneiss Region, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylander-Clark, A. R. C.; Hacker, B. R.; Mattinson, J. M.

    2008-08-01

    U-Pb ages of titanite and rutile were obtained from the central Western Gneiss Region, Norway, to assess the style and timing of exhumation and cooling of the Western Gneiss UHP terrane. Approximately half of the titanite ages are concordant, the majority of which yield a limited age range from 393 to 390 Ma. The other titanite data are discordant, and define discordia arrays with upper intercept ages of either ˜ 938 Ma or ˜ 1.6 Ga, and a lower intercept of ˜ 389 Ma. Concordant rutile analyses range from 385 to 392 Ma. Both titanite and rutile ages young WNW toward the core of the orogen and are ˜ 4 Ma older than 40Ar/ 39Ar muscovite ages, corresponding to a cooling rate of ˜ 90 °C/Ma. A well-defined boundary between concordant and discordant titanite ages, in combination with the WNW-increasing P- T gradient and the similarity between muscovite cooling ages in the east and eclogite ages in the west, suggests that the WGR remained coherent throughout its exhumation history, and was progressively unroofed from east to west. A 390.2 ± 0.8 Ma titanite in the Sørøyane UHP domain indicates that exhumation occurred at a vertical rate of ˜ 7 mm/yr for ˜ 12 Ma. These rates are slower than estimates from smaller UHP terranes, but similar to other large UHP terranes, suggesting that there may be fundamental differences in the mechanisms controlling the evolution of large UHP terranes that undergo protracted subduction and exhumation, and smaller UHP terranes that undergo rapid subduction and exhumation.

  10. Pulsed Accretion onto Eccentric and Circular Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Diego J.; Lai, Dong

    2016-08-01

    We present numerical simulations of circumbinary accretion onto eccentric and circular binaries using the moving-mesh code AREPO. This is the first set of simulations to tackle the problem of binary accretion using a finite-volume scheme on a freely moving mesh, which allows for accurate measurements of accretion onto individual stars for arbitrary binary eccentricity. While accretion onto a circular binary shows bursts with period of ˜ 5 times the binary period P b, accretion onto an eccentric binary is predominantly modulated at the period ˜ 1{P}{{b}}. For an equal-mass circular binary, the accretion rates onto individual stars are quite similar to each other, following the same variable pattern in time. By contrast, for eccentric binaries, one of the stars can accrete at a rate 10–20 times larger than its companion. This “symmetry breaking” between the stars, however, alternates over timescales of order 200P b and can be attributed to a slowly precessing, eccentric circumbinary disk. Over longer timescales, the net accretion rates onto individual stars are the same, reaching a quasi-steady state with the circumbinary disk. These results have important implications for the accretion behavior of binary T Tauri stars and supermassive binary black holes.

  11. Pulsed Accretion onto Eccentric and Circular Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Diego J.; Lai, Dong

    2016-08-01

    We present numerical simulations of circumbinary accretion onto eccentric and circular binaries using the moving-mesh code AREPO. This is the first set of simulations to tackle the problem of binary accretion using a finite-volume scheme on a freely moving mesh, which allows for accurate measurements of accretion onto individual stars for arbitrary binary eccentricity. While accretion onto a circular binary shows bursts with period of ˜ 5 times the binary period P b, accretion onto an eccentric binary is predominantly modulated at the period ˜ 1{P}{{b}}. For an equal-mass circular binary, the accretion rates onto individual stars are quite similar to each other, following the same variable pattern in time. By contrast, for eccentric binaries, one of the stars can accrete at a rate 10-20 times larger than its companion. This “symmetry breaking” between the stars, however, alternates over timescales of order 200P b and can be attributed to a slowly precessing, eccentric circumbinary disk. Over longer timescales, the net accretion rates onto individual stars are the same, reaching a quasi-steady state with the circumbinary disk. These results have important implications for the accretion behavior of binary T Tauri stars and supermassive binary black holes.

  12. Accretion flows govern black hole jet properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koljonen, K.; Russell, D.; Fernández Ontiveros, J.; Miller-Jones, J.; Russell, T.; Curran, P.; Soria, R.; Markoff, S.; van der Horst, A.; Casella, P.

    2015-07-01

    The process of jet formation in accreting black holes, and the conditions under which it occurs is currently hotly debated, with competing models predicting the jet power to be governed by black hole spin, the magnetic field strength, the location of the jet base, the mass accretion rate and/or the properties of the inner accretion flow. We present new results that show empirical correlations between the accretion flow properties and the spectral energy distribution of the jets launched from accreting black holes. The X-ray power law is directly related to the particle energy distribution in the hot accretion flow. We find that the photon index of this power law correlates with the characteristic break frequency in the jet spectrum emitted near the jet base, and the jet luminosity up to the break frequency. The observed correlations can be explained by the energy distribution of electrons in the hot accretion flow being subsequently channeled into the jet. These correlations represent a new inflow--outflow connection in accreting black holes, and demonstrate that the spectral properties of the jet rely most critically on the conditions in the inner accretion flow, rather than other parameters such as the black hole mass or spin.

  13. Bondi accretion onto cosmological black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkowski, Janusz; Malec, Edward

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we investigate a steady accretion within the Einstein-Straus vacuole, in the presence of the cosmological constant. The dark energy damps the mass accretion rate and—above a certain limit—completely stops the steady accretion onto black holes, which, in particular, is prohibited in the inflation era and after (roughly) 1012 years from the big bang (assuming the presently known value of the cosmological constant). Steady accretion would not exist in the late phases of the Penrose’s scenario—known as the Weyl curvature hypothesis—of the evolution of the Universe.

  14. Crustal structure of norther Oaxaca terrane; The Oaxaca and caltepec faults, and the Tehuacan Valley. A gravity study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Alatorre-Zamora, M. A.; Ramón, V. M.; Belmonte, S.

    2014-12-01

    Northern Oaxaca terrane, southern Mexico, is bound by the Caltepec and Oaxaca faults to the west and east, respectively. These faults juxtapose the Oaxaca terrane against the Mixteca and Juarez terranes, respectively. The Oaxaca Fault also forms the eastern boundary of the Cenozoic Tehuacan depression. Several gravity profiles across these faults and the Oaxaca terrane (including the Tehuacan Valley) enables us to establish the upper crustal structure of this region. Accordingly, the Oaxaca terrane is downward displaced to the east in two steps. First the Santa Lucia Fault puts into contact the granulitic basamental rocks with Phanerozoic volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Finally, the Gavilan Fault puts into contact the Oaxaca terrane basement (Oaxaca Complex) into contact with the volcano-sedimentary infill of the valley. This gravity study reveals that the Oaxaca Fault system gives rise to a series of east tilted basamental blocks (Oaxaca Complex?). A structural high at the western Tehuacan depression accomadates the east dipping faults (Santa Lucia and Gavilan faults) and the west dipping faults of the Oaxaca Fault System. To the west of this high structural we have the depper depocenters. The Oaxaca Complex, the Caltepec and Santa Lucia faults continue northwestwards beneath Phanerozoic rocks. The faults are regional tectonic structures. They seem to continue northwards below the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. A major E-W to NE-SW discontinuity on the Oaxaca terrane is inferred to exist between profiles 1 and 2. The Tehuacan Valley posses a large groundwater potential.

  15. Stratigraphic and isotopic link between the northern Stikine terrane and an ancient continental margin assemblage, Canadian Cordillera

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.L.; Gehrels, G.E.; Patchett, P.J. ); Mihalynuk, M.G. )

    1991-12-01

    Geologic and isotopic data strongly imply a Late Triassic depositional link between a juvenile volcanic arc (northern Stikine terrane) and an outboard ancient continental margin assemblage (Nisling terrane) in the Canadian Cordillera. Two sandstone samples and a schist clast from a conglomerate layer at the base of the Upper Triassic Stuhini Group (northern Stikine terrane) have Nd-depleted mantle model ages of 1400-1430 and 1600 Ma, respectively; other Stuhini Group rocks have model ages of 390,660 and 690 Ma. Three samples of Nisling terrane schist and gneiss yield Nd model ages of 910, 1770, and 2450 Ma and highly radiogenic {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios. These isotopic data corroborate stratigraphic evidence that detritus at the base of northern Stikine was shed from the Nisling terrane and strengthen interpretations that these terranes became linked by Late Triassic time. Thus, Upper Triassic strata of the northern Stikine terrane may have accumulated on top of or adjacent to an exotic continental fragment, a rifted fragment of the North American margin, or the in situ North American margin.

  16. Plate Interface Rheology, Mechanical Coupling and Accretion during Subduction Infancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agard, P.; Yamato, P.; Mathieu, S.; Prigent, C.; Guillot, S.; Plunder, A.; Dubacq, B.; Monie, P.; Chauvet, A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding subduction rheology in both space and time has been a challenge since the advent of plate tectonics. We herein focus on "subduction infancy", that is the first ~1-5 My immediately following subduction nucleation, when a newly born slab penetrates into the upper plate mantle and heats up. The only remnants of this critical yet elusive geodynamic step are thin metamorphic soles, commonly found beneath pristine, 100-1000 km long portions of oceanic lithosphere emplaced on continents (i.e., ophiolites). Through the (i) worldwide compilation of pressure-temperature conditions of metamorphic sole formation augmented by pseudosection thermodynamic modeling, (ii) calculations of the viscosity of materials along the plate interface and (iii) generic numerical thermal models, we provide a conceptual model of dynamic plate interface processes during subduction infancy (and initiation s.l.). We show in particular how major rheological switches across the subduction interface control slab penetration, and the formation of metamorphic soles. Due to the downward progression of hydration and weakening of the mantle wedge with cooling, the lower plate (basalt, sediment) and the upper plate (mantle wedge) rheologies equalize and switch over a restricted temperature-time-depth interval (e.g., at ~800°C and ~1 GPa, during 0.1-2 My, for high-temperature metamorphic sole formation). These switches result in episodes of maximum interplate mechanical coupling, thereby slicing the top of the slab and welding pieces (basalt, sediment) to the base of the mantle wedge. Similar mechanical processes likely apply for the later, deeper accretion and exhumation of high-temperature oceanic eclogites in serpentinite mélanges, or for the accretion of larger tectonic slices. This model provides constraints on the effective rheologies of the crust and mantle and general understanding, at both rock and plate scale, for accretion processes and early slab dynamics.

  17. Erosion and accretion along the arctic coast of Alaska. The influence of ice and climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Peter W.; Rollyson, Bonnie P.

    1991-01-01

    Coastline comparison on 1951 and 1981 charts to determine erosion and accretion showed that ocean-facing coastal bluffs were retreating while deltas were rapidly expanding. Where the coast is fronted by a lagoon, and coast-parallel sand and gravel islands, bluff retreat was reduced. The extensive bluff erosion was volumetrically balanced by accretion at the mouths of deltas. Coastal erosion is driven by ice-related processes, aided by the presence of an ice-eroded shelf. Rapid delta expansion is interpreted to have begun in the last 200 years, perhaps related to observed permafrost warming.

  18. The Cannery Formation--Devonian to Early Permian arc-marginal deposits within the Alexander Terrane, Southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Susan M.; Layer, Paul W.; Harris, Anita G.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Murchey, Benita L.

    2011-01-01

    cherts on both Admiralty and Kupreanof Islands contain radiolarians as young as Permian, the age of the Cannery Formation is herein extended to Late Devonian through early Permian, to include the early Permian rocks exposed in its type locality. The Cannery Formation is folded and faulted, and its stratigraphic thickness is unknown but inferred to be several hundred meters. The Cannery Formation represents an extended period of marine deposition in moderately deep water, with slow rates of deposition and limited clastic input during Devonian through Pennsylvanian time and increasing argillaceous, volcaniclastic, and bioclastic input during the Permian. The Cannery Formation comprises upper Paleozoic rocks in the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska. In the pre-Permian upper Paleozoic, the tectonic setting of the Alexander terrane consisted of two or more evolved oceanic arcs. The lower Permian section is represented by a distinctive suite of rocks in the Alexander terrane, which includes sedimentary and volcanic rocks containing early Permian fossils, metamorphosed rocks with early Permian cooling ages, and intrusive rocks with early Permian cooling ages, that form discrete northwest-trending belts. After restoration of 180 km of dextral displacement of the Chilkat-Chichagof block on the Chatham Strait Fault, these belts consist, from northeast to southwest, of (1) bedded chert, siliceous argillite, volcaniclastic turbidites, pillow basalt, and limestone of the Cannery Formation and the Porcupine Slate of Gilbert and others (1987); (2) greenschist-facies Paleozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks that have Permian cooling ages; (3) silty limestone and calcareous argillite interbedded with pillow basalt and volcaniclastic rocks of the Halleck Formation and the William Henry Bay area; and (4) intermediate-composition and syenitic plutons. These belts correspond to components of an accretionary complex, contemporary metamorphic rocks, forearc-basin deposits,

  19. Swept wing ice accretion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, Mark G.; Bidwell, Colin S.

    1990-01-01

    An effort to develop a three-dimensional modeling method was initiated. This first step towards creation of a complete aircraft icing simulation code builds on previously developed methods for calculating three-dimensional flow fields and particle trajectories combined with a two-dimensional ice accretion calculation along coordinate locations corresponding to streamlines. This work is a demonstration of the types of calculations necessary to predict a three-dimensional ice accretion. Results of calculations using the 3-D method for a MS-317 swept wing geometry are projected onto a 2-D plane normal to the wing leading edge and compared to 2-D results for the same geometry. It is anticipated that many modifications will be made to this approach, however, this effort will lay the groundwork for future modeling efforts. Results indicate that the flow field over the surface and the particle trajectories differed for the two calculations. This led to lower collection efficiencies, convective heat transfer coefficients, freezing fractions, and ultimately ice accumulation for the 3-D calculation.

  20. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: EQUILIBRIUM CONFIGURATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z. E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz

    2015-12-15

    We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.

  1. Nonlinear variations in axisymmetric accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Soumyajit; Sengupta, Anindya; Ray, Arnab K.

    2014-05-01

    We subject the stationary solutions of inviscid and axially symmetric rotational accretion to a time-dependent radial perturbation, which includes nonlinearity to any arbitrary order. Regardless of the order of nonlinearity, the equation of the perturbation bears a form that is similar to the metric equation of an analogue acoustic black hole. We bring out the time dependence of the perturbation in the form of a Liénard system by requiring the perturbation to be a standing wave under the second order of nonlinearity. We perform a dynamical systems analysis of the Liénard system to reveal a saddle point in real time, whose implication is that instabilities will develop in the accreting system when the perturbation is extended into the nonlinear regime. We also model the perturbation as a high-frequency traveling wave and carry out a Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin analysis, treating nonlinearity iteratively as a very feeble effect. Under this approach, both the amplitude and the energy flux of the perturbation exhibit growth, with the acoustic horizon segregating the regions of stability and instability.

  2. Circum-arctic plate accretion - Isolating part of a pacific plate to form the nucleus of the Arctic Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churkin, M.; Trexler, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    A mosaic of large lithospheric plates rims the Arctic Ocean Basin, and foldbelts between these plates contain numerous allochthonous microplates. A new model for continental drift and microplate accretion proposes that prior to the late Mesozoic the Kula plate extended from the Pacific into the Arctic. By a process of circumpolar drift and microplate accretion, fragments of the Pacific basin, including parts of the Kula plate, were cut off and isolated in the Arctic Ocean, the Yukon-Koyukuk basin in Alaska, and the Bering Sea. ?? 1980.

  3. The Khida terrane - Geochronological and isotopic evidence for Paleoproterozoic and Archean crust in the eastern Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehouse, M.J.; Stoeser, D.B.; Stacey, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The Khida terrane of the eastern Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia has been proposed as being underlain by Paleoproterozoic to Archean continental crust (Stoeser and Stacey, 1988). Detailed geological aspects of the Khida terrane, particularly resulting from new fieldwork during 1999, are discussed in a companion abstract (Stoeser et al., this volume). We present conventional and ion- microprobe U-Pb zircon geoenronology, Nd whole-rock, and feldspar Pb isotopic data that further elucidate the pre-Pan-African evolution of the Khida terrane. Locations for the Muhayil samples described below are shown in figure 2 of Stoeser et al. (this volume). 

  4. Stratigraphy, petrology, and structure of the Pingston terrane, Mount Hayes C-5 and C-6 quadrangles, eastern Alaska Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nokleberg, W. J.; Schwab, C. E.; Miyaoka, R. T.; Buhrmaster, C. L.

    Recent field, petrologic, and structural studies of the Pingston terrane in the Mount Hayes C-5 and C-6 quandrangles reveal that in this area the terrane: (1) has a highly distinctive stratigraphy, age, petrology (relict textures, relict minerals, and metamorphic facies), and structure; and (2) differs markedly from that described in previous studies. These more recent studies indicate that the major rock types, in order of decreasing abundance, are meta-andesite, metadacite and metarhyodacite flows and (or) tuff, metabasalt, metagabbro, metavolcanic graywacke, metagray-wacke, metasiltstone, metaquartzite or metachert, and very sparse marble. The general petrography of the major rock units in the Pingston terrane is given.

  5. Crustal structure of the Archaean granite-greenstone terrane in the northern portion of the Kaapvaal Craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debeer, J. H.; Stettler, E. H.; Barton, J. M., Jr.; Vanreenen, D. D.; Bearncombe, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    Recent investigations of the electrical resistivity, gravity and aeromagnetic signatures of the various granite-greenstone units in the northern portion of the Kaapvaal craton have revealed three features of significance: (1) the Archean greenstone belts are shallow features, rarely exceeding 5 km in depth; (2) the high resistivity upper crustal layer typical of the lower grade granite-greenstone terranes is absent in the granulite facies terrane; and (3) the aeromagnetic lineation patterns allow the granite-greenstone terrane to be subdivided into geologically recognizable tectono-metamorphic domains on the basis of lineation frequency and direction. A discussion follows.

  6. Geochemical and isotopic signatures of Proterozoic granitoids in terranes of the Borborema structural province, northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, V. P.; Sial, A. N.; Jardim de Sá, E. F.

    1998-09-01

    Two large E-W trending megastructures, the Patos and Pernambuco shear zones, subdivide the Borborema Province (BP), northeastern Brazil, into three main domains: Northern (ND), Transverse Zone (TZD) and Southern (SD). These domains evolved through reworking and amalgamations, during the Brasiliano cycle (0.70-0.50 Ga), of several tectonostratigraphic terranes and major crustal blocks previously deformed during Meso and Paleoproterozoic orogenic cycles. Petrological and geochemical characteristics of granitoids and syenitoids in these domains allow their classification into nine groups. These groups are enriched in K and Ba and have low Nb (usually <20 ppm), which seems to be a peculiar feature of the lithosphere in the BP. As an isolated criteria, the characteristics of the granitoid groups do not allow a clear individualization of different terranes, in most cases, but point neverthless to important contrasts among the major tectonic domains. Calc-alkalic magmatic epidote (mEp)-bearing granitoids in the ND display low δ18O (+6 to +8‰ SMOW), magnetic susceptibility (MS)>1.0×10 -3SI, ɛNd(0.6 Ga) from -15 to -20, and t DM model ages>2.0 Ga. Within the TZD, in contrast, calc-alkalic and high-K calc-alkalic mEp-bearing granitoids, respectively in the Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro and Alto Pajeúterranes, display lower MS (0.4×10 -3SI), high δ18O (+10 to +13‰ SMOW), lower ɛNd (-1 to -4), and younger t Nd (1.1-1.4 Ga). In high-K mEp-free granitoids, ɛNd values cluster around -12 in the Granjeiro terrrane and from -12 to -15 in the Capibaribe terrane. The Alto Pajeúterrane in the TZD is characterized by intrusions of peralkalic ultrapotassic syenitoids that show negative ɛNd (-15 to -19), t DM from 2.1 to 2.4 Ga, and MS from 0.7 to 1.0×10 -3 SI, and are regarded as derived from a metasomatized lithospheric mantle source. Granitoids in the SD are isotopically more complex. Three t DM Nd model-age intervals (1.0-1.5, 1.8-2.2 and 2.4-2.5 Ga) are found in the

  7. New Geochemical and Geochronological Constrains on the Tectonic Evolution of the Okhotsk Terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakharev, A.; Prokopiev, A.; Hourigan, J.; Toro, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Okhotsk Terrane is a continental block with Proterozoic basement which lies east of the South Verkhoyansk fold-and-thrust belt of eastern Siberia. It has been proposed that thrusting in the South Verkhoyansk occurred as a result of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous collision of the Okhotsk Terrane against the North Asia craton followed by plate convergence that produced the Uda-Murgal volcanic arc. Ten zircon grains from a biotite plagiogneiss of the Upper Maya uplift, analyzed using the Stanford/USGS SHRIMP-RG, yielded a weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 2624±13 Ma, corrected for 204Pb. TIMs analysis yielded a statistically undistinguishable upper intercept of 2595±26 Ma. These ages are similar to those reported from the hornblende granulite complex of the Kukhtuy uplift of the central Okhotsk Terrane. 2.6 Ga ages are also common in the North Asia craton. The Neoarchean gneisses of the Upper Maya are intruded by meta-aluminous biotite-hornblende granodiorites and quartz diorites of the Mastakh pluton. Mineralogical composition, REE distribution, and negative Ta, Nb, Zr, and Ti anomalies of the Mastakh pluton are comparable to continental margin, subduction-related plutons in western North America and the Urals. Ten zircons separated from the Mastakh pluton yielded a 207Pb-corrected weighted mean 238U/206Pb age of 376±4 Ma (Late Devonian). This age suggests that the Mastakh pluton is related to Late Devonian calc-alkaline volcanic rocks of the Matiy formation that are widespread in the Okhotsk Terrane. 40Ar/39Ar analysis of biotites from the Mastakh pluton yielded a weighted mean plateau age of 355±1Ma (Early Carboniferous), therefore that the pluton underwent slow cooling after emplacement. During the Middle Devonian to Early Carboniferous the eastern margin of the North Asia craton underwent a regional episode of rifting. Several major rift grabens and aulacogens formed along the Verkhoyansk margin. The best known of these is the Vilyui basin, but the

  8. Into the subduction plate interface: insights from exhumed terranes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agard, P.; Angiboust, S.; Plunder, A.

    2013-12-01

    In order to place constraints on the still elusive lithological and physical nature of the subduction plate interface, we herein present critical petrological (and modelling) data from intermediate depths along the subduction interface. Their implications, ranging from long-term underplating and exhumation to short-lived seismic events, are confronted with the recent wealth of geophysical/chemical data from the literature. Emphasis is placed on findings from two major localities showing deeply subducted ophiolitic remnants (Zermatt-Saas, Monviso), which crop out in the classic, well-preserved fossil subduction setting of the Western Alps. Both ophiolite remnants in fact represent large, relatively continuous fragments of oceanic lithosphere (i.e., several km-thick tectonic slices across tens of km) exhumed from ~80 km depths and thereby provide important constraints on interplate coupling mechanisms. We show that pervasive hydrothermal processes and seafloor alteration promoting fluid incorporation in both mafic and associated ultramafic rocks was essential, together with the presence of km-thick serpentinite soles, to decrease the density of the tectonic slices and prevent them from an irreversible sinking into the mantle. The Monviso case sudy (particularly the Lago Superiore Unit) provides further insights on both seismicity and fluid flow along the subduction plate interface at ~80 km depths: (1) Eclogite breccias, reported here for the first time, mark the locus of an ancient fault zone associated with intraslab, intermediate-depth earthquakes at ~80 km depth. They correspond to m-sized blocks made of 1-10 cm large fragments of eclogite mylonite later embedded in serpentinite in a ~100m thick eclogite facies shear zone. We suggest that seismic brecciation (possibly at magnitudes Mw ~4) occurred in the middle part of the oceanic crust, accompanied by the input of externally-derived fluids. (2) Prominent fluid-rock interactions, as attested by ubiquitous

  9. Visit the journal at http://www.elsevier.nl/locate/jnlnr/00212 Accretion and primary differentiation of the Earth: a personal journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Michael J.

    2000-07-01

    The accretion of the Earth was a violent series of events dominated by the addition of objects one third to one tenth of the mass of the growing planet. During the later stages of accretion, these collisions deposited enough energy to at least partly melt the Earth, possibly multiple times. The result was an ocean of magma. Metal sank through this magma ocean and ponded at its base at roughly the depth of the base of the current upper mantle for some period of time before transiting diapirically through the lower mantle to the center of the planet. Metal appears to have equilibrated with silicate at the base of the magma ocean. The primitive atmosphere and ocean appear to have outgassed from the magma ocean. Core formation, magma ocean solidification, ocean and atmospheric outgassing were essentially complete by 4.45 Ga ago.

  10. Accretion and core formation: constraints from metal-silicate partitioning.

    PubMed

    Wood, Bernard J

    2008-11-28

    Experimental metal-silicate partitioning data for Ni, Co, V, Cr, Nb, Mn, Si and W were used to investigate the geochemical consequences of a range of models for accretion and core formation on Earth. The starting assumptions were chondritic ratios of refractory elements in the Earth and the segregation of metal at the bottom of a magma ocean, which deepened as the planet grew and which had, at its base, a temperature close to the liquidus of the silicate. The models examined were as follows. (i) Continuous segregation from a mantle which is chemically homogeneous and which has a fixed oxidation state, corresponding to 6.26 per cent oxidized Fe. Although Ni, Co and W partitioning is consistent with chondritic ratios, the current V content of the silicate Earth cannot be reconciled with core segregation under these conditions of fixed oxidation state. (ii) Continuous segregation from a mantle which is chemically homogeneous but in which the Earth became more oxidized as it grew. In this case, the Ni, Co, W, V, Cr and Nb contents of core and mantle are easily matched to those calculated from the chondritic ratios of refractory elements. The magma ocean is calculated to maintain a thickness approximately 35 per cent of the depth to the core-mantle boundary in the accreting Earth, yielding a maximum pressure of 44GPa. This model yields a Si content of the core of 5.7 per cent, in good agreement with cosmochemical estimates and with recent isotopic data. (iii) Continuous segregation from a mantle which is not homogeneous and in which the core equilibrates with a restricted volume of mantle at the base of the magma ocean. This is found to increase depth of the magma ocean by approximately 50 per cent. All of the other elements (except Mn) have partitioning consistent with chondritic abundances in the Earth, provided the Earth became, as before, progressively oxidized during accretion. (iv) Continuous segregation of metal from a crystal-melt mush. In this case, pressures

  11. Paleomagnetic study on the Triassic rocks from the Lhasa Terrane, Tibet, and its paleogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanan; Cheng, Xin; Yu, Lei; Yang, Xingfeng; Su, Hailun; Peng, Ximing; Xue, Yongkang; Li, Yangyang; Ye, Yakun; Zhang, Jin; Li, Yuyu; Wu, Hanning

    2016-05-01

    We present paleomagnetic results from the newly discovered Early-Middle and Late Triassic marine sediments of the Lhasa Terrane. Orientated samples were collected from 32 sites (330 samples) on the north side of the Dibu Co Lake (84.7°E, 30.9°N), Coqên County, in the western region of the Lhasa terrane. Rock magnetic data revealed that most of the samples were dominated by magnetite and/or pyrrhotite. The stepwise demagnetization curves illustrated three-components: a low temperature component (Component A) near the present-day field (PDF), a secondary remanent magnetization (Component B) that may be from the Cretaceous Period, and a high-temperature component (Component C). The Component C were isolated from the Early-Middle Triassic rocks in 8 sites (47 specimens) and from the Late Triassic rocks in 6 sites (37 specimens). The Component C of the Early-Middle Triassic rocks passed a reversal test (B class, 95% confidence level) and a fold test (99% confidence level), that of the Late Triassic rocks passed a fold test (95% confidence level). The corresponding paleopoles for the Early-Middle and Late Triassic periods of the Lhasa Terrane were at 18.9°N, 208.4°E with A95 = 3.9° and 19.6°N, 211.8°E with A95 = 10.7°, respectively. We suggest that the Lhasa Terrane maintained a relative stable latitude (16.5 ± 3.9°S and 18.4 ± 10.7°S) in the southern hemisphere during the Triassic Period before moving northwards and amalgamating with the main body of Eurasia. The Qiangtang and Lhasa terranes, which were located at the mid-low latitudes of the southern hemisphere, might have been isolated between Eurasia and Gondwanaland since the Early Triassic Period. The Meso-Tethys, potentially represented by the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone (BNS) between the Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes, opened up in the Early-Middle Triassic Period and expanded during the entire course of the Triassic Period.

  12. Pulsed accretion in a variable protostar.

    PubMed

    Muzerolle, James; Furlan, Elise; Flaherty, Kevin; Balog, Zoltan; Gutermuth, Robert

    2013-01-17

    Periodic increases in luminosity arising from variable accretion rates have been predicted for some pre-main-sequence close binary stars as they grow from circumbinary disks. The phenomenon is known as pulsed accretion and can affect the orbital evolution and mass distribution of young binaries, as well as the potential for planet formation. Accretion variability is a common feature of young stars, with a large range of amplitudes and timescales as measured from multi-epoch observations at optical and infrared wavelengths. Periodic variations consistent with pulsed accretion have been seen in only a few young binaries via optical accretion tracers, albeit intermittently with accretion luminosity variations ranging from zero to 50 per cent from orbit to orbit. Here we report that the infrared luminosity of a young protostar (of age about 10(5) years) increases by a factor of ten in roughly one week every 25.34 days. We attribute this to pulsed accretion associated with an unseen binary companion. The strength and regularity of this accretion signal is surprising; it may be related to the very young age of the system, which is a factor of ten younger than the other pulsed accretors previously studied. PMID:23283175

  13. Pulsed accretion in a variable protostar.

    PubMed

    Muzerolle, James; Furlan, Elise; Flaherty, Kevin; Balog, Zoltan; Gutermuth, Robert

    2013-01-17

    Periodic increases in luminosity arising from variable accretion rates have been predicted for some pre-main-sequence close binary stars as they grow from circumbinary disks. The phenomenon is known as pulsed accretion and can affect the orbital evolution and mass distribution of young binaries, as well as the potential for planet formation. Accretion variability is a common feature of young stars, with a large range of amplitudes and timescales as measured from multi-epoch observations at optical and infrared wavelengths. Periodic variations consistent with pulsed accretion have been seen in only a few young binaries via optical accretion tracers, albeit intermittently with accretion luminosity variations ranging from zero to 50 per cent from orbit to orbit. Here we report that the infrared luminosity of a young protostar (of age about 10(5) years) increases by a factor of ten in roughly one week every 25.34 days. We attribute this to pulsed accretion associated with an unseen binary companion. The strength and regularity of this accretion signal is surprising; it may be related to the very young age of the system, which is a factor of ten younger than the other pulsed accretors previously studied.

  14. Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, Marek A.; Fragile, P. Chris

    2013-12-01

    This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks), Shakura-Sunyaev (thin) disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs). After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs).

  15. Controls on accretion of flysch and melange belts at convergent margins: evidence from the Chugach Bay thrust and Iceworm melange, Chugach accretionary wedge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kusky, T.M.; Bradley, D.C.; Haeussler, P.J.; Karl, S.

    1997-01-01

    Controls on accretion of flysch and melange terranes at convergent margins are poorly understood. Southern Alaska's Chugach terrane forms the outboard accretionary margin of the Wrangellia composite terrane, and consists of two major lithotectonic units, including Triassic-Cretaceous melange of the McHugh Complex and Late Cretaceous flysch of the Valdez Group. The contact between the McHugh Complex and the Valdez Group on the Kenai Peninsula is a tectonic boundary between chaotically deformed melange of argillite, chert, greenstone, and graywacke of the McHugh Complex and a less chaotically deformed melange of argillite and graywacke of the Valdez Group. We assign the latter to a new, informal unit of formational rank, the Iceworm melange, and interpret it as a contractional fault zone (Chugach Bay thrust) along which the Valdez Group was emplaced beneath the McHugh Complex. The McHugh Complex had already been deformed and metamorphosed to prehnite-pumpellyite facies prior to formation of the Iceworm melange. The Chugach Bay thrust formed between 75 and 55 Ma, as shown by Campanian-Maastrichtian depositional ages of the Valdez Group, and fault-related fabrics in the Iceworm melange that are cut by Paleocene dikes. Motion along the Chugach Bay thrust thus followed Middle to Late Cretaceous collision (circa 90-100 Ma) of the Wrangellia composite terrane with North America. Collision related uplift and erosion of mountains in British Columbia formed a submarine fan on the Farallon plate, and we suggest that attempted subduction of this fan dramatically changed the subduction/accretion style within the Chugach accretionary wedge. We propose a model in which subduction of thinly sedimented plates concentrates shear strains in a narrow zone, generating melanges like the McHugh in accretionary complexes. Subduction of thickly sedimented plates allows wider distribution of shear strains to accommodate plate convergence, generating a more coherent accretionary style

  16. Accretion in the galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Alex Courtney

    2000-10-01

    The Milky Way disk is enveloped in a diffuse, dynamically-hot collection of stars and star clusters collectively known as the ``stellar halo''. Photometric and chemical analyses suggest that these stars are ancient fossils of the galaxy formation epoch. Yet, little is known about the origin of this trace population. Is this system merely a vestige of the initial burst of star formation within the decoupled proto-Galaxy, or is it the detritus of cannibalized satellite galaxies? In an attempt to unravel the history of the Milky Way's stellar halo, I performed a detailed spectroscopic analysis of 55 metal-poor stars possessing ``extreme'' kinematic properties. It is thought that stars on orbits that either penetrate the remote halo or exhibit large retrograde velocities could have been associated with assimilated (or ``accreted'') dwarf galaxies. The hallmark of an accreted halo star is presumed to be a deficiency (compared with normal stars) of the α-elements (O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti) with respect to iron, a consequence of sporadic bursts of star formation within the diminutive galaxies. Abundances for a select group of light metals (Li, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti), iron-peak nuclides (Cr, Fe, Ni), and neutron-capture elements (Y, Ba) were calculated using line-strengths measured from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectral observations collected with the Keck I 10-m and KPNO 4-m telescopes. The abundances extracted from the spectra reveal: (1)The vast majority of outer halo stars possess supersolar [α/Fe] > 0.0) ratios. (2)The [α/Fe] ratio appears to decrease with increasing metallicity. (3)The outer halo stars have lower ratios of [α/Fe] than inner halo stars at a given metallicity. (4)At the largest metallicities, there is a large spread in the observed [α/Fe] ratios. (5)[α/Fe] anti-correlates with RAPO. (6)Only one star (BD+80° 245) exhibits the peculiar abundances expected of an assimilated star. The general conclusion extracted from these data is that the

  17. Why Do T Tauri Disks Accrete?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee; D'Alessio, Paola; Calvet, Nuria; Muzerolle, James

    2006-01-01

    Observations of T Tauri stars and young brown dwarfs suggest that the accretion rates of their disks scales roughly with the square of the central stellar mass. No dependence of accretion rate on stellar mass is predicted by the simplest version of the Gammie layered disk model, in which nonthermal ionization of upper disk layers allows accretion to occur via the magnetorotational instability. We show that a minor modification of Gaminie's model to include heating by irradiation from the central star yields a modest dependence of accretion on the mass of the central star. A purely viscous disk model could provide a strong dependence of accretion rate on stellar mass if the initial disk radius (before much viscous evolution has occurred) has a strong dependence on stellar mass. However, it is far from clear that at least the most massive pre-main-sequence disks can be totally magnetically activated by X-rays or cosmic rays. We suggest that a combination of effects are responsible for the observed dependence, with the lowest mass stars having the lowest mass disks, which can be thoroughly magnetically active, while the higher mass stars have higher mass disks that have layered accret,ion and relatively inactive or "dead" central zones at some radii. In such dead zones, we suggest that gravitational instabilities may play a role in allowing accretion to proceed. In this connection, we emphasize the uncertainty in disk masses derived from dust emission and argue that T Tauri disk masses have been systematically underestimated by conventional analyses. Furtlier study of accretion rates, especially in the lowest mass stars, would help to clarify the mechanisms of accretion in T Tauri stars.

  18. A SIGNATURE OF CHEMICAL SEPARATION IN THE COOLING LIGHT CURVES OF TRANSIENTLY ACCRETING NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Medin, Zach; Cumming, Andrew E-mail: cumming@physics.mcgill.ca

    2014-03-01

    We show that convection driven by chemical separation can significantly affect the cooling light curves of accreting neutron stars after they go into quiescence. We calculate the thermal relaxation of the neutron star ocean and crust including the thermal and compositional fluxes due to convection. After the inward propagating cooling wave reaches the base of the neutron star ocean, the ocean begins to freeze, driving chemical separation. The resulting convection transports heat inward, giving much faster cooling of the surface layers than found assuming the ocean cools passively. The light curves including convection show a rapid drop in temperature weeks after outburst. Identifying this signature in observed cooling curves would constrain the temperature and composition of the ocean as well as offer a real time probe of the freezing of a classical multicomponent plasma.

  19. Classification of lunar terranes using neutron and thorium gamma-ray data

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, W.C.; Lawrence, D.J.; Elphic, R.C.; Barraclough, B.L.; Maurice, S.; Binder, A.B.; Lucey, P.G.

    1999-04-01

    A major scientific goal of the Lunar Prospector (LP) gamma-ray and neutron spectrometers is to classify all lunar terranes according to composition. A preliminary analysis of early data indicates this goal will be met for the major rock-forming elements on a spatial scale of about 200 km. The low-altitude phase of LP now in progress should allow reduction of this scale by about a factor of 10 for those elements that have sufficiently high measurable fluxes relative to their backgrounds. Most promising are the flux intensities of thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons (which each average about 300 counts per 50 km of ground track) and 2.6 MeV gamma rays from thorium (which averages about 50 counts per 50 km of ground track). The authors therefore explore the information content of these measurables to classify the various lunar terrane types.

  20. Water in the Elizabethtown area; a study of a limestone terrane in North Central Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    An inventory of the water resources of a 240-square-mile area in north-central Kentucky is reported. It includes water distribution, chemical quality, water use, and principles of water occurrence and availability, and references. Nolin River is the only major stream in the area. Two of its tributaries, Valley Creek and North Fork Nolin River, have water withdrawn for public supply by Elizabethtown and Hodgenville. The quality of the water from the streams is typical of a limestone terrane. Ground water is also used for public supplies by Elizabethtown and Hodgenville and by two industrial plants. Many springs have flows of more than 0.25 cubic foot per second. Except for stock water, only three springs serve as a water source. Water from wells and springs is typical of limestone terrane. (USGS)

  1. Geological investigations of pre-late Jurassic terranes in the southernmost Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, R. D.

    Pre-Late Jurassic terranes of the Patagonian Archipelago were investigated. Their regional stratigraphic and structural characteristics were surveyed. Their significance in the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic evolution of South America were determined. Pre-Late Jurassic rocks within the archipelago are distributed in two belts. Within the outer belt the Madre de Dios Archipielago was studied in detail. Pre-Late Jurassic rocks of this area are divisible into three mappable units. These three units are interpreted to be part of a late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic accretionary prism that was located along the ancestral Pacific margin of the South American sector of Gondwana. Within the inner belt, the region of Peninsula Staines was studied in detail. In this region greenschist facies metamorphism and pervasive deformation fabrics prevent stratigraphic subdivision of the terrane. However the lithologies present are correlative with the outer belt suggesting that they also were part of the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic accretionary prism.

  2. Early Neoproterozoic multiple arc-back-arc system formation during subduction-accretion processes between the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks: New constraints from the supra-subduction zone NE Jiangxi ophiolite (South China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin-Shui; Gao, Jun; Klemd, Reiner; Jiang, Tuo; Zhai, Qing-Guo; Xiao, Xu-Chang; Liang, Xin-Quan

    2015-11-01

    ophiolite originated from an isotopically homogeneous depleted mantle source. The diversity of MORB- to IAB-like basalts and the presence of Fe-Ti basalts favor a formation of the NE Jiangxi ophiolite during the initial rifting phase of an intra-oceanic back-arc basin between an oceanic arc (Huaiyu Terrane) and the continental margin of the Yangtze Block (Jiuling Terrane) at ca. 990 Ma. Both the present and previous studies imply that multiple arc-back-arc systems formed during long-lasting subduction-accretion processes between the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks during the early Neoproterozoic.

  3. Geologic evolution in the Montana Metasedimentary Terrane from a neodymium perspective

    SciTech Connect

    D'Arcy, D.A.; Mueller, P.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The Archean Wyoming Province, located primarily in southwestern Montana and Wyoming, can be subdivided into three distinct lithotectonic terranes defined on the basis of Late Archean assemblages. These include the Montana Metasedimentary Terrane (MMT), the Beartooth-Bighorn Magmatic Terrane (BBMT), and the Wyoming Greenstone Terrane (WGT). The MMT, located in southwestern Montana, contains a distinctive assemblage of metasedimentary and metaigneous lithologies, but is dominated by Late to Middle Archean tonalitic to granitic gneisses. The BBMT adjoins the MMT on its eastern margin and is composed primarily of Late Archean (2.75 Ga) igneous and metaigneous lithologies, although isolated Middle Archean (3.3 Ga) metasedimentary packages are present. The BBMT is exposed in Beartooth and Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming. Neodymium model ages Tchur have been determined on 55 samples and range from 2.05 to 3.78 Ga, with clusters at about 3 and 3.3 Ga. The 3.3 Ga cluster is generally corroborated by U-Pb data from single-grain, detrital zircon studies of Tobacco Root quartzites and has been documented in metasediments of the BBMT. The 2.75 Ga event which affected the BBMT has, so far, not been detected in the MMT, although 2.65 Ga lithologies have been detected in the Madison Range. It is possible that the 3 Ga ages of MMT metasediments reflect mixing of 3.3 Ga and 2.75 and/or 2.65 Ga material or, that they represent the dominant time of crustal formation in the MMT as opposed to 2.75 Ga in the BBMT. Older Tchur's (3.3 to 3.8 Ga) are found in both the Tobacco Root Mountains and the Madison Range and suggest that the MMT contains evidence of even earlier crust-forming events not documented elsewhere in the Wyoming Craton.

  4. Potassium metasomatism of volcanic and sedimentary rocks in rift basins, calderas and detachment terranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, C. E.; drographic basins.

    1985-01-01

    The chemical, mineralogical, and oxygen-isotopic changes accompanying K-metasomatism are described. The similarities with diagenetic reactions in both deep marine and alkaline, saline-lake environments are noted. The common occurrence of K-metasomatism in upper-plate rocks of detachment terranes indicates that the early stage of severe regional extension causes crustal downwarping and, in arid to semi-arid regions, development of closed hydrographic basins.

  5. Paleomagnetic evidence that the central block of Salinia (California) is not a far-traveled terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whidden, K.J.; Lund, S.P.; Bottjer, D.J.; Champion, D.; Howell, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    New paleomagnetic results from Late Cretaceous (75-85 m.y.) red beds on the central block of Salinia indicate that Salinia was located within 6?? (in latitude) of its current cratonal North American position during the Late Cretaceous (after correction for Neogene San Andreas Fault transport). The red beds formed as alluvial-fan overbank deposits with hematite cement deposited directly on Salinian granites in the La Panza Range. Paleomagnetic analysis shows two components of magnetization in the red beds, a low-blocking-temperature present-day overprint residing in goethite and a high-blocking-temperature (>600??) component residing in hematite. The hematite magnetization is a chemical remanent magnetization which formed soon after deposition during pedogenesis. The bedding-corrected hematite remanence contains a magnetic polarity stratigraphy with antipodal normal and reversed directions. Twenty-three Class I sites (??95 < 20??) have an average hematite direction with inclination = 54.4?? and declination = 18.2?? (??95 = 6.1??) after structural correction. These paleomagnetic data suggest that Salinia resided at about 35??N latitude during the Late Cretaceous, within 6?? of its current location adjacent to cratonal North America. By contrast, a summary of paleomagnetic data from the Peninsular Ranges terrane and the Sur-Obispo terrane, which are currently outboard of Salinia, shows northward transport of these terranes of 12,.o\\ to 22?? relative to their current locations in North America since the Cretaceous. The offsets increase systematically away from the craton with the most outboard Sur-Obispo terrane (which is composed of accretionary prism and distal forearc material) showing the largest degree of northward translation.

  6. Low Angle Contact Between the Oaxaca and Juárez Terranes Deduced From Magnetotelluric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzate-Flores, Jorge A.; Molina-Garza, Roberto; Corbo-Camargo, Fernando; Márquez-Ramírez, Víctor

    2016-10-01

    We present the electrical resistivity model along a profile perpendicular to the Middle America trench in southern Mexico that reveals previously unrecognized tectonic features at upper to mid-crustal depths. Our results support the hypotheses that the upper crust of the Oaxaca terrane is a residual ~20 km thick crust composed by an ~10 km thick faulted crustal upper layer and an ~10 km thick hydrated and/or mineralized layer. Oaxaca basement overthrust the younger Juárez (or Cuicateco) terrane. The electrical resistivity model supports the interpretation of a slab subducting at a low angle below Oaxaca. Uplift in the Oaxaca region appears to be related to fault reactivation induced by low angle subduction. In the Juárez terrane, isostatic forces may contribute to uplift because it is largely uncompensated. In the Sierra Madre del Sur, closer to the coast, uplift is facilitated by slab-dehydration driven buoyancy. Both gravity and resistivity models are consistent with a thinned upper crust in the northeast end of the profile.

  7. Deformation and chemical reaction in an ultramafic terrane boundary: the Livingstone Fault, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. A. F.; Crase, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Livingstone Fault is a >1000 km long terrane boundary that defines the eastern margin of the Dun Mountain Ophiolite Belt in New Zealand. The fault is spectacularly exposed where it juxtaposes ultramafic parts of the ophiolite belt (e.g. peridotite, serpentinite) against quartzofeldspathic rocks of the continental Caples Terrane. In such areas, the fault consists of a 50-400 m-wide foliated serpentinite shear zone entraining competent pods of massive serpentinite, Caples Terrane rocks and various volcanic rocks. The Livingstone Fault provides an excellent example of deformation styles (e.g. distributed vs. localized) and chemical reactions where peridotite, serpentinite and quartzofeldspathic rocks are juxtaposed, a common situation in many plate tectonic settings (e.g. portions of the San Andreas Fault, central and southern sectors of the Alpine Fault). We will present some initial results of fieldwork carried out in the Olivine Wilderness Area (NE of Milford Sound) focusing on: 1) the transition from intact peridotite to partly serpentinized peridotite to a fully serpentinized shear zone, 2) the distribution of strain within the serpentinite shear zone, 3) the significance of highly localized slip within entrained pods of peridotite and serpentinite, and 4) the nature and possible mechanical effects of talc-forming metasomatic reactions between serpentinite and quartzofeldspathic rocks.

  8. Cretaceous-Tertiary structural evolution of the north central Lhasa terrane, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmer, John E.; Kapp, Paul; Guynn, Jerome H.; Lai, Qingzhou

    2007-12-01

    In the north central Lhasa terrane of Tibet, two distinct structural levels of an east-west striking thrust system are exposed along the north trending late Cenozoic Xiagangjiang rift. Upper Paleozoic strata deformed by the south directed Langgadong La thrust, and Cretaceous strata involved in variably north and south directed thrusting characterize these lower and upper structural levels, respectively. These two structural levels are separated by the Tagua Ri passive roof thrust. Balanced cross section restoration suggests that the thrust system accommodated ˜103 km (˜53%) shortening. The 40Ar/39Ar results, together with an interpretation of synthrust deposition of Upper Cretaceous strata, suggest that the majority of shortening occurred during the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene. Cretaceous strata lie unconformable on Permian rocks; volcanic tuffs directly above the unconformity yield U-Pb zircon ages of ˜131 Ma. Upper Cretaceous strata record a change from shallow marine to nonmarine deposition, indicating uplift above sea level during this time. The overall south directed vergence of the thrust belt is consistent with substantial crustal thickening in central Tibet by large-scale northward underthrusting of Lhasa terrane basement beneath the Qiantang terrane prior to the Indo-Asian collision. The documented decoupling of contractional deformation at shallow crustal levels appears to be a regional characteristic of Tibet from at least the Bangong suture in the north to the Tethyan Himalaya to the south. This style of deformation explains the absence of basement exposures and major denudation in this region despite substantial crustal shortening.

  9. A magma ocean and the Earth's internal water budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    There are lines of evidence which relate bounds on the primordial water content of the Earth's mantle to a magma ocean and the accompanying Earth accretion process. We assume initially (before a magma ocean could form) that as the Earth accreted, it grew from volatile- (H2O, CO2, NH3, CH4, SO2, plus noble) gas-rich planetesimals, which accreted to form an initial 'primitive accretion core' (PAC). The PAC retained the initial complement of planetesimal gaseous components. Shock wave experiments in which both solid, and more recently, the gaseous components of materials such as serpentine and the Murchison meteorite have demonstrated that planetesimal infall velocities of less than 0.5 km/sec, induce shock pressures of less than 0.5 GPa and result in virtually complete retention of planetary gases.

  10. Tomographic images of subducted oceans matched to the accretionary records of orogens - Case study of North America and relevance to Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigloch, Karin; Mihalynuk, Mitchell G.; Hosseini, Kasra

    2016-04-01

    Accretionary orogens are the surface record of subduction on the 100-million-year timescale; they aggregate buoyant crustal welts that resisted subduction. The other record of subduction is found in the deep subsurface: oceanic lithosphere preserved in the mantle that records ocean basin closure between successive generations of arcs. Seismic tomography maps out these crumpled paleo-oceans down to the core-mantle boundary, where slab accumulates. One such accumulation of enormous scale is under Eastern Asia, recording the assembly of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Deep CAOB slab has hardly been explored because tomographic image resolution in the lowermost mantle is limited, but this is rapidly improving. We present new images of the CAOB slabs from our P-wave tomography that includes core-diffracted waves as a technical novelty. The previous slab blur sharpens into the type of elongated geometries expected to trace paleo-trench lines. Since the North American Cordillera is younger than the CAOB (mostly <200 m.y. versus ~650-250 m.y.), its slabs have descended only to mid-mantle depths (<2000 km), where tomographic resolution is much better. Hence we can make a detailed, spatiotemporal match between 3-D slab geometries and the accretion history of the Cordillera - a blueprint for continental-scale investigations in other accretionary orogens, including what may become possible for the CAOB. Lower-mantle slabs beneath North America reveal evolving configurations of arc-trench positions back to the breakup of Pangea. These can be combined with quantitative plate reconstructions to show where and when the westward-drifting continent overrode pre-existing, intra-oceanic subduction zones, and accreted their associated arcs and basement terranes in Jurassic and Cretaceous times. Tectonic predictions from this "tomographic time machine" can be checked against the geological record. To demonstrate, we propose a resolution to the longstanding debate of how and when

  11. From oceanic subduction to continental collision: An overview of HP-UHP metamorphic rocks in the North Qaidam UHP belt, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guibin; Zhang, Lifei; Christy, Andrew G.

    2013-02-01

    The North Qaidam UHPM belt is unique among "continental type" subduction zones in showing well-preserved subducted oceanic relics that predate continental subduction and collision. We review petrologic, thermobarometric, geochemical and geochronological studies for the Yuka, Luliang Shan, Xitieshan and Dulan terranes in this belt. UHP conditions are demonstrated by coesite inclusions in eclogite and country gneiss, and diamond inclusions from garnet peridotite. The relict subducted oceanic lithology crops out in the Shaliuhe cross-section in Dulan terrane; it originated as the floor of a Paleo-Qilian Ocean that existed between Qaidam and Qilian blocks before the early Ordovician. Whereas most eclogites of this belt are derived from mafic rocks of either a Neoproterozoic continental rift or incipient oceanic basin setting, which were subducted along with continental rocks in the early Paleozoic. The data, especially the two protolith sources for eclogites, demonstrate tectonic evolution of the North Qaidam UHPM belt from oceanic subduction to continental collision.

  12. The metallogeny of Late Triassic rifting of the Alexander terrane in southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, C.D.; Premo, W.R.; Meier, A.L.; Taggart, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    , to sulfosalt-enriched VMS occurrences exhibiting characteristics of vein, diagenetic replacement, and exhalative styles of mineralization, and finally to Cu-Zn-(Co-Au) occurrences with larger and more clearly stratiform orebody morphologies. Occurrences in the middle of the belt are transitional in nature between structurally controlled types of mineralization that formed in a shallow-water, near-arc setting, to those having a more stratiform appearance, formed in a deeper water, rift-basin setting. The geologic setting in the south is consistent with shallow subaqueous emplacement on the flanks of the Alexander terrane. Northward, the setting changes to an increasingly deeper back- or intra-arc rift basin. Igneous activity in the Alexander Triassic metallogenic belt is characterized by a bimodal suite of volcanic rocks and a previously unrecognized association with mafic-ultramafic hypabyssal intrusions. Immobile trace and rare earth element (BEE) geochemical data indicate that felsic rocks in the southern portion of the belt are typical calc-alkaline rhyolites, which give way in the middle of the belt to peralkaline rhyolites. Rhyolites are largely absent in the northern part of the belt. Throughout the belt, the capping basaltic rocks have transitional geochemical signatures. Radiogenic isotope data for these rocks are also transitional (basalts and gabbros: ??-Nd = 4-9 and 87Sr/86Sr initial at 215 Ma = 0.7037-0.7074). Together these data are interpreted to reflect variable assimilation of mature island-arc crust by more primitive melts having the characteristics of either mid-ocean ridge (MORB) or intraplate (within-plate) basalts (WPB). The ore and host-rock geochemistry and the sulfosalt-rich mineralogy of the deposits are strikingly similar to recent descriptions of active sea-floor hydrothermal (white smoker) systems in back arcs of the southwest Pacific Ocean. These data, in concert with existing faunal ages, record the formation of a belt of VMS deposits

  13. Effects of ice accretions on aircraft aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Frank T.; Khodadoust, Abdollah

    2001-11-01

    This article is a systematic and comprehensive review, correlation, and assessment of test results available in the public domain which address the aerodynamic performance and control degradations caused by various types of ice accretions on the lifting surfaces of fixed wing aircraft. To help put the various test results in perspective, overviews are provided first of the important factors and limitations involved in computational and experimental icing simulation techniques, as well as key aerodynamic testing simulation variables and governing flow physics issues. Following these are the actual reviews, assessments, and correlations of a large number of experimental measurements of various forms of mostly simulated in-flight and ground ice accretions, augmented where appropriate by similar measurements for other analogous forms of surface contamination and/or disruptions. In-flight icing categories reviewed include the initial and inter-cycle ice accretions inherent in the use of de-icing systems which are of particular concern because of widespread misconceptions about the thickness of such accretions which can be allowed before any serious consequences occur, and the runback/ridge ice accretions typically associated with larger-than-normal water droplet encounters which are of major concern because of the possible potential for catastrophic reductions in aerodynamic effectiveness. The other in-flight ice accretion category considered includes the more familiar large rime and glaze ice accretions, including ice shapes with rather grotesque features, where the concern is that, in spite of all the research conducted to date, the upper limit of penalties possible has probably not been defined. Lastly, the effects of various possible ground frost/ice accretions are considered. The concern with some of these is that for some types of configurations, all of the normally available operating margins to stall at takeoff may be erased if these accretions are not

  14. The memory of the accreting plate boundary and the continuity of fracture zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schouten, Hans; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed aeromagnetic anomaly map of the Mesozoic seafloor-spreading lineations southwest of Bermuda reveals the dominant magnetic grain of the oceanic crust and the character of the accreting boundary at the time of crustal formation. The magnetic anomaly pattern is that of a series of elongate lobes perpendicular to the fracture zone (flowline) trends. The linear sets of magnetic anomaly peaks and troughs have narrow regions of reduced amplitude anomalies associated with the fracture zones. During the period of Mesozoic geomagnetic polarity reversals (when 1200 km of central North Atlantic seafloor formed), the Atlantic accreting boundary consisted of stationary, elongate, spreading center cells that maintained their independence even though sometimes only minor spatial offsets existed between cells. Normal oceanic crustal structure was formed in the spreading center cells, but structural anomalies and discontinuities characteristic of fracture zones were formed at their boundaries, which parallel flowlines of Mesozoic relative plate motion in the central North Atlantic. We suggest that the memory for a stationary pattern of independent spreading center cells resides in the young brittle lithosphere at the accreting boundary where the lithosphere is weakest; here, each spreading center cell independently goes through its cylce of stress buildup, stress release, and crustal accretion, after which its memory is refreshed. The temporal offset between the peaks of the accretionary activity that takes place within each cell may provide the mechanism for maintaining the independence of adjacent spreading center cells through times when no spatial offset between the cells exists.

  15. Accretion in Saturn's F Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, B. K.; Esposito, L. W.; Stewart, G.

    2012-12-01

    Saturn's F ring is the solar system's principal natural laboratory for direct observation of accretion and disruption processes. The ring resides in the Roche zone, where tidal disruption competes with self-gravity, which allows us to observe the lifecycle of moonlets. Just as nearby moons create structure at the B ring edge (Esposito et al. 2012) and the Keeler gap (Murray 2007), the F ring "shepherding" moons Prometheus and Pandora stir up ring material and create observably changing structures on timescales of days to decades. In fact, Beurle et al (2010) show that Prometheus makes it possible for "distended, yet gravitationally coherent clumps" to form in the F ring, and Barbara and Esposito (2002) predicted a population of ~1 km bodies in the ring. In addition to the observations over the last three decades, the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) has detected 27 statistically significant features in 101 occultations by Saturn's F ring since July 2004. Seventeen of those 27 features are associated with clumps of ring material. Two features are opaque in occultation, which makes them candidates for solid objects, which we refer to as Moonlets. The 15 other features partially block stellar signal for 22 m to just over 3.7 km along the radial expanse of the occultation. Upon visual inspection of the occultation profile, these features resemble Icicles, thus we will refer to them as such here. The density enhancements responsible for such signal attenuations are likely due to transient clumping of material, evidence that aggregations of material are ubiquitous in the F ring. Our lengthy observing campaign reveals that Icicles are likely transient clumps, while Moonlets are possible solid objects. Optical depth is an indicator of clumping because more-densely aggregated material blocks more light; therefore, it is natural to imagine moonlets as later evolutionary stage of icicle, when looser clumps of material compact to form a feature that appears

  16. A recent phase of accretion along the southern Costa Rican subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangs, Nathan L.; McIntosh, Kirk D.; Silver, Eli A.; Kluesner, Jared W.; Ranero, César R.

    2016-06-01

    In 2011 we acquired a 3D seismic reflection volume across the Costa Rica margin NW of the Osa Peninsula to investigate the complex structure and the development of the seismogenic zone within the Costa Rican subduction zone in the vicinity of recent International Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) drilling. In contrast to previous interpretations, these newly acquired seismic images show that the margin wedge is composed of a layered fabric that is consistent with clastic sediments, similar to materials recovered from IODP drilling, that have been thrust and thickened into thrust-bounded folded sequences. These structures are consistent with a balanced sequence that has been frontally accreted in the context of an accretionary model. We interpret these sequences as sediment originally deposited on the subducting crust in a trench basin created by the southward migration of the Cocos-Nazca-Caribbean triple junction, and accreted during recent margin subduction that also accelerated with passage of the triple junction. The margin is composed of relatively rapidly accreted sediment that was added to the margin during a phase of accretion within the last ∼5 Ma that was probably preceded throughout the Neogene by periods of non-accretion or erosion.

  17. Paleoceanography of the tropical eastern pacific ocean.

    PubMed

    Grigg, R W; Hey, R

    1992-01-10

    The East Pacific Barrier (EPB) is the most effective marine barrier to dispersal of tropical shallow-water fauna in the world today. The fossil record of corals in the eastern Pacific suggests this has been true throughout the Cenozoic. In the Cretaceous, the EPB was apparently less effective in limiting dispersal. Equatorial circulation in the Pacific then appears to have been primarily east to west and the existence of oceanic atolls (now drowned guyots) in the eastern Pacific probably aided dispersal. Similarly, in the middle and early Mesozoic and late Paleozoic, terranes in the central tropical Pacific likely served as stepping stones to dispersal of tropical shelf faunas, reducing the isolating effect of an otherwise wider Pacific Ocean (Panthalassa).

  18. Paleoceanography of the tropical eastern pacific ocean.

    PubMed

    Grigg, R W; Hey, R

    1992-01-10

    The East Pacific Barrier (EPB) is the most effective marine barrier to dispersal of tropical shallow-water fauna in the world today. The fossil record of corals in the eastern Pacific suggests this has been true throughout the Cenozoic. In the Cretaceous, the EPB was apparently less effective in limiting dispersal. Equatorial circulation in the Pacific then appears to have been primarily east to west and the existence of oceanic atolls (now drowned guyots) in the eastern Pacific probably aided dispersal. Similarly, in the middle and early Mesozoic and late Paleozoic, terranes in the central tropical Pacific likely served as stepping stones to dispersal of tropical shelf faunas, reducing the isolating effect of an otherwise wider Pacific Ocean (Panthalassa). PMID:17756067

  19. Outflows from Accretion Disks around Compact Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Cheng-Liang; Wu, Xue-Bing

    2013-02-01

    We solve the set of hydrodynamic equations for accretion disks in the spherical coordinates (rθφ) to obtain the explicit structure along the θ direction. The results display thinner, quasi-Keplerian disks for Shakura-Sunyaev Disks (SSDs) and thicker, sub-Keplerian disks for Advection Dominated Accretion Flows (ADAFs) and slim disks, which are consistent with previous popular analytical models, while an inflow region and an outflow region always exist, which supports the results of some recent numerical simulation works. Our results indicate that the outflows should be common in various accretion disks and stronger in slim disks and ADAFs.

  20. Interpretation of tectonic setting in the Phetchabun Volcanic Terrane, Northern Thailand: Evidence from enhanced airborne geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangsomphong, Arak; Thitimakorn, Thanop; Charusiri, Punya

    2015-08-01

    Re-processed aeromagnetic data with enhancement approaches of reduction to the pole, high pass filtering and shaded relief have been used to interpret complex subsurface structures of the Carboniferous to Triassic Phetchabun Volcanic Terrane (PVT) which is largely covered by thick Cenozoic sediment deposits. Interpretation of the enhanced aeromagnetic data reveals four distinct structural domains in the PVT, viz. Northern, Eastern, Central, and Western domains. Within these domains, high magnetic units are recognized, namely elongate, ring, circular, and dipolar spot units. The elongate unit in the Central domain is characterized by a deformation zone with northwest-southeast trending, sinistral shearing. East-west trending and the northeast-southwest trending faults cross-cut several magnetic units in the Central domain, with sinistral and dextral movements, respectively. Three major fault directions have been identified, including the northeast-southwest trending sinistral faults, north-south trending dextral faults, and northwest-southeast trending dextral faults. The younger spot units are small intrusive bodies largely situated along these latest fault segments. The aeromagnetic interpretation results, together with relevant current field verification, as well as previous geochronological and petrochemical investigations, have lead to the clarification of structural development in the PVT. The elongate units are interpreted to represent Late Carboniferous intrusive bodies. They occurred as a result of an eastward subduction of the Nakhonthai oceanic plate beneath the Indochina continental plate, along the Loei suture. The elongate units are also reflected in a north-south trending deformation zone formed by the east-west compressional tectonics. The ring units are considered to have formed in a Permo-Triassic volcanic arc, whereas the circular units represent equigranular intrusive bodies which formed in a response to the second phase of eastward subduction

  1. Extraterrestrial accretion and glacial cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    We propose that the approx. 100-k.y. cycle seen in terrestrial glaciation is due to changes in meteor flux that come from changes in the Earth's orbit. This model can explain a 70-k.y. 'anomalous' period in climate data and the apparent discrepancy between present extraterrestrial fluxes and those in oceanic sediments. It can be tested by measuring Ir densities in sediments and ice during glacials and interglacials.

  2. Structural Analyses of the Kahiltna Terrane: A Kinematic Record of the Collision of the Talkeetna Superterrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bier, S. E.; Fisher, D.

    2002-12-01

    Macro-, meso-, and microscale structural analyses from several localities across the ~1000 km Kahiltna Terrane provide valuable kinematic insights into the late Cretaceous collision between the Talkeetna superterrane and North America. The Kahiltna Terrane, a Jurassic-Cretaceous flysch basin inboard of the Talkeetna superterrane (Wrangellia, Peninsular, and Alexander terranes), contains incremental strain indicators that record a history of oblique collision and subsequent deformation in a strike-slip regime. A comparison of structural data from localities across the Kahiltna terrane suggests a unique history not yet described in previous work on south-central Alaskan tectonics. Data was collected from the Reindeer Hills area, the northwestern Talkeetna Mountains, Denali National Park, the Peters Hills, and the Tordrillo Mountains. In the Reindeer Hills, a melange zone occurs as a series of exposures dismembered by ongoing strike slip faulting between the flysch of the Kahiltna terrane and the precollisional edge of the North American continent. This melange is characterized by fault-bounded blocks of Paleozoic limestone and sandstone within an argillite matrix with a conspicuous scaly fabric. The blocks range in size from 10 cm to tens of meters; and melange fish indicate a south-directed shear sense. The melange is overlain by a red and green (Triassic-Jurassic?) conglomerate along an unconformity that likely marks the base of a perched slope basin near the toe of an accretionary wedge. The strike of bedding and cleavage in this area trends EW. The fold axes trend NW-SE and folds verge to the south. In the northwest corner of the Talkeetna Mountains, the structure is dominated by north vergent folds and faults. The strike of bedding trends ~025°; whereas the strike of the cleavage is ~060°. Both cleavage and bedding dip to the southeast. The fold axes trend roughly NE-SW. North of the Denali Fault System, in Denali National Park, strike of bedding is ~122° and

  3. The beaming of subhalo accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libeskind, Noam I.

    2016-10-01

    We examine the infall pattern of subhaloes onto hosts in the context of the large-scale structure. We find that the infall pattern is essentially driven by the shear tensor of the ambient velocity field. Dark matter subhaloes are preferentially accreted along the principal axis of the shear tensor which corresponds to the direction of weakest collapse. We examine the dependence of this preferential infall on subhalo mass, host halo mass and redshift. Although strongest for the most massive hosts and the most massive subhaloes at high redshift, the preferential infall of subhaloes is effectively universal in the sense that its always aligned with the axis of weakest collapse of the velocity shear tensor. It is the same shear tensor that dictates the structure of the cosmic web and hence the shear field emerges as the key factor that governs the local anisotropic pattern of structure formation. Since the small (sub-Mpc) scale is strongly correlated with the mid-range (~ 10 Mpc) scale - a scale accessible by current surveys of peculiar velocities - it follows that findings presented here open a new window into the relation between the observed large scale structure unveiled by current surveys of peculiar velocities and the preferential infall direction of the Local Group. This may shed light on the unexpected alignments of dwarf galaxies seen in the Local Group.

  4. Accretion Timescales from Kepler AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasliwal, Vishal P.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2015-01-01

    We constrain AGN accretion disk variability mechanisms using the optical light curves of AGN observed by Kepler. AGN optical fluxes are known to exhibit stochastic variations on timescales of hours, days, months and years. The excellent sampling properties of the original Kepler mission - high S/N ratio (105), short sampling interval (30 minutes), and long sampling duration (~ 3.5 years) - allow for a detailed examination of the differences between the variability processes present in various sub-types of AGN such as Type I and II Seyferts, QSOs, and Blazars. We model the flux data using the Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) representation from the field of time series analysis. We use the Kalman filter to determine optimal mode parameters and use the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) to select the optimal model. We find that optical light curves from Kepler AGN cannot be fit by low order statistical models such as the popular AR(1) process or damped random walk. Kepler light curves exhibit complicated power spectra and are better modeled by higher order ARMA processes. We find that Kepler AGN typically exhibit power spectra that change from a bending power law (PSD ~ 1/fa) to a flat power spectrum on timescales in the range of ~ 5 - 100 days consistent with the orbital and thermal timescales of a typical 107 solar mass black hole.

  5. The intra-oceanic Cretaceous (~ 108 Ma) Kata-Rash arc fragment in the Kurdistan segment of Iraqi Zagros suture zone: Implications for Neotethys evolution and closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sarmad A.; Ismail, Sabah A.; Nutman, Allen P.; Bennett, Vickie C.; Jones, Brian G.; Buckman, Solomon

    2016-09-01

    The Kata-Rash arc fragment is an allochthonous thrust-bound body situated near Penjween, 100 km northeast of Sulymannia city, Kurdistan Region, within the Iraqi portion of the Zagros suture zone. It forms part of the suprasubduction zone 'Upper Allochthon' terranes (designated as the Gimo-Qandil Group), which is dominated by calc-alkaline andesite and basaltic-andesite, rhyodacite to rhyolite, crosscut by granitic, granodioritic, and dioritic dykes. Previously, rocks of the Kata-Rash arc fragment were interpreted as a part of the Eocene Walash volcanic group. However, SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dates on them of 108.1 ± 2.9 Ma (Harbar volcanic rocks) and 107.7 ± 1.9 Ma (Aulan intrusion) indicate an Albian-Cenomanian age, which is interpreted as the time of igneous crystallisation. The Aulan intrusion zircons have initial εHf values of + 8.6 ± 0.2. On a Nb/Yb-Th/Yb diagram, all Kata-Rash samples fall within the compositional field of arc-related rocks, i.e. above the mid-ocean-ridge basalt (MORB)-ocean island basalt (OIB) mantle array. Primitive-mantle-normalised trace-element patterns for the Kata-Rash samples show enrichment in the large ion lithophile elements and depletion in the high-field-strength elements supporting their subduction-related character. Low Ba/La coupled with low La/Yb and Hf/Hf* < 1 for the Aulan sample with initial εHf of + 8.6 ± 0.2 is interpreted as the magma dominated by contributions from fluid fluxing of the mantle wedge and lesser contributions of low temperature melt from subducted slab sediment, in an oceanic setting. This mechanism can explain the sub-DM initial εHf value, without the need to invoke melting of significantly older (continental) crust in an Andean setting. We interpret the Kata-Rash igneous rocks as a fragment of the Late Cretaceous suprasubduction zone system (named here the Kata-Rash arc) that most likely developed within the Neotethys Ocean rather than at a continental margin. Subsequently during the latest Cretaceous

  6. Heat transfer on accreting ice surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, Keiko; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Based on previous observations of glaze ice accretion on aircraft surfaces, a multizone model with distinct zones of different surface roughness is demonstrated. The use of surface roughness in the LEWICE ice accretion prediction code is examined. It was found that roughness is used in two ways: (1) to determine the laminar to turbulent boundary-layer transition location; and (2) to calculate the convective turbulent heat-transfer coefficient. A two-zone version of the multizone model is implemented in the LEWICE code, and compared with experimental convective heat-transfer coefficient and ice accretion results. The analysis of the boundary-layer transition, surface roughness, and viscous flowfield effects significantly increased the accuracy in predicting heat-transfer coefficients. The multizone model was found to significantly improve the ice accretion prediction for the cases compared.

  7. Accretion of Ghost Condensate by Black Holes

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, A

    2004-06-02

    The intent of this letter is to point out that the accretion of a ghost condensate by black holes could be extremely efficient. We analyze steady-state spherically symmetric flows of the ghost fluid in the gravitational field of a Schwarzschild black hole and calculate the accretion rate. Unlike minimally coupled scalar field or quintessence, the accretion rate is set not by the cosmological energy density of the field, but by the energy scale of the ghost condensate theory. If hydrodynamical flow is established, it could be as high as tenth of a solar mass per second for 10MeV-scale ghost condensate accreting onto a stellar-sized black hole, which puts serious constraints on the parameters of the ghost condensate model.

  8. Review of gravitomagnetic acceleration from accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, J.; Mathews, G. J.

    2015-11-01

    We review the development of the equations of gravitoelectromagnetism and summarize how the motion of the neutral masses in an accretion disk orbiting a black hole creates a general-relativistic magnetic-like (gravitomagnetic) field that vertically accelerates neutral particles near the accretion disk upward and then inward toward the axis of the accretion disk. Even though this gravitomagnetic field is not the only mechanism to produce collimated jets, it is a novel means to identify one general relativistic effect from a much more complicated problem. In addition, as the accelerated material above or below the accretion disk nears the axis with a nearly vertical direction, a frame-dragging effect twists the trajectories around the axis thus contributing to the collimation of the jet.

  9. Gravitomagnetic acceleration from black hole accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, J.; Mathews, G. J.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate how the motion of the neutral masses in an accretion disk orbiting a black hole creates a general-relativistic magnetic-like (gravitomagnetic) field that vertically accelerates neutral particles near an accretion disk upward and then inward toward the axis of the accretion disk. Even though this gravitomagnetic field is not the only mechanism contributing to the production of jets, it presents a novel means to identify one general relativistic effect from a much more complicated problem. In addition, as the accelerated material above or below the accretion disk nears the axis with a nearly vertical direction, a frame-dragging effect twists the trajectories around the axis thus contributing to the collimation of the jet.

  10. Planetary science: Iron fog of accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, William W.

    2015-03-02

    Here, pinpointing when Earth's core formed depends on the extent of metal–silicate equilibration in the mantle. Vaporization and recondensation of impacting planetesimal cores during accretion may reconcile disparate lines of evidence.

  11. Origin and models of oceanic transform faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerya, Taras

    2012-02-01

    Mid-ocean ridges sectioned by transform faults represent prominent surface expressions of plate tectonics. A fundamental problem of plate tectonics is how this pattern has formed and why it is maintained. Gross-scale geometry of mid-ocean ridges is often inherited from respective rifted margins. Indeed, transform faults seem to nucleate after the beginning of the oceanic spreading and can spontaneously form at a single straight ridge. Both analog and numerical models of transform faults were investigated since the 1970s. Two main groups of analog models were developed: thermomechanical (freezing wax) models with accreting and cooling plates and mechanical models with non-accreting lithosphere. Freezing wax models reproduced ridge-ridge transform faults, inactive fracture zones, rotating microplates, overlapping spreading centers and other features of oceanic ridges. However, these models often produced open spreading centers that are dissimilar to nature. Mechanical models, on the other hand, do not accrete the lithosphere and their results are thus only applicable for relatively small amount of spreading. Three main types of numerical models were investigated: models of stress and displacement distribution around transforms, models of their thermal structure and crustal growth, and models of nucleation and evolution of ridge-transform fault patterns. It was shown that a limited number of spreading modes can form: transform faults, microplates, overlapping spreading centers, zigzag ridges and oblique connecting spreading centers. However, the controversy exists whether these patterns always result from pre-existing ridge offsets or can also form spontaneously at a single straight ridge during millions of year of accretion. Therefore, two types of transform fault interpretation exist: plate fragmentation structures vs. plate accretion structures. Models of transform faults are yet relatively scarce and partly controversial. Consequently, a number of first order

  12. ASYMMETRIC ACCRETION FLOWS WITHIN A COMMON ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2015-04-10

    This paper examines flows in the immediate vicinity of stars and compact objects dynamically inspiralling within a common envelope (CE). Flow in the vicinity of the embedded object is gravitationally focused, leading to drag and potentially to gas accretion. This process has been studied numerically and analytically in the context of Hoyle–Lyttleton accretion (HLA). Yet, within a CE, accretion structures may span a large fraction of the envelope radius, and in so doing sweep across a substantial radial gradient of density. We quantify these gradients using detailed stellar evolution models for a range of CE encounters. We provide estimates of typical scales in CE encounters that involve main sequence stars, white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes with giant-branch companions of a wide range of masses. We apply these typical scales to hydrodynamic simulations of three-dimensional HLA with an upstream density gradient. This density gradient breaks the symmetry that defines HLA flow, and imposes an angular momentum barrier to accretion. Material that is focused into the vicinity of the embedded object thus may not be able to accrete. As a result, accretion rates drop dramatically, by one to two orders of magnitude, while drag rates are only mildly affected. We provide fitting formulae to the numerically derived rates of drag and accretion as a function of the density gradient. The reduced ratio of accretion to drag suggests that objects that can efficiently gain mass during CE evolution, such as black holes and neutron stars, may grow less than implied by the HLA formalism.

  13. Accretion on to Magnetic White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Dayal

    2014-01-01

    The Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (MCVs) are close interacting binaries where mass is transferred from a late type secondary star to a magnetic white dwarf. Two modes of accretion can be identified depending on the strength of the magnetic field, the mass transfer rate and orbital parameters. (a) Disced Accretion: In the Intermediate polars (IPs), the mass transfer stream circularises and forms an accretion disc. Material couples on to field lines in a narrow inner transition region where the velocity in the orbital plane changes from Keplerian to co-rotation (b) Discless Accretion: In the polars, the accretion stream is disrupted by the magnetic field before it can circularise. Material couples on to field lines via an inner transition region where the velocity changes from essentially free fall to co-rotation. The polars have no counterparts in neutron star systems and their study provides unique insights into the complex nature of the magnetospheric boundary. The observed properties of accretion shocks at the white dwarf surface such as the anomalous soft-X-ray excess and its time variability provide strong support for the hypothesis that under certain circumstances the field channelled funnel flow is "blobby". This has been attributed to interchange instabilities such as the Magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the shocked gas at the stream-magnetosphere boundary where the stream fragments into discrete clumps of gas. As the clumps penetrate into the magnetosphere, they are shredded into smaller mass blobs via the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability that then couple on to field lines over an extended inner transition region in the orbital plane. The more massive blobs penetrate deep into the photosphere of the white dwarf releasing their energy as a reprocessed soft-X-ray black body component. Although similar instabilities are expected in the inner transition region in disced accretion albeit on a different scale there has been no direct observational evidence

  14. Accretion of the Earth and segregation of its core.

    PubMed

    Wood, Bernard J; Walter, Michael J; Wade, Jonathan

    2006-06-15

    The Earth took 30-40 million years to accrete from smaller 'planetesimals'. Many of these planetesimals had metallic iron cores and during growth of the Earth this metal re-equilibrated with the Earth's silicate mantle, extracting siderophile ('iron-loving') elements into the Earth's iron-rich core. The current composition of the mantle indicates that much of the re-equilibration took place in a deep (> 400 km) molten silicate layer, or 'magma ocean', and that conditions became more oxidizing with time as the Earth grew. The high-pressure nature of the core-forming process led to the Earth's core being richer in low-atomic-number elements, notably silicon and possibly oxygen, than the cores of the smaller planetesimal building blocks. PMID:16778882

  15. Stability of MRI Turbulent Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, H. R.; Masada, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We study the stability of geometrically thin accretion disks with non-standard α parameter, which characterizes the efficiency of the angular momentum transport. Following recent results of numerical simulations of the Magnetorotational instability (MRI) driven turbulence, we assume that α increases with the magnetic Prandtl number. By adopting Spitzer's microscopic diffusivities, we obtain local structures of geometrically thin accretion disks consistently including effects of MRI-driven turbulence. Since the magnetic Prandtl number increases with the temperature, the efficiency of the angular momentum transport and thus viscous heating rate are smaller for a larger radius when δ > 0. We find that such disks can be unstable to gravitational, thermal, and secular instabilities. It is most remarkable feature that the thermal and secular instabilities can grow in the middle part of accretion disks even when the radiation pressure is negligible, while the standard Shakura & Sunyaev's accretion disk (constant α) is stable to these instabilities. We conclude that it would be difficult to maintain the steady mass accretion state unless the Pm-dependence of the MRI-driven turbulence is weak. Consideration of Pm dependence of α due to the MRI-driven turbulence may make the phase transition of accretion disks less mysterious.

  16. Heating and Cooling in Accreting Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumming, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries accrete enough mass over their lifetimes to replace their entire crust. The accreted matter undergoes a series of nuclear reactions in the crust as it is compressed by continued accretion to higher density. These reactions, which include electron captures, neutron emissions, and pycnonuclear reactions, heat the crust and core of the neutron star. In this talk I will discuss what we can learn from observations of transiently accreting neutron stars in quiescence, when accretion has turned off and we can see emission from the neutron star directly. The quiescent luminosity of these neutron stars constrains the neutrino emissivity in the neutron star core. In systems with long accretion outbursts, observations of thermal relaxation of the crust in quiescence enable, for the first time, constraints on the thermal conductivity and heat capacity of the crust. In this way, low mass X-ray binary neutron stars offer a remarkable chance to constrain the properties of dense neutron-rich matter, such as neutron superfluidity and pasta phases in the inner crust of neutron stars.

  17. Bondi accretion in early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korol, Valeriya; Ciotti, Luca; Pellegrini, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    Accretion on to central massive black holes in galaxies is often modelled with the Bondi solution. In this paper, we study a generalization of the classical Bondi accretion theory, considering the additional effects of the gravitational potential of the host galaxy, and of electron scattering in the optically thin limit. We provide a general analysis of the bias in the estimates of the Bondi radius and mass accretion rate, when adopting as fiducial values for the density and temperature at infinity the values of these quantities measured at finite distance from the central black hole. We also give general formulae to compute the correction terms of the critical accretion parameter in relevant asymptotic regimes. A full analytical discussion is presented in the case of a Hernquist galaxy, when the problem reduces to the discussion of a cubic equation, therefore, allowing for more than one critical point in the accretion structure. The results are useful for observational works (especially in the case of systems with a low Eddington ratio), as well as for numerical simulations, where accretion rates are usually defined in terms of the gas properties near the black hole.

  18. The basement of the Punta del Este Terrane (Uruguay): an African Mesoproterozoic fragment at the eastern border of the South American Río de La Plata craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basei, Miguel A. S.; Peel, Elena; Sánchez Bettucci, Leda; Preciozzi, Fernando; Nutman, Allen P.

    2011-04-01

    The Punta del Este Terrane (eastern Uruguay) lies in a complex Neoproterozoic (Brasiliano/Pan-African) orogenic zone considered to contain a suture between South American terranes to the west of Major Gercino-Sierra Ballena Suture Zone and eastern African affinities terranes. Zircon cores from Punta del Este Terrane basement orthogneisses have U-Pb ages of ca. 1,000 Ma, which indicate an lineage with the Namaqua Belt in Southwestern Africa. U-Pb zircon ages also provide the following information on the Punta del Este terrane: the orthogneisses containing the ca. 1,000 Ma inheritance formed at ca. 750 Ma; in contrast to the related terranes now in Africa, reworking of the Punta del Este Terrane during Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenesis was very intense, reaching granulite facies at ca. 640 Ma. The termination of the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogeny is marked by formation of acid volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks at ca. 570 Ma (Sierra de Aguirre Formation), formation of late sedimentary basins (San Carlos Formation) and then intrusion at ca. 535 Ma of post-tectonic granitoids (Santa Teresa and José Ignacio batholiths). The Punta del Este Terrane and unrelated western terranes represented by the Dom Feliciano Belt and the Río de La Plata Craton were in their present positions by ca. 535 Ma.

  19. Accretion of the Archean Slave Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusky, Timothy

    1988-01-01

    Detailed field studies of selected areas in the greenstone belts of the Slave Province of Canada were presented. This area was long cited as a type area by supporters of the (now generally abandoned) rift model of greenstone belts. It was shown that a plate tectonic interpretation accounted more successfully for the regional geology and identified four terranes that had experienced complex divergent and convergent histories between 2.7 and 3.4 Ga. A dismembered ophiolite was identified and a late episode of widespread granitic intrusion was recognized.

  20. Timing the structural events in the Palaeoproterozoic Bolé-Nangodi belt terrane and adjacent Maluwe basin, West African craton, in central-west Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kock, G. S.; Théveniaut, H.; Botha, P. M. W.; Gyapong, W.

    2012-04-01

    The Maluwe basin, north-adjacent to the Sunyani basin, is the northernmost of the northeast-trending Eburnean volcaniclastic depositories in Ghana. These basins are separated from one another by remnants of Eoeburnean crust, all formed during the evolution of an arc-backarc basins complex in a Palaeoproterozoic intraoceanic environment. The Bolé-Nangodi belt terrane to the northwest, of mostly Eoeburnean crust is fault bounded with the Maluwe basin along the northeast-trending Bolé-Navrongo fault zone. The stratigraphic sequence, which was the key to unravelling the structural evolution of the study area, was established by means of field observations aided by precision SHRIMP geochronology. The quartzitic, pelitic, quartzofeldspathic and granitic gneisses of the Eoeburnean crust (>2150 Ma) experienced complex metamorphic mineral growth and migmatitization, mostly under static crustal conditions and were subjected to several deformation episodes. The foliated mafic and metasedimentary enclaves within the Ifanteyire granite establish deformation to have taken place prior to ˜2195 Ma, while the tectonically emplaced Kuri amphibolites within the 2187-Ma gneissic Gondo granite indicate a stage of rifting followed by collision. Deformation of granite dykes in the Gondo granites at ˜2150 Ma concluded the development of the Eoeburnean orogenic cycle (DEE). The Sawla Suite, contemporaneous with the deposition of the Maluwe Group, intruded the tectonic exhumed Bolé-Nangodi terrane during extension between ˜2137 and 2125 Ma. The rifting separated the Abulembire fragment from the Bolé-Nangodi terrane. During subsequent northwestward subduction of young back-arc basin oceanic crust the volcaniclastic strata of the Maluwe Group and Sawla granitoids were deformed (DE1) under chlorite/sericite greenschist-grade conditions. The NE-trending folds had subhorizontal axes and subvertical axial planes. Simultaneous to the DE1 orogenesis the molasses of the Banda Group was

  1. Ocean tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendershott, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the study of ocean tides and related phenomena is presented. Topics briefly discussed include: the mechanism by which tidal dissipation occurs; continental shelf, marginal sea, and baroclinic tides; estimation of the amount of energy stored in the tide; the distribution of energy over the ocean; the resonant frequencies and Q factors of oceanic normal modes; the relationship of earth tides and ocean tides; and numerical global tidal models.

  2. The role of farfield tectonic stress in oceanic intraplate deformation, Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reece, Robert S.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Christeson, Gail L.; Horton, Brian K.; Avendonk, Harm; Barth, Ginger

    2013-05-01

    An integration of geophysical data from the Pacific Plate reveals plate bending anomalies, massive intraplate shearing and deformation, and a lack of oceanic crust magnetic lineaments in different regions across the Gulf of Alaska. We argue that farfield stress from the Yakutat Terrane collision with North America is the major driver for these unusual features. Similar plate motion vectors indicate that the Pacific plate and Yakutat Terrane are largely coupled along their boundary, the Transition Fault, with minimal translation. Our study shows that the Pacific Plate subduction angle shallows toward the Yakutat Terrane and supports the theory that the Pacific Plate and Yakutat Terrane maintain coupling along the subducted region of the Transition Fault. We argue that the outboard transfer of collisional stress to the Pacific Plate could have resulted in significant strain in the NE corner of the Pacific Plate, which created pathways for igneous sill formation just above the Pacific Plate crust in the Surveyor Fan. A shift in Pacific Plate motion during the late Miocene altered the Yakutat collision with North America, changing the stress transfer regime and potentially terminating associated strain in the NE corner of the Pacific Plate. The collision further intensified as the thickest portion of the Yakutat Terrane began to subduct during the Pleistocene, possibly providing the impetus for the creation of the Gulf of Alaska Shear Zone, a > 200 km zone of intraplate strike-slip faults that extend from the Transition Fault out into the Pacific Plate. This study highlights the importance of farfield stress from complex tectonic regimes in consideration of large-scale oceanic intraplate deformation.

  3. Low palaeoelevation of the northern Lhasa terrane during late Eocene: Fossil foraminifera and stable isotope evidence from the Gerze Basin

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yi; Zhang, Kexin; Garzione, Carmala N.; Xu, Yadong; Song, Bowen; Ji, Junliang

    2016-01-01

    The Lhasa terrane is a key region for understanding the paleoelevation of the southern Tibetan Plateau after India-Asia collision. The Gerze Basin, located in the northern part of the Lhasa terrane, is a shortening-related basin. We discovered Lagena laevis (Bandy) fossils in upper Eocene strata of the Gerze Basin. This type of foraminifera is associated with lagoon and estuarine environments, indicating that the northern part of the Lhasa terrane was near sea level during the late Eocene. We speculate that these foraminifera were transported inland by storm surges to low elevation freshwater lakes during times of marine transgressions. This inference is consistent with the relatively positive δ18O values in carbonate from the same deposits that indicate low palaeoelevations close to sea level. Considering the palaeoelevation results from the nearby Oligocene basins at a similar latitude and the volcanic history of the Lhasa terrane, we infer that large-magnitude surface uplift of the northern Lhasa terrane occurred between late Eocene and late Oligocene time. PMID:27272610

  4. Low palaeoelevation of the northern Lhasa terrane during late Eocene: Fossil foraminifera and stable isotope evidence from the Gerze Basin.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yi; Zhang, Kexin; Garzione, Carmala N; Xu, Yadong; Song, Bowen; Ji, Junliang

    2016-01-01

    The Lhasa terrane is a key region for understanding the paleoelevation of the southern Tibetan Plateau after India-Asia collision. The Gerze Basin, located in the northern part of the Lhasa terrane, is a shortening-related basin. We discovered Lagena laevis (Bandy) fossils in upper Eocene strata of the Gerze Basin. This type of foraminifera is associated with lagoon and estuarine environments, indicating that the northern part of the Lhasa terrane was near sea level during the late Eocene. We speculate that these foraminifera were transported inland by storm surges to low elevation freshwater lakes during times of marine transgressions. This inference is consistent with the relatively positive δ(18)O values in carbonate from the same deposits that indicate low palaeoelevations close to sea level. Considering the palaeoelevation results from the nearby Oligocene basins at a similar latitude and the volcanic history of the Lhasa terrane, we infer that large-magnitude surface uplift of the northern Lhasa terrane occurred between late Eocene and late Oligocene time. PMID:27272610

  5. Low palaeoelevation of the northern Lhasa terrane during late Eocene: Fossil foraminifera and stable isotope evidence from the Gerze Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yi; Zhang, Kexin; Garzione, Carmala N.; Xu, Yadong; Song, Bowen; Ji, Junliang

    2016-06-01

    The Lhasa terrane is a key region for understanding the paleoelevation of the southern Tibetan Plateau after India-Asia collision. The Gerze Basin, located in the northern part of the Lhasa terrane, is a shortening-related basin. We discovered Lagena laevis (Bandy) fossils in upper Eocene strata of the Gerze Basin. This type of foraminifera is associated with lagoon and estuarine environments, indicating that the northern part of the Lhasa terrane was near sea level during the late Eocene. We speculate that these foraminifera were transported inland by storm surges to low elevation freshwater lakes during times of marine transgressions. This inference is consistent with the relatively positive δ18O values in carbonate from the same deposits that indicate low palaeoelevations close to sea level. Considering the palaeoelevation results from the nearby Oligocene basins at a similar latitude and the volcanic history of the Lhasa terrane, we infer that large-magnitude surface uplift of the northern Lhasa terrane occurred between late Eocene and late Oligocene time.

  6. New paleomagnetic constraints on the extrusion of Indochina: Late Cretaceous results from the Song Da terrane, northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Halim, Nadir; Otofuji, Yo-ichiro; Van Tri, Tran; Van De, Le; Hada, Shigeki

    2005-01-01

    Samples were collected for paleomagnetic investigations from the Upper Cretaceous Yen Chau Formation in the Song Da terrane (21.7°N, 103.9°E) bounded by the Ailao Shan-Red River fault system and Song Ma fault, in an attempt to examine extrusion tectonics of East Asia. Primary nature of the high-temperature (600-690 °C) component of magnetization from 13 sites is supported by a positive fold test. The tectonic corrected data provides the characteristic Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic direction for the Song Da terrane ( D=6.4°, I=32.0° with α95=8.5°, N=13 sites), corresponding to a paleopole lying at 82.9°N, 220.7°E ( A95=6.9°). Comparison with coeval paleomagnetic poles for the neighboring tectonic blocks indicates no latitudinal translation of the Son Da terrane with respect to the South China Block, whereas the Shan-Thai Block and the southern part of the Indochina Block revealed a southward displacement of 10.5±9.5° in latitude with respect to the Song Da terrane. We conclude that the southeastern segment of the Ailao Shan-Red River fault system to the east of the Dien Bien Phu fault is not a demarcation of the extruded Indochina Peninsula. The Indochina Block extruded probably along some faults between the Song Da terrane and the Khorat Plateau.

  7. Paleomagnetic Reconstruction of Post-Paleozoic Tectonic Motions for the Intermontane and Yukon-Tanana Terranes of Baja British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, D. T.; Harris, M. J.; McCausland, P. J.; Blackburn, W. H.; Hart, C. J.

    2004-05-01

    Paleopoles from 42 Mesozoic and Cenozoic rock units in the Intermontane Belt (IMB) and Yukon-Tanana (YT) terranes are deemed to be sufficiently represented paleomagnetically and well dated radiometrically to merit consideration. Unlike previous analyses based on paleoinclination only that have led to estimates up to ˜3500 Km for northward (poleward) displacement of Baja BC relative to the North American craton, the pattern of both paleoinclination and paleodeclination are used to assess the reliability of each paleopole. The analysis indicates that: 1) the YT terrane is autochthonous or parautochthonous; 2) the IMB terranes rotated steadily atop the craton by 16° ±6° between 54 Ma and the present, accomodated by extension in the south and compression in the north; 3) the IMB terranes were rotated a further 35° ±14° and translated northward by 8° ±7° (900 Km) from 102 to 54 Ma, consistent with geological estimates for the northward displacement of interior Baja BC; and, 4) the Cache Creek, Quesnel and probably Stikine terranes were part of Baja BC since Early Jurassic.

  8. Microbiological and Biogeochemical Investigations of the Accreted Ice Above Subglacial Lake Vostok, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christner, B. C.; Foreman, C. F.; Arnold, B. R.; Welch, K. A.; Lyons, W. B.; Priscu, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    Subglacial Lake Vostok is located ~4 km beneath the surface of the East Antarctic ice sheet and has been isolated from the atmosphere for at least 15 million years. The lake has a surface area near 14,000 km2 and a depth exceeding 1000 m. While the nature of the environment within Subglacial Lake Vostok remains uncertain, if a sustained microbial ecosystem is present, life in this subsurface environment operates under arguably the most extreme conditions in the biosphere (i.e., high pressure, constant cold, high oxygen concentrations, and no light). The lake represents an analogue for ecosystems that may exist in Europa's ice-covered ocean and also provides an Earthly-based model for the evaluation of technology to search for life in icy extraterrestrial subsurface environments. Concerns for environmental protection have prevented direct sampling of the lake water thus far, as a prudent sampling plan that will not contaminate this pristine environment has yet to be developed and tested. However, an ice core has been retrieved at Vostok Station in which the bottom ~85 meters consists of lake water that has accreted to the bottom of the ice sheet, providing frozen samples of water from the lakes' surface. The ice from 3539 to 3609 mbs (accretion ice I) contains visible inclusions due to accretion in the shallow embayment or western grounding line, whereas ice from 3610-3623 mbs (accretion ice II) is very clean, forming above the deep eastern basin of the main lake. Using a multifaceted protocol to monitor cellular and molecular decontamination of ice cores, we show that the microbiology and geochemistry (i.e., dissolve organic carbon, nutrients, and ions) of accretion ice is very different from the overlying glacial ice. The numbers of cells are 2- to 7-fold higher in accretion ice I than in the overlying glacial ice, and decrease with increasing depth in accretion ice II. Cell viability in accretion ice samples has been confirmed by the measurable respiration of 14C

  9. SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES POWERED BY FALLBACK ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Dexter, Jason; Kasen, Daniel

    2013-07-20

    Some fraction of the material ejected in a core collapse supernova explosion may remain bound to the compact remnant, and eventually turn around and fall back. We show that the late time ({approx}>days) power potentially associated with the accretion of this 'fallback' material could significantly affect the optical light curve, in some cases producing super-luminous or otherwise peculiar supernovae. We use spherically symmetric hydrodynamical models to estimate the accretion rate at late times for a range of progenitor masses and radii and explosion energies. The accretion rate onto the proto-neutron star or black hole decreases as M-dot {proportional_to}t{sup -5/3} at late times, but its normalization can be significantly enhanced at low explosion energies, in very massive stars, or if a strong reverse shock wave forms at the helium/hydrogen interface in the progenitor. If the resulting super-Eddington accretion drives an outflow which thermalizes in the outgoing ejecta, the supernova debris will be re-energized at a time when photons can diffuse out efficiently. The resulting light curves are different and more diverse than previous fallback supernova models which ignored the input of accretion power and produced short-lived, dim transients. The possible outcomes when fallback accretion power is significant include super-luminous ({approx}> 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) Type II events of both short and long durations, as well as luminous Type I events from compact stars that may have experienced significant mass loss. Accretion power may unbind the remaining infalling material, causing a sudden decrease in the brightness of some long duration Type II events. This scenario may be relevant for explaining some of the recently discovered classes of peculiar and rare supernovae.

  10. Accretion onto Pre-Main-Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Lee; Herczeg, Gregory; Calvet, Nuria

    2016-09-01

    Accretion through circumstellar disks plays an important role in star formation and in establishing the properties of the regions in which planets form and migrate. The mechanisms by which protostellar and protoplanetary disks accrete onto low-mass stars are not clear; angular momentum transport by magnetic fields is thought to be involved, but the low-ionization conditions in major regions of protoplanetary disks lead to a variety of complex nonideal magnetohydrodynamic effects whose implications are not fully understood. Accretion in pre-main-sequence stars of masses ≲1M⊙ (and in at least some 2–3-M⊙ systems) is generally funneled by the stellar magnetic field, which disrupts the disk at scales typically of order a few stellar radii. Matter moving at near free-fall velocities shocks at the stellar surface; the resulting accretion luminosities from the dissipation of kinetic energy indicate that mass addition during the T Tauri phase over the typical disk lifetime ˜3 Myr is modest in terms of stellar evolution, but is comparable to total disk reservoirs as estimated from millimeter-wave dust emission (˜10‑2 M⊙). Pre-main-sequence accretion is not steady, encompassing timescales ranging from approximately hours to a century, with longer-timescale variations tending to be the largest. Accretion during the protostellar phase—while the protostellar envelope is still falling onto the disk—is much less well understood, mostly because the properties of the central obscured protostar are difficult to estimate. Kinematic measurements of protostellar masses with new interfometric facilities should improve estimates of accretion rates during the earliest phases of star formation.

  11. Late tectonic uplift of an inverted oceanic basin in South East Asia: the case of Palawan Island (western Philippines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meresse, F.; Savva, D.; Pubellier, M.; Steuer, S.; Franke, D.; Cordey, F.; Muller, C.; Sapin, F.; Mouly, B.; Auxiètre, J.-L.

    2012-04-01

    The elongated island of Palawan, bounded by two marginal basins, the South China Sea to the North and the Sulu Sea to the South is composed of remnants of an inverted basin (Proto-South China Sea) thrusted onto the margin of a continental terrane which rifted away from the Chinese-Vietnamese margin. Based on field observations coupled with seismic and drill-holes data, our study focuses on the structural architecture of the island in order to decipher the geodynamic evolution of the southern margin of the South China Sea. Structurally, the Palawan Island consists of: (i) the Palawan wedge, which extends towards the South China Sea is composed of deformed slope to deep ocean deposits of Cretaceous (north Palawan) to Tertiary (central and south Palawan) ages. This accretionnary wedge is characterized by small wavelength folds of mainly NE-SW trend. Offshore, the unconformable Middle-Late Miocene Tabon limestones unit postdates the last stages of the Palawan wedge growth/setting; (ii) On top of this wedge lie thrust slices of ophiolite bodies comprising ribbon cherts of Albian age as indicated by radiolarians.; these bodies are likely to be relicts of the now-subducted Proto South China Sea; (iii) The central and southern parts of the Palawan island are characterized by a large wavelength antiform of NE-SW trend. This structure is sealed by the slightly tilted Early Pliocene marls unit; (iv) The island also presents necking zones bordered by N-S trending transform faults. This area witnessed the geodynamic evolution of the South East Asia which consists of a succession of opening/closure of oceanic basins and block accretions. The Palawan Island therefore results of the closing of the Proto-South China Sea which once formed both the Palawan accretionary wedge and the overlying ophiolite tectonic slices. During a later compressive event, the rifted continental margin which composes the basement of the Island was inverted, inducing the uplift and the large scale folding

  12. Permian and early(?) Triassic radiolarian faunas from the Grindstone Terrane, central Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, C.D.; Reed, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    Moderately well preserved Permian and Early(?) Triassic radiolarian faunas from sedimentary melange cherts of the Grindstone terrane in central Oregon are nearly identical to coeval chert faunas in Japan. Although several Oregon taxa have been reported from limestone sequences in the central United States, most of the Oregon forms have only been found in cherty rocks and nearly half have not previously been reported from North America. Forty-two taxa belonging to 19 genera are systematically treated. Co-occurrences of some species in Oregon indicate that their ranges in North America may differ from those in Japan. -from Authors

  13. Paleomagnetic constraints on the Mesozoic drift of the Lhasa terrane (Tibet) from Gondwana to Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenyu; Lippert, Peter; Ding, Lin; Song, Peiping; Yue, Yahui; van Hinsbergen, Douwe

    2016-04-01

    The Mesozoic plate tectonic history of Gondwana-derived crustal blocks of the Tibetan Plateau is hotly debated, but so far, paleomagnetic constraints quantifying their paleolatitudinal drift history remain sparse. Here, we compile existing data published mainly in Chinese literature and provide a new, high-quality, well-dated paleomagnetic pole from the ˜180 Ma Sangri Group volcanics of the Lhasa terrane. Our Sangri Group pole is calculated from pre-folding characteristic remanent magnetizations carried by thermoremanent magnetizations in low-Ti titanomagnetite and titanohematite in basalts and basaltic andesites that we have dated using zircon U-Pb geochronology. Forty-two lava sites (68%) meet our quality criteria and provide an average direction of D±ΔD = 341.9±3.4° , I±ΔI = -13.3±6.5° , A95 = 3.4, K = 42.9, n=42, corresponding to a paleolatitude of ˜6° S. The A95 value falls within the n-dependent confidence envelope of Deenen et al. (2011) (A95min=2.7; A95max=7.8), indicating that the data scatter can be straightforwardly explained by paleosecular variation of the paleomagnetic field alone. In addition, positive fold tests are consistent with a pre-folding remanence acquisition. Our new pole confirms a trend in existing data of variable quality that suggests the Lhasa terrane rifted from Gondwana in Late Triassic rather than Permian time, as widely perceived. A total northward drift of ˜ 4500 km between ˜220 and ˜130 Ma yields a reasonable average paleolatitudinal plate motion rate of 5 cm/yr. Our results are consistent with both an Indian or an Australian original position of the Lhasa terrane and cannot directly discriminate between these two interpretations. Nonetheless, we show that paleomagnetic data can provide a strong constraint on Mesozoic plate kinematics of the Tethyan realm. Our study also underscores the need for new, high-quality and well-dated paleomagnetic poles from the Paleozoic and Mesozoic of the Tibetan terranes.

  14. Major lunar crustal terranes: Surface expressions and crust-mantle origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Gillis, Jeffrey J.; Haskin, Larry A.; Korotev, Randy L.; Wieczorek, Mark A.

    2000-02-01

    In light of global remotely sensed data, the igneous crust of the Moon can no longer be viewed as a simple, globally stratified cumulus structure, composed of a flotation upper crust of anorthosite underlain by progressively more mafic rocks and a residual-melt (KREEP) sandwich horizon near the base of the lower crust. Instead, global geochemical information derived from Clementine multispectral data and Lunar Prospector gamma-ray data reveals at least three distinct provinces whose geochemistry and petrologic history make them geologically unique: (1) the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), (2) the Feldspathic High-lands Terrane (FHT), and (3) the South Pole-Aitken Terrane (SPAT). The PKT is a mafic province, coincident with the largely resurfaced area in the Procellarum-Imbrium region whose petrogenesis relates to the early differentiation of the Moon. Here, some 40% of the Th in the Moon's crust is concentrated into a region that constitutes only about 10% of the crustal volume. This concentration of Th (average ~5 ppm), and by implication the other heat producing elements, U and K, led to a fundamentally different thermal and igneous evolution within this region compared to other parts of the lunar crust. Lower-crustal materials within the PKT likely interacted with underlying mantle materials to produce hybrid magmatism, leading to the magnesian suite of lunar rocks and possibly KREEP basalt. Although rare in the Apollo sample collection, widespread mare volcanic rocks having substantial Th enrichment are indicated by the remote data and may reflect further interaction between enriched crustal residues and mantle sources. The FHT is characterized by a central anorthositic region that constitutes the remnant of an anorthositic craton resulting from early lunar differentiation. Basin impacts into this region do not excavate significantly more mafic material, suggesting a thickness of tens of kilometers of anorthositic crust. The feldspathic lunar meteorites may

  15. Further paleomagnetic results for lower Permian basalts of the Baoshan Terrane, southwestern China, and paleogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yingchao; Yang, Zhenyu; Tong, Ya-Bo; Wang, Heng; Gao, Liang; An, Chunzhi

    2015-05-01

    The Baoshan Terrane of southwestern China is considered to have been part of the Cimmerian block during the late Paleozoic; consequently, knowledge of its paleoposition and geological evolution can provide constraints on the Permian breakup of northern East Gondwana. Therefore, we conducted paleomagnetic and rockmagnetic studies on lower Permian basalts from four localities in the Baoshan Terrane. The basalts hold a stable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) at high temperatures (300-680 °C) that is carried by magnetite, maghemite, and hematite with both pseudo-single and multiple domains. To test the reliability of data from these volcanic rocks, we analyzed the geomagnetic secular variation (GSV) and reliability of both the present data and previous paleomagnetic data. The results from 23 sites yield a single reversed polarity directed downwards to the southwest, giving a site-mean direction of Dg/Ig = 156.7°/56.6° (kg = 8.0, α95 = 11.4°) before tilt correction, and Ds/Is = 218.3°/60.1° (ks = 14.1, α95 = 8.4°) after tilt correction. The result passed the fold test, but the GSV was able to be averaged out in only two sections. All available data were examined section-by-section using the angular dispersion (SB) of virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) to ensure that the GSV was completely averaged out. Because the dispersion in declinations is likely to have been affectedby subsequent tectonic deformation, the paleosecular variation (PSV) could not be evaluated from all the data amassed from different sections, and the PSV was able to be removed from only four (combined) sections. A small-circle fit of these VGPs gives an averaged paleocolatitude of 51.9° ± 3.7° (N = 31 sites) centered on 24°N, 99°E. The result indicates that the sampled area of the Baoshan Terrane was located at a latitude of 38°S ± 3.7° during the late early Permian. A comparison of this result with early Permian data from Gondwanan blocks suggests that the Baoshan Terrane

  16. Geophysical Investigations of a Proterozoic Carbonatite Terrane, southeast Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, K. M.; Ponce, D. A.; Miller, D. M.; Peacock, J.; Miller, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    One of the world's largest rare-earth element-rich carbonatite deposits is located in the eastern Mojave Desert at Mountain Pass, California. The eastern Mojave Desert carbonatite terrane consists of a ~1.7 Ga gneiss and schist rocks that are host to a ~1.417 Ga (Premo, 2013) ultrapotassic intrusive suite (shonkinite, syenite, and granite) and a ~1.375 Ga (DeWitt, 1983) carbonatite deposit . Regional geophysical data indicate that this carbonatite terrane occurs within a north-northwest trending ~1-km wide bench in a gravity high and along the eastern edge of a prominent magnetic high in the eastern Clark Mountain Range. To improve our understanding of the geophysical and structural framework of the eastern Mojave carbonatite terrane, we collected over 2,300 gravity stations and over 640 physical rock property samples. Carbonatite rocks typically have distinct gravity, magnetic, and radioactive signatures because they are relatively dense, often contain magnetite, and are commonly enriched in thorium and/or uranium. Contrary to this trend, our results show that the carbonatite deposit is essentially nonmagnetic with an average susceptibility of 0.18 x 10-3 SI (n=31), and the ultrapotassic intrusive suite is very weakly magnetic with an average susceptibility of 2.0 x 10-3 SI (n=36). However, these rocks are found along a steep gradient of a prominent aeromagnetic anomaly. The lack of magnetic signature from the rocks of the eastern Mojave carbonatite terrane suggests alteration of magnetic minerals. This is corroborated by its location within a broader alteration zone and observed magnetic low. If so, such an alteration event occurred after emplacement of the carbonatite deposit, which likely remobilized rare earth elements in the surrounding rocks. Further, an alteration event is consistent with geology, high rare-earth element concentration, and unusual geochemistry of the carbonatite deposit. Temporal constraints (DeWitt, 1987; Premo, 2013) also suggest

  17. Accreting neutron stars by QFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    layer with thickness of 1 km then q = 1 (N1S1), the gravity from N1S1 inside and exterior will be completely shielded. Because of net nuν _{0} flux is the medium to produce and transmit gravity, q obstructed by the shielding layer lie on the density of layer matter and the section of single nucleon to electronic neutrino obtained by nuclear physics experiments is about 1.1*10 ({-) 43} cm (2) . The mass inside N1S1 for exterior has not gravity interaction, it equivalent to has not inertia as the mass vanish. The neutron star is as a empty shell thereby may rapidly rotating and has not upper limit of mass and radii by the gravity accretion of N1S1, which will influence the mechanisms of pulsars, quasars and X-rays generated. At N1S1 interior the mass for exterior has not gravity which is just we searching dark matter. The mass each part will each other shielding and gravity decrease to less than the pressure of the degenerate neutron gas. The neutron star cannot collapse into a singular point with infinite density, i.e., the black hole with infinite gravity cannot be formed or the neutron star is jest the black hole in observational meaning. By the gravity accrete of N1S1 the neutron star may enlarge its shell radii but thickness keep. Only a shell gravity may be not less than any a observed value which to be deemed as black hole. The neutron star has powerful gravity certainly accompany with great surface negative charge and it may rapidly to rotate, so that there is a powerful magnetic field surround it. The accreting neutron star is as a slowly expand empty shell with fixed thickness of 1 km, its spin period depend on its radii or total accretion mass.

  18. Effects of Sea Level-Rise on Carbon Accretion in Coastal Wetlands (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term storage of organic carbon in sediment is one of the key functions of coastal wetlands. Owing to the rise of sea level, a fraction of their primary production is buried annually. However, the productivity of tidelands and, hence, carbon accretion depend on their relative elevation within the tidal frame. It has been shown empirically that there is an optimum relative elevation for maximum primary production. The equilibrium elevation is a function of the rate of sea-level rise. Hence, productivity and carbon accretion are also affected by the rate of sea-level rise. Mathematically it can be shown that tidelands maintain their elevation relative to the ocean through feedbacks among primary production, flooding, and sedimentation. At the low end of the sea-level-rise spectrum, a rising sea increases the flooding of marshes, decreasing sediment salinity, stimulating primary production and increasing sedimentation. At the high end, marshes cannot keep pace with sea level and convert to tidal mud flats or open water. Consequently, the long-term storage of carbon by tidelands will depend on the future trajectory of sea-level. In general, cumulative carbon accretion of existing marshes decreases as the forecasted rise in sea level increases. Other important variables include tide range and concentration of suspended sediments. Carbon accretion will be lower in microtidal than macrotidal estuaries, particularly at high rates of sea-level rise. Sensitivity of carbon accretion to tide range decreases as the concentration of suspended sediments increases. These results indicate that future carbon accretion by coastal wetlands will not be uniform in space or time.

  19. Chaotic cold accretion on to black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspari, M.; Ruszkowski, M.; Oh, S. Peng

    2013-07-01

    Bondi theory is often assumed to adequately describe the mode of accretion in astrophysical environments. However, the Bondi flow must be adiabatic, spherically symmetric, steady, unperturbed, with constant boundary conditions. Using 3D adaptive mesh refinement simulations, linking the 50 kpc to the sub-parsec (sub-pc) scales over the course of 40 Myr, we systematically relax the classic assumptions in a typical galaxy hosting a supermassive black hole. In the more realistic scenario, where the hot gas is cooling, while heated and stirred on large scales, the accretion rate is boosted up to two orders of magnitude compared with the Bondi prediction. The cause is the non-linear growth of thermal instabilities, leading to the condensation of cold clouds and filaments when tcool/tff ≲ 10. The clouds decouple from the hot gas, `raining' on to the centre. Subsonic turbulence of just over 100 km s-1 (M > 0.2) induces the formation of thermal instabilities, even in the absence of heating, while in the transonic regime turbulent dissipation inhibits their growth (tturb/tcool ≲ 1). When heating restores global thermodynamic balance, the formation of the multiphase medium is violent, and the mode of accretion is fully cold and chaotic. The recurrent collisions and tidal forces between clouds, filaments and the central clumpy torus promote angular momentum cancellation, hence boosting accretion. On sub-pc scales the clouds are channelled to the very centre via a funnel. In this study, we do not inject a fixed initial angular momentum, though vorticity is later seeded by turbulence. A good approximation to the accretion rate is the cooling rate, which can be used as subgrid model, physically reproducing the boost factor of 100 required by cosmological simulations, while accounting for the frequent fluctuations. Since our modelling is fairly general (turbulence/heating due to AGN feedback, galaxy motions, mergers, stellar evolution), chaotic cold accretion may be common in

  20. Aerodynamic Simulation of Ice Accretion on Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Bragg, Michael B.; Busch, Greg T.; Montreuil, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This report describes recent improvements in aerodynamic scaling and simulation of ice accretion on airfoils. Ice accretions were classified into four types on the basis of aerodynamic effects: roughness, horn, streamwise, and spanwise ridge. The NASA Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was used to generate ice accretions within these four types using both subscale and full-scale models. Large-scale, pressurized windtunnel testing was performed using a 72-in.- (1.83-m-) chord, NACA 23012 airfoil model with high-fidelity, three-dimensional castings of the IRT ice accretions. Performance data were recorded over Reynolds numbers from 4.5 x 10(exp 6) to 15.9 x 10(exp 6) and Mach numbers from 0.10 to 0.28. Lower fidelity ice-accretion simulation methods were developed and tested on an 18-in.- (0.46-m-) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model in a small-scale wind tunnel at a lower Reynolds number. The aerodynamic accuracy of the lower fidelity, subscale ice simulations was validated against the full-scale results for a factor of 4 reduction in model scale and a factor of 8 reduction in Reynolds number. This research has defined the level of geometric fidelity required for artificial ice shapes to yield aerodynamic performance results to within a known level of uncertainty and has culminated in a proposed methodology for subscale iced-airfoil aerodynamic simulation.

  1. Episodic Accretion among the Orion Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, William J.; Safron, Emily; Megeath, S. Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Episodic accretion, where a young stellar object undergoes stochastic spikes in its disk-to-star accretion rate one or more times over its formation period, may be a crucial process in the formation of low-mass stars. These spikes result in a factor of 10 to 100 increase in the source luminosity over the course of several months that may persist for years. Six years after the Spitzer survey of the Orion molecular clouds, the WISE telescope mapped Orion with similar wavelength coverage. Thus, the two surveys can be used to explore the mid-infrared variability of young stars on this timescale, which is suitable for discovering episodic accretion events. Out of 319 Orion protostars that were targets of the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey, we identified two examples of episodic accretion with this method. One of them, HOPS 223, was previously known. The other, HOPS 383, is the first known example of episodic accretion in a Class 0 protostar (age < 0.2 Myr). With these and one other outburst that began early in the Spitzer mission, we estimate that the most likely interval between protostellar outbursts is 740 years, with a 90% confidence interval of 470 to 6200 years. These outbursts are weaker than the optically revealed FU Ori events. We will update the mid-infrared light curves of HOPS 223 and HOPS 383 with recent data from FORCAST aboard SOFIA; HOPS 223 shows signs of fading.

  2. The Final Fates of Accreting Supermassive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Hideyuki; Hosokawa, Takashi; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    The formation of supermassive stars (SMSs) via rapid mass accretion and their direct collapse into black holes (BHs) is a promising pathway for sowing seeds of supermassive BHs in the early universe. We calculate the evolution of rapidly accreting SMSs by solving the stellar structure equations including nuclear burning as well as general relativistic (GR) effects up to the onset of the collapse. We find that such SMSs have a less concentrated structure than a fully convective counterpart, which is often postulated for non-accreting ones. This effect stabilizes the stars against GR instability even above the classical upper mass limit ≳105 M ⊙ derived for the fully convective stars. The accreting SMS begins to collapse at the higher mass with the higher accretion rate. The collapse occurs when the nuclear fuel is exhausted only for cases with \\dot{M}≲ 0.1 {M}ȯ {{{yr}}}-1. With \\dot{M}≃ 0.3{--}1 {M}ȯ {{{yr}}}-1, the star becomes GR unstable during the helium-burning stage at M ≃ 2–3.5 × 105 M ⊙. In an extreme case with 10 {M}ȯ {{{yr}}}-1, the star does not collapse until the mass reaches ≃8.0 × 105 M ⊙, where it is still in the hydrogen-burning stage. We expect that BHs with roughly the same mass will be left behind after the collapse in all the cases.

  3. Effects of Ice Accretion on Aircraft Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Michael B.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to support the development of a new ice accretion model by improving our physical understanding of the ice accretion process through experimental measurements. The focus was on the effect of the initial ice roughness (smooth/rough boundary) on the accretion process. This includes understanding the boundary-layer development over the roughness and especially its effect on the heat transfer which is fundamental to the ice accretion process. The research focused on acquiring the experimental data needed to formulate a new ice accretion physical model. Research was conducted to analyze boundary-layer data taken on a NACA 0012 airfoil with roughness to simulate the smooth/rough boundary. The effect of isolated roughness on boundary-layer transition was studied experimentally to determine if the classical critical roughness Reynolds number criteria could be applied to transition in the airfoil leading-edge area. The effect of simulated smooth/rough boundary roughness on convective heat transfer was studied to complete the study. During the course of this research the effect of free-stream wind tunnel turbulence on the boundary layer was measured. Since this quantity was not well known, research to accurately measure the wind tunnel turbulence in an icing cloud was undertaken. Preliminary results were attained and the final data were acquired, reduced and presented under a subsequent grant.

  4. Interpretation of gravity profiles across the northern Oaxaca terrane, its boundaries and the Tehuacán Valley, southern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Enríquez, J. O.; Alatorre-Zamora, M. A.; Keppie, J. D.; Belmonte-Jiménez, S. I.; Ramón-Márquez, V. M.

    2014-12-01

    A gravity study was conducted across the northern Oaxaca terrane and its bounding faults: the Caltepec and Oaxaca Faults to the west and east, respectively. These faults juxtapose the Oaxaca terrane against the Mixteca and Juarez terranes, respectively. The Oaxaca Fault also forms the eastern boundary of the Cenozoic Tehuacán depression. On the west, at depth, the Tehuacán valley is limited by the normal buried Tehuacán Fault. This gravity study reveals that the Oaxaca Fault system gives rise to a series of east tilted basamental blocks (Oaxaca Complex). The tectonic depression is filled with Phanerozoic rocks and has a deeper depocenter to the west. The gravity data also indicate that on the west, the Oaxaca Complex, the Caltepec and Santa Lucia faults continue northwestwards beneath Phanerozoic rocks. A major E-W to NE-SW discontinuity is inferred to exist between profiles 1 and 2.

  5. Geochemistry and isotopic composition of the Guerrero Terrane (western Mexico): implications for the tectono-magmatic evolution of southwestern North America during the Late Mesozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, O. T.; Suastegui, M. G.

    2000-10-01

    The composite Guerrero Terrane of western Mexico records much of the magmatic evolution of southwestern North America during Late Mesozoic time. The Guerrero includes three distinctive subterranes characterized by unique stratigraphic records, structural evolutions, and geochemical and isotopic features that strongly suggest they evolved independently. The eastern Teloloapan Subterrane represents an evolved intra-oceanic island arc of Hauterivian to Cenomanian age, which includes a high-K calc-alkaline magmatic suite. The central Arcelia-Palmar Chico Subterrane represents a primitive island arc-marginal basin system of Albian to Cenomanian age, consisting of an oceanic suite and a tholeiitic arc suite. The western Zihuatanejo-Huetamo Subterrane comprises three components that represent an evolved island arc-marginal basin-subduction complex system of Late Jurassic (?) -Early Cretaceous age built on a previously deformed basement. The Zihuatanejo Sequence includes a thick high-K calc-alkaline magmatic suite. The Las Ollas Complex consists of tectonic slices containing exotic blocks of arc affinity affected by high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphism included in a sheared matrix. The Huetamo Sequence consists mainly of volcanic-arc derived sedimentary rocks, including large pebbles of tholeiitic, calc-alkaline, and shoshonitic lavas. These sequences are unconformably underlain by the Arteaga Complex, which represents the subvolcanic basement. On the basis of available geology, geochemistry, geochronology, and isotopic data, we suggest that Late Mesozoic volcanism along the western margin of southern North America developed in broadly contemporaneous but different intra-oceanic island arcs that constitute a complex fossil arc-trench system similar to the present-day western Pacific island arc system.

  6. New late Precambrian-Cambrian U-PB zircon ages for zoned intrusives in the western Carolina terrane, Spartanburg and Union Counties, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, A.J. . Physical Sciences); Wright, J.E. . Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-03-01

    The geology of the western Carolina terrane comprises zoned mafic-ultramafic intrusive complexes intruding a volcanic pile of basalts and basaltic andesites; this package is interpreted to represent an episode of intra-arc rifting prior to regional metamorphism and foliation formation. New U-Pb zircon ages from the Mean Crossroads complex in northwestern South Carolina along the central Piedmont suture confirm relative ages obtained by detailed mapping. Two foliated meta-diorites yield U-Pb dates of 580 Ma, interpreted to be crystallization ages. A foliated meta-quartz diorite yields a U-Pb date of 535 Ma interpreted to be a crystallization age. These ages are broadly contemporary with those inferred by other workers for the Battleground Formation in the type locality of the Kings Mountain belt. An undeformed, unmetamorphosed diorite intruding these metamorphosed zoned complex intrusives also yields an age of 535 Ma. Hence the authors believe that intra-arc rifting and regional metamorphism both occurred c. 535 Ma. While petrographic and Ar-Ar studies support subsequent regional metamorphic overprint(s), or at least static recrystallization and/or uplift through hornblende-biotite-muscovite blocking temperatures for Ar in mid- to late-Paleozoic time, the 535 Ma, undeformed, unmetamorphosed intrusive suggest late Precambrian regional metamorphism and deformation was the event responsible for regional greenschist-lower amphibolite facies metamorphism and foliation formation in this area of the Piedmont. This seems to contradict correlations with middle Ordovician fabric elements in the eastern Piedmont as well as the idea that this metamorphism and fabric development are related to presumed early Paleozoic accretion of the Carolina arc to Laurentia. They have also dated a foliated megacrystic granite that cuts the central Piedmont suture (325 Ma, U-Pb zircon), and the Bald Rock granite (326 Ma, U-Pb zircon).

  7. Accretion disks in Algols: Progenitors and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Rensbergen, W.; De Greve, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    Context. There are only a few Algols with measured accretion disk parameters. These measurements provide additional constraints for tracing the origin of individual systems, narrowing down the initial parameter space. Aims: We investigate the origin and evolution of six Algol systems with accretion disks to find the initial parameters and evolutionary constraints for them. Methods: With a modified binary evolution code, series of close binary evolution are calculated to obtain the best match for observed individual systems. Results: Initial parameters for six Algol systems with accretion disks were determined matching both the present system parameters and the observed disk characteristics. Conclusions: When Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) starts during core hydrogen burning of the donor, the disk lifetime was found to be short. The disk luminosity is comparable to the luminosity of the gainer during a large fraction of the disk lifetime.

  8. The accretion column of AE Aqr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Claudia; Costa, D. Joaquim; Luna, Gerardo; Lima, Isabel J.; Silva, Karleyne M. G.; De Araujo, Jose Carlos N.; Coelho, Jaziel

    2016-07-01

    AE Aqr is a magnetic cataclysmic variable, whose white dwarf rotates at the very fast rate of 33 s modulating the flux from high-energies to optical wavelengths. There are many studies of the origin of its emission, which consider emission from a rotating magnetic field or from an accretion column. Recently, MAGIC observations have discarded AE Aqr emission in very high energy gamma-rays discarding non-thermal emission. Furthermore, soft and hard X-ray data from Swift and NuSTAR were fitted using thermal models. Here we present the modelling of AE Aqr X-ray spectra and light curve considering the emission of a magnetic accretion column using the Cyclops code. The model takes into consideration the 3D geometry of the system, allowing to properly represent the white-dwarf auto eclipse, the pre-shock column absorption, and the varying density and temperature of a tall accretion column.

  9. HST spectrophotometry of accreting white dwarf pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukadam, Anjum S.; Szkody, Paula; Gaensicke, Boris T.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of non-radial pulsations in cataclysmic variables has opened a new venue of opportunity to probe the stellar parameters of accreting variable white dwarfs using asteroseismic techniques. A unique model fit to the observed periods of the variable white dwarf can reveal information about the stellar mass, core composition, age, rotation rate, magnetic field strength, and distance. Mode identification is an essential step in determining an unambiguous model fit, that could be achieved by determining optical and ultra-violet pulsation amplitudes. We will be presenting our results on ultra-violet HST observations acquired with contemporaneous ground based optical data for several cataclysmic variables. The HST spectrophotometry also yields the effective temperatures of the accreting white dwarfs, allowing us to improve our present determination of the instability strip for accreting pulsators. We thank NASA for the grant HST-GO12870 that has supported this research.

  10. Strongly magnetized accretion discs require poloidal flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvesen, Greg; Armitage, Philip J.; Simon, Jacob B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by indirect observational evidence for strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes, and the novel theoretical properties of such solutions, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. To this end, we perform local simulations of accretion discs with an initially purely toroidal magnetic field of equipartition strength. We demonstrate that discs with zero net vertical magnetic flux and realistic boundary conditions cannot sustain a strong toroidal field. However, a magnetic pressure-dominated disc can form from an initial configuration with a sufficient amount of net vertical flux and realistic boundary conditions. Our results suggest that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion discs.

  11. SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF ACCRETING PROTOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Eisner, J. A.

    2015-04-10

    Planets are often invoked as the cause of inferred gaps or inner clearings in transition disks. These putative planets would interact with the remnant circumstellar disk, accreting gas and generating substantial luminosity. Here I explore the expected appearance of accreting protoplanets at a range of evolutionary states. I compare synthetic spectral energy distributions with the handful of claimed detections of substellar-mass companions in transition disks. While observed fluxes of candidate companions are generally compatible with accreting protoplanets, challenges remain in reconciling the extended structure inferred in observed objects with the compact emission expected from protoplanets or circumplanetary disks. I argue that a large fraction of transition disks should harbor bright protoplanets, and that more may be detected as larger telescopes open up additional parameter space.

  12. Pine Mountain terrane, a complex window in the Georgia and Alabama Piedmont: evidence from the eastern termination

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, R.J.; Hatcher, R.D. Jr.

    1988-04-01

    The Pine Mountain terrane is exposed in a complex window within the Piedmont of Georgia and Alabama. The eastern end of the terrane is framed by three ductile faults of demonstrably different ages. The polydeformed pre-thermal peak Box Ankle fault is truncated to the south by the younger pre-thermal peak Goat Rock fault, and to the north by the even younger post-thermal peak Towaliga fault. The three faults framing the eastern termination of the window are clearly neither (1) part of the same detachment nor (2) part of the Appalachian detachment.

  13. Pine Mountain terrane, a complex window in the Georgia and Alabama Piedmont; evidence from the eastern termination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Robert J.; Hatcher, Robert D., Jr.

    1988-04-01

    The Pine Mountain terrane is exposed in a complex window within the Piedmont of Georgia and Alabama. The eastern end of the terrane is framed by three ductile faults of demonstrably different ages. The polydeformed pre-thermal peak Box Ankle fault is truncated to the south by the younger pre-thermal peak Goat Rock fault, and to the north by the even younger post-thermal peak Towaliga fault. The three faults framing the eastern termination of the window are clearly neither (1) part of the same detachment nor (2) part of the Appalachian detachment.

  14. Paleomagnetic study of Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks from the Mixteca terrane (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhnel, Harald

    1999-11-01

    Three sites from Cretaceous limestone and Jurassic sandstone in northern Oaxaca, Mexico, were studied paleomagnetically. Thermal demagnetization isolated site-mean remanence directions which differ significantly from the recent geomagnetic field. The paleopole for the Albian-Cenomanian Morelos formation is indistinguishable from the corresponding reference pole for stable North America, indicating tectonic stability of the Mixteca terrane since the Cretaceous. Rock magnetic properties and a positive reversal test for the Bajocian Tecomazuchil sandstone suggest that the remanence could be of primary origin, although no fold test could be applied. The Tecomazuchil paleopole is rotated 10°±5° clockwise and displaced 24°±5° towards the study area, with respect to the reference pole for stable North America. Similar values were found for the Toarcien-Aalenian Rosario Formation, with 35°±6° clockwise rotation and 33°±6° latitudinal translation. These data support a post-Bajocian southward translation of the Mixteca terrane by around 25°, which was completed in mid-Cretaceous time.

  15. Comparative analysis of core drilling and rotary drilling in volcanic terrane

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Trexler, D.T.; Wallace, R.H. Jr.

    1987-04-01

    Initially, the goal of this report is to compare and contrast penetration rates of rotary-mud drilling and core drilling in young volcanic terranes. It is widely recognized that areas containing an abundance of recent volcanic rocks are excellent targets for geothermal resources. Exploration programs depend heavily upon reliable subsurface information, because surface geophysical methods may be ineffective, inconclusive, or both. Past exploration drilling programs have mainly relied upon rotary-mud rigs for virtually all drilling activity. Core-drilling became popular several years ago, because it could deal effectively with two major problems encountered in young volcanic terranes: very hard, abrasive rock and extreme difficulty in controlling loss of circulation. In addition to overcoming these difficulties, core-drilling produced subsurface samples (core) that defined lithostratigraphy, structure and fractures far better than drill-chips. It seemed that the only negative aspect of core drilling was cost. The cost-per-foot may be two to three times higher than an ''initial quote'' for rotary drilling. In addition, penetration rates for comparable rock-types are often much lower for coring operations. This report also seeks to identify the extent of wireline core drilling (core-drilling using wireline retrieval) as a geothermal exploration tool. 25 refs., 21 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Petrology and geochemistry of the high-pressure Nilgiri